WorldWideScience

Sample records for pied flycatcher ficedula

  1. Taxonomy of the European Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca (Aves: Muscicapidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvador, Rodrigo B.; Van der Jeugd, Henk; Tomotani, Barbara M.

    2017-01-01

    The convoluted taxonomy of the European Pied Flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca ([Pallas], 1764) (Aves: Passeriformes: Muscicapidae) might present a challenge for researchers working in other areas of biology. We present here a historical review of this species’ nomenclature, discuss its generic

  2. Fitness costs of polygyny in female Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C.

    2002-01-01

    Variance in mating systems can only be understood if the fitness consequences of the available options are known for both sexes. In Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca it has for long been suggested that females pairing with already mated males pay a fitness cost, and it is still debated why females

  3. Fitness costs of polygyny in female Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C.

    2002-01-01

    Variance in mating systems can only be understood if the fitness consequences of the available options are known for both sexes. In Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca it has for long been suggested that females pairing with already mated males pay a fitness cost, and it is still debated why females

  4. Song degradation in the hole-nesting pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe, Helene M.; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2007-01-01

    In the hole-nesting pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, a male may become polyterritorial after attracting a primary female. However, the female may recognize her mate's song and attack other females that associate with him. Differences in sound degradation amongst different habitats and within ...

  5. Prevalence of Salmonella and Yersinia in free-living pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-de-Castañeda, Rafael; Vela, Ana I; Lobato, Elisa; Briones, Victor; Moreno, Juan

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella and Yersinia are important enteropathogens in poultry and can affect birds of all ages, including embryos. These food-borne zoonotic enteropathogens are of great economic and medical concern worldwide and are intensely studied in poultry. Information regarding the prevalence of these bacteria in wild birds is scarce and biased toward avian species ecologically linked to humans, which have often been incriminated as both reservoirs and disseminators of these enteropathogens. The prevalence of Salmonella and Yersinia recovered from both the feces and eggs in a population of female pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding in nest-boxes in central Spain was evaluated. Salmonella arizonae was recovered from the feces of one female but was not recovered from eggs. Yersinia was not detected in either the feces or eggs. These results may suggest that Salmonella and Yersinia may be uncommon in this population studied and may indicate that these birds are unlikely reservoirs of Salmonella and Yersinia.

  6. Degradation of song in a species using nesting holes: the Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene M. Lampe

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The habitat, but also the nest hole of a hole-nesting species, will degrade the song during transmission. We investigated how the sounds degrade in a sound transmission experiment with the song of the Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca (Muscicapidae. Ten different song elements were transmitted to microphones placed inside and outside a nest box. On average, song degradation was much greater inside than outside the nest boxes, especially with respect to excess attenuation and blurring of the song elements. Being inside a nest box therefore strongly reduces a Pied Flycatcher's possibility of detecting and recognizing songs or eavesdropping on singing interactions.O habitat, mas também a cavidade do ninho de uma espécie nidificando em ocos, provoca uma degradação do som durante sua transmissão. Pesquisamos como os sons são degradados num experimento de transmissão sonora usando o canto do pássaro Ficedula hypoleuca (Muscicapidae. Dez elementos diferentes do canto foram enviados para microfones colocados dentro e fora de uma caixa de nidificação. Em média, a degradação do canto foi muito maior dentro do que fora do ninho, particularmente no que diz respeito ao excesso de atenuação e à borrada dos elementos do canto. Estar dentro de uma cavidade de nidificação, portanto, reduz fortemente a capacidade da espécie de detectar e reconhecer cantos ou de interceptar interações vocais.

  7. Spatial distribution of breeding Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca in respect to their natal sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov, L.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Study of philopatry and dispersal of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca was launched on the Courish Spit (SE Baltic in 1981. Since then, ca. 9,000 nestlings were ringed at different sites in the Russian part of the Courish Spit. A total of 557 individuals ringed as pulli were recaptured in subsequent seasons in the study area. Both males and females are more often recaptured in the plots where they were ringed than in other plots. These results were interpreted in the framework of the hypothesis forwarded by Löhrl (1959 and supported by Berndt & Winkel (1979. These authors suggested that cavity nesters (pied flycatchers and collared flycatchers F. albicollis imprint their future local breeding area during the period of postfledging exploration. Birds that survive until the next spring, return to these imprinted areas to breed. A similar study done by Sokolov et al. (1984 on the Courish Spit in an open nesting species, the chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, confirmed this finding. We assumed that juvenile pied flycatchers disperse for varying distances during their postfledging movements and imprint a local area, some 1–5 kilometres in diameter. This area is the goal of their migration next spring. It is suggested that in spring, yearlings are non–randomly distributed in respect to the area they have imprinted as juveniles. Recently, Vysotsky (2000, 2001 re–analysed the same data on philopatry of pied flycatchers on the Courish Spit and forwarded an alternative hypothesis. He suggests that juveniles, both males and females, do not imprint any local area during the postfledging period, but are distributed randomly across the area of several dozens of kilometres in spring. Vysotsky was able to show that distribution of distances of natal dispersal did not differ from the random pattern the study plot which was an 8.5 km long line of nest boxes along the Courish Spit. The aim of this study was to test these two alternative hypotheses. To do so, we

  8. Slow improvements of metal exposure, health- and breeding conditions of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) after decreased industrial heavy metal emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, A.M.M., E-mail: asa.berglund@emg.umu.se; Nyholm, N.E.I.

    2011-09-15

    The environment around metal industries, such as smelters, is often highly contaminated due to continuous deposition of metals. We studied nest box breeding populations of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a well-studied pollution gradient from a sulfide ore smelter in Northern Sweden, after reduced aerial metal emissions (by 93-99%) from the smelter. The deposition of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc (based on moss samples) reflected the reduced emissions fairly well. However, nestling pied flycatchers had similar concentrations of these elements and mercury in tissues (bone, liver and blood) and feces in the 2000s, as in the 1980s, when the emissions were substantially higher. The exposure to high metal concentrations in the close vicinity of the smelter resulted in inhibited ALAD activities, depressed hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and increased mortality of nestlings. Our results indicate that in the highly contaminated environment around the smelter, nestlings reflected the slowly cycling soil pool, rather than the atmospheric deposition, and the concentration in soils plays an important role for the response of pied flycatchers to reduced atmospheric deposition. - Highlights: {yields} Pied flycatchers were studied in a pollution gradient from a sulfide smelter. {yields} Metal emissions from the smelter have decreased substantially. {yields} Nestling birds still had high metal concentrations in tissues. {yields} Health and survival rates of nestlings were negatively affected. {yields} Recovery of birds is not expected in the near future.

  9. Slow improvements of metal exposure, health- and breeding conditions of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) after decreased industrial heavy metal emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, A M M; Nyholm, N E I

    2011-09-15

    The environment around metal industries, such as smelters, is often highly contaminated due to continuous deposition of metals. We studied nest box breeding populations of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a well-studied pollution gradient from a sulfide ore smelter in Northern Sweden, after reduced aerial metal emissions (by 93-99%) from the smelter. The deposition of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc (based on moss samples) reflected the reduced emissions fairly well. However, nestling pied flycatchers had similar concentrations of these elements and mercury in tissues (bone, liver and blood) and feces in the 2000s, as in the 1980s, when the emissions were substantially higher. The exposure to high metal concentrations in the close vicinity of the smelter resulted in inhibited ALAD activities, depressed hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and increased mortality of nestlings. Our results indicate that in the highly contaminated environment around the smelter, nestlings reflected the slowly cycling soil pool, rather than the atmospheric deposition, and the concentration in soils plays an important role for the response of pied flycatchers to reduced atmospheric deposition.

  10. Effect of habitat and latitude on nestling diet of Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, JJ

    1998-01-01

    Composition and diversity of the nestling diet of Pied Flycatchers Ficedulo hypoleuca was compared among 17 European study areas that differed in habitat type (deciduous or coniferous forest). The most abundant foods were butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera), with a high proportion of caterpillars. T

  11. Song degradation in the hole-nesting pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca: Implications for polyterritorial behaviour in contrasting habitat-types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe, Helene M.; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2007-01-01

    In the hole-nesting pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, a male may become polyterritorial after attracting a primary female. However, the female may recognize her mate's song and attack other females that associate with him. Differences in sound degradation amongst different habitats and within ...

  12. Responses to reduced industrial metal emissions : An ecotoxicological study on Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca, Aves)

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund, Åsa

    2010-01-01

    Metals have been used by humans for thousands of years, and this has resulted in increased concentrations in the biosphere. The environment around point-sources, such as mines and smelters, are of particular concern, as metals may accumulate to high concentrations, and potentially reach levels toxic to the local flora and fauna. This thesis focuses on the effects on pied flycatcher populations of two such point-sources, a lead mine and enrichment plant, and a sulfide ore smelter. Mining activ...

  13. Effects of pollution on land snail abundance, size and diversity as resources for pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeva, Tapio; Rainio, Kalle; Suominen, Otso

    2010-09-01

    Passerine birds need extra calcium during their breeding for developing egg shells and proper growth of nestling skeleton. Land snails are an important calcium source for many passerines and human-induced changes in snail populations may pose a severe problem for breeding birds. We studied from the bird's viewpoint how air pollution affects the shell mass, abundance and diversity of land snail communities along a pollution gradient of a copper smelter. We sampled remnant snail shells from the nests of an insectivorous passerine, the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, to find out how the availability of land snails varies along the pollution gradient. The total snail shell mass increased towards the pollution source but declined abruptly in the vicinity of the smelter. This spatial variation in shell mass was evident also within a single snail species and could not be wholly explained by spatially varying snail numbers or species composition. Instead, the total shell mass was related to their shell size, individuals being largest at the moderately polluted areas. Smaller shell size suggests inferior growth of snails in the most heavily polluted area. Our study shows that pollution affects the diversity, abundance (available shell mass) and individual quality of land snails, posing reproductive problems for birds that rely on snails as calcium sources during breeding. There are probably both direct pollution-related (heavy metal and calcium levels) and indirect (habitat change) effects behind the observed changes in snail populations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-distance dispersal in migratory pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca is relatively common between the UK and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C.; Robinson, R.A.; Van der Jeugd, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance dispersal can potentially have important consequences for evolutionary change, but is difficult to quantify. We present quantitative estimates of natal dispersal between the UK and the Netherlands in a long-distance migratory bird, the pied flycatcher. Due to over 90 000 individual rin

  15. Towards the simplification of MHC typing protocols: targeting classical MHC class II genes in a passerine, the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canal David

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC has drawn the attention of evolutionary biologists due to its importance in crucial biological processes, such as sexual selection and immune response in jawed vertebrates. However, the characterization of classical MHC genes subjected to the effects of natural selection still remains elusive in many vertebrate groups. Here, we have tested the suitability of flanking intron sequences to guide the selective exploration of classical MHC genes driving the co-evolutionary dynamics between pathogens and their passerine (Aves, Order Passeriformes hosts. Findings Intronic sequences flanking the usually polymorphic exon 2 were isolated from different species using primers sitting on conserved coding regions of MHC class II genes (β chain. Taking the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca as an example, we demonstrate that careful primer design can evade non-classical MHC gene and pseudogene amplification. At least four polymorphic and expressed loci were co-replicated using a single pair of primers in five non-related individuals (N = 28 alleles. The cross-amplification and preliminary inspection of similar MHC fragments in eight unrelated songbird taxa suggests that similar approaches can also be applied to other species. Conclusions Intron sequences flanking the usually polymorphic exon 2 may assist the specific investigation of classical MHC class II B genes in species characterized by extensive gene duplication and pseudogenization. Importantly, the evasion of non-classical MHC genes with a more specific function and non-functional pseudogenes may accelerate data collection and diminish lab costs. Comprehensive knowledge of gene structure, polymorphism and expression profiles may be useful not only for the selective examination of evolutionarily relevant genes but also to restrict chimera formation by minimizing the number of co-amplifying loci.

  16. [Estimation of heritability and repeatability of resting metabolic rate in birds, with free-living pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca (Aves: Passeriformes) as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushuev, A V; Kerimov, A B; Ivankina, E V

    2010-01-01

    Estimates of a trait heritability and repeatability can get at an idea of its usefulness for being an individual characteristic and its ability to change under selection pressure. Heritability and repeatability of energetic parameters still poorly studied in birds. The most important physiological characteristic of homoiotherms is resting metabolic rate (RMR), which, in the absence of productive processes, does not exceed basal metabolic rate (BMR). We estimated BMR repeatability in free-living pied flycatchers in Moscow Region (55 degrees 44' N, 36 degrees 51' E; 1992-2008) and Tomsk (56 degrees 20' N, 84 degrees 56' E; 2008-2009) populations over intervals from 40 days to 3 years. In Moscow Region population, BMR repeatability amounted to tau = 0.34 +/- 0.10 (n=80) if measured over 1 year interval, tau = 0.60 +/- 0.15 (n=19) if measured over 2 years interval, and tau = 0.85 +/- 0.13 (n=6) if measured over 3 years interval providing that consecutive BMR measurements were done in the same period of reproductive season. In Tomsk population, BMR repeatability, measured over 1 year interval, amounted to tau = 0.49 +/- 0.11 (n=50). Repeatability is a measure of a trait constancy and sets the upper limit of its heritability. To estimate RMR heritability, cross-fostering experiments have been conducted in 2003-2005 with flycatchers of Moscow Region population. RMR of chicks positively correlated with BMR of their biological fathers, whereas such correlation in metabolic rates between chicks and their foster fathers was absent. The RMR heritability estimate turned out to be h2 = 0.43 +/- 0.17 (n=210). The obtained estimates of heritability and repeatability of fundamental energetic traits are rather high for physiological features. This suggests the existence of a potential for direct selection on BMR and evolutionary stable diversity of avian populations with regard to basal metabolic rate.

  17. Differentiation in neutral genes and a candidate gene in the pied flycatcher : Using biological archives to track global climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, Kerstin; Schwenk, Klaus; Both, Christiaan; Canal, David; Johansson, Ulf S.; van der Mije, Steven; Toepfer, Till; Päckert, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is one of the major driving forces for adaptive shifts in migration and breeding phenology and possibly impacts demographic changes if a species fails to adapt sufficiently. In Western Europe, pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) have insufficiently adapted their breeding phen

  18. Local survival of pied flycatcher males and females in a pollution gradient of a Cu smelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eeva, T., E-mail: tapio.eeva@utu.f [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Hakkarainen, H. [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Belskii, E. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Russian Acad. Sci., 8th March street, 202, Ekaterinburg 620144 (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    Survival is one of the most central population measures when the effects of the pollution are studied in natural bird populations. However, only few studies have actually measured rigorous survival estimates on adult birds. In recent years there has been a methodological advance in survival analyses by mark-recapture models. We modelled local survival (including mortality and emigration) with the program MARK in a population of a small insectivorous passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), around a point source of heavy metals. The local survival of females in the polluted area was about 50% lower than in the other areas. Males, however, survived relatively well in the heavily polluted area, but showed somewhat lower survival in the moderately polluted area. Different pollution effects between two sexes might be due to pollution-related differences in reproductive effort in females and males, and/or more intensive uptake of heavy metals by laying females. - Female pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) show decreased local survival around a copper smelter.

  19. Female ornamentation and territorial conflicts in collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, Gergely; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2008-10-01

    Female ornaments in species with conventional sex roles often indicate individual quality, but the evolutionary forces maintaining them are less clear. Sexual competition for breeding opportunities may represent an important role for female signals, especially in polygynous species, but there is little experimental evidence for this. The wing patch size (WPS) of female collared flycatchers indicates age and body condition and predicts social mating patterns. We challenged nest-building females with decoy females of varying WPS and found that the aggressive response of residents increased with decoy WPS, suggesting a role for this female ornament in territorial competition. Our results explain why female WPS predicts territorial distances when mated to a polygynous male and indicate that the role of WPS in female competitive interactions is similar to that in males of the same population.

  20. Hybrid Dysfunction Expressed as Elevated Metabolic Rate in Male Ficedula Flycatchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, S. Eryn; Sirkiä, Päivi M.; Ålund, Murielle; Qvarnström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Studies of ecological speciation are often biased towards extrinsic sources of selection against hybrids, resulting from intermediate hybrid morphology, but the knowledge of how genetic incompatibilities accumulate over time under natural conditions is limited. Here we focus on a physiological trait, metabolic rate, which is central to life history strategies and thermoregulation but is also likely to be sensitive to mismatched mitonuclear interactions. We measured the resting metabolic rate of male collared, and pied flycatchers as well as of naturally occurring F1 hybrid males, in a recent hybrid zone. We found that hybrid males had a higher rather than intermediate metabolic rate, which is indicative of hybrid physiological dysfunction. Fitness costs associated with elevated metabolic rate are typically environmentally dependent and exaggerated under harsh conditions. By focusing on male hybrid dysfunction in an eco-physiological trait, our results contribute to the general understanding of how combined extrinsic and intrinsic sources of hybrid dysfunction build up under natural conditions. PMID:27583553

  1. Alternate non-stop migration strategies of pied flycatchers to cross the Sahara desert

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwehand, Janne; Both, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    Each year more than two billion songbirds cross the Sahara, but how they perform this formidable task is largely unknown. Using geolocation tracks from 27 pied flycatchers, a nocturnally migrating passerine, we show that most birds made diurnal flights in both autumn and spring. These diurnal flight

  2. Low level of extra-pair paternity between nearest neighbors results from female preference for high-quality males in the yellow-rumped flycatcher (Ficedula zanthopygia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Mingju; Gong, Ye; Yu, Jiangping; Zhang, Siyu; Fan, Qianxi; Jiang, Yunlei

    2017-01-01

    Extra-pair copulation is considered to be a means by which females can modify their initial mate choice, and females might obtain indirect benefits to offspring fitness by engaging in this behavior. Here, we examined the patterns of extra-pair paternity and female preferences in the yellow-rumped flycatcher (Ficedula zanthopygia). We found that female yellow-rumped flycatchers are more likely to choose larger and relatively highly heterozygous males than their social mates as extra-pair mates, that the genetic similarity of pairs that produced mixed-paternity offspring did not differ from the similarity of pairs producing only within-pair offspring, and that extra-pair offspring were more heterozygous than their half-siblings. These findings support the good genes hypothesis but do not exclude the compatibility hypothesis. Most female yellow-rumped flycatchers attained extra-pair paternity with distant males rather than their nearest accessible neighboring males, and no differences in genetic and phenotypic characteristics were detected between cuckolded males and their nearest neighbors. There was no evidence that extra-pair mating by female flycatchers reduced inbreeding. Moreover, breeding density, breeding synchrony and their interaction did not affect the occurrence of extra-pair paternity in this species. Our results suggest that the variation in extra-pair paternity distribution between nearest neighbors in some passerine species might result from female preference for highly heterozygous males. PMID:28257431

  3. Vortex wake, downwash distribution, aerodynamic performance and wingbeat kinematics in slow-flying pied flycatchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T; Bowlin, Melissa S; Johansson, L Christoffer; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-02-07

    Many small passerines regularly fly slowly when catching prey, flying in cluttered environments or landing on a perch or nest. While flying slowly, passerines generate most of the flight forces during the downstroke, and have a 'feathered upstroke' during which they make their wing inactive by retracting it close to the body and by spreading the primary wing feathers. How this flight mode relates aerodynamically to the cruising flight and so-called 'normal hovering' as used in hummingbirds is not yet known. Here, we present time-resolved fluid dynamics data in combination with wingbeat kinematics data for three pied flycatchers flying across a range of speeds from near hovering to their calculated minimum power speed. Flycatchers are adapted to low speed flight, which they habitually use when catching insects on the wing. From the wake dynamics data, we constructed average wingbeat wakes and determined the time-resolved flight forces, the time-resolved downwash distributions and the resulting lift-to-drag ratios, span efficiencies and flap efficiencies. During the downstroke, slow-flying flycatchers generate a single-vortex loop wake, which is much more similar to that generated by birds at cruising flight speeds than it is to the double loop vortex wake in hovering hummingbirds. This wake structure results in a relatively high downwash behind the body, which can be explained by the relatively active tail in flycatchers. As a result of this, slow-flying flycatchers have a span efficiency which is similar to that of the birds in cruising flight and which can be assumed to be higher than in hovering hummingbirds. During the upstroke, the wings of slowly flying flycatchers generated no significant forces, but the body-tail configuration added 23 per cent to weight support. This is strikingly similar to the 25 per cent weight support generated by the wing upstroke in hovering hummingbirds. Thus, for slow-flying passerines, the upstroke cannot be regarded as inactive

  4. Light-level geolocators reveal migratory connectivity in European populations of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwehand, J.; Ahola, M. P.; Ausems, A. N. M. A.; Bridge, E. S.; Burgess, M.; Hahn, S.; Hewson, C. M.; Klaassen, R. H. G.; Laaksonen, T.; Lampe, H. M.; Velmala, W.; Both, C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding what drives or prevents long-distance migrants to respond to environmental change requires basic knowledge about the wintering and breeding grounds, and the timing of movements between them. Both strong and weak migratory connectivity have been reported for Palearctic passerines winter

  5. Variation in eggshell traits between geographically distant populations of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales, J.; Ruuskanen, S.; Laaksonen, T.; Mateo, R.; Belskii, E.; Eeva, T.; Jarvinen, A.; Kerimov, A.; Korpimaki, E.; Krams, I.; Morosinotto, C.; Mand, R.; Orell, M.; Qvarnstrom, A.; Siitari, H.; Slager, F.M.; Tiglar, V.; Visser, M.E.; Winkel, W.; Zang, H.; Moreno, J.

    2013-01-01

    The expression and impact of maternal effects may vary greatly between populations and environments. However, little is known about large-scale geographical patterns of variation in maternal deposition to eggs. In birds, as in other oviparous animals, the outermost maternal component of an egg is

  6. Song degradation in the hole-nesting pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe, Helene M.; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2007-01-01

    song elements to test sound degradation with distance in a mixed coniferous and a mixed deciduous forest, measuring broadcast sounds both inside and outside nestboxes. On average, sound degradation increased to a larger extent with distance in the deciduous than the coniferous forest...

  7. Sex and age dependent migration phenology of the Pied Flycatcher in a stopover site in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnos Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about Pied Flycatchers crossing the Carpathian Basin. We give a comprehensive picture about its migration based on the data collected during the past 26 years (1989–2014 at a stopover site in Hungary: (1 sex and age related phenological changes over the years, (2 sex, age and size dependent migration patterns during and (3 between migration periods, (4 sex and age composition in spring and in autumn and their change over years.

  8. A test on within-individual changes in risk-taking behaviour due to experience to predation in the Collared Flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krenhardt Katalin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Different experiences from the past may have influence on individual’s behaviour through feedback mechanisms that can weaken or preserve the within-individual consistency of behavioural traits. Here, we aimed to find evidence for such feedback mechanisms that may operate on risk-taking behaviour via the effect of former experience to potential predation events in male Collared Flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis. We predicted that risk-taking of males would decrease after experiencing a predator’s attack in previous breeding seasons (negative feedback. We assessed risk-taking by flight initiation distance (FID that is the distance at which an individual flees from an approaching predator, which was estimated for 234 individuals from different breeding seasons. Information on predation experience (i.e. occurrence of nest predation, the incidence of capture by human observers was available from our long-term database on individual life histories. In a horizontal approach, we found no difference in FID when comparing males with former experience to predation with males naive to predators. A longitudinal approach relying on the repeated tests of the same individuals from different years yielded analogous results, we could not show a significant change in the risk-taking behaviour of the males as a consequence of experience to predation in past years. However, we found that individuals systematically took less risk over the years, which might be a consequence of acquiring general experience with age.

  9. Genomic distribution and estimation of nucleotide diversity in natural populations: perspectives from the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutoit, Ludovic; Burri, Reto; Nater, Alexander; Mugal, Carina F; Ellegren, Hans

    2017-07-01

    Properly estimating genetic diversity in populations of nonmodel species requires a basic understanding of how diversity is distributed across the genome and among individuals. To this end, we analysed whole-genome resequencing data from 20 collared flycatchers (genome size ≈1.1 Gb; 10.13 million single nucleotide polymorphisms detected). Genomewide nucleotide diversity was almost identical among individuals (mean = 0.00394, range = 0.00384-0.00401), but diversity levels varied extensively across the genome (95% confidence interval for 200-kb windows = 0.0013-0.0053). Diversity was related to selective constraint such that in comparison with intergenic DNA, diversity at fourfold degenerate sites was reduced to 85%, 3' UTRs to 82%, 5' UTRs to 70% and nondegenerate sites to 12%. There was a strong positive correlation between diversity and chromosome size, probably driven by a higher density of targets for selection on smaller chromosomes increasing the diversity-reducing effect of linked selection. Simulations exploring the ability of sequence data from a small number of genetic markers to capture the observed diversity clearly demonstrated that diversity estimation from finite sampling of such data is bound to be associated with large confidence intervals. Nevertheless, we show that precision in diversity estimation in large outbred population benefits from increasing the number of loci rather than the number of individuals. Simulations mimicking RAD sequencing showed that this approach gives accurate estimates of genomewide diversity. Based on the patterns of observed diversity and the performed simulations, we provide broad recommendations for how genetic diversity should be estimated in natural populations. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Analysis of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Eggs of Collared Flycatchers, Ficedula Albicollis (Passeriformes, Muscicapidae, and Tits, Parus Major, Parus Caeruleus (Passeriformes, Paridae, in Different Areas of North-Eastern Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaplygina A. B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis Temminck, 1815, have more opportunities to accumulate heavy metals due to migration but they are more resistant to contamination in contrast to tits, (Parus major Linnaeus, 1758, Parus caeruleus Linnaeus, 1758. This research aimed to detect concentrations of some trace elements in eggs of the collared flycatcher, great tit and blue tit in different areas. There were found differences in heavy metal concentrations in the eggs among species and study areas. For collared flycatchers there were not established consistent patterns of changes in element concentrations among areas. The highest heavy metal levels were found in tits in samples of egg contents from a forest park (Pb - 3.1410 ± 0.3249, Cu - 19.3290 ± 1.4840, Zn - 66.9612 ± 17.6665, Fe - 249.5513 ± 40.2800, Mn - 6.9032 ± 0.2946, Ca - 8298.3570 ± 0.1080, Sr - 17.6032 ± 0.7512, Ni - 0.5177 ± 0.0220. The lowest concentrations were found in egg contents of tits in Hetmanskyi National Nature Park (Cu - 4.3492 ± 0.2079, Fe - 44.6647 ± 0.2627, Mn - 1.3194 ± 0.2374, Ca - 998.7001 ± 0.0006, Ni - 0.2443 ± 0.0439, Cr - 0.1466 ± 0.0424. The results indicate that heavy metals accumulated differently in shells and contents of eggs of collared flycatchers and tits in each of the study area. Some of microelements (zinc, mercury, iron, manganese, selenium and iodine in small amounts are required for normal growth and development of birds. Heavy metal concentrations in egg shells and egg contents of all species did not exceed permissible levels.

  11. Song degradation in the hole-nesting pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca: Implications for polyterritorial behaviour in contrasting habitat-types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe, Helene M.; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2007-01-01

    song elements to test sound degradation with distance in a mixed coniferous and a mixed deciduous forest, measuring broadcast sounds both inside and outside nestboxes. On average, sound degradation increased to a larger extent with distance in the deciduous than the coniferous forest...

  12. Identifying the African wintering grounds of hybrid flycatchers using a multi-isotope (δ2H, δ13C, δ15N) assignment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veen, Thor; Hjernquist, Mårten B; Van Wilgenburg, Steven L; Hobson, Keith A; Folmer, Eelke; Font, Laura; Klaassen, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Migratory routes and wintering grounds can have important fitness consequences, which can lead to divergent selection on populations or taxa differing in their migratory itinerary. Collared (Ficedula albicollis) and pied (F. hypoleuca) flycatchers breeding in Europe and wintering in different sub-Saharan regions have distinct migratory routes on the eastern and western sides of the Sahara desert, respectively. In an earlier paper, we showed that hybrids of the two species did not incur reduced winter survival, which would be expected if their migration strategy had been a mix of the parent species' strategies potentially resulting in an intermediate route crossing the Sahara desert to different wintering grounds. Previously, we compared isotope ratios and found no significant difference in stable-nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) in winter-grown feathers between the parental species and hybrids, but stable-carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in hybrids significantly clustered only with those of pied flycatchers. We followed up on these findings and additionally analyzed the same feathers for stable-hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) and conducted spatially explicit multi-isotope assignment analyses. The assignment results overlapped with presumed wintering ranges of the two species, highlighting the efficacy of the method. In contrast to earlier findings, hybrids clustered with both parental species, though most strongly with pied flycatcher.

  13. Identifying the African wintering grounds of hybrid flycatchers using a multi-isotope (δ2H, δ13C, δ15N assignment approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor Veen

    Full Text Available Migratory routes and wintering grounds can have important fitness consequences, which can lead to divergent selection on populations or taxa differing in their migratory itinerary. Collared (Ficedula albicollis and pied (F. hypoleuca flycatchers breeding in Europe and wintering in different sub-Saharan regions have distinct migratory routes on the eastern and western sides of the Sahara desert, respectively. In an earlier paper, we showed that hybrids of the two species did not incur reduced winter survival, which would be expected if their migration strategy had been a mix of the parent species' strategies potentially resulting in an intermediate route crossing the Sahara desert to different wintering grounds. Previously, we compared isotope ratios and found no significant difference in stable-nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N in winter-grown feathers between the parental species and hybrids, but stable-carbon isotope ratios (δ13C in hybrids significantly clustered only with those of pied flycatchers. We followed up on these findings and additionally analyzed the same feathers for stable-hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H and conducted spatially explicit multi-isotope assignment analyses. The assignment results overlapped with presumed wintering ranges of the two species, highlighting the efficacy of the method. In contrast to earlier findings, hybrids clustered with both parental species, though most strongly with pied flycatcher.

  14. Home ranges and habitat vegetation characters in breeding season of Narcissus Flycatcher and Yellow-rumped Flycatcher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ning; ZHANG Yanyun; ZHENG Guangmei

    2007-01-01

    The home ranges of the Narcissus Flycatcher (Ficedula narcissina elisae) and the Yellow-rumped Flycatcher (F.zanthopygia) are measured by radio telemetry in a subalpine forest near Beijing,China.The home range is calculated by 100% Minimum Convex Polygon (MCP),and the area varies from 2,000 to 5,000 m2.The majority of flycatchers can be found in the bottom of valleys and the underside of mountains.It is fairly rare for both Flycatcher species to leave their nests more than 70 m.Individuals of the species in pair-banding and nest-detecting periods have larger home ranges than those in incubation and rearing periods.The levels of canopy coverage in the home ranges of Narcissus Flycatchers are significantly higher than that of Yellowrumped Flycatchers.There are also more tall trees and stumps in the home ranges of Narcissus Flycatchers than in that of Yellow-rumped Flycatchers.The dominant tree species in the home ranges of Narcissus Flycatchers is Dahurian Birch (Betula dahurica),whereas Manchurian Walnut (Juglans mandshurica) is the dominant tree species in the home ranges of Yellow-rumped Flycatchers.

  15. Zero prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in 300 breeding Collared Flycatchers in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef D. Järhult

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Wild birds are important indicators and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. The order Passerines is scarcely studied apart from Corvus sp. but extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs has been found in Blackbirds. We tested 300 fecal samples from a well-studied population of Collared Flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis at the Island of Gotland in Sweden and found no ESBL-producing bacteria. These results support the idea of ‘ecological guild’ as Blackbirds are ground-foraging invertebrate feeders, whereas Collared Flycatchers are aerial insectivores not regularly coming into contact with fecal contaminations and therefore less prone to acquire pathogens spread by the fecal–oral route.

  16. Arthropods in trophic-cenosis structure of collared flycatcher consortium in conditions of forest ecosystems of North-Eastern Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Chaplygina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is based on taxonomic and quantitative analysis of feed ration of nestlings and structure of nidikolas of collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis (Temminck, 1815. Ecological features and consortium relations of flycatchers and their specific feeding behavior were analyzed. Materials were collected in May – July 2009–2014 on the transformed territories of North-Eastern Ukraine. Functioning of trophic structure of biogeocenosis with the participation of flycatcher as a heterotrophic core of big autotrophic group was studied. Spatial and trophic relations of flycatcher with the woody vegetation and insect-phytophages (leaf beetles, leafhoppers, and barbels have been described. In the feed ration of flycatcher nestlings the prevalence is given to representatives of Hexapoda (83%, including Lepidoptera (16 families, 24%, Hymenoptera (12 families, 23% and Coleoptera (40 families, 15%. We characterize trophic groups of arthropods in the consortium of flycatchers: phytophages (33%, zoophages (45%, parasites, bloodsuckers, saprophages (16%, necrophages (4%, coprophages, keratophages. Fauna of arthropods of collared flycatcher nests was analyzed. Nests of birds as a heterotrophic consortium is the habitat of invertebrates with 293 taxons belonging to the Hexapoda, Arachnida, Malacostraca and Myriaroda, sometimes Mollusca. In the trophic structure of the population of flycatcher the representatives of Hexapoda dominate (278 species, where the first place is given to zoophages (127 species, 45%, including parasites (Culicidae, Tabanidae, Mallophaga, Hippoboscidae, Aphaniptera. The second are phytophages (78 species, 28%, the third – decomposers (75 species, 27%, and the last presenting detritivores (48 species, 18% and necrophages (27 species, 10%. Constant ectoparasitic species of flycatchers are Ricinus sp. (Mallophaga, Ornithomyia avicularia L. (Diptera, Protocalliphora azurea chrysorrhea Mg. (Diptera, Ceratophyllus sp. (Aphaniptera

  17. Sympatric divergence and clinal variation in multiple coloration traits of Ficedula flycatchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laaksonen, T.; Sirkia, P. M.; Calhim, S.; Brommer, J. E.; Leskinen, P. K.; Primmer, C. R.; Adamik, P.; Artemyev, A. V.; Belskii, E.; Both, C.; Bures, S.; Burgess, M. D.; Doligez, B.; Forsman, J. T.; Grinkov, V.; Hoffmann, U.; Ivankina, E.; Kral, M.; Krams, I.; Lampe, H. M.; Moreno, J.; Maegi, M.; Nord, A.; Potti, J.; Ravussin, P-A.; Sokolov, L.

    2015-01-01

    Geographic variation in phenotypes plays a key role in fundamental evolutionary processes such as local adaptation, population differentiation and speciation, but the selective forces behind it are rarely known. We found support for the hypothesis that geographic variation in plumage traits of the p

  18. Spring and autumn migration of the red-breasted flycatcher through the Kizilirmak delta, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiraz ERCIYAS-YAVUZ; Piotr ZDUNIAK; Y Sancar BARI

    2015-01-01

    The red-breasted flycatcherFicedula parva is a small passerine bird that breeds in Eastern Europe and across central Asia and winters on the Indian subcontinent.Birds from the western extreme of the breeding range migrating to and from the wintering grounds utilise a large longitudinal component en route that is not typical of the majority of European passerines. Therefore, it is one of the lesser-known species in Europe with respect to migration and biometrics. The aim of this study is to describe the numbers, phenology and biometry of the red-breasted flycatcher in relation to age, sex and migration season at a stopover site in northern Turkey. The number of individuals ringed in autumn was six times higher than in the spring passage. Furthermore, the period of the spring passage was shorter than in autumn, and in spring males migrate six days earlier than fe-males and juveniles; no such differences were found in autumn. Moreover, migrants carried more fuel reserves in spring than in autumn and no differences were recorded in the length of stopover duration. The study underlines the importance of further re-search into passerine migration across Turkey to better understand the whole migratory system of movements of the Palaearctic migratory passerine populations [Current Zoology 61 (3): 412–420, 2015].

  19. Primary song by a juvenile willow flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    The timing of song development in suboscines, in which song appears not to be learned from other adults is poorly known. The Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a suboscine with a primary song typically referred to as fitz-bew. I report here an instance of very early singing by a 6-8-wk-old Willow Flycatcher, which sang in an aggressive context in response to a recording of adult flycatcher song. This is exceptionally early development of primary song, even among suboscines. Early song development may assist in the defense of winter territories.

  20. Trypanosomes of some Fennoscandian birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon F. Bennett

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear measurements and derived indices of trypanosomes from species of Fennoscandian birds were compared to those reported form Trypanosoma avium, T. everetti, T. ontarioensis and T. paddae. The trypanosomes encountered in the Fennoscandian birds were identified as T. avium from Tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus and the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, T. everetti from the great tit Parus major and collared flycatcher F. albicollis and T. ontarioensis from the collared flycatcher; T. paddae was not seen.

  1. Multi-PIE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Ralph; Matthews, Iain; Cohn, Jeff; Kanade, Takeo; Baker, Simon

    2010-05-01

    A close relationship exists between the advancement of face recognition algorithms and the availability of face databases varying factors that affect facial appearance in a controlled manner. The CMU PIE database has been very influential in advancing research in face recognition across pose and illumination. Despite its success the PIE database has several shortcomings: a limited number of subjects, single recording session and only few expressions captured. To address these issues we collected the CMU Multi-PIE database. It contains 337 subjects, imaged under 15 view points and 19 illumination conditions in up to four recording sessions. In this paper we introduce the database and describe the recording procedure. We furthermore present results from baseline experiments using PCA and LDA classifiers to highlight similarities and differences between PIE and Multi-PIE.

  2. Yolk androgens do not appear to mediate sexual conflict over parental investment in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Doligez, Blandine; Tschirren, Barbara; Pitala, Natalia; Gustafsson, Lars; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Laaksonen, Toni

    2009-01-01

    Mates and females are in conflict over parental care, as it would be favourable for one parent to shift labour to the other. Yolk hormones may offer a mechanism through which female birds could influence offspring traits in ways that increase the relative investment by the male. We studied the role

  3. Tratamiento del pie equino

    OpenAIRE

    Robles, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    El pie equino varo es una patología frecuente en los pacientes con Encefalopatía crónica no evolutiva (ECNE).Se observó que existe una mayor frecuencia en el sexo masculino. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, comparativo y secundario, durante el periodo de septiembre del 2006 a septiembre del 2011, con un total de 125 pacientes con Ecne, de los cuales se encontraron 101 con pie equino varo congénito. Objetivo: observar los resultados obtenidos en la rehabilitación del pie equino, en niños de ...

  4. Winter distribution of willow flycatcher subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, E.H.; Unitt, P.; Sogge, M.K.; Whitfield, M.; Keim, P.

    2011-01-01

    Documenting how different regions across a species' breeding and nonbreeding range are linked via migratory movements is the first step in understanding how events in one region can influence events in others and is critical to identifying conservation threats throughout a migratory animal's annual cycle. We combined two studies that evaluated migratory connectivity in the Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii), one using mitochondrial DNA sequences from 172 flycatchers sampled throughout their winter range, and another which examined morphological characteristics of 68 museum specimens collected in the winter range. Our results indicate that the four subspecies occupy distinct but overlapping regions of the winter range. Connectivity between specific breeding and winter grounds appears to be moderate to strong, with distributions that suggest migration patterns of both the chain and leap-frog types connecting the breeding and nonbreeding grounds. The Pacific lowlands of Costa Rica appear to be a key winter location for the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (E. t. extimus), although other countries in Central America may also be important for the subspecies. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  5. Longitudinal data reveal ontogenetic changes in the wing morphology of a long-distance migratory bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Hera, Ivan; Pulido, Francisco; Visser, Marcel E.

    2014-01-01

    In migratory bird species, juveniles normally have shorter and more rounded wings than adults. The causes of this age-specific difference in wing morphology, however, are largely unknown. Here, we used longitudinal data collected over 3years from a Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca population to as

  6. Longitudinal data reveal ontogenetic changes in the wing morphology of a long-distance migratory bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De la Hera, I.; Pulido, F.; Visser, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In migratory bird species, juveniles normally have shorter and more rounded wings than adults. The causes of this age-specific difference in wing morphology, however, are largely unknown. Here, we used longitudinal data collected over 3 years from a Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca population to a

  7. Pie de madura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E. Torres Reyes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available En el Hospital provincial “Antonio Agosthino Neto” de la ciudad de NDalatando, Kwanza Norte, Republica de Angola, se recibe una paciente femenina de la raza negra de 20 años de edad, con antecedentes de trabajar en el campo, laborando habitualmente descalza. Desde hace dos años, después de haberse hecho una herida con una espina de acacia, presentaba lesiones en la región del tarso y metatarso del pie derecho. Las lesiones nodulares que abarcaban la planta y dorso del pie presentaban color rojo amarillento y supuraban constantemente, con aumento de partes blandas. Se le indicaron análisis complementarios y estudios imagenológicos. Después de obtener los resultados micológicos, bacteriológicos e imagenológicos y debido a las lesiones óseas y en partes blandas que presentaba la paciente, se decide la amputación quirúrgica del pie

  8. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and Turnovers § 319.500 Meat pies. Meat pies such as “Beef Pie,” “Veal Pie,” and “Pork Pie” shall contain meat of the species specified on the label, in an amount not less than 25 percent of all...

  9. Integrated plumage colour variation in relation to body condition, reproductive investment and laying date in the collared flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczi, Miklós; Hegyi, Gergely; Herényi, Márton; Kiss, Dorottya; Markó, Gábor; Nagy, Gergely; Rosivall, Balázs; Szöllősi, Eszter; Török, János

    2013-10-01

    The possible integration of different sexual ornaments into a composite system, and especially the information content of such ornament complexes, is poorly investigated. Many bird species display complex plumage coloration, but whether this represents one integrated or several independent sexual traits can be unclear. Collared flycatchers ( Ficedula albicollis) display melanised and depigmented plumage areas, and the spectral features (brightness and UV chroma) of these are correlated with each other across the plumage. In a 5-year dataset of male and female plumage reflectance, we examined some of the potential information content of integrated, plumage-level colour attributes by estimating their relationships to previous and current year body condition, laying date and clutch size. Females were in better condition the year before they became darker pigmented, and males in better current year condition were also darker pigmented. Female pigment-based brightness was positively, while male structurally based brightness was negatively related to current laying date. Finally, the overall UV chroma of white plumage areas in males was positively associated with current clutch size. Our results show that higher degree of pigmentation is related to better condition, while the structural colour component is associated with some aspects of reproductive investment. These results highlight the possibility that correlated aspects of a multiple plumage ornamentation system may reflect together some aspects of individual quality, thereby functioning as a composite signal.

  10. Biparental Investment of Yellow-Rumped Flycatcher in Artificial Nest-Box During Nestling Period%人工巢箱条件下白眉姬鹟育雏期双亲投入

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏忠民; 姜云垒; 张立世; 李时; 鄂明菊; 弓冶; 高玮

    2012-01-01

    2010-2011年连续2a在吉林省左家自然保护区,采用摄录方法对人工巢箱条件下繁殖白眉姬鹟(Ficedula zanthopygia)育雏期双亲投入进行研究.结果表明:白眉姬鹟亲鸟可根据窝雏数调整育雏投入,育雏次数随窝雏数的增加而显著增加.白眉姬鹟日育雏行为无显著节律性,双亲每天不同时段的育雏频次差异不显著.雌雄双亲育雏期投入差异显著,雌性亲鸟单位时间内育雏频次随雏鸟日龄增大而显著增加,雄性变化不显著.%The parental behaviors of Yellow-rumped Flycatcher (Ficedula zanthopygia) breeding inside artificial nest boxes during the nestling period were observe by video recording at Zuojia Nature Reserve of Jilin Province during 2010-2011. Results showed that parents could adjust their investment according to the brood size, and the feeding frequency significantly increased with brood size. No obvious rhythm was detected in the daily feeding behavior of Yellow-rumped Flycatcher, and no significant difference was observed in the feeding frequency of parents at different time intervals of a day. However, there existed a significant difference in parental investment between the two sexes during the nestling period. The feeding frequency of the females per unit time significantly increased with nestling age, while the males did not.

  11. Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Breeding Site and Territory Summary - 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Scott L.; Sogge, Mark K.; Stump, Shay D.; Walker, Hira A.; Kus, Barbara E.; Sferra, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    The Southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; hereafter references to willow flycatcher and flycatcher refer to E.t. extimus, except where specifically noted) is an endangered bird that breeds only in dense riparian habitats in parts of six Southwestern states (Arizona, New Mexico, southern California, extreme southern Nevada, southern Utah, and southwestern Colorado). Since 1993, hundreds of Southwestern willow flycatcher surveys have been conducted each year, and many new flycatcher breeding sites located. This document synthesizes the most current information available on all known Southwestern willow flycatcher breeding sites. This rangewide data synthesis was designed to meet two objectives: (1) identify all known Southwestern willow flycatcher breeding sites and (2) assemble data to estimate population size, location, habitat, and other information for all breeding sites, for as many years as possible, from 1993 through 2007. This report provides data summaries in terms of the number of flycatcher sites and the number of territories. When interpreting and using this information, it must be kept in mind that a 'site' is a geographic location where one or more willow flycatchers establishes a territory. Sites with unpaired territorial males are considered breeding sites, even if no nesting attempts were documented. A site is often a discrete patch of riparian habitat but may also be a cluster of riparian patches; there is no standardized definition for site, and its use varies within and among states. For example, five occupied habitat patches along a 10-km stretch of river might be considered five different sites in one state but only a single site in another state. This lack of standardization makes comparisons based on site numbers problematic. Researchers for this report generally deferred to statewide summary documents or to local managers and researchers when delineating a site for inclusion in the database. However, to avoid inflating

  12. Willow Flycatcher nonbreeding territory defense behavior in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, M.K.; Koronkiewicz, T.J.; van Riper, Charles; Durst, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the intraspecific territorial defense behavior of wintering Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) in Costa Rica using a randomized playback experiment that exposed male and female birds to recordings of Willow Flycatcher songs and calls, Lesser Ground Cuckoo (Morococcyx erythropygius) vocalizations, and random noise. Flycatchers of both sexes responded most strongly to simulated conspecific territory intrusion, and the agonistic behaviors that we observed were similar to those seen during natural intraspecific encounters in winter. Both males and females engaged in song and aggressive behaviors in defense of territories, and there was no significant difference between the sexes in scored agonistic responses. The similarity between the sexes in intraspecific territorial defense behaviors and aggressiveness may account for both sexes of flycatchers using the same habitats at our study sites in Costa Rica, and wintering females defending territories against males. The Willow Flycatcher, a sexually monomorphic species, differs in this way from a number of sexually dimorphic passerines, in which behaviorally dominant males occur in more optimal winter habitats. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2007.

  13. Sex determination of the Acadian Flycatcher using discriminant analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R.R.

    1999-01-01

    I used five morphometric variables from 114 individuals captured in Arkansas to develop a discriminant model to predict the sex of Acadian Flycatchers (Empidonax virescens). Stepwise discriminant function analyses selected wing chord and tail length as the most parsimonious subset of variables for discriminating sex. This two-variable model correctly classified 80% of females and 97% of males used to develop the model. Validation of the model using 19 individuals from Louisiana and Virginia resulted in 100% correct classification of males and females. This model provides criteria for sexing monomorphic Acadian Flycatchers during the breeding season and possibly during the winter.

  14. Pie plano-valgo adquirido

    OpenAIRE

    Albiol Ferrer, Josep Maria; Giralt de Veciana, Enrique; Marugán de los Bueis, Montse; Novel Martí, Virginia; Ogalla, José Manuel; Zalacain, Antonio

    1990-01-01

    Es la patología del pie que tiene mayor incidencia durante la infancia. Su recuperación eficaz, además de precisar un largo período de tratamiento, requiere un diagnóstico precoz. Durante la lactancia, a partir de los tres meses, y después, durante la infancia, hasta los tres años aproximadamente, una gruesa y blanda capa de panlculo adiposo determina una configuración que rellena la bóveda y ofrece una falsa imagen de pie plano.

  15. El pie del adulto mayor

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Acta Médica Peruana es una publicación del Colegio Médico del Perú El estudio del pie y sus patologías es un capítulo muy importante de la Geriatría. Las patologías del pie no escapan las características comunes de muchos síndromes geriátricos como son el ser asumidos como "normales para la edad", ser poco valorados, menospreciados, no tratados, con gran impacto sobre la salud en general y la calidad de vida.

  16. Verkeer in het Platform Integrale Energieanalyse (PIE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink RMM van den; Feimann PFL; LAE

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the Traffic and Transport submodel (PIE-VeV). This submodel is part of a larger model named PIE that integrates energy demand and energy production sectors. The main goal of PIE is to assess the effects on national emissions of changes in the demand for different energy carrier

  17. Verkeer in het Platform Integrale Energieanalyse (PIE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink RMM van den; Feimann PFL; LAE

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the Traffic and Transport submodel (PIE-VeV). This submodel is part of a larger model named PIE that integrates energy demand and energy production sectors. The main goal of PIE is to assess the effects on national emissions of changes in the demand for different energy

  18. The PIE Institute Project: Final Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Mark; Carroll, Becky; Helms, Jen; Smith, Anita

    2008-01-01

    The Playful Invention and Exploration (PIE) Institute project was funded in 2005 by the National Science Foundation (NSF). For the past three years, Inverness Research has served as the external evaluator for the PIE project. The authors' evaluation efforts have included extensive observation and documentation of PIE project activities; ongoing…

  19. [Pie]: Re-Count and Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The number [pie] [approximately] 3.14159 is defined to be the ratio C/d of the circumference C to the diameter d of any given circle. In this article, the author looks at some surprising and unexpected places where [pie] occurs, and then thinks about some ways of remembering all those digits in the expansion of [pie].

  20. Verkeer in het Platform Integrale Energieanalyse (PIE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink RMM van den; Feimann PFL; LAE

    2003-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft het deelmodel Verkeer en Vervoer (PIE-VeV) van het Platform voor Integrale Energie- en emissieverkenningen (PIE). PIE is door de doelgroep Energie ontwikkeld in nauwe samenwerking met het ECN en is een integratieplatform dat de grootte en de samenstelling van de vraag naar

  1. Elucidating spatially explicit behavioral landscapes in the Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakian, Amanda V.; Sullivan, Kimberly A.; Paxton, Eben H.

    2012-01-01

    Animal resource selection is a complex, hierarchical decision-making process, yet resource selection studies often focus on the presence and absence of an animal rather than the animal's behavior at resource use locations. In this study, we investigate foraging and vocalization resource selection in a population of Willow Flycatchers, Empidonax traillii adastus, using Bayesian spatial generalized linear models. These models produce “behavioral landscapes” in which space use and resource selection is linked through behavior. Radio telemetry locations were collected from 35 adult Willow Flycatchers (n = 14 males, n = 13 females, and n = 8 unknown sex) over the 2003 and 2004 breeding seasons at Fish Creek, Utah. Results from the 2-stage modeling approach showed that habitat type, perch position, and distance from the arithmetic mean of the home range (in males) or nest site (in females) were important factors influencing foraging and vocalization resource selection. Parameter estimates from the individual-level models indicated high intraspecific variation in the use of the various habitat types and perch heights for foraging and vocalization. On the population level, Willow Flycatchers selected riparian habitat over other habitat types for vocalizing but used multiple habitat types for foraging including mountain shrub, young riparian, and upland forest. Mapping of observed and predicted foraging and vocalization resource selection indicated that the behavior often occurred in disparate areas of the home range. This suggests that multiple core areas may exist in the home ranges of individual flycatchers, and demonstrates that the behavioral landscape modeling approach can be applied to identify spatially and behaviorally distinct core areas. The behavioral landscape approach is applicable to a wide range of animal taxa and can be used to improve our understanding of the spatial context of behavior and resource selection.

  2. On semiflexible, flexible and pie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Bourke, John

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the notion of pie algebra for a 2-monad, these bearing the same relationship to the flexible and semiflexible algebras as pie limits do to flexible and semiflexible ones. We see that in many cases, the pie algebras are precisely those "free at the level of objects" in a suitable sense; so that, for instance, a strict monoidal category is pie just when its underlying monoid of objects is free. Pie algebras are contrasted with flexible and semiflexible algebras via a series of characterisations of each class; particular attention is paid to the case of pie, flexible and semiflexible weights, these being characterised in terms of the behaviour of the corresponding weighted limit functors.

  3. Post irradiation effects (PIE) in integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, D. C.; Lowry, L.; Barnes, C.; Zakharia, M.; Agarwal, S.; Rax, B.

    1991-01-01

    Post-irradiation effects (PIE) ranging from normal recovery to catastrophic failure have been observed in integrated circuits during the PIE period. Data presented show failure due to rebound after a 10 krad(Si) dose. In particular, five device types are investigated with varying PIE response. Special attention has been given to the HI1-507A analog multiplexer because its PIE response is extreme. X-ray diffraction has been uniquely employed to measure physical stress in the HI1-507A metallization. An attempt has been made to show a relationship between stress relaxation and radiation effects. All data presented support the current MIL-STD Method 1019.4 but demonstrate the importance of performing PIE measurements, even when mission doses are as low as 10 krad(Si).

  4. What Do Owls, Salamanders, Flycatchers and Cuckoos Have In Common?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musgrave, Maria A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Wildlife Management

    2016-09-27

    This is an article from the Los Alamos Living magazine. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on a beautiful and unique landscape that provides important protected habitat to many species, including a few that are federally-listed as threatened or endangered. These species are the Jemez Mountains Salamander, the Mexican Spotted Owl, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher, the Yellow-billed Cuckoo, and the New Mexico Meadow Jumping Mouse. Part of the job of the Laboratory's wildlife biologists is to survey for these species each year and determine what actions need to be taken if they are found.

  5. Pie diabético

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El «pie diabético» incluye una serie de síndromes en los que la interacción de la pérdida de la sensación protectora por la presencia de neuropatía sensitiva, el cambio en los puntos de presión a causa de la neuropatía motora, la disfunción autonómica y la disminución del flujo sanguíneo por enfermedad vascular periférica pueden dar lugar a la aparición de lesiones o úlceras inducidas por traumatismos menores que pasan «desapercibidos». Esta situación conlleva una importante morbilidad y un r...

  6. 46 CFR 16.109 - Public Interest Exclusion (PIE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Interest Exclusion (PIE). 16.109 Section 16.109... General § 16.109 Public Interest Exclusion (PIE). Service agents are subject to Public Interest Exclusion (PIE) actions in accordance with 49 CFR Part 40, subpart R. The PIE is an action which excludes...

  7. Learning the Hard Way: Imprinting Can Enhance Enforced Shifts in Habitat Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas Vallin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the potential importance of learning in habitat choice within a young hybrid zone of two closely related species of birds. Pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca are being excluded from deciduous habitats into a mixed forest type by collared flycatchers (F. albicollis. We investigated whether this enforced habitat shift influenced reproductive isolation between the two species, and, by cross-fostering nestlings, we tested whether learning may lead to a corresponding shift in habitat choice in consecutive generations. Our results show that the majority of the recruits, even if translocated across different habitat types, return to breed in the area where they were fostered. As male pied flycatchers were more likely to hybridize in the originally preferred habitat, we argue that early imprinting on an alternate habitat can play an important role in increasing reproductive isolation and facilitate regional coexistence between species experiencing secondary contact.

  8. El pie diabético

    OpenAIRE

    Cespedes Cespedes, Tomás; Cuevas Gómez, Rafael; Dorca Coll, Adelina; Sacristan Valero, Sergi

    1991-01-01

    El pie diabético está considerado como un pie de alto riesgo, está demostrado que si aplicáramos una adecuada y correcta educación sanitaria a todos los profesionales de la salud y al propio paciente, se podrían evitar en la mayoría de los casos las tan temidas amputaciones. En el presente trabajo hacemos referencia de las características más importantes de la diabetes, pie diabético y a la actuación profesional del podólogo frente a estos pacientes.

  9. Injury due to leg bands in willow flycatchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, J.A.; Klus, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    We report an apparently unusually high incidence of leg injury in Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) as a result of banding and color banding. Color bands and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) bands applied to Willow Flycatchers from 1988-1995 resulted in an overall leg injury rate of 9.6% to birds returning to our study areas in subsequent years. Most injuries occurred on legs with only color band(s) (58.3%) or on legs with both a USFWS band and a color band (35%); only 6.7% of injuries (4/60) were due to USFWS bands alone, yielding an overall USFWS band injury rate of only 0.6%. Injuries ranged from severe (swollen, bleeding legs; a missing foot) to relatively minor (irritations on the tarsus). Amputation of the foot occurred in 33.9% of the cases. Return rates of adult injured birds in the year(s) following injury were significantly lower than for the population at large.

  10. A New Species of Muscicapa Flycatcher from Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Ding Li; Prawiradilaga, Dewi M.; Putra, Dadang Dwi; Round, Philip D.; Rheindt, Frank E.

    2014-01-01

    The Indonesian island of Sulawesi, a globally important hotspot of avian endemism, has been relatively poorly studied ornithologically, to the extent that several new bird species from the region have been described to science only recently, and others have been observed and photographed, but never before collected or named to science. One of these is a new species of Muscicapa flycatcher that has been observed on several occasions since 1997. We collected two specimens in Central Sulawesi in 2012, and based on a combination of morphological, vocal and genetic characters, we describe the new species herein, more than 15 years after the first observations. The new species is superficially similar to the highly migratory, boreal-breeding Gray-streaked Flycatcher Muscicapa griseisticta, which winters in Sulawesi; however, the new species differs strongly from M. griseisticta in several morphological characters, song, and mtDNA. Based on mtDNA, the new species is only distantly related to M. griseisticta, instead being a member of the M. dauurica clade. The new species is evidently widely distributed in lowland and submontane forest throughout Sulawesi. This wide distribution coupled with the species' apparent tolerance of disturbed habitats suggests it is not currently threatened with extinction. PMID:25419968

  11. A new species of Muscicapa flycatcher from Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J Berton C; Rasmussen, Pamela C; Yong, Ding Li; Prawiradilaga, Dewi M; Putra, Dadang Dwi; Round, Philip D; Rheindt, Frank E

    2014-01-01

    The Indonesian island of Sulawesi, a globally important hotspot of avian endemism, has been relatively poorly studied ornithologically, to the extent that several new bird species from the region have been described to science only recently, and others have been observed and photographed, but never before collected or named to science. One of these is a new species of Muscicapa flycatcher that has been observed on several occasions since 1997. We collected two specimens in Central Sulawesi in 2012, and based on a combination of morphological, vocal and genetic characters, we describe the new species herein, more than 15 years after the first observations. The new species is superficially similar to the highly migratory, boreal-breeding Gray-streaked Flycatcher Muscicapa griseisticta, which winters in Sulawesi; however, the new species differs strongly from M. griseisticta in several morphological characters, song, and mtDNA. Based on mtDNA, the new species is only distantly related to M. griseisticta, instead being a member of the M. dauurica clade. The new species is evidently widely distributed in lowland and submontane forest throughout Sulawesi. This wide distribution coupled with the species' apparent tolerance of disturbed habitats suggests it is not currently threatened with extinction.

  12. A new species of Muscicapa flycatcher from Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Berton C Harris

    Full Text Available The Indonesian island of Sulawesi, a globally important hotspot of avian endemism, has been relatively poorly studied ornithologically, to the extent that several new bird species from the region have been described to science only recently, and others have been observed and photographed, but never before collected or named to science. One of these is a new species of Muscicapa flycatcher that has been observed on several occasions since 1997. We collected two specimens in Central Sulawesi in 2012, and based on a combination of morphological, vocal and genetic characters, we describe the new species herein, more than 15 years after the first observations. The new species is superficially similar to the highly migratory, boreal-breeding Gray-streaked Flycatcher Muscicapa griseisticta, which winters in Sulawesi; however, the new species differs strongly from M. griseisticta in several morphological characters, song, and mtDNA. Based on mtDNA, the new species is only distantly related to M. griseisticta, instead being a member of the M. dauurica clade. The new species is evidently widely distributed in lowland and submontane forest throughout Sulawesi. This wide distribution coupled with the species' apparent tolerance of disturbed habitats suggests it is not currently threatened with extinction.

  13. Competing for Private Banking Pie in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's private banking: A big piece of the pie PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC) released a report on the global private banking sector in 2007 after top executives from 265 companies in 43 countries answered responded to a questionnaire.

  14. Extended pie menus for immersive virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Sascha; Pick, Sebastian; Leithold, Franziska; Hentschel, Bernd; Kuhlen, Torsten

    2013-04-01

    Pie menus are a well-known technique for interacting with 2D environments and so far a large body of research documents their usage and optimizations. Yet, comparatively little research has been done on the usability of pie menus in immersive virtual environments (IVEs). In this paper we reduce this gap by presenting an implementation and evaluation of an extended hierarchical pie menu system for IVEs that can be operated with a six-degrees-of-freedom input device. Following an iterative development process, we first developed and evaluated a basic hierarchical pie menu system. To better understand how pie menus should be operated in IVEs, we tested this system in a pilot user study with 24 participants and focus on item selection. Regarding the results of the study, the system was tweaked and elements like check boxes, sliders, and color map editors were added to provide extended functionality. An expert review with five experts was performed with the extended pie menus being integrated into an existing VR application to identify potential design issues. Overall results indicated high performance and efficient design.

  15. Available data support protection of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher under the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theimer, Tad C.; Smith, Aaron D.; Mahoney, Sean M.; Ironside, Kirsten E.

    2016-01-01

    Zink (2015) argued there was no evidence for genetic, morphological, or ecological differentiation between the federally endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) and other Willow Flycatcher subspecies. Using the same data, we show there is a step-cline in both the frequency of a mtDNA haplotype and in plumage variation roughly concordant with the currently recognized boundary between E. t. extimus and E. t adastus, the subspecies with which it shares the longest common boundary. The geographical pattern of plumage variation is also concordant with previous song analyses differentiating those 2 subspecies and identified birds in one low-latitude, high-elevation site in Arizona as the northern subspecies. We also demonstrate that the ecological niche modeling approach used by Zink yields the same result whether applied to the 2 flycatcher subspecies or to 2 unrelated species, E. t. extimus and Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia). As a result, any interpretation of those results as evidence for lack of ecological niche differentiation among Willow Flycatcher subspecies would also indicate no differentiation among recognized species and would therefore be an inappropriate standard for delineating subspecies. We agree that many analytical techniques now available to examine genetic, morphological, and ecological differentiation would improve our understanding of the distinctness (or lack thereof) of Willow Flycatcher subspecies, but we argue that currently available evidence supports protection of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher under the Endangered Species Act.

  16. El pie del diabético

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Existen complicaciones neurovasculares periféricas en el paciente diabético que de no prevenirse o tratarse precozmente pueden conducir a la formación de lesiones graves e irreversibles en el pie. Los grados de lesión pueden evolucionar desde la presencia de factores de riesgo hasta la formación de gangrena local o generalizada conllevando a la amputación del pie. La participación del paciente y la familia con relación a los cuidados podológicos, cumplimiento en el  tratamiento dieté...

  17. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared by... ingredients as prescribed by paragraph (a)(2) of this section. The finished food is frozen. (2) The...

  18. 49 CFR 40.367 - Who initiates a PIE proceeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who initiates a PIE proceeding? 40.367 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.367 Who initiates a PIE proceeding? The following DOT officials may initiate a PIE proceeding: (a) The drug and alcohol program manager...

  19. A Natural History Summary and Survey Protocol for the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, Mark K.; ,; Ahlers, Darrell; ,; Sferra, Susan J.; ,

    2010-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) has been the subject of substantial research, monitoring, and management activity since it was listed as an endangered species in 1995. When proposed for listing in 1993, relatively little was known about the flycatcher's natural history, and there were only 30 known breeding sites supporting an estimated 111 territories rangewide (Sogge and others, 2003a). Since that time, thousands of presence/absences surveys have been conducted throughout the historical range of the flycatcher, and many studies of its natural history and ecology have been completed. As a result, the ecology of the flycatcher is much better understood than it was just over a decade ago. In addition, we have learned that the current status of the flycatcher is better than originally thought: as of 2007, the population was estimated at approximately 1,300 territories distributed among approximately 280 breeding sites (Durst and others, 2008a). Concern about the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher on a rangewide scale was brought to focus by Unitt (1987), who described declines in flycatcher abundance and distribution throughout the Southwest. E. t. extimus populations declined during the 20th century, primarily because of habitat loss and modification from activities, such as dam construction and operation, groundwater pumping, water diversions, and flood control. In 1991, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) designated the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher as a candidate category 1 species (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1991). In July 1993, the USFWS proposed to list E. t. extimus as an endangered species and to designate critical habitat under the Act (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1993). A final rule listing E. t. extimus as endangered was published in February 1995 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995); critical habitat was designated in 1997 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1997). The USFWS Service released a Recovery Plan for

  20. The Mini-Casebook--Easy As Pie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, Hal; Sweet, Charlie

    2003-01-01

    Presents a casebook on the song "American Pie" that considers how to define the parameters of short narrative. Describes the creation of an end-of-term cumulative writing project that the authors have successfully employed for the last decade. Discusses how they put together a casebook that teaches the necessary research skills. (SG)

  1. Vitamin profiles in two free-living passerine birds under a metal pollution gradient - A calcium supplementation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sandra R; Espín, Silvia; Sánchez-Virosta, Pablo; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Lilley, Thomas M; Eeva, Tapio

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin and carotenoid deficiency may impair development in free-living vertebrates, because of the importance of these micronutrients to growth, antioxidant defense and calcium regulation. Micronutrient and calcium insufficiency can be intensified by metal pollution which can interfere with nutrient homeostasis or indirectly reduce food availability. Furthermore, absorption of dietary heavy metals is dependent on food calcium and vitamin levels. We investigated the effect of calcium on plasma vitamin and carotenoid profiles and how these affected growth and survival in two passerine birds with different calcium turnover living along a metal pollution gradient. Vitamins (A, D3 and E) and carotenoids were quantified from blood plasma of great tit (Parus major) and pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings. Metal concentrations in soil and in feces from the same nestlings were used to assess the exposure to air pollution. Additionally, we examined the vitamin level variation between developmental stages (eggs and nestlings within the same brood). Our results showed that generally higher concentrations of vitamins and carotenoids circulate in blood of great tits than in pied flycatchers. In general, birds inhabiting the polluted zone presented lower concentrations of the studied micronutrients. Calcium supplementation and metal pollution decreased vitamin A concentration in pied flycatcher, but not in great tit, while vitamin A affected growth and survival in great tit and pied flycatcher respectively. Our results suggest that populations under exposure to metal pollution may experience increased vitamin A deficiency, and that the two passerine species, while obtaining similar micronutrients in food, respond differently to environmental disturbance of nutrients.

  2. Species- and age-related variation in metal exposure and accumulation of two passerine bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, A.M.M., E-mail: asa.berglund@emg.umu.se [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland); Koivula, M.J.; Eeva, T. [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    We measured the concentration of several elements (arsenic [As], calcium [Ca], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], selenium [Se] and zinc [Zn]) in adult and nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and great tits (Parus major) at different distances to a Cu-Ni smelter in 2009. Feces of nestlings generally failed to correspond with internal element concentrations but reflected the pollution exposure, indicating an increased stress by removal of excess metals. The uptake of Cu and Ni were regulated, but As, Cd, Pb and Se accumulated in liver tissue. Pied flycatchers had generally higher element concentrations than great tits. The higher accumulation of As and Pb in pied flycatcher livers was explained by a more efficient absorption, whereas the higher Cd concentration was primarily due to different intake of food items. Age-related differences occurred between the two species, though both Cd and Se accumulated with age. - Highlights: > We measured metal concentrations in feces and livers of two passerine species. > We examined species- and age-related differences in polluted environments. > Feces was evaluated as a useful non-destructive measure of increased stress. > Generally pied flycatchers accumulated higher concentrations than great tits. > Cadmium and selenium accumulated with age in both species. - Accumulation of metals in liver of two insectivorous passerines reflects inter-specific differences in diet, absorption rate and physiological requirements.

  3. Nest box use and productivity of great crested flycatchers in prescribed-burned longleaf pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Seginak, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    Managing for the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) on federal lands requires burning large tracts of mature pine forests every 3-5 yr. Many cavity trees that serve as potential nest sites for primary and secondary hole-nesting birds are destroyed by fire. We assessed the efficacy of a nest box program for the Great Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus) at Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge, an area intensively managed for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers. During 1996-1998, we installed and monitored 330 (30 in each of 11 sites) nest boxes in mature (>60 yr) longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) tracts that were burned either in April-June (warm season) or December-March (cool season). Prescribed-burned sites were nearly devoid of snags; we estimated only 0.8/ ha in cool-season burns and 1.7/ha in warm-season burns. Great Crested Flycatchers built nests in 20% of the boxes available to them. Clutch sizes were larger in warm-season burns than in cool-season burns, but fledging success (fledglings/nest hatching -1 egg) was lower. Twenty-two of 59 Great Crested Flycatcher nests were depredated and the proportions in each burn class were similar. We recommend the installation of nest boxes for Great Crested Flycatchers in prescribed-burned pine forests, but additional research is needed in these habitats on nest depredation rates and causes.

  4. Breeding biology and behavior of Hammond's and western flycatchers in northwestern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.F. Sakai

    1988-01-01

    The Hammond's (Empidonax hammondii) and Western (E. difficilis) flycatchers are sympatric within portions of their breeding ranges in north- western California. Westerns are common in a variety of habitats (Bent 1942:247, Johnson 1980:11-23); Hammond's are more abundant at higher elevations (Bent 1942:226, Johnson...

  5. Revised numerical wrapper for PIES code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raburn, Daniel; Reiman, Allan; Monticello, Donald

    2015-11-01

    A revised external numerical wrapper has been developed for the Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver (PIES code), which is capable of calculating 3D MHD equilibria with islands. The numerical wrapper has been demonstrated to greatly improve the rate of convergence in numerous cases corresponding to equilibria in the TFTR device where magnetic islands are present. The numerical wrapper makes use of a Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solver along with adaptive preconditioning and a sophisticated subspace-restricted Levenberg-Marquardt backtracking algorithm. The details of the numerical wrapper and several sample results are presented.

  6. Clínica del pie valgo

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelino Reyes, Jesús

    1998-01-01

    Genericamente reconocemos al pie valgo, por las características siguientes: - desviación de la linea de Helbing ( retropié) - aplanamiento de la bóveda longitudinal interna - pronación de antepié. - aspecto de pié plano. Pero no podemos contentarnos con estas cuatro reglas,y por lo tanto hemos de pormenorizar y clasificar en función de los diferentes elementos que intervienen en la morfogenética de pié. Con lo cual también tendremos una visión mas amplia a la hora de poder aplicar un tratamie...

  7. Sex and the Cinema: What "American Pie" Teaches the Young

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Sharyn

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the wildly successful blockbuster "American Pie" teenpics, especially "American Pie 3--The Wedding". I argue that these films are specifically designed to appeal to teenage male audiences, and to provide lessons in sex and romance. Movies like this are especially important as they are experienced by far more teenagers than,…

  8. El pie del diabético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra Myriam

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Existen complicaciones neurovasculares periféricas en el paciente diabético que de no prevenirse o tratarse precozmente pueden conducir a la formación de lesiones graves e irreversibles en el pie. Los grados de lesión pueden evolucionar desde la presencia de factores de riesgo hasta la formación de gangrena local o generalizada conllevando a la amputación del pie. La participación del paciente y la familia con relación a los cuidados podológicos, cumplimiento en el  tratamiento dietético, farmacológico, de ejercicio e identificación de riesgos son definitivos; estos aspectos requieren de la orientación e intervención del profesional de enfermería en el manejo de cada grado de lesión basándose en la identificación de diagnósticos reales y/o potenciales prioritarios.

  9. The Personal Impact of Epilepsy Scale (PIES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert S; Nune, George; Roberts, Sanford E; Cramer, Joyce A

    2015-01-01

    The impact of epilepsy is manifest by effects related to seizures and side effects of therapy and comorbidities such as depression. This report describes the development of a brief patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument, the Personal Impact of Epilepsy Scale (PIES), to measure the influence of epilepsy overall and in each of these domains. Instrument development followed standard procedures and an FDA Guidance. People with epilepsy were surveyed with open-ended questions to derive major themes of their concerns, resulting in 4 key areas: seizures, side effects, comorbidities, and overall quality of life (QOL). A preliminary set of 152 questions was based on these themes and completed by 50 patients, age 42.7 (range: 21-71) years, concurrent with comparator instruments, including the NH Seizure Severity Scale (NHSSS), the Liverpool Adverse Events Profile (LAEP), the Quality of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-31) scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Epilepsy Foundation Depression: A Checklist. A multiple regression model indicated which PIES measures were associated with scores from the comparator instruments. Questions in each of the domains were selected for correlations and nonduplication. Test-retest consistency at a 3-day interval was completed by 38 subjects and a final set of questions constructed. The final question set comprised 25 items: 9 about characteristics of seizures, 7 about medication side effects, 8 about comorbidities, and 1 about overall quality of life. All items had 5 response choices (0-4), with higher scores reflecting more negative status. A total of 46 subjects completed the 25 questions. Cronbach's alpha was 0.87, indicating good internal consistency. Each of the three domains correlated well with the overall QOL item. The questions pertaining to seizures correlated with the NHSSS, the side effect questions with the LAEP, and the comorbidity questions with the QOLIE-31. The PIES provides a simple, brief PRO measure as a profile of

  10. Myiarchus flycatchers are the primary seed dispersers of Bursera longipes in a Mexican dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán-Núñez, R Carlos; Eguiarte, Luis E; Arizmendi, María Del Coro; Corcuera, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the seed dispersal of Bursera longipes by birds along a successional gradient of tropical dry forest (TDF) in southwestern Mexico. B. longipes is an endemic tree to the TDF in the Balsas basin. The relative abundance of frugivorous birds, their frequency of visits to B. longipes and the number of removed fruits were recorded at three study sites with different stages of forest succession (early, intermediate and mature) characterized by distinct floristic and structural elements. Flycatchers of the Myiarchus and Tyrannus genera removed the majority of fruits at each site. Overall, visits to B. longipes were less frequent at the early successional site. Birds that function as legitimate dispersers by consuming whole seeds and regurgitating or defecating intact seeds in the process also remove the pseudoaril from seeds, thereby facilitating the germination process. The highest germination percentages were recorded for seeds that passed through the digestive system of two migratory flycatchers: M. cinerascens and M. nutingii. Perch plants, mainly composed of legumes (e.g., Eysenhardtia polystachya, Acacia cochliacantha, Calliandra eryophylla, Mimosa polyantha), serve also as nurse plants since the number of young individuals recruited from B. longipes was higher under these than expected by chance. This study shows that Myiarchus flycatchers are the most efficient seed dispersers of B. longipes across all successional stages. This suggests a close mutualistic relationship derived from adaptive processes and local specializations throughout the distribution of both taxa, as supported by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution.

  11. Myiarchus flycatchers are the primary seed dispersers of Bursera longipes in a Mexican dry forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Carlos Almazán-Núñez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the seed dispersal of Bursera longipes by birds along a successional gradient of tropical dry forest (TDF in southwestern Mexico. B. longipes is an endemic tree to the TDF in the Balsas basin. The relative abundance of frugivorous birds, their frequency of visits to B. longipes and the number of removed fruits were recorded at three study sites with different stages of forest succession (early, intermediate and mature characterized by distinct floristic and structural elements. Flycatchers of the Myiarchus and Tyrannus genera removed the majority of fruits at each site. Overall, visits to B. longipes were less frequent at the early successional site. Birds that function as legitimate dispersers by consuming whole seeds and regurgitating or defecating intact seeds in the process also remove the pseudoaril from seeds, thereby facilitating the germination process. The highest germination percentages were recorded for seeds that passed through the digestive system of two migratory flycatchers: M. cinerascens and M. nutingii. Perch plants, mainly composed of legumes (e.g., Eysenhardtia polystachya, Acacia cochliacantha, Calliandra eryophylla, Mimosa polyantha, serve also as nurse plants since the number of young individuals recruited from B. longipes was higher under these than expected by chance. This study shows that Myiarchus flycatchers are the most efficient seed dispersers of B. longipes across all successional stages. This suggests a close mutualistic relationship derived from adaptive processes and local specializations throughout the distribution of both taxa, as supported by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution.

  12. Survivorship across the annual cycle of a migratory passerine, the willow flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben; Durst, Scott L; Sogge, Mark K.; Koronkiewicz, Thomas J.; Paxton, Kristina L.

    2017-01-01

    Annual survivorship in migratory birds is a product of survival across the different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. breeding, wintering, and migration), and may vary substantially among these periods. Determining which periods have the highest mortality, and thus are potentially limiting a population, is important especially for species of conservation concern. To estimate survival probabilities of the willow flycatcher Empidonax traillii in each of the different periods, we combined demographic data from a 10-year breeding season study with that from a 5-year wintering grounds study. Estimates of annual apparent survival for breeding and wintering periods were nearly identical (65–66%), as were estimates of monthly apparent survival for both breeding and wintering stationary periods (98–99%). Because flycatchers spend at least half the year on the wintering grounds, overall apparent survivorship was lower (88%) on the wintering grounds than on the breeding grounds (97%). The migratory period had the highest mortality rate, accounting for 62% of the estimated annual mortality even though it comprises only one quarter or less of the annual cycle. The migratory period in the willow flycatcher and many other neotropical migrants is poorly understood, and further research is needed to identify sources of mortality during this crucial period.

  13. Propulsion Induced Effects (PIE) Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Won, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    The Propulsion Induced Effects (PIE) test program is being lead by NASA Ames for Configuration Aerodynamics (CA). Representatives from CA, Technology Integration (TI), Inlet, and the Nozzle ITD's are working with Ames in defining and executing this test program. The objective of the CA 4-14 milestone is to assess the propulsion/airframe integration characteristics of the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) and design variations using computational and experimental methods. The experimental aspect includes static calibrations, transonic and supersonic wind tunnel testing. The test program will generate a comprehensive database that will include all appropriate wind tunnel corrections, with emphasis placed on establishing the propulsion induced effects on the flight performance of the TCA.

  14. 49 CFR 40.377 - Who decides whether to issue a PIE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who decides whether to issue a PIE? 40.377 Section... a PIE? (a) The ODAPC Director, or his or her designee, decides whether to issue a PIE. If a designee... determination about whether to start a PIE proceeding. (c) There is a “firewall” between the initiating...

  15. 49 CFR 40.379 - How do you contest the issuance of a PIE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do you contest the issuance of a PIE? 40.379... issuance of a PIE? (a) If you receive a NOPE, you may contest the issuance of the PIE. (b) If you want to contest the proposed PIE, you must provide the Director information and argument in opposition to...

  16. 49 CFR 40.363 - On what basis may the Department issue a PIE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On what basis may the Department issue a PIE? 40... the Department issue a PIE? (a) If you are a service agent, the Department may issue a PIE concerning... also may issue a PIE if you have failed to cooperate with DOT agency representatives...

  17. A habitat overlap analysis derived from Maxent for Tamarisk and the South-western Willow Flycatcher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia YORK; Paul EVANGELISTA; Sunil KUMAR; James GRAHAM; Curtis FLATHER; Thomas STOHLGREN

    2011-01-01

    Biologic control of the introduced and invasive,woody plant tamarisk (Tamarix spp,saltcedar) in south-western states is controversial because it affects habitat of the federally endangered South-western Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus).These songbirds sometimes nest in tamarisk where floodplain-level invasion replaces native habitats.Biologic control,with the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongate),began along the Virgin River,Utah,in 2006,enhancing the need for comprehensive understanding of the tamarisk-flycatcherrelationship.We used maximum entropy (Maxent) modeling to separately quantify the current extent of dense tamarisk habitat ( > 50% cover) and the potential extent of habitat available for E.traillii extimus within the studied watersheds.We used transformations of 2008 Landsat Thematic Mapper images and a digital elevation model as environmental input variables.Maxent models performed well for the flycatcher and tamarisk with Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) values of 0.960 and 0.982,respectively.Classification of thresholds and comparison of the two Maxent outputs indicated moderate spatial overlap between predicted suitable habitat for E.traillii extimus and predicted locations with dense tamarisk stands,where flycatcher habitat will potentially change flycatcher habitats.Dense tamarisk habitat comprised 500 km2 within the study area,of which 11.4% was also modeled as potential habitat for E.traillii extimus.Potential habitat modeled for the flycatcher constituted 190 km2,of which 30.7% also contained dense tamarisk habitat.Results showed that both native vegetation and dense tamarisk habitats exist in the study area and that most tamarisk infestations do not contain characteristics that satisfy the habitat requirements of E.traillii extimus.Based on this study,effective biologic control of Tamarix spp.may,in the short term,reduce suitable habitat available to E.traillii extimus,but also has the potential in the long term to increase

  18. Procedimientos de inducción emocional (PIEs), PIES en niños y en TICs

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Treball de Final de Màster Universitari en Psicopatologia, Salut i Neuropsicologia. Codi: SAL132. Curs acadèmic 2013-2014 El propósito de este trabajo es revisar la literatura que hay sobre los procedimientos de inducción emocional (PIEs). En concreto haremos una breve revisión sobre los PIEs que se han utilizado hasta el momento, centrándonos después en los PIEs utilizados en población infantil y los que han incorporado en tecnologías de última generación.

  19. Síndrome del Pie Diabético

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Bezanilla, Belén

    2014-01-01

    En la actualidad la diabetes mellitus constituye uno de los problemas más importantes de salud, siendo el pilar principal para que una persona padezca pie diabético. Si a esto sumamos la neuropatía, arteriopatía e infección, factores de riesgo principales de aparición de úlceras y lesiones en el pie, es muy probable que se desarrollen ciertas lesiones que den lugar al pie diabético. Teniendo en cuenta el gran número de ingresos que están detrás del pie diabético y los altos costes derivados d...

  20. Síndrome del Pie Diabético

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Bezanilla, Belén

    2014-01-01

    En la actualidad la diabetes mellitus constituye uno de los problemas más importantes de salud, siendo el pilar principal para que una persona padezca pie diabético. Si a esto sumamos la neuropatía, arteriopatía e infección, factores de riesgo principales de aparición de úlceras y lesiones en el pie, es muy probable que se desarrollen ciertas lesiones que den lugar al pie diabético. Teniendo en cuenta el gran número de ingresos que están detrás del pie diabético y los altos costes derivados d...

  1. Costs and benefits of early reproduction: Haemoproteus prevalence and reproductive success of infected male pied flycatchers in a montane habitat in central Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castaneda, R.R.; Morales, J.; Moreno, J.; Lobato, E.; Merino, S.; Martínez-de la Puente, J.; Tomas Gutierrez, G.

    2009-01-01

    Laying date is a key factor in avian reproductive ecology. Benefits of early breeding are important in terms of reproductive output. Costs are mainly associated to weather adversities at early stages of the breeding season. As males arrive earlier than females, they may face these weather adversitie

  2. 454 sequencing reveals extreme complexity of the class II Major Histocompatibility Complex in the collared flycatcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Lars

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of their functional significance, the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class I and II genes have been the subject of continuous interest in the fields of ecology, evolution and conservation. In some vertebrate groups MHC consists of multiple loci with similar alleles; therefore, the multiple loci must be genotyped simultaneously. In such complex systems, understanding of the evolutionary patterns and their causes has been limited due to challenges posed by genotyping. Results Here we used 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize MHC class IIB exon 2 variation in the collared flycatcher, an important organism in evolutionary and immuno-ecological studies. On the basis of over 152,000 sequencing reads we identified 194 putative alleles in 237 individuals. We found an extreme complexity of the MHC class IIB in the collared flycatchers, with our estimates pointing to the presence of at least nine expressed loci and a large, though difficult to estimate precisely, number of pseudogene loci. Many similar alleles occurred in the pseudogenes indicating either a series of recent duplications or extensive concerted evolution. The expressed alleles showed unambiguous signals of historical selection and the occurrence of apparent interlocus exchange of alleles. Placing the collared flycatcher's MHC sequences in the context of passerine diversity revealed transspecific MHC class II evolution within the Muscicapidae family. Conclusions 454 amplicon sequencing is an effective tool for advancing our understanding of the MHC class II structure and evolutionary patterns in Passeriformes. We found a highly dynamic pattern of evolution of MHC class IIB genes with strong signals of selection and pronounced sequence divergence in expressed genes, in contrast to the apparent sequence homogenization in pseudogenes. We show that next generation sequencing offers a universal, affordable method for the characterization and, in perspective

  3. Are nest sites actively chosen? Testing a common assumption for three non-resource limited birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, A. E.; Elliot, S. L.; Hart, A. G.

    2009-09-01

    Many widely-accepted ecological concepts are simplified assumptions about complex situations that remain largely untested. One example is the assumption that nest-building species choose nest sites actively when they are not resource limited. This assumption has seen little direct empirical testing: most studies on nest-site selection simply assume that sites are chosen actively (and seek explanations for such behaviour) without considering that sites may be selected randomly. We used 15 years of data from a nestbox scheme in the UK to test the assumption of active nest-site choice in three cavity-nesting bird species that differ in breeding and migratory strategy: blue tit ( Cyanistes caeruleus), great tit ( Parus major) and pied flycatcher ( Ficedula hypoleuca). Nest-site selection was non-random (implying active nest-site choice) for blue and great tits, but not for pied flycatchers. We also considered the relative importance of year-specific and site-specific factors in determining occupation of nest sites. Site-specific factors were more important than year-specific factors for the tit species, while the reverse was true for pied flycatchers. Our results show that nest-site selection, in birds at least, is not always the result of active choice, such that choice should not be assumed automatically in studies of nesting behaviour. We use this example to highlight the need to test key ecological assumptions empirically, and the importance of doing so across taxa rather than for single "model" species.

  4. Preliminary Risk Assessment of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Gonzales, G.J.; Bennett, K.D.; Mullen, M.A.; Foxx, T.S.

    1998-10-01

    The southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is the fourth threatened or endangered species to undergo a preliminary assessment for estimating potential risk from environmental contaminants at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The assessments are being conducted as part of a three-year project to develop a habitat management plan for threatened and endangered species and species of concern at the Laboratory. For the preliminary assessment, estimated doses were compared against toxicity reference values to generate hazard indices (HIs). This assessment included a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants (radionuclides, metals, and organic chemicals) to 100 simulated nest sites located within flycatcher potential habitat. Sources of contaminant values were 10,000-ft{sup 2} grid cells within an Ecological Exposure Unit (EEU). This EEU was estimated around the potential habitat and was based on the maximum home range for the fly catcher identified in the scientific literature. The tools used included a custom FORTRAN program, ECORSK5, and a geographic information system. Food consumption and soil ingestion contaminant pathways were addressed in the assessment. Using a four-category risk evaluation, HI results indicate no appreciable impact is expected to the southwestern willow flycatcher. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, flycatcher habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain low levels of risk from contaminants.

  5. Test requirement for PIE of HANARO irradiated fuel rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, I. C.; Cho, Y. G

    2000-06-01

    Since the first criticality of HANARO reached in Feb. of 1995, the rod type U{sub 3}Si-A1 fuel imported from AECL has been used. From the under-water fuel inspection which has been conducted since 1997, a ballooning-rupture type abnormality was observed in several fuel rods. In order to find the root cause of this abnormality and to find the resolution, the post irradiation examination(PIE) was proposed as the best way. In this document, the information from the under-water inspection as well as the PIE requirements are described. Based on the information in this document, a detail test plan will be developed by the project team who shall conduct the PIE.

  6. Percutaneous quadriceps tendon pie-crusting release of extension contracture of the knee

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, H X; Wen, H; Hu, Y Z; Yu, H C; Pan, X Y

    2014-01-01

    ...: percutaneous quadriceps tendon pie-crusting release. Percutaneous pie-crusting release was performed using an 18-gauge needle to puncture the stiff fibrous band of the distal and lateral quadriceps tendon under maximum knee flexion...

  7. Solución Oportuna de Pie Plano

    OpenAIRE

    Espol; Tabares Cedeno, Maria Veronica; Ribadeneira Coloma, Betsy Evelyn; Zurita Aviles, Salomon Efrain

    2015-01-01

    Proponer una nueva técnica, donde se obtenga como beneficio la reparación definitiva de una lesion muy común como es el pie plano flexible y al mismo tiempo consolidar una empresa rentable y que genere valor ala sociedad el indice de prevalencia con diagnóstico de pie plano en el Ecuador es la especialidad de traumatología presentan este tipo de lesión. Guayaquil Magíster en Gerencia Hospitalaria

  8. El pie en la danza clásica_

    OpenAIRE

    Nuria Massó Ortigosa.

    2010-01-01

    La danza es una forma de lenguaje que utiliza como instrumento al propio cuerpo, y su práctica continuada genera cambios y adaptaciones debidas a las altas exigencias de esta actividad. En este artículo se analizan las demandas, patologías y exigencias osteo-musculares del pie en la danza clásica. Para ello se ha partido del análisis de las estructuras del pie en distintas posiciones técnicas como la punta, media punta, o el “en dehors”. Como consecuencia de estas demandas de esfuerzo, se obs...

  9. La ortopodología en el pie de riesgo (1ª Parte)

    OpenAIRE

    Dorca Coll, Adelina; Céspedes Céspedes, Tomás; Concustell Gonfaus, Josep; Cuevas Gómez, Rafael; Sacristán Valero, Sergi

    1994-01-01

    Los autores definen por primera vez el concepto de 'pie de riesgo' y ofrecen diferentes alternativas podológicas para prevenir lesiones en el pie y en el supuesto de que estas lesiones estén establecidas, presentan tratamientos ortésicos que equilibren el pie y eviten mayores cambios degenerativos.

  10. Personalized Information Environments: Do Public Libraries Want a Slice of the PIE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Lea

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of personalized information environments (PIEs) focuses on library personalized interfaces. Describes academic library PIEs and commercial sites, such as Amazon.com that use personalization; explores the Public Library of Charlotte and Mecklenburg's personalized interface; and discusses opportunities and challenges PIEs offer public…

  11. 49 CFR 40.395 - Can you settle a PIE proceeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can you settle a PIE proceeding? 40.395 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.395 Can you settle a PIE proceeding... concurrence, settle a PIE proceeding....

  12. 49 CFR 40.397 - When does the Director make a PIE decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When does the Director make a PIE decision? 40.397... a PIE decision? The Director makes his or her decision within 60 days of the date when the record of a PIE proceeding is complete (including any meeting with the Director and any additional...

  13. 49 CFR 40.375 - How does the initiating official start a PIE proceeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does the initiating official start a PIE... initiating official start a PIE proceeding? (a) As a service agent, if your compliance matter is not... initiating official starts a PIE proceeding by sending you a notice of proposed exclusion (NOPE). The...

  14. 49 CFR 40.383 - What procedures apply if you contest the issuance of a PIE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What procedures apply if you contest the issuance of a PIE? 40.383 Section 40.383 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... What procedures apply if you contest the issuance of a PIE? (a) DOT conducts PIE proceedings in a...

  15. 49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding? 40.385 Section 40.385 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... burden of proof in a PIE proceeding? (a) As the proponent of issuing a PIE, the initiating official...

  16. 49 CFR 40.409 - What does the issuance of a PIE mean to transportation employers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does the issuance of a PIE mean to... What does the issuance of a PIE mean to transportation employers? (a) As an employer, you are deemed to have notice of the issuance of a PIE when it appears on the List mentioned in § 40.401(a) or the...

  17. Geographic variation in the plumage coloration of willow flycatchers Empidonax traillii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Sogge, Mark K.; Koronkiewicz, Thomas J.; McLeod, Mary Anne; Theimer, Tad C.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to identify distinct taxonomic groups of birds (species, subspecies, geographic races) can advance ecological research efforts by determining connectivity between the non-breeding and breeding grounds for migrant species, identifying the origin of migrants, and helping to refine boundaries between subspecies or geographic races. Multiple methods are available to identify taxonomic groups (e.g., morphology, genetics), and one that has played an important role for avian taxonomists over the years is plumage coloration. With the advent of electronic devices that can quickly and accurately quantify plumage coloration, the potential of using coloration as an identifier for distinct taxonomic groups, even when differences are subtle, becomes possible. In this study, we evaluated the degree to which plumage coloration differs among the four subspecies of the willow flycatcher Empidonax traillii, evaluated sources of variation, and considered the utility of plumage coloration to assign subspecies membership for individuals of unknown origin. We used a colorimeter to measure plumage coloration of 374 adult willow flycatchers from 29 locations across their breeding range in 2004 and 2005. We found strong statistical differences among the mean plumage coloration values of the four subspecies; however, while individuals tended to group around their respective subspecies' mean color value, the dispersion of individuals around such means overlapped. Mean color values for each breeding site of the three western subspecies clustered together, but the eastern subspecies' color values were dispersed among the other subspecies, rather than distinctly clustered. Additionally, sites along boundaries showed evidence of intergradation and intermediate coloration patterns. We evaluated the predictive power of colorimeter measurements on flycatchers by constructing a canonical discriminant model to predict subspecies origin of migrants passing through the southwestern U

  18. Does nest site availability limit the density of hole nesting birds in small woodland patches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Loman

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available By providing nest boxes, previous studies have shown that nest sites are in short supply and limit the populations of several small passerines, including the Great Tit Parus major, the Blue Tit P. caeruleus, and the Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca. Can this influence their distribution over a range of small woodland patch sizes in a heterogeneous landscape? To investigate this, a study was conducted in a heterogeneous agricultural landscape, with a mixture of wooded patches and cropped fields, in southern Sweden. The descriptive part of the study involved mapping territories of the three species in 135 patches. These species avoided small (<1 ha, Pied Flycatcher or very small (<0.2 ha, the two tit species forest patches in this landscape. In an experimental part, a subset of 34 patches, 0.01 to 24 ha in size was used. Territories were mapped in a first year as a control. In a second year, patches were matched by size and vegetation and nest-boxes were provided in one patch of each pair. Territories were again mapped. Providing nestboxes increased the density of breeding Great Tits in patches of all sizes and expanded their use of very small patches. The nest-boxes increased the density of Pied Flycatchers in large patches but not in small patches. So, is the lack of territories in small patches due to shortage of nest sites? The outcome of the experiment suggests nest site limitation as a cause of the observed Great Tit discrimination against very small habitat patches. The lack of Pied Flycatchers in small patches must however have another basis than lack of nest sites. The effect of providing nest-boxes on Blue Tit distribution was inconclusive.

  19. El pie en la danza clásica_

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Massó Ortigosa.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available La danza es una forma de lenguaje que utiliza como instrumento al propio cuerpo, y su práctica continuada genera cambios y adaptaciones debidas a las altas exigencias de esta actividad. En este artículo se analizan las demandas, patologías y exigencias osteo-musculares del pie en la danza clásica. Para ello se ha partido del análisis de las estructuras del pie en distintas posiciones técnicas como la punta, media punta, o el “en dehors”. Como consecuencia de estas demandas de esfuerzo, se observa que una alta proporción de bailarines/as presenta alteraciones en el pie como hallux valgus y dedos en garra. También se ha estudiado la implicación en las técnicas básicas del pie de danza clásica de los músculos tríceps sural, peroneo lateral largo, tibial posterior, flexor largo y flexor corto del dedo gordo, tibial anterior, extensor propio del dedo gordo, abductor del dedo gordo, así como la musculatura interósea y plantar.

  20. Shelf life of pie caps with biodegradable films as spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Verónica Escobar Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commonly pie caps at market use polyethylene films as spacers between them. This paper studies the conventional spacers replacement with edible and biodegradable films made with whey protein isolate (WPI and potassium sorbate as a preservative. Besides facilitating the separation of pie caps, with this application is intended to increase their shelf life. The films made by the compression molding method were used as spacers in pie caps without preservative in their formula (A and with preservative (B and they were compared with conventional polyethylene spacers (C. During four months, monthly sensory, microbiological and physicochemical (humidity evaluations were done on the pie caps, together with humidity and solubility evaluations of the films. None of the samples showed microbiological or sensory deterioration. The sensory attributes showed no or slight difference in study time. Between samples the differences were minor: the best scores were for sample A in color, sample C in flavor, and samples B and C in texture and overall liking. The edible films have an interesting potential for this application, although studies in disguise the flavor of serum should be done.

  1. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  2. Two-Person Pie-Cutting: The Fairest Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbanel, Julius B.; Brams, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Barbanel, Brams, and Stromquist (in 2009) asked whether there exists a two-person moving-knife procedure that yields an envy-free, undominated, and equitable division of a pie. We present two procedures: One yields an envy-free, almost undominated, and almost equitable allocation, whereas the second yields an allocation with the two "almost"…

  3. PIE results on MOX fuel irradiated in MIHAMA Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamate, K. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan). Mihama Power Station; Abeta, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. (Japan); Kosaka, Y. [Nuclear Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Abe, Y. [Japan Atomic Power Co. (Japan); Kuwahara, H. [Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the results of the post-irradiation examination (PIE) on the MOX fuel rods irradiated in the Japanese commercial PWR, MIHAMA Unit 1. The objective of the PIE is not only to confirm the fuel integrity but also to build up the irradiation data base for MOX fuel design. After three cycles irradiation up to the assembly burnup of 23 GWd/t, they were examined at the site and further PIE was carried out on eight MOX fuel rods at a hot laboratory. The non-destructive test results of PIE proved the integrity of the MOX fuel rods up to the burnup of about 25GWd/t, and revealed the similar irradiation behaviour of dimensional change with the standards UO{sub 2} fuel rods. Results of the following destructive tests also revealed the similar irradiation behaviour of FGR, fuel pellet dimensional change and cladding oxidation with the standard UO{sub 2} fuel, and confirmed no abnormality in microstructure changes of fuel pellets. (author).

  4. The Cassini Solstice Mission: Streamlining Operations by Sequencing with PIEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermey, Nancy; Alonge, Eleanor K.; Magee, Kari; Heventhal, William

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Solstice Mission (CSM) is the second extended mission phase of the highly successful Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn. Conducted at a much-reduced funding level, operations for the CSM have been streamlined and simplified significantly. Integration of the science timeline, which involves allocating observation time in a balanced manner to each of the five different science disciplines (with representatives from the twelve different science instruments), has long been a labor-intensive endeavor. Lessons learned from the prime mission (2004-2008) and first extended mission (Equinox mission, 2008-2010) were utilized to design a new process involving PIEs (Pre-Integrated Events) to ensure the highest priority observations for each discipline could be accomplished despite reduced work force and overall simplification of processes. Discipline-level PIE lists were managed by the Science Planning team and graphically mapped to aid timeline deconfliction meetings prior to assigning discrete segments of time to the various disciplines. Periapse segments are generally discipline-focused, with the exception of a handful of PIEs. In addition to all PIEs being documented in a spreadsheet, allocated out-of-discipline PIEs were entered into the Cassini Information Management System (CIMS) well in advance of timeline integration. The disciplines were then free to work the rest of the timeline internally, without the need for frequent interaction, debate, and negotiation with representatives from other disciplines. As a result, the number of integration meetings has been cut back extensively, freeing up workforce. The sequence implementation process was streamlined as well, combining two previous processes (and teams) into one. The new Sequence Implementation Process (SIP) schedules 22 weeks to build each 10-week-long sequence, and only 3 sequence processes overlap. This differs significantly from prime mission during which 5-week-long sequences were built in 24 weeks

  5. The Cassini Solstice Mission: Streamlining Operations by Sequencing with PIEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermey, Nancy; Alonge, Eleanor K.; Magee, Kari; Heventhal, William

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Solstice Mission (CSM) is the second extended mission phase of the highly successful Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn. Conducted at a much-reduced funding level, operations for the CSM have been streamlined and simplified significantly. Integration of the science timeline, which involves allocating observation time in a balanced manner to each of the five different science disciplines (with representatives from the twelve different science instruments), has long been a labor-intensive endeavor. Lessons learned from the prime mission (2004-2008) and first extended mission (Equinox mission, 2008-2010) were utilized to design a new process involving PIEs (Pre-Integrated Events) to ensure the highest priority observations for each discipline could be accomplished despite reduced work force and overall simplification of processes. Discipline-level PIE lists were managed by the Science Planning team and graphically mapped to aid timeline deconfliction meetings prior to assigning discrete segments of time to the various disciplines. Periapse segments are generally discipline-focused, with the exception of a handful of PIEs. In addition to all PIEs being documented in a spreadsheet, allocated out-of-discipline PIEs were entered into the Cassini Information Management System (CIMS) well in advance of timeline integration. The disciplines were then free to work the rest of the timeline internally, without the need for frequent interaction, debate, and negotiation with representatives from other disciplines. As a result, the number of integration meetings has been cut back extensively, freeing up workforce. The sequence implementation process was streamlined as well, combining two previous processes (and teams) into one. The new Sequence Implementation Process (SIP) schedules 22 weeks to build each 10-week-long sequence, and only 3 sequence processes overlap. This differs significantly from prime mission during which 5-week-long sequences were built in 24 weeks

  6. Winter behavior and ecology of the Alder Flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum) in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    The winter ecology and behavior of Alder Flycatchers (Empidonax alnorum) were studied along the Manu, a white-water meander river in Manu National Park, Madre de Dios, Peru during October and November, 1993 to 1997. The birds occupied territories in primary-succession habitats on growing point bars. They were most common in mixed stands of Tessaria integrifolia (Asteraceae) and Gynerium sagittatum (Gramineaceae) interspersed with bare sand areas. The uneven height of the Tessaria canopy, which resulted in openings in the vegetation large enough for the birds to flycatch, was an important habitat feature. Birds obtained insects, which formed about 96% of the diet, by aerial hawking (91%), perch gleaning (6%), and hover gleaning (3%). They also fed on fruit. Territory sizes ranged from 0.04 to 0.25 ha. Of nine territories that we observed closely, six were occupied by two birds each, two by one bird each, and one by three birds. Every territory had one dominant individual who was primarily responsible for territory defense; the other birds were associates. Vocalizations given included the fee-bee-o song, a two-syllable song, and the pit note, which are also given on the breeding grounds. A series of pits given increasingly rapidly signaled a territorial interaction. In aggressive encounters, the birds (1) interacted vocally, remaining on their territories and counter calling or exchanging agitated calls; (2) moved toward a common territorial boundary and engaged in a vocal duel; or (3) the dominant chased intruders out of the territory. Chases were most common when a wave of new birds entered the area. Dominant birds, which sang the full song, were probably adult males. Immature males do not sing a full song, and females are not known to sing in nature. Associate individuals were likely females or young males.

  7. 49 CFR 40.407 - May a service agent ask to have a PIE reduced or terminated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a service agent ask to have a PIE reduced or... agent ask to have a PIE reduced or terminated? (a) Yes, as a service agent concerning whom the Department has issued a PIE, you may request that the Director terminate a PIE or reduce its duration...

  8. Winter distribution of willow flycatcher subspecies (Distribución Invernal de las Subespecies de Empidonax traillii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Unitt, Philip; Sogge, Mark K.; Whitfield, Mary; Keim, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Documenting how different regions across a species' breeding and nonbreeding range are linked via migratory movements is the first step in understanding how events in one region can influence events in others and is critical to identifying conservation threats throughout a migratory animal's annual cycle. We combined two studies that evaluated migratory connectivity in the Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii), one using mitochondrial DNA sequences from 172 flycatchers sampled throughout their winter range, and another which examined morphological characteristics of 68 museum specimens collected in the winter range. Our results indicate that the four subspecies occupy distinct but overlapping regions of the winter range. Connectivity between specific breeding and winter grounds appears to be moderate to strong, with distributions that suggest migration patterns of both the chain and leap-frog types connecting the breeding and nonbreeding grounds. The Pacific lowlands of Costa Rica appear to be a key winter location for the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (E. t. extimus), although other countries in Central America may also be important for the subspecies.

  9. Development of PIE techniques for irradiated LWR pressure vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, Masahiro; Kizaki, Minoru; Sukegawa, Tomohide [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-09-01

    For the evaluation of safety and integrity of light water reactors (LWRs), various post irradiation examinations (PIEs) of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels and fuel claddings have been carried out in the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL). In recent years, the instrumented Charpy impact testing machine was remodeled aiming at the improvement of accuracy and reliability. By this remodeling, absorbed energy and other useful information on impact properties can be delivered from the force-displacement curve for the evaluation of neutron irradiation embrittlement behavior of LWR-RPV steels at one-time striking. In addition, two advanced PIE technologies are now under development. One is the remote machining of mechanical test pieces from actual irradiated pressure vessel steels. The other is development of low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue test technology in order to clarify the post-irradiation fatigue characteristics of structural and fuel cladding materials. (author)

  10. The outcome of PIE *#Hi- and *#Hu- in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard

    2015-01-01

    It has been established with a great amount of certainty that PIE *#Hu- > Gr. #Vὐ- and that PIE *#Hi- > Gr. #ἰ-. It still remains to be demonstrated what happens in other Western Indo-European branches, including Germanic. In this article , I reject the statement by Ringe (1988: 433) that PIE *#H...... tentatively propose that PG *#au- > PG *#u- when followed by a labial consonant; a development partially paralleled in Greek and in English....

  11. The outcome of PIE *#Hi- and *#Hu- in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard

    2015-01-01

    It has been established with a great amount of certainty that PIE *#Hu- > Gr. #Vὐ- and that PIE *#Hi- > Gr. #ἰ-. It still remains to be demonstrated what happens in other Western Indo-European branches, including Germanic. In this article , I reject the statement by Ringe (1988: 433) that PIE *#H...... tentatively propose that PG *#au- > PG *#u- when followed by a labial consonant; a development partially paralleled in Greek and in English....

  12. Actividades de prevencion del pie diabetico en pacientes de consulta externa de primer nivel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pinilla, Analida E; Sanchez, Ana L; Mejia, Arturo; del Pilar Barrera, Maria

    2011-01-01

    ...; muestra ponderada, por conveniencia, 307 pacientes diabeticos mayores de 18 anos. Palabras Clave: Pie diabetico, prevencion, Diabetes mellitus, neuropatias diabeticas, claudicacion Intermitente, habitos alimenticios...

  13. OpenMP for 3D potential boundary value problems solved by PIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    KuŻelewski, Andrzej; Zieniuk, Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is examination of an application of modern parallel computing technique OpenMP to speed up the calculation in the numerical solution of parametric integral equations systems (PIES). The authors noticed, that solving more complex boundary problems by PIES sometimes requires large computing time. This paper presents the use of OpenMP and fast C++ linear algebra library Armadillo for boundary value problems modelled by 3D Laplace's equation and solved using PIES. The testing example shows that the use of mentioned technologies significantly increases speed of calculations in PIES.

  14. RetroPie-projekti : Emulointiaseman konfigurointi ja käyttöönotto

    OpenAIRE

    Räsänen, Eero

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli tutustua Raspberry Pi:lle tehtyyn RetroPie-projektiin, sekä sen konfigurointiin ja käyttöönottoon. Työssä esitellään itse RetroPie-projekti, sen toteuttamiseen tarvittavat ohjelmat ja laitteet, sekä kerrotaan "How to" -näkökulmasta projektin toteuttaminen. Projektia voidaan muokata haluamalla tavalla, mutta tähän on sisällytetty oma näkemykseni parhaasta mahdollisesta RetroPie-projektista ja sen sisällöstä. RetroPie-projekti mahdollistaa helpon tavan asentaa yli ...

  15. 白眉姬鹟繁殖行为观察试验%Observation Experiment on the Reproductive Behavior of Ficedula zanthopygia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘卓; 李辉; 潘小艳; 袁德军

    2016-01-01

    Ficedula zanthopygia is a summer migrant broadly distributed in northeast China , North China,East China and Central China .The re-productive situations of a nest of F.zanthopygia in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve of Henan Province were observed from middle May to early June in 2015.The first egg of the nest was laid on May 16 and the clutch size was five.Eggs were incubated by female birds with the average dura-tion of each incubation of (6.1 ±3.8) min,and the time of leaving nest was (5.5 ±2.0) min.When nestlings were about 4 days old, the feeding frequency of parent birds was 22.5 times per hour and the feeding frequency of male parent was higher than that of female parent .This re-search is the first report on the reproduction of F.zanthopygia in Central China, which can provide helpful supplements for the reproduction data of F.zanthopygia.%白眉姬鹟(Ficedula zanthopygia)是一种广布于我国东北、华北、华东和华中地区的夏候鸟。2015年5月中旬至6月初,对河南董寨国家级自然保护区1巢白眉姬鹟的繁殖情况进行了观察,发现该巢白眉姬鹟5月16日产卵,窝卵数为5枚,孵卵主要由雌鸟承担,每次孵卵时间为(6.1±3.8) min,平均离巢时间为(5.5±2.0) min。在雏鸟约4日龄时,亲鸟的喂食频率为22.5次/h,但雄鸟的喂食频率高于雌鸟。该研究是对白眉姬鹟在我国华中地区繁殖资料的首次报道,可为白眉姬鹟繁殖资料提供有益补充。

  16. Assessment of the Microbiological Quality of Meat Pies from Retail Sale in England 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLauchlin, Jim; Aird, Heather; Charlett, Andre; Elviss, Nicola; Fox, Andrew; Kaye, Moira; Willis, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Outbreaks of foodborne illness caused by Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes in England associated with meat pie consumption were detected in 2012. To obtain baseline data for pies unrelated to outbreaks, 862 samples of ready-to-eat meat pies were collected at retail or from catering facilities in England in 2013 and examined to enumerate food-poisoning bacteria and indicator organisms using Organization for Standardization (ISO) methods for Listeria spp. including L. monocytogenes (ISO 11290), Clostridium perfringens (ISO 21528), coagulase-positive staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus (ISO 6888), Bacillus spp. including B. cereus (ISO 1737), Escherichia coli (ISO 16649), Enterobacteriaceae (ISO 21528), and aerobic colony counts (ACCs; ISO 4833). Microbiological quality was satisfactory in 94% of samples, borderline in 5%, and unsatisfactory in 1%. The proportion of pies from markets that were borderline or unsatisfactory significantly increased, and the proportion of borderline or unsatisfactory pies from supermarkets significantly decreased. Among the refrigerated (0 to 15°C) pies, microbiological quality significantly decreased in pies stored at >8°C and further significantly decreased at in pies stored at ambient temperature (>15 to 25°C). Samples collected at 25 to 40°C had the highest proportion of borderline or unsatisfactory results, but results improved in pies stored at >40°C. The most common cause for borderline or unsatisfactory results was elevated ACCs (5% of all samples). Within the individual microbiological parameters, borderline or unsatisfactory results resulted from elevated Enterobacteriaceae or Bacillus levels (10 samples for each), C. perfringens levels (2 samples), and S. aureus or E. coli levels (1 sample each). L. monocytogenes was recovered from one pie at <10 CFU/g. A literature review revealed a range of microbiological hazards responsible for food poisoning and meat pie consumption, and surveillance data from 1992

  17. Pie equino varo post-traumático

    OpenAIRE

    Sacristán Valero, Sergi; Concustell Gonfaus, Josep; Cuevas Gómez, Rafael; Velilla Muixí, Teresa

    1991-01-01

    Paciente V. 59 años, hace 30 años sufrió un accidente laboral con sección total del nervio ciático mayor, a consecuencia del cual perdió toda movilidad en las extremidad derecha, fue intervenido varias veces, hasta la artrodesis fija total del tarso posterior y anterior, dismetría de 3, 5 cm. El motivo de la consulta es la persistencia de algias generalizas en el pie afecto y relata el fracaso de todos los tratamientos efectuados hasta la actualidad. Apreciamos un trastorno general del equili...

  18. New quill mites (Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae) parasitizing the black-headed paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone rufiventer (Passeriformes: Monarchidae) in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowska, Eliza; Schmidt, Brian K

    2014-04-08

    A new genus of quill mites (Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae) and two new species Pipicobia terpsiphoni gen. nov. and sp. nov. and Syringophiloidus furthi sp. nov. parasitizing the black-headed paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone rufiventer (Swainson) (Passeriformes: Monarchidae) in Gabon are described. Three species of the Neopicobia Skoracki, 2011 are moved to the newly established genus: Pipicobia locustella (Skoracki, Bochkov and Wauthy, 2004) comb. nov., Pipicobia pyrrholaemus (Skoracki and Glowska, 2008) comb.nov., and Pipicobia glossopsitta (Skoracki, Glowska and Sikora, 2008) comb.nov. Syringophilids are recorded on hosts of the family Monarchidae and in Gabon for the first time. A key to the genera of the subfamily Picobiinae is proposed.

  19. 49 CFR 40.405 - May the Federal courts review PIE decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May the Federal courts review PIE decisions? 40.405 Section 40.405 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... courts review PIE decisions? The Director's decision is a final administrative action of the...

  20. Harnessing the Internet for International Exchanges on Learning Cities: The Pie Experience 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) project was developed to facilitate online exchanges of information and experience between learning cities around the world and, in doing this, to test the potential of the internet to enable such low-cost exchanges. The author provides a personal assessment of the PIE experience over the three years 2011…

  1. 49 CFR 40.393 - How long does a PIE stay in effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How long does a PIE stay in effect? 40.393 Section... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.393 How long does a PIE stay in effect? (a) In the NOPE (see § 40.375(b)(5)), the initiating official proposes the duration of the...

  2. No Humble Pie: The Origins and Usage of a Statistical Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Ian

    2005-01-01

    William Playfair's pie chart is more than 200 years old and yet its intellectual origins remain obscure. The inspiration likely derived from the logic diagrams of Llull, Bruno, Leibniz, and Euler, which were familiar to William because of the instruction of his mathematician brother John. The pie chart is broadly popular but--despite its common…

  3. 49 CFR 40.387 - What matters does the Director decide concerning a proposed PIE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... proposed PIE? 40.387 Section 40.387 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... the Director decide concerning a proposed PIE? (a) Following the service agent's response (see § 40... from the service agent (see § 40.379(b)(1)) or on his or her own motion, the Director may dismiss a...

  4. PIE DIABÉTICO: ¿PODEMOS PREVENIRLO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Oriana Paiva M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La diabetes es una enfermedad epidémica, con más de 400 millones de personas diagnosticadas en la actualidad. Las úlceras del pie son una de las complicaciones crónicas más frecuentes de esta población, con un riesgo acumulado de desarrollarla a lo largo de la vida de 15%. La neuropatía y la enfermedad vascular son las principales causas de su aparición. Las amputaciones no traumáticas en diabéticos son 15 veces más frecuentes que en la población general, superando en 2 a 3 veces la tasa en hombres que en mujeres. El 80% se puede prevenir. La clave para ello incluye un examen periódico del pie a todo diabético al menos 1 vez al año, educación del paciente en autocuidado, para que logre identificar precozmente la aparición de lesiones evitando mayores complicaciones, un zapato adecuado y un buen control metabólico.

  5. Osteosarcoma de huesos del pie con alto grado de malignidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Martínez Milián

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El osteosarcoma es la neoplasia primaria del hueso más frecuente, los hombres son los más afectados en una relación 1,2 - 1,5 por cada mujer y con una tasa de mortalidad cercana a 0,15/100.000 habitantes/año. Se reporta el caso de una paciente femenina de 57 años de edad, con dolor, aumento de volumen e impotencia funcional de aproximadamente seis meses de evolución, los exámenes diagnósticos utilizados fueron radiografía de pie, tomografía axial computarizada de miembro inferior y biopsia de hueso. Se tuvo la confirmación diagnóstica de osteosarcoma de alto grado de malignidad por anatomía patológica. El tratamiento realizado fue quirúrgico, practicándose la amputación del miembro inferior, pudiendo así mejorar la supervivencia y extendiéndole la vida a la paciente. El motivo de la presentación del caso está dado por la poca frecuencia de este tipo de tumor óseo en los huesos del pie en pacientes femeninas

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Tool for Pork Pie Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Adam P; Morris, Robert H; Newton, Michael I

    2013-08-28

    The traditional British pork pie consists of roughly chopped pork cooked in a hot water pastry crust. Due to shrinkage of the meat during cooking, the gap formed around the meat is usually sealed using a gelatin based jelly to exclude air and thus help to preserve the pie. The properties of the jelly are such that it will ingress into the pastry crust causing undesirable softening. The jelly is traditionally produced by simmering pig trotters with seasoning for several hours. In this work we demonstrate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool for investigating the conditions required for producing jellies with different properties and present two examples of this use. Firstly we demonstrate that MRI can determine the ability of water to diffuse through the jelly which is critical in minimizing the amount of moisture moving from the jelly to the crust. Secondly, the impact of jelly temperature on the penetration length into the crust is investigated. These examples highlight the power of MRI as a tool for food assessment.

  7. Introducing a Framework for Physics Innovation and Entrepreneurship (PIE) Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughani, Bahram

    A desired outcome for Physics Innovation and Entrepreneurship (PIE) education is preparing physics majors with an innovative and entrepreneurial mindset who are capable of opportunity recognition and adept in leveraging physics knowledge to address specific needs. Physics as a discipline is well-recognized to prepare students who become problem solvers and critical thinkers, gifted in dealing with abstract ideas and ambiguities in the context of complex and real-world problems. These characteristics when enhanced through appropriate combinations of curricular, co-curricular, and extra-curricular programs can prepare physics majors for careers and future challenges that may involve translating physics knowledge into useful products and services either as part of a technical team within an organization or through startups. A viable PIE education model prepares graduates for various career paths in addition to the traditional options such as pursuing graduate studies or becoming a science teacher. Having a well-defined ``third option'' for physics will benefit the robustness of the physics discipline through recruitment and retention of prospective students who in principle are interested in physics as a subject, but in practice they may overlook physics as their preferred major primarily because they are uncertain about a viable career path based on an undergraduate physics education. The ''Pathways to Innovation'' at Loyola is established based on the program developed by VentureWell and Epicenter (NSF Supported).

  8. Habitat shifts in the evolutionary history of a Neotropical flycatcher lineage from forest and open landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheindt, Frank E; Christidis, Les; Norman, Janette A

    2008-07-07

    Little is known about the role ecological shifts play in the evolution of Neotropical radiations that have colonized a variety of environments. We here examine habitat shifts in the evolutionary history of Elaenia flycatchers, a Neotropical bird lineage that lives in a range of forest and open habitats. We evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, and then employ parsimony-based and Bayesian methods to reconstruct preferences for a number of habitat types and migratory behaviour throughout the evolutionary history of the genus. Using a molecular clock approach, we date the most important habitat shifts. Our analyses resolve phylogenetic relationships among Elaenia species and confirm several species associations predicted by morphology while furnishing support for other taxon placements that are in conflict with traditional classification, such as the elevation of various Elaenia taxa to species level. While savannah specialism is restricted to one basal clade within the genus, montane forest was invaded from open habitat only on a limited number of occasions. Riparian growth may have been favoured early on in the evolution of the main Elaenia clade and subsequently been deserted on several occasions. Austral long-distance migratory behaviour evolved on several occasions. Ancestral reconstructions of habitat preferences reveal pronounced differences not only in the timing of the emergence of certain habitat preferences, but also in the frequency of habitat shifts. The early origin of savannah specialism in Elaenia highlights the importance of this habitat in Neotropical Pliocene and late Miocene biogeography. While forest in old mountain ranges such as the Tepuis and the Brazilian Shield was colonized early on, the most important colonization event of montane forest was in conjunction with Pliocene Andean uplift. Riparian habitats may have played an important role in facilitating habitat shifts by

  9. Habitat shifts in the evolutionary history of a Neotropical flycatcher lineage from forest and open landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christidis Les

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the role ecological shifts play in the evolution of Neotropical radiations that have colonized a variety of environments. We here examine habitat shifts in the evolutionary history of Elaenia flycatchers, a Neotropical bird lineage that lives in a range of forest and open habitats. We evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, and then employ parsimony-based and Bayesian methods to reconstruct preferences for a number of habitat types and migratory behaviour throughout the evolutionary history of the genus. Using a molecular clock approach, we date the most important habitat shifts. Results Our analyses resolve phylogenetic relationships among Elaenia species and confirm several species associations predicted by morphology while furnishing support for other taxon placements that are in conflict with traditional classification, such as the elevation of various Elaenia taxa to species level. While savannah specialism is restricted to one basal clade within the genus, montane forest was invaded from open habitat only on a limited number of occasions. Riparian growth may have been favoured early on in the evolution of the main Elaenia clade and subsequently been deserted on several occasions. Austral long-distance migratory behaviour evolved on several occasions. Conclusion Ancestral reconstructions of habitat preferences reveal pronounced differences not only in the timing of the emergence of certain habitat preferences, but also in the frequency of habitat shifts. The early origin of savannah specialism in Elaenia highlights the importance of this habitat in Neotropical Pliocene and late Miocene biogeography. While forest in old mountain ranges such as the Tepuis and the Brazilian Shield was colonized early on, the most important colonization event of montane forest was in conjunction with Pliocene Andean uplift. Riparian habitats may have

  10. 49 CFR 40.373 - Before starting a PIE proceeding, does the initiating official give the service agent an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Before starting a PIE proceeding, does the... TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.373 Before starting a PIE proceeding, does the initiating... initiating official must send you a correction notice before starting a PIE proceeding. (b) The...

  11. 49 CFR 40.403 - Must a service agent notify its clients when the Department issues a PIE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Department issues a PIE? 40.403 Section 40.403 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... Must a service agent notify its clients when the Department issues a PIE? (a) As a service agent, if the Department issues a PIE concerning you, you must notify each of your DOT-regulated...

  12. 49 CFR 40.369 - What is the discretion of an initiating official in starting a PIE proceeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in starting a PIE proceeding? 40.369 Section 40.369 Transportation Office of the Secretary of... Exclusions § 40.369 What is the discretion of an initiating official in starting a PIE proceeding? (a) Initiating officials have broad discretion in deciding whether to start a PIE proceeding. (b) In...

  13. 49 CFR 40.381 - What information do you present to contest the proposed issuance of a PIE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... proposed issuance of a PIE? 40.381 Section 40.381 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... What information do you present to contest the proposed issuance of a PIE? (a) As a service agent who wants to contest a proposed PIE, you must present at least the following information to the Director:...

  14. 49 CFR 40.401 - How does the Department notify employers and the public about a PIE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... public about a PIE? 40.401 Section 40.401 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... How does the Department notify employers and the public about a PIE? (a) The Department maintains a.... (b) When the Director issues a PIE, he or she adds to the List the name and address of the...

  15. Using a Remote Sensing/GIS Model to Predict Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Breeding Habitat along the Rio Grande, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Sogge, Mark K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; hereafter SWFL) is a federally endangered bird (USFWS 1995) that breeds in riparian areas in portions of New Mexico, Arizona, southwestern Colorado, extreme southern Utah and Nevada, and southern California (USFWS 2002). Across this range, it uses a variety of plant species as nesting/breeding habitat, but in all cases prefers sites with dense vegetation, high canopy, and proximity to surface water or saturated soils (Sogge and Marshall 2000). As of 2005, the known rangewide breeding population of SWFLs was roughly 1,214 territories, with approximately 393 territories distributed among 36 sites in New Mexico (Durst et al. 2006), primarily along the Rio Grande. One of the key challenges facing the management and conservation of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher is that riparian areas are dynamic, with individual habitat patches subject to cycles of creation, growth, and loss due to drought, flooding, fire, and other disturbances. Former breeding patches can lose suitability, and new habitat can develop within a matter of only a few years, especially in reservoir drawdown zones. Therefore, measuring and predicting flycatcher habitat - either to discover areas that might support SWFLs, or to identify areas that may develop into appropriate habitat - requires knowledge of recent/current habitat conditions and an understanding of the factors that determine flycatcher use of riparian breeding sites. In the past, much of the determination of whether a riparian site is likely to support breeding flycatchers has been based on qualitative criteria (for example, 'dense vegetation' or 'large patches'). These determinations often require on-the-ground field evaluations by local or regional SWFL experts. While this has proven valuable in locating many of the currently known breeding sites, it is difficult or impossible to apply this approach effectively over large geographic areas (for example, the

  16. Using a remote sensing/GIS model to predict southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding habitat along the Rio Grande, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Sogge, Mark K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; hereafter SWFL) is a federally endangered bird (USFWS 1995) that breeds in riparian areas in portions of New Mexico, Arizona, southwestern Colorado, extreme southern Utah and Nevada, and southern California (USFWS 2002). Across this range, it uses a variety of plant species as nesting/breeding habitat, but in all cases prefers sites with dense vegetation, high canopy, and proximity to surface water or saturated soils (Sogge and Marshall 2000). As of 2005, the known rangewide breeding population of SWFLs was roughly 1,214 territories, with approximately 393 territories distributed among 36 sites in New Mexico (Durst et al. 2006), primarily along the Rio Grande. One of the key challenges facing the management and conservation of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher is that riparian areas are dynamic, with individual habitat patches subject to cycles of creation, growth, and loss due to drought, flooding, fire, and other disturbances. Former breeding patches can lose suitability, and new habitat can develop within a matter of only a few years, especially in reservoir drawdown zones. Therefore, measuring and predicting flycatcher habitat - either to discover areas that might support SWFLs, or to identify areas that may develop into appropriate habitat - requires knowledge of recent/current habitat conditions and an understanding of the factors that determine flycatcher use of riparian breeding sites. In the past, much of the determination of whether a riparian site is likely to support breeding flycatchers has been based on qualitative criteria (for example, 'dense vegetation' or 'large patches'). These determinations often require on-the-ground field evaluations by local or regional SWFL experts. While this has proven valuable in locating many of the currently known breeding sites, it is difficult or impossible to apply this approach effectively over large geographic areas (for example, the

  17. Structural Conservation and Functional Diversity of the Poxvirus Immune Evasion (PIE) Domain Superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christopher A; Epperson, Megan L; Singh, Sukrit; Elliott, Jabari I; Fremont, Daved H

    2015-08-28

    Poxviruses encode a broad array of proteins that serve to undermine host immune defenses. Structural analysis of four of these seemingly unrelated proteins revealed the recurrent use of a conserved beta-sandwich fold that has not been observed in any eukaryotic or prokaryotic protein. Herein we propose to call this unique structural scaffolding the PIE (Poxvirus Immune Evasion) domain. PIE domain containing proteins are abundant in chordopoxvirinae, with our analysis identifying 20 likely PIE subfamilies among 33 representative genomes spanning 7 genera. For example, cowpox strain Brighton Red appears to encode 10 different PIEs: vCCI, A41, C8, M2, T4 (CPVX203), and the SECRET proteins CrmB, CrmD, SCP-1, SCP-2, and SCP-3. Characterized PIE proteins all appear to be nonessential for virus replication, and all contain signal peptides for targeting to the secretory pathway. The PIE subfamilies differ primarily in the number, size, and location of structural embellishments to the beta-sandwich core that confer unique functional specificities. Reported ligands include chemokines, GM-CSF, IL-2, MHC class I, and glycosaminoglycans. We expect that the list of ligands and receptors engaged by the PIE domain will grow as we come to better understand how this versatile structural architecture can be tailored to manipulate host responses to infection.

  18. Atritis gotosa como causa de pie de riesgo

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Avila, Ana Belén; Fernández Torres, Raúl; Agüera Jiménez, David

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: La gota es una manifestación común de la artritis, cuya inflamación se debe al depóstido de cristales de uratao monosódico en articulaciones y tejidos blandos por un aumento de ácido úrico en sangre y su padecimiento muestra una relación creciente con la edad. OBJETIVOS: Analizar las características fisiopatológicas de la artritis gotosa en el pie así como justificar la repercusión negativa que tiene su padecimiento en la calidad de vida de la población basándose en la simple af...

  19. Osteosarcoma de huesos del pie con alto grado de malignidad

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Martínez Milián; Rafael Ramírez Bichilik

    2015-01-01

    El osteosarcoma es la neoplasia primaria del hueso más frecuente, los hombres son los más afectados en una relación 1,2 - 1,5 por cada mujer y con una tasa de mortalidad cercana a 0,15/100.000 habitantes/año. Se reporta el caso de una paciente femenina de 57 años de edad, con dolor, aumento de volumen e impotencia funcional de aproximadamente seis meses de evolución, los exámenes diagnósticos utilizados fueron radiografía de pie, tomografía axial computarizada de miembro inferior y biopsia de...

  20. The causal pie model: an epidemiological method applied to evolutionary biology and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensink, Maarten; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Baudisch, Annette

    2014-05-01

    A general concept for thinking about causality facilitates swift comprehension of results, and the vocabulary that belongs to the concept is instrumental in cross-disciplinary communication. The causal pie model has fulfilled this role in epidemiology and could be of similar value in evolutionary biology and ecology. In the causal pie model, outcomes result from sufficient causes. Each sufficient cause is made up of a "causal pie" of "component causes". Several different causal pies may exist for the same outcome. If and only if all component causes of a sufficient cause are present, that is, a causal pie is complete, does the outcome occur. The effect of a component cause hence depends on the presence of the other component causes that constitute some causal pie. Because all component causes are equally and fully causative for the outcome, the sum of causes for some outcome exceeds 100%. The causal pie model provides a way of thinking that maps into a number of recurrent themes in evolutionary biology and ecology: It charts when component causes have an effect and are subject to natural selection, and how component causes affect selection on other component causes; which partitions of outcomes with respect to causes are feasible and useful; and how to view the composition of a(n apparently homogeneous) population. The diversity of specific results that is directly understood from the causal pie model is a test for both the validity and the applicability of the model. The causal pie model provides a common language in which results across disciplines can be communicated and serves as a template along which future causal analyses can be made.

  1. Capacidades y actividades en el autocuidado del paciente con pie diabético

    OpenAIRE

    Balcázar-Ochoa, Mayra; Escate-Ruíz, Yessenia; Choque-Díaz, Cristina; Velásquez-Carranza, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: determinar las capacidades y actividades del autocuidado en el paciente con pie diabético. Material y métodos: estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo de corte transversal, la población estuvo conformada por 60 pacientes que se encontraban hospitalizados por presentar pie diabético; se empleó como instrumento el cuestionario sobre capacidades y actividades de autocuidado del paciente con pie diabético, el cual fue elaborado por las investigadoras; la primera parte estuvo conformada por 13...

  2. Ortopodología en el pie geriátrico

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Tajes, Francisco; Álvarez-Calderón Iglesias, Oscar; Munuera Martínez, Pedro Vicente; Vergés Salas, Carles

    2007-01-01

    Lejos de Intentar abarcar toda la patología del pie geriátrico y sus tratamientos, con este trabajo nos proponemos destacar únicamente aquellos aspectos específicos del pie del mayor que se deben tener en cuenta a la hora de realizar una exploración biomecánica y aplicar un tratamiento ortopodológico a este tipo de pacientes. Abordamos, por tanto, las particularidades de la patología mecánica del pie geriátrico, de la exploración del paciente anciano, y del tratamiento ortopodológico, tanto d...

  3. Higher nest predation risk in association with a top predator: mesopredator attraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosinotto, Chiara; Thomson, Robert L; Hänninen, Mikko; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2012-10-01

    Breeding close to top predators is a widespread reproductive strategy. Breeding animals may gain indirect benefits if proximity to top predators results in a reduction of predation due to suppression of mesopredators. We tested if passerine birds gain protection from mesopredators by nesting within territories of a top predator, the Ural owl (Strix uralensis). We placed nest boxes for pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in Ural owl nest sites and in control sites (currently unoccupied by owls). The nest boxes were designed so that nest predation risk could be altered (experimentally increased) after flycatcher settlement; we considered predation rate as a proxy of mesopredator abundance. Overall, we found higher nest predation rates in treatment than in control sites. Flycatcher laying date did not differ between sites, but smaller clutches were laid in treatment sites compared to controls, suggesting a response to perceived predation risk. Relative nest predation rate varied between years, being higher in owl nest sites in 2 years but similar in another; this variation might be indirectly influenced by vole abundance. Proximity to Ural owl nests might represent a risky habitat for passerines. High predation rates within owl territories could be because small mesopredators that do not directly threaten owl nests are attracted to owl nest sites. This could be explained if some mesopredators use owl territories to gain protection from their own predators, or if top predators and mesopredators independently seek similar habitats.

  4. Natal habitat imprinting counteracts the diversifying effects of phenotype-dependent dispersal in a spatially structured population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Carlos; Canal, David; Potti, Jaime

    2016-08-08

    Habitat selection may have profound evolutionary consequences, but they strongly depend on the underlying preference mechanism, including genetically-determined, natal habitat and phenotype-dependent preferences. It is known that different mechanisms may operate at the same time, yet their relative contribution to population differentiation remains largely unexplored empirically mainly because of the difficulty of finding suitable study systems. Here, we investigate the role of early experience and genetic background in determining the outcome of settlement by pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding in two habitat patches between which dispersal and subsequent reproductive performance is influenced by phenotype (body size). For this, we conducted a cross-fostering experiment in a two-patch system: an oakwood and a conifer plantation separated by only 1 km. Experimental birds mostly returned to breed in the forest patch where they were raised, whether it was that of their genetic or their foster parents, indicating that decisions on where to settle are determined by individuals' experience in their natal site, rather than by their genetic background. Nevertheless, nearly a third (27.6 %) moved away from the rearing habitat and, as previously observed in unmanipulated individuals, dispersal between habitats was phenotype-dependent. Pied flycatchers breeding in the oak and the pine forests are differentiated by body size, and analyses of genetic variation at microsatellite loci now provide evidence of subtle genetic differentiation between the two populations. This suggests that phenotype-dependent dispersal may contribute to population structure despite the short distance and widespread exchange of birds between the study plots. Taken together, the current and previous findings that pied flycatchers do not always settle in the habitat to which they are best suited suggest that their strong tendency to return to the natal patch regardless of their body size

  5. Effects of nocturnal illumination on life-history decisions and fitness in two wild songbird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maaike; Ouyang, Jenny Q; Da Silva, Arnaud; van Grunsven, Roy H A; Kempenaers, Bart; Visser, Marcel E; Spoelstra, Kamiel

    2015-05-05

    The effects of artificial night lighting on animal behaviour and fitness are largely unknown. Most studies report short-term consequences in locations that are also exposed to other anthropogenic disturbance. We know little about how the effects of nocturnal illumination vary with different light colour compositions. This is increasingly relevant as the use of LED lights becomes more common, and LED light colour composition can be easily adjusted. We experimentally illuminated previously dark natural habitat with white, green and red light, and measured the effects on life-history decisions and fitness in two free-living songbird species, the great tit (Parus major) and pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) in two consecutive years. In 2013, but not in 2014, we found an effect of light treatment on lay date, and of the interaction of treatment and distance to the nearest lamp post on chick mass in great tits but not in pied flycatchers. We did not find an effect in either species of light treatment on breeding densities, clutch size, probability of brood failure, number of fledglings and adult survival. The finding that light colour may have differential effects opens up the possibility to mitigate negative ecological effects of nocturnal illumination by using different light spectra.

  6. Effects of experimental calcium availability and anthropogenic metal pollution on eggshell characteristics and yolk carotenoid and vitamin levels in two passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Silvia; Ruiz, Sandra; Sánchez-Virosta, Pablo; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Eeva, Tapio

    2016-05-01

    The maternal investment into egg quality depends on the condition of the female, the quality of the mate, and the quality of the environment. In that sense, availability of nutrients and exposure to pollutants are essential parameters to consider. The main aim of this study is to assess the effects of calcium (Ca) availability and anthropogenic metal pollution on early-stage reproduction in two passerine species, great tits (Parus major) and pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), inhabiting a Ca-poor and metal-polluted area in SW Finland. Both species were able to obtain sufficient Ca for eggshell formation, and metal pollution was below the level of having negative effects in the egg size and eggshell characteristics. However, metal polluted environment negatively affected yolk lutein and vitamin D3 levels in both species, probably because of a lower access to carotenoid-rich diet and higher metal interference with vitamin D3 metabolism. The higher levels of vitamin D3 in yolks in the unpolluted zone could also be due to upregulated D3 levels as a response to the lower natural Ca availability. Yolk carotenoids and vitamin D3 were positively associated with nestling growth and size, supporting their importance for the appropriate chick development. The interspecific differences in yolk nutrient concentrations possibly reflect the different growth rate of these species. Pied flycatchers are likely adapted to low Ca availability through an efficient vitamin D3 metabolism, but their Ca intake could be close to a deficient level.

  7. Heat and Ice in Sermilik Fjord: Novel Observational Techniques Using PIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, M.; Straneo, F.; Sutherland, D.

    2014-12-01

    A 1-year pilot experiment using pressure-sensor-equipped inverted echo sounders (PIES) was conducted in Sermilik Fjord in eastern Greenland to test non-traditional methods for measuring the time-varying
heat content in high-latitude seas, shelves, and fjords and for detecting the presence of ice. PIES, which are installed on the seafloor below the reach of destructive iceberg keels, present
a promising and inexpensive way to improve understanding of fjord dynamics and shelf-fjord interactions and will increase long-term monitoring capabilities in high latitudes where
remoteness and harsh conditions hamper traditional in situ observation techniques. The use
of PIES to characterize variability at high latitudes is a novel application of an existing
technology, but rests on the same principle as the traditional blue-water uses for PIES: due
to the dependence of sound speed on temperature, the surface-to-bottom round-trip acoustic-travel-time associated with reflections between the PIES and the air-sea interface is an excellent proxy
for heat content in the intervening water column. Furthermore, since reflections from seawater-ice interfaces are also detected when ice
is present, PIES provide a means to characterize the ice component in high-latitude systems. The PIES deployed in Sermilik Fjord (August 2011 - September 2012) resolved changes in heat content at scales ranging from hourly to seasonal. Furthermore, during winter, the PIES logged about 300 iceberg detections and recorded a 2-week period of land-fast ice cover in March. The deepest icebergs in the fjord were found to have keel depths reaching to ~350 m and iceberg speeds averaged about 0.2 m/s but were as high as 0.5 m/s.

  8. El dolor patelofemoral en el baile flamenco y su relación con el pie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Castillo-López

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available El dolor patelofemoral es uno de los desórdenes más comunes que afectan a la rodilla. De las lesiones descritas en el baile flamenco profesional, destacan las relacionadas con el pie y la rodilla, en relación al microtraumatismo repetido del gesto técnico del zapateado y a la flexión de rodilla mantenida que requiere. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la presencia de dolor patelo femoral en profesionales del baile de flamenco y comprobar si existe relación alguna con el pie pronador y genus valgo. En el estudio han participado 46 profesionales del baile flamenco, 38 bailaoras y 8 bailaores, con una carga media de 25.4 ± 8.25 horas de baile semanales. El 34.78% de los participantes presentaban dolor patelofemoral. El 24% presentaba también genus valgo. Se encontró un 34.78% de pies pronadores. La asociación de pies pronadores y genus valgo fue del 31.25%, mientras que la asociación de pies pronadores y dolor patelofemoral fue de 43.75 % de los casos. Factores predisponentes de esta patología se dan en la práctica del baile flamenco: el impacto repetitivo, una posición mantenida y forzada de la rodilla en un rango concreto, desplazamientos y los giros bruscos. Como conclusión, se demuestra relación directa entre la presencia de pies pronadores y dolor patelofemoral en el baile flamenco. Así como entre pies pronadores y genus valgo. Estudios científicos actuales demuestran la utilidad de soportes plantares en este síndrome. La incidencia de pies pronadores y dolor patelofemoral hace recomendable estudios biomecánicos y podológicos y el uso de soportes plantares personalizados en cada caso.

  9. Report on FY16 Low-dose Metal Fuel Irradiation and PIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmondson, Philip D.

    2016-09-01

    This report gives an overview of the efforts into the low-dose metal fuel irradiation and PIE as part of the Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) milestone M3FT-16OR020303031. The current status of the FCT and FCRP irradiation campaigns are given including a description of the materials that have been irradiated, analysis of the passive temperature monitors, and the initial PIE efforts of the fuel samples.

  10. Female-biased sex ratio, polygyny, and persistence in the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Barbara E.; Howell, Scarlett; Wood, Dustin A.

    2017-01-01

    Demographic changes in populations, such as skewed sex ratios, are of concern to conservationists, especially in small populations in which stochastic and other events can produce declines leading to extirpation. We documented a decline in one of the few remaining populations of Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) in southern California, USA, which dropped from 40 to 5 adults between 2000 and 2015. Declines were unequal between sexes (94% for males, 82% for females). Adult sex ratios were female-biased in 10 of 16 yr. The proportion of paired males that were polygynous ranged from 0% to 100%, depending on the ratio of females to males in the adult population. Some males paired with up to 5 females simultaneously. We investigated the role of nestling sex ratio in the female-biased adult sex ratio by using genetic techniques to determine sex from blood samples collected from 162 nestlings in 72 nests from 2002 to 2009. Both population-level and within-brood nestling sex ratios were female-biased, and were not influenced by nest order (first or subsequent), parental mating type (monogamous or polygynous), or year. Disproportionately more females than males were recruited into the breeding population, mirroring nestling and fledgling sex ratios. It thus appears that a skewed nestling sex ratio has contributed to a female-biased adult population, which in turn has influenced mating behavior. We propose that the capacity for polygyny, which generally occurs at low levels in Southwestern Willow Flycatchers, has allowed this population to persist through a decline that might otherwise have resulted in extinction.

  11. $\\pi_{e3}$ form factor $f_{-}$ near mass shell

    CERN Document Server

    Krivoruchenko, M I

    2014-01-01

    Generalized Ward-Takahashi identity (gWTI) in the pion sector for broken isotopic symmetry is derived and used for the model-independent calculation of the longitudinal form factor $f_{-}$ of the $\\pi_{e3}$ vector vertex. The on-shell $f_{-}$ is found to be proportional to the mass difference of pions and the difference between vector isospin $ T = 1 $ and scalar isospin $ T = 2 $ pion radii. A numerical estimate of the form factor gives a value two times higher than the earlier estimate in the quark model. Off-shell form factors are known to be ambiguous because of the gauge dependence and the freedom in parameterization of the fields. The near-mass-shell $f_{-}$ appears to be an exception, allowing the experimental verification of the gWTI consequences. We calculate the near-mass-shell $f_{-}$ using the gWTI and dispersion techniques. The results are discussed in the context of the conservation of vector current (CVC) condition.

  12. Centrales térmicas a pie de mina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshadri, B.

    1961-10-01

    Full Text Available Ligera descripción de la gran cuenca hullera de carbón pardo, de Victoria (Australia. Esta inmensa cuenca carbonífera está situada a unos 150 km de Melbourne, estado de Victoria, y en la región denominada el Valle del río Latrobe. Se cree que esta cuenca es la mayor del mundo en su género. Estos yacimientos se extienden en una longitud de unos 65 km y una anchura que varía de 8 a 16 km. En un cierto lugar de esta zona, y a unos 27 m de profundidad, se ha perforado una capa de unos 330 m de potencia, lo que, innegablemente, hace de ella la mayor del mundo. Al crearse en 1919 la Comisión Nacional de Electricidad, se previó la construcción de la primera Central a pie de mina para el año 1923, con una capacidad inicial de 50.000 kW de potencia.

  13. An Assessment of ORNL PIE Capabilities for the AGR Program Capsule Post Irradiation Examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Robert Noel [ORNL

    2006-09-01

    ORNL has facilities and experienced staff that can execute +the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) task. While the specific PIE breakdown needs to be more formally defined, the basic outline is clear and the existing capabilities can be assessed within the needs of the tasks defined in the program plan. A one-to-one correspondence between the program plan tasks and the current ORNL PIE status was conducted and while some shortcomings were identified, the general capability is available. Specific upgrade needs were identified and reviewed. A path forward was formulated. Building 3525 is available for this work and this building is currently receiving renewed attention from management so that it will be in good working order prior to the expected PIE start date. This building is equipped with the tools necessary for PIEs of this nature, but the long hiatus in coated particle fuel work has left it with aging analysis tools. This report identified several of these tools and rough estimates of what would be required to update and replace them. In addition, other ORNL buildings are available to support Building 3525 in specialized tasks along with the normal laboratory infrastructure. Before the AGR management embarks on any equipment development effort, the PIE tasks should be updated against current program (modeling and data) needs and better defined so that the items to be measured, their measurement uncertainties, and thru-put needs can be reviewed. A Data Task Matrix (DTM) should be prepared so that the program data needs can be compared against the identified PIE tasks and what is practical in the hot cell environment to make sure nothing is overlooked. Finally, thought should be given to the development of standardized equipment designs between sites to avoid redundant design efforts and different measurement techniques. This is a potentially cost saving effort that can also avoid data inconsistencies.

  14. PIE: an online prediction system for protein-protein interactions from text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, In-Hee; Kim, Soo-Jin; Sriram, Ram; Zhang, Byoung-Tak

    2008-07-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) extraction has been an important research topic in bio-text mining area, since the PPI information is critical for understanding biological processes. However, there are very few open systems available on the Web and most of the systems focus on keyword searching based on predefined PPIs. PIE (Protein Interaction information Extraction system) is a configurable Web service to extract PPIs from literature, including user-provided papers as well as PubMed articles. After providing abstracts or papers, the prediction results are displayed in an easily readable form with essential, yet compact features. The PIE interface supports more features such as PDF file extraction, PubMed search tool and network communication, which are useful for biologists and bio-system developers. The PIE system utilizes natural language processing techniques and machine learning methodologies to predict PPI sentences, which results in high precision performance for Web users. PIE is freely available at http://bi.snu.ac.kr/pie/.

  15. La Biblioteca de la Fundació Antoni Tàpies: la otra historia del Arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domènech, Glòria

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available La Biblioteca de la Fundació Antoni Tàpies se inauguró en junio de 1990. Está ubicada en el edificio de la antigua Editorial Montaner i Simón, obra proyectada en 1879 por el arquitecto modernista Lluís Domènech i Montaner. La biblioteca está especializada en arte moderno y contemporáneo e incluye secciones de arquitectura, artes decorativas, diseño, fotografía, cine y vídeo así como el más extenso archivo sobre la obra de Antoni Tàpies. Su fondo inicial se componía de unos 5.000 volúmenes procedentes de la donación dla biblioteca particular de Antoni Tàpies.

  16. Principal angles separate subject illumination spaces in YDB and CMU-PIE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, J Ross; Draper, Bruce A; Chang, Jen-Mei; Kirby, Michael; Kley, Holger; Peterson, Chris

    2009-02-01

    The theory of illumination subspaces is well developed and has been tested extensively on the Yale Face Database B (YDB) and CMU-PIE (PIE) data sets. This paper shows that if face recognition under varying illumination is cast as a problem of matching sets of images to sets of images, then the minimal principal angle between subspaces is sufficient to perfectly separate matching pairs of image sets from nonmatching pairs of image sets sampled from YDB and PIE. This is true even for subspaces estimated from as few as six images and when one of the subspaces is estimated from as few as three images if the second subspace is estimated from a larger set (10 or more). This suggests that variation under illumination may be thought of as useful discriminating information rather than unwanted noise.

  17. Progress on accelerated calculation of 3D MHD equilibrium with the PIES code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raburn, Daniel; Reiman, Allan; Monticello, Donald

    2016-10-01

    Continuing progress has been made in accelerating the 3D MHD equilibrium code, PIES, using an external numerical wrapper. The PIES code (Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver) is capable of calculating 3D MHD equilibria with islands. The numerical wrapper has been demonstrated to greatly improve the rate of convergence in numerous cases corresponding to equilibria in the TFTR device where magnetic islands are present; the numerical wrapper makes use of a Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solver along with adaptive preconditioning and a sophisticated subspace-restricted Levenberg backtracking algorithm. The wrapper has recently been improved by automation which combines the preexisting backtracking algorithm with insights gained from the stability of the Picard algorithm traditionally used with PIES. Improved progress logging and stopping criteria have also been incorporated in to the numerical wrapper.

  18. Asymmetric enrichment of PIE-1 in the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote mediated by binary counterdiffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brian R; Perkins, Edward M; Dobrowsky, Terrence M; Sun, Sean X; Wirtz, Denis

    2009-02-23

    To generate cellular diversity in developing organisms while simultaneously maintaining the developmental potential of the germline, germ cells must be able to preferentially endow germline daughter cells with a cytoplasmic portion containing specialized cell fate determinants not inherited by somatic cells. In Caenorhabditis elegans, germline inheritance of the protein PIE-1 is accomplished by first asymmetrically localizing the protein to the germplasm before cleavage and subsequently degrading residual levels of the protein in the somatic cytoplasm after cleavage. Despite its critical involvement in cell fate determination, the enrichment of germline determinants remains poorly understood. Here, combining live-cell fluorescence methods and kinetic modeling, we demonstrate that the enrichment process does not involve protein immobilization, intracellular compartmentalization, or localized protein degradation. Instead, our results support a heterogeneous reaction/diffusion model for PIE-1 enrichment in which the diffusion coefficient of PIE-1 is reversibly reduced in the posterior, resulting in a stable protein gradient across the zygote at steady state.

  19. Desarrollo de las úlceras en el pie diabético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Espinoza Valdez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El pie diabético constituye un problema de salud pública por su alta prevalencia y sus enormes costos. Debido a esto, es necesario investigar nuevos enfoques de prevención y tratamiento de las complicaciones vasculares del pie diabético, para entender el comportamiento del padecimiento y obtener información relevante. Por tal motivo, se requiere un acercamiento multidisciplinario que ayude a evitar complicaciones vasculares en las extremidades inferiores. En esta contribución describimos como el uso de herramientas matemáticas y en particular la teoría de grafos sirven para estudiar y describir el comportamiento del desarrollo de las úlceras en el pie diabético. Los resultados muestran que es posible describir la dinámica de las úlceras en el grafo incorporando información fisiológica de las úlceras.

  20. On the Fair Division of Multiple Stochastic Pies to Multiple Agents within the Nash Bargaining Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmperis, Athanasios C.; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.; Sotirchos, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    The fair division of a surplus is one of the most widely examined problems. This paper focuses on bargaining problems with fixed disagreement payoffs where risk-neutral agents have reached an agreement that is the Nash-bargaining solution (NBS). We consider a stochastic environment, in which the overall return consists of multiple pies with uncertain sizes and we examine how these pies can be allocated with fairness among agents. Specifically, fairness is based on the Aristotle’s maxim: “equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally, in proportion to the relevant inequality”. In this context, fairness is achieved when all the individual stochastic surplus shares which are allocated to agents are distributed in proportion to the NBS. We introduce a novel algorithm, which can be used to compute the ratio of each pie that should be allocated to each agent, in order to ensure fairness within a symmetric or asymmetric NBS. PMID:23024752

  1. Prevalencia y Riesgo de Amputación en Pacientes con Pie Diabético

    OpenAIRE

    Alcántara Pío, Wilder; Departamento de Medicina Interna Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo Lima, Perú; Flores, Ramón; Departamento de Medicina Interna Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo Lima, Perú; Garmendia, Fausto; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Determinar la prevalencia y riesgo de amputación de la extremidad inferior en pacientes con pie diabético. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio clínico descriptivo, retrospectivo y longitudinal que incluyó el cálculo de la tabla de preservación del pie de 206 pacientes que ingresaron por pie diabético al Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, en el período 1989 a 1997. RESULTADOS: La edad promedio fue 61,4 años (rango 27-86 años). La mayoría tenía diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (96,21%). El grado del p...

  2. Emotions as strategic information: Effects of other's emotional expressions on fixed-pie perception, demands, and integrative behavior in negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietroni, D.; van Kleef, G.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Pagliaro, S.

    2008-01-01

    Negotiators often fail to reach integrative ("win-win") agreements because they think that their own and other’s preferences are diametrically opposed—the so-called fixed-pie perception. We examined how verbal (Experiment 1) and nonverbal (Experiment 2) emotional expressions may reduce fixed-pie

  3. EBE: Proceso efectivo para tratar una úlcera grado I del pie diabético

    OpenAIRE

    García Gil, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    El síndrome del pie diabético constituye una de las principales causas de morbilidad y discapacidad en los pacientes con Diabetes Mellitus. Las infecciones y úlceras del pie en estos pacientes son comunes y complejas. Son la principal causa de amputación no traumática. Por ello, un adecuado manejo del tratamiento puede acelerar la curación de las úlceras, evitar la infección, o incluso, una amputación. La evolución de los tratamientos de heridas y úlceras, ha provocado la aparición de...

  4. Glycophosphopeptical como adyuvante en el tratamiento de lesiones del pie diabético: estudio piloto

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Ruiz-Mercado; Miguel Huerta-Viera; Rafael Bustos-Saldaña; Ernesto Sahagún-Flores; Georgina Hernández-Flores; Alejandro Bravo-Cuellar

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: la complejidad del pie diabético, la alta frecuencia de amputaciones y la inmunodepresión que lo acompaña dificultan su tratamiento. Objetivo: probar la utilidad del inmunoregulador glyphosphopetical como terapia adyuvante en pie diabético. Material y métodos: ensayo clínico controlado, doble ciego, con 19 pacientes por grupo con lesiones III y IV (clasificación Wagner). El grupo de estudio fue tratado oralmente con glycophosphopeptical 1 g/cada 8 horas por 4 semanas y el grupo ...

  5. Desarrollo de las úlceras en el pie diabético

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    El pie diabético constituye un problema de salud pública por su alta prevalencia y sus enormes costos. Debido a esto, es necesario investigar nuevos enfoques de prevención y tratamiento de las complicaciones vasculares del pie diabético, para entender el comportamiento del padecimiento y obtener información relevante. Por tal motivo, se requiere un acercamiento multidisciplinario que ayude a evitar complicaciones vasculares en las extremidades inferiores. En esta contribución describimos como...

  6. The application of the Galerkin method to solving PIES for Laplace's equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bołtuć, Agnieszka; Zieniuk, Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the application of the Galerkin method to solving the parametric integral equation system (PIES) on the example of Laplace's equation. The main aim of the paper is the analysis of the effectiveness of two methods for PIES solving: the collocation method and the Galerkin method. Researches were performed on two examples with analytical solutions. Tests concern mainly the accuracy of obtained numerical solutions and their stability. For both analyzed methods calculations were made with the various number of expressions in the approximation series, whilst in the collocation method two variants of the arrangement of collocation points were considered. We also compared the complexity of both methods using the execution time.

  7. Is the pie-crusting technique safe for MCL release in varus deformity correction in total knee arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, R Michael; Daluga, Andrew T; Sturgis, Lindsey A; Lieberman, Jay R

    2013-09-01

    Established for lateral release in TKA, the pie-crusting technique has not been studied for the medial collateral ligament (MCL). In cadaveric knees the MCL was release with a pie-crusting technique in one and traditional technique in the contralateral knee. Along with a control group, each MCL was subjected to mechanical testing. The stiffness, force and stress required to cause ligament elongation were less in the pie-crusting group (p pie-crusting group demonstrated a characteristic "stair-step" failure mode at the joint line, whereas the traditional group failed elastically at the tibial insertion. MCL pie-crusting is likely technique dependent since failure occurs within the ligament itself and further study is warranted.

  8. 49 CFR 40.371 - On what information does an initiating official rely in deciding whether to start a PIE proceeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rely in deciding whether to start a PIE proceeding? 40.371 Section 40.371 Transportation Office of the... start a PIE proceeding? (a) An initiating official may rely on credible information from any source as the basis for starting a PIE proceeding. (b) Before sending a correction notice (see § 40.373),...

  9. Unfixing the fixed-pie: a motivated information-processing approach to integrative negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Koole, S.; Steinel, W.

    2000-01-01

    Negotiators tend to believe that own and other's outcomes are diametrically opposed. When such fixed-pie perceptions (FPPs) are not revised during negotiation, integrative agreements axe unlikely. Itwas predicted that accuracy motivation helps negotiators to release their FPPs. In 2 experiments,

  10. Reflections on "Petit Battement sur le Cou de Pied": Is It Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskevska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This article presents multiple perspectives of "petit battement sur le cou de pied". These perspectives include historical, biomechanical, and pedagogic points of view. The article offers useful information for ballet specialists and applied research studies aimed at ballet pedagogy. (Contains 2 tables and 5 figures.)

  11. Lifting the Curse of the Roman: Quintus Horatius Flaccus Meets the Pied Piper of Hamelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, William

    There are many similarities between Robert Browning's "The Pied Piper of Hamelin" and Lewis Carroll's "Alice in Wonderland" that are seldom noted by literary critics. Both works were begun for the amusement of specific children, both employ a strange subterranean journey as a central device, and both are works of nonsense…

  12. "Las humanidades en pie de guerra". Ernst H. Gombrich. ABC Cultural, 7 de noviembre de 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana, Isabel

    1998-01-01

    El ABC Cultural del pasado 7 de noviembre de 1997 incluía un artículo titulado Las humanidades en pie de guerra de Ernst H. Gombrich. El autor, historiador del arte, es profesor de universidades británicas y estadounidenses y ha sido director del Warburg Institute

  13. Percutaneous quadriceps tendon pie-crusting release of extension contracture of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H X; Wen, H; Hu, Y Z; Yu, H C; Pan, X Y

    2014-05-01

    To release extension contracture of the knee, the authors used a minimally invasive technique: percutaneous quadriceps tendon pie-crusting release. Percutaneous pie-crusting release was performed using an 18-gauge needle to puncture the stiff fibrous band of the distal and lateral quadriceps tendon under maximum knee flexion. Quadriceps contracture was gradually released by multiple needle punctures. A knee brace was prescribed for one week and knee flexion exercises were performed on the first postoperative day. This technique was performed in seven post-traumatic stiff knees and five stiff total knee arthroplasties. Mean maximum flexion increased from 37° preoperatively to 50° after arthrolysis and 107(o) after pie-crusting. At a mean follow-up of eight months, mean maximum flexion was 103°. There were no major complications. The technique of quadriceps tendon pie-crusting release is a simple, minimally invasive and effective treatment for knee extension contracture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and application of PIE apparatuses in Tokai hot cell facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Hidetoshi; Kodaira, Tsuneo; Sukegawa, Tomohide [Department of Hot Laboratories, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    The Department of Hot Laboratories (DHL) operates three hot cell facilities, which are the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF), the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) and the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF). The RFEF is especially examining the reliability of actual power reactor fuel assemblies for PWR and BWR. The RHL is established to perform post irradiation examinations (PIEs) for fuels and materials irradiated in research and test reactors. In the WASTEF, Synroc and new ceramic waste forms were prepared and investigated for the safety disposal of high level radioactive waste. At present, one of concentrated works is the PIE of high burnup fuels, for which the RFEF improved and developed several apparatuses such as thermal properties measurement and microscopic analysis. The other is the PIE concerning with studies of component aging and structural reliability, for which the charpy impact-testing machine is instrumented and a low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue test apparatus is now under developing in the RHL. This paper describes these development and application of PIE apparatuses in DHL. (author)

  15. Energy potential of biomass and charcoal of Jatropha curcas peel and pie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas, are produced residues in the peel and of pie form. One alternative use of these residues is in the energy production. The present work analyzed the energy potential of the peel and the pie of Jatropha curcas in the following conditions: in natura and charcoal, determining: the moisture content (VITAL, 1997; the ash, fixed carbon and volatile matter (ABNT NBR 8112/86; the density and the gravimetric yield. The peel presented: moisture of 18,9%; density of 100kg/m3; volatile matter of 72,6%, fixed carbon of 13% and 14,4% of ashes and heat combustion of 3.641kcal/kg. The carbonized peel produced 38.1% of charcoal, with: 29% of volatile matter, 45% of fixed carbon and 25% of ashes; and heat combustion of 3.954kcal/kg. The pie presented: moisture of 2.41%, 601kg/m3 of density; volatile matter of 77.84%, fixed carbon 14.21% and 7,95% ashes and 5.122kcal/kg of heat combustion. In the carbonization of the pie, 32% of charcoal was produced containing: 18.27% of volatile matter, 71.29% of fixed carbon, 10.43% of ashes and heat combustion of 6.234kcal/kg. The high ashe contents are related to the fertilization of the plant.

  16. PIE-EXCEL Platform voor Integrale Energie- en emissieverkenningen. Technische beschrijving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsen A; Wijngaart RA van den; Daniels BW; ECN; KMD; ECN

    2005-01-01

    The information system, platform on integral energy and emission surveys (PIE), described here has been developed by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), and the Netherlands Research Centre of the Netherlands(ECN), two centres in the Netherlands whose activities show

  17. Reading: Making It Personal Again--Now Serving PIE to Hungry Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Nancy; Oleynik, Myra; Sacco, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    Something wonderful happens when children are asked to choose their own books and are given ample time to read and discuss them. They become hungry readers with an appetite for books! This simple strategy was the basis for developing the program known as PIE (Personalized Independent Enrichment) and its recipe for reading success. The goal of the…

  18. Lifting the Curse of the Roman: Quintus Horatius Flaccus Meets the Pied Piper of Hamelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, William

    There are many similarities between Robert Browning's "The Pied Piper of Hamelin" and Lewis Carroll's "Alice in Wonderland" that are seldom noted by literary critics. Both works were begun for the amusement of specific children, both employ a strange subterranean journey as a central device, and both are works of nonsense…

  19. Bars, Lines, & Pies: A Graphing Skills Program. Expect the Unexpected with Math[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actuarial Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Bars, Lines, & Pies" is a dynamic math program designed to build graphing skills in students, while also showing them the relevance of math in their lives. Developed by The Actuarial Foundation along with Scholastic, the graphing lessons and activities involve engaging, real-world examples about the environment and recycling. In these lessons,…

  20. Giant Paperclip Necklaces, Soup-Can Rings and Cherry-Pie Hats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by the wearable sculpture art created by artist Marjorie Schick. Students used wallpaper paste and newspapers to create papier-mache for a mountain hat, a cherry-pie mask/hat, a "dress" shoe and a Cubistic mask. Cardboard was used in many of these things, in addition to being used as…

  1. Mnemonic Device for Relating the Eight Thermodynamic State Variables: The Energy Pie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieberg, Jeffrey E.; Girard, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    A mnemonic device, the energy pie, is presented that provides relationships between thermodynamic potentials ("U," "H," "G," and "A") and other sets of variables that carry energy units, "TS" and "PV." Methods are also presented in which the differential expressions for the potentials and the corresponding Maxwell relations follow from the energy…

  2. Mnemonic Device for Relating the Eight Thermodynamic State Variables: The Energy Pie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieberg, Jeffrey E.; Girard, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    A mnemonic device, the energy pie, is presented that provides relationships between thermodynamic potentials ("U," "H," "G," and "A") and other sets of variables that carry energy units, "TS" and "PV." Methods are also presented in which the differential expressions for the potentials and the corresponding Maxwell relations follow from the energy…

  3. PIE-EXCEL Platform voor Integrale Energie- en emissieverkenningen. Technische beschrijving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsen A; Wijngaart RA van den; Daniels BW; ECN; KMD; ECN

    2005-01-01

    The information system, platform on integral energy and emission surveys (PIE), described here has been developed by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), and the Netherlands Research Centre of the Netherlands(ECN), two centres in the Netherlands whose activities show

  4. prepare_taxa_charts.py: A Python program to automate generation of publication ready taxonomic pie chart images from QIIME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhujani, Vijay; Badapanda, Chandan

    2017-06-01

    QIIME (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology) is one of the most popular open-source bioinformatics suite for performing metagenome, 16S rRNA amplicon and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) data analysis. Although, it is very comprehensive and powerful tool, it lacks a method to provide publication ready taxonomic pie charts. The script plot_taxa_summary.py bundled with QIIME generate a html file and a folder containing taxonomic pie chart and legend as separate images. The images have randomly generated alphanumeric names. Therefore, it is difficult to associate the pie chart with the legend and the corresponding sample identifier. Even if the option to have the legend within the html file is selected while executing plot_taxa_summary.py, it is very tedious to crop a complete image (having both the pie chart and the legend) due to unequal image sizes. It requires a lot of time to manually prepare the pie charts for multiple samples for publication purpose. Moreover, there are chances of error while identifying the pie chart and legend pair due to random alphanumeric names of the images. To bypass all these bottlenecks and make this process efficient, we have developed a python based program, prepare_taxa_charts.py, to automate the renaming, cropping and merging of taxonomic pie chart and corresponding legend image into a single, good quality publication ready image. This program not only augments the functionality of plot_taxa_summary.py but is also very fast in terms of CPU time and user friendly.

  5. International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs for Fundamental Understanding of Fuels Performance and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2011-12-01

    The International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs to Support Science-Based Development of Innovative Fuels was held June 16-17, 2011, in Paris, France. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on the Fuel Cycle (WPFC) sponsored the workshop to identify gaps in global capabilities that need to be filled to meet projected needs in the 21st century. First and foremost, the workshop brought nine countries and associated international organizations, together in support of common needs for nuclear fuels and materials testing, characterization, PIE, and modeling capabilities. Finland, France, Germany, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America, IAEA, and ITU (on behalf of European Union Joint Research Centers) discussed issues and opportunities for future technical advancements and collaborations. Second, the presentations provided a base level of understanding of current international capabilities. Three main categories were covered: (1) status of facilities and near term plans, (2) PIE needs from fuels engineering and material science perspectives, and (3) novel PIE techniques being developed to meet the needs. The International presentations provided valuable data consistent with the outcome of the National Workshop held in March 2011. Finally, the panel discussion on 21st century PIE capabilities, created a unified approach for future collaborations. In conclusion, (1) existing capabilities are not sufficient to meet the needs of a science-based approach, (2) safety issues and fuels behavior during abnormal conditions will receive more focus post-Fukushima; therefore we need to adopt our techniques to those issues, and (3) International collaboration is needed in the areas of codes and standards development for the new techniques.

  6. Combining MFD and PIE for accurate single-pair Förster resonance energy transfer measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Volodymyr; Sikor, Martin; Kalinin, Stanislav; Mokranjac, Dejana; Seidel, Claus A M; Lamb, Don C

    2012-03-01

    Single-pair Förster resonance energy transfer (spFRET) experiments using single-molecule burst analysis on a confocal microscope are an ideal tool to measure inter- and intramolecular distances and dynamics on the nanoscale. Different techniques have been developed to maximize the amount of information available in spFRET burst analysis experiments. Multiparameter fluorescence detection (MFD) is used to monitor a variety of fluorescence parameters simultaneously and pulsed interleaved excitation (PIE) employs direct excitation of the acceptor to probe its presence and photoactivity. To calculate accurate FRET efficiencies from spFRET experiments with MFD or PIE, several calibration measurements are usually required. Herein, we demonstrate that by combining MFD with PIE information regarding all calibration factors as well as an accurate determination of spFRET histograms can be performed in a single measurement. In addition, the quality of overlap of the different detection volumes as well as the detection of acceptor photophysics can be investigated with MFD-PIE. Bursts containing acceptor photobleaching can be identified and excluded from further investigation while bursts that contain FRET dynamics are unaffected by this analysis. We have employed MFD-PIE to accurately analyze the effects of nucleotides and substrate on the interdomain separation in DnaK, the major bacterial heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). The interdomain distance increases from 47 Å in the ATP-bound state to 84 Å in the ADP-bound state and slightly contracts to 77 Å when a substrate is bound. This is in contrast to what was observed for the mitochondrial member of the Hsp70s, Ssc1, supporting the notion of evolutionary specialization of Hsp70s for different cellular functions in different organisms and cell organelles.

  7. Biomecánica de las afecciones neurológicas del pie. Tratamiento ortopodológico

    OpenAIRE

    Dorca Coll, Adelina; Céspedes Céspedes, Tomás; Albiol Ferrer, Josep Maria; Concustell Gonfaus, Josep; Cuevas Gómez, Rafael; Dorca Coll, Ma. Rosa; Giralt de Veciana, Enrique

    1985-01-01

    Presentamos un caso de pie neurológico secundario a una Espina Bífida Quística en región lumbosacra con afectación de L5- SI. El paciente presenta una marcha en pseudoestepagge. Pie derecho equino y pie izquierdo cavo anterior que provocan lesiones cutáneas plantares múltiples, interfiriendo todo ello el curso normal de la vida del paciente. Se realizó un tratamiento ortopodológico durante seis años, ensayándose distintos tipos de plantillas y diversos materiales, que han dado como resultado ...

  8. Modelación de órtesis personalizadas para alivio de presiones plantares en pie diabético

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Montaño, Óscar Libardo

    2015-01-01

    Las órtesis de pie para alivio de presión plantar son dispositivos que han sido ampliamente usados para aliviar el dolor en los pies y evitar la aparición de lesiones por altas presiones, factor que está relacionado con los procesos de ulceración especialmente en pacientes con pie diabético consecuencia de la diabetes mellitus. La fabricación de estos dispositivos está sufriendo grandes cambios en los últimos años gracias a la introducción de nuevas tecnologías como el diseño a...

  9. Actividades de prevención del pie diabético en pacientes de consulta externa de primer nivel

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Determinar la frecuencia de actividades de prevención del pie diabético recomendadas por el médico y efectuadas por pacientes de consulta externa en medicina general, para autocuidado de los pies y describir los hábitos alimentarios. Metodología Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, realizado en dos instituciones de salud de Bogotá, marzo-octubre 2008; muestra ponderada, por conveniencia, 307 pacientes diabéticos mayores de 18 años. Resultados Antecedente de úlceras en pies 13 %,...

  10. Consideraciones anatómicas y funcionales en la patología del quinto radio del pie

    OpenAIRE

    Gallart Ortega, José; Lahoz Gimeno, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Se analiza si las diferentes alteraciones morfológicas y funcionales del pie se asocian estadísticamente a las diferentes desviaciones del quinto radio en el plano transverso y/o sagital como posible causa o agravantes de ésta. A su vez se describen las diferentes patologías quirúrgicas en quinto radio del pie y se evalúa el resultado goniométrico postquirúrgico de las diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas empleadas. MATERIAL MÉTODOS: En una muestra consecutiva de 121 pies intervenidos qu...

  11. Biomecánica de las afecciones neurológicas del pie. Tratamiento ortopodológico

    OpenAIRE

    Dorca Coll, Adelina; Céspedes Céspedes, Tomás; Albiol Ferrer, Josep Maria; Concustell Gonfaus, Josep; Cuevas Gómez, Rafael; Dorca Coll, Ma. Rosa; Giralt de Veciana, Enrique

    1985-01-01

    Presentamos un caso de pie neurológico secundario a una Espina Bífida Quística en región lumbosacra con afectación de L5- SI. El paciente presenta una marcha en pseudoestepagge. Pie derecho equino y pie izquierdo cavo anterior que provocan lesiones cutáneas plantares múltiples, interfiriendo todo ello el curso normal de la vida del paciente. Se realizó un tratamiento ortopodológico durante seis años, ensayándose distintos tipos de plantillas y diversos materiales, que han dado como resultado ...

  12. Interspecific variation in the relationship between clutch size, laying date and intensity of urbanization in four species of hole-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaugoyeau, Marie; Adriaensen, Frank; Artemyev, Alexandr; Bańbura, Jerzy; Barba, Emilio; Biard, Clotilde; Blondel, Jacques; Bouslama, Zihad; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Camprodon, Jordi; Cecere, Francesco; Charmantier, Anne; Charter, Motti; Cichoń, Mariusz; Cusimano, Camillo; Czeszczewik, Dorota; Demeyrier, Virginie; Doligez, Blandine; Doutrelant, Claire; Dubiec, Anna; Eens, Marcel; Eeva, Tapio; Faivre, Bruno; Ferns, Peter N; Forsman, Jukka T; García-Del-Rey, Eduardo; Goldshtein, Aya; Goodenough, Anne E; Gosler, Andrew G; Grégoire, Arnaud; Gustafsson, Lars; Harnist, Iga; Hartley, Ian R; Heeb, Philipp; Hinsley, Shelley A; Isenmann, Paul; Jacob, Staffan; Juškaitis, Rimvydas; Korpimäki, Erkki; Krams, Indrikis; Laaksonen, Toni; Lambrechts, Marcel M; Leclercq, Bernard; Lehikoinen, Esa; Loukola, Olli; Lundberg, Arne; Mainwaring, Mark C; Mänd, Raivo; Massa, Bruno; Mazgajski, Tomasz D; Merino, Santiago; Mitrus, Cezary; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Morin, Xavier; Nager, Ruedi G; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Nilsson, Sven G; Norte, Ana C; Orell, Markku; Perret, Philippe; Perrins, Christopher M; Pimentel, Carla S; Pinxten, Rianne; Richner, Heinz; Robles, Hugo; Rytkönen, Seppo; Senar, Juan Carlos; Seppänen, Janne T; Pascoal da Silva, Luis; Slagsvold, Tore; Solonen, Tapio; Sorace, Alberto; Stenning, Martyn J; Tryjanowski, Piotr; von Numers, Mikael; Walankiewicz, Wieslaw; Møller, Anders Pape

    2016-08-01

    The increase in size of human populations in urban and agricultural areas has resulted in considerable habitat conversion globally. Such anthropogenic areas have specific environmental characteristics, which influence the physiology, life history, and population dynamics of plants and animals. For example, the date of bud burst is advanced in urban compared to nearby natural areas. In some birds, breeding success is determined by synchrony between timing of breeding and peak food abundance. Pertinently, caterpillars are an important food source for the nestlings of many bird species, and their abundance is influenced by environmental factors such as temperature and date of bud burst. Higher temperatures and advanced date of bud burst in urban areas could advance peak caterpillar abundance and thus affect breeding phenology of birds. In order to test whether laying date advance and clutch sizes decrease with the intensity of urbanization, we analyzed the timing of breeding and clutch size in relation to intensity of urbanization as a measure of human impact in 199 nest box plots across Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East (i.e., the Western Palearctic) for four species of hole-nesters: blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), great tits (Parus major), collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis), and pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca). Meanwhile, we estimated the intensity of urbanization as the density of buildings surrounding study plots measured on orthophotographs. For the four study species, the intensity of urbanization was not correlated with laying date. Clutch size in blue and great tits does not seem affected by the intensity of urbanization, while in collared and pied flycatchers it decreased with increasing intensity of urbanization. This is the first large-scale study showing a species-specific major correlation between intensity of urbanization and the ecology of breeding. The underlying mechanisms for the relationships between life history and

  13. The Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (Phaeomyias murina) is a species complex that includes the Cocos Flycatcher (Nesotriccus ridgwayi), an island form that underwent a population bottleneck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Marc R; Harvey, Michael G; Oswald, Jessica A; Cuervo, Andrés; Derryberry, Elizabeth; Brumfield, Robb T

    2016-08-01

    Simultaneous examination of evolutionary history in island forms and closely related mainland relatives can provide reciprocal insight into the evolution of island and mainland faunas. The Cocos Flycatcher (Nesotriccus ridgwayi) is a small tyrant flycatcher (Tyrannidae) endemic to Cocos Island, an oceanic island in the eastern Pacific Ocean. We first established its close relationship to the mainland species Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (Phaeomyias murina) using a phylogeny from genome-wide ultraconserved elements and exons. We then used mitochondrial DNA to explore the relationships between Nesotriccus and Phaeomyias populations from across its distribution in Central and South America. We found that Nesotriccus is nested within the Phaeomyias evolutionary tree, and that Phaeomyias represents a complex of at least four evolutionarily distinct species that differ in plumage, voice, and habitat association. Nesotriccus underwent a population bottleneck subsequent to its divergence from Central American and northern South American Phaeomyias populations in the middle Pleistocene. The 46 UCE loci containing alleles that are fixed between the two species are widely distributed across the genome, which suggests that selective or neutral processes responsible for divergence have occurred genome-wide. Overall, our simultaneous examination of Phaeomyias and Nesotriccus revealed divergent levels of genetic diversity and evolutionary histories between island and mainland forms.

  14. Pie plano astrágalo vertical asociado a sinovitis. Fases de tratamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Planell i Mas, Elena de; Bonilla Toyos, Elvira

    2008-01-01

    El pie plano astrágalo vertical congénito es una deformidad poco frecuente que se puede encontrar de forma aislada, dentro de un cuadro polimalformativo o en relación con afectaciones neurológicas. Se caracteriza por una luxación del escafoides por encima del astrágalo,lo que provoca un pie rígido o de dificil manipulación. En este artículo los autores describen un caso clínico de un paciente que acude a consulta por presentar una inflamación dolorosa en la zona de la cabeza del astrágalo del...

  15. Apósitos de quitosano para el tratamiento de pie diabético

    OpenAIRE

    Gladys Josefina Velazco Viloria; Anajulia Gonzalez; Reynaldo Luis Ortíz Ramos

    2013-01-01

    Se demuestra la efectividad de los apósitos de quitosano para el tratamiento de pie diabético. Para ello se seleccionó un paciente de 48 años de edad, diabético tipo II, con una lesión en la zona dorsal del pie derecho. El tratamiento consistió en la aplicación de apósitos a base de sales de acetato de quitosano. El procedimiento se desarrolló en tres fases con una duración total de cuarenta y cinco dias. Los resultados demuestran la efectividad de las sales de quitosano para este tratamiento...

  16. Precision Information Environment (PIE) for International Safeguards: Pre-Demonstration Development Use Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastelum, Zoe N.; Henry, Michael J.

    2013-11-13

    In FY2013, the PIE International Safeguards team demonstrated our development progress to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) staff from the Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NA-24, our client) and the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (NA-22). Following the demonstration, the team was asked by our client to complete additional development prior to a planned demonstration at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), scheduled tentatively for January or spring of 2014. The team discussed four potential areas for development (in priority order), and will develop them as time and funding permit prior to an IAEA demonstration. The four capability areas are: 1. Addition of equipment manuals to PIE-accessible files 2. Optical character recognition (OCR) of photographed text 3. Barcode reader with information look-up from a database 4. Add Facilities to Data Model 5. Geospatial capabilities with information integration Each area will be described below in a use case.

  17. Caracterización de las personas con pie diabético. Monterrey, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez-Valverde, Juana Mercedes; Gallegos-García, Amelia; Guevara-Valtier, Milton Carlos; Vega-Grimaldo, Miguel Ángel; Santos-Flores, Jesús Melchor; Paz-Morales, María de los Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Objetivos: identificar las características personales, familiares, clínicas y socio económicos de las personas con pie diabético, que estuvieron hospitalizadas en una institución de salud de tercer nivel en Monterrey, Nuevo León durante el año 2009 y 2010. Material y Métodos: fue un estudio descriptivo. La unidad de análisis fueron 275 expedientes clínicos de pacientes con DT2 con diagnóstico de pie diabético. Resultados: el 66,9% de los expedientes correspondieron al género masculino y el 33...

  18. Arthroscopic trans-portal deep medial collateral ligament pie-crusting release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoun, Ehud; Debbi, Ronen; Lubovsky, Omri; Weiler, Andreas; Debbi, Eytan; Rath, Ehud

    2013-02-01

    Arthroscopic treatments of meniscal injuries of the knee are among the most common orthopaedic procedures performed. Adequate visualization of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus might be challenging, especially in patients with tight medial compartments. In these cases instrument manipulation in an attempt to reach the posterior horn of the meniscus can cause an iatrogenic chondral injury because of the narrow medial joint space. A transcutaneous medial collateral ligament (MCL) pie-crusting release facilitates expansion of the medial joint space in a case of a tight medial compartment. Nevertheless, it might cause injury to the superficial MCL, infection, and pain and injury to the saphenous nerve because of multiple needle punctures of the skin. We describe an inside-out, arthroscopic deep MCL pie-crusting release, which allows access to the medial meniscus through the anterior approach to provide good visualization of the footprint and sufficient working space.

  19. The effect of mate removal on dawn singing behaviour in male pied bush chats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinaya Kumar SETHI; Dinesh BHATT; Amit KUMAR

    2011-01-01

    To determine the influence of pairing status on dawn singing behaviour in pied bush chats Saxicola caprata, we conducted mate removal experiments across eight territories. The experiment was divided into three stages: pre-removal (pairs were present on theit respective territories), removal (females were experimentally removed), and returned (females were released into the focal pairs' territories). Dawn bout length, song rate, song complexity, percentage performance time, song perch height, and distance of singing location to territory boundary were measured for each male during each experimental stage. We did not find an effect of mate removal on any dawn song characteristics of male pied bush chats suggesting that the presence or absence of a mate does not influence male dawn singing behaviour. Our findings further suggest that males use dawn chorus to mediate social relationships with neighbouring males to proclaim an established territory.

  20. Resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico del pie plano valgo en la infancia

    OpenAIRE

    Faour Martín, O.; Navarro Núñez, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Se revisan los pies planos valgos infantiles que fueron tratados quirúrgicamente mediante la colocación del implante subastragalino tipo Maxwell-Brancheau, en el Servicio de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología del Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid desde el año 2004 al año 2009. Se han estudiado 55 pies intervenidos, con una edad media de los pacientes de 10 años y medio, y un seguimiento medio de 2 años. Se ha llevado a cabo una valoración de los principales parámetros radiológicos ...

  1. An Outbreak of Human Listeriosis in England between 2010 and 2012 Associated with the Consumption of Pork Pies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofisayo-Okuyelu, A; Arunachalam, N; Dallman, T; Grant, K A; Aird, H; McLauchlin, J; Painset, A; Amar, C

    2016-05-01

    An outbreak of listeriosis in England affecting 14 people between 2010 and 2012 and linked to the consumption of pork pies was investigated. All 14 individuals were older than 55 years, 12 were men, and 10 reported the presence of an underlying condition. All were resident in or had visited either of two English regions and were infected with the same strain of Listeria monocytogenes. In interviews with 12 patients, 9 reported eating pork pies, and individuals that consumed pork pies were significantly more likely to be infected with an outbreak strain than were individuals with sporadic cases of listeriosis infections in England from 2010 to 2012. Pork pies were purchased from seven retailers in South Yorkshire or the East Midlands, and the outbreak strain was recovered from pork pies supplied by only the producer in South Yorkshire. The outbreak strain was also recovered from samples of finished product and from environmental samples collected from the manufacturer. The likely source of contamination was environmental sites within the manufacturing environment, and the contamination was associated with the process of adding gelatin to the pies after cooking. Inadequate temperature control and poor hygienic practices at one of the retailers were also identified as possible contributory factors allowing growth of the pathogen. Following improvements in manufacturing practices and implementation of additional control measures at the retailers' premises, L. monocytogenes was not recovered from subsequent food and environmental samples, and the outbreak strain was not detected in further individuals with listeriosis in England.

  2. Tunable PIE and synchronized gating detections by FastFLIM for quantitative microscopy measurements of fast dynamics of single molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuansheng; Coskun, Ulas; Ferreon, Allan Chris; Barbieri, Beniamino; Liao, Shih-Chu Jeff

    2016-03-01

    The crosstalk between two fluorescent species causes problems in fluorescence microscopy imaging, especially for quantitative measurements such as co-localization, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescence cross correlation spectroscopy (FCCS). In laser scanning confocal microscopy, the lasers can be switched on and off by acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF) in the microsecond scale for alternative line scanning in order to avoid the crosstalk while minimizing the time delay between two lasers on the same pixel location. In contrast, the pulsed interleaved excitation (PIE) technique synchronizes two pulsed lasers of different wavelengths in the nanosecond scale to enable measuring superfast dynamics of two fluorescent species simultaneously and yet quantitatively without the crosstalk contamination. This feature is critical for many cell biology applications, e.g. accurate determination of stoichiometry in FRET measurements for studying protein-protein interactions or cell signal events, detection of weaker bindings in FCCS by eliminating the false cross correlation due to the crosstalk. The PIE has been used with the time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) electronics. Here, we describe a novel PIE development using the digital frequency domain (DFD) technique -- FastFLIM, which provides tunable PIE setups and synchronized gating detections, tailored and optimized to specific applications. A few PIE setups by FastFLIM and measurement examples are described. Combined with the sensitivity of Alba and Q2 systems, the PIE allowed us to quantitatively measure the fast dynamics of single molecules.

  3. [Characterization and nutritional value of a food artisan: the meat pie of Murcia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Cano, Domingo; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca; López-Jiménez, José Ángel; González-Silvera, Daniel; Frutos, Maria José; Zamora, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    The main aims of this study are to describe the characteristics of the meat pie, a typical product of the regional gastronomy of Murcia and to determine its nutritional and energy values, fatty acid profile and fat quality. There were studied 24 samples of Murcia's meat pie from the six best-selling retail establishments in this Region (four units per establishment).The moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrates, fibre and minerals, contents and the energy value, fatty acid profile and fat quality were analyzed using the Official Analysis Methods of Foods. All analyses were performed by triplicate. The average weight of this product was 192.3 ± 11.8 g, with three differentiated parts (base, filling and pastry lid). All ingredients were natural raw materials: wheat flour, lard, ground beef, sliced boiled egg and chorizo, water and spices (salt, pepper, garlic, paprika and nutmeg). Most of its organoleptic attributes are due to the type and amount of fat or lard. The combination of the other ingredients and the particular formulation of the spices are also responsible of other attributes. Due to its protein content (11.0%), this meat pie can replace other meat dishes, and be incorporated into a balanced diet. However, it is necessary to take into account its fat and energy contents (17.3 g and 317 kcal/100 g, respectively). Unlike many common pastry products, it contains no trans fatty acids. The results of the research show that the studied product remains, at present, an artisan food, and offer reliable information that it is representative of the energy and nutritional values of the Murcia's meat pie, a typical product of the gastronomy of the Region of Murcia. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. A State of Art Report on Development of PIE for Coated Particle Fuel of VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Moon; Chun, Yong Bum; Lee, Young Woo; Kim, Bong Goo; Cho, Moon Sung; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Woong Ki

    2007-04-15

    In this report, techniques, equipment and hot-cell facilities for PIE were introduced to observe behavior of particle for the safety and stability based on the open literatures. In order to analyse fuel stability, failure of coated layers and behavior of boundaries between layers are examined, and the analytical results gives feedback information to manufacturing process of the particles. On the other hand, the test for the release of fission products is carried out at high temperature for measurement of diffusivity. For PIE of fuel particle, a lot of experimental development and modification of equipment has to be made in our facilities as well as installation and operation in hot cell facility. The IMGA(Irradiated Microsphere Gamma Analyzer) technique needs to be developed for radioisotope analysis of particle to observe fuel failure. KUFA system is necessary to obtain release data of fission products from the fuel kernel and to observe interactions between kernel and coating layers. In addition, some specific techniques for the material properties such as nano-indentation, x-ray radiography and so on. Optical microscope, SEM and EPMA may be possible to perform PIE of fuel particle for microstructure analysis. ICP-AES and ICP-MS are also available for chemical analysis. Some techniques, for example, deconsolidation of fuel compact, should be obtained by technical papers and experts from overseas.

  5. PIE on Safety-Tested AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Morris, Robert Noel [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baldwin, Charles A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Fred C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gerczak, Tyler J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) is being performed in support of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel development and qualification for High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). AGR-1 was the first in a series of TRISO fuel irradiation experiments initiated in 2006 under the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program; this work continues to be funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy as part of the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) initiative. AGR-1 fuel compacts were fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2006 and irradiated for three years in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to demonstrate and evaluate fuel performance under HTGR irradiation conditions. PIE is being performed at INL and ORNL to study how the fuel behaved during irradiation, and to examine fuel performance during exposure to elevated temperatures at or above temperatures that could occur during a depressurized conduction cooldown event. This report summarizes safety testing of irradiated AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1 in the ORNL Core Conduction Cooldown Test Facility (CCCTF) and post-safety testing PIE.

  6. Tratamiento del pie diabético en pacientes ancianos con Heberprot-P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís Solís Licea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El pie diabético constituye la complicación crónica de mayor morbimortalidad de la diabetes mellitus, significando un problema de salud internacional, del cual no escapa nuestro país y nuestro sistema de salud. Se realizó un estudio de tipo clínico observacional y descriptivo, con el objetivo de evaluar el resultado del tratamiento con Heberprot-P en pacientes con úlceras del pie diabético, en ancianos ingresados en el servicio de Angiología del Hospital General Docente “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna”, del municipio de Las Tunas, provincia de Las Tunas, en el período comprendido entre el 1ro de enero de 2010 al 31 de diciembre de 2011. Se estudiaron los pacientes según las variables de edad, localización de la lesión, resultado del tratamiento según la clasificación de Wagner y reacciones adversas presentadas. Con este estudio se pretende poner en manos del personal de la salud un material de consulta, que permita evaluar el tratamiento con Heberprot-P del pie diabético en el anciano.

  7. Carcass characteristics, meat quality, feeding behavior of Nelore heifers fed diets containing sunflower pie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Regina Alves

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the feeding behavior, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nelore heifers fed sunflower pie replacing cottonseed meal. They were used 30 heifers with average initial weight of 274 kg ± 28 kg and average age of 24 months, confined for 76 days. The design was completely randomized with five treatments (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 g kg-1 DM and six replicates per treatment. By completing 24 hours after slaughter, it evaluated muscle conformation and degree of finish made the longissimus dorsi at the 13th rib. A representative sample between the 10th and 12th ribs was collected for evaluation of the physical components of carcasses. As well as the other variables, the hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, carcass length and rib eye area were not influenced by different pie levels in feed. The mean percentage of muscle, bone and fat from the carcass were 53.45; 16.14 and 29.46%, respectively, similar among treatments. Therefore, the use of up to 600 g kg-1 of sunflower pie replacing cottonseed meal as the main protein source, did not affect the carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nelore heifers.

  8. Inhibition of transcription by the Caenorhabditis elegans germline protein PIE-1: genetic evidence for distinct mechanisms targeting initiation and elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dolan; Seydoux, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, specification of the germ lineage depends on PIE-1, a maternal protein that blocks mRNA transcription in germline blastomeres. Studies in mammalian cell culture have suggested that PIE-1 inhibits P-TEFb, a kinase that phosphorylates serine 2 in the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) repeats of RNA polymerase II during transcriptional elongation. We have tested this hypothesis using an in vivo complementation assay for PIE-1 function. Our results support the view that PIE-1 inhibits P-TEFb using the CTD-like motif YAPMAPT. This activity is required to block serine 2 phosphorylation in germline blastomeres, but unexpectedly is not essential for transcriptional repression or specification of the germline. We find that sequences outside of the YAPMAPT are required to inhibit serine 5 phosphorylation, and that this second inhibitory mechanism is essential for transcriptional repression and specification of the germ lineage. Our results suggest that PIE-1 uses partially redundant mechanisms to block transcription by targeting both the initiation and elongation phases of the transcription cycle.

  9. Detection of rhodopsin dimerization in situ by PIE-FCCS, a time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopsin self-associates in the plasma membrane. At low concentrations, the interactions are consistent with a monomer-dimer equilibrium (Comar et al., J Am Chem Soc 136(23):8342-8349, 2014). At high concentrations in native tissue, higher-order clusters have been observed (Fotiadis et al., Nature 421:127-128, 2003). The physiological role of rhodopsin dimerization is still being investigated, but it is clear that a quantitative assessment is essential to determining the function of rhodopsin clusters in vision. To quantify rhodopsin interactions, I will outline the theory and methodology of a specialized time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for measuring membrane protein-protein interactions called pulsed-interleaved excitation fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (PIE-FCCS). The strength of this technique is its ability to quantify rhodopsin interactions in situ (i.e., a live cell plasma membrane). There are two reasons for restricting the scope to live cell membranes. First, the compositional heterogeneity of the plasma membrane creates a complex milieu with thousands of lipid, protein, and carbohydrate species. This makes it difficult to infer quaternary interactions from detergent solubilized samples or construct a model phospholipid bilayer that recapitulates all of the interactions present in native membranes. Second, organizational structure and dynamics is a key feature of the plasma membrane, and fixation techniques like formaldehyde cross-linking and vitrification will modulate the interactions. PIE-FCCS is based on two-color fluorescence imaging with time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) (Becker et al., Rev Sci Instrum 70:1835-1841, 1999). By time-tagging every detected photon, the data can be analyzed as a fluorescence intensity distribution, fluorescence lifetime histogram, or fluorescence (cross-)correlation spectra (FCS/FCCS) (Becker, Advanced time-correlated single-photon counting techniques, Springer, Berlin, 2005). These

  10. Microsporidian infection in the pied peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novilla, M N

    1978-01-01

    A microsporidian infection was diagnosed in a pied peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) which had died after an illness of 2 days. The parasite was observed in the liver, kidney, and small intestine. Lesions were most severe in the liver, with numerous organisms adjacent to areas of hepatic necrosis. Although the organisms were seen within renal tubules and within the intestinal mucosa, inflammatory lesions in those sites were minimal. The microsporidian nature of the parasite was confirmed by morphologic studies. The genus of the organism was not determined.

  11. Preposition stranding versus pied-piping: Negative Shift of prepositional complements in dialects of Faroese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Engels

    2009-01-01

             These asymmetries will be accounted for within Fox and Pesetsky's (2003, 2005 cyclic linearization model, which requires non-string-vacuous movement to proceed through the left edge of Spell-out domains, deriving cross-linguistic variation as to Negative Shift from differences in the availability of these left-edge positions. Thereby, pied-piping is considered a last resort strategy, possible only if the prepositional complement cannot undergo Negative Shift on its own due to the unavailability of the relevant left-edge position.

  12. Educación para la Salud en un paciente con Pie Diabético

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introducción. La diabetes es una enfermedad crónica del metabolismo, caracterizada por un exceso de glucosa en sangre y orina. El mal control de la diabetes puede provocar la aparición de una serie de complicaciones, de las que, en este trabajo, se destaca el Pie Diabético. Material y métodos. Se trata de un caso clínico para el que se seleccionó a un paciente con Diabetes Mellitus tipo I y una úlcera diabética estadio I según la Escala de Wagner, sobre el que se aplica un p...

  13. El escafoides accesorio y su relación con el pie valgo-plano

    OpenAIRE

    Orrit Vilanova, Ignasi

    1997-01-01

    Se estudia la patología dolorosa, que en ocasiones, puede producir la existencia de un escafoides accesorio del tarso. Este hueso accesorio generalmente se une al escafoides con la maduración ósea, hacia la adolescencia, mediante un centro secundario de osificación, En ocasiones se vuelve doloroso cuando, en esta edad, existe un exceso de tracción del tendón del tibial posterior, el cual se inserta en este centro secundario de sificación; esto puede ser producido por la presencia de un pie va...

  14. Energy use in the bread, cake, pastry, and pie baking industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, A.C.; Earle, M.D.; Serrallach, G.F.

    1980-05-01

    A survey was carried out to determine energy consumption in the bread, cake, pastry, and pie baking industry. Information was obtained from 11 bread bakeries. Energy use in the bread bakeries over the period 1977/78 was found to average 2.45 MJ/kg of which 0.46 MJ/kg was electricity and the rest oven and boiler fuels. Process flow charts are shown. The purposes for which electricity are used are described. An energy consumption analysis is presented and energy conservation measures are described. (MCW)

  15. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans en el dorso del pie: a propósito de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    El dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans es un tumor de partes blandas poco frecuente, de etiología desconocida y crecimiento lento. Con una incidencia de metástasis inferior al 5%, presenta una tasa de recidivas superiores al 30%. Presentamos el caso de un dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans en el dorso del pie que requirió una amplia resección del tumor y la posterior cobertura mediante colgajo pediculado libre anterolateral de muslo. El paciente se encuentra tras 4 años libre de enfermed...

  16. Carry-over effects of conditions at the wintering grounds on breeding plumage signals in a migratory bird: roles of phenotypic plasticity and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvistö, P E; Calhim, S; Schuett, W; Sirkiä, P M; Velmala, W; Laaksonen, T

    2016-08-01

    To understand the consequences of ever-changing environment on the dynamics of phenotypic traits, distinguishing between selection processes and individual plasticity is crucial. We examined individual consistency/plasticity in several male secondary sexual traits expressed during the breeding season (white wing and forehead patch size, UV reflectance of white wing patch and dorsal melanin coloration) in a migratory pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) population over an 11-year period. Furthermore, we studied carry-over effects of three environmental variables (NAO, a climatic index; NDVI, a vegetation index; and rainfall) at the wintering grounds (during prebreeding moult) on the expression of these breeding plumage traits of pied flycatcher males at individual and population levels. Whereas NAO correlates negatively with moisture in West Africa, NDVI correlates positively with primary production. Forehead patch size and melanin coloration were highly consistent within individuals among years, whereas the consistency of the other two traits was moderate. Wing patch size decreased with higher NAO and increased with higher rainfall and NDVI at the individual level. Interestingly, small-patched males suffered lower survival during high NAO winters than large-patched males, and vice versa during low NAO winters. These counteracting processes meant that the individual-level change was masked at the population level where no relationship was found. Our results provide a good example of how variation in the phenotypic composition of a natural population can be a result of both environment-dependent individual plasticity and short-term microevolution. Moreover, when plasticity and viability selection operate simultaneously, their impacts on population composition may not be evident.

  17. Fitness consequences of northward dispersal as possible adaptation to climate change, using experimental translocation of a migratory passerine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Burger

    Full Text Available Climate change leads to rapid, differential changes in phenology across trophic levels, often resulting in temporal mismatches between predators and their prey. If a species cannot easily adjust its timing, it can adapt by choosing a new breeding location with a later phenology of its prey. In this study, we experimentally investigated whether long-distance dispersal to northern breeding grounds with a later phenology could be a feasible process to restore the match between timing of breeding and peak food abundance and thus improve reproductive success. Here, we report the successful translocation of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca to natural breeding sites 560 km to the Northeast. We expected translocated birds to have a fitness advantage with respect to environmental phenology, but to potentially pay costs through the lack of other locally adapted traits. Translocated individuals started egg laying 11 days earlier than northern control birds, which were translocated only within the northern site. The number of fledglings produced was somewhat lower in translocated birds, compared to northern controls, and fledglings were in lower body condition. Translocated individuals were performing not significantly different to control birds that remained at the original southern site. The lack of advantage of the translocated individuals most likely resulted from the exceptionally cold spring in which the experiment was carried out. Our results, however, suggest that pied flycatchers can successfully introduce their early breeding phenotype after dispersing to more northern areas, and thus that adaptation through dispersal is a viable option for populations that get locally maladapted through climate change.

  18. Quadriceps and patellar tendon pie-crusting as a treatment for limited flexion in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, J Ross; Sanchez, Hugo B; Wagner, Russell A

    2014-04-01

    The pie-crusting method of ligament and tendon lengthening has been used successfully in various tissues but is not reported in the literature as an option for patellar or quadriceps tendons to address flexion limitation. Our case report discusses a patient with longstanding flexion limitation who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. The report reviews the literature on intraoperative treatments, which primarily pertains to the condition of patella baja, and demonstrates that the pie-crusting technique should be included as a treatment option for a tight extensor mechanism while having some advantages over tibial tubercle osteotomy or Z-plasty.

  19. Detección precoz de patologías de pie en la infancia y su abordaje kinesico

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    Los pies representan en el cuerpo humano, la base de sustentación sobre la que se sostiene todo su peso. Objetivo: El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo general detectar cuáles son las patologías de pie presentes en niños de edad escolar entre seis y once años, en las escuelas públicas en la ciudad de Lezama. Material y Métodos: La muestra estuvo representada por 80 niños. Se tomaron encuestas individuales personalizadas y la huella plantar de los niños a través de una p...

  20. Pie waste - A component of food waste and a renewable substrate for producing ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, Margaret; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Jayanthi, Singaram; Balan, Venkatesh

    2017-04-01

    Sugar-rich food waste is a sustainable feedstock that can be converted into ethanol without an expensive thermochemical pretreatment that is commonly used in first and second generation processes. In this manuscript we have outlined the pie waste conversion to ethanol through a two-step process, namely, enzyme hydrolysis using commercial enzyme products mixtures and microbial fermentation using yeast. Optimized enzyme cocktail was found to be 45% alpha amylase, 45% gamma amylase, and 10% pectinase at 2.5mg enzyme protein/g glucan produced a hydrolysate with high glucose concentration. All three solid loadings (20%, 30%, and 40%) produced sugar-rich hydrolysates and ethanol with little to no enzyme or yeast inhibition. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process mass balance was carried out using pie waste on a 1000g dry weight basis that produced 329g ethanol at 20% solids loading. This process clearly demonstrate how food waste could be efficiently converted to ethanol that could be used for making biodiesel by reacting with waste cooking oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Apósitos de quitosano para el tratamiento de pie diabético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Josefina Velazco Viloria

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se demuestra la efectividad de los apósitos de quitosano para el tratamiento de pie diabético. Para ello se seleccionó un paciente de 48 años de edad, diabético tipo II, con una lesión en la zona dorsal del pie derecho. El tratamiento consistió en la aplicación de apósitos a base de sales de acetato de quitosano. El procedimiento se desarrolló en tres fases con una duración total de cuarenta y cinco dias. Los resultados demuestran la efectividad de las sales de quitosano para este tratamiento, manifestando evidente reepitelización y cicatrización completa del tejido en el lapso de tiempo planteado. Chitosan films for the diabetic foot treatment Abstract In this clinical case, the effectivity of chitosan films for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers is evaluated. For this purpose, a 48 year old patient was selected, type 2 diabetic, with a lesion in the dorsal area of his right foot. Treatment was based on the application of the chitosan films. The whole procedure took 45 days, which were divided in 3 phases. The results demonstrated the effectivity of the chitosan salts for the treatment of this complication, which seems to aid in the reepithelization and complete healing during the elapsed time.

  2. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella infections associated with frozen pot pies--United States, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-28

    On June 6, 2007, a cluster of four human Salmonella serotype I 4,5,12:i:-* infections sharing a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern was identified by the Pennsylvania Department of Health and reported to PulseNet. Initial investigations conducted during June--September 2007 by state and local health departments in collaboration with CDC did not identify a source of infection. This report summarizes the results of subsequent investigations of the outbreak, which determined that 401 cases of salmonellosis occurred in 41 states during 2007, with 32% of ill persons hospitalized. A multistate case-control study conducted during October 3-13 indicated that illness was associated with consumption of Banquet brand frozen, not-ready-to-eat pot pies (odds ratio = 23.6; poutbreak strain was isolated from 13 samples of unopened Banquet pot pies collected from the homes of patients. This outbreak highlights the need to cook not-ready-to-eat frozen foods thoroughly; these products should be clearly labeled as requiring complete cooking, and cooking instructions should be validated to account for variability in microwave wattage and common misconceptions among consumers regarding the nature of not-ready-to-eat foods.

  3. The relationship of family characteristics and bipolar disorder using causal-pie models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-C; Kao, C-F; Lu, M-K; Yang, Y-K; Liao, S-C; Jang, F-L; Chen, W J; Lu, R-B; Kuo, P-H

    2014-01-01

    Many family characteristics were reported to increase the risk of bipolar disorder (BPD). The development of BPD may be mediated through different pathways, involving diverse risk factor profiles. We evaluated the associations of family characteristics to build influential causal-pie models to estimate their contributions on the risk of developing BPD at the population level. We recruited 329 clinically diagnosed BPD patients and 202 healthy controls to collect information in parental psychopathology, parent-child relationship, and conflict within family. Other than logistic regression models, we applied causal-pie models to identify pathways involved with different family factors for BPD. The risk of BPD was significantly increased with parental depression, neurosis, anxiety, paternal substance use problems, and poor relationship with parents. Having a depressed mother further predicted early onset of BPD. Additionally, a greater risk for BPD was observed with higher numbers of paternal/maternal psychopathologies. Three significant risk profiles were identified for BPD, including paternal substance use problems (73.0%), maternal depression (17.6%), and through poor relationship with parents and conflict within the family (6.3%). Our findings demonstrate that different aspects of family characteristics elicit negative impacts on bipolar illness, which can be utilized to target specific factors to design and employ efficient intervention programs.

  4. EC as PIE: five criteria for executing a successful DNP final project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Julee; Caruso, Diane; Fuchs, Mary Ann; Hypes, Kathe

    2014-01-01

    The goal of doctor of nursing practice (DNP) programs should be to produce nurses that are uniquely prepared to bridge the gap between the discovery of new knowledge and the scholarship of translation, application, and integration of this new knowledge in practice (American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN], 2006). However, there is concern over the variability in DNP programs and expected outcomes. The aim of this article is to describe a 5-point system of evaluation to determine whether a DNP final project meets the outcomes of the AACN Essentials of Doctoral Education in Advanced Nursing Practice (2006) in a comprehensive and rigorous way. In brief, the five criteria that must be met are represented by the acronym EC as PIE (E = Enhances; C = Culmination; P = Partnerships; I = Implements; E = Evaluates). Each criterion must be present and come together to form one complete "pie" representing evidence-based practice that is robust and innovative, culminating in a rigorous doctoral level DNP final project. In addition, we provide detailed examples of how these standards are currently being successfully implemented and discuss additional possibilities.

  5. PIE on Safety-Tested Loose Particles from Irradiated Compact 4-4-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gerczak, Tyler J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Morris, Robert Noel [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baldwin, Charles A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Fred C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) is being performed in support of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel development and qualification for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). This work is sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) through the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Office under the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program. The AGR-1 experiment was the first in a series of TRISO fuel irradiation tests initiated in 2006. The AGR-1 TRISO particles and fuel compacts were fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2006 using laboratory-scale equipment and irradiated for 3 years in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to demonstrate and evaluate fuel performance under HTGR irradiation conditions. Post-irradiation examination was performed at INL and ORNL to study how the fuel behaved during irradiation, and to test fuel performance during exposure to elevated temperatures at or above temperatures that could occur during a depressurized conduction cooldown event. This report summarizes safety testing and post-safety testing PIE conducted at ORNL on loose particles extracted from irradiated AGR-1 Compact 4-4-2.

  6. Stuffed Turkey and Pumpkin Pie: In, Through and Out of American Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Kohn

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the meanings embedded in the production, consumption, and symbolic positioning of turkey and pumpkin pie, foods closely associated with the American ritual feast of Thanksgiving. An analysis of turkey and pumpkin pie recipes used and adapted by first- and second-generation immigrants in north America, and by north Americans living abroad, throws into relief complex relations between food production, food consumption and the complexities of lived and often multiple sociocultural identifications. Through sharing the experiences, memories and associations evoked by individuals in the production of holiday recipes, I argue that ideas about ‘tradition’ and a desire to celebrate family and community through the ritual of baking, serving and consuming a ‘standard’ Thanksgiving holiday meal allow one to feel part of an imagined global American community. At the same time these details demonstrate celebration of individual and familial distinctiveness that is traced to (sometimes contested memories of childhood and/or ethnic background, as well as to exploration, innovation and experience in the world at large through travel, migration and imagination.

  7. Foot and ankle instability in flamenco dancing. Inestabilidad del pie y tobillo en el baile flamenco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Vargas-Macías

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The foot is one of the most susceptible areas to get injured in flamenco dancing, due to footwork, characteristics of footwear and heel height. The aim of this article is to analyze the execution of high speed footwork in foot and/or ankle instability for determining differences regarding dance shoes. Ten professional flamenco dancers have taken part in this investigation, 5 female dancers (29,6+4,7 years, 55+3,5 kg, 163,8+7,3 cm and 5 male dancers (25,2+1,30 years, 61,4+7,2 kg, 171+3,1 cm. The participants had to repeat a dancing sequence consisting of 6 footworks for 15 s. This taping combined 4 different techniques. This sequence was repeated with both feet as many times as possible. The amount of footworks realized have been measured (female 171,2+7,40; male 180,6+11,8 as well as the percentage of cases carried out with ankle instability (female 9,2+1,3%; male 26,1+9,1%. Despite the female dance shoe has a higher heel, which is more associated to skin, toe and structural foot injuries, it is more stable than the flamenco boot. This is due to the necessary boot looseness to be put on/off, which causes a worse foot stability and more imbalance situations during the footwork.El pie es una de las zonas más susceptibles de lesión en el baile flamenco debido al gesto de zapateado, características del calzado y altura del tacón. El objetivo de este artículo es observar la ejecución de zapateados en situación de inestabilidad del pie y/o tobillo, para determinar diferencias en función del calzado de baile. Han participado en el estudio 10 profesionales de baile flamenco, 5 bailaoras (29,6+4,7 años, 55+3,5 kg, 163,8+7,3 cm y 5 bailaores (25,2+1,30 años, 61,4+7,2 kg, 171+3,1 cm. Los participantes debían repetir durante 15 s una secuencia de baile de 6 zapateados, que combinaban 4 gestos técnicos. Esta secuencia se repetía con ambos pies el mayor número de veces posible. Se han contabilizado el número zapateados realizados (bailaoras 171

  8. Apple pie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    美国人很喜欢吃apple pie,它是一种用烤箱制作的甜点,外面是一层面粉,里面是用苹果做的馅儿。汉语中把appie pie翻译成“苹果派”。据说苹果派起源于欧洲,但现在它已成为典型的美式食品。苹果派的流行使美国成了世界上最大的苹果生产国。

  9. Parasitism, productivity, and population growth: response of Least Bell's Vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) to cowbird (Molothrus spp.) control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Barbara E.; Whitfield, Mary J.

    2005-01-01

    Cowbird (Molothrus spp.) control is a major focus of recovery-oriented management of two endangered riparian bird species,the Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). During the past 20 years, annual trapping of cowbirds at Least Bell's Vireo and Southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding sites has eliminated or reduced parasitism in comparison with pretrapping rates and, thereby, significantly increased seasonal productivity of nesting pairs. Enhanced productivity, in turn, has resulted in an 8-fold increase in numbers of Least Bell's Vireos; Southwestern Willow Flycatcher abundance, however, has changed little, and at some sites has declined despite cowbird control. Although generally successful by these short-term measures of host population response, cowbird control poses potential negative consequences for long-term recovery of endangered species. As currently employed, cowbird control lacks predetermined biological criteria to trigger an end to the control, making these species' dependence on human intervention open-ended. Prolonged reliance on cowbird control to manage endangered species can shift attention from identifying and managing other factors that limit populations--in particular, habitat availability. On the basis of our analysis of these long-term programs, we suggest that cowbird control be reserved for short-term crisis management and be replaced, when appropriate, by practices emphasizing restoration and maintenance of natural processes on which species depend. /// El manejo orientado hacia la recuperación de dos especies de aves ribereñas Vireo belli pusillus y Empidonax trailli extimus se ha focalizado principalmente en el control de los Molothrus spp parásitos. Durante los pasados 20 años, la captura anual de los Molothrus en las áreas de nidificación de Vireo belli pusillus y Empidonax trailli extimus ha eliminado o reducido el parasitismo en comparación con las tasas

  10. A Comparison of Learning Management Systems in a School District: Searching for the Ideal Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Zahide; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Kwon, Seolim; Kageto, Yuichi; Shao, Zihang

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the use of several learning management systems (LMS), their benefits, and their limitations in relation to the desired characteristics of an ideal Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES) for the information age. A qualitative research design was used. The participants of the study were teachers, administrators, and…

  11. Difficult Dialogues, Privilege and Social Justice: Uses of the Privileged Identity Exploration (PIE) Model in Student Affairs Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Sherry K.

    2007-01-01

    This article will introduce the Privileged Identity Exploration (PIE) Model. This model identifies eight (8) defense modes associated with behaviors individuals display when engaged in difficult dialogues about social justice issues. Implications for the model and ways it can be used to assist facilitators as they engage participants in…

  12. [Comparative analysis of Ayrshire and Black Pied cattle breeds by histocompatibility markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udina, I G; Karamysheva, E E; Sulimova, G E; Pavlenko, S P; Turkova, S O; Orlova, A R; Ernst, L K

    1998-12-01

    Distribution of BoLA-A antigens and BoLA-DRB3 alleles was studied by means of the microlymphocytotoxic test (BoLA-A) and the PCR-RFLP method (BoLA-DRB3) using restriction endonucleases RSAI, HaeIII, and XhoII in Ayrshire (n = 127) and Black Pied (n = 129) cattle breeds. Comparative analysis of profiles for class I antigens revealed significant differences in the frequencies of antigens W2, W6, W10, W31, W44, W15, and W19 (P > 99%). The studied breeds also differ in the spectrum of BoLA-DRB3 alleles and distribution of their frequencies. Heterogeneous allele frequency profile was detected in Ayrshire cattle: five of 18 detected alleles (DRB3.2*7, *8, *10, *24, and *28) accounted for 77%. Allele DRB3.2*7 (37.6%), which is classed with rare alleles in Black Pied cattle is the most common in Ayrshire cattle. The observed heterozygosity level in the combined sample of Black Pied breed (0.836) is higher than in Ayrshire breed (0.070). In both breeds, the heterozygosity level was studied in the groups of healthy and ill with persistent lymphocytosis (caused by bovine leukemia virus) animals and in the group of virus carriers in Ayrshire breed. In ill animals, a decrease in the observed heterozygosity level was detected, as compared to healthy animals and the expected heterozygosity level. The observed heterozygosity level exceeds the expected one in virus carriers. The detected features of the heterozygosity level in the studied groups allow the heterozygosity level for locus BoLA-DRB3 to be considered a nonspecific factor of resistance to leukemia and are heterozygous animals to have higher resistance to bovine leukemia. The presence of a larger proportion of highly productive animals (the annual productivity of more than 7000 kg) in the group of ill Ayrshire cattle animals, as compared to healthy animals to established. To increase resistance to bovine leukemia, the obtained data indicate the importance of the control of heterozygosity level and genetic diversity for

  13. Comparación de la actividad de determinados músculos del tronco y extremidades inferiores en la marcha de mujeres jóvenes con pie en supinación, pronación y neutro

    OpenAIRE

    Khodaveisi, Hamideh; Sadeghi, Haydar; Memar, Raghad; Anbarian, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

      Los cambios en la estructura anatómica del pie reducen su capacidad de funcionamiento normal. Este estudio tuvo por objetivo comparar determinados músculos del tronco y de las extremidades inferiores durante la marcha en individuos con distintos tipos de pie. Se clasificaron 45 estudiantes femeninas en 3 grupos, según la estructura de sus pies, es decir, en pronación, supinación y neutro. Un médico especialista definió los tipos de pie según el índice postural del pie y rayos X. Se registra...

  14. Pie diabético: Evolución en una serie de 121 pacientes

    OpenAIRE

    IRIBARREN B,OSVALDO; PASSIM,GABRIELA; AYBAR M,NATALIA; RÍOS M,PAULO; GONZÁLEZ A,LAIN; ROJAS G,MARCO A; SAAVEDRA P,FERNANDO

    2007-01-01

    Cohorte única de 121 pacientes portadores de pie diabético (PD) tratados entre 1998 y 2005. Se analiza la evolución, a través de incidencia de cicatrización, recidiva, amputación al año, a los tres años y letalidad. El origen del PDfue predominantemente neuropático en 52 pacientes (43%), predominantemente isquémico en 44 (36.4%) y mixto en 25 casos (20.6%). En 78 casos (64.5%) había infección asociada. Las lesiones mayores que Wagner 1 tuvieron cicatrización significativamente menor, p < 0.05...

  15. Statement-Pie: a strategy to improve the paragraph writing skills of adolescents with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, G W; Bott, D A

    1989-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of teaching a metacognitive text structure strategy upon the paragraph writing skills of eighth-grade students with learning disabilities. The technique, called Statement-Pie (Hanau, 1974), teaches students to understand the relationship of supporting details to a main idea. Four students were taught to use an outline as a paragraph planning guide, which they then used to convert information into written expository paragraphs. All subjects reached instructional outcome criterion on the writing of comparison/contrast and sequence paragraphs. One week after reaching mastery in the special education classroom, students generalized their paragraph writing skills to other teachers and to different classrooms. The results of this investigation indicate that when provided with direct, intensive instruction in a text structure strategy, adolescents with learning disabilities can improve their skills in paragraph writing.

  16. Population number and distribution of oriental pied hornbill in Guangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yik Fui Philip Lo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris albirostris is a State Protected Species and also an important seed dispersal agent in Tropical Asia. Recent studies show that the range of oriental piedhornbill in Guangxi has decreased significantly in the last decades. During the 1970s the species was widespread along the Sino-Vietnamese border but since the 2000s it has been confined to only three isolated areas. Although the population has declined substantially, Xidamingshan still supports the largest hornbill population known in Guangxi. In order to understand the current status of the species in Guangxi, China, we conducted a simultaneous population survey in Xidamingshan Nature Reserve in 2009. At least, fifty birds were recorded during survey and 124 plant species are identified as potential food source of the bird. Human disturbance and hunting are the main threats to the species in Guangxi. Further research and conservation of the species are urgently required.

  17. En cajones y cajas llegaban pies, manos y mascarillas metálicas...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Ángel Casas

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Se define como imaginería todas las representaciones plásticas de Dios o de cada uno de los santos, realizadas en esculturas (o estatuas de bulto redondo o medio bulto, comprendiendo las propiamente escultóricas, como también aquellas otras fabricadas mediante los procesos mecánicos de vaciados y moldes con metales calientes y en estado líquido. Entre las distintas imágenes religiosas, quizá las de vestir fueran las más singulares. Éstas constaban de varias partes. Unas correspondientes al torso, para el que se empleaban estructuras, esqueletos o armazones de madera, sencillos o complejos, que finalmente recubrían de drapeados, túnicas o ropajes. Otras a los pies y las manos, de madera o metal, y por supuesto las del rostros de mascarilla metálica importada.

  18. Biomechanical validation of medial pie-crusting for soft-tissue balancing in knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalko, William M; Woodard, Erik L; Hebert, Casey T; Crockarell, John R; Williams, John L

    2015-02-01

    Balancing a varus knee is traditionally accomplished by releasing the medial soft-tissue sleeve off the tibia. Recently, "pie-crusting" (PC) medial structures has been described. In a biomechanical cadaver study we compared PC to traditional release (TR) to determine their effects on flexion and extension gaps. PC was done in five specimens along the anterior half of the medial soft-tissue sleeve and five along the posterior half, followed by a traditional release. In 90° flexion, valgus laxity after TR was significantly greater than after PC alone. PC of the anterior or posterior aspect of the medial soft-tissue sleeve can effect changes more in flexion than in extension, respectively. Complete TR did not provide more gap opening than PC in extension, but produced more effect in flexion.

  19. Variable step size and order strategy for delay differential equations in PIE(CIE)s mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Nurul Huda Abdul; Majid, Zanariah Abdul

    2014-12-01

    This article deals with the strategy of variable step size and variable order implementation that has been formulated for solving first order of delay differential equations. This strategy is adapted in PIE(CIE)s mode which is generally based on predictor-corrector scheme in multistep block method of order 4 to 9 with s is for convergence test. The purpose here is to enhance the efficiency of the developed predictor-corrector algorithm in the capability to vary automatically not only for the step size, but the order of the method employed as well. All order and coefficients are stored in the code in order to avoid an expensive computational work. The delay argument would be evaluated using Newton divided-difference interpolation at which the points involved would be similar to the current order of the method. Illustrative examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the presented strategy and comparison is made with the existing results.

  20. Whole-genome resequencing of extreme phenotypes in collared flycatchers highlights the difficulty of detecting quantitative trait loci in natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Marty; Husby, Arild; McFarlane, S Eryn; Qvarnström, Anna; Ellegren, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Dissecting the genetic basis of phenotypic variation in natural populations is a long-standing goal in evolutionary biology. One open question is whether quantitative traits are determined only by large numbers of genes with small effects, or whether variation also exists in large-effect loci. We conducted genomewide association analyses of forehead patch size (a sexually selected trait) on 81 whole-genome-resequenced male collared flycatchers with extreme phenotypes, and on 415 males sampled independent of patch size and genotyped with a 50K SNP chip. No SNPs were genomewide statistically significantly associated with patch size. Simulation-based power analyses suggest that the power to detect large-effect loci responsible for 10% of phenotypic variance was 0.8 for resequencing of extreme phenotypes (N = 243), but power remained 0.8 when analysing 415 randomly sampled phenotypes. However, power of the 50K SNP chip to detect large-effect loci was nearly 0.8 in simulations with a small effective population size of 1500. These results suggest that reliably detecting large-effect trait loci in large natural populations will often require thousands of individuals and near complete sampling of the genome. Encouragingly, far fewer individuals and loci will often be sufficient to reliably detect large-effect loci in small populations with widespread strong linkage disequilibrium.

  1. Diet of the Fuscous Flycatcher Cnemotriccus fuscatus (Wied, 1831 – Aves, Tyrannidae - in three habitats of the northern Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Gaiotti

    Full Text Available The Fuscous Flycatcher (Cnemotriccus fuscatus is a medium-sized Tyrannidae widespread in South America. Despite its large distribution, there have been very few studies on its diet, especially in different habitats. This study presents data on diet variation in three habitats in the Pantanal wetlands in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The specimens were captured through a mist-netting programme between February 2000 and May 2010, in the Retiro Novo Farm, in the Poconé municipality. Birds were captured in three vegetation types: Landizal, Cambarazal and Cordilheira. Tartar emetic was used to obtain the regurgitation samples identified at order level. We captured 61 individuals (21, 26 and 14 in the above described habitats, respectively. Diet of C. fuscatus differed between the three habitats. Ants and beetles were the most relevant prey items either in numerical frequency (NF or in frequency of occurrence (OF, in terms of the overall diet (NF = 27.34% and 37.89%; OF = 36.06% and 75.4%, respectively. However, in Cordilheira, seeds and beetles dominated the NF (21.8% and 38.1%, respectively and OF (28.5% and 85.7%, respectively. Cnemotriccus fuscatus was found to have an omnivorous diet, although in Cambarazal, individuals preyed exclusively on arthropods. The present study provides an important contribution to the knowledge of the diet of a poorly studied Neotropical bird.

  2. Natural selection acts in opposite ways on correlated hormonal mediators of prenatal maternal effects in a wild bird population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Postma, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Doligez, Blandine

    2014-01-01

    Maternal hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects. Although many experimental studies have demonstrated their potency in shaping offspring phenotypes, we know remarkably little about their adaptive value. Using long-term data on a wild collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis)

  3. Density dependence of avian clutch size in resident and migrant species: is there a constraint on the predictability of competitor density?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of density dependence of clutch size is tested in 57 long-term population studies of 10 passerine bird species. In about half of the studies of tit species Parus spp. density dependence of clutch size was found, while none was found in studies of two flycatcher species Ficedula spp. One

  4. Application of large-scale computing infrastructure for diverse environmental research applications using GC3Pie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffioletti, Sergio; Dawes, Nicholas; Bavay, Mathias; Sarni, Sofiane; Lehning, Michael

    2013-04-01

    , execute location-based subroutines at each grid point and store the results back into the central repository for post-processing. An optional extension of this infrastructure will be to provide a 'ring buffer'-type database infrastructure, such that model results (e.g. test runs made to check parameter dependency or for development) can be visualised and downloaded after completion without submitting them to a permanent storage infrastructure. Data organization Data collected from sensors are archived and classified in distributed sites connected with an open-source software middleware, GSN. Publicly available data are available through common web services and via a cloud storage server (based on Swift). Collocation of the data and processing in the cloud would eventually eliminate data transfer requirements. Execution control logic Execution of the data analysis pipelines (for both the R-based analysis and the Alpine3D simulations) has been implemented using the GC3Pie framework developed by UZH. (https://code.google.com/p/gc3pie/). This allows large-scale, fault-tolerant execution of the pipelines to be described in terms of software appliances. GC3Pie also allows supervision of the execution of large campaigns of appliances as a single simulation. This poster will present the fundamental architectural components of the data analysis pipelines together with initial experimental results.

  5. Estudio presurométrico y biomecánico del pie en el pádel

    OpenAIRE

    Priego, J.I.; Olaso Melis, J.; Llana-Belloch, S.; Pérez-Soriano, P.; González García, J.C.; Sanchís Almenara, M.

    2014-01-01

    El pádel es un deporte muy practicado en países como España, Argentina y Brasil, pero existen poco artículos científicos que muestren la lesividad de su práctica. Los movimientos más frecuentes del pádel pueden incidir de forma lesiva en el pie y en la articulación del tobillo. Por ello el objetivo del presente estudio fue profundizar en el análisis del rol del pie en la ejecución de los movimientos más representativos del pádel mediante técnicas de video y de presurometría. El estudio fue di...

  6. Effect of the enriched filter pie with natural phosphate and microorganisms on soil and plant in a Vermelho-Distrófico Latossolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leónides Castellanos González

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to evaluate the use of filter pie and phosphate rock enriched with biofertilizer microorganisms on the population of microorganisms and phosphorus tenor in the soil and on plants. The experiment was conducted in a vegetation house with corn plants with Latossolo Red-Distrófico, containing seven treatments disposed in an entirely randomized design, where the treatments were: soil samples and filter pie with additions of phosphate of Araxá rock enriched with microorganisms coming from Biopack (1, Embrafos (2 and Azotofos (3, and without enrichment with microorganisms (4, and three controls, soil just with filter pie (5, soil just with phosphate rock (6 and only soil (7, with three repetitions. Height, stem diameter and number of leaves for plants were evaluated at 14, 28 and 42 days. At the 45 days the dry matters of leafs and roots were evaluated, as the same as populations of the microorganisms and phosphorus tenor in the soil and in the aerial part of the plant. The tenor of soluble phosphorus in the soil and accumulated phosphorous in the aerial part of corn plan were increased by the treatments with filter pie but not higher with filter pie enriched with biofertilizers, so its use isn’t justified. The pie treatments increase the fungus, total and solubilizers bacterial populations in the soil, provoking an increase of the height, diameter, number of leaves and dry matter of corn plants in a Red-Distrófico Latossolo.

  7. PieSanto, empresa valenciana de calzado, reorienta su producto al nuevo consumidor "mujer sénior"

    OpenAIRE

    Marzo Rosello, Raquel; López Vicente, Mª Amparo; Gamón Sanz, Alejandro; Soriano Garcia, Carolina; GONZALEZ GARCIA, JUAN CARLOS; Solves Camallonga, Clara; SUCH PÉREZ, MARÍA JOSÉ; POVEDA PUENTE, RAKEL

    2011-01-01

    [EN] Not only elderly population has increased, but they have also changed their consumer profile in relation to the past. Over 25% of the sales of products and services of great consumption are focused to them. Something is changing into his habits of purchase, which turns them into a very attractive sector for the business world. Instituto de Biomecánica (IBV) has applied innovative methodologies of design oriented to the persons to the products of PieSanto, a co...

  8. The strategy for numerical solving of PIES without explicit calculation of singular integrals in 2D potential problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerszeń, Krzysztof; Zieniuk, Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a strategy for numerical solving of parametric integral equation system (PIES) for 2D potential problems without explicit calculation of singular integrals. The values of these integrals will be expressed indirectly in terms of easy to compute non-singular integrals. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is investigated with the example of potential problem modeled by the Laplace equation. The strategy simplifies the structure of the program with good the accuracy of the obtained solutions.

  9. Acciones educativas de prevención del pie diabético Educational actions to prevent diabetic foot complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vejerano García

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available La Diabetes Mellitus y sus complicaciones son causas de hospitalización, invalidez y afectación económica. Este trabajo hace referencia a la experiencia camagüeyana en prevención, seguimiento y control del pie diabético. Dicha experiencia demostró que la pobre educación para prevenir las complicaciones del pie diabético, se convierte en un factor de riesgo sociocultural modificable. Una consulta de mayor alcance como la Clínica del Pie Diabético, pone al territorio en condiciones ventajosas para atender la transición epidemiológica de la diabetes y sus complicaciones.Diabetes Mellitus and its complications are causes of hospitalization, disability, and financial problems. This paper deals with the experience in prevention, monitoring, and control of diabetic foot in the province of Camagüey. This experience proved that a poor education in the prevention of diabetic foot complications is a modifiable sociocultural risk factor. As an example of more comprehensive consultation, the Diabetic Foot Clinic has benefitted the territory in the assistance of Diabetes Mellitus and its complications.

  10. Relating the effects of protein type and content in increased-protein cheese pies to consumers' perception of satiating capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano, J; Varela, P; Fiszman, S

    2015-02-01

    Since proteins have been shown to have the highest satiation-inducing effects of all the macronutrients, increasing the protein level is one of the main strategies for designing foods with enhanced satiating capacity. However, few studies analyze the effect that protein addition has on the texture and flavor characteristics of the target food item to relate it to the expected satiating capacity it elicits. The present work studied cheese pies with three levels of soy and whey proteins. Since the protein level altered the rheological behavior of the batters before baking and the texture of the baked pies, the feasibility of adding several protein levels for obtaining a range of final products was investigated. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire containing 32 sensory and non-sensory characteristics of the samples was given to consumers (n = 131) who also scored the perceived samples' satiating capacity. The results showed that the type and content of protein contributed distinctive sensory characteristics to the samples that could be related to their satiating capacity perception. Harder and drier samples (high protein levels) were perceived as more satiating with less perceptible sweet and milky cheese pie characteristic flavors. Soy contributed an off-flavour. These results will contribute to a better understanding of the interrelation of all these factors, aiding the development of highly palatable solid foods with enhanced satiating capacities.

  11. Pied piper effect of the migration arena in northeastern China on Mythimna separata (Walker)%东北迁飞场对粘虫的Pied piper效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘蕾; 武向文; 陈晓; 姜玉英; 曾娟; 翟保平

    2014-01-01

    我国2代粘虫的回迁过程和3代粘虫的种群构成还少有研究,东北与华北3代粘虫的虫源问题也不清楚。为此,需厘清2代粘虫发生区的风场动态和迁出种群的去向,明确东北粘虫夏季迁出种群与华北3代粘虫的虫源关系。根据国家气象信息中心的高空气象记录,统计东北和华北地区夏季各方位风向的频次和平均出现频率,利用HYSPLIT平台模拟东北粘虫夏季迁出种群的迁飞轨迹和落点分布。东北和华北地区7、8月的风向均以西南、南风为主且因气旋频繁过境而风向多变,不利于东北粘虫夏季种群回迁进入华北农作区;而对其迁出种群的轨迹模拟结果也表明,东北粘虫夏季种群能够进入华北的可能性极低:它们或迁入更北的无法生存的山区,或未能成功跨海而死亡,抑或迁入朝鲜半岛成为当地的虫源(同样无法越冬),还有一部分滞留东北地区继续为害一代后因气候原因死亡,而只有在极少数风向风速条件适宜的情况下才有可能进入河北。东北地区的夏季风场不利于东北粘虫的回迁,华北3代粘虫的种群构成与东北夏季种群几无关系,东北迁飞场表现出显著的Pied piper效应。%Objectives Little is known about the return migration process of the 2nd generation and source populations of the 3rd generation of armyworm, Mythimna separata, in northern and northeastern China. To understand the source-sink relationships between inter-regional armyworm populations, it is necessary to identify the synoptic wind fields and clarify the immigration areas of the summer exodus population in northeastern China. [Methods] The frequency of summer winds in eight directions from 1981 to 2000 were calculated with radiosonde data provided by National Meteorological Service Center of China, and the distribution of the end points of migration trajectories of the emigrant armyworm populations was

  12. Retrospective multicenter evaluation of the "fly-catching syndrome" in 24 dogs: EEG, BAER, MRI, CSF findings and response to antiepileptic and antidepressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzosek, Marcin; Płonek, Marta; Nicpoń, Józef; Cizinauskas, Sigitas; Pakozdy, Akos

    2015-12-01

    The fly-catching syndrome (FCS) is a rare canine condition of sudden, occasional, or constant episodes of biting the air. It may be accompanied by jumping, licking, and swallowing. The etiology of FCS is unknown and controversial. Various explanations for its occurrence have included epileptoid disorders such as visual cortex epileptiform disturbances and simple and complex partial seizures as well as compulsive disorders, hallucinatory behavior, and stereotypy. A retrospective multicenter analysis of 24 dogs with clinical symptoms of FCS is presented. Clinical signs at the time of presentation, the mean age at onset of the disease, the response to treatment, and the clinical outcome were recorded and analyzed in all patients. All dogs underwent clinical, neurological, and otoscopic examinations. Complete blood cell counts (CBCs) and serum chemistry panels were obtained from each dog. Diagnostic testing included MRI and EEG examinations in 21 cases, BAER in 19 cases, and CSF analysis in 20 cases. The EEG revealed spike activity in 8 (38%) of the 21 cases, 7 of which had activity in the occipital lobes. The brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) revealed three cases of bilateral deafness. The MRI revealed six cases of Chiari malformation (CM), one case of syringohydromyelia (SM), and one case of a falx cerebri meningioma. The dogs were divided into groups according to their treatment protocol. Group A included dogs treated with phenobarbital (PB), and group B consisted of dogs treated with fluoxetine (FLX). Thirty-six percent of the dogs in group A responded to PB, while 100% of the dogs in group B responded to FLX. The results suggest that FCS is more responsive to FLX than PB. However, the etiology of this behavior remains unclear in most cases.

  13. Environmental evaluation of the PIES Trendlong Mid-Mid Scenario: Federal Region VII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Findings of the environmental impact evaluation of the PIES TRENDLONG MID-MID Scenario for Federal Region VII (Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, and Missouri) are reported. Projected coal-fired utility expansion could be constrained in several areas because of projected TSP and SO/sub 2/ National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) violations. Problems will be most pronounced in Iowa and Kansas, but could be incurred in any state in the region. Large coal and nuclear facilities projected for parts of Region VII may experience water availability problems. The Smokey Hill River in Kansas, the Skunk River in Iowa, and the Platte River in Nebraska may have limited water supplies for operating the projected increases in fossil fuel and nuclear generating facilities. Coal surface mining in Missouri (21,000 acres may be disturbed from 1975 to 1990) may create land-use conflicts. Region VII may not have the facilities or legal framework for mitigating the negative socioeconomic impacts that are projected to occur from the proposed energy development. Therefore, the potential for severe and pervasive socioeconomic impacts is great.

  14. Diagnóstico prenatal del pie bot Prenatal diagnosis of clubfoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Javier Masquijo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El pie bot es una de las anomalías músculo- esqueléticas congénitas más frecuentes. La utilización de la ecografía para la detección prenatal del pie bot ha avanzado rápidamente en la última década, pero las publicaciones han presentado una gran variabilidad de opiniones en cuanto a la eficacia del método, la asociación con otras patologías y la necesidad de realizar amniocentesis para análisis del cariotipo. Objetivos. Analizar en qué porcentaje de pacientes se realizó diagnóstico prenatal del pie bot, evaluar la opinión de las madres al respecto y aclarar algunos conceptos revisando la bibliografía disponible a la fecha. Métodos. Se analizó retrospectivamente un grupo de 54 pacientes consecutivos con diagnóstico de pie bot tratados en el período enero 2008-junio 2010. Se documentaron el número de ecografías realizadas durante el embarazo, el tipo de ecografía realizada (2D, 3D o 4D y la semana de gestación al momento del diagnóstico. Las madres fueron encuestadas a fin de conocer su opinión con respecto al diagnóstico prenatal de esta deformidad. Resultados. Se realizaron 3,2 ecografías promedio durante el embarazo (r, 1-7. En el 25% (13/52 de los casos se realizó diagnóstico prenatal. El diagnóstico fue realizado en 7 casos con ecografía 2D, en 4 con 3D y en 2 con 4D, y en promedio se efectuó a la semana 22 (r, 20-28. En ningún paciente se llevó a cabo diagnóstico temprano, en 12 fue tardío y en 1 muy tardío. Conclusión. El diagnóstico prenatal permite a los padres de prepararse psicológicamente y asesorarse sobre la patología. En nuestra serie, el 90,4% se mostró a favor de conocer previamente el diagnóstico.Introduction. Clubfoot is one of the most frequent congenital musculoskeletal anomalies. The use of ultrasound for prenatal detection of clubfoot has advanced rapidly in the last decade, but publications report a great variability in opinions regarding the effectiveness of

  15. Pie-like electrode design for high-energy density lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jin Tao; Chen, Yu Ming; Li, Ju; Lou, Xiong Wen (David)

    2015-11-01

    Owing to the overwhelming advantage in energy density, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising next-generation electrochemical energy storage system. Despite many efforts in pursuing long cycle life, relatively little emphasis has been placed on increasing the areal energy density. Herein, we have designed and developed a `pie' structured electrode, which provides an excellent balance between gravimetric and areal energy densities. Combining lotus root-like multichannel carbon nanofibers `filling' and amino-functionalized graphene `crust', the free-standing paper electrode (S mass loading: 3.6 mg cm-2) delivers high specific capacity of 1,314 mAh g-1 (4.7 mAh cm-2) at 0.1 C (0.6 mA cm-2) accompanied with good cycling stability. Moreover, the areal capacity can be further boosted to more than 8 mAh cm-2 by stacking three layers of paper electrodes with S mass loading of 10.8 mg cm-2.

  16. Monitoring lipid anchor organization in cell membranes by PIE-FCCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triffo, Sara B; Huang, Hector H; Smith, Adam W; Chou, Eldon T; Groves, Jay T

    2012-07-04

    This study examines the dynamic co-localization of lipid-anchored fluorescent proteins in living cells using pulsed-interleaved excitation fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (PIE-FCCS) and fluorescence lifetime analysis. Specifically, we look at the pairwise co-localization of anchors from lymphocyte cell kinase (LCK: myristoyl, palmitoyl, palmitoyl), RhoA (geranylgeranyl), and K-Ras (farnesyl) proteins in different cell types. In Jurkat cells, a density-dependent increase in cross-correlation among RhoA anchors is observed, while LCK anchors exhibit a more moderate increase and broader distribution. No correlation was detected among K-Ras anchors or between any of the different anchor types studied. Fluorescence lifetime data reveal no significant Förster resonance energy transfer in any of the data. In COS 7 cells, minimal correlation was detected among LCK or RhoA anchors. Taken together, these observations suggest that some lipid anchors take part in anchor-specific co-clustering with other existing clusters of native proteins and lipids in the membrane. Importantly, these observations do not support a simple interpretation of lipid anchor-mediated organization driven by partitioning based on binary lipid phase separation.

  17. The why of practice: utilizing PIE to analyze social work practice in Australian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, David; Joubert, Lynette; Holland, Lucy; Posenelli, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    This research used a collaborative approach to gain a comprehensive, quantitative understanding of the breadth and depth of the social work role in health care. Data was collected from individual interviews with all employed hospital social workers (N = 120) across five Melbourne, Australia health networks about their most recently completed case. This data was coded using a revised version of the Karls and Wandrei (1994) Person-in-Environment (PIE) tool to retrospectively analyze the reasons for social work involvement over the course of the case. The findings demonstrate that the hospital social work role is multidimensional across a number of domains but centers predominantly on assisting clients and their significant others with issues of altered social roles and functioning; particularly in relation to role responsibility, dependency, and managing associated role-change losses. The findings of this study will assist hospital social workers, managers, and academics to better describe and effectively undertake this complex work. These findings will also assist in the development of professional training and education to up-skill social workers who operate within this complex setting.

  18. Placental immune editing switch (PIES): learning about immunomodulatory pathways from a unique case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchud, Miguel H.; Tresserra, Francesc; Xu, Wenjie; Warren, Sarah; Cusido, Maite; Zantop, Bernat; Zenclussen, Ana Claudia; Cesano, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis of this work is that, in order to escape the natural immune surveillance mechanisms, cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment might express ectopically genes that are physiologically present in the placenta to mediate fetal immune-tolerance. These natural “placental immune-editing switch” mechanisms (PIES) may represent the result of millions of years of mammalian evolution developed to allow materno-fetal tolerance. Here, we introduce genes of the immune regulatory pathways that are either similarly over- or under-expressed in tumor vs normal tissue. Our analysis was carried out in primary breast cancer with metastatic homolateral axillary lymph nodes as well as placenta tissue (both uterine decidual tissue and term placenta tissue) from a pregnant woman. Gene expression profiling of paired non-self and self tissues (i.e. placenta/uterus; breast cancer/normal breast tissue; metastatic lymphnode/normal lymphnode tissue) was performed using the PanCancer Immune gene panel, a 770 Nanostring gene expression panel. Our findings reveal overlapping in specific immune gene expression in placenta and cancer tissue, suggesting that these genes might play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance both physiologically (in the placenta) and pathologically (in the cancer setting). PMID:27852037

  19. Temporal regularity increases with repertoire complexity in the Australian pied butcherbird's song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Hollis; Scharff, Constance; Rothenberg, David; Parra, Lucas C.; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    Music maintains a characteristic balance between repetition and novelty. Here, we report a similar balance in singing performances of free-living Australian pied butcherbirds. Their songs include many phrase types. The more phrase types in a bird's repertoire, the more diverse the singing performance can be. However, without sufficient temporal organization, avian listeners may find diverse singing performances difficult to perceive and memorize. We tested for a correlation between the complexity of song repertoire and the temporal regularity of singing performance. We found that different phrase types often share motifs (notes or stereotyped groups of notes). These shared motifs reappeared in strikingly regular temporal intervals across different phrase types, over hundreds of phrases produced without interruption by each bird. We developed a statistical estimate to quantify the degree to which phrase transition structure is optimized for maximizing the regularity of shared motifs. We found that transition probabilities between phrase types tend to maximize regularity in the repetition of shared motifs, but only in birds of high repertoire complexity. Conversely, in birds of low repertoire complexity, shared motifs were produced with less regularity. The strong correlation between repertoire complexity and motif regularity suggests that birds possess a mechanism that regulates the temporal placement of shared motifs in a manner that takes repertoire complexity into account. We discuss alternative musical, mechanistic and ecological explanations to this effect. PMID:27703699

  20. Mate choice and imprinting in birds studied by cross-fostering in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagsvold, Tore; Hansen, Bo T; Johannessen, Lars E; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2002-07-22

    Sexual-selection theories generally assume that mating preferences are heritable traits. However, there is substantial evidence that the rearing environment may be important for the development of mating preferences, indicating that they may be learnt, or modified by experience. The relative importance of such sexual imprinting across species remains largely unexplored. Here, we report results of a large-scale cross-fostering experiment in the wild in which nestling birds were raised by parents of a different species. We show that resulting sexual imprinting may have a negative effect on pairing success in one species (the great tit, Parus major), but not in two other species (the blue tit, P. caeruleus and the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca). A remarkable variation thus seems to exist, even between species that are congeneric and have similar breeding ecologies. The cross-fostering resulted in heterospecific pairings between the two tit species (female blue tit breeding with male great tit), which has never, to our knowledge, been previously documented. However, the chicks fledging from these nests were all blue tit.

  1. The excuse principle can maintain cooperation through forgivable defection in the Prisoner's Dilemma game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis; Kokko, Hanna; Vrublevska, Jolanta; Abolins-Abols, Mikus; Krama, Tatjana; Rantala, Markus J

    2013-09-07

    Reciprocal altruism describes a situation in which an organism acts in a manner that temporarily reduces its fitness while increasing another organism's fitness, but there is an ultimate fitness benefit based on an expectation that the other organism will act in a similar manner at a later time. It creates the obvious dilemma in which there is always a short-term benefit to cheating, therefore cooperating individuals must avoid being exploited by non-cooperating cheaters. This is achieved by following various decision rules, usually variants of the tit-for-tat (TFT) strategy. The strength of TFT, however, is also its weakness-mistakes in implementation or interpretation of moves, or the inability to cooperate, lead to a permanent breakdown in cooperation. We show that pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) use a TFT with an embedded 'excuse principle' to forgive the neighbours that were perceived as unable to cooperate during mobbing of predators. The excuse principle dramatically increases the stability of TFT-like behavioural strategies within the Prisoner's Dilemma game.

  2. What prevents phenological adjustment to climate change in migrant bird species? Evidence against the ``arrival constraint'' hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, Anne E.; Hart, Adam G.; Elliot, Simon L.

    2011-01-01

    Phenological studies have demonstrated changes in the timing of seasonal events across multiple taxonomic groups as the climate warms. Some northern European migrant bird populations, however, show little or no significant change in breeding phenology, resulting in synchrony with key food sources becoming mismatched. This phenological inertia has often been ascribed to migration constraints (i.e. arrival date at breeding grounds preventing earlier laying). This has been based primarily on research in The Netherlands and Germany where time between arrival and breeding is short (often as few as 9 days). Here, we test the arrival constraint hypothesis over a 15-year period for a U.K. pied flycatcher ( Ficedula hypoleuca) population where laying date is not constrained by arrival as the period between arrival and breeding is substantial and consistent (average 27 ± 4.57 days SD). Despite increasing spring temperatures and quantifiably stronger selection for early laying on the basis of number of offspring to fledge, we found no significant change in breeding phenology, in contrast with co-occurring resident blue tits ( Cyanistes caeruleus). We discuss possible non-migratory constraints on phenological adjustment, including limitations on plasticity, genetic constraints and competition, as well as the possibility of counter-selection pressures relating to adult survival, longevity or future reproductive success. We propose that such factors need to be considered in conjunction with the arrival constraint hypothesis.

  3. Geographical Variation in Egg Mass and Egg Content in a Passerine Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Siitari, Heli; Eeva, Tapio; Belskii, Eugen; Järvinen, Antero; Kerimov, Anvar; Krams, Indrikis; Moreno, Juan; Morosinotto, Chiara; Mänd, Raivo; Möstl, Erich; Orell, Markku; Qvarnström, Anna; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Slater, Fred; Tilgar, Vallo; Visser, Marcel E.; Winkel, Wolfgang; Zang, Herwig; Laaksonen, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive, phenotypic and life-history traits in many animal and plant taxa show geographic variation, indicating spatial variation in selection regimes. Maternal deposition to avian eggs, such as hormones, antibodies and antioxidants, critically affect development of the offspring, with long-lasting effects on the phenotype and fitness. Little is however known about large-scale geographical patterns of variation in maternal deposition to eggs. We studied geographical variation in egg components of a passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), by collecting samples from 16 populations and measuring egg and yolk mass, albumen lysozyme activity, yolk immunoglobulins, yolk androgens and yolk total carotenoids. We found significant variation among populations in most egg components, but ca. 90% of the variation was among individuals within populations. Population however explained 40% of the variation in carotenoid levels. In contrast to our hypothesis, we found geographical trends only in carotenoids, but not in any of the other egg components. Our results thus suggest high within-population variation and leave little scope for local adaptation and genetic differentiation in deposition of different egg components. The role of these maternally-derived resources in evolutionary change should be further investigated. PMID:22110579

  4. What prevents phenological adjustment to climate change in migrant bird species? Evidence against the "arrival constraint" hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, Anne E; Hart, Adam G; Elliot, Simon L

    2011-01-01

    Phenological studies have demonstrated changes in the timing of seasonal events across multiple taxonomic groups as the climate warms. Some northern European migrant bird populations, however, show little or no significant change in breeding phenology, resulting in synchrony with key food sources becoming mismatched. This phenological inertia has often been ascribed to migration constraints (i.e. arrival date at breeding grounds preventing earlier laying). This has been based primarily on research in The Netherlands and Germany where time between arrival and breeding is short (often as few as 9 days). Here, we test the arrival constraint hypothesis over a 15-year period for a U.K. pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) population where laying date is not constrained by arrival as the period between arrival and breeding is substantial and consistent (average 27 ± 4.57 days SD). Despite increasing spring temperatures and quantifiably stronger selection for early laying on the basis of number of offspring to fledge, we found no significant change in breeding phenology, in contrast with co-occurring resident blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). We discuss possible non-migratory constraints on phenological adjustment, including limitations on plasticity, genetic constraints and competition, as well as the possibility of counter-selection pressures relating to adult survival, longevity or future reproductive success. We propose that such factors need to be considered in conjunction with the arrival constraint hypothesis.

  5. Environmental pollution has sex-dependent effects on local survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeva, Tapio; Hakkarainen, Harri; Laaksonen, Toni; Lehikoinen, Esa

    2006-01-01

    Environmental pollutants cause a potential hazard for survival in free-living animal populations. We modelled local survival (including emigration) by using individual mark–recapture histories of males and females in a population of a small insectivorous passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) living around a point source of heavy metals (copper smelter). Local survival of F. hypoleuca females did not differ between polluted and unpolluted environments. Males, however, showed a one-third higher local-survival probability in the polluted area. Low fledgling production was generally associated with decreased local survival, but males in the polluted area showed relatively high local survival, irrespective of their fledgling number. A possible explanation of higher local survival of males in the polluted area could be a pollution-induced change in hormone (e.g. corticosterone or testosterone) levels of males. It could make them to invest more on their own survival or affect the hormonal control of breeding dispersal. The local survival of males decreased in the polluted area over the study period along with the simultaneous decrease in heavy metal emissions. This temporal trend is in agreement with the stress hormone hypothesis. PMID:17148387

  6. Metasedimentos siliciclásticos proterozoicos en la Sierra de Pie de Palo, San Juan: Procedencia y ambiente tectónico Proterozoic Siliciclastic metasediments in Sierra de Pie de Palo, San Juan: Provenance and tectonic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GI Vujovich

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Los metasedimentos del Grupo Caucete aflorantes en la sierra de Pie de Palo constituyen una pieza importante para entender la evolución del margen gondwánico durante el Proterozoico tardío a Paleozoico temprano. Esta secuencia metamórfica está en contacto tectónico, a través del Corrimiento Las Pirquitas, con el Complejo Pie de Palo (Mesoproterozoico. El Grupo Caucete está integrado por dos unidades mayores, una siliciclástica y otra carbonática, y basado en estudios de campo entre las quebradas Las Pirquitas y La Petaca y posterior laboratorio, ha sido dividido en cuatro formaciones. La parte siliciclástica incluye a la Cuarcita El Quemado, la que está intercalada con la Formación La Paz, unidad de carácter volcaniclástico. Los carbonatos están representados por la Formación El Desecho (areniscas y limolitas carbonáticas con mármoles dolomíticos y la Caliza Angacos. Los primeros resultados geoquímicos fueron utilizados para comparar la Cuarcita El Quemado y la Formación La Paz con las metagrauvacas del Complejo Pie de Palo. Su composición mineralógica ha determinado el comportamiento geoquímico de los elementos mayoritarios, mientras que las tierras raras y elementos traza, al estar concentrados principalmente en los minerales pesados, muestran que los procesos sedimentarios han jugado un rol importante en su distribución. Los sedimentos siliciclásticos se habrían originado por la destrucción de rocas corticales procedentes de áreas orogénicas, con un importante componente félsico asociado con rocas ígneas originadas en arcos magmáticos más o menos evolucionados. Los mismos se habrían depositado en una plataforma continental durante el Proterozoico superior (670 Ma, U/Pb en circones detríticos.Metasedimentary rocks of the Caucete Group outcropping at the western slope of Sierra de Pie de Palo are an important key to understand the geological evolution of the western margin of Gondwana during late Proterozoic

  7. Environmental evaluation of the PIES Trendlong Mid-Mid Scenario: Federal Region V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA), is an evaluation of the regional environmental impacts of future energy development. The impacts described for 1985 and 1990 are based on a national energy projection (scenario) that assumes medium energy demand and fuel supply through 1990 but does not incorporate the policies of the 1978 National Energy Act (NEA). The environmental impacts discussed in this volume are for Federal Region V. There are nine companion volumes, one for each of the other federal regions in the nation. The findings of this impact evaluation of the PIES TRENDLONG MID-MID Scenario for Federal Region V (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) are reported. In those areas of eastern Michigan and southeastern and central Wisconsin that have not attained National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), there will be limited opportunities for mitigation of impacts from utility coal growth through emission offsets or improved control efficiencies. In Ohio, 30% of utility coal growth could be restricted primarily because of NAAQS nonattainment. Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio may also experience problems with oil-fired utilities in nonattainment areas, but fuel purchasinhg practices could reduce the air quality impacts. Utility and industrial siting along Lake Erie may require extensive pretreatment of effluents discharged into the Lake. Allocation of water from Lake Michigan for new facilities may become an issue in Wisconsin and Illinois where large water-for-energy demands conflict with other water uses. Surface mining activities in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio are projected to disturb approximately 200,000 acres in the period 1975 to 1990, causing temporary or permanent shifts in productivity and land use. Much of the land in the mining area is presently in forest and crops. Deaths and illnesses resulting from employment in deep mining in Region V may increase 30 to 40% over 1975 levels.

  8. PIE of the second fuel rod from the LOCA experiment (IFA-650.2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberlaender, B.C.; Jenssen, H.K.; Espeland, M.; Solum, N.O.

    2005-07-01

    The LOCA experiment on the second rod (IFA-650.2) a fresh, low-tin Zr-4, pressurised PWR rod was carried out in May 2004. The main objective was to produce ballooning, to determine the time to burst and to assess the material oxidation and hydriding kinetics. The rod pressure at hot conditions and peak PCT were 70 bar and 1050 C, respectively. To document the effect of the LOCA testing on the cladding, rod 2 was subjected in PIE to visual inspection, profilometry and metallography. On visual inspection the clad shows a typical balloon. In the region of max ballooning the clad shows a 35 mm long, < 20 mm burst opening. In the balloon region the outer clad diameter increased by <35% and locally the wall thickness reduction is >55%. The entire rod is covered with a black oxide layer. Below and above the split opening the continuous oxide layer was 40 to 50mum both on water and fuel side of the clad. At the locations of the upper and lower cladding thermocouples the oxide thickness was in the range 24-27 mum. Widmanstaetten structure is seen in the bulk of the clad and confirms the high temperature experienced. A some 40mum wide, hard and brittle zone with oxygen rich globular alpha-grains is found both at the outer and the inner edge of the clad in the balloon region. The zone is widest near the axial split (crack). In the clad few, arbitrary oriented hydride platelets are observed in the balloon area. (Author)

  9. Meaningful call combinations and compositional processing in the southern pied babbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engesser, Sabrina; Ridley, Amanda R.; Townsend, Simon W.

    2016-01-01

    Language’s expressive power is largely attributable to its compositionality: meaningful words are combined into larger/higher-order structures with derived meaning. Despite its importance, little is known regarding the evolutionary origins and emergence of this syntactic ability. Although previous research has shown a rudimentary capability to combine meaningful calls in primates, because of a scarcity of comparative data, it is unclear to what extent analog forms might also exist outside of primates. Here, we address this ambiguity and provide evidence for rudimentary compositionality in the discrete vocal system of a social passerine, the pied babbler (Turdoides bicolor). Natural observations and predator presentations revealed that babblers produce acoustically distinct alert calls in response to close, low-urgency threats and recruitment calls when recruiting group members during locomotion. On encountering terrestrial predators, both vocalizations are combined into a “mobbing sequence,” potentially to recruit group members in a dangerous situation. To investigate whether babblers process the sequence in a compositional way, we conducted systematic experiments, playing back the individual calls in isolation as well as naturally occurring and artificial sequences. Babblers reacted most strongly to mobbing sequence playbacks, showing a greater attentiveness and a quicker approach to the loudspeaker, compared with individual calls or control sequences. We conclude that the sequence constitutes a compositional structure, communicating information on both the context and the requested action. Our work supports previous research suggesting combinatoriality as a viable mechanism to increase communicative output and indicates that the ability to combine and process meaningful vocal structures, a basic syntax, may be more widespread than previously thought. PMID:27155011

  10. Evidencias de la zona de contacto entre los terrenos de Precordillera y Pie de Palo, Provincias de San Juan y Mendoza Evidence of the contact area between Precordillera and Pie de Palo terranes, Provinces of San Juan and Mendoza.

    OpenAIRE

    Maximiliano García Torrejón; Orlando Alvarez Pontoriero; Silvina Nacif; Iván Novara; Marcos Sánchez; Silvana Spagnoto; Patricia Martinez; Mario Gimenez

    2011-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio gravimétrico en la región norte de la cuenca Cuyana, entre las provincias de San Juan y Mendoza. Mediante relaciones de gradientes gravimétricos tales como señal analítica, Tilt y fase del Tilt, se observó un marcado gradiente, que fue interpretado como un cambio lateral de litologías, que coincidiría con el área de una probable paleosutura del margen proto-andino, que separa en el terreno compuesto de Cuyania, al terreno de Precordillera con el terreno de Pie de Palo.We...

  11. A bipartite U1 site represses U1A expression by synergizing with PIE to inhibit nuclear polyadenylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Fei; Caratozzolo, Rose M; Goraczniak, Rafal; Ho, Eric S; Gunderson, Samuel I

    2007-12-01

    U1A protein negatively autoregulates itself by polyadenylation inhibition of its own pre-mRNA by binding as two molecules to a 3'UTR-located Polyadenylation Inhibitory Element (PIE). The (U1A)2-PIE complex specifically blocks U1A mRNA biosynthesis by inhibiting polyA tail addition, leading to lower mRNA levels. U1 snRNP bound to a 5'ss-like sequence, which we call a U1 site, in the 3'UTRs of certain papillomaviruses leads to inhibition of viral late gene expression via a similar mechanism. Although such U1 sites can also be artificially used to potently silence reporter and endogenous genes, no naturally occurring U1 sites have been found in eukaryotic genes. Here we identify a conserved U1 site in the human U1A gene that is, unexpectedly, within a bipartite element where the other part represses the U1 site via a base-pairing mechanism. The bipartite element inhibits U1A expression via a synergistic action with the nearby PIE. Unexpectedly, synergy is not based on stabilizing binding of the inhibitory factors to the 3'UTR, but rather is a property of the larger ternary complex. Inhibition targets the biosynthetic step of polyA tail addition rather than altering mRNA stability. This is the first example of a functional U1 site in a cellular gene and of a single gene containing two dissimilar elements that inhibit nuclear polyadenylation. Parallels with other examples where U1 snRNP inhibits expression are discussed. We expect that other cellular genes will harbor functional U1 sites.

  12. Reconstrucción de partes blandas de la planta del pie: Retrospective analysis of 12 patients

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Se presenta una casuística de 12 pacientes que requirieron reconstrucción de la planta del pie en el Hospital de la Universidad Católica entre los años 2005 y 2008. La etiología principal fueron lesiones tumorales en 7 casos; las técnicas de reconstrucción fueron: injerto de piel (1 paciente), colgajos locales (8 pacientes) y colgajos libres (3 pacientes). Hubo complicaciones en 5 pacientes, uno de los cuales requirió una nueva cirugía reconstructiva. La recuperación funcional fue adecuada en...

  13. Úlceras en Extremidades Inferiores de Etiología Vascular y Pie Diabético

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago González, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    En el siguiente trabajo se proporcionará una clasificación detallada de las úlceras vasculares y pie diabético, así como de su fisiopatología y epidemiología, posibles complicaciones, métodos diagnósticos, pautas de prevención y tratamiento, y por último, se añade un apartado, con la finalidad de conseguir la comprensión por parte del lector de la repercusión de las úlceras en la calidad de vida del paciente.

  14. Infección de la mucosa oral por Coxsackie virus: enfermedad de boca-mano-pie

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado-Azañero, Wilson; Concha Cusihuallpa, Hiroshi; Guevara Canales, Janet Ofelia

    2015-01-01

    La enfermedad de manos, pies y boca es una infección enteroviral producida por el Coxsackie virus, generalmente serotipo A16, que afecta principalmente a niños, caracterizada por la aparición de vesículas en las zonas palmoplantares y en la mucosa oral. Se reporta el caso de una paciente mujer de 25 años de edad que presentaba erupciones vesiculares típicas en la piel y en boca, úlceras dolorosas en lengua, mucosa de carrillo y labio superior. Se discute el diagnóstico diferencial y se enfati...

  15. Comparison of ATF and TJ-II stellarator equilibria as computed by the 3-D VMEC and PIES codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.L.; Monticello, D.A.; Reiman, A.H. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Salas, A.; Fraguas, A.L. (Association Euratom-Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain)); Hirshman, S.P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A comparison is made of results from the PIES code, which determines the equilibrium properties of three-dimensional toroidal configurations by direct integration along the magnetic field lines, with those from the VMEC code, which uses an energy minimization in a flux representation to determine the equilibrium configuration, for two devices: the ATF stellarator at Oak Ridge and the TJ-11 heliac which is being built in Madrid. The results obtained from the two codes are in good agreement, providing additional validation for the codes.

  16. Colgajos de las perforantes del pie: problemas y posibles soluciones Foot perforator flaps: problems and possible solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Prousskaia Peregudova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de diversas publicaciones existentes sobre el colgajo mediano plantar tradicional, los colgajos de las perforantes del pie no están suficientemente estudiados. Es necesario ampliar nuestros conocimientos sobre la anatomía vascular de esta región, los problemas que pueden surgir durante la disección de la zona y las posibles soluciones. Realizamos disección anatómica de 10 pies de cadáver utilizando relleno vascular con látex coloreado. Definimos la secuencia de la disección de las perforantes de la arteria plantar medial. Medimos los puntos de salida de las perforantes dominantes en relación con 3 puntos de referencia, diámetro y longitud de cada perforante. Evaluamos la utilidad de cada colgajo para su uso en reconstrucción local o a distancia en función del diámetro y la longitud de la perforante, grosor del colgajo y morbilidad de la zona donante. Los colgajos de los vasos perforantes del pie son una buena opción para la reconstrucción tanto local como a distancia, con una mínima morbilidad de la zona donante y con un buen resultado funcional gracias a las características del tejido del pie cuando se usa para reconstrucción en mano.Traditional medial plantar flap is widely described in the literature, but foot perforator flap is a relatively new subject which still needs more detailed anatomical investigation. We need to amplify our knowledge about this surgically challenging region, dissection difficulties and possible solutions. We performed anatomical dissection on 10 cadaver feet with dyed latex intravascular injection and then dissected out the perforators arising from the medial plantar artery. We measured the origin of the dominant perforators in relationship to 3 reference points, diameter and length of each perforator. We analyzed the application of flaps based on these perforators as local and free flaps in relation to pedicle length and diameter, flap thickness and donor site morbidity. Foot perforator

  17. Evidencias de la zona de contacto entre los terrenos de Precordillera y Pie de Palo, Provincias de San Juan y Mendoza Evidence of the contact area between Precordillera and Pie de Palo terranes, Provinces of San Juan and Mendoza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano García Torrejón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio gravimétrico en la región norte de la cuenca Cuyana, entre las provincias de San Juan y Mendoza. Mediante relaciones de gradientes gravimétricos tales como señal analítica, Tilt y fase del Tilt, se observó un marcado gradiente, que fue interpretado como un cambio lateral de litologías, que coincidiría con el área de una probable paleosutura del margen proto-andino, que separa en el terreno compuesto de Cuyania, al terreno de Precordillera con el terreno de Pie de Palo.We made the study in the northern Cuyo basin, between the provinces of San Juan and Mendoza. in the present work we show the results of gravimetric processing data from this basin and surrounding region. We applied anomaly-enhancement techniques such as analytic signal, tilt and phase of tilt. This allowed the observation of a marked gradient, which was interpreted as a lateral variation in lithology, which would coincides with the area of paleosuture of the proto-Andean margin, which separates in the Cuyania composite terrane the Precordillera from the Pie de Palo terranes.

  18. An innovative method to produce green table olives based on "pied de cuve" technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorana, Alessandra; Alfonzo, Antonio; Settanni, Luca; Corona, Onofrio; La Croce, Francesco; Caruso, Tiziano; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Francesca, Nicola

    2015-09-01

    The technology of "pied de cuve" (PdC) is applied in food process only to produce wines with an enriched community of pro-technological yeasts. PdC promotes the growth of the desirable microbial strains in a small volume of grape must acting as a starter inoculums for higher volumes. The aim of the present work was to investigate the use of partially fermented brines, a technology known as PdC, developed with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of green fermented table olives during two consecutive campaigns. The experimental plan included two trials based on different PdCs: trial A, PdC obtained with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13; trial B, PdC obtained through a spontaneous fermentation. Two control additional trials without PdC were included for comparison: trial C, spontaneous fermentation; trial D, direct inoculation of L. pentosus OM13. The use of PdCs favoured the rapid increase of LAB concentrations in both trials A and B. These trials showed levels of LAB higher than trial C and almost superimposable to that of trial D. Trial B was characterized by a certain diversity of L. pentosus strains and some of them dominated the manufacturing process. These results indicated PdC as a valuable method to favour the growth of autochthonous L. pentosus strains. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) visibly discriminated olive processes fermented with the two experimental PdCs. Interestingly, on the basis of microbial and pH variables, both approaches showed that the olives produced with PdC technology are closely related to those of trial D, with the advantages of reducing the amount of starter to inoculate (trial A) and a higher LAB biodiversity (trial B). Volatile organic compound (VOC) composition and sensory analysis showed trials A and B different from the trials with no PdC added, in both years. Furthermore, the trial B showed the highest scores of green olive aroma and

  19. El pie diabético:experiencia de su manejo en el servicio de angiología y cirugía vascular de Matanzas

    OpenAIRE

    García Herrera, Arístides Lázaro

    2008-01-01

    El empleo de técnicas gerenciales para la identificación de problemas de salud por parte de los grupos Provinciales de Angiología y Cirugía Vascular, así como, las comunicaciones realizadas por Organismos de salud internacionales, han permitido ubicar el Pie diabético, dentro de las entidades prevalentes, que requieren y van a requerir nuestra atención en los próximos años. Estas razones van a determinar, que las investigaciones de las lesiones que se producen en los pies del p...

  20. Estudio de los factores de riesgo de amputación en el pie diabético, evolución en una serie de 120 pacientes

    OpenAIRE

    Tomalá Pantaleón, Tito Peter

    2013-01-01

    Las amputaciones de los miembros inferiores por pie diabético son una de las dificultades más temidas por los pacientes que presentan Diabetes Mellitus. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo para comprobar la prevalencia de las amputaciones de los miembros inferiores en pacientes con diagnóstico de pie diabético, y su evolución en la Clínica Santa Gema de la Ciudad de Guayaquil, una evolución de 120 pacientes desde el año 2008 al 2011, en los resultados se ...

  1. Estudio de los factores de riesgo de amputación en el pie diabético, evolución en una serie de 120 pacientes

    OpenAIRE

    Tomalá Pantaleón, Tito Peter

    2013-01-01

    Las amputaciones de los miembros inferiores por pie diabético son una de las dificultades más temidas por los pacientes que presentan Diabetes Mellitus. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo para comprobar la prevalencia de las amputaciones de los miembros inferiores en pacientes con diagnóstico de pie diabético, y su evolución en la Clínica Santa Gema de la Ciudad de Guayaquil, una evolución de 120 pacientes desde el año 2008 al 2011, en los resultados se ...

  2. Characterization of Active Dry Wine Yeast During Starter Culture (Pied de Cuve) Preparation for Sparkling Wine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benucci, Ilaria; Liburdi, Katia; Cerreti, Martina; Esti, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The preparation of yeast starter culture (Pied de Cuve) for producing sparkling wine with the traditional method is a key factor for manufacturing a good Prise de mousse. In this paper, the evolution of total yeast population, its viability during Pied de Cuve preparation, and the pressure profile during the 2nd fermentation in 2 different base wines made from Bombino bianco and Chardonnay grapes were investigated using 4 different commercial active dried yeasts. The study proves that despite the initial differences observed throughout the acclimatization phase, all the tested strains showed similar results on either the total population (from 8.2 × 10(7) cells/mL to 1.3 × 10(8) cells/mL) or cellular viability (from 70% to 84%). Independently from the base wine tested, the kinetic of sugar consumption was faster during the gradual acclimatization to the alcoholic medium (phase II) and slower during the preparation of starter culture in active growth phase (phase III). During both of these phases Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus Vitilevure DV10(®) (Station œnotechnique de Champagne) proved to have a higher sugar consumption rate than the other strains. During the Prise de mousse, S. cerevisiae bayanus Lalvin EC-1118(®) (Lallemand) reached the maximum pressure increase within time in both base wines.

  3. SHyPIE: a new source for on-line production of multicharged radioactive condensable ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecesne, N.; Foury, P.; Gaubert, G.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Leroy, R.; Lewitowicz, M.; Marry, C.; Maunoury, L.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Robert, E.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Seron, D.; Sortais, P.; Villari, A.C.C. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Angelique, J.C.; Orr, N.A. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire (CNRS/IN2P3), ISMRA, 14 - Caen (France); Blank, B. [CENBG, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, 33 (France); Clapier, F.; Ducourtieux, M.; Kandri-Rody, S.; Obert, J.; Pauwels, N.; Proust, J.; Putaux, J.C. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, (IN2P3/CNRS) 91 - Orsay (France); Lepine, A. [IFUSP, C.P., Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    In order to define the future intensity and reliability of the on line radioactive beams for the SPIRAL project, an intense activity of research and development is being done around the target and the ion source problems. The main instrument for this purpose is the isotopic separator SIRa (Separateur d'Ions Radioactifs) installed in the D2 experimental cave at GANIL. One of the research axis is the production of multicharged radioactive condensable ions. In this aim, we have built a new compact ECR ion source, SHyPIE (Source Hybride pour la Production d'Ions Exotiques), whose original magnetic configuration is under patent since 1997. This new magnetic structure allows to place an internal production target very close to the plasma, while avoiding radiation damages of the sensitive permanent magnets. A series of on line experiments have been done, using SHyPIE with several internal target systems, and around thirty species of condensable and noble gases radioactive multicharged ion beams have been produced. The behaviour of the plasma in a close geometry with the production target has been studied. (authors)

  4. Open arthrolysis with pie-crusting release of the triceps tendon for treating post-traumatic contracture of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhan, Yu-lin; Yu, Shi-yang; Zheng, Xian-you; Liu, Shen; Fan, Cun-yi

    2016-05-01

    Extensive loss of elbow flexion compromises the performance of daily activities. We examined the clinical outcomes of patients with post-traumatic extension contracture of the elbow treated with open arthrolysis and pie-crusting release of the triceps tendon. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 7 patients (5 men and 2 women; mean age, 35 years) who underwent open arthrolysis via a combined lateral and medial approach with pie-crusting release of the triceps tendon for the treatment of post-traumatic elbow stiffness. All the patients had heterotopic ossification that restricted elbow motion and underwent removal of the ossified tissue and capsular release. The triceps tendon was gradually stretched by making multiple stab incisions on the tendon by using a No. 11 surgical blade. The range of motion of the elbow was recorded both preoperatively and at the final postoperative follow-up. Elbow function was assessed with the Mayo Elbow Performance Score. The patients were followed up for a mean of 24 months. After treatment, significant improvement was noted in the total arc of motion (from 44° to 116°, P contracture of the elbow. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A seismological and petrological crustal model for the southwest of the Sierra de Pie de Palo, province of San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brígida Castro de Machuca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A seismic velocity analysis from teleseismic receiver functions recorded in the southwestern fank of the Sierra de Pie de Palo (Western Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina, is compared with seismic properties directly calculated from lithological composition. The seismological results show an upper layer located in the first 13 km depth. A deeper contrast in seismic velocities is found at a depth of 28 km; the petrological results indicate a composition compatible with observed greenschist and amphibolite facies mafic rocks up to this depth. The receiver function measurements at 13 km and 28 km depths could be interpreted as two potential décollement levels that might have favoring a mechanism to thicken the whole crust, which produces a receiver function Moho signal located at 47 km depth. In addition, the lower crust between 28 km and 47 km exhibits high seismic P-wave velocities and Vp/Vs ratio (> 1.80 that are representative of a densification consistent with upper amphibolite to granulite/ecoglite facies lithologies. Based on these results, the combined petrological and seismological analyses suggest the continuation of the same mafic-crust outcropping lithologies into the lower levels of the 47-km thickened crust, which could be part of the Pie de Palo Complex ophiolite belt or the Precordillera basement.

  6. Distribution and abundance of Least Bell’s Vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) on the Middle San Luis Rey River, San Diego, southern California—2016 data summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lisa D.; Howell, Scarlett L.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2017-09-29

    Executive SummaryWe surveyed for Least Bell’s Vireos (LBVI) (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (SWFL) (Empidonax traillii extimus) along the San Luis Rey River, between College Boulevard in Oceanside and Interstate 15 in Fallbrook, California (middle San Luis Rey River), in 2016. Surveys were done from March 30 to July 11 (LBVI) and from May 18 to July 30 (SWFL). We found 142 LBVI territories, at least 106 of which were occupied by pairs. Six additional transient LBVIs were detected. Of 20 banded LBVIs detected in the survey area, 9 had been given full color-band combinations prior to 2016, although we were unable to determine the exact color combination of 1 female LBVI. Seven other LBVIs with single (natal) federal bands were recaptured and banded in 2016. Four vireos with single dark blue federal bands indicating that they were banded as nestlings on the lower San Luis Rey River could not be recaptured for identification.Three SFWL territories were observed in the survey area in 2016. Two territories were occupied by pairs and one by a male of unknown breeding status. Both pairs attempted to nest at least once, and both pairs were successful, fledging three young each. Nesting began in early June and continued into July. Brown-Headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) eggs were not observed in either nest. An additional 12 transient Willow Flycatchers of unknown subspecies were detected in 2016.Two of the five resident SWFLs were originally banded as nestlings on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton. One male and one female were banded as nestlings on Camp Pendleton in 2009 and 2011, respectively. One natal male of unknown breeding status, originally banded as a nestling on the middle San Luis Rey River in 2015, was recaptured and given a unique color combination in 2016. This male was later detected on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton.

  7. Arterialización venosa temporal del pie diabético Temporal venous arterialization of the diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lengua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: La primera idea que tuvieron los cirujanos (1902 para evitar amputaciones por isquemia fue la de desviar el flujo arterial al sistema venoso por intermedio de una fístula arteriovenosa entre vasos adyacentes, pero con resultados inciertos. Desde entonces se han inventado las simpatecomias, las endarteriectomias y los injertos puentes o bypass y, últimamente, otros avances médicos, quirúrgicos y endovasculares. Sin embargo, en el mundo se siguen haciendo amputaciones, sobre todo en diabéticos. La arterialización de las venas del pie, basada en la vieja idea de la circulación invertida, constituye una esperanza más para estos pacientes ya condenados a la pérdida del miembro. Objetivo: Demostrar que la arterialización de las venas del pie en diabéticos con lesiones neuroisquémicas, generalmente infectadas (pie diabético, es un método eficaz y durable, aunque el puente solo funcione temporalmente. Pacientes y método: De enero de 2000 a febrero de 2009, 59 pacientes con pie diabético fueron tratados por arterialización de las venas del pie. Un deceso precoz no ha sido contabilizado. De los 58 pacientes restantes, 44 fueron hombres y 14 mujeres, con edad promedio de 71 años: (53-91 años, 54 en estado IV de Fontaine y cuatro en estado IIIB. La arterialización fue hecha con un injerto venoso invertido anastomosado, proximalmente en una arteria con buen flujo (ilíaca externa, femorales o poplítea distalmente en la vena marginal interna del pie, con destrucción de las válvulas de las venas del dorso. Resultados: De los 58 arterializados, 12 fueron fracasos por trombosis precoz, siendo amputados, y 46 fueron éxitos (79%: seis de corto, 12 de mediano y 28 de largo plazo. En los grupos que se ajustan a la definición de éxito (dos hubo 38 trombosis tardías del puente (95% y cuatro recidivas de la sintomatología isquémica. No ha habido ningún caso de sobrecarga cardíaca ni de várices. Conclusión: La arterializaci

  8. Fifteen-year population attributable fractions and causal pies of risk factors for newly developed hepatocellular carcinomas in 11,801 men in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu-Fen; Yang, Hwai-I; Lee, Mei-Hsuan; Chen, Chien-Jen; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multi-factorial process. Chronic infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are important risk factors of HCC. Host factors, such as alcohol drinking, may also play a role. This study aims to provide a synthesis view on the development of HCC by examining multiple risk factors jointly and collectively. Causal-pie modeling technique was applied to analyze a cohort of 11,801 male residents (followed up for 15 years) in Taiwan, during which a total of 298 incident HCC cases were ascertained. The rate ratios adjusted by age were further modeled by an additive Poisson regression. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) and causal-pie weights (CPWs) were calculated. A PAF indicates the magnitude of case-load reduction under a particular intervention scenario, whereas a CPW for a particular class of causal pies represents the proportion of HCC cases attributable to that class. Using PAF we observed a chance to reduce around 60% HCC risk moving from no HBV-related intervention to the total elimination of the virus. An additional ∼15% (or ∼5%) reduction can be expected, if the HBV-related intervention is coupled with an HCV-related intervention (or an anti-drinking campaign). Eight classes of causal pies were found to be significant, including four dose-response classes of HBV (total CPW=52.7%), one independent-effect class of HCV (CPW=14.4%), one HBV-alcohol interaction class (CPW=4.2%), one HBV-HCV interaction class (CPW=1.7%), and one all-unknown class (CPW=27.0%). Causal-pie modeling for HCC helps clarify the relative importance of each viral and host factor, as well as their interactions.

  9. Akrilamīds - pārtikas ķīmiskais piesārņojums

    OpenAIRE

    Švalkovskis, Gatis

    2007-01-01

    Akrilamīds – pārtikas ķīmiskais piesārņojums. Švalkovskis G., zinātniskie vadītāji As. prof., Dr. ķīm. Jākobsone I., As. prof., Dr. ķīm. Mekšs P. Bakalaura darbs, 42 lappuses, 14 attēli, 15 tabulas, 25 literatūras avoti, 1 pielikums. Latviešu valodā. GĀZU HROMATOGRĀFIJA, ELEKTRONU SATVERES DETEKTORS, MASSPEKTROMETRIJA, AKRILAMĪDA NOTEIKŠANA. 2002. gada aprīlī Zviedrijā atklāja toksisku vielu – akrilamīdu, kas ir termiski apstrādātā pārtikā. Vēlāk atklājumi tika veikti arī citās pasaules...

  10. Estratificación de riesgo en pie diabético Risk stratification in diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor González de la Torre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El pie diabético es una complicación crónica de la diabetes mellitus y constituye una problemática sanitaria al conllevar un enorme gasto económico a los servicios sanitarios y provocar a las personas que lo padecen y a su entorno familiar enormes repercusiones emocionales. La educación sanitaria en el cuidado de los pies de los diabéticos, así como la cuantificación del riesgo son aspectos que el enfermero debe incorporar en los planes de cuidados de los pacientes diabéticos. La detección de los posibles factores de riesgo es un paso previo imprescindible para estos cometidos. Este estudio tiene como finalidad analizar la presencia de determinados factores de riesgo en pie diabético en la población diabética del Centro de Salud de Triana, con el objetivo de poder realizar, así, una estratificación del riesgo. Para ello, se optó por la realización de un estudio observacional descriptivo. La muestra analizada estaba constituida por 96 sujetos diabéticos pertenecientes a dicho centro de salud. Para la recogida de datos se utilizó un sistema de tres niveles consistente en entrevista, exploración física y consulta de registros disponibles (a través de las historias clínicas de los sujetos. Los datos se registraron en un formulario de recogida de datos para pie diabético. Se determinó la existencia de factores de riesgo, analizando las relaciones entre éstos y permitiendo la estratificación del riesgo en la población estudiada.The diabetic foot is a chronic complication of diabetes mellitus and constitutes a sanitary problem which causes not only enormous expenses for the sanitary system but also provokes emotional repercussions for the person who suffers the illness and for the family. The sanitary education in taking care of the feet of diabetics and the identification of the health risk are both aspects that the nurse must include in the healthcare planning of diabetic patients. The detection of the possible risk

  11. MARCHA A PIE URBANA Y REGIONAL Y MOVILIDAD EN LOS MODELOS DE CIUDAD PARA SANTIAGO DE CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Pavez Reyes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión general de las medidas en los planes de la etapa madura del Estado planificador urbano-regional chileno (1950-1979 y en el Urbanismo por el sector privado (1980-2010, que habrían favorecido, o perjudicado, la factibilidad de la marcha a pie en la ciudad de Santiago y en su entorno rural. El ejercicio de lectura se efectúa teniendo como referencia los conceptos en uso en cada época, modelo y proyecto, para reseñar, finalmente, el pensamiento actual para el logro de formas más ricas, diversas y sustentables de habitar el territorio.

  12. METABOLIC PARAMETERS CONCENTRATIONS IN BLOOD SERUM OF CZECH PIED BULLS DEPENDING ON SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM OF LEPTIN GENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Pavlík

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to test hypothesis, that the leptin gene single nucleotide polymorphism (C/T giving missense mutation (Arg25Cys has an effect on concentration of blood serum total cholesterol, beta-hydroxybutyrate and urea in cattle. The experiment were performed in 58 Czech Pied bulls at 240 ± 9 days of age, which were divided in three experimental groups depending on different leptin genotypes (CC, n=28; CT, n=21; TT, n=9. Resulting genotypes in the exon 2 were CC (48.3%, CT (36.2%, and TT (15.5%. There were no differences in serum total cholesterol, urea, beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations among the genotypes. Based on our results we may assume that analysed SNP of leptin gene have no effect on nutritional status and energy balance in fattened cattle.

  13. Emission computer tomography on a Dodewaard mixed oxide fuel pin. Comparative PIE work with non-destructive and destructive techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buurveld, H.A.; Dassel, G.

    1993-12-01

    A nondestructive technique as well as a destructive PIE technique have been used to verify the results obtained with a newly 8-e computer tomography (GECT) system. Multi isotope Scanning (MIS), electron probe micro analysis (EPMA) and GECT were used on a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel rod from the Dodewaard reactor with an average burnup of 24 MWd/kg fuel. GECT shows migration of Cs to the periphery of fuel pellets and to radial cracks and pores in the fuel, whereas MIS shows Cs migration to pellet interfaces. The EPMA technique appeared not to be useful to show migration of Cs but, it shows the distribution of fission products from Pu. EPMA clearly shows the distribution of fission products from Pu, but did not reveal the Cs-migration. (orig./HP)

  14. The Practice Improvement in Education (PIE) Project: Patient Outcome Related to Education on Depression in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Aida; Bell, Christina; Parkins, Sebrina; Shishido, Jan; Masaki, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is an important factor related to agitation and other behaviors in nursing home residents. As the next step in our Geriatric Education Center (GEC) Practice Improvement in Education (PIE) project on depression in nursing homes, we focused on non-pharmacologic behavioral management and psychoactive medication reduction. Methods This quality improvement (QI) pilot included training on effective interdisciplinary management approaches for depressive symptoms and challenging behaviors, and implementing an adapted ABC (antecedents, behaviors, consequences) log and behavioral activation. We targeted two nursing home floors and included data on residents present both before and after the QI, in June 2013 and July 2014. We examined changes in depressive symptom scores (Patient Health Questionnaire, or PHQ-9, scale 0-27, higher=worse) and antipsychotic/antidepressant medication use with paired T-tests and Fisher's exact tests. Results Of the 66 nursing home residents in this QI pilot, 70% were female, 60.6% were > 89 years old (range = 48–108, mean = 88.8), 83% were Asian and 51% had severe cognitive impairment. Mean PHQ-9 scores decreased significantly from 3.74 to 2.38 (P = .017). Of the 13/66 (19.7%) residents on antipsychotic medications, 10/13 (76.9%) had dose reductions and 4/13 (30.8%) had medications completely discontinued (P < .0001 for change pre/post). Of the 34 (51.5%) residents on antidepressant medication, 15/34 (42.9%) had dose reductions and 3/34 (8.8%) had medications completely discontinued (P < .0001 for change pre/post). Conclusion Mean depression scores and antipsychotic and antidepressant medication use decreased significantly in this GEC PIE QI project to manage depression and behaviors non-pharmacologically in nursing home residents.

  15. A new classification of the Pied Woodpeckers assemblage (Dendropicini, Picidae) based on a comprehensive multi-locus phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Pons, Jean-Marc

    2015-07-01

    The pied woodpecker assemblage historically included the widespread genera Picoides and Dendrocopos. The assignment of species to either of these two genera has for long puzzled systematists due to their overall plumage similarity. Recent molecular studies not only suggested that both of these genera are not monophyletic, but also that four other genera, the African Dendropicos the South American Veniliornis and two Asian monospecific genera (Hypopicus and Sapheopipo) are nested within the Dendrocopos-Picoides clade. Yet, our current understanding of the phylogeny and taxonomy of this group is still very partial because several distinctive Old World species that have been assigned to different genera throughout their taxonomic history have not been sampled yet. Here, using DNA sequence data gathered from four loci, we reconstructed a species level phylogeny of the Indo-Malayan and Palearctic Pied Woodpeckers to understand the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history of the Eurasian species with respect to African and New World lineages. Our phylogenetic analyses revealed nine strongly supported clades within the Dendropicini. Noticeably, two species that had disputed affinities at the genus level clustered in clades with species from the same biogeographical region: the Brown-backed Woodpecker (D. obsoletus) is nested in Dendropicos and the Arabian Woodpecker (D. dorae) is related to two Eurasian species, the Brown-fronted (D. auriceps) and Middle-spotted woodpeckers (D. medius). The nine clades have a strong biogeographic component and very few dispersal event among bioregions occurred. For example, the African species formed a clade, suggesting that only one dispersal event is needed to explain the presence of Dendropicini in Africa. Based on our phylogenetic results, we propose a new classification of the Dendropicini that recognizes nine genera. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Deformación sísmica reciente de la sierra de Pie de palo, provincia de San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Monsalvo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia la actividad sísmica en la sierra de Pie de Palo durante enero 2008 a diciembre 2009. Los datos utilizados fueron registrados por 52 estaciones sismológicas de los experimentos SIEMBRA y ESP. En ese período, 149 sismos corticales fueron localizados con magnitudes locales entre 0,8Pie de Palo con una ausencia en el sector centro occidental de la sierra y valle de Tulum. Además, se observa una distribución de sismos diferente para la corteza situada al norte con respecto al sur de la sierra: en el bloque norte, 52 hipocentros ocurrieron a niveles de corteza media a inferior mientras que en el boque sur, 73 sismos se concentraron principalmente en niveles corticales intermedios. Se observa una buena correlación de la sismicidad con el modelo de corteza local propuesto por Perarnau et al. (2010 posicionándose la mayor ocurrencia de actividad sísmica a profundidades de corteza media a inferior y ninguna determinación sísmica en el nivel más inferior sugiriendo un comportamiento probablemente más dúctil. Un total de 128 mecanismos focales fueron determinados utilizando primeros arribos de ondas P que indican soluciones principalmente de tipo inverso e inverso con componente de rumbo. Los resultados están de acuerdo con un acortamiento cortical en dirección aproximada este-oeste. Además, el estudio de las fuentes sísmicas realizado sugiere una deformación asociada diferente para los bloques que componen a la sierra, tanto en su extensión areal como en profundidad cortical.

  17. OBSERVING OF RADIOACTIVE CAESIUM 137Cs VALUE IN BEEF MEAT (CZECH PIED CATTLE IN LESS-FAVOURED AREAS OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Holko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Value of radiocaesium 137Cs as one of Risk Factors in beef meat is very important for human health. Beef meat (m. longissimus lumborum et thoracis from Czech Pied cattle in two less-favoured areas located more then 500 meters above sea level (Bohemian Forest Bohemian and Moravian Highland was dependent on Sex (decrease by female, increase by male, P<1.10-6 and on area (P<1.10-6. Value of radiocaesium 137Cs in beef meat ( = 0,42 Bq.kg-1; sx = 0,28 was less then food standard (600 Bq.kg-1. This observed result are responding to finding another authors and could be used for next more detailed research in optimal utilization of Czech Pied cattle in less-favoured areas.

  18. Costo-efectividad del uso de resonancia magnética y radiografía convencional en pacientes con pie diabético

    OpenAIRE

    Chicaíza-Becerra, Liliana A.; Gamboa-Garay, Oscar; García-Molina, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Analizar, desde la perspectiva del pagador, la costo efectividad de la adición de resonancia magnética a la radiografía convencional en pacientes con pie diabético y signos de infección, en Colombia. Métodos Mediante un modelo de Markov, se identificó la relación de costo-efectividad de la adición de resonancia magnética a la radiografía convencional en pacientes con pie diabético y signos de infección en Colombia. La perspectiva es la del pagador. Los costos se valoraron en pesos co...

  19. Análisis clínico y baropodométrico de los niños con pie plano valgo flexible infantil en edad preescolar

    OpenAIRE

    Ballestero Pérez, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    "Introducción": La baropodometría permitiría conocer el comportamiento dinámico pie plano valgo flexible infantil (PPVFI). Objetivos: Estudiar las características neuromadurativas, clínicas y baropodométricas de los niños con PPVFI y del grupo control y establecer las diferencias entre ambos. Desarrollar una clasificación funcional de los pies entre 3 y 6 años."Material y métodos": Análisis descriptivo de las variables de la historia clínica de 126 niños (66 PPVFI, 60 controles) de entre 36 y...

  20. La prótesis de expansión de Giannini en el tratamiento del pie plano-laxo infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Carranza-Bencano, A.; Zamora Navas, P.; Fernández Velázquez, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Presentamos una serie de 50 pies plano-laxo infantil intervenidos con la prótesis de expansión de Giannini entre los años 1989 y 1992. Para evaluar la corrección obtenida se ha tenido en cuenta la morfología y sintomatología del pie, la valoración del fotopodograma y el ángulo de Moreau-Costa-Bartani y la línea de Sheade o eje de Meary-Tomeno en el estudio radiográfico. En la valoración final de resultados constatamos 14 casos (28%) excelentes, 31 (62%) buenos, 2 (4%) regulares...

  1. Ag-PIE: a GIS-based screening model for assessing agricultural pressures and impacts on water quality on a European scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giupponi, Carlo; Vladimirova, Irena

    2006-04-15

    Diffuse pollution of water resources from agricultural sources is a major environmental issue in the European Union, and has been dealt with by specific legislation: the Nitrate Directive of 1991 and the Water Framework Directive of 2000. These attempts to provide a coordinated approach to solving environmental problems require methods and tools for spatial analysis and modelling on a continental scale, with river basins being used as spatial units. This paper presents a screening model (Ag-PIE), developed in a GIS environment, for the assessment of pressures from agricultural land use and the consequent impacts on surface and groundwater. Ag-PIE has been applied at the European scale (EU15), with focus on nitrogen pollution from chemical fertilisers and manure. The model adopts a multi-criteria evaluation procedure applied to spatial data layers which represent the variety of factors affecting the pollution process. The DPSIR (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impact, Responses) approach is applied to provide the modelling approach with a conceptual framework and to further analyse and communicate results. Ag-PIE is ultimately aimed at providing a tool making use of state-of-the-art geographical databases to support policy-makers at the European level. The scale of reference adopted is the river basin, in particular those that extend across national boundaries. The quality of the results obtained has been assessed against existing related studies and monitoring reports and by means of sensitivity analysis. Conclusions are driven by considering the potential of Ag-PIE in devising policy support and its strengths and weaknesses in view of identifying future research needs.

  2. [Nourseothricin (streptothricin) inactivated by plasmid pIE 636-encoded acetyltransferase: detection of N-acetyl-beta-lysine in the inactivated product].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltmann, G

    1985-12-01

    Nourseothricin (streptothricin) can be inactivated by an acetyl transferase synthesized by E. coli strains containing plasmid pIE 636. Nourseothricin inactivated in the presence of 14C-acetyl-coenzyme A was purified and submitted to partial acidic hydrolysis. By electrophoresis of the hydrolysate a 14C-containing substance moving only slowly towards the cathode could be isolated. This substance after complete hydrolysis yields only unlabelled beta-lysine.

  3. La evaluación de los estudiantes en el PIE Enseñanza del Derecho en Inglés de la Facultad de Derecho

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez Marsilla, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo analiza las diversas metodologías de evaluación utilizadas por los Profesores del Proyecto de Innovación Educativa(PIE) Enseñanza del Derecho en Inglés de la Facultad de Derecho de la Universitat de València. Los resultados del análisis muestran que convive una considerable diversidad de herramientas de evaluación que, en muchos casos, son al mismo tiempo herramientas de aprendizaje.

  4. Fracturas Fisarias Salter-Harris VI de Tobillo y Pie. [Salter-Harris VI fractures of the foot and ankle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Javier Masquijo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción Las fracturas Salter-Harris VI (SHVI son lesiones que se caracterizan por presentar ablación del anillo pericondral. Son infrecuentes en niños pero potencialmente devastadoras. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el mecanismo de producción, el tratamiento y los resultados funcionales de estas lesiones localizadas en el pie y el tobillo. Material y métodos Se analizaron retrospectivamente todos los pacientes con lesiones SHVI de tobillo y pie tratadas entre Enero de 2010 y Enero de 2013. Se documentaron datos demográficos, clasificación, mecanismo de lesión, tipo de lesiones asociadas y número de cirugías que requirieron. Los pacientes fueron evaluados funcionalmente con el score de AOFAS y radiográficamente para determinar la viabilidad de la fisis, acortamiento del miembro o deformidad angular. Resultados Se analizaron 5 fracturas en 4 pacientes (3 masculinos y 1 femenino. La edad promedio al momento de la lesión fue de 7.5 años (rango, 6  a 10 años. El seguimiento promedio fue de 26.2 meses (rango, 12 - 37 meses. De acuerdo a la subclasificación de Peterson 3 pertenecían al grupo A, 1 al B y 1 al C. 3 lesiones se produjeron como consecuencia de accidentes de moto y 2 por auto versus peatón. Todos los casos se acompañaron de pérdida de sustancia, el 75% presentaba lesiones en más de un hueso y el 50% lesiones tendinosas asociadas. Cada paciente requirió un promedio de 3.2 cirugías (rango, 2 a 5. El score AOFAS promedio fue de 79.8 puntos (rango, 62 – 100 puntos. Radiográficamente, solo el 40% de las fisis afectadas permanecían viables al último control. Conclusión Las fracturas SHVI se acompañan de una gran variedad de lesiones asociadas, requieren múltiples cirugías y suelen producir un cierre precoz de la fisis y algún grado de discapacidad.  Se requieren medidas de prevención para evitar la exposición de los niños a este tipo de lesiones. El tratamiento temprano es fundamental para

  5. Evaluación integral de la sensibilidad en los pies de las personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rivas Acuña

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Actualmente la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 es considerada una epidemia en el mundo, es uno de los problemas de mayor trascendencia, por su alta prevalencia como por su enorme repercusión social y económica, por tal motivo el propósito del estudio fue evaluar de manera integral la sensibilidad en los pies de las personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2, de Villahermosa, Tabasco, México. Materiales y Métodos: El diseño fue descriptivo correlacional, la muestra fue de 198 personas. Se utilizó el Test del Michigan Neuropathy Screening con monofilamento de Semme Weinstein, Diapasón, temperatura frío/calor y reflejo Aquileo. Resultados y Discusión: El sexo femenino predominó con un 70.2% y el 29.8% hombres, el promedio de edad fue 56.44 años y 12.34 años promedio con la enfermedad. El 46% registró síntomas neuropáticos moderados, 26.3% graves; el 65.7% riesgo de neuropatía positiva (40.9% mujeres y 24.8% hombres, 41.1% con pérdida de sensibilidad moderada y 29.3% sensibilidad normal; el 74.7% tiene un control glucémico deficiente. Los factores de riesgo detectados con mayor prevalencia fueron helomas, hiperqueratosis y deformidades. Conclusiones: Existe una correlación significativa entre la pérdida de la sensibilidad con los años con la enfermedad, con la hiperglucemia y síntomas de neuropatía, la pérdida de sensibilidad en mujeres es de moderada a grave y en los hombres la pérdida de la sensibilidad es moderada. Cómo citar este artículo: Rivas V, Mateo Y, García H, Martínez A, Magaña M, Carrillo R.  Evaluación integral de la sensibilidad en los pies de las personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Rev Cuid. 2017; 8(1:1423-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.v8i1.348

  6. El número de corredores a pie se incrementó en España durante la primera década del siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Tejero-González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Es habitual encontrar en los medios de comunicación del Estado español noticias o artículos que subrayan el auge de las carreras populares en España. El objetivo de esta carta científica fue comprobar con rigor sociológico si se ha incrementado en los últimos años el número de practicantes de carrera a pie. Con este fin, fueron analizadas las tres últimas encuestas sobre hábitos deportivos de los españoles, las cuales fueron llevadas a cabo por el Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas, bajo el patrocinio del Consejo Superior de Deportes, durante los años 2000, 2005 y 2010. Los datos indican que sí se produjo un incremento en la práctica de la carrera a pie entre la finalización del siglo xx y la primera década del siglo xxi, pasando de un 3,8% de corredores en el año 2000 a un 5,1% en el año 2010. Cabe destacar que en el año 2010 residían en España alrededor de dos millones de personas mayores de 14 años que eran practicantes de carrera a pie.

  7. Uranium hydrogeochemical survey of well waters from an area around Pie Town, Catron County, West-Central New Mexico, including concentrations of twenty-three additional elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, T.L.; George, W.E.; Hensley, W.K.; Thomas, G.J.; Langhorst, A.L.

    1980-10-01

    As part of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) conducted a detailed hydrogeochemical survey of well waters in a 4250-km/sup 2/ area near Pie Town in west-central New Mexico. A total of 300 well samples was collected and analyzed for uranium and 23 other elements. The results of these analyses and carbonate and bicarbonate ion concentrations are presented in the Appendixes of this report. Uranium concentrations range from below the detection limit of 0.02 parts per billion (ppB) to 293.18 ppB and average 8.71 ppB. Samples containing high levels of uranium were collected from the Largo Creek valley west of Quemado, from a small area about 6 km east of Quemado, from a small area surrounding Pie Town, and from scattered locations in the area surrounding Adams Diggings north of Pie Town. Most of the samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from wells associated with the volcanic sedimentary facies of the Datil formation. This formation is a likely source of mobile uranium that may be precipitating in the underlying Baca formation, a known uranium host unit. Bicarbonate ion concentration, while proportional to uranium concentration in some cases, is not a strong controlling factor in the uranium concentrations in samples from this area.

  8. A new dual-frequency liquid crystal lens with ring-and-pie electrodes and a driving scheme to prevent disclination lines and improve recovery time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yung-Yuan; Chao, Paul C-P

    2011-01-01

    A new liquid crystal lens design is proposed to improve the recovery time with a ring-and-pie electrode pattern through a suitable driving scheme and using dual-frequency liquid crystals (DFLC) MLC-2048. Compared with the conventional single hole-type liquid crystal lens, this new structure of the DFLC lens is composed of only two ITO glasses, one of which is designed with the ring-and-pie pattern. For this device, one can control the orientation of liquid crystal directors via a three-stage switching procedure on the particularly-designed ring-and-pie electrode pattern. This aims to eliminate the disclination lines, and using different drive frequencies to reduce the recovery time to be less than 5 seconds. The proposed DFLC lens is shown effective in reducing recovery time, and then serves well as a potential device in places of the conventional lenses with fixed focus lengths and the conventional LC lens with a single circular-hole electrode pattern.

  9. Imperative, irony and smuggling of the pie in the sky. Somenotes on the poem Do Jeruszalaim by Jerzy Ficowski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Czwordon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The poem Do Jeruszalaim combines different original poetical solutionsapplied in the collection of poems Odczytanie popiołów and rememberingthe experience of Shoah. The language of the poem becomes a toolemployed in a “smuggling” of unsaved Jews, being done “belatedly”,into the world of the living. Complicated, unspectacular by design,constructional operations are finely tuned with the semantics of the escape(flight and are to lay a false trail, to rescue a human being in theintricacies of the poem, somewhere between the sheer physics of theescape and the possibilities offered by words. A particularly interestingplace is given to the phraseological units used in the poems such as“a handful of pies in the sky” that simultaneously recall futility of theaction but somehow suggest a “smuggling” the act of life-giving activity.The activities carried out in the language of the poem functionin a ceaseless (and self-augmenting strain between the two contradictions.They are: the imperative of memory, impractical (and unfeasibleact of saving human “after-being” and the protest against the abyssmalnothingness of Shoah on the one hand, and irony of the futility of these“vindications from non-existence” as being only verbal, on the other.

  10. Active basement uplift of Sierra Pie de Palo (Northwestern Argentina): Rates and inception from10Be cosmogenic nuclide concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siame, Lionel L.; Sébrier, Michel; Bellier, Olivier; Bourlès, Didier; Costa, Carlos; Ahumada, Emilio A.; Gardini, Carlos E.; Cisneros, Hector

    2015-06-01

    Quaternary tectonic and denudation rates are investigated for an actively growing basement anticline: the Sierra Pie de Palo range, which belongs to the Andean foreland of Northwestern Argentina (28°S-33°S). In this study, a detailed morphometric analysis of the topography is combined with in situ-produced cosmogenic10Be concentrations measured in (1) surface boulders abandoned on alluvial terraces affected by fault activity (along the north bounding fault) and growth of the basement fold (along the southeastern border), (2) bedrock outcrops corresponding to an exhumed and folded, regional erosion surface, and (3) fluvial sediments sampled at the outlets of several watersheds. Along the eastern and northern borders of the range, incision and uplift rates have been estimated at approximately 0.5 and 1 mm/yr when integrated on Holocene and Pleistocene time scales, in close agreement with both long-term (structural and basin evolution data) and short-term (GPS-derived velocity field) analyses. Cosmogenic-derived denudation and uplift rates combined with geomorphic characteristics of watersheds and river channels allows estimating the onset of the uplift at 4-6 Ma, followed by a more recent period of topographic rejuvenation at roughly 1-2 Ma, probably synchronous with steepening of the eastern and northern flanks of the anticline.

  11. SplicePie: a novel analytical approach for the detection of alternative, non-sequential and recursive splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulyakhina, Irina; Gazzoli, Isabella; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Verwey, Nisha; den Dunnen, Johan T; den Dunnen, Johan; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Laros, Jeroen F J

    2015-07-13

    Alternative splicing is a powerful mechanism present in eukaryotic cells to obtain a wide range of transcripts and protein isoforms from a relatively small number of genes. The mechanisms regulating (alternative) splicing and the paradigm of consecutive splicing have recently been challenged, especially for genes with a large number of introns. RNA-Seq, a powerful technology using deep sequencing in order to determine transcript structure and expression levels, is usually performed on mature mRNA, therefore not allowing detailed analysis of splicing progression. Sequencing pre-mRNA at different stages of splicing potentially provides insight into mRNA maturation. Although the number of tools that analyze total and cytoplasmic RNA in order to elucidate the transcriptome composition is rapidly growing, there are no tools specifically designed for the analysis of nuclear RNA (which contains mixtures of pre- and mature mRNA). We developed dedicated algorithms to investigate the splicing process. In this paper, we present a new classification of RNA-Seq reads based on three major stages of splicing: pre-, intermediate- and post-splicing. Applying this novel classification we demonstrate the possibility to analyze the order of splicing. Furthermore, we uncover the potential to investigate the multi-step nature of splicing, assessing various types of recursive splicing events. We provide the data that gives biological insight into the order of splicing, show that non-sequential splicing of certain introns is reproducible and coinciding in multiple cell lines. We validated our observations with independent experimental technologies and showed the reliability of our method. The pipeline, named SplicePie, is freely available at: https://github.com/pulyakhina/splicing_analysis_pipeline. The example data can be found at: https://barmsijs.lumc.nl/HG/irina/example_data.tar.gz.

  12. Estudio preliminar. Patologías digitales más frecuentes en el pie de la bailaora de flamencoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Castillo López

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivos, en primer lugar, dar a conocer las principales deformidades digitales de los pies, asociadas -por su alta incidencia- a la práctica profesional del baile flamenco femenino. Así como, poner de manifiesto la necesidad de llevar a cabo estudios de mayor magnitud para determinar si existe una relación estadísticamente significativa entre la práctica del baile flamenco con las deformidades y patologías podológicas descritas, y la importancia de la investigación en el campo de la medicina del deporte, y de la ortopodología y biomecánica en pos de hallar tratamientos preventivos y/o paliativos en su caso.En este estudio epidemiológico preliminar, llevado a cabo con la colaboración de la Universidad de Sevilla-Área Clínica de Podología y Departamento de Podología- Agencia Andaluza para el Desarrollo del Flamenco, Fundación Cristina Heeren de Arte Flamenco, Centro de Baile Flamenco Ana Moya, y el Centro de Investigación de Flamenco Telethusa, se han evaluado a 28 bailaoras profesionales activas en la provincia de Sevilla, con una actividad mínima de 20h semanales. En dicha muestra se han determinado las patologías podológicas presentes, sintomatología, hábitos de uso de calzado específico, y hábitos podológicos. Los resultados muestran una alta incidencia de patologías digitales como el H.A.V. (juanetes, dedos en garra, y onicopatías.

  13. [Genetic mechanisms of resistance and susceptibility to leukemia in Ayrshire and black pied cattle breeds determined by allelic distribution of gene Bola-DRB3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udina, I G; Karamysheva, E E; Turkova, S O; Orlova, A R; Sulimova, G E

    2003-03-01

    In the herds of Ayrshire and Black Pied cattle breeds of Russian selection, comparative analysis of allelic distribution of BoLA-DRB3 was performed in animal groups with different status of persistent lymphocytosis (PL) caused by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Alleles were typed by PCR-RFLP. Different spectra of BoLA-DRB3 alleles mediating susceptibility and resistance to leukemia were detected in the studied breeds. The role of amino acid motives in beta 1 domain of BoLA-DRB3 antigens was confirmed: ER (in positions 70-71), in resistance to leukemia and VDTY and VDTV (75-78), in susceptibility to leukemia. The nucleotide sequence of allele BoLA-DRB3.2*7 with deletion of codon 65, which resulted in the changed conformation of the corresponding antigen molecule, was associated with resistance to PL. Cows of Black Pied and Ayrshire breeds with genotypes coding VDTY/VDTV (RR = 11.67, P = 0.014) and VDTY/VDTY (RR = 4.71, P = 0.022), respectively, were shown to be susceptible to PL. The role of heterozygosity level was demonstrated (estimated by BoLA-DRB3 alleles and by amino acid motives in positions 75-78 of the antigen) as an unspecific factor of resistance to PL. The lowest heterozygosity level by amino acid motives (75-78) was revealed in PL animals, for which sample inbreeding coefficients were detected: F = 0.324 and F = 0.084 in Ayrshire and Black Pied breeds, respectively.

  14. Interspecific competition among the secondary hole-nesting birds under the conditions of large interannual fluctuations of spring temperatures in Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khokhlova Tatyana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Data on the reproduction of birds in bird boxes (n=167-196 in Karelia in consequent years with drastic changes in spring temperature were analysed: 1975 - extremely early and warm spring, 1976 - late and cold one, 1977 - with medium indices. The changes in fertility, reproductive success and the number of Great tit Parus major L. (77 nests, Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca L. (171, Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus (L. (10 and Wryneck Jynx torquilla L.-(6 were estimated. It was shown, that under the unstable conditions of the North, competition can make a considerable contribution to the dynamics of the population characteristics of birds and serve as one of the significant elements of the mechanism of their number regulation. Its influence is enhanced due to the convergence of the time of the breeding start of wintering and migratory birds in a year with late spring. The result of that is the rise in the number of nests lost due to anxiety or ruined by competitors, and increasing proportion of recycled clutch smaller in size and late on terms. These contributed to the fall of population productivity, the growth of the necessary reproductive effort in a significant part of individuals as well as the increase in the proportion of late broods, changing plumage at late time. After the year with early spring the number of all secondary hole-nesting birds grew, but after that with late spring, it reduced. The most significant decline in the population (in 3 times was showed by Great tits – species with bicyclical reproduction. Because of the high percent of late second and repeated nests in 1976 the large number of individuals moulted at late time and under the extremely adverse conditions and it resulted in their increased mortality.

  15. Effects of spring temperatures on the strength of selection on timing of reproduction in a long-distance migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Marcel E; Gienapp, Phillip; Husby, Arild; Morrisey, Michael; de la Hera, Iván; Pulido, Francisco; Both, Christiaan

    2015-04-01

    Climate change has differentially affected the timing of seasonal events for interacting trophic levels, and this has often led to increased selection on seasonal timing. Yet, the environmental variables driving this selection have rarely been identified, limiting our ability to predict future ecological impacts of climate change. Using a dataset spanning 31 years from a natural population of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), we show that directional selection on timing of reproduction intensified in the first two decades (1980-2000) but weakened during the last decade (2001-2010). Against expectation, this pattern could not be explained by the temporal variation in the phenological mismatch with food abundance. We therefore explored an alternative hypothesis that selection on timing was affected by conditions individuals experience when arriving in spring at the breeding grounds: arriving early in cold conditions may reduce survival. First, we show that in female recruits, spring arrival date in the first breeding year correlates positively with hatch date; hence, early-hatched individuals experience colder conditions at arrival than late-hatched individuals. Second, we show that when temperatures at arrival in the recruitment year were high, early-hatched young had a higher recruitment probability than when temperatures were low. We interpret this as a potential cost of arriving early in colder years, and climate warming may have reduced this cost. We thus show that higher temperatures in the arrival year of recruits were associated with stronger selection for early reproduction in the years these birds were born. As arrival temperatures in the beginning of the study increased, but recently declined again, directional selection on timing of reproduction showed a nonlinear change. We demonstrate that environmental conditions with a lag of up to two years can alter selection on phenological traits in natural populations, something that has important

  16. Competitor phenology as a social cue in breeding site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samplonius, Jelmer M; Both, Christiaan

    2017-05-01

    Predicting habitat quality is a major challenge for animals selecting a breeding patch, because it affects reproductive success. Breeding site selection may be based on previous experience, or on social information from the density and success of competitors with an earlier phenology. Variation in animal breeding phenology is often correlated with variation in habitat quality. Generally, animals breed earlier in high-quality habitats that allow them to reach a nutritional threshold required for breeding earlier or avoid nest predation. In addition, habitat quality may affect phenological overlap between species and thereby interspecific competition. Therefore, we hypothesized that competitor breeding phenology can be used as social cue by settling migrants to locate high-quality breeding sites. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally advanced and delayed hatching phenology of two resident tit species on the level of study plots and studied male and female settlement patterns of migratory pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. The manipulations were assigned at random in two consecutive years, and treatments were swapped between years in sites that were used in both years. In both years, males settled in equal numbers across treatments, but later arriving females avoided pairing with males in delayed phenology plots. Moreover, male pairing probability declined strongly with arrival date on the breeding grounds. Our results demonstrate that competitor phenology may be used to assess habitat quality by settling migrants, but we cannot pinpoint the exact mechanism (e.g. resource quality, predation pressure or competition) that has given rise to this pattern. In addition, we show that opposing selection pressures for arrival timing may give rise to different social information availabilities between sexes. We discuss our findings in the context of climate warming, social information use and the evolution of protandry in migratory animals.

  17. R and D status and requirements for PIE in the fields of the HTGR fuel and the innovative basic research on High-Temperature Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawa, Kazuhiro; Tobita, Tsutomu; Sumita, Junya [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Ishihara, Masahiro; Hayashi, Kimio; Hoshiya, Taiji; Sekino, Hajime; Ooeda, Etsurou

    1999-09-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), which is the first high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in Japan, achieved its first criticality in November 1998 at the Oarai Research Establishment of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). In the field of HTGR fuel development, JAERI will proceed research and development (R and D) works by the following steps: (STEP-1) confirmation of irradiation performance of the first-loading fuel of the HTTR, (STEP-2) study on irradiation performance of high burnup SiC-coated fuel particle and (STEP-3) development of ZrC-coated fuel particle. Requirements for post-irradiation examination (PIE) are different for each R and D step. In STEP-1, firstly, hot cells will be prepared in the HTTR reactor building to handle spent fuels. In parallel, general equipments such as those for deconsolidation of fuel compacts and for handling coated fuel particles will be installed in the Hot Laboratory at Oarai. In STEP-2, precise PIE techniques, for example, Raman spectroscopy for measurement of stress on irradiated SiC layer, will be investigated. In STEP-3, new PIE techniques should be developed to investigate irradiation behavior of ZrC-coated particle. In the field of the innovative basic research on high-temperature engineering, some preliminary tests have been made on the research areas of (1) new materials development, (2) fusion technology, (3) radiation chemistry and (4) high-temperature in-core instrumentation. Requirements for PIE are under investigation, in particular in the field of the new materials development. Besides more general apparatuses including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), some special apparatuses such as an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer, a specific resistance/Hall coefficient measuring system and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) are planned to install in the Hot Laboratory at Oarai. Acquisition of advanced knowledge on the irradiation behavior is expected in

  18. Influencia de los hábitos de salud general y podológica en el desarrollo de complicaciones en el pie diabético

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Flores, Emmanuel María

    2013-01-01

    En la actualidad las herramientas validadas para el estudio del nivel de autocuidados en el paciente con diabetes mellitus y como la influencia del mismo se relaciona con las complicaciones de pie diabético presentan un elevado déficit metodológico. El objetivo principal de nuestro trabajo ha sido primero evaluar la calidad metodológica de los estudios publicados al respecto, donde se observó que existe déficit metodológico con respecto a la misma; motivo por el cual en segundo lugar se propu...

  19. Evidencias de la zona de contacto entre los terrenos de Precordillera y Pie de Palo, Provincias de San Juan y Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano García Torrejón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio gravimétrico en la región norte de la cuenca Cuyana, entre las provincias de San Juan y Mendoza. Mediante relaciones de gradientes gravimétricos tales como señal analítica, Tilt y fase del Tilt, se observó un marcado gradiente, que fue interpretado como un cambio lateral de litologías, que coincidiría con el área de una probable paleosutura del margen proto-andino, que separa en el terreno compuesto de Cuyania, al terreno de Precordillera con el terreno de Pie de Palo.

  20. Clasificaciones de lesiones en pie diabético: Un problema no resuelto Classifications of injuries on diabetic foot: A non-solved problem

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor González de la Torre; Abián Mosquera Fernández; M.ª Luana Quintana Lorenzo; Estrella Perdomo Pérez; M.ª del Pino Quintana Montesdeoca

    2012-01-01

    La necesidad de unificar criterios empleando un mismo lenguaje que favorezca la comunicación y el intercambio de conocimientos unido al desconocimiento existente en cuanto a las distintas formas de clasificación de las heridas crónicas, ha motivado a los autores para llevar a cabo esta revisión bibliográfica en la que se analizan quince sistemas de clasificación de lesiones de pie diabético y se abordan entre otros, aspectos como la metodología, facilidad de utilización, grado de conocimiento...

  1. Estudio epidemiológico de úlceras por presión en tobillo-pie (UPP-TP) en el lesionado medular ingresado

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco López, José Luis; Espelt, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    Objetivo general: Determinar los indicadores de incidencia y prevalencia de úlceras por presión en tobillo-pie en lesionados medulares ingresados. Material y métodos: Ensayo clínico controlado de 549 lesionados medulares, durante 48 meses. Resultados: La incidencia promedio de pacientes con UPP-TP de todo el periodo estudiado fue de: 1"178 pac./mes. La incidencia promedio de UPP-TP de todo el periodo estudiado fue de: 1"789 UPP-TP/mes. La prevalencia promedio de pacientes con UPP-TP de todo e...

  2. pies manuscrites d'impresos renaixentistes a la Biblioteca Universitària de València: el llegat d'Onofre Soler i Rubio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Lluís Martos

    2014-03-01

    i tres presenten la peculiaritat de ser còpies d’impresos antics, datats entre 1490 i 1561, una tècnica bastant desconeguda que, des d’època incunable, ha estat present en la transmissió textual de les obres. En aquest article s’estudien els tres còdexs, des d’una perspectiva interna i externa, que resulten mostres interessants de diferents episodis de la història del llibre, sota una mateixa estratègia de transmissió.

  3. "Cinemática y cinética del pie y su relación con el rendimiento y las lesiones en atletas de resistencia"

    OpenAIRE

    Mosqueira Ourens, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    [Resumen]INTROUUCClON. El análisis de la trayectoria de centro de presión de pie (CPP) juega un papel fundamental en el establecimiento de patrones biomecállicos( 1). Aunque la biomecflllica de caminar y correr fueron ampliamente investigadas (2. 3. 4). la mayoría de los estudios no fueron realizados a una velocidad individualizada en base a una prueba de carrera máxima. METODO.48 participantes moderadamente entrenados fueron divididos en 3 grupos. de acuerdo con el rendimiento en carrera:...

  4. Análisis biomecánico del segmento de la carrera a pie de la competición en triatlón

    OpenAIRE

    Cala Mejías, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    El principal objetivo de la presente investigación fue el conocer el perfil de rendimiento técnico de los triatletas, desde un punto de vista biomecánica, en el segmento carrera a pie durante la competición en triatlón. Asimismo, como el genero y el nivel deportivo del triatleta podrían influir en su respuesta motriz durante la competicion. Para ello, se necesitaba desarrollar y validar una técnica experimental que fuera lo suficientemente precisa (validez interna), con una alta fiabilidad y ...

  5. Papel de la enfermería en el cuidado y prevención del pie diabético

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La Diabetes Mellitus es la principal causa de pacientes crónicos en nuestro país. El mal control de ésta por parte del propio paciente y del personal sanitario va a tener una serie de consecuencias que se verán reflejadas en la aparición de complicaciones crónicas; una de las más frecuentes es la aparición de úlceras en los pies. El papel de la enfermera, tanto en la prevención como en el tratamiento de estas úlceras, será muy relevante. La finalidad de este trabajo es prevenir las úlceras...

  6. Conocimientos y conductas de los pacientes con diabetes mellitus sobre el pie diabético Knowledge and behaviors of the patients with diabetes mellitus in relation to the diabetic foot

    OpenAIRE

    Ulises de Jesús Gallardo Pérez; Leonardo Zangronis Ruano; Nelson Chirino Carreño; Leonardo Mendoza Vélez

    2008-01-01

    Se identificaron los conocimientos y conductas de los pacientes con diabetes mellitus sobre el pie diabético. Se realizó un estudio cualitativo en 2 consultorios del Policlínico "Hermanos Ruíz Aboy", del municipio San Miguel del Padrón. Se ejecutaron 4 grupos focales, con un total de 28 participantes de ambos sexos, entre 50 y 80 años de edad. La mayoría de los pacientes mostró falta de conocimientos sobre la definición de pie diabético y sus factores de riesgo. Los pacientes realizan un auto...

  7. Infecciones en úlceras de pie diabético : epidemiología, factores predictivos de multirresistencia y pronósticos asociados con amputación:estudio prospectivo 2008-2012

    OpenAIRE

    García Zafra, María Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos: Estudio descriptivo de las infecciones de pie diabético en nuestro ámbito, identificación de aquellos factores predictivos de infecciones multirresistentes y valoración de los factores pronósticos asociados con la amputación. Pacientes y método: Hemos estudiado 167 pacientes con infecciones de úlceras de pie diabético ingresados en el Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca (Murcia; España) durante los años 2008 a 2012. Las infecciones se clasificaron de acuerdo c...

  8. Guía de autocuidado y prevención del pie diabético en pacientes atendidos en el Hospital del Instituto Ecuatoriano de Seguridad Social de Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Una de las dificultades cotidianas que con mayor periodicidad pueden afectar a los pacientes diabéticos son las lesiones que se presentan en los miembros inferiores, conocidas como pie diabético. Debido a las graves lesiones que presentan los pacientes con pie diabético, entre las cuales se pueden referenciar las úlceras y las amputaciones, esta alteración se ha constituido en un problema de salud pública, tal como lo indican los datos estadísticos que destacan su incidencia, prevalenci...

  9. Valoración del riesgo de pie diabético en el paciente anciano en una consulta de enfermería Assessing the risk of "diabetic foot" in the elderly patient in a nursery office

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Dentro del trabajo diario del profesional de enfermería con los mayores, la atención al paciente con diabetes mellitus (DM) supone una parte importante del quehacer diario. El pie diabético supone una de las complicaciones más frecuentes que van a suponer un mayor coste, no sólo a nivel físico, sino social y económico, tanto para el paciente como para la sociedad. Nos planteamos realizar un estudio descriptivo observacional sobre los hábitos higiénicos respecto al cuidado de los pies de los p...

  10. Dividing the Pie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D. Flood; C.G. Koedijk (Kees); M.A. van Dijk (Mathijs); I.W. van Leeuwen (Irma)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe examine the consequences of transparency in an experimental multiple-dealer market with asymmetrically informed dealers. Five professional securities traders make a market for a single security. In each trading round, one of the dealers (the "insider") is told the security's true valu

  11. Sharing the Pie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s securities market opens further to foreign investment banks New members will soon join the roster of Chinese foreign securities joint ventures-JPMorgan Chase is preparing one with First Capital Securities Co. Ltd., and Morgan Stanley is partnering with China Fortune Securities Co. Ltd.

  12. Sharing Smaller Pies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Tom

    This paper details the unfavorable predicament of the United States as a consequence of using much of its own non-renewable material and energy resources. As a consequence, the United States will soon be subject to the political and economic conditions imposed upon it by other nations. The United States must begin to implement adjustments to the…

  13. Easy as Pie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Busier life and fatter paychecks have enabled more and more urbanites to enioy the New Year’s Eve dinner in a commercial way.but the essence of family reunions remains the same On the dinning table of Chinese families,the family banquet on the eve of lunar New Year is supposed to be the tastiest and the longest dinner as well as the highlight of the cel- ebration of the Spring Festival. At this precious family reunion the whole family is supposed to chat over the dinner

  14. Manifestaciones geomorfológicas y geofísicas de una estructura geológica profunda al sur de la Sierra de Pie de Palo, Sierras Pampeanas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Patricia Martínez; Laura P. Perucca; Mario E. Giménez; Francisco Ruíz

    2008-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se vinculan las evidencias geomorfológicas y geofísicas con la existencia de una estructura emplazada en la corteza superior, ubicada al sur de la sierra de Pie de Palo y con similares dimensiones que ésta...

  15. Augsnes un veģetācijas izmaiņas piesārņojuma dēļ Rīgas pilsētas mežos

    OpenAIRE

    Baumane, Elza

    2017-01-01

    Pilsētas vides piesārņojumu var novērtēt dažādos veidos un viens no visbiežāk izmantotajiem ir sūnu biomonitorings. Līdz šim vēl nav atklāti un noskaidroti vienoti standarti par sūnu biomonitoringa efektīvāku izmantošanu. Nav arī vienota pētījuma par augsnes piesārņojuma ietekmi uz augu sugu daudzveidību. Pētījuma mērķis ir noskaidrot pilsētas vides piesārņotības pakāpes izvērtējumu, izmantojot sūnas un augsni kā bioindikatorus, un noteikt augu sugu daudzveidību atkarībā no augsnes piesārņoju...

  16. Quality of pies obtained of the extraction of sunflower and crambe oil for biodiesel under different temperatures; Qualidade das tortas obtidas na extracao do oleo de girassol e crambe para biodiesel sob diferentes temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Tabata Zingano; Prado, Naimara Vieira do; Coelho, Silvia Renata Machado; Bischoff, Teodato Zingano [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil)], emails: tabatazbi@yahoo.com.br, nai_mara@hotmail.com, srmcoelho@unioeste.br, teodato_zb@hotmail.com; Figueiredo, Paulo Roberto Abreu de [Instituto Agronomico do Parana (IAPAR), Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Sunflower and crambe are viable alternatives to ethanol. Used in food production, the sunflower crop has economic, rustic and does not require specialized machinery. The crambe oil is concentrated enough, it is feasible to farm and is not edible. The extraction efficiencies of these oils gives to the heating and moisture content of grain. The aim of this study was to evaluate temperatures of oil extraction in sunflower and crambe as pies obtained. For oil extraction and acquisition of pies, we used a high pressure extruder press. The sunflower seed and crambe were extruded without heating and at temperatures of 50 and 70 deg C with three replicates for each treatment, estimated to be the pie, the amount of fat, protein and moisture. Increasing the temperature, we observed a reduction of moisture in sunflower cake, but this did not occur in seeds of crambe. For sunflower, the higher levels of lipids occurred for pie without heating, and for crambe, the higher levels of lipids occurred at 50 deg C. As for the protein, was found in both cultures, the highest level at 70 deg C. It is concluded that the extraction temperature alters the composition of oilseed cakes. (author)

  17. Metasedimentos siliciclásticos proterozoicos en la Sierra de Pie de Palo, San Juan: Procedencia y ambiente tectónico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GI Vujovich

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Los metasedimentos del Grupo Caucete aflorantes en la sierra de Pie de Palo constituyen una pieza importante para entender la evolución del margen gondwánico durante el Proterozoico tardío a Paleozoico temprano. Esta secuencia metamórfica está en contacto tectónico, a través del Corrimiento Las Pirquitas, con el Complejo Pie de Palo (Mesoproterozoico. El Grupo Caucete está integrado por dos unidades mayores, una siliciclástica y otra carbonática, y basado en estudios de campo entre las quebradas Las Pirquitas y La Petaca y posterior laboratorio, ha sido dividido en cuatro formaciones. La parte siliciclástica incluye a la Cuarcita El Quemado, la que está intercalada con la Formación La Paz, unidad de carácter volcaniclástico. Los carbonatos están representados por la Formación El Desecho (areniscas y limolitas carbonáticas con mármoles dolomíticos y la Caliza Angacos. Los primeros resultados geoquímicos fueron utilizados para comparar la Cuarcita El Quemado y la Formación La Paz con las metagrauvacas del Complejo Pie de Palo. Su composición mineralógica ha determinado el comportamiento geoquímico de los elementos mayoritarios, mientras que las tierras raras y elementos traza, al estar concentrados principalmente en los minerales pesados, muestran que los procesos sedimentarios han jugado un rol importante en su distribución. Los sedimentos siliciclásticos se habrían originado por la destrucción de rocas corticales procedentes de áreas orogénicas, con un importante componente félsico asociado con rocas ígneas originadas en arcos magmáticos más o menos evolucionados. Los mismos se habrían depositado en una plataforma continental durante el Proterozoico superior (670 Ma, U/Pb en circones detríticos.

  18. Asociación entre el estado nutricional y la prevalencia de pie plano en niños chilenos de 6 a 10 años de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio López-Fuenzalida

    Full Text Available Introducción: dado el incremento del sobrepeso y obesidad infantil, es relevante estudiar no solo las consecuencias metabólicas, sino también aquellas de índole musculoesqueléticas que pueden afectar la funcionalidad motriz, como es el pie plano, en esta población. Objetivo: identificar la asociación entre el estado nutricional y la prevalencia de pie plano en niños y niñas chilenos de 6 a 10 años. Métodos: el z-score del índice de masa corporal (IMC y el registro y análisis de las huellas plantares según la metodología de Hernández-Corvo fue llevado a cabo en 388 escolares (52,3% niñas. Un test de diferencia para dos proporciones fue utilizado para evaluar las diferencias entre los grupos. Se considera una significancia estadística con p ≤ 0,05. Resultados: la prevalencia del exceso de peso fue de más del 40%. Esta prevalencia fue más alta en las niñas (47,8% que en los niños (42,7%. La prevalencia de pie plano en todos los niños fue del 17%, presentando valores más elevados el pie derecho (18,3% que el izquierdo (15,7%. Hay un incremento significativo de la prevalencia de pie plano en los niños obesos en relación con los niños con sobrepeso y normopeso. Conclusión: el estado nutricional está asociado con incrementos en la prevalencia de pie plano en niños. En la población infantil de 6 a 10 años de edad, la obesidad está asociada con la alteración morfológica del pie.

  19. Newcastle disease in a zoo affecting demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo), greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) and a pied imperial pigeon (Ducula bicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, E F; Marschall, H J

    1981-07-01

    Newcastle disease virus could be isolated from demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo), greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) and a pied imperial pigeon (Ducula bicolor) in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cultures. All of these birds died without prominent symptoms and had no typical pathological lesions. Identification and characterisation studies of the viruses were performed in CEF cultures and embryos. Serological cross reactions could be detected between NDV strain B1 and the new isolates by haemagglutination inhibition and plaque reduction tests. Electron microscopic examination revealed particles with paramyxovirus morphology. Inoculation of susceptible cockerels resulted in severe clinical symptoms and mortality. The distribution of lesions in the digestive tract indicates that the isolated viruses are of the velogenic viscerotropic type.

  20. A century later: Tricolored Pied Flat Coladenia indrani uposathra Fruhstorfer, 1911 (Hesperiidae: Pyrginae and Crenulate Oakblue Apporasa atkinsoni Hewitson, 1869 (Lycaenidae: Theclinae reported from Manipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baleshwor Singh Soibam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the rediscovery of the Tricolored Pied Flat Coladenia indrani uposathra Fruhstorfer, 1911 and Crenulated Oakblue Apporasa atkinsoni Hewitson, 1869 after about 99 years after they were sighted by Tytler (1915 in Irang river and Sebong of Manipur, North East India. C. i. uposathra was sighted a Keibul Lamjao National Park (KLNP and Heibok hills of Imphal valley on 4th and 16th May 2014 and A. atkinsoni was sighted Munnom village at Yaingangpokpi Lokchao Wildlife Sanctuary (YLWS on 8th December 2015.  A. atkinsoni is protected under schedule II of Indian (Wildlife Protection Act 1972. The rediscovery of such very rare species in Manipur shows that more survey is needed in hills and valley regions of Manipur to know the butterfly fauna of the region.

  1. Diversidad y universalidad como respuesta a pie diabético en paciente paquistaní con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 desde Atención Primaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Brugada Faura

    Full Text Available Siguiendo las enseñanzas de Madeleine Leininger sobre los conceptos de su modelo transcultural, buscamos una respuesta en el entorno de la Atención Primaria al caso que nos ocupa de una lesión ulcerosa en pie izquierdo, de etiología desconocida, en paciente paquistaní con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Hallando la respuesta mediante la adaptación de similitudes de riesgo en el entorno de esta enfermedad, comunes en todas las culturas, y cuyas diferencias estriban en la localización de la úlcera y su factor desencadenante. Anómalas en nuestra cultura al estar relacionada con sus prácticas culturales.

  2. Clasificaciones de lesiones en pie diabético: Un problema no resuelto Classifications of injuries on diabetic foot: A non-solved problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor González de la Torre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de unificar criterios empleando un mismo lenguaje que favorezca la comunicación y el intercambio de conocimientos unido al desconocimiento existente en cuanto a las distintas formas de clasificación de las heridas crónicas, ha motivado a los autores para llevar a cabo esta revisión bibliográfica en la que se analizan quince sistemas de clasificación de lesiones de pie diabético y se abordan entre otros, aspectos como la metodología, facilidad de utilización, grado de conocimiento, utilidad de la información aportada y limitaciones de cada uno de ellos. Con ello, los autores no pretenden sino facilitar que los profesionales implicados en el cuidado de las úlceras diabéticas conozcan las distintas formas de estadiaje existentes en el pie diabético y en general en las heridas crónicas.The need of unify criterions using a same idiom contributing communication and interchanging knowledge together with ignorance existing in relation to the different ways of classificating chronic wounds is the reason for the authors to carry out this review analyzing fifteen classification systems in diabetic foot wounds dealing with subjects such as methodology, simplicity of use, grade of knowledge, usefulness of the information provided and limitations of each one. And so the authors pretend helping that those professionals taking care of diabetic foot ulcers can get to know different ways of staging diabetic foot wounds and chronic wounds in general.

  3. Willow Flycatcher Habitat Model Results [ds278

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset was developed by Chris Stermer (CDFG - RAP Program). No original metadata were located, but the following is an abstract from a document describing the...

  4. Willow Flycatcher Range - CWHR [ds594

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  5. ¿La utilización de descargas en las úlceras neuropáticas de pie diabético, influye en el tiempo y la tasa de cicatrización?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El pie diabético (PD) es una de las complicaciones más prevalentes de la Diabetes Mellitus (DM) y es la principal causa de hospitalización de estos pacientes. Se ha descrito que el 15% de los pacientes con DM desarrollarán una úlcera en sus pies a lo largo de la evolución de su enfermedad, y que la probabilidad de sufrir una amputación mayor es 15 veces superior que en la población no diabética. El alto índice de recurrencia de estas lesiones y la alta tasa de mortalidad, convie...

  6. Manifestaciones geomorfológicas y geofísicas de una estructura geológica profunda al sur de la Sierra de Pie de Palo, Sierras Pampeanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Patricia Martínez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se vinculan las evidencias geomorfológicas y geofísicas con la existencia de una estructura emplazada en la corteza superior, ubicada al sur de la sierra de Pie de Palo y con similares dimensiones que ésta. A partir de valores de gravedad, se calculó una carta de anomalías de Bouguer, correspondiente a la sierra de Pie de Palo y zonas aledañas. Se aplicó el método de deconvolución de Euler, variando adecuadamente el ancho de ventana entre 20 y 35 km y con dos índices estructurales: 0,5 y 1. Las respuestas obtenidas con este método señalan en ambos casos una concentración de soluciones que se corresponden con rasgos estructurales reconocidos geológicamente como: la megafalla Desaguadero Bermejo; el borde oriental de la Precordillera; la megafractura de El Molle. Por otro lado, existe una gran acumulación de soluciones de forma trapezoidal al sur de la sierra de Pie de Palo. Estas fuentes responden a profundidades en su mayoría ubicadas entre 10 y 20 kilómetros, indicando una cuarta estructura profunda o alto de basamento. Las evidencias geomorfológicas encontradas en la región corroborarían la existencia de esta estructura en ascenso, sugerida por las sucesivas migraciones de los cauces de los ríos San Juan hacia el norte y Mendoza y Tunuyán hacia el sur, tanto en épocas prehistóricas como históricas. Este fenómeno podría compararse con el ocurrido durante el terremoto de 1977, con epicentro en la provincia de San Juan, el cual produjo un ascenso de la sierra de Pie de Palo de 1,20 metros.

  7. The Development of Beef Pie Riching in Unsaturated Fatty Acids%牛肉饼中不同油脂复配比例的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩田; 马俪珍; 柴丽园

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to search for the best combination of unsaturated fatty acid-rich vegetable oil (sunflower oil, olive oil and butter) to replace part of the butter to the steak. [ Method] Orthogonal test design of L9(34) was performed to optimize the addition a-mounts of sunflower oil, olive oil and butter to determine the content on the texture of beef patties and optimal ratio. Physical mouth feel, slice ability, flavor, color, and the texture of beef pie and fatty acid were determined. Sunflower oil, olive oil, butter add volume set to three levels:3% , 4% , 5% . Sensory score systems were used for the evaluation of the beef pie. [ Result] The results showed that the optimal combination was addition amounts of 5% sunflower oil, 4% olive oil and 3% butter. [Conclusion]The study gain optimum formula by orthogonal test. The ratio can be added to lean ground beef in processed into high quality beef patties.%[目的]将富含不饱和脂肪酸的植物油脂(葵花油、橄榄油和牛油)替代部分牛油添加到牛肉饼中,探寻最佳的比例组合.[方法]采用正交试验设计确定牛肉饼中葵花油、橄榄油和牛油的添加量对牛肉饼质构的影响以及最优比例的优化.应用感官评分法对牛肉饼的口感、组织状态、滋气味、色泽进行评分,并对牛肉饼的质构进行测定.[结果]感官评定与质构测定结果较一致,最佳组合均为5%葵花油、4%橄榄油和3%牛油.[结论]通过正交试验得出其最佳工艺配方,可按照此比例添加到瘦牛肉馅中加工成品质优良的牛肉饼.

  8. Pirkuma lēmuma pieņemšanas process mazumtirdzniecībā un tā ietekmēšanas iespējas

    OpenAIRE

    Legzdiņa, Dace

    2007-01-01

    Arvien biežāk patērētājs lēmumu par pirkumu pieņem tieši veikalā, neilgi pirms pirkuma izdarīšanas. Taču diemžēl ražotāji un pārdevēji, neskatoties uz šīm patērētāja uzvedības izmaiņām, vairāk līdzekļus tērē reklāmai, kas ir ārpus tirdzniecības vietas. Darba mērķis ir, izvērtējot patērētāja uzvedību mazumtirdzniecībā, pirkuma lēmuma pieņemšanas procesa posmos, noteikt patērētāja pirkšanas paradumus un pirkšanas lēmuma pieņemšanas vietu, kā arī novērtēt patērētāja lēmuma ietekmēšanas iespēj...

  9. A seismological and petrological crustal model for the southwest of the Sierra de Pie de Palo, province of San Juan Modelo cortical sismológico y petrológico para el sudoeste de la sierra de Pie de Palo, provincia de San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brígida Castro de Machuca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A seismic velocity analysis from teleseismic receiver functions recorded in the southwestern fank of the Sierra de Pie de Palo (Western Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina, is compared with seismic properties directly calculated from lithological composition. The seismological results show an upper layer located in the first 13 km depth. A deeper contrast in seismic velocities is found at a depth of 28 km; the petrological results indicate a composition compatible with observed greenschist and amphibolite facies mafic rocks up to this depth. The receiver function measurements at 13 km and 28 km depths could be interpreted as two potential décollement levels that might have favoring a mechanism to thicken the whole crust, which produces a receiver function Moho signal located at 47 km depth. In addition, the lower crust between 28 km and 47 km exhibits high seismic P-wave velocities and Vp/Vs ratio (> 1.80 that are representative of a densification consistent with upper amphibolite to granulite/ecoglite facies lithologies. Based on these results, the combined petrological and seismological analyses suggest the continuation of the same mafic-crust outcropping lithologies into the lower levels of the 47-km thickened crust, which could be part of the Pie de Palo Complex ophiolite belt or the Precordillera basement.Un análisis de funciones del receptor registradas en el suroeste de la Sierra de Pie de Palo (Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales, Argentina, se compara con propiedades sísmicas directamente calculadas a partir de la composición litológica. Los resultados sismológicos indican una capa superior en los primeros 13 km. Otra zona de contraste entre las velocidades de ondas sísmicas, más profunda, se encuentra a unos 28 km; los resultados del análisis petrológico indican una composición compatible con rocas máficas en facies de esquistos verdes y anfibolitas hasta esa profundidad. Las observaciones de función del receptor a 13 y 28 km de

  10. Culturas marítimas y relaciones de poder. La trayectoria del marisqueo a pie en las Rías Bajas gallegas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broullón Acuña, Esmeralda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article addresses a female labour developed in a frontier territory such as the maritime banks of the northwest coast of Spain which is the so-called “subsector” the gatherers walk from the Galician (Spain. Of a field in such work we have half analyzed occupational segregation because of gender in the thread of the conditions that traditionally developed these jobs, while the same protagonists hearings trajectory traveled by the collective female for the “professional” consolidation.

    El siguiente artículo muestra la trayectoria del trabajo femenino desarrollado en un territorio de frontera como son las riberas marítimas del litoral noroeste de la Península Ibérica. Es el denominado “subsector” de las mariscadoras a pie de las rías bajas gallegas. A partir de un trabajo de campo en dicho entorno hemos analizado la segregación ocupacional en razón al género, al hilo de las condiciones en que tradicionalmente se desarrollaban dichas faenas. Mientras tanto las protagonistas narraron el itinerario recorrido por el colectivo femenino para la consolidación “profesional” del oficio de mariscadora.

  11. Fidélisation du couple hôte-vecteur facteur probable de spéciation : 14 espèces de Plasmodium de la Pie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavatte J.M.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Les Plasmodium de 33 Pies établies dans deux parcs proches de Paris ont été étudiés. La plupart des Oiseaux étaient polyparasités; 14 espèces dont 10 nouvelles ont été observées et décrites. L’abondance surprenante d’espèces différentes est attribuée à un phénomène qui est désigné sous le terme de “fidélisation du couple hôte-vecteur”. En effet, les particularités biologiques de l’hôte (territoires contigus, mais bien définis et des vecteurs présumés (nombreuses espèces d’Aedes à biologie distincte entraînent un morcellement des niches. Ce type d’isolement s’ajoute aux autres facteurs classiques en parasitologie (géographie, microlocalisations, horaires et aboutit à des isolements multiples, donc à de nombreuses spéciations.

  12. Estimación de la estructura cortical de velocidades sísmicas en el suroeste de la sierra de Pie de Palo, provincia de San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Perarnau

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestran resultados relacionados con la estructura de corteza en la región de la sierra de Pie de Palo perteneciente a las Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales a partir de funciones del receptor telesísmicas para la estación sismológica Coronel Fontana (31,605°S y 68,238°O. Estos resultados ponen de manifiesto evidencias de dos discontinuidades intracorticales a profundidades de 13 y 28 km aproximadamente y una discontinuidad más profunda cerca de 47 km de profundidad que correspondería al Moho. Los valores de contraste entre las velocidades de ondas P y S (Vp/Vs para estas discontinuidades son en general elevados. En particular, la región comprendida entre 13 y 28 km de profundidad muestra los valores más altos de Vp/Vs lo cual indicaría un mayor grado de fracturación o fallamiento para esta zona de la corteza. Los resultados indican una densificación de la corteza inferior.

  13. Proyectos, Innovación y Estrategia (PIE. Un paso firme hacia nuevos modelos en la gestión empresarial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gutiérrez Sandí

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Los nuevos modelos económicos exigen a las organizaciones a responder de manera rápida a los diferentes cambios que generan los actores en los mercados. Este desequilibrio natural de los sistemas obligan a las organizaciones a variar su modelo estático para poder responder, de manera eficiente, a los cambios que se presentan. Ante un estado de cambio constante, la innovación debe ser la herramienta que permita enlazar las actividades estratégicas con las acciones operativas que son llevadas al campo práctico a través de la herramienta de los proyectos. Ese triángulo: Proyectos, Innovación y Estrategia, proporciona el soporte sobre el cual da los pasos la organización. Para poder enlazar dichas aristas se debe recurrir al uso de modelos de gestión, tecnología, destrezas y habilidades de comunicación interpersonal y empresarial. Por tanto, el PIE puede considerarse como un estándar en donde la Estrategia es el punto de partida; seguido por la Innovación como característica importante de la Estrategia, ya que constituye el medio o proceso para canalizar y desarrollar los productos de la estrategia; luego, finalmente, los Proyectos como herramienta para lograr los objetivos estratégicos innovadores planteados. Indispensable debe ser, ante cualquier acción a seguir, que las iniciativasimplementadas, las cuales se suman a la estrategia como eslabones de una cadena, representen un real aporte de valor en los cambios previstos por la organización.

  14. La técnica de Charles en el tratamiento del linfedema secundario crónico del dorso del pie: caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sá

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El linfedema se define como la retención intersticial de líquido hiperprotéico. En su fase incial es reversible; pero en fases más avanzadas desencadena múltiples reacciones locales que culminan en un aumento del volumen de las extremidades, hipertrofia y fibrosis de los tejidos más superficiales. El tratamiento quirúrgico del linfedema secundario crónico es idéntico cualquiera que sea su etiología, pero difiere según el estadío de la enfermedad. En los estadíos iniciales el tratamiento conservador es la primera elección; pero ante el fallo de las medidas conservadoras, el tratamiento microquirúrgico mediante anastomosis linfático-venosas y linfo-linfáticas es el que se acepta como de primera línea y proporciona excelentes resultados. En fases más tardías, las técnicas de escisión radical, más especificamente la técnica de Charles asociada o no a medidas fisiológicas, juegan un papel importante en la resolución del linfedema dada la necesidad de conseguir una redución volumétrica del miembro afectado. Con la presentación de un caso clínico, pretendemos demostrar la utilidad de la técnica de Charles en el tratamiento del linfedema secundario crónico avanzado del dorso del pie.

  15. Estimación del valor real y del valor de mercado en pie de la plantación forestal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olman Murillo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una metodología para la estimación del valor de plantaciones forestales en pie, basada en el valor real y el de mercado. El valor real lo constituyen el volumen, la calidad, la edad y la especie. El volumen se descompone en clases diamétricas y categorías de calidad. El valor real descuenta un 10% por cada disminución en la categoría de calidad de la troza o árbol. Así también, se descuenta al valor real la categoría de tamaño de la troza (efecto en el porcentaje de rendimiento en aserrío en relación con la clase diamétrica. Finalmente, a las plantaciones menores a 10 años se les descuenta el factor edad (calidad de su madera. El valor de mercado se ajusta al valor real con base en 7 parámetros que definen su potencial de aprovechamiento y transporte del producto de la plantación: 1 escala de la plantación; 2 distancia al sitio de transformación de la madera; 3 acceso a la plantación dentro de la finca; 4 topografía y pendiente; 5 pedregosidad; 6 malezas y 7 densidad de la plantación. Se presenta un ejemplo real de valoración de una plantación de pilón (Hieronyma alchorneoides ubicada en Sarapiquí, Heredia.

  16. Factores de riesgo en diabetes mellitus y pie diabético: un enfoque hacia la prevención primaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Análida E Pinilla

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: revisar la literatura sobre factores de riesgo asociados a diabetes mellitus y sus complicaciones, las estrategias de prevención y la importancia de programas interdisciplinarios para mejorar la calidad de vida. Fuente de datos: búsqueda de la literatura científica publicada en español e inglés, en bases de datos como Medline, SciELO y otras de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia mediante palabras clave; además, revisión de libros y consensos afines con el tema. Selección de estudios: se revisaron los títulos y resúmenes de documentos para seleccionar las publicaciones originales, así como las más representativas con relación a prevención primaria y educación. Extracción de datos: la literatura se clasificó y organizó de acuerdo con el tema principal y la estructura del artículo. Síntesis de datos: se inició un análisis crítico para ordenar y sintetizar los avances relacionados con los siguientes ítems: factores de riesgo para diabetes mellitus, epidemiología, pie diabético, educación, prevención primaria y estilos de vida relacionados con ejercicio y alimentación. Conclusión: el impacto de la diabetes mellitus y sus complicaciones en la salud de los individuos hace necesario establecer políticas de salud pública de prevención primaria, para minimizar el progreso de esta epidemia. Es esencial instaurar y fortalecer programas educativos orientados por profesionales de la salud, además de implementar la formación en diabetes mellitus en los currículos de pregrado y posgrado del área de la salud.

  17. The revised human liver cytochrome P450 "Pie": absolute protein quantification of CYP4F and CYP3A enzymes using targeted quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Scott; Wang, Michael Zhuo

    2014-08-01

    The CYP4F subfamily of enzymes has been identified recently to be involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds (arachidonic acid and leukotriene B4), nutrients (vitamins K1 and E), and xenobiotics (pafuramidine and fingolimod). CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B are reported to be expressed in the human liver. However, absolute concentrations of these enzymes in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and their interindividual variability have yet to be determined because of the lack of specific antibodies. Here, an liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based targeted quantitative proteomic approach was employed to determine the absolute protein concentrations of CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B compared with CYP3A in two panels of HLMs (n = 31). As a result, the human hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) "pie" has been revised to include the contribution of CYP4F enzymes, which amounts to 15% of the total hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. CYP4F3B displayed low interindividual variability (3.3-fold) in the HLM panels whereas CYP4F2 displayed large variability (21-fold). However, CYP4F2 variability decreased to 3.4-fold if the two donors with the lowest expression were excluded. In contrast, CYP3A exhibited 29-fold interindividual variability in the same HLM panels. The proposed marker reaction for CYP4F enzymes pafuramidine/DB289 M1 formation did not correlate with CYP4F protein content, suggesting alternate metabolic pathways for DB289 M1 formation in HLMs. In conclusion, CYP4F enzymes are highly expressed in the human liver and their physiologic and pharmacologic roles warrant further investigation.

  18. Do Spanish-English bilinguals have their fingers in two pies--or is it their toes? An electrophysiological investigation of semantic access in bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko eHoshino

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the time course of cross-language activation during word recognition in the context of semantic priming with interlingual homographs. Spanish-English bilinguals were presented pairs of English words visually one word at a time and judged whether the two words were related in meaning while recording event-related potentials (ERPs. Interlingual homographs (e.g., pie appeared in the target position and were preceded by primes that were either related to the English meaning (e.g., apple, related to the Spanish meaning of interlingual homographs (e.g., toe or totally unrelated (e.g., floor/bed. Spanish-English bilinguals showed semantic priming not only when interlingual homographs were related to the English meaning but also to the Spanish meaning of the prime. These priming effects were detectable in the mean amplitude of the N400 (350-500 ms even when the target word was related to the prime in Spanish and the context of the experiment was English. However, the relatedness effect survived into the window of a late positive component, LPC (550-700 ms only for stimulus pairs related in English. To verify that the observed pattern of the results was due to participants’ bilingualism, we also tested a group of English monolinguals. The monolinguals showed a semantic priming effect for the N400 and LPC time windows only when interlingual homographs were related to the English meaning. These results suggest that both languages are activated in the classical time frame of semantic activation indexed by N400 modulations, but that semantic activation in the non-target language is subsequently inhibited.

  19. Ancient DNA analysis might suggest external origin of individuals from chamber graves placed in medieval cemetery in Pień, Central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płoszaj, Tomasz; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Zamerska, Alicja; Drozd-Lipińska, Alicja; Poliński, Dariusz; Janowski, Andrzej; Witas, Henryk

    2017-08-11

    The participation of immigrants during early days in Poland of Piast's dynasty is a debated issue among archaeologists and anthropologists alike. Such hypotheses were formulated on the basis of, amongst others, the discovery of early medieval chamber graves characterized by construction features typical of the Scandinavian culture area. Archaeological and anthropological studies to date have not provided an unequivocal answer as to whether the individuals interred in those graves were autochthons who adopted a different burial rite, or perhaps immigrants from foreign lands. To characterize the gene pool of this population we analyzed the C/T allele of the nuclear gene LCT-13910 as well as fragments of the mitochondrial genome from individuals buried in very richly furnished chamber graves at the medieval cemetery in Pień. The obtained results for the nuclear allele and mtDNA do not corroborate the Scandinavian origin of the analyzed population. Moreover, we did not find haplogroup I, which is the one typical of populations that historically inhabited the north of Europe; and the frequency of the LCT-13910 T allele was similar to that of past and present Polish populations. On the other hand, we identified the atypical haplogroup C5c1, which suggests Asian origin of the studied individuals and confirms our previous reports concerning ancient human migrations from Asia to the territory of present-day Poland. While our findings do not conclusively disprove a Scandinavian lineage of the studied population, they certainly shed some new light on the origin of the individuals buried in chamber graves, which may be very different from the one initially proposed by archaeologists.

  20. Una novela-testimonio dominicana sobre la dictadura de Trujillo : El Masacre se pasa a pie de Freddy Prestol Castillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Capdevila

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available El Masacre se pasa a pie de Freddy Prestol Castillo remporte un succès de librairie extraordinaire dès sa parution en 1973 et est rapidement considéré comme un classique, aujourd’hui étudié dans les établissements scolaires de la République Dominicaine. Dans ce roman-témoignage – pour reprendre la terme proposé par Miguel Barnet, l’auteur rapporte à la première personne le massacre de 12 000 à 20 000 présumés Haïtiens par les hommes de main du Trujillo en 1937. L’événement est un des moments décisifs de la dictature : il en marque profondément le caractère raciste et sanctionne les relations de violence entre l’État et la population. Dénonciatrice, l’œuvre cherche à rétablir la vérité des faits contre les mensonges de la propagande officielle. Nourri par cette volonté d’authenticité, le roman présente de façon dynamique et synthétique les bouleversements que subit la société dominicaine soumise à l’État dictatorial. La littérature apparaît ici comme une urgente nécessité pour restituer sa mémoire à la nation dans la perspective de sa reconstruction.El Masacre se pasa a pie de Freddy Prestol Castillo es un extraordinario éxito de ventas al publicarse en 1973. Muy pronto pasa a ser una obra clásica, estudiada hoy en los centros de enseñanza de la República Dominicana. En esa novela-testimonio – para usar el término propuesto por el cubano Miguel Barnet, el autor relata en primera persona la matanza de 12.000 a 20.000 presuntos haitianos a manos de los esbirros de Trujillo en 1937. El trágico acontecimiento es uno de los momentos álgidos de la dictadura que manifiesta claramente su carácter racista y deja al desnudo las relaciones de violencia entre el Estado y la población. Denunciadora, la obra pretende restablecer los hechos verídicos contra las mentiras de la propaganda oficial. Apoyándose en esta voluntad de autenticidad, la novela presenta de modo dinámico y sint

  1. Adição de torta de mamona em substratos na aclimatação de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira Effect of addition of castor bean pie in substrates in acclimatization of micropropagated banana plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Novais Martins

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira que oferecem qualidade genética e fitossanitária, favorecendo o desenvolvimento, instalação e uniformidade do pomar, é importante para a exploração comercial da bananicultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da adição da torta de mamona nos substratos na aclimatação de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira da cv. Willians. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 10 tratamentos, sendo 2 substratos e 5 dosagens de torta de mamona (0; 6; 12; 18 e 24 g vaso-1. O substrato Vivatto Slim Plus® possibilitou o melhor desenvolvimento das plantas na aclimatação. Não são recomendadas doses superiores a 12 g planta-1 de torta de mamona misturadas ao substrato na aclimatação de mudas de bananeira.The use of micropropagated banana tree seedlings offer genetic and phytosanitary qualities, favoring the development, installation and uniformity of the yield and it is very important for the commercial exploration of banana fruits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor oil plant pie added to the substrate in the acclimatization of micropropagated banana plantlets cv. 'Willians'. It was use the completely randomized, with 10 treatments, being 2 substrates and 5 dosages of castor oil plant pie (0; 6; 12; 18 and 24 g for each recipient. The substrate Vivatto Slim Plus® showed the best development of the plants in acclimatization processes. Dosages above 12 g of castor oil plant pie for each plant are not recommended mixed to the substrate in the acclimatization of banana tree seedlings

  2. Valoración del riesgo de pie diabético en el paciente anciano en una consulta de enfermería Assessing the risk of "diabetic foot" in the elderly patient in a nursery office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Martínez Sabater

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del trabajo diario del profesional de enfermería con los mayores, la atención al paciente con diabetes mellitus (DM supone una parte importante del quehacer diario. El pie diabético supone una de las complicaciones más frecuentes que van a suponer un mayor coste, no sólo a nivel físico, sino social y económico, tanto para el paciente como para la sociedad. Nos planteamos realizar un estudio descriptivo observacional sobre los hábitos higiénicos respecto al cuidado de los pies de los pacientes mayores de 60 años afectos de diabetes mellitus remitidos a la consulta de enfermería, encontrándose un déficit importante de cuidados podológicos en los pacientes estudiados. El profesional de enfermería, por el alto contacto que tiene con el paciente afecto de diabetes mellitus, es un factor importante en la prevención y detección precoz del pie diabético y de la promoción de hábitos saludables.Taking care of diabetes mellitus (DM patients is one of the main chores in geriatric nursery. "Diabetic foot" is the most common problem and it actually entails a great deal of expenses, physically, socially and economically speaking, as well for the patient as for the community. What we did was an observational and descriptive research about foot cleansing habits in diabetes mellitus patients over 60 years old and we found out a severe lack of chiropody care. Due to the fact their work involves having a close contact with diabetes mellitus patients, nursing professionals become an outstanding agent on an early detection and prevention of the "diabetic foot" in addition of improving healthy cleaning habits.

  3. Campus Bullies in Literary Films, with Examples from Fresh Meat Pie by Yao-sheng Chang%文学电影中的"校园霸凌"——以张耀升《鲜肉饼》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯秉芳

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, micro films, particularly those that feature the theme of'Campus Bullies'made by middle-school students, have experienced a resurgence in Taiwan. Fresh Meat Pie, by Yao-sheng Chang, is different from the rest of them in that it was adapted from a piece of literary fiction and, for that reason, it provides a more comprehensive and profound ex ploration of the cause of the campus bullies and inner suffering of the characters. This paper, based on a research into Fresh Meat Pie, is an attempt to look at how the male protagonist is bullied and his psychology in relation to the relationships between parents and their children, schoolteachers and their students, and the male protagonist and the owner of the fresh meat pie restaurant.%近年台湾微电影有崛起之势,尤以中学生拍摄"校园霸凌"为主题的微电影最多.张耀升的《鲜肉饼》与其他微电影不同,原因在于它是由一篇具文学性的小说改编而成,因此在探讨校园霸凌的成因、反映人物内心的痛苦,更加全面而深刻.本文试以《鲜肉饼》为研究,分别就亲子关系、学校师生,以及男主角与鲜肉饼店老板之间的关系着手,探讨造成男主角被霸凌的成因及其心理.

  4. Large-scale geographical variation confirms that climate change causes birds to lay earlier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Christiaan; Artemyev, Aleksandr V; Blaauw, Bert; Cowie, Richard J; Dekhuijzen, Aarnoud J; Eeva, Tapio; Enemar, Anders; Gustafsson, Lars; Ivankina, Elena V; Järvinen, Antero; Metcalfe, Neil B; Nyholm, N Erik I; Potti, Jaime; Ravussin, Pierre-Alain; Sanz, Juan Jose; Silverin, Bengt; Slater, Fred M; Sokolov, Leonid V; Török, János; Winkel, Wolfgang; Wright, Jonathan; Zang, Herwig; Visser, Marcel E

    2004-08-22

    Advances in the phenology of organisms are often attributed to climate change, but alternatively, may reflect a publication bias towards advances and may be caused by environmental factors unrelated to climate change. Both factors are investigated using the breeding dates of 25 long-term studied populations of Ficedula flycatchers across Europe. Trends in spring temperature varied markedly between study sites, and across populations the advancement of laying date was stronger in areas where the spring temperatures increased more, giving support to the theory that climate change causally affects breeding date advancement.

  5. Amputación del miembro inferior por pie diabético en hospitales de la costa norte peruana 1990-2000: características clínico-epidemiológicas

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar las características clínico-epidemiológicas de la amputación del miembro inferior por pie diabético en pacientes de la costa norte peruana durante los años 1990-2000. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, basado en recolección de información de pacientes atendidos en cinco hospitales de cuatro capitales de departamento de la costa norte peruana. Se recolectaron datos demográficos y de la enfermedad (diagnóstico y manejo). Resultados: Se incluyeron 250...

  6. Guía práctica para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del síndrome del pie diabético Practical guide for the diagnosis and treatment of the diabetic foot syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Luis Sell Lluveras; Ihosvani Miguel Domínguez

    2001-01-01

    Se sabe que el síndrome del pie diabético constituye una de las principales causas de morbilidad y discapacidad en los pacientes con diabetes mellitus y que un rápido reconocimiento y adecuado manejo de sus factores de riesgo pueden prevenir o retardar la aparición de úlceras, amputaciones y otras complicaciones. Sus causas se dividen en: neuropáticas, angiopáticas, infecciosas y traumáticas. Se afirma que un detallado interrogatorio y exhaustivo examen físico ofrecen hasta el 90 % del diagnó...

  7. Conocimientos y conductas de los pacientes con diabetes mellitus sobre el pie diabético Knowledge and behaviors of the patients with diabetes mellitus in relation to the diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises de Jesús Gallardo Pérez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se identificaron los conocimientos y conductas de los pacientes con diabetes mellitus sobre el pie diabético. Se realizó un estudio cualitativo en 2 consultorios del Policlínico "Hermanos Ruíz Aboy", del municipio San Miguel del Padrón. Se ejecutaron 4 grupos focales, con un total de 28 participantes de ambos sexos, entre 50 y 80 años de edad. La mayoría de los pacientes mostró falta de conocimientos sobre la definición de pie diabético y sus factores de riesgo. Los pacientes realizan un autocuidado insuficiente de sus pies y asumen conductas de riesgo por la falta de educación. Consideramos importante reforzar el componente educativo en la atención integral de los pacientes con diabetes mellitus para elevar su nivel de conocimientos, crear hábitos saludables y evitar la aparición del pie diabético. La técnica del grupo focal constituyó un instrumento rápido y efectivo para la obtención de información.The knowledge and behavior of the patients with diabetes mellitus in connection with the diabetic foot were identified. A qualitative study was conducted in 2 family physician's offices of "Hermanos Ruíz Aboy" Polyclinic of San Miguel del Padrón municipality. 4 focal groups were selected with a total of 28 participants aged 50-80 of both sexes. Most of the patients lacked knowledge to define the diabetic foot and its risk factors. The patients' self-care of their feet is insufficient and they assume risk conducts due to their deficient education. It is important to reinforce the educative component in the comprehensive attention of the patients with diabetes mellitus to raise their knowledge level, to create healthy habits and to prevent the appearance of diabetic foot. The focal group technique is a rapid and effective tool to obtain information.

  8. Amputación del miembro inferior por pie diabético en hospitales de la costa norte peruana 1990 - 2000: características clínico-epidemiológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Escalante Gutiérrez

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar las características clínico-epidemiológicas de la amputación del miembro inferior por pie diabético en pacientes de la costa norte peruana durante los años 1990-2000. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, basado en recolección de información de pacientes atendidos en cinco hospitales de cuatro capitales de departamento de la costa norte peruana. Se recolectaron datos demográficos y de la enfermedad (diagnóstico y manejo. Resultados: Se incluyeron 250 pacientes procedentes de: Hospital JAMO de Tumbes 8,4%, Hospital Cayetano Heredia de Piura 40,0%, Hospital Regional Docente Las Mercedes de Lambayeque 18,0%, Hospital Belén 24,4% y Hospital Regional Docente de La Libertad 9,2%. El 61,2% fueron varones y la edad promedio fue 63,5±10 años. El 98,4% presentaron diabetes mellitus tipo 2, 56,5% sufrieron amputaciones mayores (p<0,05 y 10,4% amputaciones mayores secuenciales. El tiempo de reamputación fue ≤ 24 meses en 71,3% (p<0,05. Se identificó estadiaje de pie diabético según Wagner en 44 (11,8%, con un cuarto grado en 45,0%. El tiempo con enfermedad de los pacientes hasta la primera amputación fue entre 11 y 20 años (31,2%, destacando 13,6% casos con pie diabético como primera forma de presentación de DM y 2,5% con sintomatología de larga data pero que carecían de diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus. De las amputaciones, sólo el 8,3% fueron sometidas a debridaciones y el 4,4% a revascularización. Conclusiones: Se encontró una frecuencia importante de pie diabético. Los problemas detectados fueron: carencia de ayuda diagnóstica complementaria, falta de aplicación de procedimientos de salvataje previos a la amputación y no fueron evaluados integralmente los pacientes. Estos problemas deben ser resueltos para mejorar la calidad de vida y reducir las amputaciones innecesarias.

  9. Design and implementation of 18000-6C RFID baseband’s PIE encoding%18000-6C RFID系统基带PIE编码设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钰; 郝长端

    2016-01-01

    RFID (Radio-frequency Identification) is an automatic wireless data-collection technology,and RFID has significantly advanced and experienced a tremendous growth due to developments in integrated circuits and radios. Recently,there are increased interesting in UHF RFID from many fields,such as logidtics, commerce and trade and so on,therefore,it’s of great significance to the research and improvement of UHF RFID system. The first ,the peper investigates data encoding methods according to types A,B and C in ISO/IEC 18000-6,introduces the fundamental principles of PIE and analyses the characteristic of PIE coding specially.The second, based on the virtual instrument technology as the foundation, we designed the code method of PIE coding on LabVIEW. This design can not only be applied to the RFID testing system,but also provide the reference for commercial RFID reader.%RFID(无线射频识别)是一种自动的无线数据采集技术,随着集成电路和无线电技术的发展, RFID技术得到了巨大而又显著的进步。近年来,超高频(Ultra High Frequency UHF)射频识别统在物流管理领域的应用中日益受到关注,因此对UHF RFID系统的研究和改进具有重要的意义。本文首先介绍了ISO/IEC 18000-6标准中A、B、C三类标准,分析了脉冲间隔编码(PIE)方式的基本原理及PIE编码的信号特征。然后,文章以虚拟仪器技术为基础,在LabVIEW软件平台上对PIE编码方式进行了编码设计。本设计既可以应用于RFID测试系统,也可为商业RFID阅读器的设计提供参考。

  10. Estudio observacional de prevalencia sobre calidad de vida y patología músculo-esquelética en mariscadores/as a pie de la Comunidad Autónoma de Galicia

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Romero, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    [Resumen] Esta tesis doctoral estudia la prevalencia y determinantes del dolor músculoesquelético (DME), de la incapacidad funcional por lumbalgia y de la Calidad de Vida Relacionada con la Salud (CVRS) en las/os mariscadoras/es a pie de Galicia (n=929; a=0,05; precisión=3,2%). Identifica asimismo las consecuencias de dichos aspectos sobre los recursos socio-sanitarios. Su principal justificación es: a) la escasez de estudios sobre estas variables en tal colectivo y b) porque la valoración de...

  11. Amputación del miembro inferior por pie diabético en hospitales de la costa norte peruana 1990-2000: características clínico-epidemiológicas

    OpenAIRE

    David Escalante Gutiérrez; Leonid Lecca García; Julio Gamarra Sánchez; Giannina Escalante Gutiérrez

    2003-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar las características clínico-epidemiológicas de la amputación del miembro inferior por pie diabético en pacientes de la costa norte peruana durante los años 1990-2000. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, basado en recolección de información de pacientes atendidos en cinco hospitales de cuatro capitales de departamento de la costa norte peruana. Se recolectaron datos demográficos y de la enfermedad (diagnóstico y manejo). Resultados: Se incluyeron 250...

  12. Evaluación de costo-efectividad de la adición de la resonancia magnética a la radiografía convencional en la evaluación de pacientes con pie diabético y signos de infección

    OpenAIRE

    Chicaíza Becerra, Liliana; García Molina, Mario

    2009-01-01

    En personas con diabetes, una infección en el pie frecuentemente conduce a amputación. La radiografía plana es el método tradicionalmente usado en la evaluación de las infeccionas óseas del pie, pero comparada con ella, la resonancia magnética es más sensible y específica. Se realiza aquí una evaluación de costo efectividad usando un modelo de Markov para comparar la radiografía convencional con la radiografía más resonancia magnética en pacientes con pie diabético y signos de infección. Se e...

  13. Diferencias en el balance de pie en pacientes con parálisis cerebral y niños con desarrollo típico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Fabiola Gatica

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La discapacidad física es la más frecuente (10,3 % de las discapacidades en la zona central de Chile. La parálisis cerebral infantil es una de las patologías que genera déficit motor y pérdida del balance. El balance es crucial para la mantención de la estabilidad postural. Objetivos. Establecer las diferencias en las variables de área y velocidad promedio del centro de presión entre niños con desarrollo típico y pacientes con parálisis cerebral, así como conocer el grado de utilización de los diferentes sistemas sensoriales. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal con una muestra por conveniencia dividida en dos grupos de estudio: desarrollo típico (n=7 y parálisis cerebral (n=7. Los parámetros obtenidos desde la plataforma de fuerza fueron área y velocidad promedio del centro de presión y las bandas de frecuencia (0,0625, 0,125, 0,25, 0,5, 1, 2 y 4 Hz. Resultados. Durante la fase de vista al frente los pacientes con parálisis cerebral presentaron una velocidad promedio de centro de presión significativamente mayor que el grupo con desarrollo típico (p=0,043. Las bandas de frecuencias 0,25 Hz y 0,5 Hz relacionadas con el sistema vestibular presentaron diferencias significativas entre los grupos estudiados (p=0,021 y p=0,036. En la fase de ojos cerrados se observó un aumento significativo en el centro de presión y una mayor utilización del sistema vestibular otolítico en el grupo con parálisis. Conclusiones. Los pacientes con parálisis cerebral presentaron un menor balance de pie, además de utilizar de manera significativa el sistema vestibular en ambas fases de la prueba.

  14. Nordic walking as alternative physical activity for population with neuropathy on foot Marcha nórdica: actividad física alternativa en el cuidado del pie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pérez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    During last decade, Nordic Walking (NW is more and more being practiced by the population. The benefits associated to NW are several, nevertheless, does not know their effect on plantar pressure. The objective on this study it emphasizes the analysis on the plantar pressure depend on speed and experience on NW vs gait. By means of a Pedobarography system, plantar pressures in 9 zones on foot were registered on 2 speeds (slow/fast and two conditions (NW versus gait. The results show as the NW experience owns a smaller pressure at the central-metatarsal zone (~ 50%, and increase at heel zone (~ 23% and first toe (~ 13% with respect to the gait. Also, these experts showed lees pressure at metatarsal zone (~ 40% during gait, and lees plantar pressure in practically all zones, even at increase the speed.
    Key Words:  gait, plantar pressure, nordic walking, speed.

    Durante la última década, la marcha con bastones denominada “Nordic Walking”, está siendo cada vez más practicada por la población. Son varios los beneficios asociados a este estilo de marcha, sin embargo, se desconoce su efecto en la presión plantar. Como objetivo en este estudio destaca el análisis de la velocidad y experiencia en la Marcha nórdica vs Marcha sobre la presión plantar. Mediante un sistema de Pedobarografía, se registraron las presiones plantares en 9 zonas del pie, empleando 2 velocidades (lenta/rápida, y en 2 condiciones: Marcha nórdica vs Marcha. Los resultados muestran que los sujetos con mayor  experiencia en la marcha nórdica poseen una menor presión en la zona de los metatarsianos centrales (~ 50%, y un incremento en la zona del talón (~ 23% y primer dedo (~ 13 % respecto a la marcha. Además, estos expertos mostraron menores presiones en la zona metatarsal (~ 40% durante la marcha, y una menor presión plantar en prácticamente todas

  15. Prevalencia de las actividades de prevención del pie diabético y de los factores de riesgo asociados en pacientes diabéticos hospitalizados en la Clínica Universitaria Carlos Lleras Restrepo / Prevalence of the activities for prevention ofdiabetic foot and associated risk factors in diabetic patients hospitalized in the university hospital Carlos Lleras Restrepo.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Ramos , Cristhian; Devia Manchola, Diego

    2010-01-01

    El síndrome del pie diabético es una de las complicaciones de la diabetes mellitus, y constituye una enfermedad de alta prevalencia que contribuye al incremento de la morbilidad y mortalidad. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la prevalencia de las intervenciones preventivas del pie diabético y factores de riesgo asociados. Se diseñó un estudio de corte transversal en pacientes diabéticos mayores de 18 años, hospitalizados en la Clínica Universitaria Carlos Lleras Restrepo en el period...

  16. Komunikācijas loma sabiedrības iesaistīšanā lēmumu pieņemšanas procesos pašvaldībās

    OpenAIRE

    Skrastiņa, Inese

    2006-01-01

    Komunikācijas loma sabiedrības iesaistīšanā lēmumu pieņemšanas procesos pašvaldībā. Komunikācijas zinātnes bakalaura progr.stud. I.Skrastiņas stud.apl.Nr. komu010107 bakalaura darbs. Zinātniskais vad. Ābrams Kleckins asoc. prof. Uzdevums: Novērtēt, kā pielietotie komunikācijas modeļi ietekmē iedzīvotāju iesaistīšanos lēmumu pieņemšanas procesos pašvaldībā, pielietojamo komunikācijas modeļu efektivitāti, iedzīvotāju vērtējumu. Noteikt labākās informācijas apmaiņas iespējas. Hipotēzes: ...

  17. PepsiCo un to piedāvāto produktu virzišanai izmantoto mārketinga komunikāciju pilnveidošanas iespējas.

    OpenAIRE

    Bičihina, Justīne

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darba „PepsiCo un to piedāvāto produktu virzīšanai izmantoto mārketinga komunikāciju pilnveidošanas iespējas” mērķis ir - pamatojoties uz teorētiskām atziņām un autores veiktā pētījuma rezultātiem, izpētīt uzņēmuma darbību un tā izmantotos mārketinga komunikāciju veidus, ņemot vēra PepsiCo plašo zīmolu produktu skaitu, ko piedāvā uzņēmums, kā arī atklāt nepilnības un sniegt priekšlikumus to novēršanai. Darbs sastāv no teorētiskās daļas, kas ietver mārketinga komunikāciju uzskaiti un...

  18. Isospora serinuse n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from a domestic canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica) (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elliot, Aileen; Ryan, Una

    2015-12-01

    A new species, Isospora serinuse n. sp., (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) is described from a single domestic canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica) (subspecies S. c. domestica) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts of Isospora serinuse n. sp. are spherical or subspherical, 25.5 (24.4-27.0) × 23.5 (22.0-24.8) μm, with a shape index (length/width) of 1.09; and a smooth bilayered oocyst wall, 1.2 μm thick (outer layer 0.9 μm, inner 0.3 μm). A polar granule is present, but a micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent. The sporocysts are lemon-shaped, 18.9 (17.8-20.2) × 11.8 (10.6-13.0) μm, with a shape index of 1.6. Stieda and substieda bodies are present, the Stieda body being a small crescent shape and the substieda being indistinct. Each sporocyst with four vermiform sporozoites arranged head to tail. A sporocyst residuum is present and composed of numerous granules of different sizes that are scattered among the sporozoites. Morphologically, the oocysts of Isospora serinuse n. sp. were different from those of all known valid Isospora spp. Molecular analysis was conducted at 3 loci: the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA and two separate regions of subunit I of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene (designated COIa and COIb). At the 18S locus, Isospora serinuse n. sp. exhibited 97.5% similarity to Isospora sp. Tokyo from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) in Japan. At the 28S locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 94.9% similarity to Isospora anthochaerae n. sp. from a red wattlebird (Anthochaera carunculata) in Australia. At the COIa locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 95.7% similarity to Isospora sospora sp. ex Apodemus flavicollis from a yellow-necked mouse and Isospora gryphoni from an American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) respectively. At the COIb locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 96.7% similarity to an Isospora (iSAT4) from a European pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). Based on morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new

  19. Is TV a Pied Piper?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dorothy H.

    1974-01-01

    Explores the possible influences of commercial and educational television on young children's imaginative play, intellectual development and behavior. Commercialism, learning readiness, television's unique mode of communication, and the child's sensory experiences while viewing are considered from the standpoint of developmental needs. (SDH)

  20. Carving Up the Google Pie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Google Inc.'s retreat from China on March 24, after it ceased offering Chinese language-base search services from its mainland headquarters, leaves behind a market boasting more than 200 billion search requests and 10 billion yuan ($1.46 billion) in revenue annually.

  1. Kidswear Marke:Pie? Pit?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fei

    2010-01-01

    @@ As people's living standards improve,more and more parents will invest generously in children.It has been a choice for many parents to spend more money on high quality kids' clothing.Kidsware,as a piece of big cake in garment industry,is carrying too many hopes and expectations.Undoubtedly,children's clothing is a new area of economic growth for garment industry either in theory or in the market feasibility.However,is the market really as glamorous as it looks? Children's clothing industry since 2000 has entered a high-speed development period,and what is the status quo? What are the problems? And its direction?

  2. Kidswear Market:Pie? Pit?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As people’s living standards improve,more and more parents will invest generously in children.It has been a choice for many parents to spend more money on high quality kids’clothing. Kidsware,as a piece of big cake in garment industry,is carrying too many hopes and expectations.Undoubtedly,children’s clothing is a new area of economic growth for garment industry either in theory or in the market feasibility.However,is the market really as glamorous as it looks? Children’s clothing industry since 2000 has entered a high-speed development period, and what is the status quo? What are the problems? And its direction?

  3. Segmentation: Slicing the Urban Pie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, William A.

    1981-01-01

    Explains market segmentation and defines undifferentiated, concentrated, and differentiated marketing strategies. Describes in detail the marketing planning process at the Metropolitan Community Colleges. Focuses on the development and implementation of an ongoing recruitment program designed for the market segment composed of business employees.…

  4. Estimación de la estructura cortical de velocidades sísmicas en el suroeste de la sierra de Pie de Palo, provincia de San Juan Estimation of the seismic velocity crustal structure in the southwest region of the Sierra de Pie de Palo southwest San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Perarnau

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestran resultados relacionados con la estructura de corteza en la región de la sierra de Pie de Palo perteneciente a las Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales a partir de funciones del receptor telesísmicas para la estación sismológica Coronel Fontana (31,605°S y 68,238°O. Estos resultados ponen de manifiesto evidencias de dos discontinuidades intracorticales a profundidades de 13 y 28 km aproximadamente y una discontinuidad más profunda cerca de 47 km de profundidad que correspondería al Moho. Los valores de contraste entre las velocidades de ondas P y S (Vp/Vs para estas discontinuidades son en general elevados. En particular, la región comprendida entre 13 y 28 km de profundidad muestra los valores más altos de Vp/Vs lo cual indicaría un mayor grado de fracturación o fallamiento para esta zona de la corteza. Los resultados indican una densificación de la corteza inferior.In this paper receiver function results beneath the seismic station Coronel Fontana (31,605°S and 68,238°W, in the western Sierras Pampeanas are shown. These results provide evidence for two intracrustal discontinuities at depths of 13 km and 28 km approximately and a deeper discontinuity near 47 km depth, which correlates with the Moho. Overall the ratio between the seismic velocities of P and S waves (Vp/Vs for these discontinuities are high. In particular, the region between 13 and 28 km depth shows the higher values of Vp/Vs, which is consistent with a higher degree of fracturing and faulting. The results also indicate a denser composition of the lower crust.

  5. A Low-Power PIE decoder and BLF genarator for UHF RFID tag%一种用于UHF RFID标签的低功耗PIE解码与BLF生成电路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐龙飞; 庄奕琪; 孔泽斌; 刘伟峰; 靳钊

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种全新的低功耗PIE(Pulse Interval Encoded)解码及反向散射链路频率BLF(Backscatter Link Frequency)生成电路,用于符合EPC Gen2协议的无源超高频射频识别(UHF RFID)芯片.该电路在读写器发送命令时,产生控制信号.所产生信号控制两个积分器生成三个比较电压,并通过两个比较器进行比较,完成对PIE信号的解码;同时控制另一积分器,产生参考电压,控制弛张振荡器生成符合协议要求的BLF.基于TSMC 0.18μm CMOS工艺的仿真结果表明,本文所提出电路在1V工作电压下功耗为1.36μW,采用该结构的芯片可以提高工作距离以及读取速率.%In this paper, a novel low power PIE(Pulse Interval Encoded) decoder and backscatter link frequency (BLF) generator for UHF RFID transponders which meet the EPC Gen2 UHF RFID protocol are presented. Control signals are generated when the reader sends commands. Two integrators controlled by the control signals generate three voltages. By comparing these 3 voltages with two comparators, the circuits decode the PIE signal. Another integrator controlled by the control signals generates a reference voltage which makes a relaxation oscillator output a BLF that meets the Gen2 protocol. The simulation results under TSMC 0.18um CMOS technology show that the total power of the proposed circuits is 1.36μW at IV operating voltage. As a result, the tag with the proposed circuits can acquire longer read range and higher read rates.

  6. Una aproximación a la obra El cielo bajo los pies de Elsa Plaza y a la construcción del arquetipo de “la vampira del carrer Ponent”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Manonelles Moner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la novela El cielo bajo los pies (2009 de la historiadora y novelista Elsa Plaza, se revisará la construcción del mito de un personaje que deviene un chivo expiatorio de la tensión social que se vivía en Barcelona a principios del siglo XX. Se analizará cómo la obra de Elsa Plaza se aproxima al caso de Enriqueta Martí Ripoll, conocida por la prensa sensacionalista como la "vampira del Raval", con el objetivo de perfilar el contexto social, económico, político y cultural de una época ávida de crear figuras arquetípicas que canalizaran el creciente malestar.

  7. Conocimientos, destrezas y conductas ante el cuidado de los pies en un grupo de amputados diabéticos Knowledge, abilities and behaviours in foot care in a group of diabetic amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Suárez Pérez

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Se conoce que el cuidado de los pies, uno de los mayores retos en la atención a personas diabéticas, no se enfoca adecuadamente en las consultas de rutina por lo cual se pierde la función preventiva de las complicaciones en miembros inferiores y su máxima manifestación: la amputación. Para lograr un acercamiento a este problema el trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar la información y las orientaciones prácticas que tenía un grupo de pacientes diabéticos que sufrían una amputación en el momento del estudio. Se entrevistaron 105 diabéticos hospitalizados en las salas de Angiología de 2 hospitales generales. La entrevista se dirigió a recoger información que permitiera caracterizar el actual proceso de amputación y determinar la información y las orientaciones prácticas que sobre el cuidado de los pies en general y su proceso particular de amputación, habían recibido estas personas. Se encontró que el 62,5 % del grupo no revisaba periódicamente sus pies y el 42,4 % no identificó como peligrosas algunas prácticas caseras ante callosidades, cortado de uñas, etc. Solamente el 29,5 % pudo identificar 1 ó 2 cuidados prácticos de los pies. Se comprobó que no habían recibido información práctica al respecto y que en el 52,4 %, el inicio de la presente complicación fue por descuido, errores de conducta o ignorancia de cómo proceder. Se concluyó que una intervención educativa podría haber contribuido sustancialmente a reducir las amputacionesIt is known that foot care, one of the biggest challenges for diabetic persons care, is not adequately approached in regular appointments and that is why the function of preventing the occurrence of complications in lower limbs and its top manifestation, that is, amputation, is lost. To address this problem, the present paper was aimed at determining the information and practical orientations received by a group of diabetic patients suffering from amputation at the time of the study

  8. Intra-specific brood parasitism revealed by DNA micro-satellite analyses in a sub-oscine bird, the vermilion flycatcher Parasitismo intraespecífico revelado mediante análisis de microsatélites de ADN en un ave suboscina, el cardenalito o saca tu real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO A RÍOS-CHELÉN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extra-pair reproduction is known to occur in many avian species. However, among passerines, the majority of studies on extra-pair reproduction have been carried out in oscine birds from temperate regions. Conversely, sub-oscines species, and particularly, species that inhabit tropical regions, have been studied to a much lesser extent. Given that a majority of avian species live in the tropics, it is important to study more tropical and sub-oscine species to have a more accurate picture of the rates of extra-pair reproduction among passerines, and a better understanding of the adaptive function of extra-pair reproduction in birds. Tropical species differ from temperate species in several ecological and life history traits, that may influence the occurrence of different modes of extra-pair reproduction and their prevalence. In this study we asked whether extra-pair reproduction occur in a sexually dimorphic and socially monogamous sub-oscine, the vermilion flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus. We report cases of extra-pair paternity, extra-pair maternity and intra-specific brood parasitism, and discuss our results in the view of other studies with passerinesSe sabe que la reproducción extrapareja ocurre en muchas especies de aves. Sin embargo, entre paserinos, la mayoría de los estudios se han llevado a cabo en aves oscinas de regiones templadas. Por el contrario, las especies suboscinas, y en particular las especies que habitan regiones tropicales, se han estudiado mucho menos. Por lo tanto, es importante estudiar más especies tropicales y suboscinas para tener una visión más acertada de las tasas de reproducción extrapareja en paserinos y un mejor entendimiento de la función adaptativa de la reproducción extrapareja en aves. Las especies tropicales difieren de las especies que habitan regiones templadas en diversos rasgos ecológicos y de historia de vida, que podrían influir en las tasas de ocurrencia de diferentes modos de reproducci

  9. Variaciones texturales y movilidad geoquímica asociadas a milonitización: la zona de cizalla del granitoide El Tigre, Sierra de Pie de Palo, Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales, San Juan Textural variations and chemical mobility during mylonitization: The El Tigre granitoid shear zone, Sierra de Pie de Palo, western sierras pampeanas, San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brígida Castro De Machuca

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Una faja de cizalla dúctil con foliación milonítica de dirección NEE y buzamiento al sudeste, afecta a un granitoide mesoproterozoico (Granitoide El Tigre: 31º31'30''S-68º15'12''O que forma parte del basamento cristalino de la Sierra de Pie de Palo, Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales. El análisis cinemático de la faja indica una componente principal de desplazamiento de rumbo con sentido de movimiento dextral. En el granitoide no deformado (protolito se preservan asociaciones minerales y texturas relícticas, ígneas y metamórficas, que son obliteradas por la deformación. La milonitización operó en un sistema abierto provocando la movilización (ganancia o pérdida de casi todos los elementos mayores y traza, incluyendo las tierras raras e isótopos de Rb/Sr y Sm/Nd. Los cambios químicos fueron controlados mayormente por transporte sintectónico de fluidos y por transformaciones mineralógicas producidas durante la milonitización (disminución del contenido de granate, biotita y minerales accesorios y neoformación de mica blanca en la matriz de las milonitas. Las variaciones isotópicas entre el protolito y las milonitas también serían resultado de la intervención de fluidos durante la deformación, con interacción variable entre fluido y rocas de caja. Los cambios texturales, mineralógicos y químicos experimentados por el granitoide durante la milonitización, permiten reconstruir su evolución tectono-metamórfica y las condiciones metamórficas imperantes. Las asociaciones minerales y microestructuras de deformación de las milonitas sugieren para la faja de cizalla del granitoide El Tigre condiciones propias de la facies de esquistos verdes, con temperaturas inferiores a los 400 °C. Este evento deformante tuvo lugar a los 473 ± 10 Ma durante la orogenia Famatiniana.A high-strain ductile shear zone trending NEE with southeasterly dipping mylonitic foliation, has been recognized affecting a Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1105 Ma

  10. Transferencia microquirúrgica del 2º dedo del pie para reconstrucción de mano catastrófica Microsurgical 2nd toe transfer for catastrophic hand reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Placer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La reconstrucción correcta de la mano catastrófica requiere habitualmente técnicas quirúrgicas complejas. La transferencia microquirúrgica de un dedo del pie es una de las técnicas frecuentemente empleadas. Dicho procedimiento está indicado cuando las demás opciones reconstructivas se muestran inútiles para la reparación de la pinza manual. En este trabajo se expone el caso de un varón de 32 años que acude a urgencias tras sufrir un accidente de tráfico en el que presenta traumatismo grave de la mano izquierda (mano catastrófica, entre otras policontusiones. Se interviene de urgencia preservando las máximas estructuras viables, quedando como resultado una mano con 1º, 4º y 5º dedos funcionales. Como la función de la pinza entre 1º y 4º ó 5º dedos no es plenamente satisfactoria, se optó por la reconstrucción del 3er dedo de la mano con la transferencia del 2º dedo del pie ipsilateral. Se realizaron estudios preoperatorios, como el angio-TC, para determinar la vascularización del colgajo y, posteriormente, la intervención microquirúrgica, que fue exitosa. En la actualidad, tras una adecuada rehabilitación, el paciente ha recuperado en la mano intervenida la función de pinza gruesa y fina de manera satisfactoria. La transferencia de los dedos del pie a la mano se muestra como un tratamiento eficaz para la reconstrucción de los dedos amputados y consecuentemente la función de la pinza. La rehabilitación es imprescindible para conseguir una completa funcionalidad.The correct reconstruction of the catastrophic hand requires complex surgical techniques. The microsurgical transference of a toe is indicated when all other reconstructive options are shown to be useless for the reconstruction of the required clamp function. In this clinical note we set out the case of a 32 year old man, who came to our accident and emergency department after suffering a traffic accident. After exploration the diagnosis was that of

  11. Guía práctica para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del síndrome del pie diabético Practical guide for the diagnosis and treatment of the diabetic foot syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Sell Lluveras

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se sabe que el síndrome del pie diabético constituye una de las principales causas de morbilidad y discapacidad en los pacientes con diabetes mellitus y que un rápido reconocimiento y adecuado manejo de sus factores de riesgo pueden prevenir o retardar la aparición de úlceras, amputaciones y otras complicaciones. Sus causas se dividen en: neuropáticas, angiopáticas, infecciosas y traumáticas. Se afirma que un detallado interrogatorio y exhaustivo examen físico ofrecen hasta el 90 % del diagnóstico etiológico, lo cual se corroborará con los exámenes complementarios que incluyen tanto los indispensables como los más específicos estudios imagenológicos. Durante las dos últimas décadas, se han alcanzado avances importantes en la comprensión de su fisiopatología y nuevas estrategias terapéuticas se han puesto en marcha. El enfoque actual para su tratamiento implica una atención individualizada y multidisciplinaria para cada paciente; la profilaxis, desempeña un papel fundamental y unida a los adelantos terapéuticos especializados garantizará un mejoramiento en la calidad de vida de estos enfermos. Este trabajo aporta una guía práctica para identificar, diagnosticar y tratar a los pacientes con síndrome del pie diabético, según los conocimientos actuales.It is known that the diabetic foot is one of the main causes of morbidity and disability in patients with diabetes mellitus and that a rapid examination and a right management of their risk factors can prevent or delay the appearance of ulcers, amputations and other complications. Its causes may be neuropathic, angiopathic infectious and traumatic. It is affirmed that a detailed questionnaire and an exhaustive medical examination offer up to 90 % of the etiological diagnosis, which is confirmed with the complementary tests that include both, the indispensable and the most specific imaging studies. During the last two decades, there have been significant advances in the

  12. Population number and distribution of oriental pied hornbill in Guangxi,China%广西冠斑犀鸟的种群数量及分布状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗益奎; 蒋爱伍; 陈辈乐; 吴世捷; 谢乃文; 阙腾程; 李飞

    2013-01-01

    冠斑犀鸟(Anthracoceros albirostris albirostris)属于国家Ⅱ级重点保护野生动物,并且是亚洲热带地区重要的种子传播者.冠斑犀鸟在20世纪70年代以前曾广布广西西南部中越边境地区,但其分布范围持续萎缩,2000年以后只残存于3个孤立的分布点,而西大明山林区一直是冠斑犀鸟的主要分布点.为了解此物种在广西的最新分布状况,我们于2009年在广西西大明山自然保护区首次进行了冠斑犀鸟的同步调查,同时调查了当地犀鸟可利用的植物资源.结果显示至少有50只冠斑犀鸟在当地栖息,是广西目前最大的种群,但数量明显呈下降趋势.本文记录了124种犀鸟可潜在利用的植物,探讨了广西犀鸟面临的威胁,并呼吁国家有关部门和科学界加强对中国犀鸟保育研究的关注.%The oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris albirostris) is a State Protected Species and also an important seed dispersal agent in Tropical Asia.Recent studies show that the range of oriental pied hornbill in Guangxi has decreased significantly in the last decades.During the 1970s the species was widespread along the Sino-Vietnamese border but since the 2000s it has been confined to only three isolated areas.Although the population has declined substantially,Xidamingshan still supports the largest hornbill population known in Guangxi.In order to understand the current status of the species in Guangxi,China,we conducted a simultaneous population survey in Xidamingshan Nature Reserve in 2009.At least,fifty birds were recorded during survey and 124 plant species are identified as potential food source of the bird.Human disturbance and hunting are the main threats to the species in Guangxi.Further research and conservation of the species are urgently required.

  13. La carencia de contexto escrito en la fotografía periodística: una aproximación a la utilización del pie de foto en la prensa diaria chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Heredia Echavarri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Casi la mitad de las fotografías publicadas en los periódicos diarios de Chile (el 41,3 por ciento no van acompañadas de leyenda o pie de foto. Es la conclusión más evidente del estudio realizado durante 2010 sobre 11 cabeceras del país sudamericano que analiza 849 entradas y que también concluye que el texto que se construye junto a la fotografía relata aspectos muy básicos de esta imagen y en muy pocas oportunidades éste entrega cantidad y calidad de información. Así mismo, los datos revelan que las escasas líneas de este elemento informativo de primera magnitud no suponen un trabajo creativo que cumpla el rol de atraer al lector, ni tampoco el de ser una atractiva entrada hacia la historia periodística.

  14. Atmosfēras piesārņojuma radītā riska novērtējums A/S „Ventamonjaks” ietekmes zonā

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Amonjaka piesārņojums atmosfērā pilsētās saistīts ne tikai ar rūpniecisko uzņēmumu aktivitātēm, bet arī atkritumu apsaimniekošanu un autotransportu, tomēr nenoliedzami augstāka bīstamība piemīt tieši rūpnieciskajiem uzņēmumiem, kuri netīši avārijas rezultātā var radīt pat cilvēku dzīvībai bīstamas situācijas. Šādu uzņēmumu apzināšana un avārijriska novērtēšana ir viens no labas vides pārvaldības prakses pamatprincipiem. Tik lielā uzņēmumā kā A/S „Ventamonjaks” ir jābūt mobilizētam darīt vi...

  15. Metodología aplicada para la estimación del número de pies de periploca angustifolia mediante técnicas de teledetección

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pérez Cutillas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende elaborar una metodología para la estimación del número de pies de la especie protegida Periploca angustifolia, planteándose como respuesta a las diferentes actuaciones que se producen y afectan a las distintas fi guras de protección ambiental que competen a la Dirección General del Medio Natural (DGMN de la Región de Murcia. Esta metodología se basa en clasifi caciones estadísticas semiautomáticas mediante técnicas de teledetección, utilizando los datos de la cobertura regional de la imagen del satélite QuickBird, elaborada por la DGMN. Con ello se intenta optimizar los recursos disponibles para la estimación de estas coberturas vegetales e introducir información ambiental de manera objetiva procedente del sensor de este satélite.

  16. Localización y evolución del comercio y servicios a pie de calle en los entornos urbanos. Factores locales frente a la multi-accesibilidad. El caso de la ciudad de Madrid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carpio-Pinedo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl comercio y los servicios a pie de calle, articuladores de la vida urbana, viven un periodo de transformación, compañado de un cambio en el modelo de ciudad existente. Estudios cualitativos apuntan a una ‘ciudad dual’: concentraciones de pequeños locales en entornos densos y accesibles a pie y en transporte público, frente a grandes superficies como enclaves periféricos accesibles sólo en vehículo privado. Se polariza la discusión sin matizar la distinción entre aspectos locales del entorno (como la densidad con otros que dependen de la posición metropolitana (como la accesibilidad.El objetivo de este trabajo es distinguir y cuantificar los factores urbanos asociados más intensamente con la concentración de establecimientos y con su evolución más reciente. Para ello, se analizan 84 entornos de Madrid, mediante Sistemas de Información Geográfica, modelos de transporte y métodos estadísticos. Se valoran datos de 2010 y evolución desde 2004, en relación con las características que atañen a aspectos morfológicos, usos planificados, la población y el empleo. Así mismo, se valora la relación con la accesibilidad en modos sostenibles (peatonal y transporte público, planteando el concepto de “multi- accesibilidad” y demostrando su mayor pertinencia y poder explicativo.Palabras claveComercio urbano, accesibilidad, nodo-lugar, Madrid.AbstractRetail and services in urban areas are in a state of evolution. Due to their implications for urban life, this fact implies a necessary change to the model of the city. Descriptive works refer to a ‘dual city’: concentrations of small shops that are easily accessible (either on foot or way of public transportation at quite population dense contexts and to the contrary larger shopping malls which are found in suburban areas where people often move by private vehicle.  Discussion in the field is polarized and yet there is no clear distinction between urban environmental

  17. Anterior and posterior tibial anesthetic block in diabetic foot surgery. Bloqueo anestésico tibial anterior y posterior en la cirugía del pie diabético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obdulio Rodríguez García

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: Diabetes Mellitus is a disease of high and increasing prevalence and its complications follow a parallel course. Its morbidity is derived from its own complications which are produced at a long or short term and peripheral vascular disease hihglights among them.Objective: to check the usefulness of the anterior and posterior blockade of the tibia for the surgery of the diabetic foot. Method: Prospective study carried out from January to December 2003 at the University Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ to patients who are carriers of a diabetic foot and who were initially assisted at the service of Angiology and later at the service of Anesthesiology when the surgical procedures were decided. All the patients were applied an anterior and posterior blockade of the tibial nerve . The variables measured were: age, weight, height, surgical time, type of surgery, cardiac frequency medium arterial pressure, and classification of patients according to the American Association of Anesthesiology All the patients were applied a scale for assessing pain in three different moments.Result: There was a predominance of females . The blockade of the posterior tibial nerve with lidocaine 1 % in different points permitted the performance of the surgical techniques proposed. The anesthetic procedure was favorable, and economic since the patients did not requiere of the use of analgesic in the post operatory stage.

    Fundamento:La diabetes mellitus es una enfermedad de prevalencia alta y creciente, y sus complicaciones siguen un curso paralelo. Su morbilidad se deriva de las propias complicaciones que se producen a mediano y largo plazo, entre las que se destaca la enfermedad vascular periférica. Objetivo: Comprobar la utilidad del bloqueo tibial anterior y posterior para la cirugía del pie

  18. [Features of the distribution of BoLA-A antigens and alleles of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in Black Pied cattle in relation to association with leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, L K; Sulimova, G E; Orlova, A R; Udina, I G; Pavlenko, S P

    1997-01-01

    The character of distribution of BoLA class-I antigens was studied in Black Pied cattle populations differing in status in relation to leukemia. Associative relationships of distinct antigens with resistance and susceptibility to leukemia were revealed. Using the statusmetria method, an integral estimate of predisposition to leukemia (Z) was calculated taking into consideration the contribution of each antigen in the immunogenetic status of the animal. The interval of Z values was determined, which allowed animals to be divided into groups according to resistance or susceptibility to leukemia. Alleles of the BoLA-DRB3 gene were typed in subsamples of animals with leukemia and healthy animals by the PCR-RFLP method. Twenty alleles of the gene were detected, and their frequencies were determined in both subsamples. Alleles mediating resistance of animals to leukemia (BoLA-DRB3.2*11, *23, and *28) were distributed in the group of healthy animals with frequencies of 0.079, 0.132, and 0.053, respectively; they were completely absent in animals with leukemia. The data on the estimate of animal status in relation to leukemia, which were obtained by the method of statusmetria taking in consideration the real contribution of the each class-I antigen in the detection of the disease risk (value Z), and data of allele typing by the PCR-RFLP method were shown to be in good agreement. The possibility of using BoLA class-I antigen typing in herds to determine the number of animals with leukemia was demonstrated.

  19. Plan de atención de enfermería para el adulto mayor con pie diabético, en el Hospital básico Darío Machuca Palacios, departamento de emergencia - La Troncal, durante junio 2012 -2013.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    La prevalencia del Pie diabético se ha podido referenciar mediante correlación logística con variables como la evolutividad de la Diabetes Mellitus, la edad, el sexo masculino y el hábito tabáquico. Se sitúa en el 8%-13%, según indican datos recogidos en un reciente informe del Ministerio Español de Salud y Consumo. Su trascendencia viene significada por el elevado porcentaje de amputaciones que implican. Entre el 40% - 50 % de los diabéticos desarrollan a lo largo de su vida una úlcera en el...

  20. Plan de atención de enfermería para el adulto mayor con pie diabético en el Hospital Básico Darío Machuca Palacios, departamento de emergencia La Troncal, durante junio 2012-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Villamar Franco, Raquel Noemí

    2014-01-01

    La prevalencia del Pie diabético se ha podido referenciar mediante correlación logística con variables como la evolutividad de la Diabetes Mellitus, la edad, el sexo masculino y el hábito tabáquico. Se sitúa en el 8%-13%, según indican datos recogidos en un reciente informe del Ministerio Español de Salud y Consumo. Su trascendencia viene significada por el elevado porcentaje de amputaciones que implican. Entre el 40% - 50 % de los diabéticos desarrollan a lo largo de su vida una úlcera en el...

  1. THE PIE ROOT *H2EMG,H- ‘BIND’ IN THE SLAVIC LANGUAGES. A R E L A T I V E C H R O N O L O G Y O F T H E E M E R G E N C E OF T H E RELATIONSHIP QZ- : *(U%Z- ‘BIND, ETC. ’ THE PIE ROOT *H2EMG,H- ‘BIND’ IN THE SLAVIC LANGUAGES. A R E L A T I V E C H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Furlan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The PIE root *H2em g ’h- ‘bind’ (cf. Lat. ango ‘press, tie’, Gr. Аухю ‘strangle’, Hitt. hamank-/hamenk- ‘bind; promise’, Skt. amhu- ‘narrow’, etc. is represented in the Slavic languages with the expected Slavic o ablaut grade (cf. *gzbkb adj., *gzlb m., *gziti, *<^ь f., etc. and also in the “unexpected” e ablaut grade (cf. *u-qz-ti, *u-qzati, *u-qzh f., etc.. This article presents arguments leading to the conclusion that the “unexpected” e ablaut grade may also be of Indo-European origin and that the emergence of the “unexpected” prothetic u- may predate the Proto-Slavic system. An analysis of individual members of the word family *uqz(ati when compared with the word-formationally equivalent members of the Slavic word families *melsti ‘milk’ and *set’i ‘cut’ shows that nouns of the type *uqza with the old acute root toneme and certain unexpected signs of the old acute root in *gzlb (Cro., Cro. Cakavian, Cz., Pol. and *gza (Cro. Cakavian, Rus. can be explained if it is assumed that the PSl. verb *uqsti uqzeSh originally belonged to the same group of verbs as *melsti melzeSh ^  *mhlzeSh and expressed the altered PIE acrostatic present *H2i m g ’h-  mi : *H2e m g ’h-%ti; that is, *H2Smg’h-mi : *H2mg’h-enti. The unexpected initial *u- before *q is of hiatus origin [Vondrak  1924, I: 209] and could be explained as pre-Proto-Slavic positionally conditioned phonetics in which syntactic contacts of the type *nu H2i m g ’h-ti/*nu H2m g ’h-enti ‘and he bind/ties /  they bind/tie’ resulted in a hiatus with the loss of the laryngeal that was then filled with the semivowel *u > PSl. *u just as in intervocalic sequences of the type PSl. *zhrnbue < *-uu-es < *-u.-es < PIE *-uH2-es [Pedersen 1909-1913, I:  177].

  2. Variaciones texturales y movilidad geoquímica asociadas a milonitización: la zona de cizalla del granitoide El Tigre, Sierra de Pie de Palo, Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales, San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brígida Castro De Machuca

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Una faja de cizalla dúctil con foliación milonítica de dirección NEE y buzamiento al sudeste, afecta a un granitoide mesoproterozoico (Granitoide El Tigre: 31º31'30''S-68º15'12''O que forma parte del basamento cristalino de la Sierra de Pie de Palo, Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales. El análisis cinemático de la faja indica una componente principal de desplazamiento de rumbo con sentido de movimiento dextral. En el granitoide no deformado (protolito se preservan asociaciones minerales y texturas relícticas, ígneas y metamórficas, que son obliteradas por la deformación. La milonitización operó en un sistema abierto provocando la movilización (ganancia o pérdida de casi todos los elementos mayores y traza, incluyendo las tierras raras e isótopos de Rb/Sr y Sm/Nd. Los cambios químicos fueron controlados mayormente por transporte sintectónico de fluidos y por transformaciones mineralógicas producidas durante la milonitización (disminución del contenido de granate, biotita y minerales accesorios y neoformación de mica blanca en la matriz de las milonitas. Las variaciones isotópicas entre el protolito y las milonitas también serían resultado de la intervención de fluidos durante la deformación, con interacción variable entre fluido y rocas de caja. Los cambios texturales, mineralógicos y químicos experimentados por el granitoide durante la milonitización, permiten reconstruir su evolución tectono-metamórfica y las condiciones metamórficas imperantes. Las asociaciones minerales y microestructuras de deformación de las milonitas sugieren para la faja de cizalla del granitoide El Tigre condiciones propias de la facies de esquistos verdes, con temperaturas inferiores a los 400 °C. Este evento deformante tuvo lugar a los 473 ± 10 Ma durante la orogenia Famatiniana.

  3. Representações sociais do pé diabético para pessoas com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 Representaciones sociales del pie diabético para personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 Social representations of diabetic foot for people with type 2 diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Seloi Coelho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa que objetivou compreender as representações sociais do pé diabético para pessoas com diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas, com dez pessoas com diabetes mellitus que participavam de um grupo de convivência. Da análise de conteúdo emergiram duas categorias: a doença do pé com alterações percebidas e ameaças presentes e; o cuidado com os pés, com o cuidado como preocupação com o futuro e não cuidado como sentimento de culpa. Os resultados mostraram que movidos pelas representações de alterações e ameaças os sujeitos buscam no cuidado uma esperança de não desenvolver a doença do pé ou controlar a situação. Quando o não-cuidado ocorre, surge o sentimento de culpa por terem conhecimentos e não se cuidarem. As representações sociais contribuíram na busca da compreensão do modo como os sujeitos com diabetes mellitus constroem saberes que expressam sua identidade e guiam seus comportamentos, especialmente vinculado ao pé diabético.Se trata de una investigación cualitativa que tuvo como objetivo comprender las representaciones sociales de pies diabético para personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Fueron realizadas entrevistas semi-estructuradas, con diez personas con diabetes mellitus que participaban de un grupo de convivencia. Del análisis de contenido emergieron dos categorías: la enfermedad del pie con alteraciones percibidas y amenazas presentes y; el cuidado con los pies, con el cuidado como preocupación con el futuro y no cuidado como sentimiento de culpa. Los resultados mostraron que movidos por las representaciones de alteraciones y amenazas los sujetos buscan en el cuidado una esperanza de no desarrollar la enfermedad del pie o de controlar la situación. Cuando ocurre el no cuidado surge el sentimiento de culpa por tener los conocimientos y no utilizarlos. Las representaciones sociales contribuyeron en la búsqueda de la comprensi

  4. A pie in the face of greed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, F D

    1994-01-01

    Though every physician has his or her own way of treating patients, Hunter D. "Patch" Adams, MD, has an approach all his own: He uses clowning to break the barriers of practicing medicine. In a recent Central Pennsylvania appearance, Dr. Adams discussed his approach, as well as the importance of compassion in medicine.

  5. Biomecánica del pie

    OpenAIRE

    Oller Asensio, Antonio

    1994-01-01

    En los estudios dinámicos de la deambulación bipodal, el hombre por su posición erecta, se distingue y se diferencia del resto del reino animal. De todo el reino animal, el hombre es el que presenta el centro de gravedad más elevado, la cabeza erguida, la cintura escapular y raquis situados por encima del centro de gravedad.

  6. The Politics of the Static Economic Pie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Until America gets a stable source of energy, we will have slow or no economic growth. The public policy of scarcity will differ from the politics of abundance and cause a rethinking of public policy. For example, we cannot have the immigration policies that we had as an empty continent. (SR)

  7. PIE: A Dynamic Failure-Based Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, Jeffrey M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic technique for statistically estimating three program characteristics that affect a program's computational behavior: (1) the probability that a particular section of a program is executed, (2) the probability that the particular section affects the data state, and (3) the probability that a data state produced by that section has an effect on program output. These three characteristics can be used to predict whether faults are likely to be uncovered by software testing. Index Terms: Software testing, data state, fault, failure, testability. 1 Introduction

  8. Trash Pie: Is Your School Serving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Krista M.; Curran, Mary Carla

    2010-01-01

    In observation of Earth Day, third-grade students were invited to examine what they contribute to the landfill and learn new ways they could help protect the environment. In this lesson, students collected, evaluated, and displayed data comparing the trash generated by home-lunch versus school-lunch students. Students interpreted their findings…

  9. Of stewardship, motherhood and apple pie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, David M

    2014-04-01

    Antibiotic stewardship is universally agreed to be desirable, but optimal models for stewardship remain uncertain. UK stewardship targets the particular antibiotic families-cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones-blamed for the selection of Clostridium-difficile-associated disease. To balance this there have been dramatic increases in the use of penicillin-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations. By channelling selection pressure in this way, we hazard destroying the utility of these antibiotic classes in turn, as happened with gonorrhoea where penicillins, fluoroquinolones and cefixime were sequentially lost as therapies. Strikingly, in context, almost all carbapenemase-producers are highly resistant to penicillin-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, which may select for them. There is an urgent need to explore an alternative stewardship model, seeking to limit total antibiotic use but to maintain heterogeneity in what is used, avoiding concentrated selection pressure. There is also a great need to improve and accelerate diagnostics for infection and resistance, reducing or removing the need for protracted empirical treatment with broad-spectrum agents.

  10. Osteartrosis y pie. Bases de tratamiento biorregulador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia Acedo, Debora Maria; Ares Bella, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    La OsteoArtrosis (OA) es un sindrome complejo, que afecta a las estructuras no solo articulares sino periarticulares como ligamentos, tendones y sistema miofascial, generando un cuadro clinico en el que...

  11. Osteartrosis y pie. Bases de tratamiento biorregulador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia Acedo, Debora Maria; Ares Bella, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    .... La Biopuntura de medicamentos Biorreguladores aporta una perspectiva terapeutica que abarca todos los elementos implicados en esta patologia, su clinica y el proceso degenerativo del "organo articular".

  12. An avifaunal survey of the Istranca mountains, turkish thrace: novel breeding bird records including the first breeding record of Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkan, Korhan

    2011-01-01

    A breeding bird survey in the Istranca (Yıldız) mountains of Turkish Thrace seawards to the Black sea was conducted May–August 2009. Eighty-eight days of field work in 697 locations generated novel breeding evidence for several species. The survey provided the first certain evidence of Wood Warbler...... in the study area. Moreover, breeding evidence was gathered for Garden Warbler Sylvia borin, Baillon’s Crake Porzana pusilla, Stock Dove Columba oenas, Icterine Warbler Hippolais icterina and Common Rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus for the first time in Turkish Thrace. Furthermore, the survey provided some...... cinclus, Sardinian Warbler Sylvia melanocephala, Barred Warbler Sylvia nisoria and Red-breasted Flycatcher Ficedula parva, which require further research on their breeding distributions in the study area....

  13. Side-specific effect of yolk testosterone elevation on second-to-fourth digit ratio in a wild passerine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Gergely; Blázi, György; Hegyi, Gergely; Török, János

    2016-02-01

    Second-to-fourth digit ratio is a widely investigated sexually dimorphic morphological trait in human studies and could reliably indicate the prenatal steroid environment. Conducting manipulative experiments to test this hypothesis comes up against ethical limits in humans. However, oviparous tetrapods may be excellent models to experimentally investigate the effects of prenatal steroids on offspring second-to-fourth digit ratio. In this field study, we injected collared flycatcher ( Ficedula albicollis) eggs with physiological doses of testosterone. Fledglings from eggs with elevated yolk testosterone, regardless of their sex, had longer second digits on their left feet than controls, while the fourth digit did not differ between groups. Therefore, second-to-fourth digit ratio was higher in the testosterone-injected group, but only on the left foot. This is the first study which shows experimentally that early testosterone exposure can affect second-to-fourth digit ratio in a wild population of a passerine bird.

  14. Isotopic analysis of island House Martins Delichon urbica indicates marine provenance of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Adam D P; Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas; Österblom, Henrik; McGill, Rona A R; Furness, Robert W

    2014-07-01

    The presence of one of the largest colonies of House Martins in Europe on the small island of Stora Karlsö, Sweden, led us to investigate the source of their food by analysis of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen. Carbon isotopic values of House Martin nestlings were the same as those of Common Guillemot Uria aalge nestlings fed on marine fish, but differed from local Collared Flycatcher Ficedula albicollis nestlings fed on woodland insects. We infer that these House Martins fed their chicks almost exclusively on insects that had used nutrients derived from seabirds, indicating a dependence on the presence of a large seabird colony. We suggest by extension that some populations of island passerines of high conservation importance may also be dependent on nutrient subsidies from seabird colonies.

  15. "Los pies de Teruel": Asistencia y tratamiento de las heridas por congelación en los hospitales navarros durante la guerra civil "Teruel feet": Care and treatment of frostbite wounds in the hospitals of Navarra during the civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Larraz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available La atención a combatientes con lesiones por congelación sufridas durante la batalla de Teruel, desarrollada en condiciones meteorológicas extremas y temperaturas de hasta veinte grados bajo cero, supuso la etapa de mayor actividad asistencial y tasas de ocupación más altas en los hospitales militares navarros durante toda la contienda civil de 1936-1939. De noviembre de 1937 a marzo de 1938 se registraron en los establecimientos de la provincia más de 375 casos de congelación, entre los que predominaban las gangrenas secas con afectación parcial de la extremidad inferior, lo que popularmente se denominó "pies de Teruel". Algunos facultativos, conscientes de la excepcionalidad de la casuística, registraron estadísticas, casos clínicos e impresiones personales sobre la evolución de las lesiones y la efectividad de sus tratamientos. En ellos, emplearon fármacos, técnicas quirúrgicas y procedimientos terapéuticos novedosos en el tratamiento de esta afección y poco difundidos en el entorno médico del momento. Sin embargo, la limitación temporal del problema, los resultados poco concluyentes de los tratamientos y las opiniones controvertidas sobre su efectividad, cuestiones que se analizan en este artículo, limitaron la repercusión médica posterior de las experiencias sobre congelaciones desarrolladas durante la etapa bélica turolense.The care of combatants with lesions caused by frostbite during the battle of Teruel, which was fought in extreme weather conditions and in temperatures as low as twenty degrees below zero, was the period of greatest medical activity and the highest rates of occupation in the military hospitals of Navarre during the civil war of 1936-1939. From November 1937 to March 1938, 375 cases of frostbite were registered in the provincial establishments, amongst which there was a predominance of cases of dry gangrene partially affecting the lower extremity, which was popularly known as "Teruel feet". Some of

  16. Desenvolvimento de uma massa funcional pronta para tortas utilizando o método de Desdobramento da Função Qualidade (QFD Developing a functional ready to bake dough for pies using the Quality Function Deployment (QFD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Daibert Pinto

    2010-05-01

    stimulate the growth and activity of bacteria which are beneficial to the health of the body. The aim of the present work is the development of a functional ready to bake dough for pies using inulin as a prebiotic. The development of this product was based on the tool QFD (Quality Function Deployment, and it was presented as a means to organize the development of new products, especially prototypes. Hence, studies, tests, and analysis suggested by the QFD were undertaken. According to the results of the matrix of quality obtained, it can be said that the characteristics that the consumers attribute as the most important for baking dough are: be functional, do not shatter, have a neutral flavor, and present uniform diameter and thickness. Consequently these characteristics were prioritized during the development of the product. The sensorial analysis indicated that the tasters really enjoyed all the quality attributes of the dough. On the other hand, the QFD proved useful for planning and conducting the necessary activities for the process of developing the product.

  17. Comparação da ativação mioelétrica do glúteo máximo e bíceps femoral entre os agachamentos paralelo e com passada à frente Comparación de la activación mioeléctrica de los glúteos y bíceps femoral entre las sentadillas con los pies paralelos y los pies uno frente al otro Comparison of myoelectric activity of gluteus maximus and biceps femoris between parallel and lunge squat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Leporace

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi comparar a atividade mioelétrica (EMG do glúteo máximo e bíceps femoral entre o agachamento com passada à frente e com pés paralelos. Sete indivíduos realizaram oito repetições do agachamento paralelo (AP e com passada à frente (AF deslocando sobrecarga relativa a 50% da massa corporal. O EMG do glúteo máximo e bíceps femoral foi capturado, filtrado por um filtro passa-banda Butterworth de 4ª ordem (20-400 Hz e obtido valores RMS. Utilizou-se o teste de Wilcoxon para comparar o EMG normalizado entre os dois exercícios. Tanto o bíceps femoral (p = 0,041 quanto o glúteo máximo (p = 0,0059 apresentaram maior ativação no AF (30,9% para glúteo; 42,6% para bíceps em comparação ao AP (21,2% para glúteo; 24,7% para bíceps. Apesar da ativação moderada durante a execução dos exercícios, girando em torno de 25% a 45%, a resposta foi maior, para os participantes do estudo, no AF.El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la actividad mioeléctrica (EMG del músculo glúteo mayor y el bíceps femoral entre la sentadilla con los pies uno frente al otro y los pies paralelos. Siete sujetos realizaron ocho repeticiones de la sentadilla paralela (AP y con los pies uno frente al otro (FA desplazando una masa igual a 50% del peso corporal. El EMG del músculo glúteo mayor y el bíceps femoral fueron capturados, filtrada por un filtro de banda de 4 º orden Butterworth (20-400 Hz y los valores RMS obtenidos. Se utilizó el test de Wilcoxon para comparar la EMG normalizada entre los dos ejercicios. Tanto el bíceps femoral (p = 0,041 y el glúteo mayor (p = 0,0059 mostraron una mayor activación en la FA (30,9% para lo glúteo y 52% para lo bíceps en comparación con el AP (21,2% para lo glúteo y 24,7% para lo bíceps. Aunque la activación moderada durante la ejecución de los ejercicios fue moderado, situándose en torno a un 25% a 45%, la respuesta fue mayor en el FA para los participantes del estudio

  18. Analgesia postoperatoria en la cirugía del pie y tobillo mediante bloqueo ciático poplíteo lateral con ropivacaína Postoperative analgesia in foot and ankle surgery through lateral popliteal sciatic blockade with ropivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Valladares

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El bloqueo del nervio ciático en la fosa poplítea proporciona una adecuada y prolongada analgesia postoperatoria en la cirugía del pie y tobillo. La principal ventaja del abordaje lateral es que no es preciso modificar la posición de decúbito supino del paciente para la realización de la técnica, mientras que en el abordaje posterior el paciente ha de colocarse en decúbito prono, lo cual puede resultar difícil e incluso desaconsejable en determinadas situaciones: estados avanzados de gestación, inestabilidad hemodinámica y ventilación mecánica. Material y método: Se incluyeron pacientes valorados con riesgo anestésico ASA I-II, programados para cirugía ortopédica-traumatológica del pie o tobillo. Se realizó un bloqueo del nervio ciático en la fosa poplítea mediante abordaje lateral según la técnica descrita por Vloka J.D y Hadzic A, empleándose una aguja para neuroestimulación, biselada de calibre 22G x 80 mm. Se consideró como respuesta motora adecuada cualquier movimiento del pie o dedos a intensidad inferior a 0,4 mA y superior a 0,1 mA. La observación de una respuesta motora a intensidad de estimulación de 0,1 mA se consideró como localización intraneural de la aguja. Se inyectaron 40 mL de ropivacaína 0,5%. Las principales variables que se registraron a las 8, 16 y 24 horas tras la realización del bloqueo fueron el dolor en reposo y en movimiento según la escala visual analógica (EVA de 0-10 y el grado de satisfacción. Resultados: Se incluyeron 21 pacientes ASA I-II. El dolor medio en reposo fue valorado como de intensidad 1 en las primeras 8 horas y de intensidad 3 a las 16 h y 24 h tras la realización del bloqueo. El dolor medio con el movimiento articular fue valorado como de intensidad 2 a las 8 h y de intensidad 4 a las 16 h y 24 h tras el bloqueo. El grado de satisfacción medio referido por los pacientes fue de 9. Discusión: El abordaje lateral, como en la serie que presentamos, nos

  19. Determinant Factors of Technical-Tactical Combinations Frequency in standing position during Womens World Senior Championships 2009 FACTORES DETERMINANTES DE LA FRECUENCIA DE COMBINACIONES TÉCNICO/TÁCTICAS EFECTIVAS EN LA LUCHA DE PIE DURANTE EL CAMPEONATO DEL MUNDO SENIOR FEMENIL 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eduardo López González

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective. To classify the perfomance  of world class women wrestlers as the frequency and characteristics of their Technical-Tactical Combinations (TTC with effectiveness in the standing position during the most important competition on the international calendar 2009.Methods.  In the TTC were characterized all standing position effectives by a sample of 70 wrestlers, occupants of the top 10 in each of the 7 weight categories convened. Descriptive variables were used 5 of effectiveness, technical group, and characteristics of its phases. Variables were obtained determining the effectiveness, measured the "success rate" achieved by each fighter, all through factor analysis. Later wrestlers were classified by cluster analysis by Ward's method.Results. The most important factor related to get a medal  was the execution of legs attacks of with several possible endings started with almost no contact with the opponent, followed by the use of low-risk attacks launched from a firm grip. The wrestlers opted mostly for defense and counter low risk. Most of the competitors who had good results using several and alternative projections also managed to end their attacks.Conclusions. Characterization Model used and the factors of effectiveness in the fight standing obtained provided detailed explanations of the performance characteristics of the best wrestlers in the Senior World Championships 2009. The design of this research can be applied year after year in both freestyle and women's.Key words: Technical - Tactical Combinations, Rules, Fighting Women, Factor Analysis and EffectivenessResumenObjetivo. Clasificar la actuación de luchadoras de nivel internacional según la frecuencia y características de sus Combinaciones Técnico/Tácticas (CTT efectivas en posición de pie durante la competencia más importante del calendario internacional 2009.Metodología. Fueron caracterizaron todas las CTT efectivas en posición de pie realizadas por una

  20. Atividade eletromiográfica durante o agachamento unipodal associado a diferentes posições do pé Actividad electromiográfica durante el agache unipodal asociado a diferentes posiciones del pie Electromyographic activity during one-legged squatting under different foot positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ribeiro

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste estudo foi quantificar a atividade muscular durante a realização de agachamento unipodal com variações na técnica. Oito voluntários saudáveis realizaram agachamentos associados a cinco tipos de posição do pé: posição neutra, sobre cunha com 10º de declive, sobre cunha com 10º de aclive, sobre cunha com 10º de inclinação medial e sobre cunha com 10º de inclinação lateral. Foram avaliados os dados eletromiográficos dos músculos vasto medial oblíquo, vasto lateral, reto femoral, bíceps femoral, gastrocnêmio lateral e tibial anterior, utilizando a ANOVA fator único. O valor eletromiográfico integrado de todos os músculos não foi estatisticamente diferente nos cinco tipos de posição do pé. Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que diferentes tipos de posicionamento do pé durante o agachamento unipodal não provocam alterações no padrão de recrutamento muscular.El objetivo principal de este estudio ha sido cuantificar la actividad muscular durante la realización de agachamiento unipodal con variaciones en la técnica. Ocho voluntarios saludables realizaron agachamientos asociados a cinco tipos de posición del pie: posición neutra, sobre cuña con 10º de declive, sobre cuña con 10º de elevación, sobre cuña con 10º de inclinación media y sobre cuña con 10º de inclinación lateral. Fueron evaluados los datos electromiográficos de los músculos vasto medial oblicuo, vasto lateral, recto femoral, bíceps femoral, gastrocnemio lateral y tibial anterior, utilizando ANOVA factor único. El valor electromiográfico integrado de todos los músculos no fue estadísticamente diferente en los cinco tipos de posición del pie. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que diferentes tipos de posicionamiento del pie durante el proceso de agachamiento unipodal no provocan alteraciones en el padrón de reclutamiento muscular.The specific aim of this study was to quantify muscle activity while

  1. Observations sur le sous-genre des Pouillots (Ficedula), et notamment sur le Pouillot Lusciniole, Sylvia (fic.) Polyglotta, de Vieillot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlegel, H.

    1848-01-01

    Les oiseaux dont nous nous proposons de traiter, forment un petit sous-genre démembré de celui des becs-fins ou Sylvia de Latham. C’est, à proprement parler, à BECHSTEIN que l’on en doit l’établissement, quoique cet auteur l’ait pris dans un sens plus ou moins différent de celui que nous y attachons

  2. Large-scale geographical variation in eggshell heavy metal and calcium content in a passerine bird (Ficedula hypoleuca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruuskanen, S.; Morales, J.; Laaksonen, T.; Moreno, J.; Mateo, R.; Belskii, E.; Bushuev, A.; Jarvinen, A.; Kerimov, A.; Krams, I.; Morosinotto, C.; Mand, R.; Orell, M.; Qvarnstrom, A.; Slater, F.M.; Siitari, H.; Tilgar, V.; Visser, M.E.; Winkel, W.; Zang, H.; Eeva, T.

    2014-01-01

    Birds have been used as bioindicators of pollution, such as toxic metals. Levels of pollutants in eggs are especially interesting, as developing birds are more sensitive to detrimental effects of pollutants than adults. Only very few studies have monitored intraspecific, large-scale variation in

  3. Conhecimento do cliente diabético em relação os cuidados com os pés Conocimiento de los diabéticos sobre los cuidados con los pies Knowledge about feet care of the diabetic client

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Barbui

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa tem por objetivo avaliar o conhecimento dos clientes que freqüentam um Ambulatório de Diabetes, em relação à sua doença e cuidados com os pés. Na amostra estudada - diabéticos tipo 2 - houve predominância da faixa etária acima de cinqüenta anos e 71,8% tinham diabetes há menos de dez anos. Concluiu-se que os clientes sabem que os cuidados adequados com os pés são necessários para evitar as complicações, porém o autocuidado não é realizado corretamente. Para que isso seja incorporado em seu cotidiano, é fundamental que tenham acesso às informações sobre diabetes, participação da família, além de habilidade e motivação.Este estudio tuvo por objetivo evaluar el conocimiento de los diabeticos tipo 2 atendidos en uno Ambulatorio de Diabetes en relación a su enfermedad y los cuidados con los pies. La major faja de edad fue más de cincuenta años y 71,8% teniam diabetes ha mas de diet años. Los resultados no permitieron concluir que los diabeticos saben que los cuidados adecuados con los pies son necesarios hacia evitar las complicaciónes, pero el atuocuidado no es realizado correctamente. Para incorporar esto en su cotidiano es fundamental que los diabeticos tengam acceso a las informaciones sobre diabetes, allende la participación de la familia, habilidad y motivación.The objective of this research is to evaluate how much the clients that frequently went to the Diabetes Ambulatory, knew about their own ill, and the feet care. In the sample - diabetes type 2 - the majority were people with more than fifty years old and 71.8% were diabetics for more than ten years. So the conclusion that could be taken is that the clients knew about the care that they must have with their feet to don't have complications, but the "own care" is not well done. To insert it in the rightly on their day-by-day they must have acess to the information about diabetes, participation of the family, motivation and their own

  4. Colgajo fasciocutáneo sural inverso para cobertura de defectos de partes blandas en pierna, tobillo y pie. [Reverse­ fasciocutaneous­ sural­ flap­ for­ soft-tissue­ coverage­ in­ the­ leg,­ ankle­ and­ foot­

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Iglesias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ción: el objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los resultados obtenidos con la utilización del colgajo fasciocutáneo sural de base distal para la reconstrucción de defectos de partes blandas alrededor de la tibia distal, el tobillo y el pie. Materiales­ y ­Métodos: se evaluaron, en forma retrospectiva, 20 colgajos pediculados fasciocutáneos surales inversos realizados entre 2007 y 2013. La edad promedio de los pacientes era de 42 años (rango 6-79; 14 hombres y 5 mujeres. Las causas de los defectos fueron: postraumáticas (17 casos, un caso bilateral y secundarias a resecciones oncológicas (2 casos. La muestra incluyó tres pacientes diabéticos, una mujer obesa y ocho pacientes tabaquistas. En 10 casos, las heridas presentaban exposición tendinosa y, en 10 casos, exposición ósea. El diámetro promedio de los defectos fue de 8,9 x 5,75 cm. Resultados: el seguimiento promedio fue de 16 meses. Se logró una exitosa cobertura completa del defecto en los 20 casos. el tiempo promedio de internación fue de 3.15 días. Tres colgajos presentaron necrosis parcial superficial, en un caso el colgajo sufrió necrosis en su tercio distal y, en un paciente, se decidió amputar la extremidad por persistencia de la osteomielitis. Conclusiones: Pese a que se han descrito múltiples opciones de cobertura en defectos de tejidos blandos alrededor de la tibia distal, el tobillo y el pie, el colgajo sural inverso es, en la actualidad, uno de los procedimientos más frecuentes para cubrir estos defectos. Se evaluaron 20 colgajos surales inversos y se logró la cobertura completa de los defectos de tejidos blandos, tanto en defectos postraumáticos como en los resultantes de resecciones oncológicas

  5. Río Mapocho occidental: urbanismo regulador, elementos arquitectónicos y trazado de vías para la accesibilidad y la marcha a pie por las riberas de Peñaflor, Talagante y El Monte. / Western Mapocho: regulatory planning, architectural elements and road design for accessibility and walking along the banks of Peñaflor, Talagante and El Monte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rubio Ritchie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investiga en las zonas urbanas y rurales ribereñas de las comunas de interés, las regulaciones urbanas, los trazados viales y las formas urbanas-arquitectónicas que son funcionales a la marcha a pie en el territorio, a partir de la metodología de valoración dePozueta, et al. (España, 2009. Los resultados de la investigación muestran un potencial para activar en beneficio local y metropolitano, y restricciones del espacio geográfico que indican la inconveniencia de desplegar la urbanización metropolitana y local en extensión./ We report an investigation of urban and rural communes riparian interest, urban regulations, road paths and urban-architectural forms that are functional for walking in the territory, from the valuation methodology Pozueta, et al. (Spain, 2009. The research results show a potential benefit to enable local and metropolitan, and constraints of geographic space that indicate theinappropriateness of displaying the metropolitan and local urban extension.

  6. Criação de um web site para enfermeiros sobre pé diabético Creación de un sitio web para los enfermeros sobre el pie diabético Creation of web site for nurses about diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Souza Alves

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever o processo de criação de um web site educacional para enfermeiros contendo informações sobre avaliação e cuidados preventivos dos pés em pacientes com diabetes mellitus. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa aplicada desenvolvida em 2004, baseada no modelo teórico de Tronchim (1999 para a construção de web sites, composto das fases de conceitualização, desenvolvimento, implementação e avaliação. RESULTADOS: O site possui 68 páginas contendo informações, orientações, fotos e ilustrações, estruturadas em tópicos com os conceitos básicos do diabetes mellitus, pé diabético, neuropatias, doença vascular periférica, infecções, amputações, educação e orientações de enfermagem. Foi avaliado por especialistas que referendaram seu conteúdo e fizeram sugestões para seu aperfeiçoamento. CONCLUSÕES: A criação e desenvolvimento do site foram descritos, podendo ser acessado no www.unifesp.br/denf/nien na opção pesquisa.OBJETIVOS: Neste estudio los objetivos fueron desarrollar el proceso de creación de un web site educacional com informaciones sobre la evaluación y los cuidados preventivos de los pies en pacientes con diabetes mellitus y evaluar el contenido de las informaciones disponibilizadas en el web site con especialistas. MÉTODOS: Trátase de una pesquisa aplicada baseada en el modelo te'orico de Tronchim (1999, para la construcción de un web site. RESULTADOS: El site posee 68 páginas, con conceptos básicos de diabetes mellitus, pie diabético, neuropatías, enfermedad vascular periférica, infecciones, amputaciones, educación y orientaciones de enfermería. CONCLUSION: El site puede ser accesado a través de la URL: www.unifesp.br/denf/nien , en la opición pesquisa.AIM: This product consists in describe the creation process of an educational web site displaying information on evaluation and preventive care of feet in patients with diabetes mellitus also to evaluate the information content available

  7. Aspectos epidemiológicos das micoses dos pés em um time chinês de futebol Aspectos epidemiologicos de las micosis de los pies en un equipo chino de fútbol Epidemiological aspects of the feet mycosis in a Chinese soccer team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Sheylla Malta Purim

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available As infecções fúngicas podais podem interferir no desempenho esportivo ao provocar desconforto e dor nos atletas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência das infecções fúngicas podais em um time profissional de futebol, verificando os agentes mais freqüentes e os fatores predisponentes. O delineamento da pesquisa foi transversal e descritivo. A amostra foi composta de 22 homens, com idades entre 23 e 36 anos, integrantes do time de futebol profissional chinês, quando de sua participação de jogos em Curitiba (PR. Todos foram avaliados clinicamente e submetidos a exames micológicos (direto e cultura de escamas de pele e unha dos pés e estudo histopatológico de fragmento ungueal. Os resultados encontrados foram: 12 casos (54,5% não apresentavam micose; cinco casos (22,72% apresentavam onicomicose isolada e cinco casos (22,72% apresentavam onicomicose associada a tinea pedis, tendo como principal agente isolado o Trichophyton rubrum. Os fatores predisponentes apontados pelos atletas incluíram: banho em local público (85%, prática de esporte (76%, uso de calçados fechados (70%, contato com animal doméstico (63% e irregularidade na higiene dos pés (50%. CONCLUSÃO: A freqüência da onicomicose em atletas chineses foi maior do que na população em geral. O agente mais freqüente foi o Trichophyton rubrum. Os hábitos individuais podem contribuir para a aquisição dessas infecções fúngicas, além do trauma direto pelo calçado e bola, bem como pelo contato físico durante treinos e jogos que podem favorecer lesões cutâneas e ungueais.Las infecciones fúngicas pueden interferir en la acción deportiva por provocar incomodidad y dolor en los atletas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el predominio de infecciones fúngicas en los pies que afectan a un equipo profesional de fútbol, mientras se verifican los agentes más frecuentes y los factores predisponentes. El delineamento de la investigación fue cruzado y

  8. La efectividad de los ácidos grasos hiperoxigenados en el cuidado de la piel perilesional, la prevención de las úlceras por presión, vasculares y de pie diabético The effectiveness of hyperoxygenated fatty acids in the care of skin perilesional, the prevention of the pressure ulcers, vascular ulcers and diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martínez Cuervo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available En la última década han aparecido en el mercado los ácidos grasos hiperoxigenados como una herramienta a tener en cuenta en la prevención de las úlceras por presión. Sin embargo, disponemos de pocos estudios que avalen su uso, especialmente en estos últimos años. Realizamos un estudio de revisión bibliográfica de los artículos publicados de ácidos grasos hiperoxigenados con el objetivo de conocer su uso y efectividad. Se constata que los ácidos grasos hiperoxigenados son muy importantes en el mantenimiento de la integridad de la piel evitando la formación de úlceras por presión o retrasando su instauración. Aún no disponiendo de ensayos clínicos que evidencien su uso en otras patologías pero, durante los últimos años, se han venido utilizando con resultados satisfactorios en el cuidado de la piel de personas con alteraciones vasculares de miembros inferiores, en el pie diabético y en el cuidado de la piel perilesional. Los ácidos grasos hiperoxigenados son una opción terapéutica óptima que debería formar parte de los protocolos clínicos de actuación de enfermería en la prevención de las úlceras crónicas y en el cuidado de la piel perilesional.Hyperoxigenated fatty acids (HOFA have appeared in the market in the last decade to provide a tool in the prevention of pressure ulcers. However, there are few studies demonstrating their usefulness, especially in last few years. A study of bibliographical revision of articles dealing about hyperoxigenated fatty acids was performed with the aim of knowing their usefulness and effectiveness. It is stated that the hyperoxygenated fatty acids are very important in the maintenance of the integrity of the skin to avoid the formation of pressure ulcers or delaying their restoration. Not yet having clinical trials demonstrating their use in other pathologies, recently, HOFA have been used with satisfactory results in the skin care of people with vascular alterations of inferior

  9. Myiarchus flycatchers are the primary seed dispersers of Bursera longipes in a Mexican dry forest

    OpenAIRE

    R. Carlos Almazán-Núñez; EGUIARTE, LUIS E.; María del Coro Arizmendi; Pablo Corcuera

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the seed dispersal of Bursera longipes by birds along a successional gradient of tropical dry forest (TDF) in southwestern Mexico. B. longipes is an endemic tree to the TDF in the Balsas basin. The relative abundance of frugivorous birds, their frequency of visits to B. longipes and the number of removed fruits were recorded at three study sites with different stages of forest succession (early, intermediate and mature) characterized by distinct floristic and structural elements....

  10. Contaminants in Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Eggs and Prey Items, Arizona, 1998-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study documented concentrations and potential effects of organochlorine compounds and metals in addled eggs and potential prey of the endangered southwestern...

  11. Recommendations for cowbird management in recovery efforts for the southwestern willow flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, S.I.; Kus, B.E.; Whitfield, M.J.; Sferra, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Three generations of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed either a control diet or a diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury in the form of methylmercury. The levels of mercury in adult tissues and eggs remained about the same over 3 generations. The methylmercury diet had no effect on adult weights or weight changes during the reproductive season. Females fed a diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury laid a greater percentage of their eggs outside their nestboxes than did controls, and also laid fewer eggs and produced fewer ducklings. Methylmercury in the diet appeared to result in a small amount of eggshell thinning. Ducklings from parents fed methylmercury were less responsive than, controls to tape-recorded maternal calls, but were hyper-responsive to a frightening stimulus in avoidance tests; there were no significant differences in locomotor activity in an open-field test.

  12. Recurrent Education: "Apple Pie" ...or..."Atomic Bomb"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, William L.

    The author conceptualizes recurrent education as organized, structured, institutionally sponsored learning activities with intentional outcomes, which are distributed over the life span of the individual in a recurring way. Some problems to which recurrent education proposes solutions include: alienation at the inter-generational level,…

  13. Fast GC for Space Applications Based on PIES Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a novel analytical instrument which combines the advantages of fast GC and a detector capable of identifying species is proposed. Experiments in the...

  14. Fast GC for Space Applications Based on PIES Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II project is aimed at the development of an analytical instrument which combines the advantages of fast gas chromatography (GC) and a detector that...

  15. Dividing up the pie: Whales, fish, and humans as competitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, James J.; Steele, John H.; Ballerini, Tosca; Gaichas, Sarah K.; Ainley, David G.

    2013-09-01

    Similarly structured food web models of four coastal ecosystems (Northern California Current, Central Gulf of Alaska, Georges Bank, southwestern Antarctic Peninsula) were used to investigate competition among whales, fishes, pinnipeds, and humans. Two analysis strategies simulated the effects of historic baleen and odontocete whale abundances across all trophic levels: food web structure scenarios and time-dynamic scenarios. Direct competition between whales and commercial fisheries is small at current whale abundances; whales and fisheries each take similar proportions of annual pelagic fish production (4-7%). Scenarios show that as whale populations grow, indirect competition between whales and fish for zooplankton would more likely impact fishery production than would direct competition for fish between whales and commercial fisheries. Increased baleen whale abundance would have greater and broader indirect effects on upper trophic levels and fisheries than a similar increase in odontocete abundance. Time-dynamic scenarios, which allow for the evolution of compensatory mechanisms, showed more modest impacts than structural scenarios, which show the immediate impacts of altered energy pathways. Structural scenarios show that in terms of energy availability, there is potential for large increases in whale abundance without major changes to existing food web structures and without substantial reduction of fishery production. For each ecosystem, a five-fold increase in baleen whale abundance could be supported with minor disruptions to existing energy flow pathways. However, such an increase would remain below historical population levels for many cetaceans. A larger expansion (20X) could be accommodated only with large reductions in energy flow to competitor groups. The scope for odontocete expansion varies between ecosystems but may be more restricted than the scope for baleen expansion because they feed at higher, less productive trophic levels. Egestion: unassimilated consumption, feces; directed to detritus pools. Metabolism: basal metabolism, specific dynamic action, and activity costs in terms of ammonium excretion NH4+; directed to recycled nutrient pools. Predation: a production term; production directed to grazing or predation by other functional groups. “Other” mortality: a production term; “other” mortality is unconsumed production; principally unconsumed phytoplankton; directed to detritus pools. Export (losses): a production term; export of plankton and pelagic detritus by physical transport; export losses are handled as a reduction of group transfer efficiency (the fraction of consumption that is passed to higher trophic level groups through grazing or predation). “Consumption” for phytoplankton is the uptake of new nitrate NO3- input and recycled ammonium NH4+ produced by consumer metabolism. Nitrate input was rescaled to carbon based upon the Redfield ratio (6.625 mmole C mmole N-1) and to wet weight based upon the estimated carbon content of fish (8.8 mg wet weight mg C-1) (Steele et al., 2007).The E2E trophic network matrices for each region are provided as Supplementary material. The E2E network models for the Northern California Current (NCC), Central Gulf of Alaska (CGoA), and southwestern Antarctic Peninsula (sWAP) ecosystems were derived following the techniques of Steele and Ruzicka (2011) from solutions for biomasses, consumption rates, and predation pressure upon each functional group calculated using ECOPATH algorithms (Christensen and Walters, 2004). The NCC model was modified from Ruzicka et al. (2012), the CGoA model was modified as noted in the Supplementary material from the full Gulf of Alaska model documented in Aydin et al. (2007), and the sWAP model was modified from Ballerini et al. (submitted for publication). A quantitative assessment of the Georges Bank (GB) food web is given in Steele et al. (2007) and Collie et al. (2009). Top predators (seabirds, baleen whales, odontocetes) were implicit in the original GB model. These components have now been explicitly defined using information from Link et al. (2006) to provide estimates of the abundance, diets, and consumption rates of birds and mammals on Georges Bank. (ECOPATH parameters and diet matrices for all four regional models are provided in the Supplementary material).Each regional model was developed by a different team of researchers with different emphasis of purpose but was re-structured so that each shared similar functional group aggregations. Functional groups were aggregated using production-weighted mean values of physiological parameters and diets and the sums of group biomasses and fishery harvests. Model currencies also differed between regional models: wet weight biomass (NCC, CGoA), nitrogen biomass (GB), and carbon biomass (sWAP). However, all analyses are expressed as comparable dimensionless metrics: relative changes in production rate (E2E network scenarios) and relative changes in biomass (time-dynamic scenarios).

  16. "Cutting it" means slicing up the patient pie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, J N

    1985-01-01

    This article has attempted to demonstrate why market segmentation will become increasingly prevalent in the health care industry. It has also suggested how segmentation can be extremely useful to health care practitioners. Finally, it has described three customer characteristics (demographics, psycho-graphics, and usage patterns) as a basis for segmenting the market. Three marketing practices (competitive positioning, full line versus specialty, and payment plans) as the bases for market segmentation have also been identified.

  17. Lo que está bajo nuestros pies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C. de A. Maria Castelhano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se pretende demostrar cómo el estudio del comportamiento de las ondas sísmicas llevó a la construcción del modelo físico de la estructura interna de la Tierra en diferentes capas concéntricas. Los modelos analógicos en educación de la ciencias son instrumentos esenciales que hacen los conocimientos científicos más comprensible, facilitando la comprensión de conceptos abstractos y favoreciendo así el interés de los estudiantes.

  18. A pie: wandering y cotidianidad en Simone de Eduardo Lalo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliver, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between wandering and everyday life in Simone (2012), a novel by the Puerto Rican writer Eduardo Lalo. Wandering, defined as an aimless movement around the city, is not only an instance to reflect and discover by walking the everyday life, but also to express a

  19. The Pied Piper: A Parasitic Beetle's Melodies Modulate Ant Behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Giulio

    Full Text Available Ants use various communication channels to regulate their social organisation. The main channel that drives almost all the ants' activities and behaviours is the chemical one, but it is long acknowledged that the acoustic channel also plays an important role. However, very little is known regarding exploitation of the acoustical channel by myrmecophile parasites to infiltrate the ant society. Among social parasites, the ant nest beetles (Paussus are obligate myrmecophiles able to move throughout the colony at will and prey on the ants, surprisingly never eliciting aggression from the colonies. It has been recently postulated that stridulatory organs in Paussus might be evolved as an acoustic mechanism to interact with ants. Here, we survey the role of acoustic signals employed in the Paussus beetle-Pheidole ant system. Ants parasitised by Paussus beetles produce caste-specific stridulations. We found that Paussus can "speak" three different "languages", each similar to sounds produced by different ant castes (workers, soldiers, queen. Playback experiments were used to test how host ants respond to the sounds emitted by Paussus. Our data suggest that, by mimicking the stridulations of the queen, Paussus is able to dupe the workers of its host and to be treated as royalty. This is the first report of acoustic mimicry in a beetle parasite of ants.

  20. Nuclear counter effect and pi-e misidentification

    CERN Document Server

    Zürcher, D

    2000-01-01

    The e sup+-/pi sup+- discrimination within the CMS(1) ECAL is investigated using GEANT simulations and the 1998 test beam results. If one takes into account the energy left in the ECAL crystals alone (i.e. without read-out effects), the probability that a pi sup+- leaves more than 95% of its initial energy decreases from about 0.01% for 10 GeV to about 0.001% for 50 GeV. The Nuclear Counter Effect within the Avalanche Photo-Diodes (APD) enhances the probability of an electron misidentification. With the expected value of this effect (approx 100 MeV), this probability appears then to be between 0.2% and 0.01% for initial momenta varying, respectively, between 5 and 50 GeV. Important consequences of the pion-electron misidentification could appear in the form of new possible backgrounds for physics channels.

  1. Telescopes on the Moon or pie in the sky?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Carl B.

    1992-01-01

    The question is examined of whether it makes sense to believe that there will one day be an interferometric array of telescopes on the Moon. The question is really one of national commitment to a lunar base, since it is not likely that a scientific undertaking of this magnitude would occur in the absence of permanent human presence on the Moon. A discussion is also given of the real possibility if the exploration of space should be a multinational effort.

  2. Improving Relationships: Serving up a Slice of "Enemy Pie"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, P. Cougar; McIntyre, Emily

    2011-01-01

    The "14 Characteristics of Effective Health Education Curricula" identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health promote teaching ideas designed to personalize information and engage students through activities which are both student centered and interactive. Effective health education efforts…

  3. Can the Lung Cancer Pie Be Divided into Angiogenic Slices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascone, Tina; Heymach, John V

    2015-12-01

    There are no validated markers for predicting benefit from angiogenesis inhibitors or classifying tumors with distinct angiogenic phenotypes. In patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with bevacizumab and erlotinib, Franzini and colleagues find that angiogenesis- and hypoxia-associated gene expression signatures predict tumor response and/or clinical outcome, and may define distinct angiogenic patterns.

  4. PIE Nacelle Flow Analysis and TCA Inlet Flow Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, C. F.; Arslan, Alan; Sundaran, P.; Kim, Suk; Won, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation includes three topics: (1) Analysis of isolated boattail drag; (2) Computation of Technology Concept Airplane (TCA)-installed nacelle effects on aerodynamic performance; and (3) Assessment of TCA inlet flow quality.

  5. El pie equino adquirido en el adulto con encamamiento prolongado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tortosa Sirvent, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    .... Se revisan 32 articulos que arrojan poca evidencia pero de los que se extrae que existen diversos tratamientos, de eficacia limitada, entre los que destaca la cirugia, que parece ser el mas efectivo...

  6. PIE techniques for hydride reorientation test at NDC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, Tomohiro; Shinohara, Yasunari; Yamaguchi, Yoichiro [Nuclear Development Corporation, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Dry storage of spent fuels in the interim storage facility is being planned in Japan. However, the gradual deterioration of the mechanical property of fuel cladding due to internal pressure and temperature during the storage term is known. Therefore, the integrity of stored fuel rods should be confirmed before the start of dry storage. For the last several years, NDC had a lot of experiences on the hydride reorientation test. The specimen preparation techniques on the hydride reorientation test and the mechanical testing techniques after the hydride reorientation are shown in this paper.

  7. Dividing up the pie : whales, fish, and humans as competitors

    OpenAIRE

    Ruzicka, J. J.; Steele, J.H.; Ballerini, Tosca; Gaichas, S. K.; Ainley, D.G.

    2013-01-01

    Similarly structured food web models of four coastal ecosystems (Northern California Current, Central Gulf of Alaska, Georges Bank, southwestern Antarctic Peninsula) were used to investigate competition among whales, fishes, pinnipeds, and humans. Two analysis strategies simulated the effects of historic baleen and odontocete whale abundances across all trophic levels: food web structure scenarios and time-dynamic scenarios. Direct competition between whales and commercial fisheries is small ...

  8. Avifaunal diversity and bird community responses to man-made habitats in St. Coombs Tea Estate, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dananjaya Kottawa-Arachchi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A survey on birds was conducted at St. Coombs Tea Estate, Talawakelle, Sri Lanka with the objective of assessing the avifaunal diversity of a given tea plantation ecosystem. Bird populations were sampled in man-made habitats such as home garden, wetland, tea plantation, Eucalyptus plantation and small scale reservoir. Hundred-and-twenty counts were made for each habitat and in addition, activities of birds, feeding habits and food recourses were also observed. A total of 87 species, including 11 endemic and 11 migrant species of birds, was recorded, which included one globally threatened species, Kashmir Flycatcher Ficedula subrubra and 16 nationally threatened species. A majority of the bird species were observed in home gardens (75%, followed by reservoirs (57%, wetlands (48%, tea plantations (43% and in Eucalyptus plantations (23%. Home gardens support bird diversity while the species richness of endemic bird species increases thereby enabling these findings to be used as guidelines in long term conservational practices. Several conservation measures such as increasing plant diversity, introduction of shade trees and prevention of fire are recommended to conserve and enhance avifaunal diversity in tea plantations.

  9. Aggressive behavior of the male parent predicts brood sex ratio in a songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szász, Eszter; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Hegyi, Gergely; Szöllősi, Eszter; Markó, Gábor; Török, János; Rosivall, Balázs

    2014-08-01

    Brood sex ratio is often affected by parental or environmental quality, presumably in an adaptive manner that is the sex that confers higher fitness benefits to the mother is overproduced. So far, studies on the role of parental quality have focused on parental morphology and attractiveness. However, another aspect, the partner's behavioral characteristics, may also be expected to play a role in brood sex ratio adjustment. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether the proportion of sons in the brood is predicted by the level of territorial aggression displayed by the father, in the collared flycatcher ( Ficedula albicollis). The proportion of sons in the brood was higher in early broods and increased with paternal tarsus length. When controlling for breeding date and body size, we found a higher proportion of sons in the brood of less aggressive fathers. Male nestlings are more sensitive to the rearing environment, and the behavior of courting males may often be used by females to assess their future parental activity. Therefore, adjusting brood sex ratio to the level of male aggression could be adaptive. Our results indicate that the behavior of the partner could indeed be a significant determinant in brood sex ratio adjustment, which should not be overlooked in future studies.

  10. Birds reveal their personality when singing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Zsolt Garamszegi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual differences in social behaviour may have consequences for mate choice and sexual signalling, because partners should develop preferences for personalities that maximize reproductive output. Here we propose that behavioural traits involved in sexual advertisement may serve as good indicators of personality, which is fundamental for sexual selection to operate on temperament. Bird song has a prominent and well-established role in sexual selection, and it displays considerable variation among individuals with a potentially strong personality component. Therefore, we predicted that features of song would correlate with estimates of personality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a field study of free-living male collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, we characterised personality based on the exploration of an altered breeding environment, and based on the risk taken when a potential predator was approaching during a simulated territorial interaction. We found that explorative and risk-taker individuals consistently sang at lower song posts than shy individuals in the presence of a human observer. Moreover, males from lower posts established pair-bonds relatively faster than males from higher posts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results may demonstrate that risk taking during singing correlates with risk taking during aggression and with exploration, thus personality may be manifested in different contexts involving sexual advertisement. These findings are in accordance with the hypothesis that the male's balance between investment in reproduction and risk taking is reflected in sexual displays, and it may be important information for choosy females that seek partners with personality traits enhancing breeding success.

  11. The intersexual genetic correlation for lifetime fitness in the wild and its implications for sexual selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon E Brommer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genetic benefits of mate choice are limited by the degree to which male and female fitness are genetically correlated. If the intersexual correlation for fitness is small or negative, choosing a highly fit mate does not necessarily result in high fitness offspring. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using an animal-model approach on data from a pedigreed population of over 7,000 collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis, we estimate the intersexual genetic correlation in Lifetime Reproductive Success (LRS in a natural population to be negative in sign (-0.85+/-0.6. Simulations show this estimate to be robust in sign to the effects of extra-pair parentage. The genetic benefits in this population are further limited by a low level of genetic variation for fitness in males. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The potential for indirect sexual selection is nullified by sexual antagonistic fitness effects in this natural population. Our findings and the scarce evidence from other studies suggest that the intersexual genetic correlation for lifetime fitness may be very low in nature. We argue that this form of conflict can, in general, both constrain and maintain sexual selection, depending on the sex-specific additive genetic variances in lifetime fitness.

  12. Trypanosoma culicavium sp. nov., an avian trypanosome transmitted by Culex mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votýpka, Jan; Szabová, Jana; Rádrová, Jana; Zídková, Lenka; Svobodová, Milena

    2012-03-01

    A novel avian trypanosome, Trypanosoma culicavium sp. nov., isolated from Culex mosquitoes, is described on the basis of naturally and experimentally infected vectors and bird hosts, localization in the vector, morphological characters and molecular data. This study provides the first comprehensive description of a trypanosome species transmitted by mosquitoes, in which parasites form plugs and rosettes on the stomodeal valve. Trypanosomes occurred as long epimastigotes and short trypomastigotes in vectors and culture and as long trypomastigotes in birds. Transmission of parasites to bird hosts was achieved exclusively by ingestion of experimentally infected Culex mosquito females by canaries (Serinus canaria), but not by Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica), nor by the bite of infected vectors, nor by ingestion of parasites from laboratory cultures. Transmission experiments and the identity of isolates from collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) and Culex mosquitoes suggests that the natural hosts of T. culicavium are insectivorous songbirds (Passeriformes). Phylogenetic analyses of small-subunit rRNA and glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene sequences demonstrated that T. culicavium sp. nov. is more related to Trypanosoma corvi than to other avian trypanosomes (e.g. Trypanosoma avium and Trypanosoma bennetti).

  13. Paternidad extra pareja y variación genética individual: implicaciones en la eficacia biológica del papamoscas cerrojillo, Ficedula hypoleuca

    OpenAIRE

    Canal, David

    2012-01-01

    Las técnicas moleculares han revolucionado la forma de entender la ecología animal en general, y la de aves en particular. Su aplicación reveló la existencia de paternidad extra-pareja (EPP; de sus siglas en inglés) en aves, un descubrimiento considerado como el más importante en el campo de los sistemas de emparejamiento aviar de las últimas décadas. Hoy, se sabe que en más del 70% de las especies de aves estudiadas existe paternidad extra pareja (poligamia genética) pero los mecanismos que ...

  14. Avaliação dos fatores interferentes na adesão ao tratamento do cliente portador de pé diabético Evaluación de los factores intervinientes en la adhesión al tratamiento del paciente con pie diabético Evaluation of interfering factors in treatment adherence of patients with diabetic foot conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Mesquita Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A diabetes é uma doença crónica que exige adaptações na vida do cliente. O estudo objetivou avaliar a adesão do cliente portador de pé diabético ao tratamento. Estudo descritivo, quantitativo, realizado numa instituição especializada em diabetes, em Fortaleza-CE, com 45 clientes portadores de pé diabético. Os dados foram colhidos nos meses de fevereiro e março de 2009, expostos em gráficos e tabelas. O projeto foi aprovado pelo Comitê de ética em Pesquisa da Universidade de Fortaleza. Os clientes foram esclarecidos sobre o estudo, com participação voluntária. A maioria era do sexo masculino, na faixa etária de 50 a 79 anos e casados. Os principais fatores que interferem na adesão ao tratamento incluem: a baixa escolaridade, o nível socioeconómico, o déficit de conhecimento acerca da doença e a dificuldade de acesso ao serviço de saúde. A maioria dos clientes utilizava produtos caseiros para a cura da lesão, demonstrando crença em experiências anteriores. É fundamental que o cliente seja encorajado a assumir a responsabilidade de seu cuidado, enfatizando a necessidade das mudanças no estilo de vida.La diabetes es una enfermedad crónica que exige adaptaciones en la vida del paciente. El estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la adhesión del paciente con pie diabético al tratamiento. Se trató de un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, realizado en una institución especializada en diabetes, en Fortaleza-CE, con 45 pacientes con esta dolencia. Los datos fueron recolectados durante los meses de febrero a marzo de 2009 y fueron posteriormente expuestos en gráficos y tablas. El proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de ética en Pesquisa de la Universidad de Fortaleza. A los pacientes, se les informó sobre el estudio, en el cual participaron de forma voluntaria. La mayoría era del sexo masculino, dentro de la franja etária de los 50 a los 79 años y estaban casados. Los principales factores que interfieren en la adhesi

  15. Dispersal and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz, C.

    2004-06-01

    overlay maps of effort to try and remove any induced artefacts in the data. Differences in timing or the route of migration has often been studies separately. Lokki and Saurola (Lokki & Saurola, 2004 develop an omnibus procedure to test if the migration timing and/or route differ among two populations of birds (e.g. males vs females. It uses a randomization test to calibrate the test statistic. However, it makes the key assumptions about equal recovery effort in time and space so that the method may be most applicable to comparison among species with similar migration timing and movement to keep differential sighting/recovery rates from affecting the result. Of course, it is in these cases where it is most difficulty to separate the groups which will require substantial samples to have good performance. Thorup and Rahbek (Thorup & Rahbek, 2004 provide a framework for accounting for unequal spatial recovery probability investigating the geometric influence of ocean and sea on observed migratory patterns. Taking the data set of Pied Flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca ringed as nestlings in Scandinavia and recovered en route on their initial migration and using a model based on the clock–and–compass innate navigation hypothesis they are showing that geometric constraints explain quite a bit of the variation in ring–recoveries. The model also shows that ring recovery patterns do reflect the migratory patterns, and that they are suitable for an analysis of the concentration of the migratory route which is important for the general use of ringing data in studies of migration. This is important for the general use of ringing data in studies of migration and dispersal. The new approach has also implications for understanding the migratory orientation program. The compiled papers highlight some novel ideas of how to analyse band recoveries to investigate migration routes and migration behaviour as well as dispersal patterns among birds and dolphins. Multistate modeling appears

  16. Exploring heterozygosity-survival correlations in a wild songbird population: contrasting effects between juvenile and adult stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Canal

    Full Text Available The relationship between genetic diversity and fitness, a major issue in evolutionary and conservation biology, is expected to be stronger in traits affected by many loci and those directly influencing fitness. Here we explore the influence of heterozygosity measured at 15 neutral markers on individual survival, one of the most important parameters determining individual fitness. We followed individual survival up to recruitment and during subsequent adult life of 863 fledgling pied flycatchers born in two consecutive breeding seasons. Mark-recapture analyses showed that individual heterozygosity did not influence juvenile or adult survival. In contrast, the genetic relatedness of parents was negatively associated with the offspring's survival during the adult life, but this effect was not apparent in the juvenile (from fledgling to recruitment stage. Stochastic factors experienced during the first year of life in this long-distance migratory species may have swamped a relationship between heterozygosity and survival up to recruitment.

  17. Birds as objects in bioindication of radioactive pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivolutski, D A; Lebedeva, N V; Shuktomova, I I

    1999-01-01

    This article is a review the recent results of research in the accumulation of natural and artificial radionuclides in birds from Russia (Adigea, Krasnodar, Rostov, Astrahan and Moscow regions, Novaya Zemlya isles), Ukraine, Vietnam, Poland, Ethiophia and Mongolia after global precipitation and local pollution, such as in the East-Urals radioactive region and radioactive zones after the Chernobyl accident. Resident birds reflect local level of radionuclide contamination. The 90Sr concentration in the food of the Pied Flycatcher had a tendency to increase in dependent of age. The Common Jay and the Mallard were the most contaminated with 137Cs in the Bryansk region. The total content of various radio-isotopes of plutonium in bird bones from Southwest Russia were hundred and thousand times more, than in Mongolia. Activity levels in specimens from Ethiopia bear record to Ethiopia can notbe a "pure" control site in radioecological research and radioactive background since it does not significantly differ from Turkmenia and Mongolia.

  18. Birds Communities at Mangrove of Batu Ampar, Kubu Raya District, West Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarwadi Budi Hernowo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Batu Ampar mangrove is an important bird habitat especially for birds which have relation to mangrove ecosystem in West Kalimantan. The research was conducted in February to March 2007, at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site. Sampling was done to get representative area for bird survey. The 19 transects were chosen as sampling site to collect bird data such as species and number of individual. Bird surveys were carried out using Reconnaissance method and index point of abundance (IPA count method. The length of each transect was approximately 500 m. The results showed that the bird community's structure dominated by insectivorous birds represented approximately 60 % of total bird's species at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site. The abundance numbers of the individual with the bird's species has relation pattern like J opposite. Percentage of dominant bird species was approximately 11%, those are such as stork billed kingfisher, white-collared kingfisher, common iora, chestnuts-rumped babbler, Strip-Tit Babbler, magpie robin, ashy tailorbird, mangrove blue flycatcher, pied fantail, mangrove whistler, Brown-throated Sunbird and Cooper-Throated Sunbird. Vertical structure of mangrove vegetation was used by birds at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site is mainly B stratum, and it used around 60% birds species. Based on dendrogram analysis there were 5 cluster birds species. The mangrove bird specialists found at sampling area were mangrove blue flycatcher and Cooper throated sunbird.

  19. ¿Por qué debemos preocuparnos del pie diabético?: Importancia del pie diabético

    OpenAIRE

    Seguel,Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The diabetic foot is responsible for 70% of amputations in adults, entails a significant impact in the life of patients and it is associated with an excessive use of resources in our health system. The 2009-2010 National Health Survey indicated that in the "last year" 6.7% of subjects with diabetes consulted a health care professional for diabetic foot. With the permanent rise of worldwide and national prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and the increased life expectancy in our country, the publi...

  20. A checklist of avifauna from Malgaon-Bagayat and Malvan towns of Sindhudurg District, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayura Khot

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out in Malgaon-Bagayat (16009’04.35”N & 73033’04.7”E and Malvan Taluka (16005’00”N & 73030’00”E of Sindhudurg District.  The paper represents the first document on birds as there are no published records from Sindhudurg District.  The study was conducted for a period of two years to explore the avifauna as no records have been published yet from this area.  A total of 101 species of birds belonging to 17 orders and 45 families and were recorded in the study areas inhabiting different types of habitats.  The Order Passeriformes contributed the maximum species (44.9% followed by Pelecaniformes (9.2%, Charadriiformes (8.2% and Accipitriformes (6.1%.  The species such as the Asian Paradise Flycatcher, Common Hoopoe, and Pied Kingfisher were observed only once in the study area.  The common occurrence of the Near Threatened Malabar Pied Hornbill in Bagayat signifies the ornithological importance of this site.  Long-term studies on distribution and abundance are required to prepare a conservation plan for avifauna in Sindhudurg District.  The data generated can be considered as baseline data for future conservation and management of existing species. 

  1. Recombination Rate Variation Modulates Gene Sequence Evolution Mainly via GC-Biased Gene Conversion, Not Hill-Robertson Interference, in an Avian System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolívar, Paulina; Mugal, Carina F; Nater, Alexander; Ellegren, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates (ω) is often used to measure the strength of natural selection. However, ω may be influenced by linkage among different targets of selection, that is, Hill-Robertson interference (HRI), which reduces the efficacy of selection. Recombination modulates the extent of HRI but may also affect ω by means of GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), a process leading to a preferential fixation of G:C ("strong," S) over A:T ("weak," W) alleles. As HRI and gBGC can have opposing effects on ω, it is essential to understand their relative impact to make proper inferences of ω. We used a model that separately estimated S-to-S, S-to-W, W-to-S, and W-to-W substitution rates in 8,423 avian genes in the Ficedula flycatcher lineage. We found that the W-to-S substitution rate was positively, and the S-to-W rate negatively, correlated with recombination rate, in accordance with gBGC but not predicted by HRI. The W-to-S rate further showed the strongest impact on both dN and dS. However, since the effects were stronger at 4-fold than at 0-fold degenerated sites, likely because the GC content of these sites is farther away from its equilibrium, ω slightly decreases with increasing recombination rate, which could falsely be interpreted as a consequence of HRI. We corroborated this hypothesis analytically and demonstrate that under particular conditions, ω can decrease with increasing recombination rate. Analyses of the site-frequency spectrum showed that W-to-S mutations were skewed toward high, and S-to-W mutations toward low, frequencies, consistent with a prevalent gBGC-driven fixation bias.

  2. The relationship between syllable repertoire similarity and pairing success in a passerine bird species with complex song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Zsebok, Sándor; Török, János

    2012-02-21

    Repertoire size, i.e. the number of unique song elements that an individual possesses, is thought to be an important target of female preference. However, the use of repertoire size reflects how researchers work with complex songs; while it does not necessary describe biological functions, as listeners of song may also rely on song composition. Specific syllables may have coherent consequences for mate attraction because they are costly to produce, mediate syllable sharing or indicate the dialect of origin. We tested for the relationship between song composition and pairing success in the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis). We applied a tree-clustering method to hierarchically classify males based on the degree of repertoire overlap, and then used a phylogenetic approach to assess the degree by which pairing speed matches the hierarchically structured song data. We found that males using similar syllables also find a breeding partner at a similar speed. Partitioning the variance components of pairing speed, we detected that the consequences of particular syllables for mating are repeatable across males. When assessing the role of repertoire similarity in mediating direct syllable sharing, we derived a positive relationship between the physical distance between pairs of males and their repertoire overlap implying that neighboring males avoid copying each other's song. Finally, we were unable to demonstrate that syllables related to higher mating success are more common in the population, which would support mechanisms based on female preference for local songs. Our results imply that individual-specific song organization may be relevant for sexual selection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermal Properties Capability Development Workshop Summary to Support the Implementation Plan for PIE Thermal Conductivity Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braase, Lori [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Papesch, Cynthia [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hurley, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE)-Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and associated nuclear fuels programs have invested heavily over the years in infrastructure and capability development. With the current domestic and international need to develop Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF), increasing importance is being placed on understanding fuel performance in irradiated conditions and on the need to model and validate that performance to reduce uncertainty and licensing timeframes. INL’s Thermal Properties Capability Development Workshop was organized to identify the capability needed by the various nuclear programs and list the opportunities to meet those needs. In addition, by the end of fiscal year 2015, the decision will be made on the initial thermal properties instruments to populate the shielded cell in the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  4. Pie Suppers and Cake Walks: A Historical Perspective of a Closed Rural Community School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ruby; Rud, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    Rural community schools and their educational mission have always provided a sort of connectivity for the rural community. This research takes a closer look at the closing of a small rural community school located in a southern Appalachian region and determines its effects upon the teachers, students, and community culture. Although these students…

  5. [STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE THE NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH CHARACTERISTICS OF MEAT PIE OF MURCIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Cano, Domingo; Zamora, Salvador; Frutos, María José; López-Jiménez, José Ángel; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca

    2015-12-01

    Objetivos: mejorar la composición nutritiva y las características saludables del pastel de carne de Murcia (PCM), manteniendo sus apreciadas cualidades organolépticas y el diseño de un PCM funcional, mediante la adición de un ingrediente natural rico en fuctooligosacáridos. Métodos: mediante cambios relacionados con el tipo y cantidad de algunos de sus ingredientes se han elaborado diversas formulaciones del PCM (PCM saludable y PCM funcional). Se ha determinado la composición nutritiva, el valor calórico, el perfil de ácidos grasos y la calidad de la grasa. Además, se han valorado diversos atributos sensoriales y la aceptación global utilizando una escala descriptiva hedónica de nueve puntos. Resultados y discusión: el PCM saludable presenta un menor contenido de energía (15,4%), grasa total (39%), grasa saturada (48%) y sal (45%), así como una disminución de la potencial capacidad aterogénica (27%), trombogénica (30%) e hipercolesterolémica (30%) que el PCM tradicional. De las cuatro cantidades ensayadas (2,5, 5, 10 y 15%), solo la sustitución del 2,5 y 5% del ingrediente funcional no disminuyeron la aceptación global del PCM funcional, en comparación con el PCM tradicional. Conclusiones: los cambios en la formulación han mejorado la composición nutritiva y las características saludables del PCM tradicional, manteniendo sus cualidades organolépticas. El PCM funcional, elaborado con el ingrediente funcional al 5%, representa una mejora factible en las características funcionales del alimento estudiado. Estas estrategias contribuyen a mantener este tipo de alimentos tradicionales y a evitar la pérdida en la cultura, identidad y herencia gastronómica de España en general y de la Región de Murcia en particular.

  6. A Patient with Phonologic Alexia Can Learn to Read "Much" from "Mud Pies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Susan Nitzberg; Sample, Diane M.; Oliver, Robyn T.; Lacey, Elizabeth H.; Friedman, Rhonda B.

    2008-01-01

    People with phonologic alexia often have difficulty reading functors and verbs, in addition to pseudowords. Friedman et al. [Friedman, R. B., Sample, D. M, & Lott, S. N. (2002). The role of level of representation in the use of paired associate learning for rehabilitation of alexia. "Neuropsychologia, 40", 223-234] reported a successful treatment…

  7. 49 CFR 40.365 - What is the Department's policy concerning starting a PIE proceeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.365... this part, affecting such matters as safety, the outcomes of test results, privacy and confidentiality...-face interviews; (9) For any service agent, maintaining a relationship with another party...

  8. (InEdible Algeria: Transmitting Pied-Noir Nostalgia Through Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Hubbell

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For those exiled from Algeria during and after the Algerian War for Independence (1954-1962, sustaining memories of the homeland has been a consuming pastime. Food has especially played a large part in reconnecting Algeria’s former French citizens, the Pieds-Noirs, to their past. Annual gatherings feature typical dishes such as couscous, merguez, méchoui, mouna, which like the Proustian madeleine, transport the Pieds-Noirs to a preceding time of wholeness and comfort, allowing them to experience, if only fleetingly, a sense of immortality. While food has a reparative quality for the community’s memory, it is also the site of rejection and pain for some. Marie Cardinal writes about food as a site of unity with the indigenous Algerian community and rejection from her colonial French family. Similarly, in the collective autobiography Quatre soeurs: Hier, en Algérie, aujourd’hui en France, Frédérique Boblin, Eve Calo, Nelly Collet and Fabienne Rozotte explain their shared eating disorders as tied to their expulsion from Algeria. This essay demonstrates that the Pieds-Noirs can eat to remember Algeria, but the Algeria they knew can also prove to be inedible.

  9. Current companion diagnostics in advanced colorectal cancer; getting a bigger and better piece of the pie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loree, Jonathan M; Kopetz, Scott; Raghav, Kanwal P S

    2017-02-01

    While the treatment of colorectal cancer continues to rely heavily on conventional cytotoxic therapy, an increasing number of targeted agents are under development. Many of these treatments require companion diagnostic tests in order to define an appropriate population that will derive benefit. In addition, a growing number of biomarkers provide prognostic information about a patient's malignancy. As we learn more about these biomarkers and their assays, selecting the appropriate companion diagnostic becomes increasingly important. In the case of many biomarkers, there are numerous assays which could provide the same information to a treating physician, however each assay has strengths and weaknesses. Institutions must balance cost, assay sensitivity, turn-around time, and labor resources when selecting which assay to offer. In this review we will discuss the current state of companion diagnostics available in metastatic colorectal cancer and explore emerging biomarkers and their assays. We will focus on KRAS, BRAF, HER2, and PIK3CA testing, as well as microsatellite stability assessment and multigene panels.

  10. 49 CFR 40.391 - What is the scope of a PIE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... several areas—collections, MROs, SAPs, protecting the confidentiality of information—are involved in... could not reasonably have known that one of its MROs was regularly failing to interview employees...

  11. 49 CFR 40.361 - What is the purpose of a public interest exclusion (PIE)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.361 What is the... punishment. (d) Nothing in this subpart precludes a DOT agency or the Inspector General from taking...

  12. A kick to the photovoltaic industry; Coup de pied dans la filiere photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deye, M.; Remoue, A

    2010-01-15

    In order to stop the speculation fever and to stabilize the photovoltaic trade, the French government has decided to lower some of the warranted electricity repurchase tariffs related to photovoltaic power generation. This announcement should have important impacts on the photovoltaic industry which will redirect its means and products towards the residential sector. (J.S.)

  13. Manifestaciones de la artritis psoriásica en pie y tobillo

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Avila, Ana Belén; Agüera Jiménez, David; Fernández Torres, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: La artritis psoriásica es una enfermdad inflamatoria del sistema músculo-esquelético de carácter crónico y autoinmune que puede estar o no presente en pacientes conartritis psoriásica, así como los métodos de imagen diagnóstica más usados. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica mediante la búsqueda en las bases de datos Pubmed y Scopus emplenado los descritpores "psoriasic arthritis", "foot", "feet", "toe", "Achiles tendon", "enthesitis" durante el perídodo comprendi...

  14. Anatomia de la zona distal de los dedos medios del pie

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Viejo Tirado, Fermin; Prados Frutos, Juan Carlos

    2007-01-01

    .... Contiene por lo tanto, una descripcion pormenorizada desde el desarrollo embrionario de estas secciones, la osteologia de las falanges, articulaciones y mecanica basica de las mismas, tendones, vasos...

  15. Amputaciones no traumáticas de los miembros inferiores. Amputaciones alrededor del pie (Parte II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Santamarta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available La amputación Transmetatarsiana es el nivel del antepié más comúnmente utilizado y con éxito, tanto por la cirugía general-cirugía vascular, como por la cirugía ortopédica.

  16. Xhosa as medium of instruction in Higher Education: Pie in the sky?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertie Neethling

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article debates the possibility of introducing Xhosa as a Medium of Instruction (MoI at tertiary level. It should be seen as an argumentative contribution that comprises the following methodological steps: (a a look at the language stipulations in the Constitution, (b a brief survey of the advocacy of Neville Alexander (2003, 2006 regarding the development of the indigenous languages to serve as MoI, (c an analysis of the directives from educational authorities pertaining to this matter, and (d, a brief comparative view of the language policies of three universities in the Western Cape, i.e. Cape Town, Stellenbosch and the Western Cape, undertaken to assess how these institutions have responded to the directives from educational authorities to develop Xhosa as a language of teaching and learning at tertiary level. It is argued that, despite exciting and innovative developments around developing multilingualism on all three campuses, the matter around developing Xhosa as a medium of instruction in higher education is receiving very little attention and could at best be seen as a possible long-term goal. It is further argued that the introduction of Xhosa as a medium of instruction in the schooling system should precede attempts to introduce it as a medium of instruction in higher education.  

  17. Payments for Improved Ecostructure (PIE): Funding for the Coexistence of Humans and Wolves in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiedanpää, Juha; Kalliolevo, Hanna; Salo, Matti; Pellikka, Jani; Luoma, Mikael

    2016-09-01

    The gray wolf ( Canis lupus) is a source of concern and a cause of damage to people's livelihoods. In Finland, as in most countries, actual damages are compensated according to the real lost value. However, often, the suffered damages are larger than what is compensated, and worries and fears are not accounted for at all. The purpose of our transdisciplinary action research is to contribute to the process of modifying the scientific, administrative, and everyday habits of mind in order to meet the practical prerequisites of living with the wolf. In 2014, we planned and participated in a process designed to update Finland's wolf population management plan. During our study, we applied e-deliberation, conducted a national wolf survey, and organized solution-oriented workshops in wolf territory areas around Finland. By applying abductive reasoning, we illustrate the basic features of an economic scheme that would help finance and coordinate practical modifications to the ecological, economic, and institutional circumstances and settings in wolf territory areas. The potential economic instrument is based on payments for improved ecostructures. In our paper, we describe the organization, functioning, and financing of this instrument in detail.

  18. Advancing extraction techniques : new technologies vie for a piece of the growing in situ pie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulfield, P.

    2010-09-15

    This article described 3 technologies that rely on heat to extract bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands. According to the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, in situ extraction is projected to soon surpass mining as the primary source of bitumen production in the region. Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations and cyclic steam stimulation (CSS), to a lesser extent, are set to lead the industry. Interest is also growing in other technologies, including toe-to-heel air injection (THAI), combustion overhead gravity drainage (COGD) and enhanced solvent extraction. These processes were all developed by Calgary-based organizations and claim to offer economic, environmental or operational improvements over traditional in situ extraction technologies. This article described the different methods they use to heat the reservoirs and the amount of heat required to recover the bitumen. The THAI technology uses combustion initiated from vertical air injection wells to heat the reservoir, and gravity to collect the oil in the horizontal production wells to recover heavy oil and bitumen. The COGD technology uses a set of vertical air injector ignition wells above a horizontal production well that is located at the base of the bitumen pay zone. A multi-step pre-ignition heating cycle that uses steam prepares the cold bitumen in the reservoir for ignition and makes it more mobile. The enhanced solvent method builds upon the SAGD technology whereby heated propane vapour is injected at moderate pressures into the gravity drainage chamber. The vapour flows from the injection well to the colder perimeter of the chamber where it condenses, delivering heat and fresh solvent directly to the bitumen extraction interface. 2 figs.

  19. How about another piece of pie: the allusional pretense theory of discourse irony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumon-Nakamura, S; Glucksberg, S; Brown, M

    1995-03-01

    The allusional pretense theory claims that ironic remarks have their effects by alluding to a failed expectation. In normal conversation, this is accomplished by violating pragmatic rules of discourse, usually the maxim of sincerity. Such violations simultaneously draw a listener's attention to the failed expectation and express the speaker's attitude (normally but not necessarily negative) toward the failed expectation. Using a variety of utterance types, 3 experiments tested the theory. The first experiment, using 4 speech act types, showed that both insincerity and allusion were perceived far more frequently in ironically intended utterances than in literally intended ones. The second experiment demonstrated that the negative attitudes frequently expressed with ironic utterances are a function of the relative frequency of positive versus negative expectations and not an intrinsic characteristic of discourse irony per se. The third experiment found that over-polite requests are more likely to be used ironically than under-polite ones, presumably because the former can serve a speaker's politeness considerations while simultaneously conveying both an intended request and the speaker's attitude. It was concluded that irony is used primarily to express a speaker's attitude toward the referent of the ironic utterance, while simultaneously fulfilling other goals as well, such as to be humorous, to make a situation less face threatening, and to serve politeness considerations.

  20. Apple Pie and Ebonics: Language Diversity and Preparation for a Multicultural World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer L.; Martin, Tabitha; Capel, Mandy

    2014-01-01

    All three of us, the authors, are white and do not speak Ebonics, (or African American Language, AAL). How the misperceptions of AAL impact our students inspired our interest in the subject. The title of this piece refers to the ubiquity of AAL, historically, culturally, as an influential cultural wellspring. Although AAL continues to influence…