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Sample records for picture system iaps

  1. Adaptation of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) for European Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Paula; Pinheiro, Ana P; Costa, Ana; Frade, Carla Sofia; Comesaña, Montserrat; Pureza, Rita

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the results of the adaptation of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) for European Portuguese (EP). Following the original procedure of Lang et al., 2000 native speakers of EP rated the 1,182 pictures of the last version of the IAPS set on the three affective dimensions of valence, arousal, and dominance, using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). Results showed that the normative values of the IAPS for EP are properly distributed in the affective space of valence and arousal, showing the typical boomerang-shaped distribution observed in previous studies. Results also point to important differences in the way Portuguese females and males react to affective pictures that should be taken into consideration when planning and conducting research with Portuguese samples. Furthermore, the results from the cross-cultural comparisons between the EP ratings and the ratings from the American, Spanish, Brazilian, Belgian, Chilean, Indian, and Bosnian-Herzegovinian standardizations, showed that in spite of the fact that IAPS stimuli elicited affective responses that are similar across countries and cultures (at least in Western cultures), there are differences in the way Portuguese individuals react to IAPS pictures that strongly recommend the use of the normative values presented in this work. They can be downloaded as a supplemental archive at http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental or at http://p-pal.di.uminho.pt/about/databases.

  2. Adaptación española del "International Affective Picture System" (IAPS: tercera parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Moltó

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo proporciona los valores normativos españoles de las 358 imágenes que forman los conjuntos 15 a 20 del International Affective Picture System (IAPS. En este estudio participaron 811 estudiantes universitarios (521 mujeres que evaluaron las imágenes en las dimensiones emocionales de valencia, activación y dominancia. Las correlaciones entre las evaluaciones estadounidenses y las españolas en todas las dimensiones fueron altamente significativas y, como en Estados Unidos, la distribución de las imágenes en el espacio bidimensional afectivo definido por las dimensiones de valencia y activación adoptó la típica forma de boomerang. Los resultados confirmaron, asimismo, las diferencias de género encontradas en Estados Unidos en las evaluaciones de las imágenes aversivas. Estos resultados son totalmente consistentes con los obtenidos en la primera y segunda parte de la adaptación española, y demuestran que la estandarización del IAPS en nuestro país ha sido adecuada. Por último, se ratificaron las pequeñas diferencias transculturales encontradas en las evaluaciones de activación y dominancia: los españoles tendieron a asignar a las imágenes mayores puntuaciones en activación y menores en dominancia que los estadounidenses. Estos datos apoyan los estereotipos culturales de estos países y sugieren que el IAPS podría ser un indicador fiable de diferencias transculturales en la disposición emocional.

  3. Cross-cultural validation of the "International affective picture system" (IAPS on a sample from Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drače Saša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the normative ratings of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS, Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention [CSEA], 1995 were compared with the ratings from a Bosnian sample. Seventy-two psychology undergraduates from the University of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina rated valence, dominance and arousal for a stratified sample of 60 pictures that was selected from the IAPS. Reliability coefficients indicate that the self-report ratings are internally consistent. The affective ratings from our sample correlated strongly with the North American ratings at: .95, .81 and .91, respectively for valence, arousal and dominance. Consistent with expectations, mean valence and dominance ratings did not differ significantly between the Bosnian and North American sample. Furthermore, plotting of the Bosnian valence and arousal ratings results in a similar boomerang shaped distribution as the North American affective ratings. Taken together, findings obtained from the Bosnian sample confirm the cross-cultural validity of the IAPS.

  4. Comparison of Brazilian and American norms for the International Affective Picture System (IAPS Comparação entre normas brasileiras e norte-americanas do International Affective Picture System (IAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Larsen Ribeiro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present article compares Brazilian and American norms for the International Affective Picture System (IAPS, a set of normative emotional photographic slides for experimental investigations. METHODS: Subjects were 1,062 Brazilian university students (364 men and 698 women who rated 707 pictures from the IAPS in terms of pleasure, arousal, and dominance following the methodology of the original normative study in the US, enabling direct comparison of data from the two samples through Pearson product moment correlation and Student t test. RESULTS: All correlations were highly significant with the highest level for the pleasure dimension, followed by dominance and arousal. However, contrary to the American normative values, our data showed that Brazilian subjects generally assigned higher arousal ratings overall. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that this set of stimuli can be used in Brazil as an affective rating tool due to the high correlations found across the two populations, despite differences on the arousal dimension, which are discussed in detail.OBJETIVO: O presente artigo compara as normas obtidas no Brasil e nos EUA para o "International Affective Picture System" (IAPS, um conjunto de fotografias emocionais amplamente utilizado na investigação experimental. MÉTODOS: Os sujeitos foram 1.062 universitários brasileiros (364 homens e 698 mulheres que avaliaram as 707 fotografias do IAPS nas dimensões prazer, alerta e dominância, utilizando o mesmo procedimento do estudo normativo original realizado nos EUA, permitindo uma comparação direta dos dados através de correlações lineares de Pearson e testes t de Student. RESULTADOS: Todas as correlações entre as populações foram altamente significativas, sendo o maior coeficiente o da dimensão prazer, seguido da dimensão dominância e alerta. Entretanto, os brasileiros atribuíram maiores valores médios à dimensão alerta do que os norte-americanos. CONCLUSÃO: Os

  5. Selecting pure-emotion materials from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS by Chinese university students: A study based on intensity-ratings only

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicha Xu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to use selected pictures with pure emotion as stimulation or treatment media for basic and clinical research. Pictures from the widely-used International Affective Picture System (IAPS contain rich emotions, but no study has clearly stated that an emotion is exclusively expressed in its putative IAPS picture to date. We hypothesize that the IAPS images contain at least pure vectors of disgust, erotism (or erotica, fear, happiness, sadness and neutral emotions. Accordingly, we have selected 108 IAPS images, each with a specific emotion, and invited 219 male and 274 female university students to rate only the intensity of the emotion conveyed in each picture. Their answers were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Four first-order factors manifested as disgust-fear, happiness-sadness, erotism, and neutral. Later, ten second-order sub-factors manifested as mutilation-disgust, vomit-disgust, food-disgust, violence-fear, happiness, sadness, couple- erotism, female-erotism, male- erotism, and neutral. Fifty-nine pictures for the ten sub-factors, which had established good model-fit indices, satisfactory sub-factor internal reliabilities, and prominent gender-differences in the picture intensity ratings were ultimately retained. We thus have selected a series of pure-emotion IAPS pictures, which together displayed both satisfactorily convergent and discriminant structure-validities. We did not intend to evaluate all IAPS items, but instead selected some pictures conveying pure emotions, which might help both basic and clinical researches in the future.

  6. Context effects on emotional and aesthetic evaluations of artworks and IAPS pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerger, Gernot; Leder, Helmut; Kremer, Alexandra

    2014-09-01

    In the arts emotionally negative objects sometimes can be positively judged. Defining an object as art possibly yields specific changes in how perceivers emotionally experience and aesthetically judge a stimulus. To study how emotional experiences (joy, anger, disgust, fear, sadness, and shame ratings, plus facial EMG) and aesthetic judgements (liking ratings) are modulated by an art context ("This is an artwork") as compared to non-art reality context ("This is a press photograph") participants evaluated IAPS pictures and veridical artworks depicting emotionally positive and negative content. In line with the assumption that emotional distancing is an essential feature of the art experience we found that positive emotional reactions were attenuated (joy, M. zygomaticus activation) in an art compared to non-art context. However, context had little influence on negative emotional reactions (anger, disgust, fear, sadness, shame, and M. corrugator activation) suggesting that these are similar in art and non-art. Importantly, only artworks of emotionally negative content were judged more positively in an art context - thus liked more. This study, in accordance with the assumption of a distanced aesthetic mode, shows that an art context fosters appraisal processes that influence emotional experiences, allowing to judge negative stimuli aesthetically more positively - thus suppressing the immediacy of emotional stimulus content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of high-throughput plant image data with the information system IAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klukas Christian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a sophisticated information system, the Integrated Analysis Platform (IAP, an approach supporting large-scale image analysis for different species and imaging systems. In its current form, IAP supports the investigation of Maize, Barley and Arabidopsis plants based on images obtained in different spectra.

  8. Processors and systems (picture processing)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmar, P

    1983-01-01

    Automatic picture processing requires high performance computers and high transmission capacities in the processor units. The author examines the possibilities of operating processors in parallel in order to accelerate the processing of pictures. He therefore discusses a number of available processors and systems for picture processing and illustrates their capacities for special types of picture processing. He stresses the fact that the amount of storage required for picture processing is exceptionally high. The author concludes that it is as yet difficult to decide whether very large groups of simple processors or highly complex multiprocessor systems will provide the best solution. Both methods will be aided by the development of VLSI. New solutions have already been offered (systolic arrays and 3-d processing structures) but they also are subject to losses caused by inherently parallel algorithms. Greater efforts must be made to produce suitable software for multiprocessor systems. Some possibilities for future picture processing systems are discussed. 33 references.

  9. The Picture Exchange Communication System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondy, A; Frost, L

    2001-10-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an alternative/augmentative communication system that was developed to teach functional communication to children with limited speech. The approach is unique in that it teaches children to initiate communicative interactions within a social framework. This article describes the advantages to implementing PECS over traditional approaches. The PECS training protocol is described wherein children are taught to exchange a single picture for a desired item and eventually to construct picture-based sentences and use a variety of attributes in their requests. The relationship of PECS's implementation to the development of speech in previously nonvocal students is reviewed.

  10. Gaze Differences in Processing Pictures with Emotional Content

    OpenAIRE

    Budimir, Sanja; Palmović, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a set of standardized emotionally evocative color photographs developed by NIMH Center for Emotion and Attention at the University of Florida. It contains more than 900 emotional pictures indexed by emotional valence, arousal and dominance. However, when IAPS pictures were used in studying emotions with the event-related potentials, the results have shown a great deal of variation and inconsistency. In this research arousal and dominance of...

  11. The Picture Exchange Communication System: Digital Photographs versus Picture Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonaitis, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative system (AAC) used to improve and increase communication for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders. Research addressing the efficacy of this system is increasing; however, there is limited information published that evaluates…

  12. Picture chamber for radiographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The picture chamber for a radiographic system is characterised by a base, a first electrode carried in the base, an X-ray irradiation window provided with an outer plate and an inner plate and a conducting surface which serves as a second electrode, which has a plate gripping it at each adjacent edge and which has at the sides a space which is occupied by a filling material, maintained at a steady pressure, by means of the mounting against the base and wherein the inner plate lies against the first electrode and which is provided with a split, and with means for the separation of the split in the area of the inner plate so that a fluid may be retained in the split. (G.C.)

  13. Gaze differences in processing pictures with emotional content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budimir, Sanja; Palmović, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a set of standardized emotionally evocative color photographs developed by NIMH Center for Emotion and Attention at the University of Florida. It contains more than 900 emotional pictures indexed by emotional valence, arousal and dominance. However, when IAPS pictures were used in studying emotions with the event-related potentials, the results have shown a great deal of variation and inconsistency. In this research arousal and dominance of pictures were controlled while emotional valence was manipulated as 3 categories, pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures. Two experiments were conducted with an eye-tracker in order to determine to what the participants turn their gaze. Participants were 25 psychology students with normal vision. Every participant saw all pictures in color and same pictures in black/white version. This makes 200 analyzed units for color pictures and 200 for black and white pictures. Every picture was divided into figure and ground. Considering that perception can be influenced by color, edges, luminosity and contrast and since all those factors are collapsed on the pictures in IAPS, we compared color pictures with same black and white pictures. In first eye-tracking IAPS research we analyzed 12 emotional pictures and showed that participants have higher number of fixations for ground on neutral and unpleasant pictures and for figure on pleasant pictures. Second experiment was conducted with 4 sets of emotional complementary pictures (pleasant/unpleasant) which differ only on the content in the figure area and it was shown that participants were more focused on the figure area than on the ground area. Future ERP (event related potential) research with IAPS pictures should take into consideration these findings and to either choose pictures with blank ground or adjust pictures in the way that ground is blank. For the following experiments suggestion is to put emotional content in the figure

  14. Description and Evaluation of IAP-AACM: A Global-regional Aerosol Chemistry Model for the Earth System Model CAS-ESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Chen, X.

    2017-12-01

    We present a first description and evaluation of the IAP Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry Model (IAP-AACM) which has been integrated into the earth system model CAS-ESM. In this way it is possible to research into interaction of clouds and aerosol by its two-way coupling with the IAP Atmospheric General Circulation Model (IAP-AGCM). The model has a nested global-regional grid based on the Global Environmental Atmospheric Transport Model (GEATM) and the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS). The AACM provides two optional gas chemistry schemes, the CBM-Z gas chemistry as well as a sulfur oxidize box designed specifically for the CAS-ESM. Now the model driven by AGCM has been applied to a 1-year simulation of tropospheric chemistry both on global and regional scales for 2014, and been evaluated against various observation datasets, including aerosol precursor gas concentration, aerosol mass and number concentrations. Furthermore, global budgets in AACM are compared with other global aerosol models. Generally, the AACM simulations are within the range of other global aerosol model predictions, and the model has a reasonable agreement with observations of gases and particles concentration both on global and regional scales.

  15. Picture archiving and communications system EFPACS series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, Teiji; Mukasa, Minoru; Hiramatsu, Jun-ichi

    1989-01-01

    Fuji EFPACS (Effective Fuji PACS) is a picture archiving and communications system which efficiently executes centralized management of quantities of image data produced in a hospital. Main features of this system are high-speed retrieval and display function resulting from high-grade imaging technology. This system also strongly supports picture management for multi-modalities, picture storage, and education. EFPACS-500 and EFPACS-1000 series are available according to a system scale. An optimal system configuration can be obtained in a building-up style. This paper describes the features and performance of the EFPACS. (author)

  16. Positive erotic picture stimuli for emotion research in heterosexual females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Gitta Anne; Arntz, Arnoud; Domes, Gregor; Reiss, Neele; Siep, Nicolette

    2011-12-30

    In most experimental studies, emotional pictures are widely used as stimulus material. However, there is still a lack of standardization of picture stimuli displaying erotic relationships, despite the association between a number of psychological problems and severe impairments and problems in intimate relationships. The aim of the study was to test a set of erotic stimuli, with the potential to be used in experimental studies, with heterosexual female subjects. Twenty International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures and an additional 100 pictures showing romantic but not explicitly sexual scenes and/or attractive single males were selected. All pictures were rated with respect to valence, arousal, and dominance by 41 heterosexual women and compared to pictures with negative, positive, and neutral emotional valence. Erotic IAPS pictures and our additional erotic pictures did not differ in any of the evaluation dimensions. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) for valence, arousal, and dominance comparing different picture valence categories showed strong effects for category. However, valence was not significantly different between erotic and positive pictures, while arousal and control were not significantly different between positive and neutral pictures. The pictures of our new set are as positive for heterosexual women as highly positive IAPS pictures, but higher in arousal and dominance. The picture set can be used in experimental psychiatric studies requiring high numbers of stimuli per category. Limitations are the restriction of stimuli application to heterosexual females only and to self-report data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Picture archival and communication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor Raj, D.; Livingstone, Roshan Samuel

    2001-01-01

    Providing high quality care through an efficient delivery system is the aim of every health care organization. With the phenomenal rise of computer technology in recent times, it has become possible to store and communicate medical images in digital format. PACS systems are generally based on a dedicated computer, which can access data stored in the digital image processors of different imaging modalities and transfer this data at high speeds to remote viewing consoles, to archival storage media and to other computer systems either within the hospital or at remote locations

  18. Picture archiving and communication systems in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piqueras Pardellans, J.; Carreno Pedemonte, J.C.; Lucaya Layret, J.

    1994-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) constitute a data processing tool that offers new working methods of diagnostic radiology. The definitive aim of a PACS is to allow a radiology service to operate without film images or documents on paper, integrating images and clinical information. Different image acquisition, viewing and storage systems, linked by communications networks, are arranged around a central management and storage system. Their components are described and the advantages, drawbacks and limitations are discussed from the technological point of view and considering their impact on health care, while a critical review is provided of the 1993 status of this issue

  19. Functional analysis of the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus IAP1 and IAP2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, X.D.; Nan, F.; Liang, Ch.Y.; Song, J.H.; Wang, Q.; Vlak, J.M.; Chen, X.W.

    2009-01-01

    The Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) contains three apoptosis suppressor genes: p35, iap1 and iap2. AcMNPV P35 functions as a pancaspase inhibitor, but the function of IAP1 and IAP2 has not been entirely resolved. In this paper, we analyze the function of IAP1 and IAP2 in detail.

  20. Picture archiving and communications systems (PACS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.K.; Dwyer, S.J. III; Angus, W.M.; Capp, M.P.; Arenson, R.L.; Kangarloo, H.

    1987-01-01

    This special focus session discusses the current status of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). The first presentation focuses on the technological advances in various PACS components. The second presentation concentrates on image archiving - what is required, what is available. The third talk is on the concept of a total digital radiology department in the past, the present, and the future. The fourth panelist discusses evaluating various imaging systems as PACS components for the intensive care unit. Finally, one hears about clinical experience with two operating PACS modules, one in pediatric radiology and the second in a coronary care unit

  1. PACS: Picture Archiving and Communication Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gell, G.; Schneider, G.H.; Becker, M.; Wiltgen, M.

    1988-01-01

    A growing number of medical imaging modalities produces images that are initially calculated and stored as digital information in a computer. For diagnosis, archiving and communication a hardcopy (usually on X-ray film) is produced from these data. It is estimated that in 1995 about 80% of all imaging procedures will generate digital images. This trend leads to the development of systems, where the X-ray film is not only replaced in his function as a radiation detector, but also in his other functions as the medium for image presentation, image communication and image archiving. In short, one wants a completely digital picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The rationale behind PACS efforts is to achieve better functionality and to save costs, mainly by reducing the consumption of expensive X-ray films and the need for storage space for film archives. 7 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  2. Adding support to cross-cultural emotional assessment: Validation of the International Affective Picture System in a Chilean sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Mayol Troncoso

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to obtain a valid set of images of the International Affective Picture System (Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2005 –a widely used instrumentation in emotion research- in a Chilean sample, as well as to compare these results with those obtained from the US study in order to contribute to its cross-cultural validation. A sample of 135 college students assessed 188 pictures according to standard instructions in valence and arousal dimensions. The results showed the expected organization of affectivity, with main variations between sex in valence judgments, and differences between countries in the arousal dimension. It is concluded that the Chilean adaptation of the IAPS is consistent with previous evidence, adding support to it cross-cultural validity.

  3. Picture models for 2-scene comics creating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki UENO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, computer understanding pictures and stories becomes one of the most important research topics in computer science. However, there are few researches about human like understanding by computers because pictures have not certain format and contain more lyric aspect than that of natural laguage. For picture understanding, a comic is the suitable target because it is consisted by clear and simple plot of stories and separated scenes.In this paper, we propose 2 different types of picture models for 2-scene comics creating system. We also show the method of the application of 2-scene comics creating system by means of proposed picture model.

  4. 21 CFR 892.2050 - Picture archiving and communications system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Picture archiving and communications system. 892... communications system. (a) Identification. A picture archiving and communications system is a device that... processing of medical images. Its hardware components may include workstations, digitizers, communications...

  5. A microprocessor based picture analysis system for automatic track measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, W.; Trakowski, W.; Beer, J.; Schucht, R.

    1982-01-01

    In the last few years picture analysis became a powerful technique for measurements of nuclear tracks in plastic detectors. For this purpose rather expensive commercial systems are available. Two inexpensive microprocessor based systems with different resolution were developed. The video pictures of particles seen through a microscope are digitized in real time and the picture analysis is done by software. The microscopes are equipped with stages driven by stepping motors, which are controlled by separate microprocessors. A PDP 11/03 supervises the operation of all microprocessors and stores the measured data on its mass storage devices. (author)

  6. Reasons for Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tintswalo Brenda Mahlaola

    Background: The Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) has led to an in- ... incidents in which sensitive information was intentionally shared via social media. .... confidentiality of electronic data in terms of medical ethics,.

  7. The magazine picture collage: development of an objective scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, C; Ross, G

    1977-03-01

    A system for objectively scoring the magazine picture collage was developed and applied to the collages of 12 psychiatric inpatients and 12 paired controls. As a group, the patient collages had fewer cuttings, tended to lack an overall balance and central theme, and contained fewer pictures of people and more of animals. The results are consistent with those reported by other researchers as well as with general clinical experience, and as such, lend support to the construct validity of the scoring system.

  8. Children's Subjective Emotional Reactivity to Affective Pictures: Gender Differences and Their Antisocial Correlates in an Unselected Sample of 7-11-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Van Goozen, Stephanie; Goodyer, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Background: Differential responses in terms of gender and antisocial behaviour in emotional reactivity to affective pictures using the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) have been demonstrated in adult and adolescent samples. Moreover, a quadratic relationship between the arousal (intensity) and valence (degree of unpleasantness) has…

  9. Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) for hospitals, a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haar Romeny, B.M. ter; Graaf, C.N. de; Waes, P.F.G.M. van; Rijk, P.P. van; Helder, J.C.; Valk, J.P.J. de

    1985-01-01

    In this article a survey is given for Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS). Several aspects of PACS are treated, as image management, the introduction of the system, expenses etc. Special reference is made to the component parts of PACS: image stations, memory, network, software and coupling to the hospital information system. The introduction of PACS in Dutch hospitals is described. (Auth.)

  10. Social systems: unearthing the big picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Open peer commentary on the article “Social Autopoiesis?” by Hugo Urrestarazu. Upshot: Although accepting Urrestarazu’s view of how autopoietic dynamics can be sought in the domain of the non-living, we see no reason to trace the social to autonomy. Rather, we stress that social systems happen all...

  11. Bonding Pictures: Affective Ratings Are Specifically Associated to Loneliness But Not to Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo D. Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Responding to pro-social cues plays an important adaptive role in humans. Our aims were (i to create a catalog of bonding and matched-control pictures to compare the emotional reports of valence and arousal with the International Affective Picture System (IAPS pictures; (ii to verify sex influence on the valence and arousal of bonding and matched-control pictures; (iii to investigate if empathy and loneliness traits exert a specific influence on emotional reports for the bonding pictures. To provide a finer tool for social interaction studies, the present work defined two new sets of pictures consisting of “interacting dyads” (Bonding: N = 70 and matched controls “non-interacting dyads” (Controls: N = 70. The dyads could be either a child and an adult, or two children. Participants (N = 283, 182 women were divided in 10 groups for the experimental sessions. The task was to rate the hedonic valence and emotional arousal of bonding and controls; and of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures from the IAPS. Effects of social-related traits, empathy and loneliness, on affective ratings were tested. Participants rated bonding pictures as more pleasant and arousing than control ones. Ratings did not differentiate bonding from IAPS pleasant pictures. Control pictures showed lower ratings than pleasant but higher ratings than neutral IAPS pictures. Women rated bonding and control pictures as more positive than men. There was no sex difference for arousal ratings. High empathic participants rated bonding and control pictures higher than low empathic participants. Also, they rated pleasant IAPS pictures more positive and arousing; and unpleasant pictures more negative and arousing than the less empathic ones. Loneliness trait, on the other hand, affected very specifically the ratings of bonding pictures; lonelier participants rated them less pleasant and less arousing than less lonely. Loneliness trait did not modulate ratings of other

  12. Ultrasound Picture Archiving And Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestner, Ken; Hottinger, C. F.

    1982-01-01

    The ideal ultrasonic image communication and storage system must be flexible in order to optimize speed and minimize storage requirements. Various ultrasonic imaging modalities are quite different in data volume and speed requirements. Static imaging, for example B-Scanning, involves acquisition of a large amount of data that is averaged or accumulated in a desired manner. The image is then frozen in image memory before transfer and storage. Images are commonly a 512 x 512 point array, each point 6 bits deep. Transfer of such an image over a serial line at 9600 baud would require about three minutes. Faster transfer times are possible; for example, we have developed a parallel image transfer system using direct memory access (DMA) that reduces the time to 16 seconds. Data in this format requires 256K bytes for storage. Data compression can be utilized to reduce these requirements. Real-time imaging has much more stringent requirements for speed and storage. The amount of actual data per frame in real-time imaging is reduced due to physical limitations on ultrasound. For example, 100 scan lines (480 points long, 6 bits deep) can be acquired during a frame at a 30 per second rate. In order to transmit and save this data at a real-time rate requires a transfer rate of 8.6 Megabaud. A real-time archiving system would be complicated by the necessity of specialized hardware to interpolate between scan lines and perform desirable greyscale manipulation on recall. Image archiving for cardiology and radiology would require data transfer at this high rate to preserve temporal (cardiology) and spatial (radiology) information.

  13. A system approach to high quality picture-rate conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, C.L.L.; Cordes, C.N.; Riemens, B.; Haan, de G.

    2010-01-01

    Various techniques have been implemented to improve the motion portrayal of flat-panel displays, of which the widespread introduction of motion-compensated picture-rate conversion systems is an essential part. However, a careful design of such systems is critical as they have the potential to

  14. Multimedia systems overview: the big picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccomi, Alfred

    1993-01-01

    The golden opportunities represented by multimedia systems have been recognized by many. The risk and cost involved in developing the products and the markets has led to a bonanza of unlikely consortia of strange bedfellows. The premier promoter of personal computing systems, Apple Computer, has joined forces with the dominant supplier of corporate computing, IBM, to form a multimedia technology joint venture called Kaleida. The consumer electronics world's leading promoter of free trade, Sony, has joined forces with the leader of Europe's protectionist companies, Philips, to create a consumer multimedia standard called CD-I. While still paying lip service to CD-I, Sony and Philips now appear to be going their separate ways. The software world's most profitable/fastest growing firm, Microsoft, has entered into alliances with each and every multimedia competitor to create a mish mash of product classes and defacto standards. The battle for Multimedia Standards is being fought on all fronts: on standards committees, in corporate strategic marketing meetings, within industry associations, in computer retail stores, and on the streets. Early attempts to set proprietary defacto standards were fought back, but the proprietary efforts continue with renewed vigor. Standards committees were, as always, slow to define specifications, but the official standards are now known nd being implemented; ... but the proprietary efforts continue with renewed vigor. Ultimately, the buyers will decide -- like it or not. Success by the efforts to establish proprietary defacto standards could prove to be a boon to the highly creative and inventive U.S. firms, but at the cost of higher prices for consumers and slower market growth. Success by the official standards could bring lower prices for consumers and fast market growth, but force the higher-wage/higher-overhead U.S. firms to compete on a level playing field. As is always the case, you can't have your cake and eat it too.

  15. Picture archiving and communications systems (PACS): an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.H.

    2001-01-01

    Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) has revolutionized the practice of radiology. PACS consist of a variety of electronic/computer components, and the connectivity between these components. PACS is an efficient means to transmit, store, retrieve and digitally display medical images

  16. Training Paraprofessionals to Implement the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, Glenn Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Based on Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957), the picture exchange communication system (PECS) was designed to teach children with autism functional verbal behavior. Much research has demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of PECS in building verbal behavior. However, because PECS training is typically presented in a group format and later…

  17. Targeting IAP proteins in combination with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulda, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of radiotherapy critically depends on the activation of intrinsic cell death programs in cancer cells. This implies that evasion of cell death, a hallmark of human cancers, can contribute to radioresistance. Therefore, novel strategies to reactivate cell death programs in cancer cells are required in order to overcome resistance to radiotherapy. Since Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins are expressed at high levels in multiple cancers and block cell death induction at a central point, therapeutic targeting of IAP proteins represents a promising approach to potentiate the efficacy of radiotherapy. The current review discusses the concept of targeting IAP proteins in combination with radiotherapy

  18. IAP survivin regulates atherosclerotic macrophage survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanc-Brude, Olivier P.; Teissier, Elisabeth; Castier, Yves; Lesèche, Guy; Bijnens, Ann-Pascal; Daemen, Mat; Staels, Bart; Mallat, Ziad; Tedgui, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory macrophage apoptosis is critical to atherosclerotic plaque formation, but its mechanisms remain enigmatic. We hypothesized that inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) survivin regulates macrophage death in atherosclerosis. Western blot analysis revealed discrete survivin expression in

  19. Picture archiving and communication systems for diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.K.; Mankovich, N.J.; Kangarloo, H.; Boechat, M.I.; Dietrich, R.; Hall, T.; Taira, R.K.; Cho, P.S.; Stewart, B.K.

    1987-01-01

    The authors developed two picture archiving and communication system (PACS) modules for pediatric radiology and for coronary care unit use. Both modules have been in clinical operation 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, since March 1987. This exhibit presents all components used in these two modules, including a computed radiographic unit, two film laser scanners, a minicomputer, two large processors, one communication system, one digital optical disk library, one six-512-line monitor station, two three 1,024-line monitor stations, a two-2,048-line monitor station, and one laser film printer. The exhibit summarizes clinical evaluations of these two modules

  20. Electronic hand-drafting and picture management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsung-Han; Ku, Cheng-Yuan; Yen, David C; Hsieh, Wen-Huai

    2012-08-01

    The Department of Health of Executive Yuan in Taiwan (R.O.C.) is implementing a five-stage project entitled Electronic Medical Record (EMR) converting all health records from written to electronic form. Traditionally, physicians record patients' symptoms, related examinations, and suggested treatments on paper medical records. Currently when implementing the EMR, all text files and image files in the Hospital Information System (HIS) and Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) are kept separate. The current medical system environment is unable to combine text files, hand-drafted files, and photographs in the same system, so it is difficult to support physicians with the recording of medical data. Furthermore, in surgical and other related departments, physicians need immediate access to medical records in order to understand the details of a patient's condition. In order to address these problems, the Department of Health has implemented an EMR project, with the primary goal of building an electronic hand-drafting and picture management system (HDP system) that can be used by medical personnel to record medical information in a convenient way. This system can simultaneously edit text files, hand-drafted files, and image files and then integrate these data into Portable Document Format (PDF) files. In addition, the output is designed to fit a variety of formats in order to meet various laws and regulations. By combining the HDP system with HIS and PACS, the applicability can be enhanced to fit various scenarios and can assist the medical industry in moving into the final phase of EMR.

  1. Evaluating Picture Quality of Image Plates in Digital CR Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Byung Joon [Dept. of Radiological Tecnology, Choonhae College of Health Science, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ji Tae Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Science, Kaya University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Lab effectively supplemented the effects of outside radiation on image plates in the process of image acquisition of CR (computed radiography) systems and conducted for effective utilization in the case of clinical application. For this, Lab classified the storage places and time periods of image plates and compared and analyzed the differences between small dark spots. Lab also assessed the concentration distribution within the boundaries of images. Lab compared and measured the number of dark spots in a light room and a dark room depending on the storage places of image plates and found that dark spots slightly increased in an image plate when stored in a light room on the first and second days. Dark spots increased in proportion to the length of time stored. In the case of the image plate stored in a dark room, the number of dark spots remarkably decreased. With regard to picture quality as related to the location of image plates, the damage to picture quality could be reduced by locating regions of interest in the center. With regard to differences in sharpness following changes in the thickness of subjects, fewer scatter rays occurred and sharpness improved by reducing the thickness of subjects as much as possible. To get medical images of excellent quality, image plates should be managed effectively and it is desirable to keep images plates in dark iron plate boxes and not to expose them to outside radiation for a long time.

  2. Evaluating Picture Quality of Image Plates in Digital CR Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Byung Joon; Ji Tae Jeong

    2011-01-01

    Lab effectively supplemented the effects of outside radiation on image plates in the process of image acquisition of CR (computed radiography) systems and conducted for effective utilization in the case of clinical application. For this, Lab classified the storage places and time periods of image plates and compared and analyzed the differences between small dark spots. Lab also assessed the concentration distribution within the boundaries of images. Lab compared and measured the number of dark spots in a light room and a dark room depending on the storage places of image plates and found that dark spots slightly increased in an image plate when stored in a light room on the first and second days. Dark spots increased in proportion to the length of time stored. In the case of the image plate stored in a dark room, the number of dark spots remarkably decreased. With regard to picture quality as related to the location of image plates, the damage to picture quality could be reduced by locating regions of interest in the center. With regard to differences in sharpness following changes in the thickness of subjects, fewer scatter rays occurred and sharpness improved by reducing the thickness of subjects as much as possible. To get medical images of excellent quality, image plates should be managed effectively and it is desirable to keep images plates in dark iron plate boxes and not to expose them to outside radiation for a long time.

  3. Incremental picture archiving and communication system (PACS) - an appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, K.

    2000-01-01

    Digital storage phosphor radiography is slowly being introduced in Australia with more sites making the conversion from film/screen to computed radiography or a fully integrated Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne (SVHM) introduced partial PACS for general radiography in June 1996. This involved networking two Fuji CR Image Plate Readers and an existing Kodak KESPR400 Reader with viewing stations strategically placed in Medical Imaging, Casualty and the Intensive and Coronary Care units. No long-term storage device or archive facility was purchased. This installation coincided with the relocation of the Medical Imaging Department (MID) to a fully equipped new site as well as the introduction of the Kestral Radiology Management System. The transition has involved significant changes to the department's design, workflow and the radiographers' work practices. Copyright (1999) Australian Institute of Radiography

  4. The Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS): introduction to a novel, standardized, wide-range, high-quality, realistic picture database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Artur; Zurawski, Łukasz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Grabowska, Anna

    2014-06-01

    Selecting appropriate stimuli to induce emotional states is essential in affective research. Only a few standardized affective stimulus databases have been created for auditory, language, and visual materials. Numerous studies have extensively employed these databases using both behavioral and neuroimaging methods. However, some limitations of the existing databases have recently been reported, including limited numbers of stimuli in specific categories or poor picture quality of the visual stimuli. In the present article, we introduce the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS), which consists of 1,356 realistic, high-quality photographs that are divided into five categories (people, faces, animals, objects, and landscapes). Affective ratings were collected from 204 mostly European participants. The pictures were rated according to the valence, arousal, and approach-avoidance dimensions using computerized bipolar semantic slider scales. Normative ratings for the categories are presented for each dimension. Validation of the ratings was obtained by comparing them to ratings generated using the Self-Assessment Manikin and the International Affective Picture System. In addition, the physical properties of the photographs are reported, including luminance, contrast, and entropy. The new database, with accompanying ratings and image parameters, allows researchers to select a variety of visual stimulus materials specific to their experimental questions of interest. The NAPS system is freely accessible to the scientific community for noncommercial use by request at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl .

  5. Loss of cIAP1 attenuates soleus muscle pathology and improves diaphragm function in mdx mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwere, Emeka K.; Boudreault, Louise; Holbrook, Janelle; Timusk, Kristen; Earl, Nathalie; LaCasse, Eric; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Korneluk, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    The cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP1) protein is an essential regulator of canonical and noncanonical nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways. NF-κB signaling is known to play important roles in myogenesis and degenerative muscle disorders such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), but the involvement of cIAP1 in muscle disease has not been studied directly. Here, we asked whether the loss of cIAP1 would influence the pathology of skeletal muscle in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Double-mutant cIAP1−/−;mdx mice exhibited reduced muscle damage and decreased fiber centronucleation in the soleus, compared with single-mutant cIAP1+/+;mdx mice. This improvement in pathology was associated with a reduction in muscle infiltration by macrophages and diminished expression of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, the cIAP1−/−;mdx mice exhibited reduced serum creatine kinase, and improved exercise endurance associated with improved exercise resilience by the diaphragm. Mechanistically, the loss of cIAP1 was sufficient to drive constitutive activation of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway, which led to increased myoblast fusion in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these results show that the loss of cIAP1 protects skeletal muscle from the degenerative pathology resulting from systemic loss of dystrophin. PMID:23184147

  6. Meet OLAF, a good friend of the IAPS! The Open Library of Affective Foods: a tool to investigate the emotional impact of food in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Miccoli

    Full Text Available In the last decades, food pictures have been repeatedly employed to investigate the emotional impact of food on healthy participants as well as individuals who suffer from eating disorders and obesity. However, despite their widespread use, food pictures are typically selected according to each researcher's personal criteria, which make it difficult to reliably select food images and to compare results across different studies and laboratories. Therefore, to study affective reactions to food, it becomes pivotal to identify the emotional impact of specific food images based on wider samples of individuals. In the present paper we introduce the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF, which is a set of original food pictures created to reliably select food pictures based on the emotions they prompt, as indicated by affective ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance and by an additional food craving scale. OLAF images were designed to allow simultaneous use with affective images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS, which is a well-known instrument to investigate emotional reactions in the laboratory. The ultimate goal of the OLAF is to contribute to understanding how food is emotionally processed in healthy individuals and in patients who suffer from eating and weight-related disorders. The present normative data, which was based on a large sample of an adolescent population, indicate that when viewing affective non-food IAPS images, valence, arousal, and dominance ratings were in line with expected patterns based on previous emotion research. Moreover, when viewing food pictures, affective and food craving ratings were consistent with research on food cue processing. As a whole, the data supported the methodological and theoretical reliability of the OLAF ratings, therefore providing researchers with a standardized tool to reliably investigate the emotional and motivational significance of food. The OLAF database is publicly

  7. Meet OLAF, a good friend of the IAPS! The Open Library of Affective Foods: a tool to investigate the emotional impact of food in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, Laura; Delgado, Rafael; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Guerra, Pedro; García-Mármol, Eduardo; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, food pictures have been repeatedly employed to investigate the emotional impact of food on healthy participants as well as individuals who suffer from eating disorders and obesity. However, despite their widespread use, food pictures are typically selected according to each researcher's personal criteria, which make it difficult to reliably select food images and to compare results across different studies and laboratories. Therefore, to study affective reactions to food, it becomes pivotal to identify the emotional impact of specific food images based on wider samples of individuals. In the present paper we introduce the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF), which is a set of original food pictures created to reliably select food pictures based on the emotions they prompt, as indicated by affective ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance and by an additional food craving scale. OLAF images were designed to allow simultaneous use with affective images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), which is a well-known instrument to investigate emotional reactions in the laboratory. The ultimate goal of the OLAF is to contribute to understanding how food is emotionally processed in healthy individuals and in patients who suffer from eating and weight-related disorders. The present normative data, which was based on a large sample of an adolescent population, indicate that when viewing affective non-food IAPS images, valence, arousal, and dominance ratings were in line with expected patterns based on previous emotion research. Moreover, when viewing food pictures, affective and food craving ratings were consistent with research on food cue processing. As a whole, the data supported the methodological and theoretical reliability of the OLAF ratings, therefore providing researchers with a standardized tool to reliably investigate the emotional and motivational significance of food. The OLAF database is publicly available at zenodo.org.

  8. Brief Report: Randomized Test of the Efficacy of Picture Exchange Communication System on Highly Generalized Picture Exchanges in Children with ASD

    OpenAIRE

    Yoder, Paul J.; Lieberman, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    A randomized control trial comparing two social-communication interventions in young children with autism examined far-transfer of the use of picture exchange to communicate. Thirty-six children were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions, one of which was the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). All children had access to picture symbols during assessments. Post-treatment measurement of the number of picture exchanges in a far-transfer, assessment context favored the P...

  9. Clinical application of minimizing picture archiving and communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lixin; Zhao Weijiang; Jin Qiongying; Gu Wenxiang; Yuan Quan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the use of the minimizing picture archiving and communication system (mini-PACS) in practical work and to realize the advent of filmless radiology. Methods: A PC-based ethernet was set up. The medical imaging equipments including CT, MR, digital fluoroscopy, DSA, and a laser camera were combined with the ethernet, and the digital imaging network (DIN) was integrated with the medical diagnostic imaging system (MDIS). In this way, the radiology information system (RIS) was established. Through one of the PC workstations with a double network card, this RIS was connected to the hospital information system (HIS). Results: The mini-PACS has been repeatedly used for more than 2 years. The system in Radiology department has been established and improved. With the present digital imaging system, such functions as the acquiring, storing, transmitting, printing, and browsing of digital images have been put into practice, all in accordance with the manners of the digital imaging communication in medicine 3.0 (DICOM 3.0). Digital imaging and diagnostic reports were managed through Microsoft Access database. Images may be kept on line in different kinds of equipment for 3-6 months. All images have been recorded on CD-R disks, so as to be kept off line permanently. So far, over 32700 reports have been stored in the database. From mini-PACS HIS terminals images and diagnostic information may be acquired on a limited scale. Conclusion: mini-PACS needs only a low cost of investment and operation. Its maintenance is simple and its performance is efficient. The main functions of the PACS can mostly be achieved. There lies a bright prospect for its use in small and medium hospitals

  10. What Is A Picture Archiving And Communication System (PACS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Carla

    1982-01-01

    A PACS is a digital system for acquiring, storing, moving and displaying picture or image information. It is an alternative to film jackets that has been made possible by recent breakthroughs in computer technology: telecommunications, local area nets and optical disks. The fundamental concept of the digital representation of image information is introduced. It is shown that freeing images from a material representation on film or paper leads to a dramatic increase in flexibility in our use of the images. The ultimate goal of a medical PACS system is a radiology department without film jackets. The inherent nature of digital images and the power of the computer allow instant free "copies" of images to be made and thrown away. These copies can be transmitted to distant sites in seconds, without the "original" ever leaving the archives of the radiology department. The result is a radiology department with much freer access to patient images and greater protection against lost or misplaced image information. Finally, images in digital form can be treated as data for the computer in image processing, which includes enhancement, reconstruction and even computer-aided analysis.

  11. Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreno Pedemonte, J.C.; Piqueras Pardellans, J.; Lucaya Layret, J.

    1994-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) were developed as a technological response to the complex management of the growing amount of information generated by the different diagnostic imaging methods. This article documents the process of the progressive implementation, starting in January 1991, of the first complete PACS installed in our country. The system installed in our center is composed of acquisition modules for all the imaging methods (computed radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography, digital fluoroscopy and magnetic resonance), a central processing unit, an automatic optical disk for storage and a network of image viewing and diagnostic stations. The preliminary results obtained with its implementation demonstrate that PACS provide a series of functional advantages, especially at the image storage and display levels. In spite of these conveniences, the present high costs of acquisition and maintenance, together with certain technical problems as a result of its complexity, will signify that its generalized application for all imaging methods will not become a reality at most centers in the near future

  12. Security model for picture archiving and communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, D B; Gac, R J; Reynolds, C T; Romlein, J; Chacko, A K

    2000-05-01

    The modern information revolution has facilitated a metamorphosis of health care delivery wrought with the challenges of securing patient sensitive data. To accommodate this reality, Congress passed the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). While final guidance has not fully been resolved at this time, it is up to the health care community to develop and implement comprehensive security strategies founded on procedural, hardware and software solutions in preparation for future controls. The Virtual Radiology Environment (VRE) Project, a landmark US Army picture archiving and communications system (PACS) implemented across 10 geographically dispersed medical facilities, has addressed that challenge by planning for the secure transmission of medical images and reports over their local (LAN) and wide area network (WAN) infrastructure. Their model, which is transferable to general PACS implementations, encompasses a strategy of application risk and dataflow identification, data auditing, security policy definition, and procedural controls. When combined with hardware and software solutions that are both non-performance limiting and scalable, the comprehensive approach will not only sufficiently address the current security requirements, but also accommodate the natural evolution of the enterprise security model.

  13. Financing a large-scale picture archival and communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldszal, Alberto F; Bleshman, Michael H; Bryan, R Nick

    2004-01-01

    An attempt to finance a large-scale multi-hospital picture archival and communication system (PACS) solely based on cost savings from current film operations is reported. A modified Request for Proposal described the technical requirements, PACS architecture, and performance targets. The Request for Proposal was complemented by a set of desired financial goals-the main one being the ability to use film savings to pay for the implementation and operation of the PACS. Financing of the enterprise-wide PACS was completed through an operating lease agreement including all PACS equipment, implementation, service, and support for an 8-year term, much like a complete outsourcing. Equipment refreshes, both hardware and software, are included. Our agreement also linked the management of the digital imaging operation (PACS) and the traditional film printing, shifting the operational risks of continued printing and costs related to implementation delays to the PACS vendor. An additional optimization step provided the elimination of the negative film budget variances in the beginning of the project when PACS costs tend to be higher than film and film-related expenses. An enterprise-wide PACS has been adopted to achieve clinical workflow improvements and cost savings. PACS financing was solely based on film savings, which included the entire digital solution (PACS) and any residual film printing. These goals were achieved with simultaneous elimination of any over-budget scenarios providing a non-negative cash flow in each year of an 8-year term.

  14. Cost-effectiveness prospects of picture archiving and communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindel, R; Preger, W

    1988-01-01

    PAC (picture archiving and communication) systems are widely discussed and promoted as the organizational solution to digital image management in a radiology department. For approximately two decades digital imaging has increasingly been used for such diagnostic modalities as CT, DSA, MRI, DR (Digital Radiography) and others. PACS are seen as a step toward high technology integration and more efficient management. Although the acquisition of such technology is investment intensive, there are well-founded projections that prolonged operation will prove cost justified. Such justification can only partly be derived from cost reduction through PAC with respect to present department management--the major justification is preparation for future economic pressures which could make survival of a department without modern technology difficult. Especially in the United States the political climate favors 'competitive medicine' and reduced government support. Seen in this context PACS promises to speed the transition of Health Care Services into a business with tight resource management, cost accounting and marketing. The following paper analyzes cost and revenue in a typical larger Radiology Department, projects various scenarios of cost reduction by means of digital technology and concludes with cautious optimism that the investment expenses for a PACS will be justified in the near future by prudent utilization of high technology.

  15. Short-term retention of pictures and words: evidence for dual coding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, J W; Siegel, A W; Dhawan, M

    1975-03-01

    The recall of picture and word triads was examined in three experiments that manipulated the type of distraction in a Brown-Peterson short-term retention task. In all three experiments recall of pictures was superior to words under auditory distraction conditions. Visual distraction produced high performance levels with both types of stimuli, whereas combined auditory and visual distraction significantly reduced picture recall without further affecting word recall. The results were interpreted in terms of the dual coding hypothesis and indicated that pictures are encoded into separate visual and acoustic processing systems while words are primarily acoustically encoded.

  16. A Preliminary Analysis of Teaching Improvisation with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marckel, Julie M.; Neef, Nancy A.; Ferreri, Summer J.

    2006-01-01

    Two young boys with autism who used the picture exchange communication system were taught to solve problems (improvise) by using descriptors (functions, colors, and shapes) to request desired items for which specific pictures were unavailable. The results of a multiple baseline across descriptors showed that training increased the number of…

  17. Experimental Evaluation of the Training Structure of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Anne R.; Carr, James E.; LeBlanc, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a picture-based alternative communication method that is widely accepted and utilized with individuals with disabilities. Although prior studies have examined the clinical efficacy of PECS, none have experimentally evaluated its manualized training structure. We experimentally evaluated the…

  18. Brief Report: Randomized Test of the Efficacy of Picture Exchange Communication System on Highly Generalized Picture Exchanges in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Paul J.; Lieberman, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    A randomized control trial comparing two social-communication interventions in young children with autism examined far-transfer of the use of picture exchange to communicate. Thirty-six children were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions, one of which was the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). All children had access to…

  19. A multiprocessor system for the analysis of pictures of nuclear events

    CERN Document Server

    Bacilieri, P; Matteuzzi, P; Sini, G P; Zanotti, U

    1979-01-01

    The pictures of nuclear events obtained from the bubble chambers such as Gargamelle and BEBC at CERN and others from Serpukhov are geometrically processed at CNAF (Centro Nazionale Analysis Photogrammi) in Bologna. The analysis system includes an Erasme table and a CRT flying spot digitizer. The difficulties connected with the pictures of the four stereoscopic views of the bubble chambers are overcome by the choice of a strong interactive system. (0 refs).

  20. Effects of Picture Exchange Communication System on Communication and Behavioral Anomalies in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Shahzadi; Rajender, Gaurav; Bhatia, Manjeet S.; Singh, Tej B.

    2010-01-01

    Communication skills deficits and stereotyped behaviors are frequently found among people with pervasive developmental disabilities like autism. These communication and behavioral oddities of autism are often considered to be difficult to treat and are challenging. Picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a six-phase picture system based on applied behavior analysis and is specially designed to overcome these communication difficulties in children with autism by encouraging the child t...

  1. Preliminary installment of total picture archiving and communication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, E.; Takanashi, S.; Suda, Y.; Furui, S.; Yoshida, H.; Hosaka, Y.; Fukui, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper studied the image quality of various medical digital images and to install a small but total image management and communication system to file images. The system consists of a filing system with a laser scanning digitizer (2,000 x 2,000 x 8 bits), an optical disk (3.8 GB), two HD CRTs, and a 1.6 GB magnetic disk. This system can file on-line the images from a second filing system with FCR (on-line) and a Konica direct imaging system during treatment and follow-up, a CCD TV simulator system for a remote after-loading system, a dose map on CT and MR images through a self-made treatment planning system on the PC level, a CCD TV (RGB) system for local lesions, and portal images, through the imaging plate, for brachytherapy

  2. A Preliminary Analysis of Teaching Improvisation with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Children with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Marckel, Julie M; Neef, Nancy A; Ferreri, Summer J

    2006-01-01

    Two young boys with autism who used the picture exchange communication system were taught to solve problems (improvise) by using descriptors (functions, colors, and shapes) to request desired items for which specific pictures were unavailable. The results of a multiple baseline across descriptors showed that training increased the number of improvised requests, and that these skills generalized to novel items, and across settings and listeners in the natural environment.

  3. IAP/APA evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    There have been substantial improvements in the management of acute pancreatitis since the publication of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) treatment guidelines in 2002. A collaboration of the IAP and the American Pancreatic Association (APA) was undertaken to revise these guidelines using an evidence-based approach. Twelve multidisciplinary review groups performed systematic literature reviews to answer 38 predefined clinical questions. Recommendations were graded using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The review groups presented their recommendations during the 2012 joint IAP/APA meeting. At this one-day, interactive conference, relevant remarks were voiced and overall agreement on each recommendation was quantified using plenary voting. The 38 recommendations covered 12 topics related to the clinical management of acute pancreatitis: A) diagnosis of acute pancreatitis and etiology, B) prognostication/predicting severity, C) imaging, D) fluid therapy, E) intensive care management, F) preventing infectious complications, G) nutritional support, H) biliary tract management, I) indications for intervention in necrotizing pancreatitis, J) timing of intervention in necrotizing pancreatitis, K) intervention strategies in necrotizing pancreatitis, and L) timing of cholecystectomy. Using the GRADE system, 21 of the 38 (55%) recommendations, were rated as 'strong' and plenary voting revealed 'strong agreement' for 34 (89%) recommendations. The 2012 IAP/APA guidelines provide recommendations concerning key aspects of medical and surgical management of acute pancreatitis based on the currently available evidence. These recommendations should serve as a reference standard for current management and guide future clinical research on acute pancreatitis. Copyright © 2013 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. CHLOE: a system for the automatic handling of spark pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.W.; Hodges, D.; Royston, R.

    The system for automatic data handling uses commercially available or state-of-the-art components. The system is flexible enough to accept information from various types of experiments involving photographic data acquisition

  5. Development of picture quality monitoring system for IPTV service based on the reduced reference framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Ryoichi; Koike, Atsushi

    2006-01-01

    The authors developed a software-based realtime IPTV monitoring system based on Reduced Reference framework, and evaluated the proposed system. One of the quality issues of the IPTV service is the picture quality degradation caused by packet loss. The proposed system precisely estimates the PSNR of the corrupted received picture by extracting and comparing image features from transmission and receiver side. Computer simulations show that PSNR estimation with a 0.945 correlation coefficient at a data channel bitrate of 36kbps is possible using the proposed system.

  6. Inhibition of Bcl-2 or IAP proteins does not provoke mutations in surviving cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhar, Tanmay M.; Green, Maja M.; Rayner, David M.; Miles, Mark A.; Cutts, Suzanne M.; Hawkins, Christine J.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mutagenicities of anti-cancer drugs were tested using HPRT, γH2AX and comet assays. • TRAIL, doxorubicin and etoposide were more mutagenic than BH3- or Smac-mimetics. • Physiologically achievable levels of the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 were not mutagenic. • High concentrations of ABT-737 provoked mutations via an off-target mechanism. • Even very high concentrations of IAP antagonists were not mutagenic. - Abstract: Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cause permanent damage to the genomes of surviving cells, provoking severe side effects such as second malignancies in some cancer survivors. Drugs that mimic the activity of death ligands, or antagonise pro-survival proteins of the Bcl-2 or IAP families have yielded encouraging results in animal experiments and early phase clinical trials. Because these agents directly engage apoptosis pathways, rather than damaging DNA to indirectly provoke tumour cell death, we reasoned that they may offer another important advantage over conventional therapies: minimisation or elimination of side effects such as second cancers that result from mutation of surviving normal cells. Disappointingly, however, we previously found that concentrations of death receptor agonists like TRAIL that would be present in vivo in clinical settings provoked DNA damage in surviving cells. In this study, we used cell line model systems to investigate the mutagenic capacity of drugs from two other classes of direct apoptosis-inducing agents: the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 and the IAP antagonists LCL161 and AT-406. Encouragingly, our data suggest that IAP antagonists possess negligible genotoxic activity. Doses of ABT-737 that were required to damage DNA stimulated Bax/Bak-independent signalling and exceeded concentrations detected in the plasma of animals treated with this drug. These findings provide hope that cancer patients treated by BH3-mimetics or IAP antagonists may avoid mutation-related illnesses that afflict

  7. Inhibition of Bcl-2 or IAP proteins does not provoke mutations in surviving cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhar, Tanmay M. [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia); Green, Maja M. [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia); Department of Anatomy & Neuroscience, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Rayner, David M.; Miles, Mark A.; Cutts, Suzanne M. [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia); Hawkins, Christine J., E-mail: c.hawkins@latrobe.edu.au [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia)

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mutagenicities of anti-cancer drugs were tested using HPRT, γH2AX and comet assays. • TRAIL, doxorubicin and etoposide were more mutagenic than BH3- or Smac-mimetics. • Physiologically achievable levels of the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 were not mutagenic. • High concentrations of ABT-737 provoked mutations via an off-target mechanism. • Even very high concentrations of IAP antagonists were not mutagenic. - Abstract: Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cause permanent damage to the genomes of surviving cells, provoking severe side effects such as second malignancies in some cancer survivors. Drugs that mimic the activity of death ligands, or antagonise pro-survival proteins of the Bcl-2 or IAP families have yielded encouraging results in animal experiments and early phase clinical trials. Because these agents directly engage apoptosis pathways, rather than damaging DNA to indirectly provoke tumour cell death, we reasoned that they may offer another important advantage over conventional therapies: minimisation or elimination of side effects such as second cancers that result from mutation of surviving normal cells. Disappointingly, however, we previously found that concentrations of death receptor agonists like TRAIL that would be present in vivo in clinical settings provoked DNA damage in surviving cells. In this study, we used cell line model systems to investigate the mutagenic capacity of drugs from two other classes of direct apoptosis-inducing agents: the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 and the IAP antagonists LCL161 and AT-406. Encouragingly, our data suggest that IAP antagonists possess negligible genotoxic activity. Doses of ABT-737 that were required to damage DNA stimulated Bax/Bak-independent signalling and exceeded concentrations detected in the plasma of animals treated with this drug. These findings provide hope that cancer patients treated by BH3-mimetics or IAP antagonists may avoid mutation-related illnesses that afflict

  8. Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) regulate intestinal immunity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jannie; LaCasse, Eric C; Seidelin, Jakob B

    2014-01-01

    The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family members, notably cIAP1, cIAP2, and XIAP, are critical and universal regulators of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) mediated survival, inflammatory, and death signaling pathways. Furthermore, IAPs mediate the signaling of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain...

  9. Not just pretty pictures: Geographical Information Systems in TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is becoming a useful tool in disease control by health planners. However little is known about its potential in tuberculosis (TB) control. In 2000 the National TB Programme (NTP) in Malawi assessed its usefulness. Routinely collected case-finding data from the 3 previous years (1997 ...

  10. A novel inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)-interacting protein, Vestigial-like (Vgl)-4, counteracts apoptosis-inhibitory function of IAPs by nuclear sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hyung-Seung; Park, Hyung-Sun; Shin, Jun-Ha; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Jun, Sung-Hun; Lee, Chang-Jun; Lee, Tae H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We identified a new IAP binding protein Vgl-4. → Vgl-4 is expressed mainly in the nucleus and triggers a relocalization of IAPs from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. → Vgl-4-mediated IAP nuclear localization was blocked by TRAF2 coexpression. → Vgl-4 suppresses the ability of IAPs to prevent cell death, however TRAF2 can revere the effect of Vgl-4. → Vgl-4 functions as an IAP regulator by binding to IAPs and altering their sub-cellular localization. -- Abstract: The inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAP), which include cIAP1, cIAP2 and XIAP, suppress apoptosis through the inhibition of caspases, and the activity of IAPs is regulated by a variety of IAP-binding proteins. Herein, we report the identification of a Vestigial-like 4 (Vgl-4), which functions as a transcription cofactor in cardiac myocytes, as a new IAP binding protein. Vgl-4 is expressed predominantly in the nucleus and its overexpression triggers a relocalization of IAPs from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. cIAP1/2-interacting protein TRAF2 (TNF receptor-associated factor 2) prevented the Vgl-4-driven nuclear localization of cIAP2. Accordingly, the forced relocation of IAPs to the nucleus by Vgl-4 significantly reduced their ability to prevent Bax- and TNFα-induced apoptosis, which can be recovered by co-expression with TRAF2. Our results suggest that Vgl-4 may play a role in the apoptotic pathways by regulating translocation of IAPs between different cell compartments.

  11. Development and implementation of ultrasound picture archiving and communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Wolfram S.; Tessler, Franklin N.; Grant, Edward G.; Kangarloo, Hooshang; Huang, H. K.

    1990-08-01

    The Department of Radiological Sciences at the UCLA School of Medicine is developing an archiving and communication system (PACS) for digitized ultrasound images. In its final stage the system will involve the acquisition and archiving of ultrasound studies from four different locations including the Center for Health Sciences, the Department for Mental Health and the Outpatient Radiology and Endoscopy Departments with a total of 200-250 patient studies per week. The concept comprises two stages of image manipulation for each ultrasound work area. The first station is located close to the examination site and accomodates the acquisition of digital images from up to five ultrasound devices and provides for instantaneous display and primary viewing and image selection. Completed patient studies are transferred to a main workstation for secondary review, further analysis and comparison studies. The review station has an on-line storage capacity of 10,000 images with a resolution of 512x512 8 bit data to allow for immediate retrieval of active patient studies of up to two weeks. The main work stations are connected through the general network and use one central archive for long term storage and a film printer for hardcopy output. First phase development efforts concentrate on the implementation and testing of a system at one location consisting of a number of ultrasound units with video digitizer and network interfaces and a microcomputer workstation as host for the display station with two color monitors, each allowing simultaneous display of four 512x512 images. The discussion emphasizes functionality, performance and acceptance of the system in the clinical environment.

  12. A Simulation Model Of A Picture Archival And Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Vijay; Perros, Harry; Stockbridge, Chris

    1988-06-01

    A PACS architecture was simulated to quantify its performance. The model consisted of reading stations, acquisition nodes, communication links, a database management system, and a storage system consisting of magnetic and optical disks. Two levels of storage were simulated, a high-speed magnetic disk system for short term storage, and optical disk jukeboxes for long term storage. The communications link was a single bus via which image data were requested and delivered. Real input data to the simulation model were obtained from surveys of radiology procedures (Bowman Gray School of Medicine). From these the following inputs were calculated: - the size of short term storage necessary - the amount of long term storage required - the frequency of access of each store, and - the distribution of the number of films requested per diagnosis. The performance measures obtained were - the mean retrieval time for an image, - mean queue lengths, and - the utilization of each device. Parametric analysis was done for - the bus speed, - the packet size for the communications link, - the record size on the magnetic disk, - compression ratio, - influx of new images, - DBMS time, and - diagnosis think times. Plots give the optimum values for those values of input speed and device performance which are sufficient to achieve subsecond image retrieval times

  13. The Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on Implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Rocio; Stone, Karen; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of a behavioral skills training (BST) package to teach the implementation of the first three phases of the picture exchange communication system (PECS) was evaluated with 3 adults who had no history teaching any functional communication system. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effectiveness…

  14. Video Feedforward for Rapid Learning of a Picture-Based Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jemma; Hand, Linda; Dowrick, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of video self modeling (VSM) using feedforward, to teach various goals of a picture exchange communication system (PECS). The participants were two boys with autism and one man with Down syndrome. All three participants were non-verbal with no current functional system of communication; the two children had long…

  15. An Evaluation of Strategies for Training Staff to Implement the Picture Exchange Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Clarissa S.; Dunning, Johnna L.; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2011-01-01

    The picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a functional communication system frequently used with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders who experience severe language delays (Frost & Bondy, 2002). Few empirical investigations have evaluated strategies for training direct care staff how to effectively implement PECS with…

  16. The Effectiveness of the "Picture Exchange Communication System" with Nonspeaking Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Julia B.; Beck, Ann R.; Bock, Stacey Jones; Hickey, Katherine; Kosuwan, Kullaya; Thompson, James R.

    2006-01-01

    "Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) training was implemented with 5 nonspeaking adults with mental retardation who were not currently using any type of functional communication system. A modified ABAB, single-subject design was used to assess the effectiveness of PECS in enhancing the functional communication skills of these…

  17. A New Forensic Picture Polygraph Technique for Terrorist and Crime Deception System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, R. H. Brian; Axton, JoAnn; Gold, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    The Forensic Terrorist Detection System called Pinocchio Assessment Profile (PAP) employs standard issue polygraphs for a non-verbal picture technique originated as a biofeedback careers interest instrument. The system can be integrated readily into airport screening protocols. However, the method does not rely on questioning or foreign language…

  18. Influence of trait behavioral inhibition and behavioral approach motivation systems on the LPP and frontal asymmetry to anger pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip A; Poole, Bryan D

    2014-02-01

    Behavioral approach and avoidance are fundamental to the experience of emotion and motivation, but the motivational system associated with anger is not well established. Some theories posit that approach motivational processes underlie anger, whereas others posit that avoidance motivational processes underlie anger. The current experiment sought to address whether traits related to behavioral approach or avoidance influence responses to anger stimuli using multiple measures: ERP, electroencephalographic (EEG) α-asymmetry and self-report. After completing the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral approach system (BIS/BAS) scales, participants viewed anger pictures and neutral pictures. BAS predicted larger late positive potentials (LPPs) to anger pictures, but not to neutral pictures. In addition, BAS predicted greater left-frontal asymmetry to anger pictures. Moreover, larger LPPs to anger pictures related to greater left-frontal EEG asymmetry during anger pictures. These results suggest that trait approach motivation relates to neurophysiological responses of anger.

  19. Preliminary application in teaching of medical imaging with picture archiving and communication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yuqing; Hu Jian; Wang Xuejian; Cao Jun; Tong Juan; Shen Guiquan; Luo Min; Luo Song

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate PACS (picture archiving and communication systems) in the teaching of medical imaging. Methods: Large screen multimedia reading room and electronic study room were built with GE PACS and Angel RIS (radiology information system) and end-term picture-word work-station. Pictures and words of PACS were unloaded directly for teaching and teaching image bank and test image bank. Results: Large screen multimedia reading room, classroom, and electronic study room were built successfully. Valuable information of nearly 5000 patients in the teaching imaging bank of PACS was accumulated. Classic medical imaging teaching mode was changed. Real-time and multi-mode teaching were realized, and teaching effect was greatly improved. The PACS-based teaching model was accepted pleasantly by students. Conclusion: PACS is very useful to improve the teaching quality of medical imaging and it is worth to popularize

  20. Impact of the picture exchange communication system: effects on communication and collateral effects on maladaptive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B; Parker, Richard; Benson, Joanne

    2009-12-01

    Many children with autism require intensive instruction in the use of augmentative or alternative communication systems, such as the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). This study investigated the use of PECS with three young boys with autism to determine the impact of PECS training on use of pictures for requesting, use of intelligible words, and maladaptive behaviors. A multiple baseline-probe design with a staggered start was implemented. Results indicated that all of the participants quickly learned to make requests using pictures and that two used intelligible speech following PECS instruction; maladaptive behaviors were variable throughout baseline and intervention phases. Although all of the participants improved in at least one dependent variable, there remain questions regarding who is best suited for PECS and similar interventions.

  1. A Further Evaluation of Behavioral Skills Training for Implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homlitas, Christa; Rosales, Rocío; Candel, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a behavioral skills training package to teach implementation of Phases 1, 2, and 3A of the picture exchange communication system (PECS) to teachers employed at a therapeutic center for children with autism. Probes in the natural environment and follow-up were conducted with children who were assigned to work with…

  2. Social-Communicative Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. Aims: To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism,…

  3. Using the Picture Exchange Communication System with Students with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Sarah E.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Hooper, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Students with visual impairment (VI) were taught to request using the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and tangible symbols. Participants were four males with additional disabilities, 5 to 11 years old, who had little to no functional vision. A functional relation between PECS Phase 1 and requesting was established using a multiple…

  4. Comparing the Picture Exchange Communication System and Sign Language Training for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the effects of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and sign language training on the acquisition of mands (requests for preferred items) of students with autism. The study also examined the differential effects of each modality on students' acquisition of vocal behavior. Participants were two elementary school students…

  5. A Review of the Efficacy of the Picture Exchange Communication System Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Deborah; Carter, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a communication program that has become widely used, especially with children with autism. This paper reports the results of a review of the empirical literature on PECS. A descriptive review is provided of the 27 studies identified, which included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), other group…

  6. The Picture Exchange Communication System: Communicative Outcomes for Young Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ilene S.; Garfinkle, Ann N.; Bauer, Janet

    1998-01-01

    Presents two studies documenting the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) for 31 preschool children with severe disabilities. Initial findings indicated the children could learn to use PECS quickly and efficiently. The second study, which included 18 participants, found that PECS use generalized to untrained settings. (Author/CR)

  7. Quantitative Synthesis and Component Analysis of Single-Participant Studies on the Picture Exchange Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt; Devis, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    The "Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) has emerged as the augmentative communication intervention of choice for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with a supporting body of single-participant studies. This report describes a meta-analysis of 16 single-participant studies on PECS with percentage of nonoverlapping data…

  8. The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS): What Do the Data Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzer-Azaroff, Beth; Hoffman, Anne O.; Horton, Catherine B.; Bondy, Andrew; Frost, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Originally designed to enable young children with autism lacking functional communication to initiate requests and to describe what they observed, the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) has been the subject of an ever-expanding body of research and development. Thirty-four peer-reviewed published reports on PECS are analyzed in this…

  9. Understanding the Picture Exchange Communication System and Its Application in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amanda; Sandt, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and its applications in physical education. The PECS is an appropriate communication intervention for students with autism who lack functional communication skills. It is often confused with other visual support strategies, so the authors delineate the six phases of PECS and…

  10. Reengineering the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) process for digital imaging networks PACS

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Maria C.; Lewis, Thomas E.; Kinsey, Thomas V.

    1999-01-01

    Prior to June 1997, military picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) were planned, procured, and installed with key decisions on the system, equipment, and even funding sources made through a research and development office called Medical Diagnostic Imaging Systems (MDIS). Beginning in June 1997, the Joint Imaging Technology Project Office (JITPO) initiated a collaborative and consultative process for planning and implementing PACS into military treatment facilities through a new ...

  11. Viewing pictures of a romantic partner reduces experimental pain: involvement of neural reward systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Jarred; Aron, Arthur; Parke, Sara; Chatterjee, Neil; Mackey, Sean

    2010-10-13

    The early stages of a new romantic relationship are characterized by intense feelings of euphoria, well-being, and preoccupation with the romantic partner. Neuroimaging research has linked those feelings to activation of reward systems in the human brain. The results of those studies may be relevant to pain management in humans, as basic animal research has shown that pharmacologic activation of reward systems can substantially reduce pain. Indeed, viewing pictures of a romantic partner was recently demonstrated to reduce experimental thermal pain. We hypothesized that pain relief evoked by viewing pictures of a romantic partner would be associated with neural activations in reward-processing centers. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined fifteen individuals in the first nine months of a new, romantic relationship. Participants completed three tasks under periods of moderate and high thermal pain: 1) viewing pictures of their romantic partner, 2) viewing pictures of an equally attractive and familiar acquaintance, and 3) a word-association distraction task previously demonstrated to reduce pain. The partner and distraction tasks both significantly reduced self-reported pain, although only the partner task was associated with activation of reward systems. Greater analgesia while viewing pictures of a romantic partner was associated with increased activity in several reward-processing regions, including the caudate head, nucleus accumbens, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex--regions not associated with distraction-induced analgesia. The results suggest that the activation of neural reward systems via non-pharmacologic means can reduce the experience of pain.

  12. The use of database management systems and artificial intelligence in automating the planning of optical navigation pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert P.; Underwood, Ian M.

    1987-01-01

    The use of database management systems (DBMS) and AI to minimize human involvement in the planning of optical navigation pictures for interplanetary space probes is discussed, with application to the Galileo mission. Parameters characterizing the desirability of candidate pictures, and the program generating them, are described. How these parameters automatically build picture records in a database, and the definition of the database structure, are then discussed. The various rules, priorities, and constraints used in selecting pictures are also described. An example is provided of an expert system, written in Prolog, for automatically performing the selection process.

  13. Nencki Affective Picture System: Cross-Cultural Study in Europe and Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Monika; Moslehi, Abnoos; Michałowski, Jarosław M.; Żurawski, Łukasz; Horvat, Marko; Wypych, Marek; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2017-01-01

    Although emotions have been assumed conventionally to be universal, recent studies have suggested that various aspects of emotions may be mediated by cultural background. The purpose of our research was to test these contradictory views, in the case of the subjective evaluation of visual affective stimuli. We also sought to validate the recently introduced Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) database on a different cultural group. Since there has been, to date, no attempt to compare the emotions of a culturally distinct sample of Iranians with those of Europeans, subjective ratings were collected from 40 Iranians and 39 Europeans. Each cultural group was asked separately to provide normative affective ratings and classify pictures according to discrete emotions. The results were analyzed to identify cultural differences in the ratings of individual images. One hundred and seventy NAPS pictures were rated with regard to the intensity of the basic emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, and disgust) they elicited, as well as in terms of affective dimensions (valence and arousal). Contrary to previous studies using the International Affective Picture System, our results for Europeans and Iranians show that neither the ratings for affective dimensions nor for basic emotions differed across cultural groups. In both cultural groups, the relationship between valence and arousal ratings could be best described by a classical boomerang-shaped function. However, the content of the pictures (animals, faces, landscapes, objects, or people) had a significant effect on the ratings for valence and arousal. These findings indicate that further studies in cross-cultural affective research should control for the content of stimuli. PMID:28316576

  14. Nencki Affective Picture System: Cross-Cultural Study in Europe and Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Monika; Moslehi, Abnoos; Michałowski, Jarosław M; Żurawski, Łukasz; Horvat, Marko; Wypych, Marek; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2017-01-01

    Although emotions have been assumed conventionally to be universal, recent studies have suggested that various aspects of emotions may be mediated by cultural background. The purpose of our research was to test these contradictory views, in the case of the subjective evaluation of visual affective stimuli. We also sought to validate the recently introduced Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) database on a different cultural group. Since there has been, to date, no attempt to compare the emotions of a culturally distinct sample of Iranians with those of Europeans, subjective ratings were collected from 40 Iranians and 39 Europeans. Each cultural group was asked separately to provide normative affective ratings and classify pictures according to discrete emotions. The results were analyzed to identify cultural differences in the ratings of individual images. One hundred and seventy NAPS pictures were rated with regard to the intensity of the basic emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, and disgust) they elicited, as well as in terms of affective dimensions (valence and arousal). Contrary to previous studies using the International Affective Picture System, our results for Europeans and Iranians show that neither the ratings for affective dimensions nor for basic emotions differed across cultural groups. In both cultural groups, the relationship between valence and arousal ratings could be best described by a classical boomerang-shaped function. However, the content of the pictures (animals, faces, landscapes, objects, or people) had a significant effect on the ratings for valence and arousal. These findings indicate that further studies in cross-cultural affective research should control for the content of stimuli.

  15. Multi-Head Very High Power Strobe System For Motion Picture Special Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovoi, P. A.; Fink, Michael L.

    1983-10-01

    A very large camera synchronizable strobe system has been developed for motion picture special effects. This system, the largest ever built, was delivered to MGM/UA to be used in the movie "War Games". The system consists of 12 individual strobe heads and a power supply distribution system. Each strobe head operates independently and may be flashed up to 24 times per second under computer control. An energy of 480 Joules per flash is used in six strobe heads and 240 Joules per flash in the remaining six strobe heads. The beam pattern is rectangular with a FWHM of 60° x 48°.

  16. Description of the EDF research and development laboratory's radiographic picture processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillault, B.

    1985-01-01

    A digital radiographic picture processing system has been developed at the EDF Research and Development Laboratory to be supplied to EDF radiography experts. We describe it in pointing out the difficulties of radiograph digitization but also the numerous processing possibilities. The final goal of the Laboratory work is to extract the information from industrial radiographs by digital means. Our study is divided into three parts: digitization by a microdensitometer; display, processing and quantization of flaws; and, digital storing. 5 refs

  17. Experience measuring performance improvement in multiphase picture archiving and communications systems implementations

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Gary; Reed, Deborah Hobe

    1999-01-01

    When planning a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) implementation and determining which equipment will be implemented in earlier and later phases, collection and analysis of selected data will aid in setting implementation priorities. If baseline data are acquired relative to performance objectives, the same information used for implementation planning can be used to measure performance improvement and outcomes. The main categories of data to choose from are: (1) financial dat...

  18. Lessons learned from a whole hospital PACS installation. Picture Archiving and Communication System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, J R

    2002-09-01

    The Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital has incorporated a fully filmless Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) as part of a new hospital provision using PFI funding. The PACS project has been very successful and has met with unanimous acclaim from radiologists and clinicians. A project of this size cannot be achieved without learning some lessons from mistakes and recognising areas where attention to detail resulted in a successful implementation. This paper considers the successes and problems encountered in a large PACS installation.

  19. Multiply controlled verbal operants: An analysis and extension to the picture exchange communication system

    OpenAIRE

    Bondy, Andy; Tincani, Matt; Frost, Lori

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior as a framework for understanding language acquisition in children with autism. We describe Skinner's analysis of pure and impure verbal operants and illustrate how this analysis may be applied to the design of communication training programs. The picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a training program influenced by Skinner's framework. We describe the training sequence associated with PECS and illustrate how this sequ...

  20. The Picture Exchange Communication System and his application of child with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlová, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The bachelor thesis with title "The Picture Exchange Communication System and his application of child with autism spectrum disorder", deals with problems in communication of the children with autism spectrum disorders. One of the goals of the thesis is to submit a comprehensive overview of the essential knowledge of autism, history of autism, typical triad of symptoms (characteristic features of children with autism), etiology, and dividing autism by the adaptability. Another goal is to intr...

  1. Picture Exchange Communication System with Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis of Single Subject Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephanie L.; Banda, Devender R.

    2010-01-01

    Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a picture-based communication strategy used to teach communication skills to persons with developmental disabilities including autism. This article systematically reviews 13 published single-subject studies to examine the effectiveness of PECS, the effects of PECS on speech and problem behaviors,…

  2. Upregulation of cIAP2 in regenerating colonocytes in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, J.B.; Vainer, Ben; Andresen, L.

    2007-01-01

    of cIAP2 in active UC was therefore investigated. Fourteen patients with active UC and 12 control subjects who underwent routine colonoscopy for control of their disease or as part of their examination program for irritable bowel syndrome were included. cIAP1 and cIAP2 expression was investigated...

  3. IAPs Regulate Distinct Innate Immune Pathways to Co-ordinate the Response to Bacterial Peptidoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Che A; Lawlor, Kate E; Heim, Valentin J; Bankovacki, Aleksandra; Bernardini, Jonathan P; Silke, John; Nachbur, Ueli

    2018-02-06

    Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) proteins are critical regulators of innate immune signaling pathways and therefore have potential as drug targets. X-linked IAP (XIAP) and cellular IAP1 and IAP2 (cIAP1 and cIAP2) are E3 ligases that have been shown to be required for signaling downstream of NOD2, an intracellular receptor for bacterial peptidoglycan. We used genetic and biochemical approaches to compare the responses of IAP-deficient mice and cells to NOD2 stimulation. In all cell types tested, XIAP is the only IAP required for signaling immediately downstream of NOD2, while cIAP1 and cIAP2 are dispensable for NOD2-induced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. However, mice lacking cIAP1 or TNFR1 have a blunted cytokine response to NOD2 stimulation. We conclude that cIAPs regulate NOD2-dependent autocrine TNF signaling in vivo and highlight the importance of physiological context in the interplay of innate immune signaling pathways. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Design and practice for a picture archiving and communication system based structured report module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Junzhang; Jiang Guihua; Zheng Liyin; Ou Jingchai; Wu Pingyang; Hong Wensong; Jin Lin; Huang Dajiang; Zhang Xuelin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To design and explore structured report module based on PACS, and to make diagnostic reports with pictures and words in application of computer implementing synchronous transmission of reports and pictures. Methods: 1000 Mb trunk net was adopted in PACS and 100 Mb was exchanged on tabletop. Structured report was designed with six function modules including basic item area, image sign area, diagnostic impression area, advice area, signature area, and picture area by application of programming language such as Delphi 6.0 and VC ++ 6.0. DICOM. Medical images or waveform were inserted directly in the diagnosis report through citing DICOM composite object. Basic function library was designed and constructed in whole system environment. Results: The structured report module based on PACS could structure image diagnosis report in inerrability structure in term of compute. The time and period of reports were shortened and utilization of report original datum were improved. Conclusion: The structured report module was in favor of promotion to combine with clinic teaching and scientific research. The quality and efficiency of image diagnosis work were raised by structured report module

  5. Characterization of the Nencki Affective Picture System by discrete emotional categories (NAPS BE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Monika; Żurawski, Łukasz; Wierzba, Małgorzata; Moslehi, Abnoss; Klocek, Łukasz; Horvat, Marko; Grabowska, Anna; Michałowski, Jarosław; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2016-06-01

    The Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS; Marchewka, Żurawski, Jednoróg, & Grabowska, Behavior Research Methods, 2014) is a standardized set of 1,356 realistic, high-quality photographs divided into five categories (people, faces, animals, objects, and landscapes). NAPS has been primarily standardized along the affective dimensions of valence, arousal, and approach-avoidance, yet the characteristics of discrete emotions expressed by the images have not been investigated thus far. The aim of the present study was to collect normative ratings according to categorical models of emotions. A subset of 510 images from the original NAPS set was selected in order to proportionally cover the whole dimensional affective space. Among these, using three available classification methods, we identified images eliciting distinguishable discrete emotions. We introduce the basic-emotion normative ratings for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS BE), which will allow researchers to control and manipulate stimulus properties specifically for their experimental questions of interest. The NAPS BE system is freely accessible to the scientific community for noncommercial use as supplementary materials to this article.

  6. Highcrop picture tool

    OpenAIRE

    Fog, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Pictures give other impulses than words and numbers. With images, you can easily spot new opportunities. The Highcrop-tool allows for optimization of the organic arable farm based on picture-cards. The picture-cards are designed to make it easier and more inspiring to go close to the details of production. By using the picture-cards you can spot the areas, where there is a possibility to optimize the production system for better results in the future. Highcrop picture cards can be used to:...

  7. Effects of picture exchange communication system on communication and behavioral anomalies in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Shahzadi; Rajender, Gaurav; Bhatia, Manjeet S; Singh, Tej B

    2010-07-01

    Communication skills deficits and stereotyped behaviors are frequently found among people with pervasive developmental disabilities like autism. These communication and behavioral oddities of autism are often considered to be difficult to treat and are challenging. Picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a six-phase picture system based on applied behavior analysis and is specially designed to overcome these communication difficulties in children with autism by encouraging the child to be the communication initiator. The present paper throws light on the process of using PECS along with other traditional behavioral approaches in managing communication deficits and behavioral stereotypies in a seven-year-old male child diagnosed as having childhood autism. The identified target behaviors of repeated head turning, flapping his hands, poor communication skills were assessed using various rating scales including visual analogue scale as per clinician observation and parental reports and managed using PECS as an adjunct to traditional behavioral techniques of contingency management, differential reinforcement, task direction and reprimand. Outcome was assessed using same tools after thirty-two sessions of interventions spread over three months. Significant improvements of around 60% were observed in the target behaviors.

  8. Monitor quality and its importance in a picture archiving and communications system display workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, R.M.; Todd-Prokropek, A.; Craig, J.O.M.C.; Highman, J.H.; Glass, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    Trials have compared image quality using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for different digitization resolution, particularly on hard copy. Resolution required for such systems is critical. Monitor quality significantly affects results of such studies. Several ''high-quality'' monitors were tested for gray level uniformity, flicker, resolution, stationarity (including distortion), jitter, and stability with time. An ROC study has demonstrated that such errors, on one commercially available system, were large enough to degrade image display at both 1k x 1k and 2k x 2k matrix sizes. Flicker was very disturbing with difficult images. Greater attention to these factors is required in designing (and evaluating) picture archiving and communication system work stations

  9. Affective Pictures and the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF): Tools to Investigate Emotions toward Food in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, Laura; Delgado, Rafael; Guerra, Pedro; Versace, Francesco; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several sets of standardized food pictures have been created, supplying both food images and their subjective evaluations. However, to date only the OLAF (Open Library of Affective Foods), a set of food images and ratings we developed in adolescents, has the specific purpose of studying emotions toward food. Moreover, some researchers have argued that food evaluations are not valid across individuals and groups, unless feelings toward food cues are compared with feelings toward intense experiences unrelated to food, that serve as benchmarks. Therefore the OLAF presented here, comprising a set of original food images and a group of standardized highly emotional pictures, is intended to provide valid between-group judgments in adults. Emotional images (erotica, mutilations, and neutrals from the International Affective Picture System/IAPS) additionally ensure that the affective ratings are consistent with emotion research. The OLAF depicts high-calorie sweet and savory foods and low-calorie fruits and vegetables, portraying foods within natural scenes matching the IAPS features. An adult sample evaluated both food and affective pictures in terms of pleasure, arousal, dominance, and food craving, following standardized affective rating procedures. The affective ratings for the emotional pictures corroborated previous findings, thus confirming the reliability of evaluations for the food images. Among the OLAF images, high-calorie sweet and savory foods elicited the greatest pleasure, although they elicited, as expected, less arousal than erotica. The observed patterns were consistent with research on emotions and confirmed the reliability of OLAF evaluations. The OLAF and affective pictures constitute a sound methodology to investigate emotions toward food within a wider motivational framework. The OLAF is freely accessible at digibug.ugr.es.

  10. Effects of affective picture viewing on postural control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beek Peter J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion eliciting images results in postural adjustments, which become manifest as changes in body center of pressure (COP trajectories. From those studies it appears that posture is modulated most when viewing pictures with negative valence. The present experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that pictures with negative valence have a greater impact on postural control than neutral or positive ones. Thirty-four healthy subjects passively viewed a series of emotion eliciting images, while standing either in a bipedal or unipedal stance on a force plate. The images were adopted from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS. We analysed mean and variability of the COP and the length of the associated sway path as a function of emotion. Results The mean position of the COP was unaffected by emotion, but unipedal stance resulted in overall greater body sway than bipedal stance. We found a modest effect of emotion on COP: viewing pictures of mutilation resulted in a smaller sway path, but only in unipedal stance. We obtained valence and arousal ratings of the images with an independent sample of viewers. These subjects rated the unpleasant images as significantly less pleasant than neutral images, and the pleasant images as significantly more pleasant than neutral images. However, the subjects rated the images as overall less pleasant and less arousing than viewers in a closely comparable American study, pointing to unknown differences in viewer characteristics. Conclusion Overall, viewing emotion eliciting images had little effect on body sway. Our finding of a reduction in sway path length when viewing pictures of mutilation was indicative of a freezing strategy, i.e. fear bradycardia. The results are consistent with current knowledge about the

  11. Effects of affective picture viewing on postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stins, John F; Beek, Peter J

    2007-10-04

    Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion eliciting images results in postural adjustments, which become manifest as changes in body center of pressure (COP) trajectories. From those studies it appears that posture is modulated most when viewing pictures with negative valence. The present experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that pictures with negative valence have a greater impact on postural control than neutral or positive ones. Thirty-four healthy subjects passively viewed a series of emotion eliciting images, while standing either in a bipedal or unipedal stance on a force plate. The images were adopted from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). We analysed mean and variability of the COP and the length of the associated sway path as a function of emotion. The mean position of the COP was unaffected by emotion, but unipedal stance resulted in overall greater body sway than bipedal stance. We found a modest effect of emotion on COP: viewing pictures of mutilation resulted in a smaller sway path, but only in unipedal stance. We obtained valence and arousal ratings of the images with an independent sample of viewers. These subjects rated the unpleasant images as significantly less pleasant than neutral images, and the pleasant images as significantly more pleasant than neutral images. However, the subjects rated the images as overall less pleasant and less arousing than viewers in a closely comparable American study, pointing to unknown differences in viewer characteristics. Overall, viewing emotion eliciting images had little effect on body sway. Our finding of a reduction in sway path length when viewing pictures of mutilation was indicative of a freezing strategy, i.e. fear bradycardia. The results are consistent with current knowledge about the neuroanatomical organization of the emotion system and

  12. Total picture archiving communication system for medical use at medium-sized hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabata, Shun; Goto, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Kazumi; Okaniwa, Hiroshi.

    1991-01-01

    An increasingly widespread use of diagnostic imaging systems has seen a concomitant rise in the number of medical images. Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) allows filmless storage by digitizing images to record and store into the optical disk, and allows the rapid data retrieval and transmission. It is anticipated that PACS may be a promising approach to the medical routine practice. In January 1991, Hitachi PACS was introduced in Tokyo Hitachi Hospital. In this paper, the experience with PACS in the clinical setting is presented. The process of improvement in PACS is given in terms of the following: the flow of images, image deletion in the image workstation, and the number of sequential images to be observed. (N.K.)

  13. Effects on Communicative Requesting and Speech Development of the Picture Exchange Communication System in Children with Characteristics of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Simpson, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Few studies on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems have addressed the potential for such systems to impact word utterances in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an AAC system designed specifically to minimize difficulties with communication skills experienced by…

  14. Picture archiving and communication system developments expected in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Philip G.; Lorah, Lawrence D.; Lydon, Michael J.; Novak, Elliott D.

    1993-01-01

    Among the applications for high-bandwidth systems are medical picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). Viewed in the light of developments anticipated ten years ago when these systems were first discussed, progress has been disappointingly slow. However, with the recognition that teleradiology, digital archives, and computed radiography can be regarded as PAC subsystems, and that systems confined to a single modality can be regarded as mini-PACS, it becomes clear that development of PAC systems has made remarkable progress. Growing from modest size today, the markets for PAC systems and subsystems in the U.S. is likely to exceed $600 million by the end of the decade, a market of the same magnitude as those for CT, MRI, and catheterization lab equipment. This paper discusses the forces that have stimulated growth of PAC systems - among them, the opportunity to provide better service to patients and referring physicians, a chance to expand effective service area, and a possible solution to the ubiquitous problems of lost films - as well as the impediments that have retarded growth - among them, technical limitations, especially of the radiologists' workstations, and cost. A review of these forces allows prediction of likely developments in the 1990s.

  15. User acceptability--a critical success factor for picture archiving and communication system implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivianu-Gaita, D; Babyn, P; Gilday, D; O'Brien, B; Charkot, E

    2000-05-01

    The Department of Diagnostic Imaging at the Hospital for Sick Children (HSC), Toronto, implemented a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) during the last year. This report describes our experience from the point of view of user acceptability. Based on objective data, the following key success factors were identified: user involvement in PACS planning, training, technical support, and rollout of pilot projects. Although technical factors are critical and must be addressed, the main conclusion of our study is that other nontechnical factors need to be recognized and resolved. Recognition of the importance of these factors to user acceptance and clear communication and consultation will help reduce negative user attitudes and increase the chance of a successful PACS implementation.

  16. The Effectiveness of Picture Exchange Communication System on Behavioral Problems of Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mamaghanieh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autism is one the most disturbing neurodevelopmental disorders associated with variety behavioral problems including communication deficits. The present study is aimed to examine the effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS on behavioral problems of autistic children. Materials & Methods: This study follows a quasi- experimental single subject A-B design. Four boys with autism (aged between 3-7 years were selected from the Center for the Treatment of Autistic Disorders, Tehran. They were received PECS training for duration of four months (42 session, three sessions per week. Direct observation assessment and Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist were applied 6 times during the course of the study. Results: Separate set of analysis of the data reveled a positive effects of PECS on reduction of behavioral problems in three children, although, some differences were identified between them. Conclusion: Enhanced ability to communicate by PECS, would effectively reduce behavioral problems of children with Autism

  17. Architecture of distributed picture archiving and communication systems for storing and processing high resolution medical images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokareva Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available New generation medicine demands a better quality of analysis increasing the amount of data collected during checkups, and simultaneously decreasing the invasiveness of a procedure. Thus it becomes urgent not only to develop advanced modern hardware, but also to implement special software infrastructure for using it in everyday clinical practice, so-called Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS. Developing distributed PACS is a challenging task for nowadays medical informatics. The paper discusses the architecture of distributed PACS server for processing large high-quality medical images, with respect to technical specifications of modern medical imaging hardware, as well as international standards in medical imaging software. The MapReduce paradigm is proposed for image reconstruction by server, and the details of utilizing the Hadoop framework for this task are being discussed in order to provide the design of distributed PACS as ergonomic and adapted to the needs of end users as possible.

  18. Architecture of distributed picture archiving and communication systems for storing and processing high resolution medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokareva, Victoria

    2018-04-01

    New generation medicine demands a better quality of analysis increasing the amount of data collected during checkups, and simultaneously decreasing the invasiveness of a procedure. Thus it becomes urgent not only to develop advanced modern hardware, but also to implement special software infrastructure for using it in everyday clinical practice, so-called Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS). Developing distributed PACS is a challenging task for nowadays medical informatics. The paper discusses the architecture of distributed PACS server for processing large high-quality medical images, with respect to technical specifications of modern medical imaging hardware, as well as international standards in medical imaging software. The MapReduce paradigm is proposed for image reconstruction by server, and the details of utilizing the Hadoop framework for this task are being discussed in order to provide the design of distributed PACS as ergonomic and adapted to the needs of end users as possible.

  19. Lesson 6. Picture unsharpness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikirdin, Eh.G.

    1999-01-01

    Lecture concerning the picture sharpness in biomedical radiography is presented. Notion of picture sharpness and visual acuity as an analyser of picture sharpness is specified. Attention is paid to the POX-curve as a statistical method for assessment of visual acuity. Conceptions of the sensitivity of using X-ray image visualization system together with specificity and accuracy are considered. Among indices of sharp parameters of visualization system the resolution, resolving power, picture unsharpness are discussed. It is shown that gradation and sharp characteristics of the image closely correlate that need an attention in practice to factors determining them [ru

  20. Lying about the valence of affective pictures: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatia M C Lee

    Full Text Available The neural correlates of lying about affective information were studied using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI methodology. Specifically, 13 healthy right-handed Chinese men were instructed to lie about the valence, positive or negative, of pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS while their brain activity was scanned by a 3T Philip Achieva scanner. The key finding is that the neural activity associated with deception is valence-related. Comparing to telling the truth, deception about the valence of the affectively positive pictures was associated with activity in the inferior frontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, precuneus, and middle temporal regions. Lying about the valence of the affectively negative pictures, on the other hand, was associated with activity in the orbital and medial frontal regions. While a clear valence-related effect on deception was observed, common neural regions were also recruited for the process of deception about the valence of the affective pictures. These regions included the lateral prefrontal and inferior parietal regions. Activity in these regions has been widely reported in fMRI studies on deception using affectively-neutral stimuli. The findings of this study reveal the effect of valence on the neural activity associated with deception. Furthermore, the data also help to illustrate the complexity of the neural mechanisms underlying deception.

  1. Large picture archiving and communication systems of the world--Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, R A; Gell, G; Dwyer, S J

    1996-11-01

    A survey of 82 institutions worldwide was done in 1995 to identify large picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) in clinical operation. A continuing strong trend toward the creation and operation of large PACS was identified. In the 15 months since the first such survey the number of clinical large PACS went from 13 to 23, almost a doubling in that short interval. New systems were added in Asia, Europe, and North America. A strong move to primary interpretation from soft copy was identified, and filmless radiology has become a reality. Workstations for interpretation reside mainly within radiology, but one-third of reporting PACS have more than 20 workstations outside of radiology. Fiber distributed data interface networks were the most numerous, but a variety of networks was reported to be in use. Replies on various display times showed surprisingly good, albeit diverse, speeds. The planned archive length of many systems was 60 months, with usually more than 1 year of data on-line. The main large archive and off-line storage media for these systems were optical disks and magneto-optical disks. Compression was not used before interpretation in most cases, but many systems used 2.5:1 compression for on-line, interpreted cases and 10:1 compression for longer-term archiving. A move to digital imaging and communication in medicine interface usage was identified.

  2. Implementation of a departmental picture archiving and communication system: a productivity and cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macyszyn, Luke; Lega, Brad; Bohman, Leif-Erik; Latefi, Ahmad; Smith, Michelle J; Malhotra, Neil R; Welch, William; Grady, Sean M

    2013-09-01

    Digital radiology enhances productivity and results in long-term cost savings. However, the viewing, storage, and sharing of outside imaging studies on compact discs at ambulatory offices and hospitals pose a number of unique challenges to a surgeon's efficiency and clinical workflow. To improve the efficiency and clinical workflow of an academic neurosurgical practice when evaluating patients with outside radiological studies. Open-source software and commercial hardware were used to design and implement a departmental picture archiving and communications system (PACS). The implementation of a departmental PACS system significantly improved productivity and enhanced collaboration in a variety of clinical settings. Using published data on the rate of information technology problems associated with outside studies on compact discs, this system produced a cost savings ranging from $6250 to $33600 and from $43200 to $72000 for 2 cohorts, urgent transfer and spine clinic patients, respectively, therefore justifying the costs of the system in less than a year. The implementation of a departmental PACS system using open-source software is straightforward and cost-effective and results in significant gains in surgeon productivity when evaluating patients with outside imaging studies.

  3. Are 1-K display systems suitable for primary diagnosis from radiographic images in picture archiving and communications systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, R.M.; Todd-Pokropek, A.; Highman, J.H.; Porter, A.; Craig, J.O.M.C.

    1990-01-01

    The authors of this paper performed a formal clinical evaluation of a commercially available high-resolution (1,280-line) picture archiving and communications system workstation. Diagnostic accuracy with plain radiographs was compared with that with laser-digitized images, with the use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve methods. Four major clinical groups were studied: hand films of patients with renal osteodystrophy, chest films of patients with pneumocystis pneumonia, mammograms of patients with breast carcinoma, and skull films of patients with fractures. More than 13,000 observations were recorded

  4. Study on user interface of pathology picture archiving and communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dasueran; Kang, Peter; Yun, Jungmin; Park, Sung-Hye; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Park, Peom

    2014-01-01

    It is necessary to improve the pathology workflow. A workflow task analysis was performed using a pathology picture archiving and communication system (pathology PACS) in order to propose a user interface for the Pathology PACS considering user experience. An interface analysis of the Pathology PACS in Seoul National University Hospital and a task analysis of the pathology workflow were performed by observing recorded video. Based on obtained results, a user interface for the Pathology PACS was proposed. Hierarchical task analysis of Pathology PACS was classified into 17 tasks including 1) pre-operation, 2) text, 3) images, 4) medical record viewer, 5) screen transition, 6) pathology identification number input, 7) admission date input, 8) diagnosis doctor, 9) diagnosis code, 10) diagnosis, 11) pathology identification number check box, 12) presence or absence of images, 13) search, 14) clear, 15) Excel save, 16) search results, and 17) re-search. And frequently used menu items were identified and schematized. A user interface for the Pathology PACS considering user experience could be proposed as a preliminary step, and this study may contribute to the development of medical information systems based on user experience and usability.

  5. Perception and multimeaning analysis of graphic symbols for Thai picture-based communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chompoobutr, Sarinya; Potibal, Puttachart; Boriboon, Monthika; Phantachat, Wantanee

    2013-03-01

    Graphic symbols are a vital part of most augmentative and alternative communication systems. Communication fluency of graphic symbol user depends on how well the relationship between symbols and its referents are learnt. The first aim of this study is to survey the perception of the selected graphic symbols across seven age groups of participants with different educational background. Sixty-five individuals identified themselves as Thai and ranged in age from 10 to 50 years participated in the investigation used 64 graphic symbols. The last aim of this study is to demonstrate the analysis of multimeaning graphic symbols, which will be used in Thai Picture-based communication system. The twenty graphic symbols with 9-14 meanings are analyzed in both syntactic and semantic aspects. The meanings are divided into five categories: noun, verb/adjective, size, color and shape. Respect to the first aim, the results suggest that the participants under investigation with different sexes, age groups, as well as various educational levels perceive the features or inherent characteristics of such graphic symbols similarly. The results of the analysis of multimeaning of graphic symbols indicate that the foundation of Minspeak, polysemy and redundancy of the words illustrates the inherit meanings of the real-life objects, and it also conveys that the Thai graphic symbols are influenced by numerous factors in Thai circumstance such as ability, motivation, experience, worldview and culture.

  6. Picture archiving and communication system planning as a whole practice in step by step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Min; Luo Song; Lei Weiyong; Wen Hongyu; Wu Hongxing; Wang Xiaolin; Wang Xuejian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the whole design and to carry through the implement project in building picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Methods: All modalities with or without DICOM were integrated into PACS to store the whole images and share those resources. Windows NT and SQL 7.0 were used on the servers to store all kinds of patient image files, and those images could be viewed on all the web-based clinical workstations and the license was up to 100. RAID 5 online HDD which had the capability to store images for 3 months and DLT long term archive storage up to 7 T in size were built in the system. The PACS already finished the integration with RIS and HIS to expand images to the whole hospital and ready to be an imaging center of one area. Results: The founded typical PACS connected hospital equipments at present and realized primary no-film mode in department of radiology. The PACS had extended to the whole hospital clinical rooms, surgery, and emergency treatment room, etc. The PACS was connected to the HIS and networks of other hospitals. The center of image data was established, realizing the connection among the center of image data together with current area and other area hospitals. The PACS was easy to use for the doctors and improved the work efficiency. Conclusion: The practice has proved that current project related PACS planning as a whold practice in step by step is viable and successful

  7. Effects of cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP triple knockdown on prostate cancer cell susceptibility to apoptosis, cell survival and proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowling Catherine

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manipulating apoptotic resistance represents an important strategy for the treatment of hormone refractory prostate cancer. We hypothesised that the Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP Proteins may be mediating this resistance and knockdown of cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP would increase sensitivity to apoptosis. Methods cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP where knocked down either individually or in combination using siRNA in androgen independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells as confirmed by real-time PCR and western blotting. Cells were then treated with TRAIL, Etoposide, or Tunicamycin, and apoptosis assessed by PI DNA staining. Apoptosis was confirmed with Annexin V labelling and measurement of PARP cleavage, and was inhibited using the pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD.fmk. Clonogenic assays and assessment of ID-1 expression by western blotting were used to measure recovery and proliferation. Results PC-3 are resistant to TRAIL induced apoptosis and have elevated expression of cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP. Combined knockdown sensitised PC-3 to TRAIL induced apoptosis, but not to Etoposide or Tunicmycin, with corresponding increases in caspase activity and PARP cleavage which was inhibited by ZVAD.fmk. Triple knock down decreased proliferation which was confirmed by decreased ID-1 expression. Conclusion Simultaneous knock down of the IAPs not only sensitised the PC-3 to TRAIL but also inhibited their proliferation rates and clonogenic survival. The inability to alter sensitivity to other triggers of apoptosis suggests that this effect is specific for death receptor pathways and knock down might facilitate immune-surveillance mechanisms to counter cancer progression and, in combination with therapeutic approaches using TRAIL, could represent an important treatment strategy.

  8. Effects of cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP triple knockdown on prostate cancer cell susceptibility to apoptosis, cell survival and proliferation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gill, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Manipulating apoptotic resistance represents an important strategy for the treatment of hormone refractory prostate cancer. We hypothesised that the Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) Proteins may be mediating this resistance and knockdown of cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP would increase sensitivity to apoptosis. METHODS: cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP where knocked down either individually or in combination using siRNA in androgen independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells as confirmed by real-time PCR and western blotting. Cells were then treated with TRAIL, Etoposide, or Tunicamycin, and apoptosis assessed by PI DNA staining. Apoptosis was confirmed with Annexin V labelling and measurement of PARP cleavage, and was inhibited using the pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD.fmk. Clonogenic assays and assessment of ID-1 expression by western blotting were used to measure recovery and proliferation. RESULTS: PC-3 are resistant to TRAIL induced apoptosis and have elevated expression of cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP. Combined knockdown sensitised PC-3 to TRAIL induced apoptosis, but not to Etoposide or Tunicmycin, with corresponding increases in caspase activity and PARP cleavage which was inhibited by ZVAD.fmk. Triple knock down decreased proliferation which was confirmed by decreased ID-1 expression. CONCLUSION: Simultaneous knock down of the IAPs not only sensitised the PC-3 to TRAIL but also inhibited their proliferation rates and clonogenic survival. The inability to alter sensitivity to other triggers of apoptosis suggests that this effect is specific for death receptor pathways and knock down might facilitate immune-surveillance mechanisms to counter cancer progression and, in combination with therapeutic approaches using TRAIL, could represent an important treatment strategy.

  9. Reengineering the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) process for digital imaging networks PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, M C; Lewis, T E; Kinsey, T V

    1999-05-01

    Prior to June 1997, military picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) were planned, procured, and installed with key decisions on the system, equipment, and even funding sources made through a research and development office called Medical Diagnostic Imaging Systems (MDIS). Beginning in June 1997, the Joint Imaging Technology Project Office (JITPO) initiated a collaborative and consultative process for planning and implementing PACS into military treatment facilities through a new Department of Defense (DoD) contract vehicle called digital imaging networks (DIN)-PACS. The JITPO reengineered this process incorporating multiple organizations and politics. The reengineered PACS process administered through the JITPO transformed the decision process and accountability from a single office to a consultative method that increased end-user knowledge, responsibility, and ownership in PACS. The JITPO continues to provide information and services that assist multiple groups and users in rendering PACS planning and implementation decisions. Local site project managers are involved from the outset and this end-user collaboration has made the sometimes difficult transition to PACS an easier and more acceptable process for all involved. Corporately, this process saved DoD sites millions by having PACS plans developed within the government and proposed to vendors second, and then having vendors respond specifically to those plans. The integrity and efficiency of the process have reduced the opportunity for implementing nonstandard systems while sharing resources and reducing wasted government dollars. This presentation will describe the chronology of changes, encountered obstacles, and lessons learned within the reengineering of the PACS process for DIN-PACS.

  10. IAPs: from caspase inhibitors to modulators of NF-kappaB, inflammation and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Hansen, Mads; Meier, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    . The development of such inhibitors has radically changed our knowledge of the signalling processes that are regulated by IAPs. Recent studies indicate that IAPs not only regulate caspases and apoptosis, but also modulate inflammatory signalling and immunity, mitogenic kinase signalling, proliferation and mitosis...

  11. Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins in regulation of inflammation and innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Rune B; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    , and XIAP facilitate ubiquitin-dependent signaling activated by these PRRs and mediate activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) transcription factors as well as the MAP kinases p38 and JNK. Here, we review the current understanding of IAP-mediated PRR signaling and how IAP proteins might present...

  12. IAP/APA evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goor, H. van; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There have been substantial improvements in the management of acute pancreatitis since the publication of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) treatment guidelines in 2002. A collaboration of the IAP and the American Pancreatic Association (APA) was undertaken to revise

  13. IAP/APA evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, Marc; van Santvoort, Hjalmar; Freeman, Martin; Gardner, Timothy; Mayerle, Julia; Vege, Santhi Swaroop; Werner, Jens; Banks, Peter; McKay, Colin; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos; French, Jeremy; Gooszen, Hein; Johnson, Colin; Sarr, Mike; Takada, Tadahiro; Windsor, John; Saluja, Ashok; Liddle, Rodger; Papachristou, Georgios; Singh, Vijay; Rünzi, Michael; Wu, Bechien; Singh, Vikesh; Bollen, Thomas; Morgan, Desiree; Mortele, Koenraad; Mittal, Anubhav; En-qiang, Mao; de Waele, Jan; Petrov, Maxim; Dellinger, Patchen; Lerch, Markus M.; Anderson, Roland; McClave, Stephen; Hartwig, Werner; Bruno, Marco; Oria, Alejandro; Baron, Todd; Castillo, Carlos Fernandez-Del; Fagenholz, Peter; Horvath, Karen; van Baal, Mark; Nealon, William; Andren-Sandberg, Ake; Bakker, Olaf; Bassi, Claudio; Buchler, Markus; Boermeester, Marja; Bradley, Ed; Fockens, Paul

    2013-01-01

    There have been substantial improvements in the management of acute pancreatitis since the publication of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) treatment guidelines in 2002. A collaboration of the IAP and the American Pancreatic Association (APA) was undertaken to revise these

  14. Prospect: A Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)-based Instant Messaging Application for Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Pravind; Zainuri Saringat, Mohd; Mustapha, Aida; Zainal, Abidah

    2017-08-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASC) has widely gained the common attention from the public especially autistic communities. Individuals with ASC are said to have poor verbal skills and this affects them in carrying out their daily basis which they are afraid to expose themselves to the world due to their problems. ASC is diagnosed among children ranging from ages 5-12 years old and they suffer from the abnormal functioning of the brain which in turn causes lack of development activities. Thus, studies have shown that diagrammatic approaches help children with ASC to overcome their issues and improvise their visual and verbal skills. Picture Exchange Communication System or PECS consists of a series of illustrated cards and each cards has its own illustration with a caption on it. These children will understand the cards and they can compile several other cards to form sentences. This paper presents a mobile application called the Prospect, which has been developed using the agile development model for digital representation of PECS. The application is hoped to enhance the learning process and a better yielding results.

  15. Experience measuring performance improvement in multiphase picture archiving and communications systems implementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G; Reed, D H

    1999-05-01

    When planning a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) implementation and determining which equipment will be implemented in earlier and later phases, collection and analysis of selected data will aid in setting implementation priorities. If baseline data are acquired relative to performance objectives, the same information used for implementation planning can be used to measure performance improvement and outcomes. The main categories of data to choose from are: (1) financial data; (2) productivity data; (3) operational parameters; (4) clinical data; and (5) information about customer satisfaction. In the authors' experience, detailed workflow data have not proved valuable in measuring PACS performance and outcomes. Reviewing only one category of data in planning will not provide adequate basis for targeting operational improvements that will lead to the most significant gains. Quality improvement takes into account all factors in production: human capacity, materials, operating capital and assets. Once we have identified key areas of focus for quality improvement in each phase, we can translate objectives into implementation requirements and finally into detailed functional and performance requirements. Here, Integration Resources reports its experience measuring PACS performance relative to phased implementation strategies for three large medical centers. Each medical center had its own objectives for overcoming image management, physical/geographical, and functional/technical barriers. The report outlines (1) principal financial and nonfinancial measures used as performance indicators; (2) implementation strategies chosen by each of the three medical centers; and (3) the results of those strategies as compared with baseline data.

  16. Image fusion using MIM software via picture archiving and communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhaoxiang; Jiang Maosong

    2001-01-01

    The preliminary studies of the multimodality image registration and fusion were performed using an image fusion software and a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) to explore the methodology. Original image voluminal data were acquired with a CT scanner, MR and dual-head coincidence SPECT, respectively. The data sets from all imaging devices were queried, retrieved, transferred and accessed via DICOM PACS. The image fusion was performed at the SPECT ICON work-station, where the MIM (Medical Image Merge) fusion software was installed. The images were created by re-slicing original volume on the fly. The image volumes were aligned by translation and rotation of these view ports with respect to the original volume orientation. The transparency factor and contrast were adjusted in order that both volumes can be visualized in the merged images. The image volume data of CT, MR and nuclear medicine were transferred, accessed and loaded via PACS successfully. The perfect fused images of chest CT/ 18 F-FDG and brain MR/SPECT were obtained. These results showed that image fusion technique using PACS was feasible and practical. Further experimentation and larger validation studies were needed to explore the full potential of the clinical use

  17. Planning factors for developing an enterprise-wide picture archiving and communication system maintenance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, S; Romlein, J; Chacko, A K; Wider, R

    2000-05-01

    Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) maintenance on an individual site basis has historically been a complex and costly challenge. With the advent of enterprise-wide PACS projects such as the Virtual Radiology Environment (VRE) project, the challenge of a maintenance program with even more complexities has presented itself. The approach of the project management team for the VRE project is not one of reactive maintenance, but one of highly proactive planning and negotiations, in hopes of capitalizing on the economies of scale of an enterprise-wide PACS maintenance program. A proactive maintenance program is one aspect of life-cycle management. As with any capital acquisition, life-cycle management may be used to manage the specific project aspects related to PACS. The purpose of an enterprise-wide warranty and maintenance life-cycle management approach is to maintain PACS at its maximum operational efficiency and utilization levels through a flexible, shared, yet symbiotic relationship between local, regional, and vendor resources. These goals include providing maximum operational performance levels on a local, regional, and enterprise basis, while maintaining acceptable costs and resource utilization levels. This goal must be achieved without negatively impacting point of care activities, regardless of changes to the clinical business environment.

  18. Teaching Children with Autism to Engage in Peer-Directed Mands Using a Picture Exchange Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, Amber R.; Kodak, Tiffany; Fisher, Wayne W.; Gawley-Bullington, Elizabeth M.; Bouxsein, Kelly J.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) plus prompting to increase peer-directed mands for preferred items using a picture exchange communication system (PECS). Two nonvocal individuals with autism participated. Independent mands with a peer increased with the implementation of DRA plus prompting for both…

  19. Augmentative and Alternative Communication in Autism: A Comparison of the Picture Exchange Communication System and Speech-Output Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Miriam Chacon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative efficacy study was to investigate the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and a speech-generating device (SGD) in developing requesting skills, social-communicative behavior, and speech for three elementary-age children with severe autism and little to no functional speech. Requesting was selected as the…

  20. The Picture Exchange Communication System: Effects on Manding and Speech Development for School-Aged Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt; Crozier, Shannon; Alazett, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS; Frost & Bondy, 2002) on the manding (requesting) and speech development of school-aged children with autism. In study 1, two participants, Damian and Bob, were taught PECS within a delayed multiple baseline design. Both participants demonstrated increased levels of manding…

  1. Comparative Efficacy of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) versus a Speech-Generating Device: Effects on Requesting Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Miriam C.; Wendt, Oliver; Subramanian, Anu; Hsu, Ning

    2013-01-01

    An experimental, single-subject research study investigated the comparative efficacy of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) versus a speech-generating device (SGD) in developing requesting skills for three elementary-age children with severe autism and little to no functional speech. Results demonstrated increases in requesting…

  2. Effects of Iconicity on Requesting with the Picture Exchange Communication System in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeier, Katie; Schlosser, Ralf W.; Luiselli, James K.; Harrington, Caroline; Carter, Beth

    2008-01-01

    Research on graphic symbol learning suggests that symbols with a greater visual resemblance to their referents (greater iconicity) are more easily learned. The iconicity hypothesis has not yet been explored within the intervention protocol of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Within the PECS protocol, participants do not point to a…

  3. Brief Report: Increasing Communication Skills for an Elementary-Aged Student with Autism Using the Picture Exchange Communication System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravits, Tamara R.; Kamps, Debra M.; Kemmerer, Katie; Potucek, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System on the spontaneous communication skills and social interactions of a 6-year-old girl with autism across her home and school environments were evaluated. Results indicated increases in spontaneous language, increases in intelligible verbalizations in two of three settings, and changes in peer…

  4. Effects of Implementing the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) with Adults with Developmental Disabilities and Severe Communication Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Carl G.; Mayer, G. Roy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of "Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) training, using a multiple baseline design on the independent initiations of three adults with developmental disabilities and severe communication deficits. All participants increased their independent initiations, although at different…

  5. A Pilot Evaluation Study of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiati, Iliana; Howlin, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    A study evaluated the effects of training 47 teachers of children with autism in the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Following training, significant, rapid increases were recorded in the level of PECS attained by the students (n=34), in students' PECS vocabulary, and in students' use of PECS. (Contains references.) (CR)

  6. Finite-volume Atmospheric Model of the IAP/LASG (FAMIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The Finite-volume Atmospheric Model of the IAP/LASG (FAMIL) is introduced in this work. FAMIL have the flexible horizontal and vertical resolutions up to 25km and 1Pa respectively, which currently running on the "Tianhe 1A&2" supercomputers. FAMIL is the atmospheric component of the third-generation Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land climate System model (FGOALS3) which will participate in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). In addition to describing the dynamical core and physical parameterizations of FAMIL, this talk describes the simulated characteristics of energy and water balances, precipitation, Asian Summer Monsoon and stratospheric circulation, and compares them with observational/reanalysis data. Finally, the model biases as well as possible solutions are discussed.

  7. The impact of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) upon an intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, Jessamy; Weatherburn, Gwyn; Bryan, Stirling

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the introduction of PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) upon image availability in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and the consequent impact upon the behaviour of the ICU physicians, in terms of the initiation of image-based clinical actions. Design: A before and after study was used to compare the speed of image availability prior to, and following, the implementation of a hospital-wide PACS. Setting: The research was part of an economic evaluation of PACS at Hammersmith Hospital, West London. Patients and participants: All ICU patients who were X-rayed during two pre-PACS and one post-PACS data collection periods were included within the study. Measurements: The times of: the X-ray request; acquisition; availability on ICU; and of any image-based clinical action taken by the ICU physician were recorded by radiographers and ICU physicians. Results: PACS significantly reduced the time between request and image availability on ICU for routine X-rays but did not have any measurable impact upon the time clinical actions were initiated by ICU physicians. The data on non-routine images were statistically inconclusive. Conclusions: This study shows that PACS significantly improves the speed of delivery of routine images to the ICU, but it appears that the instigation of image-based clinical actions is determined by other organisational factors in ICU, such as ward rounds, rather than the availability of the image for viewing. Further work is required on non-routine X-rays to clarify the impact of PACS on physician behaviour in clinically urgent situations

  8. Erotic subset for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS ERO): cross-sexual comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzba, Małgorzata; Riegel, Monika; Pucz, Anna; Leśniewska, Zuzanna; Dragan, Wojciech Ł; Gola, Mateusz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Research on the processing of sexual stimuli has proved that such material has high priority in human cognition. Yet, although sex differences in response to sexual stimuli were extensively discussed in the literature, sexual orientation was given relatively little consideration, and material suitable for relevant research is difficult to come by. With this in mind, we present a collection of 200 erotic images, accompanied by their self-report ratings of emotional valence and arousal by homo- and heterosexual males and females (n = 80, divided into four equal-sized subsamples). The collection complements the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) and is intended to be used as stimulus material in experimental research. The erotic images are divided into five categories, depending on their content: opposite-sex couple (50), male couple (50), female couple (50), male (25) and female (25). Additional 100 control images from the NAPS depicting people in a non-erotic context were also used in the study. We showed that recipient sex and sexual orientation strongly influenced the evaluation of erotic content. Thus, comparisons of valence and arousal ratings in different subject groups will help researchers select stimuli set for the purpose of various experimental designs. To facilitate the use of the dataset, we provide an on-line tool, which allows the user to browse the images interactively and select proper stimuli on the basis of several parameters. The NAPS ERO image collection together with the data are available to the scientific community for non-commercial use at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl.

  9. Effects of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System on oxytocin and cortisol blood levels in mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Krause

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the hormone of affiliation and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation. Therefore, pre-post effects of AAP administration on plasma oxytocin and serum cortisol levels were investigated in n = 44 mothers 3 months after parturition. Oxytocin levels increased from pre to post by the significant majority of 73% participants (p = .004 and cortisol decreased by the significant majority of 73% participants (p = .004. Interestingly, no association between alterations in oxytocin and cortisol were found; this suggests taking a model of two independent processes into considerations. These results show that the AAP test procedure induces an oxytocin response. Concerning the results within the four AAP representation subgroups, our hypothesis of a particularly strong increase in oxytocin in secure mothers was not confirmed; however, in secure mothers we observed a particularly strong decrease in cortisol, consistent with our hypotheses. Effect sizes are reported, allowing the replication of results in a larger study with sufficient sample size to draw final conclusions with respect to differences in OT and cortisol alterations depending on attachment representation. When interpreting the results, one should keep in mind that this study investigated lactating mothers. Thus, the generalizability of results is limited and future studies should

  10. Social-communicative effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism, concurrently taking into account standardized psychometric data, standardized functional assessment of adaptive behaviour, and information on social-communicative variables coded in an unstructured setting. Eighteen preschool children (mean age = 38.78 months) were assigned to two intervention approaches, i.e. PECS and Conventional Language Therapy (CLT). Both PECS (Phases I-IV) and CLT were delivered three times per week, in 30-min sessions, for 6 months. Outcome measures were the following: Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) domain scores for Communication and Reciprocal Social Interaction; Language and Personal-Social subscales of the Griffiths' Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS); Communication and Social Abilities domains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS); and several social-communicative variables coded in an unstructured setting. Results demonstrated that the two groups did not differ at Time 1 (pre-treatment assessment), whereas at Time 2 (post-test) the PECS group showed a significant improvement with respect to the CLT group on the VABS social domain score and on almost all the social-communicative abilities coded in the unstructured setting (i.e. joint attention, request, initiation, cooperative play, but not eye contact). These findings showed that PECS intervention (Phases I-IV) can improve social-communicative skills in children with autism. This improvement is especially evident in standardized measures of adaptive behaviour and measures derived from the observation of children in an unstructured setting. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  11. Erotic subset for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS ERO: cross-sexual comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata eWierzba

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on the processing of sexual stimuli has proved that such material has high priority in human cognition. Yet, although sex differences in response to sexual stimuli were extensively discussed in the literature, sexual orientation was given relatively little consideration, and material suitable for relevant research is difficult to come by. With this in mind, we present a collection of 200 erotic images, accompanied by their self-report ratings of emotional valence and arousal by homo- and heterosexual males and females (n = 80, divided into four equal-sized subsamples. The collection complements the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS and is intended to be used as stimulus material in experimental research. The erotic images are divided into five categories, depending on their content: opposite-sex couple (50, male couple (50, female couple (50, male (25 and female (25. Additional 100 control images from the NAPS depicting people in a non-erotic context were also used in the study. We showed that recipient sex and sexual orientation strongly influenced the evaluation of erotic content. Thus, comparisons of valence and arousal ratings in different subject groups will help researchers select stimuli set for the purpose of various experimental designs. To facilitate the use of the dataset, we provide an on-line tool, which allows the user to browse the images interactively and select proper stimuli on the basis of several parameters. The NAPS ERO image collection together with the data are available to the scientific community for non-commercial use at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl.

  12. Effects of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System on Oxytocin and Cortisol Blood Levels in Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Sabrina; Pokorny, Dan; Schury, Katharina; Doyen-Waldecker, Cornelia; Hulbert, Anna-Lena; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Gündel, Harald; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the "hormone of affiliation" and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation. Therefore, pre-post effects of AAP administration on plasma oxytocin and serum cortisol levels were investigated in n = 44 mothers 3 months after parturition. Oxytocin levels increased from pre to post in the significant majority of 73% participants ( p = 0.004) and cortisol decreased in the significant majority of 73% participants ( p = 0.004). Interestingly, no association between alterations in oxytocin and cortisol were found; this suggests taking a model of two independent processes into considerations. These results show that the AAP test procedure induces an oxytocin response. Concerning the results within the four AAP representation subgroups, our hypothesis of a particularly strong increase in oxytocin in secure mothers was not confirmed; however, in secure mothers we observed a particularly strong decrease in cortisol. Effect sizes are reported, allowing the replication of results in a larger study with sufficient sample size to draw final conclusions with respect to differences in OT and cortisol alterations depending on attachment representation. When interpreting the results, one should keep in mind that this study investigated lactating mothers. Thus, the generalizability of results is limited and future studies should investigate non-lactating healthy females as well

  13. Predicting progress in Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) use by children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Greg; Tohill, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a widely used communication intervention for non-verbal children with autism spectrum disorder. Findings for the benefits of PECS have almost universally been positive, although there is very limited information about the characteristics of PECS users that determine the amount of progress that they are likely to make. To explore the utility of using children's developmental age to predict the subsequent degree of progress using PECS. In a retrospective study, 23 non-verbal 5- and 6-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder attending a special school were assessed to determine their highest level of PECS ability. They were then allocated to one of two groups depending on whether or not they had mastered PECS phase III. All participants had been assessed using the Psycho-Educational Profile-Revised (PEP-R) on entry to the school and before being introduced to PECS. Total developmental age scores were examined to determine whether they accurately predicted membership of the two PECS ability groups. All the 16 children who had mastered PECS phase III had total developmental age scores of 16 months or above, whilst six of the seven children who had not progressed beyond phase III scored below 16 months--the other child had a score of 16 months. The assessment of the developmental level of potential PECS users may provide valuable predictive information for speech-and-language therapists and other professionals in relation to the likely degree of progress and in setting realistic and achievable targets. © 2010 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  14. A data acquisition system intended for on-line analusis of the pictures from large bubble chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, F.; Aria, E.; Baumgarten, R.; Berges, G.; Blanc, F.; Christophel, E.; Engel, J.P.; Graup, J.P.; Guyonnet, J.L.; Hauer, G.; Jaeg, R.; Kapps, E.; Lloret, A.; Lott, F.; Marsaudon, J.C.; Oswald, R.; Persigny, J.; Priss, R.; Schuster, G.; Unamuno, S. de; Volmer, P.

    1977-01-01

    The system of analysis of large bubble chamber pictures, such as from Gargamelle, BEBC, realized in the heavy liquid bubble chamber group with scanning and measurements stations on-line with a CDC 1700 computer is presented. The general characteristics of these stations and of the computer are discussed and emphasis is put on the conception and functions of the analysis programmes: scanning, measurement and data processing. The data acquisition system runs in a context of real time multiprogrammation [fr

  15. A CDC 1700 on-line system for the analysis, data logging and monitoring of big bubble chamber pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyonnet, J.-L.

    1975-01-01

    This work presents the analysis system of large bubble chamber such as Gargamelle, BEBC pictures realized in the heavy liquid bubble chamber group with scanning and measurement stations on-line with a CDC 1700 computer. This work deals with the general characteristics of these stations and of the computer, and puts emphasis on the conception and functions of the analysis programmes: scanning, measurement and data processing. The data acquisition system runs in a context of real time multiprogrammation [fr

  16. Picture archiving and communications systems in radiation oncology (PACSRO): tools for a physician-based digital image review system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGee, K.P.; Das, I.J.; Fein, D.A.; Martin, E.E.; Schultheiss, T.E.; Hanks, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    Digital imaging is becoming more and more important in the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of patients in radiation oncology. In order to facilitate the most efficient interface of this technology to physicians and other users of this information, a medical image display system (MID) has been developed at the Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC). The system runs on 20 personal computers situated in physicians offices as well as a modified system located in the radiation oncology conference room. Access to CT, MRI, and EPID information is achieved through an Ethernet connection to the hospital picture archiving and communications system (PACS). Over a 1-year period a total of 503 patients and 3845 images have been stored on the system. Physician approval using the MID system (without conventional films) was performed on 106 patients. Of these, 22%, 16%, 11%, 10%, and 9% consisted of breast, prostate, pelvic, lung, and head and neck patients, respectively. Digital images sent from a variety of image sources to the MID system take up to 15 s to process and format while image access and display can take 2-5 s, dependent upon image size and speed of the host computer

  17. Advanced launch system (ALS) - Electrical actuation and power systems improve operability and cost picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrrical power system and controls for all aviation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a sdpecific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military ans civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of comercial applications.

  18. Advanced Launch System (ALS): Electrical actuation and power systems improve operability and cost picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrical power system and controls for all actuation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a specific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military and civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of commercial applications.

  19. PEOPLE RETRIEVAL BY MEANS OF COMPOSITE PICTURES: METHODS, SYSTEMS AND PRACTICAL DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Kukharev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the problem of people retrieval by means of composite pictures and methods of its practical realization. Earlier on, the problem was posed in the previous paper by the authors, and this paper deals with its further development. The starting premise here is that for the successful search of people by their sketches it is necessary to transform these sketches into sets of populations of sketches imitating evidence of «group of witnesses» and evidence with incomplete information in verbal portraits. Variants of structures for benchmark «photo-sketch» databases are presented, intended for modeling and practical realization of original photos retrieval by sketches, which new component is a population of sketches. Problems of preprocessing for initial sketches and original photos and its influence on the result of their comparison are discussed. Simple sketch recognition systems (Simple FaRetSys and a problem of original photos retrieval by the sketches are considered. Shortcomings of such systems are shown and new decisions on extending and development of simple systems (Extended FaRetSys are presented. Experiments on searching of original photos by sketches in the CUFS database of sketches and similar experiments on widely known FERET and CUFSF facial databases are presented. Three frameworks are offered for retrieval performance improvement. In the first one, original sketches are transformed into populations, and then in these populations the sketch similar to the given sketch (Forensic Sketch is already defined. The class of the sketch found in a population «by definition» unambiguously corresponds to a class of the original photo. In the second framework, the Forensic Sketch is transformed to a population of sketches, and all original sketches in a benchmarking database are compared to sketches from populations of the Forensic Sketch. The class of matches is determined in the same manner as in the first framework. The third

  20. Perceptual Characterization of the Macronutrient Picture System (MaPS for Food Image fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill L. King

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Food image fMRI paradigms are used widely for investigating the neural basis of ingestive behavior. However, these paradigms have not been validated in terms of ingestive behavior constructs, engagement of food-relevant neural systems, or test-retest reliability, making the generalizability of study findings unclear. Therefore, we validated the Macronutrient Picture System (MaPS (McClernon et al., 2013, which includes food images from the six categories represented in the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ (Geiselman et al., 1998. Twenty-five healthy young adults (n = 21 female, mean age = 20.6 ± 1.1 years, mean BMI = 22.1 ± 1.9 kg/m2 rated the MaPS images in terms of visual interest, appetitive quality, nutrition, emotional valence, liking, and frequency of consumption, and completed the FPQ. In a second study, 12 individuals (n=8 female, mean age = 25.0 ± 6.5 years, mean BMI = 28.2 ± 8.7 kg/m2 viewed MaPS and control images (vegetables and non-food during two separate 3T BOLD fMRI scans after fasting overnight. Intuitively, high fat/high sugar (HF/HS and high fat/high complex carbohydrate (HF/HCCHO images achieved higher liking and appetitive ratings, and lower nutrition ratings, than low fat/low complex carbohydrate/high protein (LF/LCHO/HP images on average. Within each food category, FPQ scores correlated strongly with MaPS image liking ratings (p < 0.001. Brain activation differences between viewing images of HF/HS and vegetables, and between HF/HCCHO and vegetables, were seen in several reward-related brain regions (e.g., putamen, insula, and medial frontal gyrus. Intra-individual, inter-scan agreement in a summary measure of brain activation differences in seven reward network regions of interest was high (ICC = 0.61, and was even higher when two distinct sets of food images with matching visual ratings were shown in the two scans (ICC = 0.74. These results suggest that the MaPS provides valid representation of food

  1. Picture perfect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Mette; Sørensen, Niels Ulrik

    Picture perfect’ – when perfection becomes the new normal This paper draws on perspectives from three different studies. One study, which focuses on youth life and lack of well-being (Sørensen et al 2011), one study on youth life on the margins of society (Katznelson et al 2015) and one study...

  2. Picture Postage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterer, Irv

    2009-01-01

    With the popularity of e-mail cutting into revenues, Canada Post is always searching for a marketing strategy that would encourage people to use the mail. "Picture Postage" is such an initiative. This popular program allows individuals to create their own stamps for family and friends. This opportunity also provides a vehicle for…

  3. Overcoming chemotherapy drug resistance by targeting inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Rama; McCallum, Jennifer E; Varghese, Elizabeth; Florea, Ana-Maria; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2017-07-01

    Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) are a family of proteins that play a significant role in the control of programmed cell death (PCD). PCD is essential to maintain healthy cell turnover within tissue but also to fight disease or infection. Uninhibited, IAPs can suppress apoptosis and promote cell cycle progression. Therefore, it is unsurprising that cancer cells demonstrate significantly elevated expression levels of IAPs, resulting in improved cell survival, enhanced tumor growth and subsequent metastasis. Therapies to target IAPs in cancer has garnered substantial scientific interest and as resistance to anti-cancer agents becomes more prevalent, targeting IAPs has become an increasingly attractive strategy to re-sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapies, antibody based-therapies and TRAIL therapy. Antagonism strategies to modulate the actions of XIAP, cIAP1/2 and survivin are the central focus of current research and this review highlights advances within this field with particular emphasis upon the development and specificity of second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (SMAC) mimetics (synthetic analogs of endogenously expressed inhibitors of IAPs SMAC/DIABLO). While we highlight the potential of SMAC mimetics as effective single agent or combinatory therapies to treat cancer we also discuss the likely clinical implications of resistance to SMAC mimetic therapy, occasionally observed in cancer cell lines.

  4. Multiply Controlled Verbal Operants: An Analysis and Extension to the Picture Exchange Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondy, A.; Tincani, M.; Frost, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior as a framework for understanding language acquisition in children with autism. We describe Skinner's analysis of pure and impure verbal operants and illustrate how this analysis may be applied to the design of communication training programs. The picture exchange communication system…

  5. The low-order wavefront control system for the PICTURE-C mission: high-speed image acquisition and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewawasam, Kuravi; Mendillo, Christopher B.; Howe, Glenn A.; Martel, Jason; Finn, Susanna C.; Cook, Timothy A.; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    2017-09-01

    The Planetary Imaging Concept Testbed Using a Recoverable Experiment - Coronagraph (PICTURE-C) mission will directly image debris disks and exozodiacal dust around nearby stars from a high-altitude balloon using a vector vortex coronagraph. The PICTURE-C low-order wavefront control (LOWC) system will be used to correct time-varying low-order aberrations due to pointing jitter, gravity sag, thermal deformation, and the gondola pendulum motion. We present the hardware and software implementation of the low-order ShackHartmann and reflective Lyot stop sensors. Development of the high-speed image acquisition and processing system is discussed with the emphasis on the reduction of hardware and computational latencies through the use of a real-time operating system and optimized data handling. By characterizing all of the LOWC latencies, we describe techniques to achieve a framerate of 200 Hz with a mean latency of ˜378 μs

  6. Television system in which digitised picture signals subjected to a transform coding are transmitted from an encoding station to a decoding station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1989-01-01

    Television system in which digitalized picture signals subjected to a transform coding are transmitted from an encoding station to a decoding station. In a television system a digital picture signal is subjected to a transform coding for the purpose of bit rate reduction. In order to detect motion

  7. The National Institutes of Health Clinical Center Digital Imaging Network, Picture Archival and Communication System, and Radiology Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldszal, A F; Brown, G K; McDonald, H J; Vucich, J J; Staab, E V

    2001-06-01

    In this work, we describe the digital imaging network (DIN), picture archival and communication system (PACS), and radiology information system (RIS) currently being implemented at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (NIH). These systems are presently in clinical operation. The DIN is a redundant meshed network designed to address gigabit density and expected high bandwidth requirements for image transfer and server aggregation. The PACS projected workload is 5.0 TB of new imaging data per year. Its architecture consists of a central, high-throughput Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data repository and distributed redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) servers employing fiber-channel technology for immediate delivery of imaging data. On demand distribution of images and reports to clinicians and researchers is accomplished via a clustered web server. The RIS follows a client-server model and provides tools to order exams, schedule resources, retrieve and review results, and generate management reports. The RIS-hospital information system (HIS) interfaces include admissions, discharges, and transfers (ATDs)/demographics, orders, appointment notifications, doctors update, and results.

  8. The generalisation effects of picture exchange communication system (pecs) training for children with autism and language delay

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jung ae

    2017-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) has been widely used in intervention programs to develop functional communication for children who have no or little vocal communication. Studies have shown that PECS training is effective in developing communication and social interaction (Carr & Felce, 2006; Ganz, Simpson, & Corbin-Newsome, 2007) for children with autism. However, most research on the effectiveness of PECS has been limited in several ways. Firstly, few studies have evaluated ...

  9. Implementation of a filmless mini picture archiving and communication system in ultrasonography: Experience after one year of use

    OpenAIRE

    Henri, Christopher J.; Cox, Robert D.; Bret, Patrice M.

    1997-01-01

    This article details our experience in developing and operating an ultrasound mini-picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Using software developed in-house, low-end MacIntosh computers (Apple Computer Co, Cupertino, CA) equipped with framegrabbers coordinate the entry of patient demographic information, image acquisition, and viewing on each ultrasound scanner. After each exam, the data are transmitted to a central archive server where they can be accessed from anywhere on the net...

  10. [Adaptation of the picture exchange communication system in a school context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria Amélia; Piza, Maria Helena Machado; Lamônica, Dionísa Aparecida Cusin

    2005-01-01

    Alternative communication. To evaluate the efficacy of the adapted Pecs and Picture Communication Symbols (PCS) in the communication of a child with cerebral palsy. The participant of this study was a 9 year and 10 months old girl, with athetoid quadriplegia. All stages of the adapted Pecs were applied (Walter, 2000), using the PCS pictures (Johnson, 1998), associated with the functional curriculum proposed by LeBlanc (1991). An experimental AB Design was used in order to test the procedures. The subject was able to pass through all of the adapted Pecs phases and to use her communication board in school activities. The adapted Pecs proved to be effective in improving the subject's communication abilities.

  11. Poly(I:C) induces intense expression of c-IAP2 and cooperates with an IAP inhibitor in induction of apoptosis in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friboulet, Luc; Gourzones, Claire; Tsao, Sai Wah; Morel, Yannis; Paturel, Carine; Témam, Stéphane; Uzan, Catherine; Busson, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is an interesting target for anti-cancer therapy. Unfortunately, most laboratory investigations about the impact of TLR3 stimulation on human malignant cells have been performed with very high concentrations - 5 to 100 μg/ml - of the prototype TLR3 ligand, poly(I:C). In a previous study focused on a specific type of human carcinoma - nasopharyngeal carcinoma - we have shown that concentrations of poly(I:C) as low as 100 ng/ml are sufficient to induce apoptosis of malignant cells when combined to a pharmacological antagonist of the IAP family based on Smac mimicry. This observation prompted us to investigate the contribution of the IAP family in cell response to poly(I:C) in a variety of human malignant cell types. We report a rapid, intense and selective increase in c-IAP2 protein expression observed under stimulation by poly(I:C)(500 ng/ml) in all types of human malignant cells. In most cell types, this change in protein expression is underlain by an increase in c-IAP2 transcripts and dependent on the TLR3/TRIF pathway. When poly(I:C) is combined to the IAP inhibitor RMT 5265, a cooperative effect in apoptosis induction and/or inhibition of clonogenic growth is obtained in a large fraction of carcinoma and melanoma cell lines. Currently, IAP inhibitors like RMT 5265 and poly(I:C) are the subject of separate therapeutic trials. In light of our observations, combined use of both types of compounds should be considered for treatment of human malignancies including carcinomas and melanomas

  12. Detection rates in pediatric diagnostic imaging: a picture archive and communication system compared with a web-based imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, L.; Cramer, B.; Barrett, B.

    2006-01-01

    This prospective study assesses whether there are differences in accuracy of interpretation of diagnostic images among users of a picture archive and communication system (PACS) diagnostic workstation, compared with a less costly Web-based imaging system on a personal computer (PC) with a high resolution monitor. One hundred consecutive pediatric chest or abdomen and skeletal X-rays were selected from hospital inpatient and outpatient studies over a 5-month interval. They were classified as normal (n = 32), obviously abnormal (n = 33), or having subtle abnormal findings (n = 35) by 2 senior radiologists who reached a consensus for each individual case. Subsequently, 5 raters with varying degrees of experience independently viewed and interpreted the cases as normal or abnormal. Raters viewed each image 1 month apart on a PACS and on the Web-based PC imaging system. There was no relation between accuracy of detection and the system used to evaluate X-ray images (P = 0.92). The total percentage of incorrect interpretations on the Web-based PC imaging system was 23.2%, compared with 23.6% on the PACS (P = 0.92). For all raters combined, the overall difference in proportion assessed incorrectly on the PACS, compared with the PC system, was not significant at 0.4% (95%CI, -3.5% to 4.3%). The high-resolution Web-based imaging system via PC is an adequate alternative to a PACS clinical workstation. Accordingly, the provision of a more extensive network of workstations throughout the hospital setting could have potentially significant cost savings. (author)

  13. Television system in which digitised picture signals subjected to a transform coding are transmitted from an encoding station to a decoding station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1987-01-01

    In a television system a digital picture signal is subjected to a transform coding for the purpose of bit rate reduction. In order to detect motion effects between the two fields of a picture, these fields are also examined in a motion detector 8310. If no motion is detected, intraframe transform is

  14. The Impact of the Picture Exchange Communication System on Requesting and Speech Development in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Similar Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Simpson, Richard L.; Corbin-Newsome, Jawanda

    2008-01-01

    By definition children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience difficulty understanding and using language. Accordingly, visual and picture-based strategies such as the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) show promise in ameliorating speech and language deficits. This study reports the results of a multiple baseline across…

  15. Implicit emotion regulation in the context of viewing artworks: ERP evidence in response to pleasant and unpleasant pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Noah N N; Van Strien, Jan W; Dijkstra, Katinka

    2016-08-01

    Presenting affective pictures as a work of art could change perceivers' judgment and strength in emotional reactions. Aesthetic theory states that perceivers of art emotionally distance themselves, allowing them to appreciate works of art depicting gruesome events. To examine whether implicit emotion regulation is induced by an art context, we assessed whether presenting pleasant and unpleasant IAPS pictures as either "works of art comprising paintings, digital renderings, and photographs of staged scenes" or "photographs depicting real events" modulated perceivers' Late Positive Potentials (LPP) and likability ratings. In line with previous research and aesthetic theory, participants evaluated the IAPS pictures as more likable when they were presented as works of art than when they were presented as photographs. Moreover, participants' late LPP amplitudes (600-900ms post picture onset) in response to the pictures were attenuated in the art context condition. These results provide evidence for an implicit emotion regulation induced by the art context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Structures of BIR domains from human NAIP and cIAP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Maria Dolores; Moche, Martin; Flodin, Susanne; Welin, Martin; Trésaugues, Lionel; Johansson, Ida; Nilsson, Martina; Nordlund, Pär; Nyman, Tomas

    2009-11-01

    The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family of proteins contains key modulators of apoptosis and inflammation that interact with caspases through baculovirus IAP-repeat (BIR) domains. Overexpression of IAP proteins frequently occurs in cancer cells, thus counteracting the activated apoptotic program. The IAP proteins have therefore emerged as promising targets for cancer therapy. In this work, X-ray crystallography was used to determine the first structures of BIR domains from human NAIP and cIAP2. Both structures harbour an N-terminal tetrapeptide in the conserved peptide-binding groove. The structures reveal that these two proteins bind the tetrapeptides in a similar mode as do other BIR domains. Detailed interactions are described for the P1'-P4' side chains of the peptide, providing a structural basis for peptide-specific recognition. An arginine side chain in the P3' position reveals favourable interactions with its hydrophobic moiety in the binding pocket, while hydrophobic residues in the P2' and P4' pockets make similar interactions to those seen in other BIR domain-peptide complexes. The structures also reveal how a serine in the P1' position is accommodated in the binding pockets of NAIP and cIAP2. In addition to shedding light on the specificity determinants of these two proteins, the structures should now also provide a framework for future structure-based work targeting these proteins.

  17. Structures of BIR domains from human NAIP and cIAP2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, Maria Dolores; Moche, Martin; Flodin, Susanne; Welin, Martin; Trésaugues, Lionel; Johansson, Ida; Nilsson, Martina; Nordlund, Pär; Nyman, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structures of the human NAIP BIR2 and cIAP2 BIR3 domains have been determined. Both BIR domains harbors an amino-terminal tetrapeptide in its peptide-binding groove. The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family of proteins contains key modulators of apoptosis and inflammation that interact with caspases through baculovirus IAP-repeat (BIR) domains. Overexpression of IAP proteins frequently occurs in cancer cells, thus counteracting the activated apoptotic program. The IAP proteins have therefore emerged as promising targets for cancer therapy. In this work, X-ray crystallography was used to determine the first structures of BIR domains from human NAIP and cIAP2. Both structures harbour an N-terminal tetrapeptide in the conserved peptide-binding groove. The structures reveal that these two proteins bind the tetrapeptides in a similar mode as do other BIR domains. Detailed interactions are described for the P1′–P4′ side chains of the peptide, providing a structural basis for peptide-specific recognition. An arginine side chain in the P3′ position reveals favourable interactions with its hydrophobic moiety in the binding pocket, while hydrophobic residues in the P2′ and P4′ pockets make similar interactions to those seen in other BIR domain–peptide complexes. The structures also reveal how a serine in the P1′ position is accommodated in the binding pockets of NAIP and cIAP2. In addition to shedding light on the specificity determinants of these two proteins, the structures should now also provide a framework for future structure-based work targeting these proteins

  18. An evaluation of multiple-schedule variations to reduce high-rate requests in the picture exchange communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Robin; Hanley, Gregory P

    2016-06-01

    Using procedures similar to those of Tiger, Hanley, and Heal (2006), we compared two multiple-schedule variations (S+/S- and S+ only) to treat high-rate requests for edible items in the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Two individuals with autism participated, after they showed persistent requests for edible items after PECS training. Stimulus control was achieved only with the multiple schedule that involved presentation of a discriminative stimulus during reinforcement components and its removal during extinction components (S+ only). Discriminated requests were maintained for the 1 participant who experienced schedule thinning. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  19. Dnmt1 Expression in Pre- and Postimplantation Embryogenesis and the Maintenance of IAP Silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, F.; Rideout, W. M.; Meissner, A.; Dausman, J.; Leonhardt, H.; Jaenisch, R.

    2004-01-01

    The methylation of intracisternal A-type particle (IAP) sequences is maintained during mouse embryogenesis. Methylation suppresses IAP expression and the potential for mutagenesis by retrotransposition, but it is not clear how methylation of these elements is maintained during the embryonic stages when the bulk of the genome is being demethylated. It has been suggested that the high levels of DNA methyltransferase-1 (Dnmt1) present during cleavage could be important for keeping IAPs methylated. To test this hypothesis, we combined mutant alleles of Dnmt1 with an agouti allele (Aiapy), which provided a coat color readout for the methylation status of the IAP insertion in the agouti locus. We found that reduction in Dnmt1 levels directly impacted methylation at this locus, leading to stable transcriptional activation of the agouti gene in the adult. Specifically, the short maternal Dnmt1 protein was important in maintaining methylation at the Aiapy locus in cleavage embryos, whereas the longer Dnmt1 isoform found in somatic cells was important in maintaining IAP methylation during the postimplantation stage. These results underscore the importance of maintaining proper maintenance of methylation patterns during gestation and suggest that interference with this process may stably affect gene expression patterns in the adult and may have profound phenotypic consequences. PMID:14749379

  20. Insight, innovation, and the big picture in system design : application of FunKey architecting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Systems architecting is the design phase where the top-level functions and performance of a system are distributed over the system's parts, its environment, and its users. Up till now, system architects had to largely learn the required skills in practice. Some courses exist that teach the right

  1. Spatiotemporal analysis of single-trial EEG of emotional pictures based on independent component analysis and source location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangang; Tian, Jie

    2007-03-01

    The present study combined the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) algorithms to identify the spatial distribution and time course of single-trial EEG record differences between neural responses to emotional stimuli vs. the neutral. Single-trial multichannel (129-sensor) EEG records were collected from 21 healthy, right-handed subjects viewing the emotion emotional (pleasant/unpleasant) and neutral pictures selected from International Affective Picture System (IAPS). For each subject, the single-trial EEG records of each emotional pictures were concatenated with the neutral, and a three-step analysis was applied to each of them in the same way. First, the ICA was performed to decompose each concatenated single-trial EEG records into temporally independent and spatially fixed components, namely independent components (ICs). The IC associated with artifacts were isolated. Second, the clustering analysis classified, across subjects, the temporally and spatially similar ICs into the same clusters, in which nonparametric permutation test for Global Field Power (GFP) of IC projection scalp maps identified significantly different temporal segments of each emotional condition vs. neutral. Third, the brain regions accounted for those significant segments were localized spatially with LORETA analysis. In each cluster, a voxel-by-voxel randomization test identified significantly different brain regions between each emotional condition vs. the neutral. Compared to the neutral, both emotional pictures elicited activation in the visual, temporal, ventromedial and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulated gyrus. In addition, the pleasant pictures activated the left middle prefrontal cortex and the posterior precuneus, while the unpleasant pictures activated the right orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulated gyrus and somatosensory region. Our results were well consistent with other functional imaging

  2. Saving and costs of a Picture Archiving and Communication System in the Utrecht University Hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, J.H.T.H.; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.; Barneveld Binkhuysen, F.; Horst - Bruinsma, van der I.E.; Dwyer, S.J.; Jost, R.G.; Schneider, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    The evaluation of the Dutch PACS project comprises amongst other studies a comparison of the direct financial costs of the present conventional system and the PACSystem. This paper shows that the invest-ment costs of a PACSystem are presently substantially higher than of the present system. These

  3. Using an adapted form of the picture exchange communication system to increase independent requesting in deafblind adults with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Maeve; Rohrer, Nicole

    2014-02-01

    The current study assessed the effectiveness of an adapted form of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in increasing independent requesting in deafblind adults with learning disabilities. PECS cards were created to accommodate individual needs, including adaptations such as enlarging photographs and using swelled images which consisted of images created on raised line drawing paper. Training included up to Phase III of PECS and procedures ensuring generalizations across individuals and contexts were included. The effects of the intervention were evaluated using a multiple baseline design across participants. Results demonstrated an increase in independent requesting with each of the participants reaching mastery criterion. These results suggest that PECS, in combination with some minor adaptations, may be an effective communicative alternative for individuals who are deafblind and have learning impairments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrated, systems metabolic picture of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chen; Seo, Seung-Oh; Celik, Venhar; Liu, Huaiwei; Kong, Wentao; Wang, Yi; Blaschek, Hans; Jin, Yong-Su; Lu, Ting

    2015-07-07

    Microbial metabolism involves complex, system-level processes implemented via the orchestration of metabolic reactions, gene regulation, and environmental cues. One canonical example of such processes is acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum, during which cells convert carbon sources to organic acids that are later reassimilated to produce solvents as a strategy for cellular survival. The complexity and systems nature of the process have been largely underappreciated, rendering challenges in understanding and optimizing solvent production. Here, we present a system-level computational framework for ABE fermentation that combines metabolic reactions, gene regulation, and environmental cues. We developed the framework by decomposing the entire system into three modules, building each module separately, and then assembling them back into an integrated system. During the model construction, a bottom-up approach was used to link molecular events at the single-cell level into the events at the population level. The integrated model was able to successfully reproduce ABE fermentations of the WT C. acetobutylicum (ATCC 824), as well as its mutants, using data obtained from our own experiments and from literature. Furthermore, the model confers successful predictions of the fermentations with various network perturbations across metabolic, genetic, and environmental aspects. From foundation to applications, the framework advances our understanding of complex clostridial metabolism and physiology and also facilitates the development of systems engineering strategies for the production of advanced biofuels.

  5. Physician Perceptions of Singleview: A Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) Federation Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolowitz, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Information Technology is changing the face of medicine. Prior research has shown many physicians believe access to the complete Personal Health Record (PHR) would be beneficial to patient care. Many times these medical records are distributed across system and organizational boundaries. International standards committees, healthcare…

  6. Performance enhancement of a web-based picture archiving and communication system using commercial off-the-shelf server clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Lin; Shih, Cheng-Ting; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Chang, Shu-Jun; Wu, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACSs) thoroughly changes the way of medical informatics communication and management. However, as the scale of a hospital's operations increases, the large amount of digital images transferred in the network inevitably decreases system efficiency. In this study, a server cluster consisting of two server nodes was constructed. Network load balancing (NLB), distributed file system (DFS), and structured query language (SQL) duplication services were installed. A total of 1 to 16 workstations were used to transfer computed radiography (CR), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) images simultaneously to simulate the clinical situation. The average transmission rate (ATR) was analyzed between the cluster and noncluster servers. In the download scenario, the ATRs of CR, CT, and MR images increased by 44.3%, 56.6%, and 100.9%, respectively, when using the server cluster, whereas the ATRs increased by 23.0%, 39.2%, and 24.9% in the upload scenario. In the mix scenario, the transmission performance increased by 45.2% when using eight computer units. The fault tolerance mechanisms of the server cluster maintained the system availability and image integrity. The server cluster can improve the transmission efficiency while maintaining high reliability and continuous availability in a healthcare environment.

  7. Performance Enhancement of a Web-Based Picture Archiving and Communication System Using Commercial Off-the-Shelf Server Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACSs thoroughly changes the way of medical informatics communication and management. However, as the scale of a hospital’s operations increases, the large amount of digital images transferred in the network inevitably decreases system efficiency. In this study, a server cluster consisting of two server nodes was constructed. Network load balancing (NLB, distributed file system (DFS, and structured query language (SQL duplication services were installed. A total of 1 to 16 workstations were used to transfer computed radiography (CR, computed tomography (CT, and magnetic resonance (MR images simultaneously to simulate the clinical situation. The average transmission rate (ATR was analyzed between the cluster and noncluster servers. In the download scenario, the ATRs of CR, CT, and MR images increased by 44.3%, 56.6%, and 100.9%, respectively, when using the server cluster, whereas the ATRs increased by 23.0%, 39.2%, and 24.9% in the upload scenario. In the mix scenario, the transmission performance increased by 45.2% when using eight computer units. The fault tolerance mechanisms of the server cluster maintained the system availability and image integrity. The server cluster can improve the transmission efficiency while maintaining high reliability and continuous availability in a healthcare environment.

  8. Cascaded Processing in Written Naming: Evidence from the Picture-Picture Interference Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Sebastien; Bonin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The issue of how information flows within the lexical system in written naming was investigated in five experiments. In Experiment 1, participants named target pictures that were accompanied by context pictures having phonologically and orthographically related or unrelated names (e.g., a picture of a "ball" superimposed on a picture of…

  9. The oral mucosa of the MRL/I mouse: a synoptic picture of systemic autoimmune disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, J; Deslauriers, N

    1991-07-01

    The oral manifestations of systemic autoimmunity were investigated in a kinetic study of the MRL/1 mouse. Lesions in the epithelium, connective tissue and minor salivary glands were characterized in serial sections of the soft palate and the cheeks with respect to 1) the type of inflammatory cells present, 2) the presence and type of vasculitis, 3) the presence of necrosis, 4) the occurrence of deposits. By the age of 16 wk, 100% of our animals had developed mild to severe lesions in at least one compartment of the mucosa. Between 16 and 32 wk of age, pathologic manifestations affected the epithelial and subepithelial tissues, the striated muscle tissue, the vascular system and, much less frequently, the minor salivary gland network.

  10. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System: integrating attachment into clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Carol; West, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the development and validation of the Adult Attachment Projective System (AAP), a measure we developed from the Bowlby-Ainsworth developmental tradition to assess adult attachment status. The AAP has demonstrated excellent concurrent validity with the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1984/1985/1996; Main & Goldwyn, 1985-1994; Main, Goldwyn, & Hesse, 2003), interjudge reliability, and test-retest reliability, with no effects of verbal intelligence or social desirability. The AAP coding and classification system and application in clinical and community samples are summarized. Finally, we introduce the 3 other articles that are part of this Special Section and discuss the use of the AAP in therapeutic assessment and treatment.

  11. Early experience with a picture archiving and communication system for X-ray CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Y.; Komori, M.; Minato, K.

    1987-01-01

    A network using fiberoptic ring architecture has been implemented to connect an x-ray CT unit with an image work station and optical disk storage unit. The work station has three noninterlaced cathode-ray tube (CRT) monitors of 1,024 X 1,024 pixels. The optical disk system stores 32 optical disk cartridges (2.6 Gbytes per cartridge). A general-purpose interface bus is used for communication between the CT unit and the network interface unit. Transfer time from CT to interface unit is 40 kbyte/second, 5 seconds per image. On-line data acquisition, long-term archiving, and CT interpretation using CRTs have been tested and the system has been working for 3 months in a clinical environment

  12. Detailed Pictures of Multiple Asteroid Systems in the Main-Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, F.; Emery, J. P.; Enriquez, J. E.; Descamps, P.; Berthier, J.; Vachier, F.; Durech, J.

    2011-12-01

    Since their discovery less than 10 years ago, ~200 known multiple asteroid systems have been studied with a combination of observing techniques, including adaptive optics, lightcurve photometry, and mid-infrared spectrophotometry. Those observations show that ~15 large (D>100km) asteroids that are known to possess km-sized satellite(s) (22 Kalliope, 45 Eugenia, 87 Sylvia, 93 Minerva, 216 Kleopatra, ...) share common orbital characteristics, implying a common formation scenario: e.g. catastrophic disruption or ejection after an oblique impact. More than 70 smaller (10-15km) binary asteroid systems have been detected through anomalies in their lightcurves and are believed to have formed by fission due to the YORP effect. By comparison with meteorite analog densities, mid-IR data reveal that these systems have a significant porosity (larger than 30%) implying a rubble-pile interior. We will review these key results and discuss their implications for the interior of asteroids in the light of recent space mission results. Future explorations using new ground-based facilities and space mission concepts will be also discussed. This work is supported by the NSF grant AAG-0807468 and NASA grant NNX11AD62G

  13. A Bewildering and Dynamic Picture of Exoplanetary Systems Identified by the Kepler Mission (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Kepler vaulted into the heavens on March 7, 2009, initiating NASA's search for Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars in the habitable zone, where liquid water could exist on a rocky planetary surface. In the 4 years since, a flood of photometric data of unprecedented precision and continuity on more than 190,000 stars has provoked a watershed of 134+ confirmed or validated planets, 3200+ planetary candidates (most sub-Neptune in size and many comparable to or smaller than Earth), and a revolution in asteroseismology and astrophysics. Recent discoveries include Kepler-62 with 5 planets total, of which 2 are in the habitable zone with radii of 1.4 and 1.7 Re. Approximately 500 of the stars in the Kepler survey with planets host multiple transiting planets: 43% of planet candidates have transiting siblings. Many of these multiple transiting planet systems are dynamically packed and are unlikely, therefore, to have formed in situ. These systems experienced strong migration and evolution to arrive at the configurations we observe today, with important implications for the time-variable habitability of these planets over their histories. The half dozen circumbinary transiting planet systems discovered by Kepler to date highlight the dynamic nature of the habitable zone in systems with multiple host stars where the habitable zone may change significantly on timescales commensurate with the orbital period of the binary. While the catalog of circumbinary planets is small at this point, it already possesses at least one example of an exoplanet in the habitable zone. This implies that the majority of habitable zone planets may be circumbinary planets given the high frequency of multiple star systems and the early detection of Kepler-47b. KIC-12557548 is most likely a disintegrating sub-Mercury-sized planet. While it was probably never habitable, it represents a unique example of the dynamic nature of planetary systems. These amazing discoveries challenge our conventional

  14. The Geneva Smoking Pictures: development and preliminary validation.

    OpenAIRE

    Khazaal, Yasser; Zullino, Daniele; Billieux, Joël

    2012-01-01

    Cue reactivity is essential to the maintenance of addictive disorders. A useful way to study cue reactivity is by means of normative pictures, but few validated tobacco-related pictures are available. This study describes a database of smoking-related pictures: The Geneva Smoking Pictures (GSP). Sixty smoking-related pictures were presented to 91 participants who assessed them according to the classic emotional pictures validation provided by the International Affective Picture System (NIMH C...

  15. Implementation of a PC based picture archival and communications system (PACS) in Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.J.; Van Every, B.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear Medicine produces images with relatively low spatial resolution and very high contrast, which lend themselves more easily to digital acquisition, display, manipulation and storage than other forms of medical imaging. This poster describes improvements in Nuclear Medicine service delivery and efficiency which have resulted from an implementation of this technology over recent years. All 'save screen' data, gated blood pool scans and selected dynamic data from four gamma cameras of two vendors is automatically archived to a single Pentium 200 MHz PC for permanent hard disk archival. Two years of data is already stored on line throughout the PC network in a Microsoft Access ODBC 'Medvision' database, and accessible via modem using 'PC Anywhere' software. Images are exported as Bitmaps to be included in typed reports for printing or direct Fax transmission to wards or Dr's offices on the same day that a service is provided. For out of hours services, this system enables a typed report and image to go with the patient to the ward from Nuclear Medicine, with prior consultant review being provided by modem when not immediately available on site. Computer enhanced comparisons with all archived studies can be performed within 30 secs, for improved assessment of serial progress. As the hard disk storage cost of images is now less than 10% of film costs, and falling, transition to filmless reporting appears inevitable. 'Dicom' Software compatibility, currently available through a Unix workstation, should permit integration with a future Radiology PACS These changes assist in maintaining service quality, while both eliminating delays in providing reports and reducing costs

  16. A medical application integrating remote 3D visualization tools to access picture archiving and communication system on mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Longjun; Ming, Xing; Liu, Qian

    2014-04-01

    With computing capability and display size growing, the mobile device has been used as a tool to help clinicians view patient information and medical images anywhere and anytime. However, for direct interactive 3D visualization, which plays an important role in radiological diagnosis, the mobile device cannot provide a satisfactory quality of experience for radiologists. This paper developed a medical system that can get medical images from the picture archiving and communication system on the mobile device over the wireless network. In the proposed application, the mobile device got patient information and medical images through a proxy server connecting to the PACS server. Meanwhile, the proxy server integrated a range of 3D visualization techniques, including maximum intensity projection, multi-planar reconstruction and direct volume rendering, to providing shape, brightness, depth and location information generated from the original sectional images for radiologists. Furthermore, an algorithm that changes remote render parameters automatically to adapt to the network status was employed to improve the quality of experience. Finally, performance issues regarding the remote 3D visualization of the medical images over the wireless network of the proposed application were also discussed. The results demonstrated that this proposed medical application could provide a smooth interactive experience in the WLAN and 3G networks.

  17. Study of Radiologic Technologists' Perceptions of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) Competence and Educational Issues in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Daniel M; Trepp, Errol R; Ipaki, Maryam; Ng, Curtise K C

    2015-06-01

    Although the implementation of picture archiving and communication system (PACS) could increase productivity of radiology departments, this depends on factors such as the PACS competence of radiologic technologists (RTs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the RTs' perceptions of PACS competence and educational issues in Western Australia (WA). A hardcopy questionnaire was distributed to WA RTs for obtaining their perceptions of PACS competence and educational issues. Descriptive (percentage of frequency, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (t test and analysis of variance) were used to analyze the responses of the multiple choice and five-point scale questions from the returned questionnaires. The questionnaire response rate was 57.7% (173 out of 300). The mean values of all PACS competence questions except questions 2e-g are in the range of 3.9-4.9, i.e., around competent to very competent. Participants indicated they received adequate PACS training (mean 3.8). Statistically significant variables influencing RTs' perceptions of their PACS competence and educational issues including the age (p education received (p system, and received adequate training. However, future PACS education programs should be tailored to different RTs' groups. For example, multiple training modules might be necessary to support the PACS competence development of older RTs and those with lower general computer literacy.

  18. Implementation of a filmless mini picture archiving and communication system in ultrasonography: experience after one year of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, C J; Cox, R D; Bret, P M

    1997-08-01

    This article details our experience in developing and operating an ultrasound mini-picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Using software developed in-house, low-end Macintosh computers (Apple Computer Co. Cupertino, CA) equipped with framegrabbers coordinate the entry of patient demographic information, image acquisition, and viewing on each ultrasound scanner. After each exam, the data are transmitted to a central archive server where they can be accessed from anywhere on the network. The archive server also provides web-based access to the data and manages pre-fetch and other requests for data that may no longer be on-line. Archival is fully automatic and is performed on recordable compact disk (CD) without compression. The system has been filmless now for over 18 months. In the meantime, one film processor has been eliminated and the position of one film clerk has been reallocated. Previously, nine ultrasound machines produced approximately 150 sheets of laser film per day (at 14 images per sheet). The same quantity of data are now archived without compression onto a single CD. Start-up costs were recovered within six months, and the project has been extended to include computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  19. Emotional event-related potentials are reduced if negative pictures presented at fixation are unattended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Stefan; Sand, Anders; Norberg, Joakim; Andersson, Per

    2011-05-20

    Viewing of emotional pictures elicits two event-related potentials (ERPs) to emotional versus neutral pictures: an early posterior negativity (EPN) and a late positive potential (LPP). Because it is unresolved whether these indexes of emotional processing are reduced to task-irrelevant pictures at fixation, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture Set (IAPS) were shown at fixation together with 6 letters that surrounded the pictures. In separate tasks, participants were instructed to attend either the pictures or the letters. When the pictures were task relevant, results showed an EPN and LPP. In contrast, when the pictures were task irrelevant, the EPN was eliminated and the LPP reduced. Performance was high in both tasks (hit rates>87%), but somewhat better when the pictures were relevant. However, analyses showed no relationship between this performance difference and the differences in EPN and LPP between tasks. These results suggest that emotional processing of strong, negative pictures is sensitive to manipulations of attention even if the pictures are shown at fixation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Different Loci of Semantic Interference in Picture Naming vs. Word-Picture Matching Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Denise Y.; Schnur, Tatiana T.

    2016-01-01

    Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category impairs performance relative to when stimuli come from different semantic categories (i.e., semantic interference). Despite similar semantic interference phenomena in both picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, the locus of interference has been attributed to different levels of the language system – lexical in naming and semantic in word-picture matching. Although both tasks involve access to shar...

  1. Incremental cost of department-wide implementation of a picture archiving and communication system and computed radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, H M; Langlotz, C P; Feingold, E R; Schwartz, J S; Kundel, H L

    1998-01-01

    To determine the incremental cash flows associated with department-wide implementation of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and computed radiography (CR) at a large academic medical center. The authors determined all capital and operational costs associated with PACS implementation during an 8-year time horizon. Economic effects were identified, adjusted for time value, and used to calculate net present values (NPVs) for each section of the department of radiology and for the department as a whole. The chest-bone section used the most resources. Changes in cost assumptions for the chest-bone section had a dominant effect on the department-wide NPV. The base-case NPV (i.e., that determined by using the initial assumptions) was negative, indicating that additional net costs are incurred by the radiology department from PACS implementation. PACS and CR provide cost savings only when a 12-year hardware life span is assumed, when CR equipment is removed from the analysis, or when digitized long-term archives are compressed at a rate of 10:1. Full PACS-CR implementation would not provide cost savings for a large, subspecialized department. However, institutions that are committed to CR implementation (for whom CR implementation would represent a sunk cost) or institutions that are able to archive images by using image compression will experience cost savings from PACS.

  2. Selection of words for implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System - PECS in non-verbal autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carine; Bevilacqua, Monica; Ishihara, Mariana; Fiori, Aline; Armonia, Aline; Perissinoto, Jacy; Tamanaha, Ana Carina

    2017-03-09

    It is known that some autistic individuals are considered non-verbal, since they are unable to use verbal language and barely use gestures to compensate for the absence of speech. Therefore, these individuals' ability to communicate may benefit from the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System - PECS. The objective of this study was to verify the most frequently used words in the implementation of PECS in autistic children, and on a complementary basis, to analyze the correlation between the frequency of these words and the rate of maladaptive behaviors. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample was composed of 31 autistic children, twenty-five boys and six girls, aged between 5 and 10 years old. To identify the most frequently used words in the initial period of implementation of PECS, the Vocabulary Selection Worksheet was used. And to measure the rate of maladaptive behaviors, we applied the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). There was a significant prevalence of items in the category "food", followed by "activities" and "beverages". There was no correlation between the total amount of items identified by the families and the rate of maladaptive behaviors. The categories of words most mentioned by the families could be identified, and it was confirmed that the level of maladaptive behaviors did not interfere directly in the preparation of the vocabulary selection worksheet for the children studied.

  3. Use of a Picture Exchange Communication System for preventive procedures in individuals with autism spectrum disorder: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Adriana Gledys; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Maria Teresa Botti; Guaré, Renata Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in order to facilitate patient-professional communication during preventive procedures. In this study, 26 patients with ASD, between 5 and 19 years of age (10±3.3 y), were divided into two groups: G1 (n = 13) with no previous experience of dental treatment, and G2 (n = 13), with such previous experience. The initial approach followed the principles of the Son-Rise Program®. The seven PECSs presented the routine of the dental office: "room," "ground," "chair," "dentist," "mouth," "low," and "triple." Each PEC was used up to three times in order to acquire the skill proposed. It was verified that G2 required a greater number of times to achieve the acceptance of PECS "ground," "dentist," "mouth," and "triple" (p communication during preventive procedures, including for ASD patients with previous dental experience. © 2016 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System as a Functional Communication Intervention for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Practice-Based Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Kai-Chien

    2008-01-01

    This research synthesis verifies the effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) for improving the functional communication skills of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The research synthesis was focused on the degree to which variations in PECS training are associated with variations in functional…

  5. Comparing the Picture Exchange Communication System and the iPad™ for Communication of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Doris Adams; Flores, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    Both picture exchange, a low-tech picturebased communication system, and technologybased interventions, such as the iPad™ with communication application, are emerging treatments for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to the National Autism Center (2009). Recently, investigations regarding the use of the Apple iPad™ to…

  6. Teaching Young People Who Are Blind and Have Autism to Make Requests Using a Variation on the Picture Exchange Communication System with Tactile Symbols: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Shelley K.; Troha, Jeanette M.

    2008-01-01

    This study used a single-subject multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effectiveness of a modified picture exchange communication system (PECS) teaching protocol with tactile symbols. Three students (two male, one female) aged 12-17 years who had autism and were blind participated in the study. The instructional program…

  7. A Review and Analysis of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) for Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders Using a Paradigm of Communication Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostryn, Cheryl; Wolfe, Pamela S.; Rusch, Frank R.

    2008-01-01

    Research related to the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) with individuals having autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) was examined using a communication competence paradigm detailed by J. C. Light (1988, 1989, 2003). Communication components were operationalized based on skills identified in ASD research. A review was conducted…

  8. Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on Maladaptive Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Dana; McDonald, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the literature investigating the functional relationship between the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and maladaptive behavior (i.e., aggression, tantrums) in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Digital searches were conducted to identify single subject design studies…

  9. The Effectiveness of Combining Tangible Symbols with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Teach Requesting Skills to Children with Multiple Disabilities Including Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Emad

    2009-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative communication program (Frost & Bondy, 2002). Although PECS has been effectively used to teach functional requesting skills for children with autism, mental retardation, visual impairment, and physical disabilities (e.g., Anderson, Moore, & Bourne, 2007; Chambers &…

  10. Picture Exchange Communication System and Pals: A Peer-Mediated Augmentative and Alternative Communication Intervention for Minimally Verbal Preschoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy; Brady, Nancy; McGuff, Sara; Strump, Keenan; Naylor, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a social intervention that integrates peer-mediated approaches and the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Method: Effects were evaluated using a series of A-B designs replicated across 4 children with severe autism and limited verbal skills. Seven peers without…

  11. Effects of Mother-Implemented Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) Training on Independent Communicative Behaviors of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Hee; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Cannella-Malone, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of mother-implemented Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) training on the independent communication of three young children with autism spectrum disorders. Three mothers were trained to teach their child PECS Phases 1 through 3B, which they did with high integrity. Moreover, all three children successfully…

  12. The Effectiveness of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) Training for Teachers of Children with Autism: A Pragmatic, Group Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlin, Patricia; Gordon, R. Kate; Pasco, Greg; Wade, Angie; Charman, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of expert training and consultancy for teachers of children with autism spectrum disorder in the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Method: Design: Group randomised, controlled trial (3 groups: immediate treatment, delayed treatment, no treatment). Participants: 84 elementary school…

  13. The Use of Video Modeling with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Increase Independent Communicative Initiations in Preschoolers with Autism and Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihak, David F.; Smith, Catherine C.; Cornett, Ashlee; Coleman, Mari Beth

    2012-01-01

    The use of video modeling (VM) procedures in conjunction with the picture exchange communication system (PECS) to increase independent communicative initiations in preschool-age students was evaluated in this study. The four participants were 3-year-old children with limited communication skills prior to the intervention. Two of the students had…

  14. Effectiveness of Combining Tangible Symbols with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Teach Requesting Skills to Children with Multiple Disabilities Including Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Emad; MacFarland, Stephanie Z.; Umbreit, John

    2011-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) program used to teach functional requesting and commenting skills to people with disabilities (Bondy & Frost, 1993; Frost & Bondy, 2002). In this study, tangible symbols were added to PECS in teaching requesting to four students (ages 7-14) with…

  15. The Effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A South African Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Julia; Geiger, Martha

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of introducing the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on the frequency of requesting and commenting and the length of verbal utterances of two children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who presented with some spoken language, but limited use of language in communicative exchanges. A mixed research…

  16. The Effects of Mother-Implemented Picture Exchange Communication System Training on Spontaneous Communicative Behaviors of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Hee

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined whether mothers could be taught to implement the picture exchange communication system (PECS) training with their child and investigated the effects of the mother-implemented PECS training on the spontaneous communication of young children with autism spectrum disorders. Three mothers were trained to teach their child…

  17. Effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on Communication and Speech for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippin, Michelle; Reszka, Stephanie; Watson, Linda R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a popular communication-training program for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This meta-analysis reviews the current empirical evidence for PECS in affecting communication and speech outcomes for children with ASD. Method: A systematic review of the literature on PECS…

  18. Evaluating and Measuring the Return on Investment of an Emergency Center Health Care Professional Picture Archiving and Communication Systems Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelandt, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workflow directly affects the quality of emergency patient care through radiology exam turn-around times and the speed of delivery of diagnostic radiology results. This study was a mixed methods training and performance improvement study that evaluated the effectiveness and value of a hospital…

  19. Bridging the gap: linking a legacy hospital information system with a filmless radiology picture archiving and communications system within a nonhomogeneous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, R K; Henri, C J; Cox, R D

    1999-05-01

    A health level 7 (HL7)-conformant data link to exchange information between the mainframe hospital information system (HIS) of our hospital and our home-grown picture archiving and communications system (PACS) is a result of a collaborative effort between the HIS department and the PACS development team. Based of the ability to link examination requisitions and image studies, applications have been generated to optimise workflow and to improve the reliability and distribution of radiology information. Now, images can be routed to individual radiologists and clinicians; worklists facilitate radiology reporting; applications exist to create, edit, and view reports and images via the internet; and automated quality control now limits the incidence of "lost" cases and errors in image routing. By following the HL7 standard to develop the gateway to the legacy system, the development of a radiology information system for booking, reading, reporting, and billing remains universal and does not preclude the option to integrate off-the-shelf commercial products.

  20. Do hospital physicians really want to go digital? Acceptance of a picture archiving and communication system in a university hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duyck, P.; Pynoo, B.; Devolder, P.; Voet, T.; Adang, L.; Vercruysse, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: radiology departments are making the transition from analog film to digital images by means of PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System). It is critical for the hospital that its physicians adopt and accept the new digital work method regarding radiological information. The aim of this study is to investigate hospital physicians' acceptance of PACS using questionnaires pre- and post-implementation and to identify main influencing factors. Materials and methods: the study was conducted in an 1169 bed university hospital. The UTAUT (Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology) questionnaire was administered at two times: one month pre-implementation (T1) and 1.5 years post-implementation (T2) of PACS, targeting all hospital physicians with the exemption of radiologists. The UTAUT scales (Behavioral Intention BI; Facilitating Conditions FC; Effort Expectancy EE; Performance Expectancy PE; Anxiety ANX; Social Influence SI; System Use USE; Attitude toward technology ATT; Self-Efficacy SE) were used to assess questions regarding: (a) PACS' usefulness, (b) PACS' ease of learning/using, (c) PACS support availability, (d) the perceived pressure to use PACS, (e) physicians' attitude towards PACS and (f) physicians' intention to use and actual use of PACS. Results: at T1 scale ratings were positive toward the PACS implementation. The ratings on all scales with the exception of self-efficacy improved at T2. Regression analysis revealed that the key factor for intention to use PACS at T1 was the usefulness of PACS, while the availability and awareness of support was its most important predictor at T2. Overall, PE was the best predictor of BI, but all four UTAUT-determinants (PE, FC, EE and SI) were salient for its prediction. Variance explained in BI ranged from 31 to 37% while variance explained in USE was very low (3%). (orig.)

  1. Interpretation of digital breast tomosynthesis: preliminary study on comparison with picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and dedicated workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Seon; Chang, Jung Min; Yi, Ann; Shin, Sung Ui; Lee, Myung Eun; Kim, Won Hwa; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2017-08-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy and efficiency in the interpretation of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) images using a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and a dedicated workstation. 97 DBT images obtained for screening or diagnostic purposes were stored in both a workstation and a PACS and evaluated in combination with digital mammography by three independent radiologists retrospectively. Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System final assessments and likelihood of malignancy (%) were assigned and the interpretation time when using the workstation and PACS was recorded. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, sensitivities and specificities were compared with histopathological examination and follow-up data as a reference standard. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values for cancer detection (0.839 vs 0.815, p = 0.6375) and sensitivity (81.8% vs 75.8%, p = 0.2188) showed no statistically significant differences between the workstation and PACS. However, specificity was significantly higher when analysing on the workstation than when using PACS (83.7% vs 76.9%, p = 0.009). When evaluating DBT images using PACS, only one case was deemed necessary to be reanalysed using the workstation. The mean time to interpret DBT images on PACS (1.68 min/case) was significantly longer than that to interpret on the workstation (1.35 min/case) (p < 0.0001). Interpretation of DBT images using PACS showed comparable diagnostic performance to a dedicated workstation, even though it required a longer reading time. Advances in knowledge: Interpretation of DBT images using PACS is an alternative to evaluate the images when a dedicated workstation is not available.

  2. User acceptance of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS in a Saudi Arabian hospital radiology department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldosari Bakheet

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared with the increasingly widespread use of picture archiving and communication systems (PACSs, knowledge concerning users’ acceptance of such systems is limited. Knowledge of acceptance is needed given the large (and growing financial investment associated with the implementation of PACSs, and because the level of user acceptance influences the degree to which the benefits of the systems for healthcare can be realized. Methods A Technology Acceptance Model (TAM was used to assess the level of acceptance of the host PACS by staff in the radiology department at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire survey of 89 PACS users was employed to obtain data regarding user characteristics, perceived usefulness (PU (6 items, perceived ease of use (PEU (4 items, a change construct (4 items, and a behavior (acceptance construct (9 items. Respondents graded each item in each construct using five-point likert scales. Results Surveyed users reported high levels of PU (4.33/5, PEU (4.15/5, change (4.26/5, and acceptance (3.86/5. The three constructs of PU, PEU, and change explained 41 % of the variation in PACS user acceptance. PU was the most important predictor, explaining 38 % of the variation on its own. The most important single item in the explanatory constructs was that users found PACS to have improved the quality of their work in providing better patient care. Technologists had lower acceptance ratings than did clinicians/radiologists, but no influence on acceptance level was found due to gender, age, or length of experience using the PACS. Although not directly measured, there appeared to be no cultural influence on either the level of acceptance or its determinants. Conclusions User acceptance must be considered when an organization implements a PACS, in order to enhance its successful adoption. Health organizations should adopt a PACS that offers all required functions and which is

  3. Survey of the Use Pattern and Satisfaction of Mobile Picture Archiving and Communication System Users with Tablet Personal Computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, So Yeon; Chung, Eun Chul; Park, Hae Won [Dept. of f Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Yong Hwan; Kim, Sam Soo [Dept. of f Radiology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyo Soon [Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use pattern, satisfaction, dissatisfaction, and general opinion of the physicians from mobile Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) use with galaxy tab 10.1. A survey questionnaire was distributed to 146 physicians of one medical center, and a total of 105 physicians responded. The questionnaire aimed to investigate of the physicians' use pattern, convenience, discomforts, satisfaction, degree of help to diagnose and treat, general opinion, and other opinions. The responses elicited, as well as discrepancies among the departments, and ages were assessed. Chi-square and Fisher's exact were used to determine the value of data. The frequency of usage of the mobile PACS by the medical (75%) and surgical (78%) clinicians was higher than the supporting clinicians (48%) (p = 0.017). The uses and time of utilizing showed statistically significant difference among ages (p = 0.011, p 0.038). Most of the young group (< 45) used after work on dealing with patients of the emergency room and inpatients. However, old group ({>=} 45) used at work more than young group, and most of them used on dealing with the inpatients. The mean satisfaction score regarding the degree of help and about the satisfaction were 3.1 and 3.4, respectively. The frequency of the use of the mobile PACS by medical and surgical clinicians was higher than supporting clinicians. There were statistically significant differences in the times and uses between the young and old groups, but not among the clinical departments. The satisfaction of the use of mobile PACS was moderate degree.

  4. Survey of the Use Pattern and Satisfaction of Mobile Picture Archiving and Communication System Users with Tablet Personal Computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, So Yeon; Chung, Eun Chul; Park, Hae Won; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Kim, Sam Soo; Park, Hyo Soon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use pattern, satisfaction, dissatisfaction, and general opinion of the physicians from mobile Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) use with galaxy tab 10.1. A survey questionnaire was distributed to 146 physicians of one medical center, and a total of 105 physicians responded. The questionnaire aimed to investigate of the physicians' use pattern, convenience, discomforts, satisfaction, degree of help to diagnose and treat, general opinion, and other opinions. The responses elicited, as well as discrepancies among the departments, and ages were assessed. Chi-square and Fisher's exact were used to determine the value of data. The frequency of usage of the mobile PACS by the medical (75%) and surgical (78%) clinicians was higher than the supporting clinicians (48%) (p = 0.017). The uses and time of utilizing showed statistically significant difference among ages (p = 0.011, p 0.038). Most of the young group (< 45) used after work on dealing with patients of the emergency room and inpatients. However, old group (≥ 45) used at work more than young group, and most of them used on dealing with the inpatients. The mean satisfaction score regarding the degree of help and about the satisfaction were 3.1 and 3.4, respectively. The frequency of the use of the mobile PACS by medical and surgical clinicians was higher than supporting clinicians. There were statistically significant differences in the times and uses between the young and old groups, but not among the clinical departments. The satisfaction of the use of mobile PACS was moderate degree.

  5. Picture archiving and communication systems lead to sustained improvements in reporting times and productivity: results of a 5-year audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A.D.; Billington, R.A.; Adam, E.J.; Dundas, D.D. [Department of Radiology, St Georges Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Patel, U. [Department of Radiology, St Georges Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Uday.Patel@stgeorges.nhs.uk

    2008-07-15

    Aim: To evaluate the impact of picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) on reporting times and productivity in a large teaching hospital. Materials and methods: Reporting time, defined as the time taken from patient registration to report availability, and productivity, defined as the number of reports issued per whole time equivalent (WTE) radiologist per month, were studied for 2 years pre- and 3 years post-PACS installation. Mean reporting time was calculated for plain radiographs and specialist radiology techniques [computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and nuclear medicine]. Productivity, total department workload, and unreported film rates were also assessed. Pre- and post-PACS findings were compared. Results: Between 2002-2006 the number of radiological patient episodes increased by 30% from 11,531/month to 15,057/month. This was accompanied by a smaller increase in WTE reporting radiologists, from 32 to 37 (15%). Mean reporting times have improved substantially post-PACS, plain radiograph reporting time decreased by 26% (from 6.8 to 5 days; p = 0.002) and specialty modalities by 24% (4.1 to 3.1 days; p < 0.001). Radiologist productivity has increased by 18% (337 films to 407 films/WTE radiologist/month). Unreported films have decreased from 5 to 4% for plain radiographs and are steady for specialty modalities (< 1%). In most areas improvements have been sustained over a 3-year period. Conclusion: Since the introduction of PACS, reporting times have decreased by 25% and the productivity improved by 18%. Sustained improvements are felt to reflect the efficiencies and cultural change that accompanied the introduction of PACS and digital dictation.

  6. Associations From Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Rune

    A picture can be interpreted in different ways by various persons. There is often a difference between a picture's denotation (literal meaning), connotation (associative meaning), and private associations. Two studies were conducted in order to observe the private associations that pictures awaken in people. One study deals with associations made…

  7. Picture languages formal models for picture recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfeld, Azriel

    1979-01-01

    Computer Science and Applied Mathematics: Picture Languages: Formal Models for Picture Recognition treats pictorial pattern recognition from the formal standpoint of automata theory. This book emphasizes the capabilities and relative efficiencies of two types of automata-array automata and cellular array automata, with respect to various array recognition tasks. The array automata are simple processors that perform sequences of operations on arrays, while the cellular array automata are arrays of processors that operate on pictures in a highly parallel fashion, one processor per picture element. This compilation also reviews a collection of results on two-dimensional sequential and parallel array acceptors. Some of the analogous one-dimensional results and array grammars and their relation to acceptors are likewise covered in this text. This publication is suitable for researchers, professionals, and specialists interested in pattern recognition and automata theory.

  8. Distributed picture compilation demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Richard; Anderson, John; Leal, Jeff; Mullin, David; Nicholson, David; Watson, Graham

    2004-08-01

    A physical demonstration of distributed surveillance and tracking is described. The demonstration environment is an outdoor car park overlooked by a system of four rooftop cameras. The cameras extract moving objects from the scene, and these objects are tracked in a decentralized way, over a real communication network, using the information form of the standard Kalman filter. Each node therefore has timely access to the complete global picture and because there is no single point of failure in the system, it is robust. The demonstration system and its main components are described here, with an emphasis on some of the lessons we have learned as a result of applying a corpus of distributed data fusion theory and algorithms in practice. Initial results are presented and future plans to scale up the network are also outlined.

  9. A novel role for inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins as regulators of endothelial barrier function by mediating RhoA activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornburger, Michael C; Mayer, Bettina A; Leonhardt, Stefanie; Willer, Elisabeth A; Zahler, Stefan; Beyerle, Andrea; Rajalingam, Krishnaraj; Vollmar, Angelika M; Fürst, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, such as XIAP or cIAP1/2, are important regulators of apoptosis in cancer cells, and IAP antagonists are currently evaluated as antitumor agents. Beyond their function in cancer cells, this study demonstrates a novel role of IAPs as regulators of vascular endothelial permeability. Two structurally different IAP antagonists, ABT and Smac085, as well as silencing of IAPs, reduced the thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP)-induced barrier dysfunction in human endothelial cells as assessed by measuring macromolecular permeability or transendothelial electrical resistance. ABT diminished thrombin-evoked stress fiber formation, activation of myosin light chain 2, and disassembly of adherens junctions independent of calcium signaling, protein kinase C, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Interestingly, ABT and silencing of IAPs, in particular XIAP, reduced the TRAP-evoked RhoA activation, whereas Rac1 was not affected. XIAP and, to a lesser extent, cIAP1 were found to directly interact with RhoA independently of the RhoA activation status. Under cell-free conditions, XIAP did not induce an ubiquitination of RhoA. In summary, our work discloses IAPs as crucial regulators of endothelial permeability and suggests IAP inhibition as interesting approach for the prevention of endothelial barrier dysfunction.

  10. University of California San Francisco automated radiology department system-without picture archival and communication system (PACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintin, June A.; Simborg, Donald W.

    1982-01-01

    A fully automated and comprehensive Radiology Department system was implemented in the Fall of 1980, which highly integrates the multiple functions of a large Radiology Department in a major medical center. The major components include patient registration, film tracking, management statistics, patient flow control, radiologist reporting, pathology coding and billing. The highly integrated design allows sharing of critical files to reduce redundancy and errors in communication and allows rapid dissemination of information throughout the department. As one node of an integrated distributed hospital system, information from central hospital functions such as patient identification are incorporated into the system and reports and other information are available to other hospital systems. The system is implemented on a Data General Eclipse S/250 using the MIIS operating system. The management of a radiology department has become sufficiently complex that the application of computer techniques to the smooth operation of the department has become almost a necessity. This system provides statistics on room utilization, technologist productivity, and radiologist activity. Room utilization graphs are a valuable aid for staffing and scheduling of technologists, as well as analyzing appropriateness of radiologic equipment in a department. Daily reports summarize by radiology section exams not dictated. File room reports indicate which film borrowers are delinquent in returning films for 24 hours, 48 hours and one week. Letters to the offenders are automatically generated on the high speed line printer. Although all radiology departments have similar needs, customization is likely to be required to meet specific priorities and needs at any individual department. It is important in choosing a system vendor that such flexibility be available. If appropriately designed, a system will provide considerable improvements in efficiency and effectiveness.

  11. Gestures for Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) operation in the operating room: Is there any standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madapana, Naveen; Gonzalez, Glebys; Rodgers, Richard; Zhang, Lingsong; Wachs, Juan P

    2018-01-01

    Gestural interfaces allow accessing and manipulating Electronic Medical Records (EMR) in hospitals while keeping a complete sterile environment. Particularly, in the Operating Room (OR), these interfaces enable surgeons to browse Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) without the need of delegating functions to the surgical staff. Existing gesture based medical interfaces rely on a suboptimal and an arbitrary small set of gestures that are mapped to a few commands available in PACS software. The objective of this work is to discuss a method to determine the most suitable set of gestures based on surgeon's acceptability. To achieve this goal, the paper introduces two key innovations: (a) a novel methodology to incorporate gestures' semantic properties into the agreement analysis, and (b) a new agreement metric to determine the most suitable gesture set for a PACS. Three neurosurgical diagnostic tasks were conducted by nine neurosurgeons. The set of commands and gesture lexicons were determined using a Wizard of Oz paradigm. The gestures were decomposed into a set of 55 semantic properties based on the motion trajectory, orientation and pose of the surgeons' hands and their ground truth values were manually annotated. Finally, a new agreement metric was developed, using the known Jaccard similarity to measure consensus between users over a gesture set. A set of 34 PACS commands were found to be a sufficient number of actions for PACS manipulation. In addition, it was found that there is a level of agreement of 0.29 among the surgeons over the gestures found. Two statistical tests including paired t-test and Mann Whitney Wilcoxon test were conducted between the proposed metric and the traditional agreement metric. It was found that the agreement values computed using the former metric are significantly higher (p operation is higher than the previously reported metric (0.29 vs 0.13). This observation is based on the fact that the agreement focuses on main

  12. The Power of Pictures : Vertical Picture Angles in Power Pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessner, Steffen R.; Ryan, Michelle K.; Schubert, Thomas W.; van Quaquebeke, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in power? We argue that the

  13. The power of pictures: Vertical picture angles in power pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Giessner (Steffen); M.K. Ryan (Michelle); T.W. Schubert (Thomas); N. van Quaquebeke (Niels)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in

  14. Racial differences in the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) proteins in extracellular vesicles (EV) from prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salma; Simpson, Jennifer; Lynch, James C; Turay, David; Mirshahidi, Saied; Gonda, Amber; Sanchez, Tino W; Casiano, Carlos A; Wall, Nathan R

    2017-01-01

    African-American men with prostate cancer typically develop more aggressive tumors than men from other racial/ethnic groups, resulting in a disproportionately high mortality from this malignancy. This study evaluated differences in the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), a known family of oncoproteins, in blood-derived exosomal vesicles (EV) between African-American and European-American men with prostate cancer. The ExoQuick™ method was used to isolate EV from both plasma and sera of African-American (n = 41) and European-American (n = 31) men with prostate cancer, as well as from controls with no cancer diagnosis (n = 10). EV preparations were quantified by acetylcholinesterase activity assays, and assessed for their IAP content by Western blotting and densitometric analysis. Circulating levels of the IAP Survivin were evaluated by ELISA. We detected a significant increase in the levels of circulating Survivin in prostate cancer patients compared to controls (P<0.01), with the highest levels in African-American patients (P<0.01). African-American patients with prostate cancer also contained significantly higher amounts of EVs in their plasma (P<0.01) and sera (P<0.05) than European-American patients. In addition, EVs from African-American patients with prostate cancer contained significantly higher amounts of the IAPs Survivin (P<0.05), XIAP (P<0.001), and cIAP-2 (P<0.01) than EVs from European-American patients. There was no significant correlation between expression of IAPs and clinicopathological parameters in the two patient groups. Increased expression of IAPs in EVs from African-American patients with prostate cancer may influence tumor aggressiveness and contribute to the mortality disparity observed in this patient population. EVs could serve as reservoirs of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets that may have clinical utility in reducing prostate cancer health disparities.

  15. Racial differences in the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP proteins in extracellular vesicles (EV from prostate cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Khan

    Full Text Available African-American men with prostate cancer typically develop more aggressive tumors than men from other racial/ethnic groups, resulting in a disproportionately high mortality from this malignancy. This study evaluated differences in the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs, a known family of oncoproteins, in blood-derived exosomal vesicles (EV between African-American and European-American men with prostate cancer. The ExoQuick™ method was used to isolate EV from both plasma and sera of African-American (n = 41 and European-American (n = 31 men with prostate cancer, as well as from controls with no cancer diagnosis (n = 10. EV preparations were quantified by acetylcholinesterase activity assays, and assessed for their IAP content by Western blotting and densitometric analysis. Circulating levels of the IAP Survivin were evaluated by ELISA. We detected a significant increase in the levels of circulating Survivin in prostate cancer patients compared to controls (P<0.01, with the highest levels in African-American patients (P<0.01. African-American patients with prostate cancer also contained significantly higher amounts of EVs in their plasma (P<0.01 and sera (P<0.05 than European-American patients. In addition, EVs from African-American patients with prostate cancer contained significantly higher amounts of the IAPs Survivin (P<0.05, XIAP (P<0.001, and cIAP-2 (P<0.01 than EVs from European-American patients. There was no significant correlation between expression of IAPs and clinicopathological parameters in the two patient groups. Increased expression of IAPs in EVs from African-American patients with prostate cancer may influence tumor aggressiveness and contribute to the mortality disparity observed in this patient population. EVs could serve as reservoirs of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets that may have clinical utility in reducing prostate cancer health disparities.

  16. IAPs contain an evolutionarily conserved ubiquitin-binding domain that regulates NF-kappaB as well as cell survival and oncogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Hansen, Mads; Darding, Maurice; Miasari, Maria

    2008-01-01

    found that the UBA domain is essential for the oncogenic potential of cIAP1, to maintain endothelial cell survival and to protect cells from TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. Moreover, the UBA domain is required for XIAP and cIAP2-MALT1 to activate NF-kappaB. Our data suggest that the UBA domain of cIAP2......-MALT1 stimulates NF-kappaB signalling by binding to polyubiquitylated NEMO. Significantly, 98% of all cIAP2-MALT1 fusion proteins retain the UBA domain, suggesting that ubiquitin-binding contributes to the oncogenic potential of cIAP2-MALT1 in MALT lymphoma. Our data identify IAPs as ubiquitin...

  17. Metaphor in pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J M

    1982-01-01

    Pictures can be literal or metaphoric. Metaphoric pictures involve intended violations of standard modes of depiction that are universally recognizable. The types of metaphoric pictures correspond to major groups of verbal metaphors, with the addition of a class of pictorial runes. Often the correspondence between verbal and pictorial metaphors depends on individual features of objects and such physical parameters as change of scale. A more sophisticated analysis is required for some pictorial metaphors, involving juxtapositions of well-known objects and indirect reference.

  18. IAP-Based Cell Sorting Results in Homogeneous Transplantable Dopaminergic Precursor Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lehnen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC-derived mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA neurons can relieve motor deficits in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD. Clinical translation of differentiation protocols requires standardization of production procedures, and surface-marker-based cell sorting is considered instrumental for reproducible generation of defined cell products. Here, we demonstrate that integrin-associated protein (IAP is a cell surface marker suitable for enrichment of hPSC-derived mesDA progenitor cells. Immunomagnetically sorted IAP+ mesDA progenitors showed increased expression of ventral midbrain floor plate markers, lacked expression of pluripotency markers, and differentiated into mature dopaminergic (DA neurons in vitro. Intrastriatal transplantation of IAP+ cells sorted at day 16 of differentiation in a rat model of PD resulted in functional recovery. Grafts from sorted IAP+ mesDA progenitors were more homogeneous in size and DA neuron density. Thus, we suggest IAP-based sorting for reproducible prospective enrichment of mesDA progenitor cells in clinical cell replacement strategies.

  19. IAP-Based Cell Sorting Results in Homogeneous Transplantable Dopaminergic Precursor Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnen, Daniela; Barral, Serena; Cardoso, Tiago; Grealish, Shane; Heuer, Andreas; Smiyakin, Andrej; Kirkeby, Agnete; Kollet, Jutta; Cremer, Harold; Parmar, Malin; Bosio, Andreas; Knöbel, Sebastian

    2017-10-10

    Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA) neurons can relieve motor deficits in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Clinical translation of differentiation protocols requires standardization of production procedures, and surface-marker-based cell sorting is considered instrumental for reproducible generation of defined cell products. Here, we demonstrate that integrin-associated protein (IAP) is a cell surface marker suitable for enrichment of hPSC-derived mesDA progenitor cells. Immunomagnetically sorted IAP + mesDA progenitors showed increased expression of ventral midbrain floor plate markers, lacked expression of pluripotency markers, and differentiated into mature dopaminergic (DA) neurons in vitro. Intrastriatal transplantation of IAP + cells sorted at day 16 of differentiation in a rat model of PD resulted in functional recovery. Grafts from sorted IAP + mesDA progenitors were more homogeneous in size and DA neuron density. Thus, we suggest IAP-based sorting for reproducible prospective enrichment of mesDA progenitor cells in clinical cell replacement strategies. Copyright © 2017 Miltenyi Biotec GmbH. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular analysis of the iap gene of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from cheeses in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Análise molecular do gene iap de Listeria monocytogenes isoladas de queijos no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozi Fagundes de Mello

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The polymorphic region sequences in the iap gene were analyzed in 25 strains of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from cheeses in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and compared with reference strains. This investigation distinguished two clusters of L. monocytogenes: I (20 strains and II (5 strains.A seqüência da região polimórfica do gene iap foi analisada em 25 cepas de Listeria monocytogenes isoladas de queijo no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e comparadas com cepas referências. Esta investigação distinguiu L. monocytogenes em dois grupos: I (20 cepas e II (5 cepas.

  1. Three-dimensional motion-picture imaging of dynamic object by parallel-phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy using an inverted magnification optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Takahito; Shinomura, Masato; Xia, Peng; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Matoba, Osamu

    2017-04-01

    We constructed a parallel-phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy (PPSDHM) system using an inverted magnification optical system, and succeeded in three-dimensional (3D) motion-picture imaging for 3D displacement of a microscopic object. In the PPSDHM system, the inverted and afocal magnification optical system consisted of a microscope objective (16.56 mm focal length and 0.25 numerical aperture) and a convex lens (300 mm focal length and 82 mm aperture diameter). A polarization-imaging camera was used to record multiple phase-shifted holograms with a single-shot exposure. We recorded an alum crystal, sinking down in aqueous solution of alum, by the constructed PPSDHM system at 60 frames/s for about 20 s and reconstructed high-quality 3D motion-picture image of the crystal. Then, we calculated amounts of displacement of the crystal from the amounts in the focus plane and the magnifications of the magnification optical system, and obtained the 3D trajectory of the crystal by that amounts.

  2. Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) controls human colonic epithelial restitution, migration and Rac1 activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, JB; Larsen, Sylvester; Linnemann, D

    2015-01-01

    epithelial cells (IECs) was increased at the wound edge after 24 h (P 2 was induced in vitro in regenerating Caco2 IECs after wound infliction (P ...Identification of pathways involved in wound healing is important for understanding the pathogenesis of various intestinal diseases. Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) regulates proliferation and migration in nonepithelial cells and is expressed in human colonocytes. The aim...... of the study was to investigate the role of cIAP2 for wound healing in the normal human colon. Wound tissue was generated by taking rectosigmoidal biopsies across an experimental ulcer in healthy subjects after 5, 24, and 48 h. In experimental ulcers, the expression of cIAP2 in regenerating intestinal...

  3. Pictures in Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elmo E.

    1973-01-01

    Pictures definitely seem to help training, but a study for the military finds these pictures need not be in moving form, such as films or videotape. Just how the pictorial techniques should be employed and with how much success depends on individual trainee and program differences. (KP)

  4. A comparison between digital images viewed on a picture archiving and communication system diagnostic workstation and on a PC-based remote viewing system by emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasyn, A; Hanson, R M; Peat, J K; De Silva, M

    1998-02-01

    Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) make possible the viewing of radiographic images on computer workstations located where clinical care is delivered. By the nature of their work this feature is particularly useful for emergency physicians who view radiographic studies for information and use them to explain results to patients and their families. However, the high cost of PACS diagnostic workstations with fuller functionality places limits on the number of and therefore the accessibility to workstations in the emergency department. This study was undertaken to establish how well less expensive personal computer-based workstations would work to support these needs of emergency physicians. The study compared the outcome of observations by 5 emergency physicians on a series of radiographic studies containing subtle abnormalities displayed on both a PACS diagnostic workstation and on a PC-based workstation. The 73 digitized radiographic studies were randomly arranged on both types of workstation over four separate viewing sessions for each emergency physician. There was no statistical difference between a PACS diagnostic workstation and a PC-based workstation in this trial. The mean correct ratings were 59% on the PACS diagnostic workstations and 61% on the PC-based workstations. These findings also emphasize the need for prompt reporting by a radiologist.

  5. Melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein (ML-IAP) specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes cross-react with an epitope from the auto-antigen SS56

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek Sørensen, Rikke; Faurschou, Mikkel; Troelsen, Lone

    2009-01-01

    A large proportion of melanoma patients host a spontaneous T-cell response specifically against ML-IAP-derived peptides. In this study, we describe that some ML-IAP-specific cytotoxic T cells isolated from melanoma patients cross react with an epitope from the auto-antigen SS56. SS56 is a recentl...

  6. Virtual reality system for treatment of the fear of public speaking using image-based rendering and moving pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae M; Ku, Jeong H; Jang, Dong P; Kim, Dong H; Choi, Young H; Kim, In Y; Kim, Sun I

    2002-06-01

    The fear of speaking is often cited as the world's most common social phobia. The rapid growth of computer technology enabled us to use virtual reality (VR) for the treatment of the fear of public speaking. There have been two techniques used to construct a virtual environment for the treatment of the fear of public speaking: model-based and movie-based. Virtual audiences and virtual environments made by model-based technique are unrealistic and unnatural. The movie-based technique has a disadvantage in that each virtual audience cannot be controlled respectively, because all virtual audiences are included in one moving picture file. To address this disadvantage, this paper presents a virtual environment made by using image-based rendering (IBR) and chroma keying simultaneously. IBR enables us to make the virtual environment realistic because the images are stitched panoramically with the photos taken from a digital camera. And the use of chroma keying allows a virtual audience to be controlled individually. In addition, a real-time capture technique was applied in constructing the virtual environment to give the subjects more interaction, in that they can talk with a therapist or another subject.

  7. AT-406, an IAP inhibitor, activates apoptosis and induces radiosensitization of normoxic and hypoxic cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Qin, Qin; Zhan, Liang-Liang; Liu, Jia; Zhu, Hong-Cheng; Yang, Xi; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Li-Ping; Liu, Zhe-Ming; Wang, Di; Cui, He-Qing; Meng, Ciu-Ciu; Cai, Jing; Cheng, Hong-Yan; Sun, Xin-Chen

    2014-01-01

    IAP antagonists increased the antitumor efficacy of X-irradiation in some types of cancers, but their effects on hypoxic cancer cells remain unclarified. We aims to investigate the radiosensitizing effect of an IAP inhibitor AT-406 on cervical cancer cell lines under both normoxia and hypoxia conditions. Hela and Siha cells were treated to investigate the effects of drug administration on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and radiosensitivity. Western blot analysis was used to determine the role of AT-406 in inhibition of IAPs. The pathway of apoptosis was characterized by caspases activity assay. AT-406 potently sensitized Hela cells but not Siha cells to radiation under normoxia. Notably, the radiosensitizing effect of AT-406 on hypoxic cells was more evident than on normoxic cells in both cell lines. Further mechanism studies by western blot showed that under normoxia AT-406 decreased the level of cIAP1 in Hela cells in a dose-dependent manner; while additional downregulation of XIAP expression was induced by AT-406 treatment under hypoxia in both cell lines. Finally, AT-406 works on both extrinsic death receptor and intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathways to activate apoptosis. Totally, AT-406 acts as a strong radiosensitizer in human cervical cancer cells, especially in hypoxic condition.

  8. Role of IAPs in prostate cancer progression: immunohistochemical study in normal and pathological (benign hyperplastic, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer) human prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Berriguete, Gonzalo; Paniagua, Ricardo; Royuela, Mar; Fraile, Benito; Bethencourt, Fermín R de; Prieto-Folgado, Angela; Bartolome, Nahikari; Nuñez, Claudia; Prati, Bruna; Martínez-Onsurbe, Pilar; Olmedilla, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    In this study was investigate IAPs in normal human prostate (NP), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostatic carcinoma (PC), and their involvement in apoptosis/proliferation via NF-kB (TNF-α, IL-1) stimulation. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses were performed in 10 samples of normal prostates, 35 samples of BPH, 27 samples diagnosis of PIN (with low-grade PIN or high-grade PIN) and 95 samples of PC (with low, medium or high Gleason grades). In NP, cytoplasm of epithelial cells were positive to c-IAP1/2 (80% of samples), c-IAP-2 (60%), ILP (20%), XIAP (20%); negative to NAIP and survivin. In BPH, epithelial cells were immunostained to c-IAP1/2 (57.57%), c-IAP-2 (57.57%), ILP (66.6%), NAIP (60.6%), XIAP (27.27%), survivin (9.1%). Whereas low-grade PIN showed intermediate results between NP and BPH; results in high-grade PIN were similar to those found in PC. In PC, epithelial cells were immunostained to c-IAP1/2, c-IAP-2, ILP, NAIP, XIAP (no Gleason variation) and survivin (increasing with Gleason). IAPs could be involved in prostate disorder (BPH, PIN and PC) development since might be provoke inhibition of apoptosis and subsequently cell proliferation. At the same time, different transduction pathway such as IL-1/NIK/NF-kB or TNF/NF-kB (NIK or p38) also promotes proliferation. Inhibitions of IAPs, IL-1α and TNFα might be a possible target for PC treatment since IAPs are the proteins that inhibited apoptosis (favour proliferation) and IL-1α and TNFα would affect all the transduction pathway involucrate in the activation of transcription factors related to survival or proliferation (NF-kB, Elk-1 or ATF-2)

  9. Using the picture exchange communication system (PECS) with children with autism: assessment of PECS acquisition, speech, social-communicative behavior, and problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlop-Christy, Marjorie H; Carpenter, Michael; Le, Loc; LeBlanc, Linda A; Kellet, Kristen

    2002-01-01

    The picture exchange communication system (PECS) is an augmentative communication system frequently used with children with autism (Bondy & Frost, 1994; Siegel, 2000; Yamall, 2000). Despite its common clinical use, no well-controlled empirical investigations have been conducted to test the effectiveness of PECS. Using a multiple baseline design, the present study examined the acquisition of PECS with 3 children with autism. In addition, the study examined the effects of PECS training on the emergence of speech in play and academic settings. Ancillary measures of social-communicative behaviors and problem behaviors were recorded. Results indicated that all 3 children met the learning criterion for PECS and showed concomitant increases in verbal speech. Ancillary gains were associated with increases in social-communicative behaviors and decreases in problem behaviors. The results are discussed in terms of the provision of empirical support for PECS as well as the concomitant positive side effects of its use.

  10. The common operational picture as collective sensemaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolbers, J.J.; Boersma, F.K.

    2013-01-01

    The common operational picture is used to overcome coordination and information management problems during emergency response. Increasingly, this approach is incorporated in more advanced information systems. This is rooted in an 'information warehouse' perspective, which implies information can be

  11. Comparative efficacy of the picture exchange communication system (PECS) versus a speech-generating device: effects on social-communicative skills and speech development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Miriam C; Wendt, Oliver; Subramanian, Anu; Hsu, Ning

    2013-09-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and a speech-generating device (SGD) were compared in a study with a multiple baseline, alternating treatment design. The effectiveness of these methods in increasing social-communicative behavior and natural speech production were assessed with three elementary school-aged children with severe autism who demonstrated extremely limited functional communication skills. Results for social-communicative behavior were mixed for all participants in both treatment conditions. Relatively little difference was observed between PECS and SGD conditions. Although findings were inconclusive, data patterns suggest that Phase II of the PECS training protocol is conducive to encouraging social-communicative behavior. Data for speech outcomes did not reveal any increases across participants, and no differences between treatment conditions were observed.

  12. SESAME 2017 (360 pictures)

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2018-01-01

    The Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME) is an independent laboratory located in Allan in the Balqa governorate of Jordan, created under the auspices of UNESCO on 30 May 2002. December 2017, Jordan Picture: Noemi Caraban

  13. Landscape as World Picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, Jacob

    from Palaeolithic cave paintings through to 19th-century modernity. A structuralist comparison between this pattern and three additional fields of analysis - self-consciousness, socially-determined perception of nature, and world picture - reveals a fascinating insight into culture's macrohistorical...

  14. Evaluation of Picture Archiving and Communication System (Pacs As A Process Improvement Sample (Sivas Numune Hospital Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rıza İnce

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is a realitythatthefirmsproducinggoods or services frequentlybenefited process improvementand similartechniques toachieve their objectives In today'scompetitive environment.Beingprocess-orientedmeans to give weight to the creation of quality but not to the control of quality. In this sense, process improvement is seen as an approach of Total Quality Management targeted. Hospital informationsystems are computer systems that collect andarchive all orthe majority of the hospitaldatafor use inthe assessment.It isa major problem that storage of visualdatawithout lossanddamage and also the being availableof these data as soon as possiblein this system.System that calledPACShas been developedto overcome this problem.PACS is an archiving system that archive the visual dataobtained fromimaging systems in different unitsin a spaceand, allows the transfer of these data to usersat different points when needed.In this study,efficiency of PACS asa process improvementtechniquewas examined by the application ofahospital.It is concluded that the system providea positive contributionto customers and hospitalas an example ofan importantprocess improvement at the evaluationof the results and implementation of the system.

  15. A model for understanding diagnostic imaging referrals and complex interaction processes within the bigger picture of a healthcare system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makanjee, Chandra R.; Bergh, Anne-Marie; Hoffmann, Willem A.

    2014-01-01

    Using experiences from the South African public healthcare system with limited resources, this review proposes a model that captures a holistic perspective of diagnostic imaging services embedded in a network of negotiated decision-making processes. Professional interdependency and interprofessional collaboration, cooperation and coordination are built around the central notion of integration in order to achieve a seamless transition through the continuum of various types of services needed to come to a diagnosis. Health-system role players interact with patients who enter the system from the perspective of their life-world. The distribution of diagnostic imaging services – within one setting or at multiple levels of care – demonstrates how fragments of information are filtered, interpreted and transformed at each point of care. The proposed model could contribute to alignment towards a common goal: services providing holistic quality of care within and beyond a complex healthcare system

  16. Adoption and resistance: reflections on human, organizational, and information technologies in picture archive and communication systems (PACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, Rodney W.

    2005-04-01

    In research conducted at academic and community hospitals in the United States since 2001, this paper examines complex human and technological relationships employed to renegotiate behavior within hospital administrative and clinical cultures. In the planning and implementation of PACS in a four-facility hospital we will enter into what can be described as processes of "adoption" and "resistance", seemingly opposite approaches to system implementation, which I argue are in fact key responses to planning, design, and customization of imaging and information systems in a context of convergence. In a larger context of convergence known as NBIC tools (nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive sciences) it has become increasingly clear to leaders in the field that it is essential to redesign organizational technologies. A novel system has little chance of being fully utilized by conventional organizational structures in an era of system convergence. The challenge of embracing a larger systems perspective lies in opening untapped potential within the healthcare enterprise by preparing the ground for reflection on new approaches to training, and bridging specialized knowledge across computer engineering, clinical decision making, and organizational perspectives for the benefit of patient care. Case studies will demonstrate how organizational and system design technologies are crucial in insuring that PACS implementation strategies can encourage the emergence of new levels of quality for patient care. The goal is to provide successful design-build models that are true to organizational specificity, persons, and clinical practices undergoing change and uncertainty.

  17. Design Considerations for Multi-Channel Picture Communication Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Scheibe, Paul O.

    1983-01-01

    Design of networks intended for communication of digitally-encoded pictures involves considerations different from those used in the design of text or voice communication networks. This paper provides an overview of the elements useful in the design of picture communication networks by relation and contrast with other communication networks. Particular emphasis is given to picture communication systems useful in medical applications.

  18. Um estudo dos relatos afetivos subjetivos a estímulos do International Affective Picture System em uma amostra geriátrica brasileira Subjective affective ratings to photographic stimuli of the International Affective Picture System in a Brazilian elderly sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weyler Galvão Porto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A literatura científica indica a possibilidade de a percepção da emoção e a formação da memória emocional serem discordantes entre jovens e idosos. A mesma é pobre ao explorar essa possibilidade. Neste estudo, relatamos os resultados obtidos em um experimento-piloto com uma amostra de idosos brasileiros, que classificaram subjetivamente, através da escala Self Assessment Manikin, imagens oriundas do International Affective Picture System. MÉTODO: Quarenta e oito idosos voluntários da Universidade Aberta da Terceira Idade, saudáveis clínica e cognitivamente, avaliaram o caráter alertante e a valência afetiva de 71 imagens do International Affective Picture System, aleatoriamente escolhidas. RESULTADOS: O grau de alerta reportado por idosos diante de um estímulo emocional é tanto maior quanto menor o prazer provocado por essa imagem-estímulo, resultando na existência de uma forte correlação negativa (r = 0,93 entre o grau de alerta e o estímulo desprazeroso. Em uma comparação do acima obtido com outro experimento normativo semelhante feito com jovens brasileiros e americanos, apontou-se para uma possível diferença cultural na forma de relatar subjetivamente um estímulo emocional. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados obtidos com esta amostra estudada sugerem que pode existir uma diferença nos relatos afetivos entre os jovens e idosos, onde uma normatização do International Affective Picture System para uma amostra maior, representativa da população de idosos, seria útil para responder esta questão.INTRODUCTION: The scientific literature points to a possible bias in the form perception and emotional memory are constructed when elderly and young individuals are compared. However, this possibility is underexplored. This paper presents the results obtained from a pilot study based on an elderly emotional subjective report after evaluation using the International Affective Picture System images and Self Assessment

  19. Development of quantitative security optimization approach for the picture archives and carrying system between a clinic and a rehabilitation center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneda, Kiyofumi; Kajima, Toshio; Koyama, Tadashi; Muranaka, Hiroyuki; Dojo, Hirofumi; Aratani, Yasuhiko

    2002-05-01

    The target of our study is to analyze the level of necessary security requirements, to search for suitable security measures and to optimize security distribution to every portion of the medical practice. Quantitative expression must be introduced to our study, if possible, to enable simplified follow-up security procedures and easy evaluation of security outcomes or results. Using fault tree analysis (FTA), system analysis showed that system elements subdivided into groups by details result in a much more accurate analysis. Such subdivided composition factors greatly depend on behavior of staff, interactive terminal devices, kinds of services provided, and network routes. Security measures were then implemented based on the analysis results. In conclusion, we identified the methods needed to determine the required level of security and proposed security measures for each medical information system, and the basic events and combinations of events that comprise the threat composition factors. Methods for identifying suitable security measures were found and implemented. Risk factors for each basic event, a number of elements for each composition factor, and potential security measures were found. Methods to optimize the security measures for each medical information system were proposed, developing the most efficient distribution of risk factors for basic events.

  20. Consideration of vision and picture quality: psychological effects induced by picture sharpness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Hideo

    1989-08-01

    A psychological hierarchy model of human vision(1)(2) suggests that the visual signals are processed in a serial manner from lower to higher stages: that is "sensation" - "perception" - "emotion." For designing a future television system, it is important to find out what kinds of physical factors affect the "emotion" experienced by an observer in front of the display. This paper describes the psychological effects induced by the sharpness of the picture. The subjective picture quality was evaluated for the same pictures with five different levels of sharpness. The experiment was performed on two kinds of printed pictures: (A) a woman's face, and (B) a town corner. From these experiments, it was found that the amount of high-frequency peaking (physical value of the sharpness) which psychologically gives the best picture quality, differs between pictures (A) and (B). That is, the optimum picture sharpness differs depending on the picture content. From these results, we have concluded that the psychophysical sharpness of the picture is not only determined at the stage of "perception" (e.g., resolution or signal to noise ratio, which everyone can judge immediately), but also at the stage of "emotion" (e.g., sensation of reality or beauty).

  1. A hospital-wide picture archiving and communication system (PACS): the views of users and providers of the radiology service at Hammersmith Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, Jessamy

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To obtain users' views of the new picture archiving and communication system (PACS) from clinical and radiological staff at Hammersmith Hospital, UK. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were used to ascertain the views of staff, following an interview schedule which covered aspects of: (1) their use of PACS, (2) facilities available, (3) the perceived quality of images, (4) reporting, (5) image availability, (6) image accessibility, (7) training, and (8) ease of use of PACS. Results: Interviews were carried out with 34 key users and providers of the radiological service at Hammersmith Hospital. Overall, staff were very satisfied with PACS particularly in terms of image availability. All staff said that they preferred PACS to the previous, conventional radiology service. Conclusions: The key implications of issues raised by staff were: the impact of 'down-time' and the importance of an efficient back-up system, the requirement for sufficient short-term storage to prevent images being off-line during clinical situations, the usefulness of the folder system for management of the images, the need to access images for teaching purposes, the advantage of having a default display protocol to facilitate radiological reporting, and the requirement for flexible, yet effective, training to ensure that the system is utilised to its full potential by users

  2. Acceptability of picture archiving and communication system (PACS) among hospital healthcare personnel based on a unified theory of acceptance and use of technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Mehrabi, Nahid; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Sadeghi, Mojtaba

    2017-09-01

    The picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is a healthcare system technology which manages medical images and integrates equipment through a network. There are some theories about the use and acceptance of technology by people to describe the behavior and attitudes of end users towards information technologies. We investigated the influential factors on users' acceptance of PACS in the military hospitals of Tehran. In this applied analytical and cross-sectional study, 151 healthcare employees of military hospitals who had experience in using the PACS system were investigated. Participants were selected by census. The following variables were considered: performance expectancy, efforts expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and behavioral intention. Data were gathered using a questionnaire. Its validity and reliability were approved by a panel of experts and was piloted with 30 hospital healthcare staff (Cronbach's alpha =0.91). Spearman correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression analysis were used in analyzing the data. Expected performance, efforts expectancy, social impact and facilitating conditions had a significant relationship with behavioral intention. The multiple regression analysis indicated that only performance expectancy can predict the user's behavioral intentions to use PACS technology. Performance and effort expectancies are quite influential in accepting the use of PACS in hospitals. All healthcare personnel should become aware that using such technology is necessary in a hospital. Knowing the influencing factors that affect the acceptance of using new technology can help in improving its use, especially in a healthcare system. This can improve the offered healthcare services' quality.

  3. A comparative cost analysis of picture archiving and communications systems (PACS versus conventional radiology in the private sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indres Moodley

    2015-03-01

    Aim: To undertake an incremental cost analysis of PACS compared with conventional radiology to determine productivity gains, if any, at two private hospitals in Durban. Method: An incremental cost analysis for chest radiographs, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging brain scans with and without contrast were performed. The overall incremental cost for PACS in comparison with a conventional radiology site was determined. The net present value was also determined to evaluate the capital budgeting requirements for both systems. Results: The incremental cost of both capital and the radiology information system for installing PACS shows an expected increase. The incremental PACS image cost shows a reduction. Conclusion: The study provides a benchmark for the cost incurred when implementing PACS. It also provides a decision framework for radiology departments that plan to introduce PACS and helps to determine the feasibility of its introduction.

  4. Teachers’ perceptions of individual performance-related pay in practice : A picture of a counterproductive pay system

    OpenAIRE

    Lundström, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This article describes and discusses Swedish upper-secondary teachers’ perceptions of the effects of individual performance-related pay (PRP) in the context of educational restructuring and governance. The empirical data were generated through semi-structured interviews of 23 teachers. Power’s distinction between programmatic and technological elements of audit is used as a frame of reference for the problematization of the pay system. The findings demonstrate a wide gap between the programma...

  5. Involvement of caspase-2 and caspase-9 in endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis: A role for the IAPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Herman H.; Lynn Kelly, N.; Liston, Peter; Korneluk, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    Dysregulation of apoptosis is involved in a wide spectrum of disease ranging from proliferative to degenerative disorders. An emerging area of study in apoptosis is the critical contribution of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in both mitochondrial and ER specific apoptosis pathways. Here we show that brefeldin A and tunicamycin-mediated ER stress lead to caspase-dependent apoptosis involving caspase-2. Confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation indicate that caspase-2 is localized to the ER, and following ER stress, the processing of caspase-2 and -9 is an early event preceding the activation of caspase-3 and -7 and the cleavage of the caspase substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Inhibition and silencing of either caspase-2 or caspase-9 suppress ER stress-induced apoptosis, as demonstrated by annexin V binding. Similarly, transduction with an adenovirus encoding either Inhibitors of Apoptosis (IAP) protein HIAP1/c-IAP2 or HIAP2/c-IAP1 also suppresses ER stress-induced apoptosis. However, among HIAP1, HIAP2 and XIAP, only HIAP2 binds and inhibits caspase-2. Our results thus indicate a novel mechanism by which HIAP2 can regulate ER-initiated apoptosis by modulating the activity of caspase-2

  6. A potent and orally active antagonist (SM-406/AT-406) of multiple inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) in clinical development for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Sun, Haiying; Peng, Yuefeng; Lu, Jianfeng; Nikolovska-Coleska, Zaneta; McEachern, Donna; Liu, Liu; Qiu, Su; Yang, Chao-Yie; Miller, Rebecca; Yi, Han; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Duxin; Kang, Sanmao; Guo, Ming; Leopold, Lance; Yang, Dajun; Wang, Shaomeng

    2011-04-28

    We report the discovery and characterization of SM-406 (compound 2), a potent and orally bioavailable Smac mimetic and an antagonist of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). This compound binds to XIAP, cIAP1, and cIAP2 proteins with K(i) of 66.4, 1.9, and 5.1 nM, respectively. Compound 2 effectively antagonizes XIAP BIR3 protein in a cell-free functional assay, induces rapid degradation of cellular cIAP1 protein, and inhibits cancer cell growth in various human cancer cell lines. It has good oral bioavailability in mice, rats, non-human primates, and dogs, is highly effective in induction of apoptosis in xenograft tumors, and is capable of complete inhibition of tumor growth. Compound 2 is currently in phase I clinical trials for the treatment of human cancer.

  7. The conventional quark picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalitz, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    For baryons, mesons and deep inelastic phenomena the ideas and the problems of the conventional quark picture are pointed out. All observed baryons fit in three SU(3)-multiplets which cluster into larger SU(6)-multiplets. No mesons are known which have quantum numbers inconsistent with belonging to a SU(3) nonet or octet. The deep inelastic phenomena are described in terms of six structure functions of the proton. (BJ) [de

  8. Producing colour pictures from SCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaud, K.

    1982-01-01

    The computer code SCAN.TSK has been written for use on the Interdata 7/32 minicomputer which will convert the pictures produced by the SCAN program into colour pictures on a colour graphics VDU. These colour pictures are a more powerful aid to detecting errors in the MONK input data than the normal lineprinter pictures. This report is intended as a user manual for using the program on the Interdata 7/32, and describes the method used to produce the pictures and gives examples of JCL, input data and of the pictures that can be produced. (U.K.)

  9. The effectiveness of the motion picture association of America's rating system in screening explicit violence and sex in top-ranked movies from 1950 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalkur, Priya G; Jamieson, Patrick E; Romer, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    Youth exposure to explicit film violence and sex is linked to adverse health outcomes and is a serious public health concern. The Motion Picture Association of America's (MPAA's) rating system's effectiveness in reducing youth exposure to harmful content has been questioned. To determine the MPAA's rating system's effectiveness in screening explicit violence and sex since the system's initiation (1968) and the introduction of the PG-13 category (1984). Also, to examine evidence of less restrictive ratings over time ("ratings creep"). Top-grossing movies from 1950 to 2006 (N = 855) were coded for explicitness of violent and sexual content. Trends in rating assignments and in the content of different rating categories since 1968 were assessed. The explicitness of violent and sexual content significantly increased following the rating system's initiation. The system did not differentiate violent content as well as sexual content, and ratings creep was only evident for violent films. Explicit violence in R-rated films increased, while films that would previously have been rated R were increasingly assigned to PG-13. This pattern was not evident for sex; only R-rated films exhibited higher levels of explicit sex compared to preratings period. While relatively effective for screening explicit sex, the rating system has allowed increasingly violent content into PG-13 films, thereby increasing youth access to more harmful content. Assignment of films in the current rating system should be more sensitive to the link between violent media exposure and youth violence. Copyright © 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reasons for Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS data security breaches: Intentional versus non-intentional breaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintswalo B. Mahlaola

    2016-10-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to explore the nature of and reasons for confidentiality breaches by PACS users in a South African context. Methods: A closed-ended questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from 115 health professionals employed in a private hospital setting, including its radiology department and a second independent radiology department. The questionnaire sought to explore the attitudes of participants towards confidentiality breeches and reasons for suchbehaviour. Results: Breach incidences were expressed as percentage compliance and classified according to the nature and reasons provided by Sarkar's breach classification. Cross tabulations indicated a statistical significance (p < 0.00 between the expected and observed confidentiality practices of participants and also the adequacy of training, system knowledge and policy awareness. Conclusion: Our study supports previous findings that, in the absence of guidelines, most security breaches were non-intentional acts committed due to ignorance. Of concern are incidents in which sensitive information was intentionally shared via social media.

  11. To eat or not to eat: Effects of food availability on reward system activity during food picture viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechert, Jens; Klackl, Johannes; Miedl, Stephan F; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2016-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies have started to explore the role of food characteristics (e.g., calorie-content) and psychological factors (e.g., restrained eating, craving) for the human appetitive system, motivated by the significant health implications of food-choice, overeating and overweight/obesity. However, one key aspect of modern food environments, food availability, especially of high energy foods, has not been adequately modeled in experimental research. Food that is immediately available for consumption could elicit stronger reward system activity and associated cognitive control than food that is not currently available for consumption and this could vary as a function of energy density. To examine this question, 32 healthy participants (16 women) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while passively viewing available foods - i.e. foods that could be eaten during and after the experiment - and unavailable foods of either high or low-caloric density in a 2 × 2 design. Available compared to unavailable foods elicited higher palatability ratings as well as stronger neural activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), amygdala, and left caudate nucleus as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) - and thus structures implicated in reward and appetitive motivation as well as cognitive control, respectively. Availability effects in the caudate were mainly attributable to the high calorie condition (availability × calorie density interaction). These neuroimaging results support the contention that foods are particularly rewarding when immediately available and particularly so when high in caloric density. Thus, our results are consistent with health promoting interventions utilizing a nudging approach, i.e. aiming at decreasing accessibility of high calorie and increasing accessibility of low calorie foods in daily life. Results also imply that controlling/manipulating food availability may be an important methodological aspect in neuroscientific

  12. Different Loci of Semantic Interference in Picture Naming vs. Word-Picture Matching Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Denise Y; Schnur, Tatiana T

    2016-01-01

    Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category impairs performance relative to when stimuli come from different semantic categories (i.e., semantic interference). Despite similar semantic interference phenomena in both picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, the locus of interference has been attributed to different levels of the language system - lexical in naming and semantic in word-picture matching. Although both tasks involve access to shared semantic representations, the extent to which interference originates and/or has its locus at a shared level remains unclear, as these effects are often investigated in isolation. We manipulated semantic context in cyclical picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, and tested whether factors tapping semantic-level (generalization of interference to novel category items) and lexical-level processes (interactions with lexical frequency) affected the magnitude of interference, while also assessing whether interference occurs at a shared processing level(s) (transfer of interference across tasks). We found that semantic interference in naming was sensitive to both semantic- and lexical-level processes (i.e., larger interference for novel vs. old and low- vs. high-frequency stimuli), consistent with a semantically mediated lexical locus. Interference in word-picture matching exhibited stable interference for old and novel stimuli and did not interact with lexical frequency. Further, interference transferred from word-picture matching to naming. Together, these experiments provide evidence to suggest that semantic interference in both tasks originates at a shared processing stage (presumably at the semantic level), but that it exerts its effect at different loci when naming pictures vs. matching words to pictures.

  13. Radiodiagnosis of lung picture changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenetskij, M.S.; Lezova, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    The roentgenological picture of changes of the lung picture in the case of different pathological states in the lungs and the heart, is described. A developed diagnostic algorithm for the syndrome of lung picture change and the rules of its application are given. 5 refs.; 9 figs

  14. The polycentric picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg, Ingelise

    2008-01-01

    The polycentric picture The presentation introduces a dynamic view on children's drawings inspired by J.J.Gibson's ecological approach to visual perception. Empirical research in children's drawings will be the basis for the documentation of the fact that children's drawings contain several...... viewpoints and can be characterized as polycentric. I will talk about children's perception of environmental space and about the relations and the orientation they are establishing, which are used in the organisation of the pictorial space. The presentation serves the purpose to point out ontological...

  15. Analysis of Age-Related Changes in Asian Facial Skeletons Using 3D Vector Mathematics on Picture Archiving and Communication System Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, So Jung; Park, Jee Soo; Byun, Sung Wan; Bae, Jung Ho

    2015-09-01

    There are marked differences in facial skeletal characteristics between Asian and Caucasian. However, ethnic differences in age-related facial skeletal changes have not yet been fully established. The aims of this study were to evaluate age-related changes in Asian midfacial skeletons and to explore ethnic differences in facial skeletal structures with aging between Caucasian and Asian. The study included 108 men (aged 20-79 years) and 115 women (aged 20-81 years). Axial CT images with a gantry tilt angle of 0 were analyzed. We measured three-dimensional (3D) coordinates at each point with a pixel lens cursor in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS), and angles and widths between the points were calculated using 3D vector mathematics. We analyzed angular changes in 4 bony regions, including the glabellar, orbital, maxillary, and pyriform aperture regions, and changes in the orbital aperture width (distance from the posterior lacrimal crest to the frontozygomatic suture) and the pyriform width (between both upper margins of the pyriform aperture). All 4 midfacial angles in females and glabellar and maxillary angles in males showed statistically significant decreases with aging. On the other hand, the orbital and pyriform widths did not show statistically significant changes with aging. The results of this study suggest that Asian midfacial skeletons may change continuously throughout life, and that there may be significant differences in the midfacial skeleton between both sexes and between ethnic groups.

  16. Integration of a Zero-footprint Cloud-based Picture Archiving and Communication System with Customizable Forms for Radiology Research and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetter, Jason; Khanna, Nishanth; Mandell, Jacob C

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate web-based forms with a zero-footprint cloud-based Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) to create a tool of potential benefit to radiology research and education. Web-based forms were created with a front-end and back-end architecture utilizing common programming languages including Vue.js, Node.js and MongoDB, and integrated into an existing zero-footprint cloud-based PACS. The web-based forms application can be accessed in any modern internet browser on desktop or mobile devices and allows the creation of customizable forms consisting of a variety of questions types. Each form can be linked to an individual DICOM examination or a collection of DICOM examinations. Several uses are demonstrated through a series of case studies, including implementation of a research platform for multi-reader multi-case (MRMC) studies and other imaging research, and creation of an online Objective Structure Clinical Examination (OSCE) and an educational case file. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of Picture Exchange Communication System and Speech Therapy on Communication Development of 4-8 Years Old Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Pour-Ismaili

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compares the effect of speech therapy and picture exchange communication system (PECS on communication development of 4-8 year old autistic children. Materials & Methods: This is an experimental and comparison study. In this study 10 subjects including PECS and speech therapy groups were selected using the available sampling method on the base of including and excluding criteria. Both groups were matched according to age and developmental indices of Niusha scale. Dependent variables were listening, receptive language, expressive language, cognition, speech and social communication. Intervention was applied for both groups similarly divided in 40 minute sessions 3 times a weak for 3 months. Our parameters were evaluated by Niusha development scale before and after interventions. The results were analyzed clinically and statistically by sum-ranks willkokson and rank- signed willkokson. Results: Post test comparison between the two groups revealed that the members of PECS group had a more progress in listening, receptive language, cognition and social communication skills rather than speech therapy group. But these differences were not significant statistically and T(sum ranks was between critical values. Conclusion: considering the results, it could be concluded that PECS is a effective strategy to train non-verbal autistic children. Moreover it could be used as a supplement teaching method beside other therapeutic method such as speech therapy.

  18. An automated patient recognition method based on an image-matching technique using previous chest radiographs in the picture archiving and communication system environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Junji; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Kondo, Keisuke; Doi, Kunio

    2001-01-01

    An automated patient recognition method for correcting 'wrong' chest radiographs being stored in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) environment has been developed. The method is based on an image-matching technique that uses previous chest radiographs. For identification of a 'wrong' patient, the correlation value was determined for a previous image of a patient and a new, current image of the presumed corresponding patient. The current image was shifted horizontally and vertically and rotated, so that we could determine the best match between the two images. The results indicated that the correlation values between the current and previous images for the same, 'correct' patients were generally greater than those for different, 'wrong' patients. Although the two histograms for the same patient and for different patients overlapped at correlation values greater than 0.80, most parts of the histograms were separated. The correlation value was compared with a threshold value that was determined based on an analysis of the histograms of correlation values obtained for the same patient and for different patients. If the current image is considered potentially to belong to a 'wrong' patient, then a warning sign with the probability for a 'wrong' patient is provided to alert radiology personnel. Our results indicate that at least half of the 'wrong' images in our database can be identified correctly with the method described in this study. The overall performance in terms of a receiver operating characteristic curve showed a high performance of the system. The results also indicate that some readings of 'wrong' images for a given patient in the PACS environment can be prevented by use of the method we developed. Therefore an automated warning system for patient recognition would be useful in correcting 'wrong' images being stored in the PACS environment

  19. The assessment of Picture Archiving and Communication System based on Canadian Infoway PACS Opinion Survey in Teaching Hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bahador

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today the use of information technology in accordance with the rapid environmental changes and flexibility acquisition is necessary and unavoidable. Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS is one of the medical information technology used in health facilities. PACS provides the images archive and transmission possibility electronically in different units of the teaching and treatment centers. This study aimed to assess the PACS system in teaching hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences based on a survey of Canadian Infoway. Method: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 53 individuals selected through Two-Stage Stratified Random Sampling. The study population consisted of 156 PACS users in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences hospitals which were equipped with the PACS system in 2015. Data were collected by the valid and reliable customized questionnaire of Canadian Infoway. The reliability was measured by a pilot study on 25 PACS users; Cronbach’s Alpha was estimated 0.78. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18. Also, frequency, mean, standard deviation were used. Results: The results are presented in three sections: environment (Background Variables, benefits and challenges of PACS. As to the system availability, 20.8% of the users in the clinic, 75.5% in the diagnostic imaging department, only 3.8% in offices had access to the PACS. As to system accessibility, 49.1% of the users just had access to tests, 5.7% only to the reports, and 45.3% to both reports and tests. With respect to benefits of PACS, the mean was 4.16 (SD: 0.5 (five-point scale 1-5 estimated, and in challenges, the mean was 3.48(SD: 0.5 (five-point scale 1-5. Conclusion: The results showed that although PACS could eliminate many restrictions concerning the use of radiology images and films, there were challenges in this regard. Users are recommended to have access to PACS in all clinics, physicians’ offices, and diagnostic

  20. Collages of granulation pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, R.B.; November, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes two small-area selection schemes that the authors have applied to CCD observations of solar granulation. The first scheme, which the authors call the ''mosaic,'' divides the 128 x 128 array into 64 subarrays each containing 16 x 16 pixels. On each picture in the burst the RMS contrast of the fine structure is measured in each subarray and compared to the corresponding value in a table that contains the highest previous RMS values. The second scheme, which the authors call a ''collage,'' is similar except the RMS value is calculated smoothly within a sliding Gaussian window over the entire scene and the value of an individual pixel is gated into the final collage whenever the RMS contrast at that pixel location exceeds that of all previous frames taken during the burst

  1. Pictures of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, J.

    1989-01-01

    The first part of the book describes the development of a polarised spectrum of attitudes towards science and technology over the last two decades. Positivistic attitudes that emerged from the materialistic branch of the period of Enlightenment are shown in contrast to the attitudes that stem from the philosophical line of Rousseau-romanticism-vitalism. The second part of the book presents the results of an empirical study, providing evidence for the existence of the different attitudes towards technology and the environment. The study is based on a representative opinion poll among civil servants, engineering professions, social workers, and artists. Engineers and social workers are shown to represent the two antipodes in terms of the 'dual-culture' theory. In addition, sex-specific and age-specific differences are explained, and the different pictures of technology drawn by personalities characterised by an attitude of active control in contrast to those characterised by an attitude of intuitive faith. (orig.) [de

  2. Pictures of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Starting with this issue, we will publish special pictures illustrating the ongoing construction and commissioning efforts. If you wish to have a professionnal photographer immortalize your detector before it disappears in the heart of ATLAS or for a special event, don't hesitate to contact Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira (16-3687) from the CERN photo service. Members of the pixel team preparing to insert the outermost layer (the outer of the three barrel pixel layers) into the Global Support Frame for the Pixel Detector in SR1. Ongoing work on the first Big Wheel on the C side. Exploded view of the side-C Big Wheel and the barrel cryostat. The TRT Barrel services (HV, LV, cooling liquid, active gas, flushing gas) are now completely connected and tested. Hats off to Kirill Egorov, Mike Reilly, Ben Legeyt and Godwin Mayers who managed to fit everything within the small clearance margin!

  3. Decoding Pedophilia: Increased Anterior Insula Response to Infant Animal Pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Ponseti, Jorge; Bruhn, Daniel; Nolting, Julia; Gerwinn, Hannah; Pohl, Alexander; Stirn, Aglaja; Granert, Oliver; Laufs, Helmut; Deuschl, Günther; Wolff, Stephan; Jansen, Olav; Siebner, Hartwig; Briken, Peer; Mohnke, Sebastian; Amelung, Till

    2018-01-01

    Previous research found increased brain responses of men with sexual interest in children (i.e., pedophiles) not only to pictures of naked children but also to pictures of child faces. This opens the possibly that pedophilia is linked (in addition to or instead of an aberrant sexual system) to an over-active nurturing system. To test this hypothesis we exposed pedophiles and healthy controls to pictures of infant and adult animals during functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. By ...

  4. IAP antagonists Birinapant and AT-406 efficiently synergise with either TRAIL, BRAF, or BCL-2 inhibitors to sensitise BRAFV600E colorectal tumour cells to apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perimenis, Philippos; Galaris, Apostolos; Voulgari, Alexandra; Prassa, Margarita; Pintzas, Alexander

    2016-08-12

    High expression levels of Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) have been correlated with poor cancer prognosis and block the cell death pathway by interfering with caspase activation. SMAC-mimetics are small-molecule inhibitors of IAPs that mimic the endogenous SMAC and promote the induction of cell death by neutralizing IAPs. In this study, anti-tumour activity of new SMAC-mimetics Birinapant and AT-406 is evaluated against colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and IAP cross-talk with either oncogenic BRAF or BCL-2, or with the TRAIL are further exploited towards rational combined protocols. It is shown that pre-treatment of SMAC-mimetics followed by their combined treatment with BRAF inhibitors can decrease cell viability, migration and can very efficiently sensitize colorectal tumour cells to apoptosis. Moreover, co-treatment of TRAIL with SMAC-mimetics can efficiently sensitize resistant tumour cells to apoptosis synergistically, as shown by median effect analysis. Finally, Birinapant and AT-406 can synergise with BCL-2 inhibitor ABT-199 to reduce viability of adenocarcinoma cells with high BCL-2 expression. Proposed synergistic rational anticancer combined protocols of IAP antagonists Birinapant and AT-406 in 2D and 3D cultures can be later further exploited in vivo, from precision tumour biology to precision medical oncology.

  5. The Spectator in the Picture

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Robert

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers whether pictures ever implicitly represent internal spectators of the scenes they depict, and what theoretical construal to offer of their doing so. Richard Wollheim's discussion (Painting as an Art, ch.3) is taken as the most sophisticated attempt to answer these questions. I argue that Wollheim does not provide convincing argument for his claim that some pictures implicitly represent an internal spectator with whom the viewer of the picture is to imaginatively identify....

  6. Time and flow study results before and after installation of a hospital information system and radiology information system and before clinical use of a picture archiving and communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamura, K; Umeda, T; Harauchi, H; Kondoh, H; Hasegawa, T; Kozuka, T; Takeda, H; Inoue, M

    1997-02-01

    The effectiveness of a hospital information system (HIS) and a radiological information system (RIS) was evaluated to optimize preparation for the planned full clinical operation of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS), which is now linked experimentally to the HIS and the RIS. One thousand IC (integrated circuit) cards were used for time studies and flow studies in the hospital. Measurements were performed on image examination order entry, image examination, reporting, and image delivery times. Even though after the HIS and the RIS operation only a small amount of time savings were realized in each time fraction component, such as in the patient movement time, examination time, and film delivery time, the total turn-around time was shortened markedly, by more than 23 hours on average. It was verified that the HIS and the RIS was beneficial in the outpatient clinics of the orthopedic department. Our method of measurement employing IC cards before and after HIS and RIS operations can be applied in other hospitals.

  7. The Popularity of Picture Books with Television Tie-in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia R. Ladd

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes circulation statistics of television tie-in picture books from the Wake County Public Library System in North Carolina to determine their popularity among patrons. Caldecott winning picture books were used as a point of comparison. This study also examined OPAC holdings from North Carolina public libraries to determine television tie-in picture book popularity among collection builders. The findings of the study show that television tie-in picture books are found to some degree in the vast majority of North Carolina public libraries, and are more popular than award winners in the Wake County system.

  8. Device for transmitting pictures and device for receiving said pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1993-01-01

    Device for transmitting television pictures in the form of transform coefficients and motion vectors. The motion vectors of a sub-picture are converted (20) into a series of difference vectors and a reference vector. Said series is subsequently applied to a variable-length encoder (22) which encodes

  9. Investigating the Acquisition, Generalization, and Emergence of Untrained Verbal Operants for Mands Acquired Using the Picture Exchange Communication System in Adults with Severe Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziomek, M. M.; Rehfeldt, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the total amount of training time and total number of trial blocks for individuals with severe developmental disabilities to acquire mands under control of unconditioned establishing operations and mands under control of transitive conditioned establishing operations for manual sign and for the Picture Exchange Communication…

  10. Biophotonics: the big picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Laura; Boppart, Stephen A.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Popp, Jürgen; Wilson, Brian C.

    2018-02-01

    The 5th International Conference on Biophotonics (ICOB) held April 30 to May 1, 2017, in Fremantle, Western Australia, brought together opinion leaders to discuss future directions for the field and opportunities to consider. The first session of the conference, "How to Set a Big Picture Biophotonics Agenda," was focused on setting the stage for developing a vision and strategies for translation and impact on society of biophotonic technologies. The invited speakers, panelists, and attendees engaged in discussions that focused on opportunities and promising applications for biophotonic techniques, challenges when working at the confluence of the physical and biological sciences, driving factors for advances of biophotonic technologies, and educational opportunities. We share a summary of the presentations and discussions. Three main themes from the conference are presented in this position paper that capture the current status, opportunities, challenges, and future directions of biophotonics research and key areas of applications: (1) biophotonics at the nano- to microscale level; (2) biophotonics at meso- to macroscale level; and (3) biophotonics and the clinical translation conundrum.

  11. Automated Selection Of Pictures In Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorvig, Mark E.; Shelton, Robert O.

    1995-01-01

    Method of automated selection of film or video motion-picture frames for storage or examination developed. Beneficial in situations in which quantity of visual information available exceeds amount stored or examined by humans in reasonable amount of time, and/or necessary to reduce large number of motion-picture frames to few conveying significantly different information in manner intermediate between movie and comic book or storyboard. For example, computerized vision system monitoring industrial process programmed to sound alarm when changes in scene exceed normal limits.

  12. Study of expression of genes cIAP and cMET, in liver tissue with and without neoplasia of Rattus norvegicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coto Valverde, Daniel Esteban

    2010-01-01

    The expression levels of cIAP genes and cMET were determined in liver tissues with and without neoplasm of the organism Rattus norvegicus, for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. The technique of reaction Polymerase Chain in real time (qPCR), is used to obtain the expression, of both genes cIAP and cMET, and this has decreased in neoplastic samples compared to samples not affected. The expression of these genes has been analyzed in samples with neoplastic formations, but treated with an anti-tumor agent. The expression has presented an increase of the cMET gene, unlike the cIAP gene, which has decreased its expression. Perform statistical analysis has been impossible because the number of samples used has been reduced. The results obtained differ with those expected theoretically. (author) [es

  13. The small-molecule IAP antagonist AT406 inhibits pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yongsheng; Meng, Qinghua; Chen, Bo; Shen, Haiyu; Yan, Bing; Sun, Baoyou

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we tested the anti-pancreatic cancer activity by AT406, a small-molecule antagonist of IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis proteins). In established (Panc-1 and Mia-PaCa-2 lines) and primary human pancreatic cancer cells, treatment of AT406 significantly inhibited cell survival and proliferation. Yet, same AT406 treatment was non-cytotoxic to pancreatic epithelial HPDE6c7 cells. AT406 increased caspase-3/-9 activity and provoked apoptosis in the pancreatic cancer cells. Reversely, AT406′ cytotoxicity in these cells was largely attenuated with pre-treatment of caspase inhibitors. AT406 treatment caused degradation of IAP family proteins (cIAP1 and XIAP) and release of cytochrome C, leaving Bcl-2 unaffected in pancreatic cancer cells. Bcl-2 inhibition (by ABT-737) or shRNA knockdown dramatically sensitized Panc-1 cells to AT406. In vivo, oral administration of AT406 at well-tolerated doses downregulated IAPs (cIAP1/XIAP) and inhibited Panc-1 xenograft tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) nude mice. Together, our preclinical results suggest that AT406 could be further evaluated as a promising anti-pancreatic cancer agent. - Highlights: • AT406 is cytotoxic to established/primary human pancreatic cancer cells. • AT406 provokes caspase-dependent apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. • AT406 causes degradation of key IAPs and promotes cytochrome C release. • Bcl-2 inhibition or knockdown dramatically sensitizes Panc-1 cells to AT406. • Oral administration of AT406 inhibits Panc-1 tumor growth in SCID nude mice.

  14. The small-molecule IAP antagonist AT406 inhibits pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yongsheng; Meng, Qinghua [Department of General Surgery, Jinan Central Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Chen, Bo [Department of Biliary and Pancreatic Surgery, East Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University in Shanghai, Shanghai (China); Shen, Haiyu; Yan, Bing [Department of General Surgery, Jinan Central Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Sun, Baoyou, E-mail: sunbaoyou_sdu@yeah.net [Department of General Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, No.9677 Jing-Shi Road, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2016-09-09

    In the present study, we tested the anti-pancreatic cancer activity by AT406, a small-molecule antagonist of IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis proteins). In established (Panc-1 and Mia-PaCa-2 lines) and primary human pancreatic cancer cells, treatment of AT406 significantly inhibited cell survival and proliferation. Yet, same AT406 treatment was non-cytotoxic to pancreatic epithelial HPDE6c7 cells. AT406 increased caspase-3/-9 activity and provoked apoptosis in the pancreatic cancer cells. Reversely, AT406′ cytotoxicity in these cells was largely attenuated with pre-treatment of caspase inhibitors. AT406 treatment caused degradation of IAP family proteins (cIAP1 and XIAP) and release of cytochrome C, leaving Bcl-2 unaffected in pancreatic cancer cells. Bcl-2 inhibition (by ABT-737) or shRNA knockdown dramatically sensitized Panc-1 cells to AT406. In vivo, oral administration of AT406 at well-tolerated doses downregulated IAPs (cIAP1/XIAP) and inhibited Panc-1 xenograft tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) nude mice. Together, our preclinical results suggest that AT406 could be further evaluated as a promising anti-pancreatic cancer agent. - Highlights: • AT406 is cytotoxic to established/primary human pancreatic cancer cells. • AT406 provokes caspase-dependent apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. • AT406 causes degradation of key IAPs and promotes cytochrome C release. • Bcl-2 inhibition or knockdown dramatically sensitizes Panc-1 cells to AT406. • Oral administration of AT406 inhibits Panc-1 tumor growth in SCID nude mice.

  15. Prediction of subjective ratings of emotional pictures by EEG features

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Dennis J.; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Sarnacki, William A.; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Emotion dysregulation is an important aspect of many psychiatric disorders. Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology could be a powerful new approach to facilitating therapeutic self-regulation of emotions. One possible BCI method would be to provide stimulus-specific feedback based on subject-specific electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to emotion-eliciting stimuli. Approach. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we studied the relationships between emotional valence/arousal and three EEG features: amplitude of alpha activity over frontal cortex; amplitude of theta activity over frontal midline cortex; and the late positive potential over central and posterior mid-line areas. For each feature, we evaluated its ability to predict emotional valence/arousal on both an individual and a group basis. Twenty healthy participants (9 men, 11 women; ages 22-68) rated each of 192 pictures from the IAPS collection in terms of valence and arousal twice (96 pictures on each of 4 d over 2 weeks). EEG was collected simultaneously and used to develop models based on canonical correlation to predict subject-specific single-trial ratings. Separate models were evaluated for the three EEG features: frontal alpha activity; frontal midline theta; and the late positive potential. In each case, these features were used to simultaneously predict both the normed ratings and the subject-specific ratings. Main results. Models using each of the three EEG features with data from individual subjects were generally successful at predicting subjective ratings on training data, but generalization to test data was less successful. Sparse models performed better than models without regularization. Significance. The results suggest that the frontal midline theta is a better candidate than frontal alpha activity or the late positive potential for use in a BCI-based paradigm designed to modify emotional reactions.

  16. Simple and efficient method for region of interest value extraction from picture archiving and communication system viewer with optical character recognition software and macro program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Han; Park, Eun Hae; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2015-01-01

    The objectives are: 1) to introduce a simple and efficient method for extracting region of interest (ROI) values from a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) viewer using optical character recognition (OCR) software and a macro program, and 2) to evaluate the accuracy of this method with a PACS workstation. This module was designed to extract the ROI values on the images of the PACS, and created as a development tool by using open-source OCR software and an open-source macro program. The principal processes are as follows: (1) capture a region of the ROI values as a graphic file for OCR, (2) recognize the text from the captured image by OCR software, (3) perform error-correction, (4) extract the values including area, average, standard deviation, max, and min values from the text, (5) reformat the values into temporary strings with tabs, and (6) paste the temporary strings into the spreadsheet. This principal process was repeated for the number of ROIs. The accuracy of this module was evaluated on 1040 recognitions from 280 randomly selected ROIs of the magnetic resonance images. The input times of ROIs were compared between conventional manual method and this extraction module-assisted input method. The module for extracting ROI values operated successfully using the OCR and macro programs. The values of the area, average, standard deviation, maximum, and minimum could be recognized and error-corrected with AutoHotkey-coded module. The average input times using the conventional method and the proposed module-assisted method were 34.97 seconds and 7.87 seconds, respectively. A simple and efficient method for ROI value extraction was developed with open-source OCR and a macro program. Accurate inputs of various numbers from ROIs can be extracted with this module. The proposed module could be applied to the next generation of PACS or existing PACS that have not yet been upgraded. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of picture size reduction and blurring on emotional engagement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Cesarei

    Full Text Available The activity of basic motivational systems is reflected in emotional responses to arousing stimuli, such as natural pictures. The manipulation of picture properties such as size or detail allows for investigation into the extent to which separate emotional reactions are similarly modulated by perceptual changes, or, rather, may subserve different functions. Pursuing this line of research, the present study examined the effects of two types of perceptual degradation, namely picture size reduction and blurring, on emotional responses. Both manipulations reduced picture relevance and dampened affective modulation of skin conductance, possibly because of a reduced action preparation in response to degraded or remote pictures. However, the affective modulation of the startle reflex did not vary with picture degradation, suggesting that the identification of these degraded affective cues activated the neural circuits mediating appetitive or defensive motivation.

  18. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase administration in newborns decreases systemic inflammatory cytokine expression in a neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentea, Rebecca M; Liedel, Jennifer L; Fredrich, Katherine; Welak, Scott R; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Oldham, Keith T; Simpson, Pippa M; Gourlay, David M

    2012-10-01

    Supplementation of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), an endogenous protein expressed in the intestines, decreases the severity of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)-associated intestinal injury and permeability. We hypothesized that IAP administration is protective in a dose-dependent manner of the inflammatory response in a neonatal rat model. Pre- and full-term newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups were sacrificed on day of life 3. Control pups were vaginally delivered and dam fed. Preterm pups were delivered via cesarean section and exposed to intermittent hypoxia and formula feeds containing lipopolysaccharide (NEC) with and without IAP. Three different standardized doses were administered to a group of pups treated with 40, 4, and 0.4U/kg of bovine IAP (NEC+IAP40, IAP4, or IAP0.4U). Reverse transcription-real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α on liver and lung tissues and serum cytokine analysis for interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were performed. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests, expressed as mean±standard error of the mean and P≤0.05 considered significant. Levels of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α increased significantly in NEC versus control, returning to control levels with increasing doses of supplemental enteral IAP. Hepatic and pulmonary TNF-α and iNOS messenger ribonucleic acid expressions increased in NEC, and the remaining elevated despite IAP supplementation. Proinflammatory cytokine expression is increased systemically with intestinal NEC injury. Administration of IAP significantly reduces systemic proinflammatory cytokine expression in a dose-dependent manner. Early supplemental enteral IAP may reduce NEC-related injury and be useful for reducing effects caused by a proinflammatory cascade. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pictures in Pictures: Art History and Art Museums in Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohlin, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Children's picture books that recreate, parody, or fictionalize famous artworks and introduce the art museum experience, a genre to which I will refer as "children's art books," have become increasingly popular over the past decade. This essay explores the pedagogical implications of this trend through the family program "Picture Books and Picture…

  20. 3D face reconstruction from 2D pictures: first results of a web-based computer aided system for aesthetic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Santos, Thiago; Baumberger, Christian; Constantinescu, Mihai; Olariu, Radu; Nolte, Lutz-Peter; Alaraibi, Salman; Reyes, Mauricio

    2013-05-01

    The human face is a vital component of our identity and many people undergo medical aesthetics procedures in order to achieve an ideal or desired look. However, communication between physician and patient is fundamental to understand the patient's wishes and to achieve the desired results. To date, most plastic surgeons rely on either "free hand" 2D drawings on picture printouts or computerized picture morphing. Alternatively, hardware dependent solutions allow facial shapes to be created and planned in 3D, but they are usually expensive or complex to handle. To offer a simple and hardware independent solution, we propose a web-based application that uses 3 standard 2D pictures to create a 3D representation of the patient's face on which facial aesthetic procedures such as filling, skin clearing or rejuvenation, and rhinoplasty are planned in 3D. The proposed application couples a set of well-established methods together in a novel manner to optimize 3D reconstructions for clinical use. Face reconstructions performed with the application were evaluated by two plastic surgeons and also compared to ground truth data. Results showed the application can provide accurate 3D face representations to be used in clinics (within an average of 2 mm error) in less than 5 min.

  1. Meteorological interpretation of clouds or cloud systems appearing on pictures of the Alpine region received from the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaget, A.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Three examples of cloud-interpretation from ERTS-1 pictures are presented. When the wind speed is large enough, the cumuli are found arranged in lines that are in average two kilometers apart from each other. These lines are grouped in lines made of small cumuli and in lines made up of well developed ones. These last lines are fused on the APT picture and appear as single lines. Fog-mapping for a given region is possible if the topography of the region is known. The stratified clouds lying over mountains or in valleys begin to dissolve above the middle of the valleys and not against the slopes. As water shows a weak albedo in the near infrared, wet surfaces will appear darker than their neighborhoods. This feature seems to be confirmed by the dark spot in the north of Bozen (Southern Tyrol) that can be seen on the ERTS-1 picture taken on 31 August 1972.

  2. Ubiquitous picture-rich content representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wiley; Dean, Jennifer; Muzzolini, Russ

    2010-02-01

    The amount of digital images taken by the average consumer is consistently increasing. People enjoy the convenience of storing and sharing their pictures through online (digital) and offline (traditional) media. A set of pictures can be uploaded to: online photo services, web blogs and social network websites. Alternatively, these images can be used to generate: prints, cards, photo books or other photo products. Through uploading and sharing, images are easily transferred from one format to another. And often, a different set of associated content (text, tags) is created across formats. For example, on his web blog, a user may journal his experiences of his recent travel; on his social network website, his friends tag and comment on the pictures; in his online photo album, some pictures are titled and keyword-tagged. When the user wants to tell a complete story, perhaps in a photo book, he must collect, across all formats: the pictures, writings and comments, etc. and organize them in a book format. The user has to arrange the content of his trip in each format. The arrangement, the associations between the images, tags, keywords and text, cannot be shared with other formats. In this paper, we propose a system that allows the content to be easily created and shared across various digital media formats. We define a uniformed data association structure to connect: images, documents, comments, tags, keywords and other data. This content structure allows the user to switch representation formats without reediting. The framework under each format can emphasize (display or hide) content elements based on preference. For example, a slide show view will emphasize the display of pictures with limited text; a blog view will display highlighted images and journal text; and the photo book will try to fit in all images and text content. In this paper, we will discuss the strategy to associate pictures with text content, so that it can naturally tell a story. We will also list

  3. Cognitive components of picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C J; Paivio, A; Clark, J M

    1996-07-01

    A substantial research literature documents the effects of diverse item attributes, task conditions, and participant characteristics on the case of picture naming. The authors review what the research has revealed about 3 generally accepted stages of naming a pictured object: object identification, name activation, and response generation. They also show that dual coding theory gives a coherent and plausible account of these findings without positing amodal conceptual representations, and they identify issues and methods that may further advance the understanding of picture naming and related cognitive tasks.

  4. Questions, pictures, answers: introducing pictures in question-answering systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theune, Mariet; van Schooten, B.W.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Bosma, W.E.; Hofs, D.H.W.; Nijholt, Antinus; Krahmer, E.J.; van Hooijdonk, C.M.J.; Marsi, E.C.; Ruiz Miyarez, L.; Munoz Alvarado, A.; Alvarez Moreno, C.

    We present the Dutch IMIX research programme on multimodal interaction, speech and language technology. We discuss our contributions to this programme in the form of two research projects, IMOGEN and VIDIAM, and the technical integration of the various modules developed by IMIX subprojects to build

  5. Prevention and Treatment of Vitamin D and Calcium Deficiency in Children and Adolescents: Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Anuradha; Khadilkar, Vaman; Chinnappa, Jagdish; Rathi, Narendra; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Balasubramanian, S; Parekh, Bakul; Jog, Pramod

    2017-07-15

    Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is being increasingly reported from India from all age-groups. Reports suggest that VDD affects all age groups, from neonates to adolescents. Further, habitually low calcium intakes are also reported in Indian children. Given the multiple guidelines, peculiarities of Indian circumstances, changing lifestyles, and lack of fortification, the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) felt the need for a Practice Guideline for Pediatricians for the prevention and treatment of vitamin D and calcium deficiency in children and adolescents. The 'Guideline for Vitamin D and Calcium in Children' committee was formed by the IAP in September 2016. A consultative committee meeting was held in November 2016 in Mumbai. Evidence from Indian and international studies and other previous published recommendations, which were pertinent to the Indian circumstances, were collated for the preparation of these guidelines. To present a practice guideline for pediatricians for the prevention and treatment of deficiency of vitamin D and calcium in the Indian context. For the prevention of rickets in premature infants, 400 IU of vitamin D and 150-220 mg/kg of calcium, and in neonates, 400 IU of vitamin D and 200 mg of calcium are recommended daily. For prevention of rickets and hypocalcemia in infants (after neonatal period) upto 1 year of age, and from 1-18 years, 400 IU and 600 IU vitamin D/day and 250-500 mg/day and 600-800 mg/day of calcium, respectively, are recommended. For treatment of rickets in premature neonates, infants upto 1 year and from 1-18 years, 1000 IU, 2000 IU and 3000-6000 IU of vitamin D daily, respectively, and elemental calcium of 70-80 mg/kg/day in premature neonates and 500-800 mg daily for all children over that age are recommended. Larger doses of vitamin D may be given from 3 months to 18 years of age as 60,000 IU/week for 6 weeks.

  6. Pictures, images, and recollective experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, S A; Conway, M A

    1994-09-01

    Five experiments investigated the influence of picture processing on recollective experience in recognition memory. Subjects studied items that differed in visual or imaginal detail, such as pictures versus words and high-imageability versus low-imageability words, and performed orienting tasks that directed processing either toward a stimulus as a word or toward a stimulus as a picture or image. Standard effects of imageability (e.g., the picture superiority effect and memory advantages following imagery) were obtained only in recognition judgments that featured recollective experience and were eliminated or reversed when recognition was not accompanied by recollective experience. It is proposed that conscious recollective experience in recognition memory is cued by attributes of retrieved memories such as sensory-perceptual attributes and records of cognitive operations performed at encoding.

  7. A stochastic picture of spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Dankel has shown how to incorporate spin into stochastic mechanics. The resulting non-local hidden variable theory gives an appealing picture of spin correlation experiments in which Bell's inequality is violated. (orig.)

  8. Tradução, adaptação transcultural e evidências de validade da escala improvisation assessment profiles (IAPs) para uso no Brasil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattino, Gustavo; Ferrari, Karina; Azevedo, Graciane

    2016-01-01

    This article is intended to present the second part of the research which created the Improvisation Assessment Profiles (IAPs) version in Brazil according to a formal translation process and the analysis of the instrument in relation to its cross-cultural adaptation. The scale was also evaluated ...

  9. E3 Ligase cIAP2 Mediates Downregulation of MRE11 and Radiosensitization in Response to HDAC Inhibition in Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Judith; Jevons, Sarah J; Groselj, Blaz; Ellermann, Sophie; Konietzny, Rebecca; Kerr, Martin; Kessler, Benedikt M; Kiltie, Anne E

    2017-06-01

    The MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) complex mediates DNA repair pathways, including double-strand breaks induced by radiotherapy. Meiotic recombination 11 homolog (MRE11) is downregulated by histone deacetylase inhibition (HDACi), resulting in reduced levels of DNA repair in bladder cancer cells and radiosensitization. In this study, we show that the mechanism of this downregulation is posttranslational and identify a C-terminally truncated MRE11, which is formed after HDAC inhibition as full-length MRE11 is downregulated. Truncated MRE11 was stabilized by proteasome inhibition, exhibited a decreased half-life after treatment with panobinostat, and therefore represents a newly identified intermediate induced and degraded in response to HDAC inhibition. The E3 ligase cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) was upregulated in response to HDAC inhibition and was validated as a new MRE11 binding partner whose upregulation had similar effects to HDAC inhibition. cIAP2 overexpression resulted in downregulation and altered ubiquitination patterns of MRE11 and mediated radiosensitization in response to HDAC inhibition. These results highlight cIAP2 as a player in the DNA damage response as a posttranscriptional regulator of MRE11 and identify cIAP2 as a potential target for biomarker discovery or chemoradiation strategies in bladder cancer. Cancer Res; 77(11); 3027-39. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Heisenberg picture and measurement operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Espagnat, B.

    1992-01-01

    The idea is discussed according to which, in the Heisenberg picture, differently from the Schroedinger picture, the operators correspond exactly to the dynamic properties and the role of the density matrix is merely to describe our passive knowledge thereof. It is shown that the idea in question cannot be consistently kept as it is, and hints are given as to how it could be refined. (from author). 2 refs

  11. A Smac-mimetic sensitizes prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via modulating both IAPs and NF-kappaB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Yao; Liu, Meilan; Tang, Wenhua; Li, Yongming; Lian, Jiqin; Lawrence, Theodore S; Xu, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising agent for human cancer therapy, prostate cancer still remains resistant to TRAIL. Both X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and nuclear factor-kappaB function as key negative regulators of TRAIL signaling. In this study, we evaluated the effect of SH122, a small molecule mimetic of the second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac), on TRAIL-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. The potential of Smac-mimetics to bind XIAP or cIAP-1 was examined by pull-down assay. Cytotoxicity of TRAIL and/or Smac-mimetics was determined by a standard cell growth assay. Silencing of XIAP or cIAP-1 was achieved by transient transfection of short hairpin RNA. Apoptosis was detected by Annexin V-PI staining followed by flow cytometry and by Western Blot analysis of caspases, PARP and Bid. NF-kappaB activation was determined by subcellular fractionation, real time RT-PCR and reporter assay. SH122, but not its inactive analog, binds to XIAP and cIAP-1. SH122 significantly sensitized prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated cell death. Moreover, SH122 enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis via both the death receptor and the mitochondrial pathway. Knockdown of both XIAP and cIAP-1 sensitized cellular response to TRAIL. XIAP-knockdown attenuated sensitivity of SH122 to TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity, confirming that XIAP is an important target for IAP-inhibitor-mediated TRAIL sensitization. SH122 also suppressed TRAIL-induced NF-kappaB activation by preventing cytosolic IkappaB-alpha degradation and RelA nuclear translocation, as well as by suppressing NF-kappaB target gene expression. These results demonstrate that SH122 sensitizes human prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by mimicking Smac and blocking both IAPs and NF-kappaB. Modulating IAPs may represent a promising approach to overcoming TRAIL-resistance in human prostate cancer with constitutively active NF-kappaB signaling

  12. Behavioral modulation by mutilation pictures in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that women are more emotionally expressive than men. It is unclear, however, if women are also more susceptible to the emotional modulation of behavior imposed by an affective stimulus. To investigate this issue, we devised a task in which female subjects performed six sequential trials of visual target detection following the presentation of emotional (mutilation and erotic or neutral pictures (domestic utensils and objects and compared the data obtained in the present study with those described in a previous study with male subjects. The experiment consisted of three blocks of 24 pictures and each block had an approximate duration of 4 min. Our sample consisted of 36 subjects (age range: 18 to 26 years and each subject performed all blocks. Trials following the presentation of mutilation pictures (283 ms had significantly slower reaction times than those following neutral (270 ms pictures. None of the trials in the "pleasant block" (271 ms was significantly different from those in the "neutral block". The increase in reaction time observed in the unpleasant block may be related in part to the activation of motivational systems leading to an avoidance behavior. The interference effect observed in this study was similar to the pattern previously described for men. Thus, although women may be more emotionally expressive, they were not more reactive to aversive stimuli than men, as measured by emotional interference in a simple reaction time task.

  13. Picture processing computer to control movement by computer provided vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graefe, V

    1983-01-01

    The author introduces a multiprocessor system which has been specially developed to enable mechanical devices to interpret pictures presented in real time. The separate processors within this system operate simultaneously and independently. By means of freely moveable windows the processors can concentrate on those parts of the picture that are relevant to the control problem. If a machine is to make a correct response to its observation of a picture of moving objects, it must be able to follow the picture sequence, step by step, in real time. As the usual serially operating processors are too slow for such a task, the author describes three models of a special picture processing computer which it has been necessary to develop. 3 references.

  14. [Definition and specification requirements for PAC-systems (picture archiving and communication system). A performance index with reference to the standard "IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Requirement Specifications"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, H; Klose, K J

    1999-04-01

    The formulation of requirements is necessary to control the goals of a PACS project. Furthermore, in this way, the scope of functionality necessary to support radiological working processes becomes clear. Definitions of requirements and specification are formulated independently of systems according to the IEEE standard "Recommended Practice for Software Requirements Specifications". Definitions are given in the Request for Information, specifications in the Request for Proposal. Functional and non-functional requirements are distinguished. The solutions are rated with respect to scope, appropriateness and quality of implementation. A PACS checklist was created according to the methods described above. It is published on the homepage of the "Arbeitsgemeinschaft Informationstechnologie" (AGIT) within the "Deutsche Röntgengesellschaft" (DRG) (http://www.uni-marburg.de/mzr/agit). The checklist provides a discussion forum which should contribute to an agreement on accepted basic PACS functionalities.

  15. Television picture signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    Field or frame memories are often used in television receivers for video signal processing functions, such as noise reduction and/or flicker reduction. Television receivers also have graphic features such as teletext, menu-driven control systems, multilingual subtitling, an electronic TV-Guide, etc.

  16. Survey on the parameters influencing X-ray picture quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stender, H.S.

    1985-01-01

    Survey on factors influencing X-ray picture quality: 1) identification of patient and imaged body part. 2) Object properties - thickness, density, built; spatial expansion and arrangement of anatomical parts; object parts in a homogenic and an inhomogenic environment; object movements. 3) Examination technique - matching to medical issue; positioning and adjustment; projection; picture format in keeping with the medical issue; object-related fade-in; distance ratios; contrast medium distribution or deposition; compression. 4) Technical factors of picture production - radiation quality tube voltage; reproducible mAs and mR/mAs; automatic exposure equipment; focal spot size; scattered radiation grid; image intensifier and indirect radiography system; exposure time, dose-to-exposure-time ratio; film-screen combination; cassette with uniform pressure contact; film processing system; radiation safety and light safety. 5) Physical imaging parameters - mean optical density; resolution capacity; contrast reproduction; noise; modulation transmission function. 6) Perceptible picture properties - luminance density; picture contrast; recognizability of details; impression of grain structure; blurred picture structure; visually conspicuous elements. 7) Requirements on picture viewing - viewing device with high luminance density and equalized illumination; possible modification of brilliance; possible fade-in operations and prevention of ambient glare; spot light with iris diaphragm; possible viewing by magnifying lens; selection of correct viewing distances; repeated picture viewing or evaluation by two or more viewers. (orig./HP) [de

  17. One look is worth a thousand words: New picture stimuli of interpersonal situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Simon; Bohleber, Laura M; Ernst, Jutta; Soguel-Dit-Piquard, Jasmine; Boeker, Heinz; Richter, Andre

    2018-06-01

    This paper introduces a picture system that can be used in functional imaging experiments exploring interpersonal relations. This is important for psychotherapy research to understand the neural basis of psychological treatment effects. Pictures have many advantages for the design of functional imaging experiments, but no picture system illustrating interpersonal behavior patterns is, to date, available. We therefore developed, on the basis of a validated card-sorting test, the Interpersonal Relations Picture System. In summary, 43 pictures with 2 or more stick figures in different social situations and 9 control pictures were composed. To test the relation between each picture and the appropriate description, two successive online surveys, including 1058 and 675 individuals respectively, were conducted. Using two question types, the grade expressiveness of each picture was assessed. In total, 24 pictures and 6 control pictures met our criteria for sufficient strength and consistency with the appropriate description. Both measures are correlated with each other in all pictures illustrating interpersonal behavior, but not in the control pictures. Relations to other stimulus types and the applicability of the new picture system in functional neuroimaging methods are discussed. It is concluded that the new system will be helpful in studying the profound effect of relational change in psychotherapy.

  18. Superconformal ghost correlators and picture changing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonini, M.; Iengo, R.; Nunez, C.

    1988-12-01

    We compute the correlation functions for the system of superconformal ghosts β, γ(λ=3/2), including the corresponding spin fields, on arbitrary Riemann surfaces. Using fermionization, defined as a change of variables in the functional integration, we derive and generalize previous results obtained by bosonization. As an application we study the picture changing mechanism in the Ramond sector of the superstring. (author). 11 refs

  19. Snake pictures draw more early attention than spider pictures in non-phobic women: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, J W; Eijlers, R; Franken, I H A; Huijding, J

    2014-02-01

    Snakes were probably the first predators of mammals and may have been important agents of evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing rapid visual detection of fearful stimuli (Isbell, 2006). By means of early and late attention-related brain potentials, we examined the hypothesis that more early visual attention is automatically allocated to snakes than to spiders. To measure the early posterior negativity (EPN), 24 healthy, non-phobic women watched the random rapid serial presentation of 600 snake pictures, 600 spider pictures, and 600 bird pictures (three pictures per second). To measure the late positive potential (LPP), they also watched similar pictures (30 pictures per stimulus category) in a non-speeded presentation. The EPN amplitude was largest for snake pictures, intermediate for spider pictures and smallest for bird pictures. The LPP was significantly larger for both snake and spider pictures when compared to bird pictures. Interestingly, spider fear (as measured by a questionnaire) was associated with EPN amplitude for spider pictures, whereas snake fear was not associated with EPN amplitude for snake pictures. The results suggest that ancestral priorities modulate the early capture of visual attention and that early attention to snakes is more innate and independent of reported fear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Recommendations of 2nd National Consultative Meeting of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) on polio eradication and improvement of routine immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashishtha, Vipin M; Kalra, Ajay; John, T Jacob; Thacker, Naveen; Agarwal, R K

    2008-05-01

    Persistence of intense wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission, particularly type 3 in northern India necessitated the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) to convene a National Consultative Meeting to review its earlier recommendations on polio eradication and improvement of routine immunization. More than thirty experts were invited and intense deliberations were held over two days to draw consensus statements on various issues related with polio eradication. To review the ongoing strategy, identify the existing challenges, and suggest modifications to the current strategy for eradication of poliomyelitis in India. IAP reiterates its support to ongoing efforts on polio eradication but demand some flexibility in the strategy. The immediate challenges identified include persistent WPV type 1 transmission in Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Bihar, intense type 3 transmission also in UP and Bihar, and maintaining polio-free status of all other states. Circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV), particularly type 2, was identified as a great future threat. Neglect of routine immunization (RI), poor efficacy of oral polio vaccine (OPV), operational issues, and inadequate uptake of OPV in the 2 endemic states are the main reasons of failure to interrupt transmission of WPV 1 and 3. However, for the first time in history the intensity of WPV 1 circulation is very low in western UP. IAP suggests that high-quality, uniform and consistent performance of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in all districts of western UP, particularly using mOPV1(monovalent OPV1) should be maintained to avoid reestablishment of circulation of type 1 poliovirus. A judicious mix of mOPV1 and mOPV3, given sequentially or even simultaneously (after validating the efficacies) will be necessary to address the upsurge of WPV3. Re-establishing routine immunization should be the foremost priority. IAP strongly recommends to Government of India (GOI) to take urgent measures to attain coverage of a minimum

  1. Using background knowledge for picture organization and retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Yuri

    1997-01-01

    A picture knowledge base management system is described that is used to represent, organize and retrieve pictures from a frame knowledge base. Experiments with human test subjects were conducted to obtain further descriptions of pictures from news magazines. These descriptions were used to represent the semantic content of pictures in frame representations. A conceptual clustering algorithm is described which organizes pictures not only on the observable features, but also on implicit properties derived from the frame representations. The algorithm uses inheritance reasoning to take into account background knowledge in the clustering. The algorithm creates clusters of pictures using a group similarity function that is based on the gestalt theory of picture perception. For each cluster created, a frame is generated which describes the semantic content of pictures in the cluster. Clustering and retrieval experiments were conducted with and without background knowledge. The paper shows how the use of background knowledge and semantic similarity heuristics improves the speed, precision, and recall of queries processed. The paper concludes with a discussion of how natural language processing of can be used to assist in the development of knowledge bases and the processing of user queries.

  2. Conceptual Masking: How One Picture Captures Attention from Another Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Geoffrey R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Five experiments studied operations of conceptual masking--the reduction of conceptual memory performance for an initial stimulus when it is followed by a masking picture process. The subjects were 337 undergraduates at the University of Washington (Seattle). Conceptual masking is distinguished from perceptual masking. (TJH)

  3. Vertices in the abelized picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.

    1990-01-01

    Covariant vertices of open bosonic string theory are transformed to the abelized picture. The way the pure transverse (light-cone gauge) vertex is contained therein is exhibited explicitly. The formalism shows in a quite transparent way that all further content of a covariant vertex is of gauge type. By applying the transverse projection operator in the abelized picture, an algebraic condition whether a set of Neumann coefficients define a vertex for string theory is obtained. A speculation concerning field redefinitions in string field theory is added. (Author) 33 refs

  4. Connective tissue growth factor confers drug resistance in breast cancer through concomitant up-regulation of Bcl-xL and cIAP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Yang; Chen, Pai-Sheng; Prakash, Ekambaranellore; Hsu, Hsing-Chih; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Ming-Tsan; Chang, King-Jen; Kuo, Min-Liang

    2009-04-15

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression is elevated in advanced breast cancer and promotes metastasis. Chemotherapy response is only transient in most metastatic diseases. In the present study, we examined whether CTGF expression could confer drug resistance in human breast cancer. In breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, CTGF expression was inversely associated with chemotherapy response. Overexpression of CTGF in MCF7 cells (MCF7/CTGF) enhanced clonogenic ability, cell viability, and resistance to apoptosis on exposure to doxorubicin and paclitaxel. Reducing the CTGF level in MDA-MB-231 (MDA231) cells by antisense CTGF cDNA (MDA231/AS cells) mitigated this drug resistance capacity. CTGF overexpression resulted in resistance to doxorubicin- and paclitaxel-induced apoptosis by up-regulation of Bcl-xL and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1). Knockdown of Bcl-xL or cIAP1 with specific small interfering RNAs abolished the CTGF-mediated resistance to apoptosis induced by the chemotherapeutic agents in MCF7/CTGF cells. Inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 effectively reversed the resistance to apoptosis as well as the up-regulation of Bcl-xL and cIAP1 in MCF7/CTGF cells. A neutralizing antibody against integrin alpha(v)beta(3) significantly attenuated CTGF-mediated ERK1/2 activation and up-regulation of Bcl-xL and cIAP1, indicating that the integrin alpha(v)beta(3)/ERK1/2 signaling pathway is essential for CTGF functions. The Bcl-xL level also correlated with the CTGF level in breast cancer patients. We also found that a COOH-terminal domain peptide from CTGF could exert activities similar to full-length CTGF, in activation of ERK1/2, up-regulation of Bcl-xL/cIAP1, and resistance to apoptosis. We conclude that CTGF expression could confer resistance to chemotherapeutic agents through augmenting a survival pathway through ERK1/2-dependent Bcl-xL/cIAP1 up-regulation.

  5. Every Picture Tells a Story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Piet Bakker

    2011-01-01

    Het doel van het project Every Picture Tells a Story is om samen met het werkveld methoden, technieken en kennis te ontwikkelen voor het produceren van effectieve infographics. Dit is nodig omdat de vraag naar infographics in de markt snel toeneemt. Bedrijfsleven en overheden kiezen er steeds vaker

  6. The Picture of Dorian Gray

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, Oscar

    2005-01-01

    On its first publication The Picture of Dorian Gray was regarded as dangerously modern in its depiction of fin-de-sicle decadence. In this updated version of the Faust story, the tempter is Lord Henry Wotton, who lives selfishly for amoral pleasure; Dorian's good angel is the portrait painter Basil

  7. SOFTWARE SUPPORT FOR RICH PICTURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    Rich pictures (RP) are common in object-oriented analysis and design courses, but students seem to have problems in integrating them in their projects' workflow. A new software tool is being developed, specific for RP authoring. To better understand students' issues and working practice with RP...

  8. Do hospital physicians really want to go digital? Acceptance of a picture archiving and communication system in a university hospital; Moechten Krankenhausaerzte wirklich auf digitale Systeme umsteigen? Die Akzeptanz gegenueber einem Bildarchivierungs- und Uebermittlungssystem in einer Universitaetsklinik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duyck, P.; Pynoo, B.; Devolder, P.; Voet, T.; Adang, L.; Vercruysse, J. [Radiologie und medizinische Bildgebung, Universitaetsklinik Gent (Belgium)

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: radiology departments are making the transition from analog film to digital images by means of PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System). It is critical for the hospital that its physicians adopt and accept the new digital work method regarding radiological information. The aim of this study is to investigate hospital physicians' acceptance of PACS using questionnaires pre- and post-implementation and to identify main influencing factors. Materials and methods: the study was conducted in an 1169 bed university hospital. The UTAUT (Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology) questionnaire was administered at two times: one month pre-implementation (T1) and 1.5 years post-implementation (T2) of PACS, targeting all hospital physicians with the exemption of radiologists. The UTAUT scales (Behavioral Intention BI; Facilitating Conditions FC; Effort Expectancy EE; Performance Expectancy PE; Anxiety ANX; Social Influence SI; System Use USE; Attitude toward technology ATT; Self-Efficacy SE) were used to assess questions regarding: (a) PACS' usefulness, (b) PACS' ease of learning/using, (c) PACS support availability, (d) the perceived pressure to use PACS, (e) physicians' attitude towards PACS and (f) physicians' intention to use and actual use of PACS. Results: at T1 scale ratings were positive toward the PACS implementation. The ratings on all scales with the exception of self-efficacy improved at T2. Regression analysis revealed that the key factor for intention to use PACS at T1 was the usefulness of PACS, while the availability and awareness of support was its most important predictor at T2. Overall, PE was the best predictor of BI, but all four UTAUT-determinants (PE, FC, EE and SI) were salient for its prediction. Variance explained in BI ranged from 31 to 37% while variance explained in USE was very low (3%). (orig.)

  9. Structuralist readings: Painting vs. picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinkov-Pavlović Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to point to two fundamentally different strategies of painting practice, that is, to two subsystems of painting: picture and painting. This differentiation can be made within the framework of semiotic and semiological analyses which have developed in theory under the influence of structuralism. The first part of the paper offers a basic insight into the linguistic foundation of structuralistic concept, and then sets a thesis about the possibility of analogue reconceptualisation of semiotics/semiology of painting through Julia Kristeva's semiotics and Roland Barthes' semiology. In addition, it points to the concrete concepts of structural analysis which have accentuated the opposition picture-painting with the examples of art practice concurrent to the development of structuralism. However, what is revealed is that various structuralist readings are significantly subjective to unstable relationship between the basic elements in the pictorial object, that is, in the work of painting.

  10. Structuralist readings: Painting vs. picture

    OpenAIRE

    Marinkov-Pavlović Lidija

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to point to two fundamentally different strategies of painting practice, that is, to two subsystems of painting: picture and painting. This differentiation can be made within the framework of semiotic and semiological analyses which have developed in theory under the influence of structuralism. The first part of the paper offers a basic insight into the linguistic foundation of structuralistic concept, and then sets a thesis about the possibility of analogue reconceptu...

  11. Strings in the abelized picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.

    1990-01-01

    The transformation properties of the bosonic string variables under the recently discovered abelizing operator are exhibited. The intimate relation of this operator to the light-cone gauge condition is illustrated for the classical string. As an application of the formalism, the derivation of the BRST cohomology by the method of Freemann and Olive is carried over to the abelized picture, where it takes a particularly simple from. (orig.)

  12. Strings in the abelized picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.

    1990-01-01

    The transformation properties of the bosonic string variables under the recently discovered abelizing operator are exhibited. The intimate relation of this operator to the light-cone gauge condition is illustrated for the classical string. As an application of the formalism, the derivation of the BRST cohomology by the method of Freeman and Olive is carried over to the abelized picture, where it takes a particulary simple form. 14 refs. (Author)

  13. Sustainable agriculture in the picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, F.M.; De Bont, C.J.A.M.; Leneman, H.; Van der Meulen, H.A.B.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture in the picture provides a systematic overview of the available data that are relevant for debate on transitions towards sustainable agriculture. Review for the agrocomplex, greenhouse horticulture, dairy farming and pig farming. Indicators on economy, environment, nature, animal welfare, human and animal health. Results achieved in practice for the three dimensions of sustainable agriculture, namely economics ('profit'), ecology ('planet') and socio-cultural ('people') [nl

  14. A novel small molecule FL118 that selectively inhibits survivin, Mcl-1, XIAP and cIAP2 in a p53-independent manner, shows superior antitumor activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Ling

    Full Text Available Drug/radiation resistance to treatment and tumor relapse are major obstacles in identifying a cure for cancer. Development of novel agents that address these challenges would therefore be of the upmost importance in the fight against cancer. In this regard, studies show that the antiapoptotic protein survivin is a central molecule involved in both hurdles. Using cancer cell-based survivin-reporter systems (US 7,569,221 B2 via high throughput screening (HTS of compound libraries, followed by in vitro and in vivo analyses of HTS-derived hit-lead compounds, we identified a novel anticancer compound (designated FL118. FL118 shows structural similarity to irinotecan. However, while the inhibition of DNA topoisomerase 1 activity by FL118 was no better than the active form of irinotecan, SN-38 at 1 µM, FL118 effectively inhibited cancer cell growth at less than nM levels in a p53 status-independent manner. Moreover, FL118 selectively inhibited survivin promoter activity and gene expression also in a p53 status-independent manner. Although the survivin promoter-reporter system was used for the identification of FL118, our studies revealed that FL118 not only inhibits survivin expression but also selectively and independently inhibits three additional cancer-associated survival genes (Mcl-1, XIAP and cIAP2 in a p53 status-independent manner, while showing no inhibitory effects on control genes. Genetic silencing or overexpression of FL118 targets demonstrated a role for these targets in FL118's effects. Follow-up in vivo studies revealed that FL118 exhibits superior antitumor efficacy in human tumor xenograft models in comparison with irinotecan, topotecan, doxorubicin, 5-FU, gemcitabine, docetaxel, oxaliplatin, cytoxan and cisplatin, and a majority of mice treated with FL118 showed tumor regression with a weekly × 4 schedule. FL118 induced favorable body-weight-loss profiles (temporary and reversible and was able to eliminate large tumors. Together

  15. A Picture of Subsidized Households 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2009. Picture 2009...

  16. Directed forgetting: Comparing pictures and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Chelsea K; Taylor, Tracy L; Fawcett, Jonathan M

    2010-03-01

    The authors investigated directed forgetting as a function of the stimulus type (picture, word) presented at study and test. In an item-method directed forgetting task, study items were presented 1 at a time, each followed with equal probability by an instruction to remember or forget. Participants exhibited greater yes-no recognition of remember than forget items for each of the 4 study-test conditions (picture-picture, picture-word, word-word, word-picture). However, this difference was significantly smaller when pictures were studied than when words were studied. This finding demonstrates that the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect can be reduced by high item memorability, such as when the picture superiority effect is operating. This suggests caution in using pictures at study when the goal of an experiment is to examine potential group differences in the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. The picture superiority effect in associative recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockley, William E

    2008-10-01

    The picture superiority effect has been well documented in tests of item recognition and recall. The present study shows that the picture superiority effect extends to associative recognition. In three experiments, students studied lists consisting of random pairs of concrete words and pairs of line drawings; then they discriminated between intact (old) and rearranged (new) pairs of words and pictures at test. The discrimination advantage for pictures over words was seen in a greater hit rate for intact picture pairs, but there was no difference in the false alarm rates for the two types of stimuli. That is, there was no mirror effect. The same pattern of results was found when the test pairs consisted of the verbal labels of the pictures shown at study (Experiment 4), indicating that the hit rate advantage for picture pairs represents an encoding benefit. The results have implications for theories of the picture superiority effect and models of associative recognition.

  18. Use of picture books to explain procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-06

    A small study conducted at a Swedish hospital on the effect of giving picture books and picture sheets to prepare children for their procedures before and during day surgery is explored in this article.

  19. A Picture of Subsidized Housholds 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2008. Picture 2008...

  20. Motor mapping of implied actions during perception of emotional body language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgomaneri, Sara; Gazzola, Valeria; Avenanti, Alessio

    Background: Perceiving and understanding emotional cues is critical for survival. Using the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) previous TMS studies have found that watching humans in emotional pictures increases motor excitability relative to seeing landscapes or household objects,

  1. Implantação de um mini-pacs (sistema de arquivamento e distribuição de imagens em hospital universitário Mini-PACS (picture archiving and communication system implementation at a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mazzoncini de Azevedo-Marques

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a implementação de um mini-PACS (sistema de arquivamento e comunicação de imagens que está sendo estruturado junto ao Serviço de Radiodiagnóstico do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo, como parte do projeto de um serviço de radiologia digital ("filmless".This paper describes the implementation of a mini-PACS (picture archiving and communication system at a university hospital ("Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo", as a component of a project for a filmless radiology facility.

  2. 77 FR 25082 - Picture Permit Imprint Indicia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Picture Permit Imprint Indicia AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION... Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) 604.5 to add picture permit imprint indicia standards allowing...: The use of picture permit imprint indicia is designed to improve the effectiveness of a mailpiece by...

  3. Detecting potential ship objects from satellite pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, B.; Yang, C.C.; Chang, S.K.; Yang, M.C.K.

    1984-01-01

    Heuristic techniques are presented to detect potential ship objects from satellite pictures. These techniques utilize some noise structures of the pixel gray levels, and certain inherent features of a ship in a satellite picture. The scheme has been implemented and successfully tested on SEASAT satellite pictures. A general approach for database-oriented object detection is also suggested

  4. Exploring Multicultural Themes through Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Pamela J.

    1995-01-01

    Advocates inclusion of multicultural picture books in social studies instruction to offer different outlooks and visions in a short format. Describes selection of picture books with multicultural themes and those that represent various cultures, gender equity, and religious themes. Suggests that picture books may help students develop better…

  5. Pictures Improve Memory of SAT Vocabulary Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Melva; Finkelstein, Arleen

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that students can improve their memory of Scholastic Aptitude Test vocabulary words by associating the words with corresponding pictures taken from magazines. Finds that long-term recall of words associated with pictures was higher than recall of words not associated with pictures. (RS)

  6. Text-Picture Relations in Cooking Instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Leito, Shadira; Redeker, Gisela; Bunt, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Like many other instructions, recipes on packages with ready-to-use ingredients for a dish combine a series of pictures with short text paragraphs. The information presentation in such multimodal instructions can be compact (either text or picture) and/or cohesive (text and picture). In an

  7. Pattern Perception and Pictures for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Morton A.; McCarthy, Melissa; Clark, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews recent research on perception of tangible pictures in sighted and blind people. Haptic picture naming accuracy is dependent upon familiarity and access to semantic memory, just as in visual recognition. Performance is high when haptic picture recognition tasks do not depend upon semantic memory. Viewpoint matters for the ease…

  8. Complex Dynamic Systems View on Conceptual Change: How a Picture of Students' Intuitive Conceptions Accrue from Dynamically Robust Task Dependent Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Ismo T.; Kokkonen, Tommi; Nousiainen, Maiji

    2017-01-01

    We discuss here conceptual change and the formation of robust learning outcomes from the viewpoint of complex dynamic systems (CDS). The CDS view considers students' conceptions as context dependent and multifaceted structures which depend on the context of their application. In the CDS view the conceptual patterns (i.e. intuitive conceptions…

  9. Testing the snake-detection hypothesis: larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Franken, Ingmar H A; Huijding, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    According to the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell, 2006), fear specifically of snakes may have pushed evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing pre-attentional visual detection of fearful stimuli. A previous study demonstrated that snake pictures, when compared to spiders or bird pictures, draw more early attention as reflected by larger early posterior negativity (EPN). Here we report two studies that further tested the snake detection hypothesis. In Study 1, we tested whether the enlarged EPN is specific for snakes or also generalizes to other reptiles. Twenty-four healthy, non-phobic women watched the random rapid serial presentation of snake, crocodile, and turtle pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity at occipital electrodes (PO3, O1, Oz, PO4, O2) in the 225-300 ms time window after picture onset. The EPN was significantly larger for snake pictures than for pictures of the other reptiles. In Study 2, we tested whether disgust plays a role in the modulation of the EPN and whether preferential processing of snakes also can be found in men. 12 men and 12 women watched snake, spider, and slug pictures. Both men and women exhibited the largest EPN amplitudes to snake pictures, intermediate amplitudes to spider pictures and the smallest amplitudes to slug pictures. Disgust ratings were not associated with EPN amplitudes. The results replicate previous findings and suggest that ancestral priorities modulate the early capture of visual attention.

  10. Decreased pain perception by unconscious emotional pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Peláez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pain perception arises from a complex interaction between a nociceptive stimulus and different emotional and cognitive factors, which appear to be mediated by both automatic and controlled systems. Previous evidence has shown that whereas conscious processing of unpleasant stimuli enhances pain perception, emotional influences on pain under unaware conditions are much less known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulation of pain perception by unconscious emotional pictures through an emotional masking paradigm. Two kinds of both somatosensory (painful and non-painful and emotional stimulation (negative and neutral pictures were employed. Fifty pain-free participants were asked to rate the perception of pain they were feeling in response to laser-induced somatosensory stimuli as faster as they can. Data from pain intensity and reaction times were measured. Statistical analyses revealed a significant effect for the interaction between pain and emotional stimulation, but surprisingly this relationship was opposite to expected. In particular, lower pain intensity scores and longer reaction times were found in response to negative images being strengthened this effect for painful stimulation. Present findings suggest a clear pain perception modulation by unconscious emotional contexts. Attentional capture mechanisms triggered by unaware negative stimulation could explain this phenomenon leading to a withdrawal of processing resources from pain.

  11. Data for increase of Lymantria dispar male survival after topical application of single-stranded RING domain fragment of IAP-3 gene of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V.; Laikova, Kateryna V.; Zaitsev, Aleksei S.; Gushchin, Vladimir A.; Skorokhod, Oleksii A.

    2016-01-01

    This data article is related to the research article entitled “The RING for gypsy moth control: topical application of fragment of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus anti-apoptosis gene as insecticide” [1]. This article reports on significantly higher survival of gypsy moth Lymantria dispar male individuals in response to topical application of single-stranded DNA, based on RING (really interesting new gene) domain fragment of LdMNPV (L. dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus) IAP-3 (inhibitor of apoptosis) gene and acted as DNA insecticide. PMID:27054151

  12. La violencia contra niños y niñas: un problema global de abordaje local, mediante la IAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Acosta-Ayerbe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo nos ocupamos de las dimensiones y gravedad de la presencia actual de la violencia1 contra la niñez, reflejada en diferentes estudios, informes y recomendaciones de gobiernos y organismos nacionales e internacionales, y de la necesidad de recurrir a opciones de trabajo como la Investigación Acción Participativa, IAP, que permitan abordar la complejidad de los sujetos implicados, por la particularidad que traza la convergencia de factores sociales, culturales, económicos, familiares, personales y jurídicos, en cada contexto.

  13. Erotic and disgust-inducing pictures--differences in the hemodynamic responses of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rudolf; Schienle, Anne; Girod, Cornelia; Walter, Bertram; Kirsch, Peter; Blecker, Carlo; Ott, Ulrich; Schäfer, Axel; Sammer, Gebhard; Zimmermann, Mark; Vaitl, Dieter

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this fMRI study was to explore brain structures that are involved in the processing of erotic and disgust-inducing pictures. The stimuli were chosen to trigger approach and withdrawal tendencies, respectively. By adding sadomasochistic (SM) scenes to the design and examining 12 subjects with and 12 subjects without sadomasochistic preferences, we introduced a picture category that induced erotic pleasure in one sample and disgust in the other sample. Since we also presented neutral pictures, all subjects viewed pictures of four different categories: neutral, disgust-inducing, erotic, and SM erotic pictures. The analysis indicated that several brain structures are commonly involved in the processing of disgust-inducing and erotic pictures (occipital cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and the amygdala). The ventral striatum was specifically activated when subjects saw highly sexually arousing pictures. This indicates the involvement of the human reward system during the processing of visual erotica.

  14. Harm avoidance in adolescents modulates late positive potentials during affective picture processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei; Ni, Ziyin; Liu, Xia; Wang, Dahua; Shen, Jiliang

    2013-08-01

    Research in adults has shown that individual differences in harm avoidance (HA) modulate electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli. To determine whether HA in adolescents modulates affective information processing, we collected event-related potentials from 70 adolescents while they viewed 90 pictures from the Chinese affective picture system. Multiple regressions revealed that HA negatively predicted late positive potential (LPP) for positive pictures and positively predicted for negative pictures; however, HA did not correlate with LPP for neutral pictures. The results suggest that at the late evaluative stage, high-HA adolescents display attentional bias to negative pictures while low-HA adolescents display attentional bias to negative pictures. Moreover, these dissociable attentional patterns imply that individual differences in adolescents' HA modulate the late selective attention mechanism of affective information. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Manipulating affective state using extended picture presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, S K; Davidson, R J; Donzella, B; Irwin, W; Dottl, D A

    1997-03-01

    Separate, extended series of positive, negative, and neutral pictures were presented to 24 (12 men, 12 women) undergraduates. Each series was presented on a different day, with full counterbalancing of presentation orders. Affective state was measured using (a) orbicularis oculi activity in response to acoustic startle probes during picture presentation, (b) corrugator supercilii activity between and during picture presentation, and (c) changes in self-reports of positive and negative affect. Participants exhibited larger eyeblink reflex magnitudes when viewing negative than when viewing positive pictures. Corrugator activity was also greater during the negative than during the positive picture set, during both picture presentation and the period between pictures. Self-reports of negative affect increased in response to the negative picture set, and self-reports of positive affect were greatest following the positive picture set. These findings suggest that extended picture presentation is an effective method of manipulating affective state and further highlight the utility of startle probe and facial electromyographic measures in providing on-line readouts of affective state.

  16. Design, synthesis, and biological activities of novel hexahydropyrazino[1,2-a]indole derivatives as potent inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) proteins antagonists with improved membrane permeability across MDR1 expressing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Zenyu; Hashimoto, Kentaro; Saito, Bunnai; Oguro, Yuya; Sumi, Hiroyuki; Yabuki, Masato; Yoshimatsu, Mie; Kosugi, Yohei; Debori, Yasuyuki; Morishita, Nao; Dougan, Douglas R; Snell, Gyorgy P; Yoshida, Sei; Ishikawa, Tomoyasu

    2013-12-15

    We previously reported octahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivative 2 (T-3256336) as a potent antagonist for inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) proteins. Because compound 2 was susceptible to MDR1 mediated efflux, we developed another scaffold, hexahydropyrazino[1,2-a]indole, using structure-based drug design. The fused benzene ring of this scaffold was aimed at increasing the lipophilicity and decreasing the basicity of the scaffold to improve the membrane permeability across MDR1 expressing cells. We established a chiral pool synthetic route to yield the desired tricyclic chiral isomers. Chemical modification of the core scaffold led to a representative compound 50, which showed strong inhibition of IAP binding (X chromosome-linked IAP [XIAP]: IC50 23 nM and cellular IAP [cIAP]: IC50 1.1 nM) and cell growth inhibition (MDA-MB-231 cells: GI50 2.8 nM) with high permeability and low potential of MDR1 substrate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Morphological alterations in nailfold capillaroscopy and the clinical picture of vascular involvement in autoimmune diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus and type 1 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryliszyn-Moskal, Anna; Ciołkiewicz, Mariusz; Dubicki, Artur

    2010-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) belong to the group of autoimmune diseases presenting with a wide range of organ manifestations. Microvascular abnormalities seem to play a crucial role in the development of persistent multi-organ complications in both diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between microvascular changes examined with nailfold capillaroscopy and organ involvement. We eurolled 76 SLE patients, 106 patients with type 1 diabetes, and 40 healthy controls. Morphological changes were observed with nailfold capillaroscopy in 86 (81%) diabetics and in 70 (92.1%) SLE patients. Severe capillaroscopic changes were disclosed in 32 out of 54 (59%) diabetic patients with microangiopathy and in only 7 out of 52 (13%) patients without microangiopathy. In the SLE group, severe capillaroscopic abnormalities were found in 18 out of 34 (52.9%) patients with organ involvement and in 9 out of 42 (21.4%) patients without organ involvement. The capillaroscopic score was significantly higher in diabetic patients with microangiopathic complications in comparison to patients without microangiopathy (p nailfold capillaroscopy reflect the extent of microvascular involvement and are associated with organ involvement in SLE and diabetes.

  18. The giant cold-water coral mound as a nested microbial/metazoan system: physical, chemical, biological and geological picture (ESF EuroDiversity MiCROSYSTEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, J. P.; Microsystems Team

    2009-04-01

    The MiCROSYSTEMS project under the ESF EUROCORES EuroDiversity scheme is a holistic and multi-scale approach in studying microbial diversity and functionality in a nested microbial/metazoan system, which thrives in deep waters: the giant cold-water coral mound. Studies on prolific cold-water coral sites have been carried out from the canyons of the Bay of Biscay to the fjords of the Norwegian margin, while the Pen Duick carbonate mound province off Morocco developed into a joint natural lab for studying in particular the impact of biogeochemical and microbial processes on modern sedimentary diagenesis within the reef sediments, in complement to the studies on I0DP Exp. 307 cores (Challenger Mound, off Ireland). Major outcomes of this research can be summarized as follows. • IODP Exp. 307 on Challenger Mound had revealed a significant prokaryotic community both within and beneath the carbonate mound. MiCROSYSTEMS unveils a remarkable degree of compartmentalization in such community from the seawater, the coral skeleton surface and mucus to the reef sediments. The occurrence of such multiple and distinct microbial compartments associated with cold-water coral ecosystems promotes opportunities for microbial diversity in the deep ocean. • New cases of co-habitation of cold-water corals and giant deep-water oysters were discovered in the Bay of Biscay, which add a new facet of macrofaunal diversity to cold-water coral reef systems. • The discovery of giant, ancient coral graveyards on the Moroccan mounds not only fuels the debate about natural versus anthropogenic mass extinction, but these open frameworks simultaneously invite for the study of bio-erosion and early diagenesis, in particular organo-mineralization, and of the possible role and significance of these thick, solid rubble patches in 3D mound-building and consolidation. • The assessment of the carbonate budget of a modern cold-water coral mound (Challenger Mound) reveals that only 33 to 40 wt % of

  19. Wigner method dynamics in the interaction picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Dahl, Jens Peder; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1994-01-01

    that the dynamics of the interaction picture Wigner function is solved by running a swarm of trajectories in the classical interaction picture introduced previously in the literature. Solving the Wigner method dynamics of collision processes in the interaction picture ensures that the calculated transition......The possibility of introducing an interaction picture in the semiclassical Wigner method is investigated. This is done with an interaction Picture description of the density operator dynamics as starting point. We show that the dynamics of the density operator dynamics as starting point. We show...... probabilities are unambiguous even when the asymptotic potentials are anharmonic. An application of the interaction picture Wigner method to a Morse oscillator interacting with a laser field is presented. The calculated transition probabilities are in good agreement with results obtained by a numerical...

  20. Emotionally Negative Pictures Enhance Gist Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bookbinder, S. H.; Brainerd, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    In prior work on how true and false memory are influenced by emotion, valence and arousal have often been conflated. Thus, it is difficult to say which specific effects are due to valence and which are due to arousal. In the present research, we used a picture-memory paradigm that allowed emotional valence to be manipulated with arousal held constant. Negatively-valenced pictures elevated both true and false memory, relative to positive and neutral pictures. Conjoint recognition modeling reve...

  1. The Reproducibility of Indoor Air Pollution (IAP Measurement: A Test Case for the Measurement of Key Air Pollutants from the Pan Frying of Fish Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Hyun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the robustness of various indoor air quality (IAQ indices, we explored the possible role of reproducibility-induced variability in the measurements of different pollutants under similar sampling and emissions conditions. Polluted indoor conditions were generated by pan frying fish samples in a closed room. A total of 11 experiments were carried out to measure a list of key variables commonly used to represent indoor air pollution (IAP indicators such as particulate matter (PM: PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP and a set of individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs with some odor markers. The cooking activity conducted as part of our experiments was successful to consistently generate significant pollution levels (mean PM10: 7110 μg m−3 and mean total VOC (TVOC: 1400 μg m−3, resp.. Then, relative standard error (RSE was computed to assess the reproducibility between different IAP paramters measured across the repeated experiments. If the results were evaluated by an arbitrary criterion of 10%, the patterns were divided into two data groups (e.g., 10% for the remainders. Most noticeably, TVOC had the most repeatable results with a reproducibility (RSE value of 3.2% (n=11.

  2. The Picture Book of Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Siegmund

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this book is to explain the basic concepts and phenomena of quantum mechanics by means of visualization. Computer-generated illustrations in color are used extensively throughout the text, helping to establish the relation between quantum mechanics—wave functions, interference, atomic structure, and so forth—and classical physics—point mechanics, statistical mechanics, and wave optics. Even more important, by studying the pictures in parallel with the text, readers develop an intuition for such notoriously abstract phenomena as • the tunnel effect • excitation and decay of metastable states • wave-packet motion within a well • systems of distinguishable and indistinguishable particles • free wave packets and scattering in 3 dimensions • angular-momentum decomposition • stationary bound states in various 3-dimensional potentials • hybrid states • Kepler motion of wave packets in the Coulomb field • spin and magnetic resonance Illustrations from experiments in a variety of f...

  3. Towards thermodynamical consistency of quasiparticle picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, T.S.; Shanenko, A.A.; Toneev, V.D.; Research Inst. for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to call attention to some realistic quasi-particle-based description of the quark/gluon matter and its consistent implementation in thermodynamics. A simple and transparent representation of the thermodynamical consistency conditions is given. This representation allows one to review critically and systemize available phenomenological approaches to the deconfinement problem with respect to their thermodynamical consistency. A particular attention is paid to the development of a method for treating the string screening in the dense matter of unbound color charges. The proposed method yields an integrable effective pair potential, which can be incorporated into the mean-field picture. The results of its application are in reasonable agreement with lattice data on the QCD thermodynamics [ru

  4. Toward thermodynamic consistency of quasiparticle picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.; Shanenko, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to call attention to some realistic quasiparticle-based description of quark/gluon matter and its consistent implementation in thermodynamics. A simple and transparent representation of the thermodynamic consistency conditions is given. This representation allows one to review critically and systemize available phenomenological approaches to the deconfinement problem with respect to their thermodynamic consistency. Particular attention is paid to the development of a method for treating the string screening in the dense matter of unbound color charges. The proposed method yields an integrable effective pair potential that can be incorporated into the mean-field picture. The results of its application are in reasonable agreement with lattice data on the QCD thermodynamics

  5. Decoding Pedophilia: Increased Anterior Insula Response to Infant Animal Pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ponseti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research found increased brain responses of men with sexual interest in children (i.e., pedophiles not only to pictures of naked children but also to pictures of child faces. This opens the possibly that pedophilia is linked (in addition to or instead of an aberrant sexual system to an over-active nurturing system. To test this hypothesis we exposed pedophiles and healthy controls to pictures of infant and adult animals during functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. By using pictures of infant animals (instead of human infants, we aimed to elicit nurturing processing without triggering sexual processing. We hypothesized that elevated brain responses to nurturing stimuli will be found – in addition to other brain areas – in the anterior insula of pedophiles because this area was repeatedly found to be activated when adults see pictures of babies. Behavioral ratings confirmed that pictures of infant or adult animals were not perceived as sexually arousing neither by the pedophilic participants nor by the heathy controls. Statistical analysis was applied to the whole brain as well as to the anterior insula as region of interest. Only in pedophiles did infants relative to adult animals increase brain activity in the anterior insula, supplementary motor cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal areas. Within-group analysis revealed an increased brain response to infant animals in the left anterior insular cortex of the pedophilic participants. Currently, pedophilia is considered the consequence of disturbed sexual or executive brain processing, but details are far from known. The present findings raise the question whether there is also an over-responsive nurturing system in pedophilia.

  6. Decoding Pedophilia: Increased Anterior Insula Response to Infant Animal Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseti, Jorge; Bruhn, Daniel; Nolting, Julia; Gerwinn, Hannah; Pohl, Alexander; Stirn, Aglaja; Granert, Oliver; Laufs, Helmut; Deuschl, Günther; Wolff, Stephan; Jansen, Olav; Siebner, Hartwig; Briken, Peer; Mohnke, Sebastian; Amelung, Till; Kneer, Jonas; Schiffer, Boris; Walter, Henrik; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2017-01-01

    Previous research found increased brain responses of men with sexual interest in children (i.e., pedophiles) not only to pictures of naked children but also to pictures of child faces. This opens the possibly that pedophilia is linked (in addition to or instead of an aberrant sexual system) to an over-active nurturing system. To test this hypothesis we exposed pedophiles and healthy controls to pictures of infant and adult animals during functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. By using pictures of infant animals (instead of human infants), we aimed to elicit nurturing processing without triggering sexual processing. We hypothesized that elevated brain responses to nurturing stimuli will be found - in addition to other brain areas - in the anterior insula of pedophiles because this area was repeatedly found to be activated when adults see pictures of babies. Behavioral ratings confirmed that pictures of infant or adult animals were not perceived as sexually arousing neither by the pedophilic participants nor by the heathy controls. Statistical analysis was applied to the whole brain as well as to the anterior insula as region of interest. Only in pedophiles did infants relative to adult animals increase brain activity in the anterior insula, supplementary motor cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal areas. Within-group analysis revealed an increased brain response to infant animals in the left anterior insular cortex of the pedophilic participants. Currently, pedophilia is considered the consequence of disturbed sexual or executive brain processing, but details are far from known. The present findings raise the question whether there is also an over-responsive nurturing system in pedophilia.

  7. Selected pictures of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    View of a single MDT Big Wheel (on side A in UX15 cavern) taken during its last movement immediately after being assembled and just before being connected to the neighbouring TGC1 wheel. Assembly work on the Cathode Strip Chambers on Small Wheel C in building 190. Connecting the services for the Cathode Strip Chambers. The installation of the optical fibers for the readout of the Cathode Strip Chambers on Small Weel C by the Irvine group. Best from our archives: View of the End Cap Calorimeter and TGC big wheel from the Cryostat side A of ATLAS cavern taken on 22 May 2007. The picture above was taken from the platform in the middle, between the Cryostat and the End-Cap. Muriel hopes you all had a great vacation. She herself had a wonderful time sailing in Galicia (North Western Spain). She can be seen here wearing the traditional dress offered to her by "Los Amigos de las Dornas" (Friends of the Dornas -traditional sailing boats used for fishing) - when she became ...

  8. Vegetarianism and food perception. Selective visual attention to meat pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockburger, Jessica; Renner, Britta; Weike, Almut I; Hamm, Alfons O; Schupp, Harald T

    2009-04-01

    Vegetarianism provides a model system to examine the impact of negative affect towards meat, based on ideational reasoning. It was hypothesized that meat stimuli are efficient attention catchers in vegetarians. Event-related brain potential recordings served to index selective attention processes at the level of initial stimulus perception. Consistent with the hypothesis, late positive potentials to meat pictures were enlarged in vegetarians compared to omnivores. This effect was specific for meat pictures and obtained during passive viewing and an explicit attention task condition. These findings demonstrate the attention capture of food stimuli, deriving affective salience from ideational reasoning and symbolic meaning.

  9. Picturing and modelling catchments by representative hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loritz, Ralf; Hassler, Sibylle; Jackisch, Conrad; Zehe, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological modelling studies often start with a qualitative sketch of the hydrological processes of a catchment. These so-called perceptual models are often pictured as hillslopes and are generalizations displaying only the dominant and relevant processes of a catchment or hillslope. The problem with these models is that they are prone to become too much predetermined by the designer's background and experience. Moreover it is difficult to know if that picture is correct and contains enough complexity to represent the system under study. Nevertheless, because of their qualitative form, perceptual models are easy to understand and can be an excellent tool for multidisciplinary exchange between researchers with different backgrounds, helping to identify the dominant structures and processes in a catchment. In our study we explore whether a perceptual model built upon an intensive field campaign may serve as a blueprint for setting up representative hillslopes in a hydrological model to reproduce the functioning of two distinctly different catchments. We use a physically-based 2D hillslope model which has proven capable to be driven by measured soil-hydrological parameters. A key asset of our approach is that the model structure itself remains a picture of the perceptual model, which is benchmarked against a) geo-physical images of the subsurface and b) observed dynamics of discharge, distributed state variables and fluxes (soil moisture, matric potential and sap flow). Within this approach we are able to set up two behavioral model structures which allow the simulation of the most important hydrological fluxes and state variables in good accordance with available observations within the 19.4 km2 large Colpach catchment and the 4.5 km2 large Wollefsbach catchment in Luxembourg without the necessity of calibration. This corroborates, contrary to the widespread opinion, that a) lower mesoscale catchments may be modelled by representative hillslopes and b) physically

  10. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: clinical picture and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Skov, Lone

    2009-01-01

    , and the histology of deep skin biopsies. Symptomatic treatment with intensive physiotherapy and painkillers is important, but there is no known curative medical treatment. Spontaneous remission of NSF symptoms may occur with recovery of renal function after an episode of acute renal failure, or with kidney...

  11. Implementing the picture exchange communication system (PECS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, K

    2001-01-01

    PECS was developed in Delaware, USA over 10 years ago by Bondy and Frost (1994a). Over the last two years PECS has been introduced to this country and has raised a great deal of interest in people working in the field of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). This paper will address some of the issues that arose during the establishment of PECS in one special school. Changes seen in 21 children with severe learning difficulties who have been taught to use PECS are reported and the use of PECS with children who do not have an ASD is discussed.

  12. Drug safety: withdrawn medications are only part of the picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Nigel S B

    2016-02-13

    In a research article published in BMC Medicine, Onakpoya and colleagues provide a historical review of withdrawals of medications for safety reasons. However, withdrawn medications are only one part of the picture about how regulatory agencies manage drug risks. Moreover, medications introduced before the increased pre-marketing regulations and post-marketing monitoring systems instituted after the thalidomide tragedy have little relevance when considering the present drug safety picture because the circumstances under which they were introduced were completely different. To more fully understand drug safety management and regulatory agency actions, withdrawals should be evaluated within the setting and timeframe in which the medications are approved, which requires information about approvals and safety warnings. Studies are needed that provide a more comprehensive current picture of the identification and evaluation of drug safety risks as well as how regulatory agencies deal with them. Please see related research article: http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-016-0553-2.

  13. Revisão de estudos sobre o Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS para o ensino de linguagem a indivíduos com autismo e outras dificuldades de fala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Táhcita Medrado Mizael

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS é um sistema de comunicação frequentemente utilizado em indivíduos com autismo e/ou pouca fala funcional. Até a data, nenhuma revisão sobre intervenções com o PECS foi publicada no Brasil. Assim, os objetivos deste estudo foram revisar as literaturas brasileira e estrangeira sobre o estado da arte do PECS como um instrumento de ensino de linguagem a indivíduos com autismo e dificuldades de fala, apontar o que tem sido pesquisado, os resultados mais encontrados e direções para novos estudos, principalmente para a literatura brasileira. Quatro artigos foram encontrados na literatura estrangeira e seis na literatura brasileira. Dados referentes ao número de participantes, delineamento de pesquisa, duração do estudo, setting, fases implementadas, resultados encontrados, fidedignidade inter-observador e de procedimento, validade social, manutenção e generalização foram sumarizados. Os estudos revisados mostraram que, em consonância com a literatura, o PECS parece ser efetivo no ensino da comunicação a indivíduos com autismo ou com pouca fala funcional, apesar de o pequeno número de participantes de cada estudo indicar que o PECS é uma estratégia de ensino individual.

  14. Effect of Filmless Imaging on Utilization of Radiologic Services with a Two-stage, Hospital-Wide Implementation of a Picture Archiving and Communication System: Initial Experience of a Fee-for-Service Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Kuo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A medium-sized general hospital using a fee-for-service model implemented a hospital-wide picture archiving and communication system (PACS in two stages. This study evaluated the reporting time with filmless operation and the effect of filmless imaging on referring physicians' use of the radiologic service before and after completion of the second stage of PACS implementation. The relationship between the total number of hospital patients and the number of radiologic department patients was also evaluated. All sample images were retrieved from the PACS. All corresponding reports except for one for a computerized tomography study were available. The median reporting time for different studies performed during working hours was less than 2 hours. There was a significantly positive and linear relationship (p < 0.01 between the total number of hospital patients and the number of radiologic department patients after hospital-wide implementation of PACS. We conclude that the fee-for-service model had no negative impact on referring physicians' use of radiologic services in a filmless hospital.

  15. Key requirements for high quality picture-rate conversion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordes, C.N.; Haan, de G.

    2009-01-01

    Past LCD-TV generations suffered from a poor motion portrayal, causing the blurring of moving objects. Hence, various techniques have been implemented to improve their motion portrayal, of which the widespread introduction of motion compensated picture-rate conversion in TV systems is an essential

  16. Christians in South Africa: The statistical picture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Christians in South Africa; The statistical picture. Government censuses since 1960 indicate that the religious picture was already largely fixed by the 1950s. Already at that stage some 3 out of 4. South Africans identified themselves as 'Christians'. Since then this percentage grew steadily, mainly because of ...

  17. Picture Books and the Art of Collage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudhoe, Catherine M.

    2003-01-01

    Explores how teachers can use picture book illustrations to teach children the art of collage. Focuses on three children's picture books and offers art activities showcasing three collage techniques: (1) cut and torn paper collage; (2) photomontage; and (3) texture collages and collage constructions. Relates each activity to the National Standards…

  18. Algorithms for coding scanned halftone pictures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Forchhammer, Morten

    1988-01-01

    A method for coding scanned documents containing halftone pictures, e.g. newspapers and magazines, for transmission purposes is proposed. The halftone screen is estimated and the grey value of each dot is found, thus giving a compact description. At the receiver the picture is rescreened. A novel...

  19. The Picture Superiority Effect and Biological Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses learning behaviors where the "picture superiority effect" (PSE) seems to be most effective in biology education. Also considers research methodology and suggests a new research model which allows a more direct examination of the strategies learners use when matching up picture and text in efforts to "understand"…

  20. Positioning Picture Books within the Mathematics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Most teachers feel confident espousing the benefits of using picture books in English lessons, talking about the importance of using the illustrations to enhance the text, engaging students and fostering a love and appreciation of literature. How many teachers passionately advocate the use of these same picture books in mathematics lessons? This…

  1. The Untapped Potential of Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the role picture books play in helping young writers. Third-grade students were read engaging picture books for the sole purpose of noticing and naming different features they encountered during the read-alouds. Students were able to recognize the tools many authors and illustrators use such as onomatopoeia, varied font…

  2. Magazine Picture Collage in Group Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Blythe C.; Guenette, Francis L.

    2010-01-01

    A magazine picture collage activity was used with three female counsellor education students as a vehicle to support them in processing their experience as counsellors in training. The use of magazine picture collage in group supervision is described, and the benefits and challenges are presented. The collages served as jumping-off points for…

  3. Gender Stereotypes in Children's Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahara, May M.

    Research has examined how gender stereotypes and sexism in picture books affect the development of gender identity in young children, how children's books in the last decade have portrayed gender, and how researchers evaluate picture books for misrepresentations of gender. A review of the research indicated that gender development is a critical…

  4. Picture Books Peek behind Cultural Curtains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantz, Sylvia; Marantz, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses culture in picture books in three general categories: legends and histories; current life in particular areas; and the immigrant experience. Considers the translation of visual images, discusses authentic interpretations, and presents an annotated bibliography of picture books showing cultural diversity including African, Asian, Mexican,…

  5. Rapid induction of false memory for pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2010-07-01

    Recognition of pictures is typically extremely accurate, and it is thus unclear whether the reconstructive nature of memory can yield substantial false recognition of highly individuated stimuli. A procedure for the rapid induction of false memories for distinctive colour photographs is proposed. Participants studied a set of object pictures followed by a list of words naming those objects, but embedded in the list were names of unseen objects. When subsequently shown full colour pictures of these unseen objects, participants consistently claimed that they had seen them, while discriminating with high accuracy between studied pictures and new pictures whose names did not appear in the misleading word list. These false memories can be reported with high confidence as well as the feeling of recollection. This new procedure allows the investigation of factors that influence false memory reports with ecologically valid stimuli and of the similarities and differences between true and false memories.

  6. High-picture quality industrial CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Takao; Nishide, Akihiko; Fujii, Masashi.

    1989-01-01

    Industrial X-ray-CT-scanners, which provide cross-sectional images of a tested sample without destroying it, are attracting attention as a new nondestructive inspection device. In 1982, Toshiba commenced the development of industrial CT scanners, and introduced the 'TOSCANER' -3000 and-4000 series. Now, the state of the art 'TOSCANER'-20000 series of CT systems has been developed incorporating the latest computer tomography and image processing technology, such as the T9506 image processor. One of the advantages of this system is its applicability to a wide range of X-ray energy . The 'TOSCANER'-20000 series can be utilized for inspecting castings and other materials with relatively low-transparency to X-rays, as well as ceramics, composite materials and other materials with high X-ray transparency. A further feature of the new system is its high-picture quality, with a high-spatial resolution resulting from a pixel size of 0.2x0.2(mm). (author)

  7. Development of NATO's recognized environmental picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufert, John F.; Trabelsi, Mourad

    2006-05-01

    An important element for the fielding of a viable, effective NATO Response Force (NRF) is access to meteorological, oceanographic, geospatial data (GEOMETOC) and imagery. Currently, the available GEOMETOC information suffers from being very fragmented. NATO defines the Recognised Environmental Picture as controlled information base for GEOMETOC data. The NATO REP proposes an architecture that is both flexible and open. The focus lies on enabling a network-centric approach. The key into achieving this is relying on using open, well recognized standards that apply to both the data exchange protocols and the data formats. Communication and information exchange based on open standards enables system interoperability. Diverse systems, each with unique, specialized contributions to an increased understanding of the battlespace, can now cooperate to a manageable information sphere. By clearly defining responsibilities in the generation of information, a reduction in data transfer overhead is achieved . REP identifies three main stages in the dissemination of GEOMETOC data. These are Collection, Fusion (and Analysis) and Publication. A REP architecture has been successfully deployed during the NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (CWID) in Lillehammer, Norway during June 2005. CWID is an annual event to validate and improve the interoperability of NATO and national Consultation and command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. With a test case success rate of 84%, it was able to provide relevant GEOMETOC support to the main NRF component headquarters. In 2006, the REP architecture will be deployed and validated during the NATO NRF Steadfast live exercises.

  8. The Progress of Students Reading Comprehension through Wordless Picture Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaida Lubis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wordless picture book is an unique book that could help the young learner to get their literacy. The content of the wordless picture book must be communicated through the visual of the illustration. This research discusses a case study of how a kid of six years old produce his narrative through wordless picture book. The kid allowed to see and say on the page and then write the words that he has mentioned. Practicing to read repeatedly which increase fluency will improve his reading comprehension and written expression. This research was conducted to make better understand about the sense - making process that happen when a child works with the wordless picture book. Most sentences or texts were made based on the references and experience from daily life either explicitly or implicitly. In reading wordless book, readers faced the variety of visual signs. These sign systems help reader form a type of framework that show their interpretation of the text and helps them build construction of the story. The researcher wanted to make the reader understand better about the strategies that the child use to make sense of wordless text. The reason of this study is to help how a six year old nonreader would give interpretation to visual cues in wordless picture books. Transacting with the visual text in the books helped the child to make sense of the stories. The data were analyzed based on the principles of qualitative content analysis that involve a systematic review of the data, coding, category construction and analysis. The result of this research is the wordless picture books give opportunity to the children to create the story on their own and to bring in their own understanding of the world to the text.

  9. 我国 PACS和远程影像学存在的问题和解决对策的探讨%The Problem of Picture Archiving and Communication System and Teleimaging in our Country and probing the countermeasure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤成

    2001-01-01

    笔者分析我国图像存储与通讯系统 (Picture Archiving and Communication System,PACS)和远程影像学的现状,发现我国建立 PACS的基本条件尚不完全具备,如存在设备的质量良莠不齐,尚无国家质量标准,以普通显示器代替高分辨率诊断专用显示器,计算机软硬件和图像存储介质更新换代过快使医院的投入产出比和经济效率降低,国内厂家规模较小和技术力量有限难以可持续发展等问题。提出了解决问题的对策:医院建立 PACS最好分阶段实施, PACS和远程影像系统必须装备高分辨诊断专用显示器,尽早建立 PACS和远程影像学设备的国家质量标准,推动国内大型企业生产 PACS和远程影像学设备,或与国外大公司建立合资公司,并与大型教学医院建立长期研发伙伴关系,以实现我国 PACS和远程影像学的可持续发展战略。%The status of picture archiving and communication system(PACS)and teleimaging in our country was analyzed and the problem was found as following:it was no having the basic conditions of establishing PACScompletely,quality of the equipment was the good and the bad intermingled,until now it is no having national quality standard of PACS and teleimaging,and no special high resolution monitor for diagnosis in PACS,the software and hardware of computer and the media of archiving imaging were changed too fast and made the low rate of input/output and the efficiency for hospital,as well as the small producer and limited technical power made this industry difficult to get continuing development.The countermeasure is proposed for the problem:It had better that establishing the PACS stepby step in a hospital,using special high resolution monitor for diagnosis in PACS and teleimaging equipment,making national quality standard of PACS and teleimaging equipment as soon as possible,pushing the byg domestic company produce PACS and teleimaging equipment or creating

  10. Capacitación turística en comunidades indígenas. Un caso de Investigación Acción Participativa (IAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariajosé Pastor-Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La literatura académica subraya la importancia de involucrar a la comunidad en los procesos de capacitación turística. Sin embargo, apenas hay reflexiones sobre cómo diseñar e implementar la formación en áreas rurales y remotas. En este trabajo se exponen las cuatro fases de un ciclo de Investigación Acción Participativa (IAP, desarrollada en la Selva Lacandona de México con la colaboración de los grupos originarios lacandones y ch’oles. El objetivo de estudio fue la capacitación humana en las áreas de sistemas turísticos, interpretación del patrimonio natural y cultural, y creación de producto. Todo ello complementado con una capacitación específica para mujeres y jóvenes, grupos tradicionalmente relegados en estas comunidades. El relato de las distintas fases de la IAP nos muestra cómo el conocimiento ancestral es la base para una capacitación turística sólida. La involucración de jóvenes estudiantes en los procesos de formación en comunidades, los formatos adaptados a los contextos locales, y los ejercicios de reciprocidad científica, sirven además para la revitalización cultural, el refuerzo de la autoestima y el desarrollo endógeno de los pueblos indígenas.

  11. NIH Abroad: Pictures Are Crowd Pullers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. "Pictures Are Crowd Pullers …" Art, culture, and the Internet combine to intervene against malaria ... Not ripe mangoes. Not witchcraft. The images and words, which speak directly to local beliefs in villages ...

  12. Interframe transform coding of picture data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, N.; Natarajan, T. R.

    1976-01-01

    This semi-tutorial paper describes the process of using orthogonal transforms for the purposes of encoding TV picture data. Results pertaining to a 6:1 data compression experiment using the Walsh-Hadamard transform are included.

  13. Pattern Perception and Pictures for the Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa McCarthy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent research on perception of tangible pictures in sighted and blind people. Haptic picture naming accuracy is dependent upon familiarity and access to semantic memory, just as in visual recognition. Performance is high when haptic picture recognition tasks do not depend upon semantic memory. Viewpoint matters for the ease or difficulty of interpreting haptic pictures of solid objects. Top views were easiest for sighted and blind persons when geometrical solids had constant crosssections in the vertical axis. The presence or absence of viewpoint effects depends upon the nature of the solids that are represented. Congenitally blind people do not spontaneously produce perspective drawings, but recent data suggests that depictions including linear perspective can be understood after minimal experience. The results suggest that two-dimensional configurations are not necessarily problematic for touch.

  14. The Heisenberg picture for single photon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pienaar, Jacques; Myers, Casey; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2011-01-01

    In the context of quantum field theory, the Heisenberg picture has a distinct advantage over the Schrodinger picture because the Schrodinger picture requires us to transform the vacuum state itself, which can be intractable in the case of non-inertial reference frames, whereas the Heisenberg picture allows us to keep the same vacuum state and only transform the operators. However, the Heisenberg calculation requires the operators to already be expressed as a function of creation and annihilation operators acting on the original vacuum, whereas calculations in quantum information and quantum computation use operators that act on qubit states, necessarily containing particles. The relationship between the operators acting on these states and the operators acting on the vacuum state has remained elusive. We derive such an expression using an explicit model for single-particle production from the vacuum.

  15. Musicality in the Language of Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Robin

    2008-01-01

    The authors of picture books who write especially melodic language are doing more than simply offering up work that is pleasing to the ear. They are accessing more of the whole child. In this article five picture books will be discussed for their musical attributes: "Now One Foot, Now the Other", by Tomie dePaola, "The Cat in the Hat", by Dr.…

  16. Pictorial communication: Pictures and the synthetic universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Stephen R.

    1989-01-01

    Principles for the design of dynamic spatial instruments for communicating quantitative information to viewers are considered through a brief review of the history of pictorial communication. Pictorial communication is seen to have two directions: (1) from the picture to the viewer; and (2) from the viewer to the picture. Optimization of the design of interactive instruments using pictorial formats requires an understanding of the manipulative, perceptual, and cognitive limitations of human viewers.

  17. Employing Picture Description to Assess the Students' Descriptive Paragraph Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Mega Cahyani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Writing is considered as an important skill in learning process which is needed to be mastered by the students. However, in teaching learning process at schools or universities, the assessment of writing skill is not becoming the focus of learning process and the assessment is administered inappropriately. In this present study, the researcher undertook the study which dealt with assessing descriptive paragraph writing ability of the students through picture description by employing an ex post facto as the research design. The present study was intended to answer the research problem dealing with the extent of the students’ achievement of descriptive paragraph writing ability which is assessed through picture description. The samples under the study were 40 students determined by means of random sampling technique with lottery system. The data were collected through administering picture description as the research instrument. The obtained data were analyzed by using norm-reference measure of five standard values. The results of the data analysis showed that there were 67.50% samples of the study were successful in writing descriptive paragraph, while there were 32.50% samples were unsuccessful in writing descriptive paragraph which was assessed by administering picture description test

  18. Examining lateralized semantic access using pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2010-03-01

    A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs. Participants made an on-line semantic relatedness judgment in response to sequentially presented pictures. We found that when pictures are presented to the right hemisphere responses are generally more accurate than the left hemisphere for semantic relatedness judgments for picture pairs. Furthermore, consistent with earlier DVF studies employing words, we conclude that the RH is better at accessing or maintaining access to information that has a weak or more remote semantic relationship. We also found evidence of faster access for pictures presented to the LH in the strongly-related condition. Overall, these results are consistent with earlier DVF word studies that argue that the cerebral hemispheres each play an important and separable role during semantic retrieval. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. TreePics: visualizing trees with pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Puillandre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While many programs are available to edit phylogenetic trees, associating pictures with branch tips in an efficient and automatic way is not an available option. Here, we present TreePics, a standalone software that uses a web browser to visualize phylogenetic trees in Newick format and that associates pictures (typically, pictures of the voucher specimens to the tip of each branch. Pictures are visualized as thumbnails and can be enlarged by a mouse rollover. Further, several pictures can be selected and displayed in a separate window for visual comparison. TreePics works either online or in a full standalone version, where it can display trees with several thousands of pictures (depending on the memory available. We argue that TreePics can be particularly useful in a preliminary stage of research, such as to quickly detect conflicts between a DNA-based phylogenetic tree and morphological variation, that may be due to contamination that needs to be removed prior to final analyses, or the presence of species complexes.

  20. Semantic interference from distractor pictures in single-picture naming: evidence for competitive lexical selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jescheniak, Jörg D; Matushanskaya, Asya; Mädebach, Andreas; Müller, Matthias M

    2014-10-01

    Picture-naming studies have demonstrated interference from semantic-categorically related distractor words, but not from corresponding distractor pictures, and the lack of generality of the interference effect has been argued to challenge theories viewing lexical selection in speech production as a competitive process. Here, we demonstrate that semantic interference from context pictures does become visible, if sufficient attention is allocated to them. We combined picture naming with a spatial-cuing procedure. When participants' attention was shifted to the distractor, semantically related distractor pictures interfered with the response, as compared with unrelated distractor pictures. This finding supports models conceiving lexical retrieval as competitive (Levelt, Roelofs, & Meyer, 1999) but is difficult to reconcile with the response exclusion hypothesis (Finkbeiner & Caramazza, 2006b) proposed as an alternative.

  1. Picture Memory Improves with Longer On Time and Off Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Barbara; Sherman, Tracy

    1975-01-01

    Both recognition and recall of pictures improve as picture presentation time increases and as time between picture increases. This experiment was compared with an earlier one by Shaffer and Shiffrin (1972). (Editor/RK)

  2. Carl Linnaeus: pictures and propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2003-03-01

    How do scientists become famous? Carl Linnaeus was an expert at self-promotion who used portraits to gain patronage and consolidate his reputation. His sexualized classification system was hugely controversial, yet his successors celebrated him as a great hero of botany.

  3. Pictures with narration versus pictures with on-screen text during teaching Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Ioannou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of two different teaching methods on students’ comprehension in Mathematics: pictures with concurrent narration versus pictures with on-screen text, during teaching triangles, a lesson in Mathematics. Forty primary school children (boys and girls selected to participate in this study. Students splitted into two experimental groups with the technique of simple random sampling. The first group consisted of students who viewed and listened (pictures with narration group, while the second group consisted of students who viewed (pictures with on-screen text a presentation of triangles. A recall test was used to evaluate students’ comprehension. The results showed that students’ comprehension was better when triangles' presentation (pictures was accompanied with spoken words, than with printed words. The pictures with narration group performed better than the pictures with on-screen text group, in recall test (M = 4.97, SD = 1.32 p<0.01. Results are consistent with the modality principle in which learners are more likely to build connections between corresponding words and pictures when words are presented in a spoken form (narration simultaneously with pictures.

  4. Vegetarianism and food perception : selective visual attention to meat pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Stockburger, Jessica; Renner, Britta; Weike, Almut I.; Hamm, Alfons O.; Schupp, Harald Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Vegetarianism provides a model system to examine the impact of negative affect towards meat, based on ideational reasoning. It was hypothesized that meat stimuli are efficient attention catchers in vegetarians. Event-related brain potential recordings served to index selective attention processes at the level of initial stimulus perception. Consistent with the hypothesis, late positive potentials to meat pictures were enlarged in vegetarians compared to omnivores. This effect was specific fo...

  5. Visualizing common operating picture of critical infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummukainen, Lauri; Oksama, Lauri; Timonen, Jussi; Vankka, Jouko

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a solution for visualizing the common operating picture (COP) of the critical infrastructure (CI). The purpose is to improve the situational awareness (SA) of the strategic-level actor and the source system operator in order to support decision making. The information is obtained through the Situational Awareness of Critical Infrastructure and Networks (SACIN) framework. The system consists of an agent-based solution for gathering, storing, and analyzing the information, and a user interface (UI) is presented in this paper. The UI consists of multiple views visualizing information from the CI in different ways. Different CI actors are categorized in 11 separate sectors, and events are used to present meaningful incidents. Past and current states, together with geographical distribution and logical dependencies, are presented to the user. The current states are visualized as segmented circles to represent event categories. Geographical distribution of assets is displayed with a well-known map tool. Logical dependencies are presented in a simple directed graph, and users also have a timeline to review past events. The objective of the UI is to provide an easily understandable overview of the CI status. Therefore, testing methods, such as a walkthrough, an informal walkthrough, and the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT), were used in the evaluation of the UI. Results showed that users were able to obtain an understanding of the current state of CI, and the usability of the UI was rated as good. In particular, the designated display for the CI overview and the timeline were found to be efficient.

  6. Reconstructing pictures from sampled data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone, D.; Pullan, B.R.; Taylor, C.J.

    1973-01-01

    Corrections for two important degrading effects in gamma ray imaging systems are described. The adaptive local operator has the advantage that given the assumptions of the method the optimum correction is made for both sources of error simultaneously. The probability operator method although less soundly based in classical signal processing theory does make more use of the known statistical properties of possible inputs and consequently might make a better estimate of the true sample values. A separate correction would need to be made for blurring effects. The initial results indicate that the methods are worthy of further investigation

  7. Testing the snake-detection hypothesis: larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs

    OpenAIRE

    Van Strien, Jan W.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Huijding, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    According to the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell, 2006), fear specifically of snakes may have pushed evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing pre-attentional visual detection of fearful stimuli. A previous study demonstrated that snake pictures, when compared to spiders or bird pictures, draw more early attention as reflected by larger early posterior negativity (EPN). Here we report two studies that further tested the snake detection hypothesis. In Study, 1 we tested whe...

  8. Sustained Attention Ability Affects Simple Picture Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Jongman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustained attention has previously been shown as a requirement for language production. However, this is mostly evident for difficult conditions, such as a dual-task situation. The current study provides corroborating evidence that this relationship holds even for simple picture naming. Sustained attention ability, indexed both by participants’ reaction times and individuals’ hit rate (the proportion of correctly detected targets on a digit discrimination task, correlated with picture naming latencies. Individuals with poor sustained attention were consistently slower and their RT distributions were more positively skewed when naming pictures compared to individuals with better sustained attention. Additionally, the need to sustain attention was manipulated by changing the speed of stimulus presentation. Research has suggested that fast event rates tax sustained attention resources to a larger degree than slow event rates. However, in this study the fast event rate did not result in increased difficulty, neither for the picture naming task nor for the sustained attention task. Instead, the results point to a speed-accuracy trade-off in the sustained attention task (lower accuracy but faster responses in the fast than in the slow event rate, and to a benefit for faster rates in the picture naming task (shorter naming latencies with no difference in accuracy. Performance on both tasks was largely comparable, supporting previous findings that sustained attention is called upon during language production.

  9. Emotionally negative pictures enhance gist memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookbinder, S H; Brainerd, C J

    2017-02-01

    In prior work on how true and false memory are influenced by emotion, valence and arousal have often been conflated. Thus, it is difficult to say which specific effects are caused by valence and which are caused by arousal. In the present research, we used a picture-memory paradigm that allowed emotional valence to be manipulated with arousal held constant. Negatively valenced pictures elevated both true and false memory, relative to positive and neutral pictures. Conjoint recognition modeling revealed that negative valence (a) reduced erroneous suppression of true memories and (b) increased the familiarity of the semantic content of both true and false memories. Overall, negative valence impaired the verbatim side of episodic memory but enhanced the gist side, and these effects persisted even after a week-long delay. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Picture This: Young Quechua Children's Reactions to Imported Picture Books in Ayacucho, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Jennifer Rowse

    2017-01-01

    Practitioners in ECE consider picture books an effective instructional tool in early childhood programming in the developed regions of the world. However, many young children from marginalized populations in the developing world have little to no access to them and thus, the effect that picture books could have upon their emergent literacy…

  11. A single whole-body low dose X-irradiation does not affect L1, B1 and IAP repeat element DNA methylation longitudinally.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R Newman

    Full Text Available The low dose radioadaptive response has been shown to be protective against high doses of radiation as well as aging-induced genomic instability. We hypothesised that a single whole-body exposure of low dose radiation would induce a radioadaptive response thereby reducing or abrogating aging-related changes in repeat element DNA methylation in mice. Following sham or 10 mGy X-irradiation, serial peripheral blood sampling was performed and differences in Long Interspersed Nucleic Element 1 (L1, B1 and Intracisternal-A-Particle (IAP repeat element methylation between samples were assessed using high resolution melt analysis of PCR amplicons. By 420 days post-irradiation, neither radiation- or aging-related changes in the methylation of peripheral blood, spleen or liver L1, B1 and IAP elements were observed. Analysis of the spleen and liver tissues of cohorts of untreated aging mice showed that the 17-19 month age group exhibited higher repeat element methylation than younger or older mice, with no overall decline in methylation detected with age. This is the first temporal analysis of the effect of low dose radiation on repeat element methylation in mouse peripheral blood and the first to examine the long term effect of this dose on repeat element methylation in a radiosensitive tissue (spleen and a tissue fundamental to the aging process (liver. Our data indicate that the methylation of murine DNA repeat elements can fluctuate with age, but unlike human studies, do not demonstrate an overall aging-related decline. Furthermore, our results indicate that a low dose of ionising radiation does not induce detectable changes to murine repeat element DNA methylation in the tissues and at the time-points examined in this study. This radiation dose is relevant to human diagnostic radiation exposures and suggests that a dose of 10 mGy X-rays, unlike high dose radiation, does not cause significant short or long term changes to repeat element or global DNA

  12. Mariner Mars 1971 television picture catalog. Volume 2: Sequence design and picture coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, P. E.; Helton, M. R.; Seeley, L. N.; Zawacki, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    A collection of data relating to the Mariner 9 TV picture is presented. The data are arranged to offer speedy identification of what took place during entire science cycles, on individual revolutions, and during individual science links or sequences. Summary tables present the nominal design for each of the major picture-taking cycles, along with the sequences actually taken on each revolution. These tables permit identification at a glance, all TV sequences and the corresponding individual pictures for the first 262 revolutions (primary mission). A list of TV pictures, categorized according to their latitude and longitude, is also provided. Orthographic and/or mercator plots for all pictures, along with pertinent numerical data for their center points are presented. Other tables and plots of interest are also included. This document is based upon data contained in the Supplementary Experiment Data Record (SEDR) files as of 21 August 1972.

  13. Trace of nuclear energy with pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This book traces the history of development over nuclear energy with pictures, which contains preface, development history of the world, development history of Korea, nuclear power plant in Kori, nuclear power plant in Wolseong, nuclear power plant in Yeonggwang, nuclear power plant in Uljin, nuclear fuel, using of radiation and radioactive isotope, development of nuclear energy in the world and a Chronological table of nuclear energy. This book is written to record the development history of Korea through pictures of the nuclear power plants in Korea.

  14. [The changing picture of practicing dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokwerda, O

    2006-03-01

    Originally, dentists were particularly technical and curative practitioners. Nowadays, patient care is brought into focus, directed at maintaining oral health permanently by prevention and necessary curative treatments as a contribution to general health and well-being. The changing picture of praccising does not develop as a matter-of-course since many factors have an effect on dental practice. Effecting factors are: content concerning developments, technological advancements, legislation, government policies, organizational aspects, and typical characteristics of dental practitioners. The changing picture of practising dentistry is connected with uncertainty, proves to be hard to control, and some adjustments occur around practising.

  15. Rapid Assessment of Stakeholder Concerns about Public Health. An Introduction to a Fast and Inexpensive Approach Applied on Health Concerns about Intensive Animal Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij-Dirkzwager, Marleen; van der Ree, Joost; Lebret, Erik

    2017-12-11

    To effectively manage environmental health risks, stakeholders often need to act collectively. Stakeholders vary in their desire to act due to many factors, such as knowledge, risk perception, interests, and worldviews. Understanding their perceptions of the issues at stake is crucial to support the risk governance process. Even though concern assessment is a pivotal element of risk governance, few tools for rapid assessment are reported in the literature. We tested a rapid and relatively cheap approach, taking the Dutch debate on Intensive Animal Production Systems (IAPS) and health as an example. Dutch policy-oriented publications on IAPS and health and ten semi-structured in-depth interviews with a variety of stakeholders were analyzed to identify stakeholders and concerns involved in the Dutch debate about IAPS and health. Concerns were mapped and a stakeholder network was derived. Three classes of concerns were recognized in the discussions about IAPS and health: concerns related to health risks, concerns regarding the activity causing the risks (IAPS), and concerns about the process to control the risks. The notions of 'trust' and 'scientific uncertainty' appeared as important themes in the discussions. Argumentation based on concerns directly related to health risks, the activity causing the risk (IAPS), and its risk management can easily become muddled up in a societal debate, limiting the development of effective action perspectives. Acknowledging these multiple stakeholder concerns can clarify the positions taken by stakeholders and allow for more and other action perspectives to develop.

  16. Rapid Assessment of Stakeholder Concerns about Public Health. An Introduction to a Fast and Inexpensive Approach Applied on Health Concerns about Intensive Animal Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Kraaij-Dirkzwager

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To effectively manage environmental health risks, stakeholders often need to act collectively. Stakeholders vary in their desire to act due to many factors, such as knowledge, risk perception, interests, and worldviews. Understanding their perceptions of the issues at stake is crucial to support the risk governance process. Even though concern assessment is a pivotal element of risk governance, few tools for rapid assessment are reported in the literature. We tested a rapid and relatively cheap approach, taking the Dutch debate on Intensive Animal Production Systems (IAPS and health as an example. Dutch policy-oriented publications on IAPS and health and ten semi-structured in-depth interviews with a variety of stakeholders were analyzed to identify stakeholders and concerns involved in the Dutch debate about IAPS and health. Concerns were mapped and a stakeholder network was derived. Three classes of concerns were recognized in the discussions about IAPS and health: concerns related to health risks, concerns regarding the activity causing the risks (IAPS, and concerns about the process to control the risks. The notions of ‘trust’ and ‘scientific uncertainty’ appeared as important themes in the discussions. Argumentation based on concerns directly related to health risks, the activity causing the risk (IAPS, and its risk management can easily become muddled up in a societal debate, limiting the development of effective action perspectives. Acknowledging these multiple stakeholder concerns can clarify the positions taken by stakeholders and allow for more and other action perspectives to develop.

  17. Telidon Videotex presentation level protocol: Augmented picture description instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, C. D.; Brown, H. G.; Smirle, J. C.; Lum, Y. F.; Kukulka, J. Z.; Kwan, A.

    1982-02-01

    The Telidon Videotex system is a method by which graphic and textual information and transactional services can be accessed from information sources by the general public. In order to transmit information to a Telidon terminal at a minimum bandwidth, and in a manner independent of the type of communications channel, a coding scheme was devised which permits the encoding of a picture into the geometric drawing elements which compose it. These picture description instructions are an alpha geometric coding model and are based on the primitives of POINT, LINE, ARC, RECTANGLE, POLYGON, and INCREMENT. Text is encoded as (ASCII) characters along with a supplementary table of accents and special characters. A mosaic shape table is included for compatibility. A detailed specification of the coding scheme and a description of the principles which make it independent of communications channel and display hardware are provided.

  18. Communicating pictures a course in image and video coding

    CERN Document Server

    Bull, David R

    2014-01-01

    Communicating Pictures starts with a unique historical perspective of the role of images in communications and then builds on this to explain the applications and requirements of a modern video coding system. It draws on the author's extensive academic and professional experience of signal processing and video coding to deliver a text that is algorithmically rigorous, yet accessible, relevant to modern standards, and practical. It offers a thorough grounding in visual perception, and demonstrates how modern image and video compression methods can be designed in order to meet the rate-quality performance levels demanded by today's applications, networks and users. With this book you will learn: Practical issues when implementing a codec, such as picture boundary extension and complexity reduction, with particular emphasis on efficient algorithms for transforms, motion estimators and error resilience Conflicts between conventional video compression, based on variable length coding and spatiotemporal prediction,...

  19. Name agreement in picture naming : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Schafer, Graham; Akyürek, Elkan G.

    Name agreement is the extent to which different people agree on a name for a particular picture. Previous studies have found that it takes longer to name low name agreement pictures than high name agreement pictures. To examine the effect of name agreement in the online process of picture naming, we

  20. TRANSFORMANDO CONFLICTOS EN FAMILIAS DEL SURORIENTE DE BARRANQUILLA: UNA EXPERIENCIA DESDE LA INVESTIGACIÓN ACCIÓN PARTICIPACIÓN (IAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Angélica De la Peña Leiva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El presente artículo recoge la concepción y manejo de conflictos en familias adscritas al Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF en un Centro Zonal de Barranquilla, y su proceso de resignificación a través de una Investigación Acción Participación (IAP. El conflicto es un fenómeno propio del ciclo vital familiar y de ahí la importancia de comprender su génesis y afrontamiento. A partir de la observación participante, entrevistas individuales y grupos focales, cada familia aportó la mirada desde su realidad y su auto-reconocimiento como protagonista de conflictos. Los resultados muestran una direccionalidad del conflicto de los hijos hacia los padres y un creciente interés de estos por construir dinámicas familiares apoyadas en el diálogo y centradas en los intereses de sus hijos. Las familias plantearon la necesidad de desarrollar habilidades sociales como base para implementar manejos alternativos de conflictos.

  1. Neural Correlates of Processing Negative and Sexually Arousing Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Mullaney, Kellie M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has questioned whether the negativity bias is a distinct component of affective picture processing. The current study was designed to determine whether there are different neural correlates of processing positive and negative pictures using event-related brain potentials. The early posterior negativity and late positive potential were greatest in amplitude for erotic pictures. Partial Least Squares analysis revealed one latent variable that distinguished erotic pictures from neutral and positive pictures and another that differentiated negative pictures from neutral and positive pictures. The effects of orienting task on the neural correlates of processing negative and erotic pictures indicate that affective picture processing is sensitive to both stimulus-driven, and attentional or decision processes. The current data, together with other recent findings from our laboratory, lead to the suggestion that there are distinct neural correlates of processing negative and positive stimuli during affective picture processing. PMID:23029071

  2. Picture Communication in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bruce L.

    1980-01-01

    Reports the major findings of a study that investigated the effectiveness of using pictures of different art styles (stick figures, faceless outline drawings, detailed black-and-white, detailed black-and-white with watercolor wash, and black-and-white photographs) with 423 new readers in Papua New Guinea. (JD)

  3. Simple picture of the annihilation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotsman, E.; Nussinov, S.

    1980-01-01

    We propose a simple geometrical picture for B-barB annihilations, which is motivated by the electric-flux-tube model and is consistent with the quark-rearrangement model, as well as the nonplanar multiperipheral quark-exchange model. Within its framework we are able to explain all the salient features of the experimental annihilation data

  4. Development of a Rich Picture editor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    rich picture practice into software proved difficult, therefore, we decided to follow a user-centered approach: design and implement a prototype with basic functionalities, then run a usability test with a few students and professionals. The feedback collected in the test validated our hypothesis circa...

  5. A picture dictionary of electric glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-01-15

    This book has a lot of explanations on electric glossary with picture, which include basic important glossaries like nuclear, current theory, measuring, electro genesis, power transmission, supply of electric power, a rotary machine, application of electromotive force, electronic engineering, automatic control, electronic calculator, T.V and communication, material of electricity, electrochemistry, traffic, electric work, lighting and electric heater, regulations and standard.

  6. Occlusion classifiers for picture rate conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, C.L.L.; Haan, de G.; Rabbani, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Occlusion detection is an essential ingredient in high quality picture rate up-conversion and view interpolation applications. Many integrated approaches to occlusion detection and classification have been proposed, particularly in the stereo literature. However, due to their high complexity and

  7. The Oxford Picture Dictionary. Beginning Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Marjorie

    The beginning workbook of the Oxford Picture Dictionary is in full color and offers vocabulary reinforcement activities that correspond page for page with the dictionary. Clear and simple instructions with examples make it suitable for independent use in the classroom or at home. The workbook has up-to-date art and graphics, explaining over 3700…

  8. Thermodynamic picture of the glassy state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    A picture for the thermodynamics of the glassy state is introduced. It assumes that one extra parameter, the effective temperature, is needed to describe the glassy state. This explains the classical paradoxes concerning the Ehrenfest relations and the Prigogine-Defay ratio. As a second feature, the

  9. A Bridge between Pictures and Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffree, Dorothy

    1981-01-01

    The experiment investigated the feasibility of bridging the gap between the recognition of pictures and the recognition of words in four mentally handicapped adolescents by adapting a modified version of symbol accentuation (in which a printed word looks like the object it represents). (SB)

  10. Aesthetics and Children's Picture-Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Some writers on children's picture-books seem to believe that comfort and reassurance are their most important goals. Yet these books may also provide a context for imaginative adventure, and even for a journey into the dark night of the soul. As Nietzsche would put it, there is a Dionysian as well as an Apollonian element in children's…

  11. Picture Books Stimulate the Learning of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; van den Boogaard, Sylvia; Doig, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe our experiences using picture books to provide young children (five- to six-year-olds) with a learning environment where they can explore and extend preliminary notions of mathematics-related concepts, without being taught these concepts explicitly. We gained these experiences in the PICO-ma project, which aimed to…

  12. Constructing Meaning in Interaction through Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugossy, Réka

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study describes and analyses young language learners' spontaneous comments while sharing picture books during EFL sessions. It also explores teachers' responses to learners' comments, and considers reasons teachers may choose to ignore children's talk in their first language (L1). Data were collected from young Hungarian learners…

  13. A picture dictionary of electric glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This book has a lot of explanations on electric glossary with picture, which include basic important glossaries like nuclear, current theory, measuring, electro genesis, power transmission, supply of electric power, a rotary machine, application of electromotive force, electronic engineering, automatic control, electronic calculator, T.V and communication, material of electricity, electrochemistry, traffic, electric work, lighting and electric heater, regulations and standard.

  14. Picture Book Soldiers: Men and Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Christina M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines children's picture books about soldiers and war, including fiction, folktales, and historical fiction, analyzing their implicit and explicit messages about war and the military, and evaluating them for gender stereotyping. Finds that the soldiers conform almost uniformly to an exaggerated male stereotype. Shows different value judgments…

  15. The changing picture of practicing dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hokwerda, O

    2006-01-01

    Originally, dentists were particularly technical and curative practitioners. Nowadays, patient care is brought into focus, directed at maintaining oral health permanently by prevention and necessary curative treatments as a contribution to general health and well-being. The changing picture of

  16. My America in Poetry and Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a unit that provides opportunities for students to examine the relationship between poetry and pictures as they select published poems, write their own poetry, and take photographs to accompany the poems in an anthology. Describes lesson one on intellectual property and copyright, and lesson two on appreciation. Includes a unit guide and…

  17. Princess Picture Books: Content and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Lourdes P.; Higgins, Brittany E.; Pinkerton, Nick; Couto, Michelle; Mansolillo, Victoria; Weisinger, Nica; Flores, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Because many girls develop their understanding of what it means to be a girl from books about princesses, the researchers coded the messages and content in 58 princess books (picture, fairy tales, and fractured fairy tales). Results indicate that gender stereotypes are present in the books--the princesses were more likely to be nurturing, in…

  18. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maess, B.; Friederici, A.D.; Damian, M.F.; Meyer, A.S.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures

  19. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  20. Abelian Higgs mechanism in the Schroedinger picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.K.; Namgung, W.; Soh, K.S.; Yee, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied symmetry-breaking phenomena in scalar electrodynamics by evaluating the effective potential at one-loop order in the Schroedinger picture. Contributions to the effective potential by the Higgs particle and the transverse and longitudinal components of a photon are compared with other previous works, and they are found to be consistent

  1. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.8 Motion pictures. (a) The rules and procedures given in... Defense (Public Affairs) for clearance for public release. They will be accompained by five copies of the... Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs). [41 FR 29101, July 15, 1976, as amended at 44 FR 6390, Feb...

  2. Abnormal activation of the occipital lobes during emotion picture processing in major depressive disorder patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianying; Xu, Cheng; Cao, Xiaohua; Gao, Qiang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yanfang; Peng, Juyi; Zhang, Kerang

    2013-01-01

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that depression patients have cognitive dysfunction. With recently developed brain functional imaging, studies have focused on changes in brain function to investigate cognitive changes. However, there is still controversy regarding abnormalities in brain functions or correlation between cognitive impairment and brain function changes. Thus, it is important to design an emotion-related task for research into brain function changes. We selected positive, neutral, and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Patients with major depressive disorder were asked to judge emotion pictures. In addition, functional MRI was performed to synchronously record behavior data and imaging data. Results showed that the total correct rate for recognizing pictures was lower in patients compared with normal controls. Moreover, the consistency for recognizing pictures for depressed patients was worse than normal controls, and they frequently recognized positive pictures as negative pictures. The consistency for recognizing pictures was negatively correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Functional MRI suggested that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, limbic lobe, and cerebellum was enhanced, but that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe and occipital lobe was weakened while the patients were watching positive and neutral pictures compared with normal controls. The activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and limbic lobe was enhanced, but the activation of some areas in the occipital lobe were weakened while the patients were watching the negative pictures compared with normal controls. These findings indicate that patients with major depressive disorder have negative cognitive disorder and extensive brain dysfunction. Thus, reduced activation of the occipital lobe may be an initiating factor for

  3. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer system containing a low-level radioisotope and its application to the non-destructive analysis of inorganic colorants used for the traditional Japanese votive picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyama, Susumu; Noda, Yasuko

    2000-01-01

    A portable RI X-ray fluorescence spectrometer having a weight of 1800 g was constructed by using a radiation annular source ( 241 Am sealed up with ceramics, 1.85 MBq), a small Si-PIN photodiode X-ray detector mounted on a Peltier cooling device, an amplifier and a pocket-type multi-channel pulse-height analyzer. It could also be applied to a non-destructive analysis of the blue colorant in the original Japanese votive picture 'Rashoumon-zu', offered to shrine in 1682. Consequently, it was clarified that the blue colorant (X) was 'Smalt' containing Ga, Fe, Co, Ni and As as major elements. (author)

  4. Text, pictures or animations in instructions for use : a validation of different media for specific types of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, P.H.; Ensink, T.; Sauer, C.

    1996-01-01

    The Bieger and Glock taxonomy of information types is applied to test the relative effectiveness of text, pictures and animation in on-line help systems. On the basis of this taxonomy seven versions of an on-line help system for telephones were designed, varying text, picture and animation for the

  5. Saliency predicts change detection in pictures of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    It has been proposed that the visual system encodes the salience of objects in the visual field in an explicit two-dimensional map that guides visual selective attention. Experiments were conducted to determine whether salience measurements applied to regions of pictures of outdoor scenes could predict the detection of changes in those regions. To obtain a quantitative measure of change detection, observers located changes in pairs of colour pictures presented across an interstimulus interval (ISI). Salience measurements were then obtained from different observers for image change regions using three independent methods, and all were positively correlated with change detection. Factor analysis extracted a single saliency factor that accounted for 62% of the variance contained in the four measures. Finally, estimates of the magnitude of the image change in each picture pair were obtained, using nine separate visual filters representing low-level vision features (luminance, colour, spatial frequency, orientation, edge density). None of the feature outputs was significantly associated with change detection or saliency. On the other hand it was shown that high-level (structural) properties of the changed region were related to saliency and to change detection: objects were more salient than shadows and more detectable when changed.

  6. Study of a bubble chamber's pictures automatic analyser: Coccinelle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, J.-J.

    1974-01-01

    The automatic scanning and measuring system ''Coccinelle'' built in the Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire of College de France, is specially made for the pictures of the new large bubble chambers like BEBC and Mirabelle. This device uses the spot of a high precision cathode ray tube for the analysis of the picture according to a scanning window. The signal of a photomultiplier located behind the picture gives, after processing, the useful information in the form of coordinates of the analyzed points. Electronics, connected to a computer, generates the movements of the spot, the backward and forward movement of the films, and gives the right information for the programs of geometrical reconstruction of the tracks. The use of the device is based upon the collaboration of a programmed automaton and a human operator that have conversational facilities: TV display, light-pen and function keyboard. Beyond a detailed description of the whole device, this thesis insists especially on the following electronic parts: sweep generation of the spot, photomultiplier signal processing [fr

  7. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of an antagonist (SM-406/AT-406) of multiple inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) in a mouse xenograft model of human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Yanyan; Zou, Peng; Yu, Jing-yu; McEachern, Donna; Wang, Shaomeng; Sun, Duxin

    2013-09-01

    The inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are a class of key apoptosis regulators overexpressed or dysregulated in cancer. SM-406/AT-406 is a potent and selective small molecule mimetic of Smac that antagonizes the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK-PD) model was developed to predict the tissue concentration-time profiles of SM-406, the related onco-protein levels in tumor, and the tumor growth inhibition in a mouse model bearing human breast cancer xenograft. In the whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for pharmacokinetics characterization, a well stirred (perfusion rate-limited) model was used to describe SM-406 pharmacokinetics in the lung, heart, kidney, intestine, liver and spleen, and a diffusion rate-limited (permeability limited) model was used for tumor. Pharmacodynamic (PD) models were developed to correlate the SM-406 concentration in tumor to the cIAP1 degradation, pro-caspase 8 decrease, CL-PARP accumulation and tumor growth inhibition. The PBPK-PD model well described the experimental pharmacokinetic data, the pharmacodynamic biomarker responses and tumor growth. This model may be helpful to predict tumor and plasma SM-406 concentrations in the clinic. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Neuropsychological functioning of an Asperger child with exceptional skill in arranging picture stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conson, Massimiliano; Salzano, Sara; Grossi, Dario

    2011-08-01

    A striking special ability in arranging picture stories was reported in an Asperger child (C.M.) showing an exceptional performance on Wechsler picture arrangement subtest. Neuropsychological examination did not disclose visuoperceptual and spatial defects, or working memory, attention and executive disorders, but revealed an attentional bias towards local details of complex structures. A specific assessment of C.M.'s understanding of picture stories demonstrated that, with respect to normal controls, he showed an enhanced ability to detect causal links among elements of a story. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that savantism can be related to strong systemizing in autism.

  9. Revisiting the picture-superiority effect in symbolic comparisons: do pictures provide privileged access?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, Paul C; McDaniel, Mark A; Waddill, Paula

    2002-09-01

    In 4 experiments, symbolic comparisons were investigated to test semantic-memory retrieval accounts espousing processing advantages for picture over word stimuli. In Experiment 1, participants judged pairs of animal names or pictures by responding to questions probing concrete or abstract attributes (texture or size, ferocity or intelligence). Per pair, attributes were salient or nonsalient concerning their prerated relevance to animals being compared. Distance (near or far) between attribute magnitudes was also varied. Pictures did not significantly speed responding relative to words across all other variables. Advantages were found forfar attribute magnitudes (i.e., the distance effect) and salient attributes. The distance effect was much less for salient than nonsalient concrete-attribute comparisons. These results were consistently found in additional experiments with increased statistical power to detect modality effects. Our findings argue against dual-coding and some common-code accounts of conceptual attribute processing, urging reexamination of the assumption that pictures confer privileged access to long-term knowledge.

  10. Get the picture? The effects of iconicity on toddlers' reenactment from picture books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, Gabrielle; DeLoache, Judy

    2006-11-01

    What do toddlers learn from everyday picture-book reading interactions? To date, there has been scant research exploring this question. In this study, the authors adapted a standard imitation procedure to examine 18- to 30-month-olds' ability to learn how to reenact a novel action sequence from a picture book. The results provide evidence that toddlers can imitate specific target actions on novel real-world objects on the basis of a picture-book interaction. Children's imitative performance after the reading interaction varied both as a function of age and the level of iconicity of the pictures in the book. These findings are discussed in terms of children's emerging symbolic capacity and the flexibility of the cognitive representation.

  11. Digital Picture Production and Picture aesthetic Competency in It-didactic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle

    , that It and media are only used seldom by 21 % of teachers in Visual Arts and 7 % of teachers in this subject never use It and Media in these lessons. Art teachers – among others - also express the need for continuing education. (Ministeriet for Børn og Undervisning 2011). Since lessons in digital picture...... production have been a demand in Visual Arts in Danish schools for more than two decades, these conditions call for development of new didactic knowledge. Besides new genres and ways of using digital pictures and media continuously develop. (Sørensen 2002). This ought to be an incessant challenge...... subject Visual Arts – and crosswise of subjects in school. The overall research question has been: How can IT-didactic designs support lessons in production of complex meaning in digital pictures and increase the development of pupil’s picture aesthetic competences? By using the expression ‘complex...

  12. MIP- MULTIMISSION INTERACTIVE PICTURE PLANNING PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    The Multimission Interactive Picture Planner, MIP, is a scientifically accurate and fast, 3D animation program for deep space. MIP is also versatile, reasonably comprehensive, portable, and will run on microcomputers. New techniques were developed to rapidly perform the calculations and transformations necessary to animate scientifically accurate 3D space. At the same time, portability is maintained, as the transformations and clipping have been written in FORTRAN 77 code. MIP was primarily designed to handle Voyager, Galileo, and the Space Telescope. It can, however, be adapted to handle other missions. The space simulation consists of a rotating body (usually a planet), any natural satellites, a spacecraft, the sun, stars, descriptive labelling, and field of view boxes. The central body and natural satellites are tri-axial wireframe representations with terminators, limbs, and landmarks. Hidden lines are removed for the central body and natural satellites, but not for the scene as a whole so that bodies may be seen behind one another. The program has considerable flexibility in its step time, observer position, viewed object, field of view, etc. Most parameters may be changed from the keyboard while the simulation is running. When MIP is executed it will ask the user for a control file, which should be prepared before execution. The control file identifies which mission MIP should simulate, the star catalog files, the ephemerides files to be used, the central body, planets, asteroids, and comets, and solar system landmarks and constants such as planets, asteroids, and comets. The control file also describes the fields of view. Control files are included to simulate the Voyager 1 encounter at Jupiter and the Giotto spacecraft's flyby of Halley's comet. Data is included for Voyager 1 and 2 (all 6 planetary encounters) and Giotto. MIP was written for an IBM PC or compatibles. It requires 512K of RAM, a CGA or compatible graphics adapter, and DOS 2.0 or higher. Users

  13. Penggunaan Model Pembelajaran Picture and Picture Untuk Meningkatkan Kemampuan Siswa Menulis Karangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriyanto Heriyanto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Menulis merupakan keterampilan berbahasa yang kompleks, produktif dan ekspresif, karena penulis harus terampil menggunakan grofologi, struktur bahasa dan memiliki pengetahuan bahasa yang memadai, untuk itu perlu dilatih secara teratur dan cermat sejak kelas awal SD. Karangan sebagai salah satu hasil karya menulis, merupakan hasil pekerjaan dari mengarang. Menulis karangan dalam penelitian ini adalah menulis karangan narasi. Salah satu masalah dalam pembelajaran Bahasa Indonesia adalah kesulitan siswa dalam menulis karangan yang baik dan benar, yang juga terjadi pada siswa kelas IVA SDN Pinggir Papas 1. Pembelajaran menulis karangan dengan menggunakan model kooperatif tipe picture and picture  diharapkan mampu meningkatkan pemahaman siswa dalam hal menulis karangan. Untuk itu, dilakukan penelitian terhadap siswa kelas IVA SDN Pinggir Papas I Kecamatan Kalianget Kabupaten Sumenep yang berjumlah 33 siswa. Penelitian dengan judul “Penggunaan Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Picture and Picture untuk Meningkatkan Kemampuan Siswa Menulis Karangan” ini menggunakan penelitian tindakan kelas sebanyak dua putaran. Setiap putaran terdiri dari tahap rancangan, kegiatan, pengamatan, dan refleksi. Data yang diperoleh berupa nilai hasil LKS dan kuis individu berupa menulis karangan, lembar observasi aktivitas guru dan siswa serta penilaian penggunaan model pembelajaran kooperatif picture and picture, juga hasil respon siswa. Dari hasil analis menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe picture and picture dapat meningkatkan kemampuan menulis karangan siswa kelas IVA SDN Pinggir Papas 1. Peningkatan ini terjadi pada nilai rata-rata LKS, yaitu dari 55 menjadi 71,6. Adapun hasil karangan individu siswa dari rata-rata 56,7 dengan ketuntasan 55% menjadi 74,5 dengan ketuntasan mencapai 88% atau terjadi peningkatan sebesar 33% dari siklus I.

  14. Dwarfism and gigantism in historical picture postcards.

    OpenAIRE

    Enderle, A

    1998-01-01

    A collection of 893 historical picture postcards from 1900 to 1935, depicting dwarfs and giants, was analysed from medical and psychosocial viewpoints. In conditions such as 'bird headed dwarfism', achondroplasia, cretinism, so-called Aztecs or pinheads, Grebe chondrodysplasia, and acromegalic gigantism, the disorder could be diagnosed easily. In hypopituitary dwarfism, exact diagnosis was more difficult because of heterogeneity. The most common conditions depicted were pituitary dwarfism and...

  15. Enhancement of blurred pictures by spatial filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolton, W.P.; Redman, J.D.

    Substantial improvement in the intelligibility of defocussed pictures has been demonstrated using coherent optical processing. Correction for penumbra effects, such as arise in radiography, has been demonstrated at optical wavelengths. Compensation for a Gaussian spread function, such as might occur in radiography via a salt screen, has also been demonstrated. A simulation has shown that much greater enhancement could be expected if improved phase filters could be made

  16. Cut and paste pictures in surrealism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Milanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding from the idea of the readymade, Marko Ristić’s, Vane Bor’s and Dušan Matić’s collages regroup readymade pictorial and textual matrices according to the rules of free associative syntax. Everything that they collected cut out and pasted bears the hallmark of personal choice, i.e. objective chance, as the Surrealists would say. In the new structure of the collage, picture and text were of equal importance. However, we should not forget that both picture and text were only fragments, of different origin so that they could not function as autonomous elements in their own right nor could they establish logical interlinks. Cut and paste picture in Surrealism are primarily registered as visual wholes, in which the former principle of harmony has been substituted by the principle of discontinuity. In fact, they do not aspire to establish closed and unambiguous semantic structures either on a single paper or within a cycle, disregarding as they do conventional narrative and illustrative order in representing reality.

  17. Analysis of book colections Great picture book for preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Cunk, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Thesis entitled ˝Analysis of book collections Great picture book for preschoolers˝ is based on theoretical approach and empirical study. In the theoretical part I focused on the development of youth literature and the definition of the latter, furthermore I described Great picture book and definition of picture book, I presented four versions of picture books in the Slovenian area, described types of picture books and wrote translation of Maria Nikolaeva´s picture book and her point of view...

  18. Where and how morphologically complex words interplay with naming pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwitserlood, Pienie; Bölte, Jens; Dohmes, Petra

    2002-01-01

    Two picture-word experiments are reported in which a delay of 7 to 10 was introduced between distractor and picture. Distractor words were either derived words (Experiment 1) or compounds (Experiment 2), morphologically related to the picture name. In both experiments, the position of morphological overlap between distractor (e.g., rosebud vs tea-rose) and picture name (rose) was manipulated. Clear facilitation of picture naming latencies was obtained when pictures were paired with morphological distractors, and effects were independent of distractor type and position of overlap. The results are evaluated against "full listing" and "decomposition" approaches of morphological representation. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  19. PEOPLE RETRIEVAL BY MEANS OF COMPOSITE PICTURES: PROBLEM STATE-OF-THE-ART AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy A. Kukharev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the problem of people retrieval by means of composite pictures constructed according to descriptive portrait. An overview of the problem state-of-the-art is provided beginning from the basic concepts and terminology to a modern technology for composite picture creation, real-world scenarios and search results. The development history of systems for forming composite portraits (photo robots and sketches and the ideas implemented in these systems are provided. The problem of automatic comparison of composite pictures with the original ones is discussed, and the reasons for unattainability of stable retrieval of originals by a composite picture in real-world scenarios are revealed. Requirements to composite pictures databases in addition to the existing benchmark databases of facial images and also methods for implementation of such databases are formulated. Approaches for generation of sketches population from an initial one that increase effectiveness of identikit-based photo image retrieval systems are proposed. The method of similarity index increasing in the couple identikit-photograph based on computation of an average identikit from the created population is provided. It is shown that such composite pictures are more similar to original portraits and their use in the discussed search problem can lead to good results. Thus the created identikits meet the requirements of the truthful scenario as take into account the possibility of incomplete information in descriptions. Results of experiments on CUHK Face Sketch and CUHK Face Sketch FERET databases and also open access identikits and corresponding photos are discussed.

  20. Children prenatally exposed to maternal anxiety devote more attentional resources to neutral pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Marion I; Henrichs, Jens; Donkers, Franc C L; Van den Bergh, Bea R H

    2017-10-22

    Maternal anxiety during pregnancy can negatively affect fetal neurodevelopment, predisposing the offspring to a higher risk of behavioral and emotional problems later in life. The current study investigates the association between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and child affective picture processing using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Mothers reported anxiety during the second trimester using the anxiety subscale of the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90). At age 4 years, child affective picture processing (N = 86) was measured by recording ERPs during viewing of neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures selected from the International Affective Pictures System. The late positive potential (LPP)-an ERP component reflecting individual differences in affective processing-was used as child outcome. The expected positive association between maternal anxiety and LPP amplitude for unpleasant pictures was not found. Nevertheless, we found a positive association between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and LPP amplitudes for neutral pictures in the middle and late time window at anterior locations (all p anxiety and gestational age at birth and after FDR correction for multiple comparisons. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence that children prenatally exposed to higher maternal anxiety devote more attentional resources to neutral pictures, but not to unpleasant pictures. Possibly, these children show enhanced vigilance for threat when viewing neutral pictures. Although useful in dangerous environments, this enhanced vigilance may predispose children prenatally exposed to higher maternal anxiety to developing behavioral and/or emotional problems later in life. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kEzYi6IS2HA. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Elucidating respective functions of two domains BIR and C-helix of human IAP survivin for precise targeted regulating mitotic cycle, apoptosis and autophagy of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fabiao; Pan, Daxia; Zheng, Wenyun; Yan, Ting; He, Xiujuan; Ren, Fuzheng; Lu, Yiming; Ma, Xingyuan

    2017-12-26

    Survivin was the smallest member of the IAP family, which was over expressed in many different cancers, and considered to be a promising hot target for cancer therapy, and our previous study demonstrated that multiple dominant negative mutants from full-length survivin could have many complex effects on cancer cells, such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy. But it was not yet known what role the two main domains played in those functions, which would be very important for the design of targeted anticancer drugs and for the interpretation of their molecular mechanisms. In this study, based on preparation the two parts (BIR domain and CC domain) of survivin by genetic engineering and cell characterization assay, we discovered that BIR (T34A)-domain peptide could inhibit Bcap-37 cells growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner, increase the proportion of G2/M phase, and induce caspase-dependent apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. While CC (T117A)-domain peptide increased the proportion of S-phase cells and increased the level of the autophagy marker protein LC3B significantly. These further experiments confirmed that TAT-BIR (T34A) peptide could be used to inhibit cell proliferation, promote apoptosis, and block mitosis, and TAT-CC (T117A) peptide showed mainly to promote autophagy, process of DNA replication, and mitosis to breast cancer cells. This research will lay the foundation for interpreting the multifunction mechanism of survivin in cell fates, further make senses in developing the anticancer drugs targeting it precisely and efficiently.

  2. Quasi-Linear Algebras and Integrability (the Heisenberg Picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Zhedanov

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We study Poisson and operator algebras with the ''quasi-linear property'' from the Heisenberg picture point of view. This means that there exists a set of one-parameter groups yielding an explicit expression of dynamical variables (operators as functions of ''time'' t. We show that many algebras with nonlinear commutation relations such as the Askey-Wilson, q-Dolan-Grady and others satisfy this property. This provides one more (explicit Heisenberg evolution interpretation of the corresponding integrable systems.

  3. Evolution in totally constrained models: Schrödinger vs. Heisenberg pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Javier

    2016-06-01

    We study the relation between two evolution pictures that are currently considered for totally constrained theories. Both descriptions are based on Rovelli’s evolving constants approach, where one identifies a (possibly local) degree of freedom of the system as an internal time. This method is well understood classically in several situations. The purpose of this paper is to further analyze this approach at the quantum level. Concretely, we will compare the (Schrödinger-like) picture where the physical states evolve in time with the (Heisenberg-like) picture in which one defines parametrized observables (or evolving constants of the motion). We will show that in the particular situations considered in this paper (the parametrized relativistic particle and a spatially flat homogeneous and isotropic spacetime coupled to a massless scalar field) both descriptions are equivalent. We will finally comment on possible issues and on the genericness of the equivalence between both pictures.

  4. P1-10: The Association between Colors and Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Yu Chen; Chih-Hao Lien; Cho-Han Yang; Yi-Jae Jhong; Tsun-Yu Chen; Shiau-Hua Liu

    2012-01-01

    Wexner (1954 Journal of Applied Psychology 38 432–435) demonstrated colors were associated with specific emotions. Colors have many meanings, such as that red can lead to induce positive or negative emotions (Kaya & Epps, 2011 College Student Journal 38 396–406). This study extends previous findings and aims to investigate two questions, (1) whether colors are associated with the emotions of pictures in IAPS (International Affective Picture System) and (2) whether perceiving IAPS consciously ...

  5. Pictures of pain: their contribution to the neuroscience of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, G D

    2015-03-01

    The study of empathy, a translation of the term 'Einfühlung', originated in 19th century Germany in the sphere of aesthetics, and was followed by studies in psychology and then neuroscience. During the past decade the links between empathy and art have started to be investigated, but now from the neuroscientific perspective, and two different approaches have emerged. Recently, the primacy of the mirror neuron system and its association with automaticity and imitative, simulated movement has been envisaged. But earlier, a number of eminent art historians had pointed to the importance of cognitive responses to art; these responses might plausibly be subserved by alternative neural networks. Focusing here mainly on pictures depicting pain and evoking empathy, both approaches are considered by summarizing the evidence that either supports the involvement of the mirror neuron system, or alternatively suggests other neural networks are likely to be implicated. The use of such pictures in experimental studies exploring the underlying neural processes, however, raises a number of concerns, and suggests caution is exercised in drawing conclusions concerning the networks that might be engaged. These various networks are discussed next, taking into account the affective and sensory components of the pain experience, before concluding that both mirror neuron and alternative neural networks are likelyto be enlisted in the empathetic response to images of pain. A somewhat similar duality of spontaneous and cognitive processes may perhaps also be paralleled in the creation of such images. While noting that some have repudiated the neuroscientific approach to the subject, pictures are nevertheless shown here to represent an unusual but invaluable tool in the study of pain and empathy. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Deprivation selectively modulates brain potentials to food pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Stockburger, Jessica; Weike, Almut I.; Hamm, Alfons O.; Schupp, Harald Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to examine whether the processing of food pictures is selectively modulated by changes in the motivational state of the observer. Sixteen healthy male volunteers were tested twice 1 week apart, either after 24 hr of food deprivation or after normal food intake. ERPs were measured while participants viewed appetitive food pictures as well as standard emotional and neutral control pictures. Results show that the ERPs to food pictures in a hungry, ...

  7. Memory for Pictorial Information and the Picture Superiority Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisto, Albert A.; Queen, Debbie Elaine

    1992-01-01

    The performance of 53 younger adults (mean age 20.7) and 52 older adults (mean age 68.3) was compared in a memory task involving pictures, words, and pictures-plus-words. Results showed (1) significantly higher recall scores for younger adults; (2) equivalent picture superiority effect for both groups; and (3) decline in older adults' performance…

  8. Picture This: 4-H Press Corps Builds Life Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Christy D.

    2018-01-01

    A picture is worth a thousand words! Extension professionals are often looking for the picture that best captures an event and tells its story. Look beneath the surface, though, and a picture is worth much more. Developing a 4-H press corps results in a collection of useful photos but has the added benefit of providing 4-H members with an…

  9. Promoting Self-Questioning through Picture Book Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohfink, Gayla

    2013-01-01

    This teaching tip manuscript demonstrates how picture book illustrations can be used as an inquiry tool that facilitates one's connecting of visual investigations in a picture to the process of generating self-questions. Techniques suggested to promote self-questioning are (1) introducing young readers to an interactive picture book read aloud…

  10. The Development of the Picture-Superiority Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    When pictures and words are presented serially in an explicit memory task, recall of the pictures is superior. While this effect is well established in the adult population, little is known of the development of this picture-superiority effect in typical development. This task was administered to 80 participants from middle childhood to…

  11. The Progress of Students Reading Comprehension through Wordless Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, Romaida

    2018-01-01

    Wordless picture book is an unique book that could help the young learner to get their literacy. The content of the wordless picture book must be communicated through the visual of the illustration. This research discusses a case study of how a kid of six years old produce his narrative through wordless picture book. The kid was allowed to see and…

  12. Emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, T M; Varnhagen, C K; Parent, M B

    2001-05-01

    Arousal enhances memory in human participants and this enhancing effect is likely due to the release of peripheral epinephrine. As epinephrine does not readily enter the brain, one way that peripheral epinephrine may enhance memory is by increasing circulating blood glucose levels. The present study investigated the possibility that emotionally arousing color pictures would improve memory and elevate blood glucose levels in human participants. Blood glucose levels were measured before, 15 min, and 30 min after male university students viewed 60 emotionally arousing or relatively neutral pictures. Participants viewed each picture for 6 s and then had 10 s to rate the arousal (emotional intensity) and valence (pleasantness) of each picture. A free-recall memory test was given 30 min after the last picture was viewed. Although the emotionally arousing and neutral picture sets were given comparable valence ratings, participants who viewed the emotionally arousing pictures rated the pictures as being more arousing, recalled more pictures, and had higher blood glucose levels after viewing the pictures than did participants who viewed the neutral pictures. These findings indicate that emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance memory, and that this effect is not due to differences in the degree of pleasantness of the stimuli. These findings support the possibility that increases in circulating blood glucose levels in response to emotional arousal may be part of the biological mechanism that allows emotional arousal to enhance memory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. Picturing diversity in the ATLAS experiment.

    CERN Document Server

    Biondi, Silvia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    With over 3,000 members from 178 institutes, the ATLAS Collaboration is naturally diverse. However, capturing this diversity through pictures can be a challenge. Photography is a powerful tool, allowing us to reveal the faces behind a story and give the public the unique opportunity to understand and appreciate the human aspects of ATLAS’s scientific research. The role of photographs in portraying the diversity of the ATLAS Collaboration will be described. Their role on various communication platforms will be described and their impact examined, with focus on engagement of new audiences.

  14. Picturing diversity in the ATLAS collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Biondi, Silvia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    With over 3000 members from 178 institutes, the ATLAS Collaboration is naturally diverse. However, capturing this diversity through pictures can be a challenge. Photography is a powerful tool, allowing us to reveal the faces behind a story and give the public the unique opportunity to understand and appreciate the human aspects of ATLAS's scientific research. The role of photographs in portraying the diversity of the ATLAS Collaboration and on various communication platforms will be described. Their impact will be examined, with focus on engagement of new audiences.

  15. Feynman path integral and the interaction picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The role of interaction-picture fields in the construction of coherent states and in the derivation of the Feynman path integral for interacting scalar quantum fields is examined. Special attention is paid to the dependence of the integrand on the intermediate times and it is shown that the Feynman rules are valid prior to taking the limit wherein the number of intermediate times goes to infinity; thus, this number does not act as a cutoff in divergent amplitudes. Specific normalization factors are determined

  16. ENDOCRINE OPHTHALMOPATHY: ETIOLOGY, PATHOGENESIS, CLINICAL PICTURE, DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikonova L. V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study of endocrine ophthalmopathy is due to the high prevalence of this disease and a high risk of developing impaired vision that leads to disability of patients. This lecture presents the main genetic, immunological, clinical manifestations of endocrine ophthalmopathy in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. The clinical picture of endocrine ophthalmopathy is various, unique for every patient and depends on the activity and severity of the process, which requires combined etiopathogenetic therapy. The importance of timely diagnosis for endocrine ophthalmopathy with an assessment of the activity of the process for choosing the right tactics for managing patients is very high.

  17. Java EE 7 the big picture

    CERN Document Server

    Coward, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Java EE 7: The Big Picture uniquely explores the entire Java EE 7 platform in an all-encompassing style while examining each tier of the platform in enough detail so that you can select the right technologies for specific project needs. In this authoritative guide, Java expert Danny Coward walks you through the code, applications, and frameworks that power the platform. Take full advantage of the robust capabilities of Java EE 7, increase your productivity, and meet enterprise demands with help from this Oracle Press resource.

  18. Do Natural Pictures Mean Natural Tastes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Sørensen, Henrik Selsøe

    2015-01-01

    A widespread assumption in Danish consumer law is that if the package of a food product carries a picture of a potentially taste-giving ingredient (say, a strawberry), then consumers will expect the corresponding taste to stem primarily from that ingredient rather than from artificial flavouring....... However, this is not expected to be the case if the packaging carries only a verbal indication of the potential ingredient (say, the word strawberry). We put these assumptions to experimental test. Our goal was to contribute firmer evidence to the legal decision-making in the present field while...

  19. The AGL equation from the dipole picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay Ducati, M.B.; Goncalves, V.P.

    1999-01-01

    The AGL equation includes all multiple pomeron exchanges in the double logarithmic approximation (DLA) limit, leading to a unitarized gluon distribution in the small x regime. This equation was originally obtained using the Glauber-Mueller approach. We demonstrate in this paper that the AGL equation and, consequently, the GLR equation, can also be obtained from the dipole picture in the double logarithmic limit, using an evolution equation, recently proposed, which includes all multiple pomeron exchanges in the leading logarithmic approximation. Our conclusion is that the AGL equation is a good candidate for a unitarized evolution equation at small x in the DLA limit

  20. RE-SONANCE--IAp-ril

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... from a meter away and of course, without the aid of microscope or manual. ... His first, and now, landmark paper ... to a 'psychological or sociological' journal". ... I met Bill after his first expedition to the Congo when he told my why he had to ...

  1. Emotionally negative pictures increase attention to a subsequent auditory stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartar, Jaime L; de Almeida, Kristen; McIntosh, Roger C; Rosselli, Monica; Nash, Allan J

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally negative stimuli serve as a mechanism of biological preparedness to enhance attention. We hypothesized that emotionally negative stimuli would also serve as motivational priming to increase attention resources for subsequent stimuli. To that end, we tested 11 participants in a dual sensory modality task, wherein emotionally negative pictures were contrasted with emotionally neutral pictures and each picture was followed 600 ms later by a tone in an auditory oddball paradigm. Each trial began with a picture displayed for 200 ms; half of the trials began with an emotionally negative picture and half of the trials began with an emotionally neutral picture; 600 ms following picture presentation, the participants heard either an oddball tone or a standard tone. At the end of each trial (picture followed by tone), the participants categorized, with a button press, the picture and tone combination. As expected, and consistent with previous studies, we found an enhanced visual late positive potential (latency range=300-700 ms) to the negative picture stimuli. We further found that compared to neutral pictures, negative pictures resulted in early attention and orienting effects to subsequent tones (measured through an enhanced N1 and N2) and sustained attention effects only to the subsequent oddball tones (measured through late processing negativity, latency range=400-700 ms). Number pad responses to both the picture and tone category showed the shortest response latencies and greatest percentage of correct picture-tone categorization on the negative picture followed by oddball tone trials. Consistent with previous work on natural selective attention, our results support the idea that emotional stimuli can alter attention resource allocation. This finding has broad implications for human attention and performance as it specifically shows the conditions in which an emotionally negative stimulus can result in extended stimulus evaluation. Copyright © 2011

  2. Quantifying Precision and Availability of Location Memory in Everyday Pictures and Some Implications for Picture Database Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdale, Mark W.; Oliff, Lynda; Baguley, Thom S.

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated whether memory for object locations in pictures could be exploited to address known difficulties of designing query languages for picture databases. M. W. Lansdale's (1998) model of location memory was adapted to 4 experiments observing memory for everyday pictures. These experiments showed that location memory is…

  3. TIFF, GIF, and PNG: get the picture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabachinski, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    GIF, JPEG, and PNG are most likely the best formats to use for three reasons. First, they're standardized and open formats for anyone to use. In addition, JPEG is an ISO standard and PNG is an IETF RFC (Internet Engineering Task Force Request for Comments-www.ietf.org) and W3C recommendation (World Wide Web Consortium-www.w3.org). Second, they're compressible. GIF files are generally compressed at 5:1, JPEG at 10:1 or 20:1 and PNG at about 7:1. Finally, they're all supported by web browsers. Well, pretty much. Microsoft's Internet Explorer doesn't support the alpha channel transparency for PNG-but, on the other hand, GIF and JPEG don't have the alpha channel at all. Use TIFF to archive your original pictures as it is a lossless format. Check out the summary table and sidebar for more information regarding these picture file formats.

  4. Who finds neutral pictures pleasant and relaxing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moè, Angelica; Sarlo, Michela

    2011-04-01

    Valence and arousal are independent dimensions of consciously experienced affect. The former refers to pleasantness; the latter to the degree of excitement or stimulation. The present research explores some of the predictors of these dimensions through the hypothesis that valence relates to positive affect and lack of negative affect, while arousal is tied to negative affect, and that both are predicted by personal wellbeing, considered as a way of achieving happiness. The occurrence of depressive symptoms is also considered within the hypothesis: as a facet of negative affect, as lack of wellbeing, or as an independent dimension placed at the same level as wellbeing, and which relates to both positive and negative affect (considered as mediators). Sixty-one participants were asked to view on a computer screen a series of 20 neutral pictures, having medium valence and low arousal, and complete self-report questionnaires to assess affect, personal wellbeing, and the occurrence of depressive symptoms. After picture viewing, valence and arousal judgments were requested. In the analysis, three competing models with latent variables were tested, to assess at best the role depressive symptoms have. They confirmed that valence is predicted by high positive and low negative affect, arousal by negative affect and even directly by the occurrence of depressive symptoms, and that personal wellbeing and depressive symptoms are the starting point. They are negatively correlated and predict positive (both) and negative affect (just the occurrence of depressive symptoms). The discussion focuses on both theoretical and practical implications. Suggestions for future research are given.

  5. Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) survivin is indispensable for survival of HER2 gene-amplified breast cancer cells with primary resistance to HER1/2-targeted therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Cufi, Silvia; Torres-Garcia, Violeta Zenobia; Sauri-Nadal, Tamara; Barco, Sonia Del; Lopez-Bonet, Eugeni; Brunet, Joan; Martin-Castillo, Begona; Menendez, Javier A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Intrinsic trastuzumab resistance occurs in ∼70% of metastatic HER2 + breast carcinomas (BC). → Approximately 15% of early HER2 + BC relapse in spite of treatment with trastuzumab-based therapies. → HER2-independent downstream pro-survival pathways might underlie trastuzumab refractoriness. → Survivin is indispensable for proliferation and survival of HER2 + BC unresponsive to HER2-targeted therapies ab initio. → Survivin antagonists may clinically circumvent the occurrence of de novo resistance to HER2-directed drugs. -- Abstract: Primary resistance of HER2 gene-amplified breast carcinomas (BC) to HER-targeted therapies can be explained in terms of overactive HER2-independent downstream pro-survival pathways. We here confirm that constitutive overexpression of Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) survivin is indispensable for survival of HER2-positive BC cells with intrinsic cross-resistance to multiple HER1/2 inhibitors. The IC 50 values for the HER1/2 Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) gefitinib, erlotinib and lapatinib were up to 40-fold higher in trastuzumab-unresponsive JIMT-1 cells than in trastuzumab-naive SKBR3 cells. ELISA-based and immunoblotting assays demonstrated that trastuzumab-refractory JIMT-1 cells constitutively expressed ∼4 times more survivin protein than trastuzumab-responsive SKBR3 cells. In response to trastuzumab, JIMT-1 cells accumulated ∼10 times more survivin than SKBR3 cells. HER1/2 TKIs failed to down-regulate survivin expression in JIMT-1 cells whereas equimolar doses of HER1/HER2 TKIs drastically depleted survivin protein in SKBR3 cells. ELISA-based detection of histone-associated DNA fragments confirmed that trastuzumab-refractory JIMT-1 cells were intrinsically protected against the apoptotic effects of HER1/2 TKIs. Of note, when we knocked-down survivin expression using siRNA and then added trastuzumab, cell proliferation and colony formation were completely suppressed in JIMT-1 cells. Our current findings may

  6. Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) survivin is indispensable for survival of HER2 gene-amplified breast cancer cells with primary resistance to HER1/2-targeted therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Cufi, Silvia; Torres-Garcia, Violeta Zenobia [Unit of Translational Research, Catalan Institute of Oncology-Girona, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Girona Biomedical Research Institute, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Sauri-Nadal, Tamara; Barco, Sonia Del [Girona Biomedical Research Institute, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Medical Oncology, Catalan Institute of Oncology-Girona, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Lopez-Bonet, Eugeni [Girona Biomedical Research Institute, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Department of Anatomical Pathology, Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Brunet, Joan [Girona Biomedical Research Institute, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Medical Oncology, Catalan Institute of Oncology-Girona, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Martin-Castillo, Begona [Girona Biomedical Research Institute, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Unit of Clinical Research, Catalan Institute of Oncology-Girona, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Menendez, Javier A., E-mail: jmenendez@idibgi.org [Unit of Translational Research, Catalan Institute of Oncology-Girona, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Girona Biomedical Research Institute, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} Intrinsic trastuzumab resistance occurs in {approx}70% of metastatic HER2 + breast carcinomas (BC). {yields} Approximately 15% of early HER2 + BC relapse in spite of treatment with trastuzumab-based therapies. {yields} HER2-independent downstream pro-survival pathways might underlie trastuzumab refractoriness. {yields} Survivin is indispensable for proliferation and survival of HER2 + BC unresponsive to HER2-targeted therapies ab initio. {yields} Survivin antagonists may clinically circumvent the occurrence of de novo resistance to HER2-directed drugs. -- Abstract: Primary resistance of HER2 gene-amplified breast carcinomas (BC) to HER-targeted therapies can be explained in terms of overactive HER2-independent downstream pro-survival pathways. We here confirm that constitutive overexpression of Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) survivin is indispensable for survival of HER2-positive BC cells with intrinsic cross-resistance to multiple HER1/2 inhibitors. The IC{sub 50} values for the HER1/2 Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) gefitinib, erlotinib and lapatinib were up to 40-fold higher in trastuzumab-unresponsive JIMT-1 cells than in trastuzumab-naive SKBR3 cells. ELISA-based and immunoblotting assays demonstrated that trastuzumab-refractory JIMT-1 cells constitutively expressed {approx}4 times more survivin protein than trastuzumab-responsive SKBR3 cells. In response to trastuzumab, JIMT-1 cells accumulated {approx}10 times more survivin than SKBR3 cells. HER1/2 TKIs failed to down-regulate survivin expression in JIMT-1 cells whereas equimolar doses of HER1/HER2 TKIs drastically depleted survivin protein in SKBR3 cells. ELISA-based detection of histone-associated DNA fragments confirmed that trastuzumab-refractory JIMT-1 cells were intrinsically protected against the apoptotic effects of HER1/2 TKIs. Of note, when we knocked-down survivin expression using siRNA and then added trastuzumab, cell proliferation and colony formation were completely

  7. Testing the Snake-Detection hypothesis : Larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, Jan W.; Franken, Ingmar H A; Huijding, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    According to the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell, 2006), fear specifically of snakes may have pushed evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing pre-attentional visual detection of fearful stimuli. A previous study demonstrated that snake pictures, when compared to spiders or bird

  8. Estrogen receptor β exhibited anti-tumor effects on osteosarcoma cells by regulating integrin, IAP, NF-kB/BCL-2 and PI3K/Akt signal pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minfei Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of Estrogen receptor β (ERβ on osteosarcoma cells, and explore the regulatory mechanisms involved in this process. Osteosarcoma U2-OS cells consisted four groups, and treated by E2, E2 + LY294002 (ERβ agonists, E2 + ERβ siRNA, E2 + ERβ siRNA + LY294002, respectively. Cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8 assay was performed to detect the cell viability of U2-OS cells in each group. The effects of ERβ on the migration and invasion ability of U2-OS cells were examined by wound healing assay and transwell cell culture chamber, respectively. The expression of Inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP and integrin α5 in U2-OS cells of each group was detected by quantitative RT-PCR, and the expression of phosphorylated p65 (p-p65, p-AKT and Bcl-2 was detected by western blotting. The cell viability, migration and invasion ability of U2-OS cells were significantly increased by ERβ siRNA, but inhibited by ERβ agonists LY294002 (p < 0.05. ERβ siRNA significantly downregulated Integrin α5 and unregulated IAP in U2-OS cells (p < 0.05. The expression of p-p65, p-AKT and Bcl-2 was significantly reduced by LY294002, but increased by ERβ siRNA (p < 0.05. In conclusion, ERβ exhibited obvious anti-tumor effects on osteosarcoma cells by regulating integrin, IAP, NF-kBBCL-2 and PI3K/Akt signal pathway. Keywords: Estrogen receptor β, Osteosarcoma, Anti-tumor, Regulatory mechanism

  9. Task choice and semantic interference in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piai, Vitória; Roelofs, Ardi; Schriefers, Herbert

    2015-05-01

    Evidence from dual-task performance indicates that speakers prefer not to select simultaneous responses in picture naming and another unrelated task, suggesting a response selection bottleneck in naming. In particular, when participants respond to tones with a manual response and name pictures with superimposed semantically related or unrelated distractor words, semantic interference in naming tends to be constant across stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between the tone stimulus and the picture-word stimulus. In the present study, we examine whether semantic interference in picture naming depends on SOA in case of a task choice (naming the picture vs reading the word of a picture-word stimulus) based on tones. This situation requires concurrent processing of the tone stimulus and the picture-word stimulus, but not a manual response to the tones. On each trial, participants either named a picture or read aloud a word depending on the pitch of a tone, which was presented simultaneously with picture-word onset or 350 ms or 1000 ms before picture-word onset. Semantic interference was present with tone pre-exposure, but absent when tone and picture-word stimulus were presented simultaneously. Against the background of the available studies, these results support an account according to which speakers tend to avoid concurrent response selection, but can engage in other types of concurrent processing, such as task choices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Eye movement assessment of selective attentional capture by emotional pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G

    2006-05-01

    The eye-tracking method was used to assess attentional orienting to and engagement on emotional visual scenes. In Experiment 1, unpleasant, neutral, or pleasant target pictures were presented simultaneously with neutral control pictures in peripheral vision under instruction to compare pleasantness of the pictures. The probability of first fixating an emotional picture, and the frequency of subsequent fixations, were greater than those for neutral pictures. In Experiment 2, participants were instructed to avoid looking at the emotional pictures, but these were still more likely to be fixated first and gazed longer during the first-pass viewing than neutral pictures. Low-level visual features cannot explain the results. It is concluded that overt visual attention is captured by both unpleasant and pleasant emotional content. 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Pictures from Year Two CNEC and CVT Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, Jesson D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bahran, Rian Mustafa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McKenzie, George Espy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cutler, Theresa Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Below are all of the pictures for the CNEC and CVT measurements performed at the DAF in July 2016. In total there are 165 pictures. The photos on pages 2-105 were taken during the first week of measurements and the photos on pages 106-165 were taken during the second week of measurements. Many photos are applicable to both sets, which is why it is best to keep the entire set together. For most configurations, a description of the configuration was written on a white board; photos of the measurement setup were taken, then a photo of the white board was taken. For example, the pictures on pages 6-19 (which precede a white board picture on page 20) are of the configuration with Rocky Flats Shells 1-2 surrounded by 4 AmLi sources, which is listed on the white board picture on page 20. In some cases, the white board picture precedes the configuration pictures.

  12. A cinema for the unborn: moving pictures, mental pictures and Electra Sparks's New Thought film theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    In the 1910s, New York suffragette Electra Sparks wrote a series of essays in the Moving Picture News that advocated for cine-therapy treatments for pregnant women. Film was, in her view, the great democratizer of beautiful images, providing high-cultural access to the city's poor. These positive 'mental pictures' were important for her because, she claimed, in order to produce an attractive, healthy child, the mother must be exposed to quality cultural material. Sparks's championing of cinema during its 'second birth' was founded upon the premise of New Thought. This metaphysical Christian doctrine existed alongside the self-help and esoteric publishing domains and testified, above all, to the possibility of the 'mind-cure' of the body through the positive application of 'mental pictures'. Physiologically, their method began best in the womb, where the thoughts of the mother were of utmost importance: the eventual difference between birthing an Elephant Man or an Adonis. This positive maternal impression was commonplace in New Thought literature; it was Sparks's innovation to apply it to cinema. Investigating Sparks's film theory, practice and programming reveals her to be a harbinger of the abiding analogy between mind and motion picture that occupies film theorists to this day.

  13. [Radiologic picture of maxillary sinus aspergilloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, I; Bilska, J; Osmola, K; Nowaczyk, M T

    2010-06-01

    Mycotic infection of paranasal sinus could be the etiological factor of chronic sinusitis. The increase in number of fungal sinusitis cases have been reported recently among nonimmunocompromised patient after endodontic treatment of maxillary teeth. Nonspecific clinical signs and incorrect radiologic pictures interpretation as well as loss of therapeutic standards seems to be the cause of false negative diagnosis and difficulties in treatment of fungal sinusitis. Clinical and radiological picture of maxillary sinus aspergillosis was described in this paper. In the period of 2006-2009 in the Department of Maxillo-Facial Surgery 19 patient with fungal maxillary sinusitis was treated. The endodontic treatment of maxillary teeth of the related side was performed previously in 80% examined cases. In 2 cases there were immunocompromised patients with immunosuppressive treatment. In 16 cases patients were referred to our Department due to metallic foreign body of the maxillary sinus. Routine diagnostic radiological imaging was performed in each case: paranasal sinus view--Water's view and panoramic radiograph (orthopantomograph). In 4 cases imaging was extended with computer tomography (CT) visualization. The surgical treatment was performed in each case. The final diagnosis was puted on histopathological examination and fungal culture. In 16 cases of analysed group histopathological examination and fungal culture revealed aspergilosis. In 2 cases fungal culture was negative, but histopathology slices confirm presence of hyphae of Aspergillus. In 1 case the root canal sealer was found in the maxillary sinus. In none case invasive form of aspergillosis was confirmed. In all cases Water's view of paranasal sinuses and ortopantomograph showed partially or totally clouded sinus with well-defined, single or multifocal radiopaque object similar to metallic foreign body. Characteristic finding in CT imaging was well-defined radiodence concretions that have been attributed to

  14. Externalizing proneness and brain response during pre-cuing and viewing of emotional pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foell, Jens; Brislin, Sarah J; Strickland, Casey M; Seo, Dongju; Sabatinelli, Dean; Patrick, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Externalizing proneness, or trait disinhibition, is a concept relevant to multiple high-impact disorders involving impulsive-aggressive behavior. Its mechanisms remain disputed: major models posit hyperresponsive reward circuitry or heightened threat-system reactivity as sources of disinhibitory tendencies. This study evaluated alternative possibilities by examining relations between trait disinhibition and brain reactivity during preparation for and processing of visual affective stimuli. Forty females participated in a functional neuroimaging procedure with stimuli presented in blocks containing either pleasurable or aversive pictures interspersed with neutral, with each picture preceded by a preparation signal. Preparing to view elicited activation in regions including nucleus accumbens, whereas visual regions and bilateral amygdala were activated during viewing of emotional pictures. High disinhibition predicted reduced nucleus accumbens activation during preparation within pleasant/neutral picture blocks, along with enhanced amygdala reactivity during viewing of pleasant and aversive pictures. Follow-up analyses revealed that the augmented amygdala response was related to reduced preparatory activation. Findings indicate that participants high in disinhibition are less able to process implicit cues and mentally prepare for upcoming stimuli, leading to limbic hyperreactivity during processing of actual stimuli. This outcome is helpful for integrating findings from studies suggesting reward-system hyperreactivity and others suggesting threat-system hyperreactivity as mechanisms for externalizing proneness. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Angiographic picture of soft tissue desmoid fibromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitaev, N.S.; Kuznetsova, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Arteriography was performed in 35 patients with soft tissue desmoid fibromas. Angiographic semiotics of this disease was described. The frequency of detectability of symptoms in the arterial, parenchymatous and venous phases was analyzed. A tumor in the arterial phase was shown to be of normevascular or moderately hypervascular type without noticeable winding of the nutrient arteries, such features of malignancy as lacunae and ''tumor'' vessels being absent. In the parenchymatous phase desmoid tumors were shown to accumulate moderately a contrast substance, a tumor contour at a vast length was ill defined and poorly marked from surrounding tissues. The venous phase was less noticeable and the time of its appearance was usually within normal. In general by most of its parameters the angiographic picture of agressive fibromatosis corresponded to that of benign tumors and could be used for differential diagnosis of desmoid fibromas and some types of tissue sarcomas

  16. Hemispheric resource limitations in comprehending ambiguous pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, H; Minor, S W

    1990-03-01

    Ambiguous pictures (Roschach inkblots) were lateralized for 100 msec vs. 200 msec to the right and left hemispheres (RH and LH) of 32 normal right-handed males who determined which of two previously presented words (an accurate or inaccurate one) better described the inkblot. Over the first 32 trials, subjects receiving each stimulus exposure duration were less accurate when the hemisphere receiving the stimulus also controlled the hand used to register a keypress response (RH-left hand and LH-right hand trials) than when hemispheric resources were shared, i.e., when one hemisphere controlled stimulus processing and the other controlled response programming. These differences were eliminated when the 32 trials were repeated.

  17. Dwarfism and gigantism in historical picture postcards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderle, A

    1998-01-01

    A collection of 893 historical picture postcards from 1900 to 1935, depicting dwarfs and giants, was analysed from medical and psychosocial viewpoints. In conditions such as 'bird headed dwarfism', achondroplasia, cretinism, so-called Aztecs or pinheads, Grebe chondrodysplasia, and acromegalic gigantism, the disorder could be diagnosed easily. In hypopituitary dwarfism, exact diagnosis was more difficult because of heterogeneity. The most common conditions depicted were pituitary dwarfism and achondroplasia. Most of those with gigantism had pituitary gigantism and acromegaly. Brothers and sisters or parents and their children provided evidence of mendelian inheritance of some of these disorders. The cards suggest that being put on show provided, at least in some cases, social benefits. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9764085

  18. P1-10: The Association between Colors and Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Yu Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wexner (1954 Journal of Applied Psychology 38 432–435 demonstrated colors were associated with specific emotions. Colors have many meanings, such as that red can lead to induce positive or negative emotions (Kaya & Epps, 2011 College Student Journal 38 396–406. This study extends previous findings and aims to investigate two questions, (1 whether colors are associated with the emotions of pictures in IAPS (International Affective Picture System and (2 whether perceiving IAPS consciously and unconsciously has different emotion associations. We replaced facial expressions with pictures of IAPS as stimuli. Five colors (black, red, yellow, blue, and white and 3 categories of IAPS (fear, awe, and amusement were manipulated in this study. Pictures were displayed in different durations to manipulate conscious (250 ms and unconscious (33 ms visual stimuli (Manuel & Pedro, 2009 Behavior Research Method 41 184–191 in two experiments. Participants were required to select the most suitable color at their first glance when the pictures of IAPS were presented, and vice versa. Results showed that overall association between colors and pictures of IAPS was weak but the association pattern was meaningful. It concluded (1 black and red colors are associated with the fearful emotion, and blue color is associated with the happy emotion; (2 white colors do not associate with the fear emotion, which is incongruent with the previous study (Osvaldo & Paul, 2007 Colour: Design & Creativity 1 1–20; (3 participants did not perform differently between conscious and unconscious stimulus conditions.

  19. What interests them in the pictures?--differences in eye-tracking between rhesus monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying-Zhou; Jiang, Hui-Hui; Liu, Ci-Rong; Wang, Jian-Hong; Yu, Cheng-Yang; Carlson, Synnöve; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Rizak, Joshua D; Tian, Xiao-Guang; Tan, Hen; Chen, Zhu-Yue; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2013-10-01

    Studies estimating eye movements have demonstrated that non-human primates have fixation patterns similar to humans at the first sight of a picture. In the current study, three sets of pictures containing monkeys, humans or both were presented to rhesus monkeys and humans. The eye movements on these pictures by the two species were recorded using a Tobii eye-tracking system. We found that monkeys paid more attention to the head and body in pictures containing monkeys, whereas both monkeys and humans paid more attention to the head in pictures containing humans. The humans always concentrated on the eyes and head in all the pictures, indicating the social role of facial cues in society. Although humans paid more attention to the hands than monkeys, both monkeys and humans were interested in the hands and what was being done with them in the pictures. This may suggest the importance and necessity of hands for survival. Finally, monkeys scored lower in eye-tracking when fixating on the pictures, as if they were less interested in looking at the screen than humans. The locations of fixation in monkeys may provide insight into the role of eye movements in an evolutionary context.

  20. Picture-books: first structured reading materials for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Martinović

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Early literacy has recently become a current topic, and there’s a widespread belief that literacy startsdeveloping almost as soon as the child is born, if the child is surrounded with adequate materials and persons who will motivate the development of literacy. The first structured reading materials that a child interacts with are picture-books. It is usually the first contact a child has with literature and a written word in general, and it happens during childhood, the child's most sensitive period, which is why it is important to pay special attention to the quality of picture-books. Croatian picture-books published till the early 80ies of the past century have been investigated to a some extent. However, the picture-books found on the Croatian market and in the libraries in the past 30 years have been the subject of research only sporadically. There's little data on the quality and features of this multifunctional material that is of such great importance for children. The aim of the paper is to give an overview of the relevant data found in literature on the historical development of picture-book publishing, their features, functions they help develop, their age-appropriateness, and quality. The paper presents research results stemming from the analysis of the Croatian Children's Book Centre documentation on contemporary picture-book publishing and data on the language of picture-books that are the result of a picture-book corpus study made as part of the PhD research by the author. The data on contemporary authors and illustrators was obtained by analysing the documentation of the Croatian Library Association, Commission for library services for children and youth. The language of the picture-book corpus was analysed using a computer programme, i.e. the analysis was conducted of the lexical diversity of picture-books for three-year olds. The picture-books have not been investigated from the linguistic perspective before, which makes this