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Sample records for picoides tridactylus insights

  1. Extrapair paternity and maternity in the three-toed woodpecker, Picoides tridactylus: insights from microsatellite-based parentage analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hua Li

    Full Text Available Molecular techniques have revealed that avian mating systems are more diverse and complex than previously thought. We used microsatellite markers to determine genetic parentage, the prevalence of extrapair paternity and quasi-parasitism (i.e. situations where a male's extrapair mate lay in his nest in a socially monogamous population of three-toed woodpeckers (Picoides tridactylus in southern Finland. A total of 129 adults and nestlings, representing 5-9 families annually from 2004-2007, were genotyped at up to ten microsatellite loci. The results of genetic assignment tests confirmed that monogamous parentage characterized the majority (84.6%, 22/26 of broods, and that most (93.8%, 75/80 nestlings were the offspring of their social parents. Two of 80 nestlings (2.5% in two of 26 broods (7.7% were sired by extrapair males and quasi-parasitism occurred in 3.8% (3/80 of nestlings and 7.7% (2/26 of broods. Hence, the levels of extrapair parentage were low, possibly because both genetic polygyny and polyandry are constrained by the high paternal effort required for parental care. The co-occurrence of low levels of extrapair paternity and quasi-parasitism are discussed in light of ecological and behavioural factors characterizing the species biology.

  2. The type specimen and generic placement of Tridactylus galla Saussure, 1895 (Orthoptera: Caelifera: Tridactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heads, Sam W; Hollier, John

    2016-11-15

    Tridactylus galla was described by Henri de Saussure (1895) on the basis of a single adult female collected during Vittorio Bottego's first expedition to the Horn of Africa in 1892 and 1893. The species appears in lists compiled by Fenizia (1896), Lucas (1898) and Kirby (1906), but aside from a brief mention by Günther (1995), is entirely overlooked by subsequent authors and is absent from Otte's (1997) catalogue. During the course of compiling an annotated catalogue of the Orthoptera described by Saussure (Hollier and Heads, 2012) we were able to relocate the type of Tridactylus galla in the collection of the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "Giacomo Doria" in Genova, Italy. Our examination of the specimen confirmed Günther's (1995) assertion that its placement in Tridactylus Olivier, 1789 is erroneous, and the species is herein formally transferred to the genus Xya Latreille, 1809.

  3. Morphology of the dentin structure of sloths Bradypus tridactylus: a light and scanning electron microscopy investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, L N S; Barbosa, L V M; Teixeira, F B; Costa, A M P; Fernandes, L M P; Lima, R R

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the dentine morphology of sloths (Bradypus tridactylus). The sloth teeth were removed and prepared for light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy analyses (SEM). LM revealed two patterns of tubular dentins: an outer with dentinary tubules over the all tooth length and one in the inner part with larger diameter and more spaced tubules, when compared to those present in the outer dentine. These findings were confirmed by SEM, which revealed a tubular pattern in the outer dentine like in humans. The inner dentine displayed pared grouped tubules that were characterized as vascular channels. It can be concluded that this sloth species present two types of dentins: an inner dentin (ortodentin) and an outer dentin characterized as a vascular dentin. This suggests a partial evolutive/adaptive process of this dental tissue, as compared to other mammalian species.

  4. Two new species of Parapharyngodon (Oxyuroidea: Pharyngodonidae from the enigmatic Bipes canaliculatus and Bipes tridactylus (Squamata: Bipedidae Dos especies nuevas de Parapharyngodon (Oxyuroidea: Pharyngodonidae de los enigmáticos Bipes canaliculatus and Bipes tridactylus (Squamata: Bipedidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Agustín Jiménez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Parapharyngodon collected from Bipes canaliculatus and Bipes tridactylus are herein described. Parapharyngodon lamothei n. sp. was collected from the 4-toed worm lizard Bipes canaliculatus from southern Mexico. It is unique in possessing 6 lips, a gubernaculum, a fringed cloacal lip, and a single medial papilla in addition to 3 paired papillae. Parapharyngodon maestro n. sp., was collected from the 3-toed worm lizard Bipes tridactylus, and it is characterized by having 3 bilobed lips, a simple cloaca, a relatively long spicule, and by possessing 3 pairs of caudal papillae. These are the third and fourth species of the genus recorded in Mexico.En este trabajo se describen 2 especies del género Parapharyngodon: Parapharyngodon lamothei n. sp. y Parapharyngodon maestro n. sp., recolectadas del intestino de los bipédidos Bipes canaliculatus y Bipes tridactylus, respectivamente. La primera se caracteriza por poseer 6 labios, gubernáculo, labio cloacal ornamentado y las papilas caudales distribuidas en 3 pares y 1 papila sencilla media ventral inmediatamente postcloacal. Parapharyngodon maestro n. sp. se diferencia por poseer 3 labios lobulados, por su estructura cloacal lisa y por presentar 3 pares de papilas caudales en el caso de los machos.

  5. DNA barcoding and phylogenetic relationships of genera Picoides and Dendrocopos (Aves: Picidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z H; Tu, F Y; Liao, X J

    2015-12-28

    Picoides and Dendrocopos are two closely related genera of woodpeckers (family Picidae), and members of these genera have long been the subjects of phylogenetic debate. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) is a powerful marker for the identification and phylogenetic study of animal species. In the present study, we analyzed the COI barcodes of 21 species from the two genera, and 222 variable sites were identified. Kimura two-parameter distances were calculated between barcodes. The average interspecific genetic distance was more than 20 times higher than the average intraspecific genetic distance. The neighbor-joining method was used to construct a phylogenetic tree, and all of the species could be discriminated by their distinct clades. Picoides arcticus was the first to split from the lineage, and the other species were grouped into two divergent clades. The results of this study indicated that the COI genetic data did not support the monophyly of Picoides and Dendrocopos.

  6. Effects of southern flying squirrels Glaucomys volans on red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin S. Laves; Susan C. Loeb

    1999-01-01

    Anecdotal data gathered from many populations suggest that southern flying squirrel (SFS, Glaucomys volans) use of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker's (RCW, Picoides borealis) nest and roost cavities may negatively affect RCW populations. The authors conducted a controlled experiment to determine the effects of SFS’s on...

  7. Draft De Novo Transcriptome of the Rat Kangaroo Potorous tridactylus as a Tool for Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udy, Dylan B; Voorhies, Mark; Chan, Patricia P; Lowe, Todd M; Dumont, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The rat kangaroo (long-nosed potoroo, Potorous tridactylus) is a marsupial native to Australia. Cultured rat kangaroo kidney epithelial cells (PtK) are commonly used to study cell biological processes. These mammalian cells are large, adherent, and flat, and contain large and few chromosomes-and are thus ideal for imaging intra-cellular dynamics such as those of mitosis. Despite this, neither the rat kangaroo genome nor transcriptome have been sequenced, creating a challenge for probing the molecular basis of these cellular dynamics. Here, we present the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the draft rat kangaroo de novo transcriptome. We sequenced 679 million reads that mapped to 347,323 Trinity transcripts and 20,079 Unigenes. We present statistics emerging from transcriptome-wide analyses, and analyses suggesting that the transcriptome covers full-length sequences of most genes, many with multiple isoforms. We also validate our findings with a proof-of-concept gene knockdown experiment. We expect that this high quality transcriptome will make rat kangaroo cells a more tractable system for linking molecular-scale function and cellular-scale dynamics.

  8. Investigações anatomicas sobre os Bradypódidas: o nervo vago no Bradypus tridactylus

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    Benjamim Vinelli Baptista

    1936-01-01

    Full Text Available I - No Bradypus tridactylus os X, direito e esquerdo, reunem-se em alça pré-esophageana. II - O nivel de formação desta alça variou nos dois casos estudados pelo autor, assim como a disposição dos ramos que della partiam. III - Ambos devem, pois, concorrer á constituição das rêdes anastomoticas terminaes vago-orthosympathicas. IV - Foi impossivel ao autor, mesmo com o auxilio de lentes, individualizar fibras vagaes na continuidade da intricada malha nervosa aortico-visceral, dependente do plexo solar.

  9. Collection and evaluation of semen from the three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, M A; Benetti, E J; Milazzotto, M P; Visintin, J A; Miglino, M A; Assumpção, M E O A

    2008-10-01

    Sloths (Bradypus sp.) are extremely sensitive animals that suffer with the destruction and fragmentation of forests. They present a low population growth rate and need to be further studied for the preservation of the specie. Thus, the aim of this study was to establish an efficient semen collection protocol as well as characterize sperm concentration, motility and morphology in order to contribute with information about the reproductive traits of this specie, which has never been described in the literature before. For that, nine Bradypus tridactylus males were captured during the wet season and six during the dry season, in Manaus (AM), located in the north region of Brazil, semen was collected by electroejaculation with shocks given in sequences of progressive intensities (minimum 20mA and maximum 60mA). All animals ejaculated small volumes of semen and in some of them, the volume ejaculated was not enough for a complete spermiogram. Physical characteristics observed on the collections of the wet season were different from those seen in the specimen collected in the dry season. Motility an vigor was very low and did not show forward progression, only oscillatory movement. After Spermac stain, spermatozoa presented a wide variety of defects; however, the differences in morphology were not significant between seasons. The morphology assessed by scanning electron microscopy shows that the head in both groups could be elongated, short or could have a base narrower than the apex and the midpiece narrowed abruptly, forming a nip in its transition to the tail. Although further studies are necessary to verify our preliminary findings concerning seasonal variation in sperm quality, these results demonstrate that semen can be safely collected from sloths by electroejaculation and provide the first reports of semen characteristics in this species.

  10. Habitat Requirements of Breeding Black-Backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus in Managed, Unburned Boreal Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior A. Tremblay

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated home-range characteristics and habitat selection by Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus in an unburned, boreal forest landscape managed by mosaic harvesting in Quebec, Canada. Habitat selection by this species was specifically examined to determine home-range establishment and foraging activities. We hypothesized that Black-backed Woodpeckers would respond to harvesting by adjusting their home-range size as a function of the amount of dead wood available. Twenty-two birds were tracked using radiotelemetry, and reliable estimates of home-range size were obtained for seven breeding individuals (six males and one female. The average home-range size was 151.5 ± 18.8 ha (range: 100.4-256.4 ha. Our results indicate that this species establishes home ranges in areas where both open and forested habitats are available. However, during foraging activities, individuals preferentially selected areas dominated by old coniferous stands. The study also showed that the spatial distribution of preferred foraging habitat patches influenced space use, with home-range area increasing with the median distance between old coniferous habitat patches available within the landscape. Finally, these data show that Black-backed Woodpeckers may successfully breed in an unburned forest with at least 35 m3 • ha-1 of dead wood, of which 42% (15 m3 • ha-1 is represented by dead wood at the early decay stage.

  11. Resource selection by black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) and American three-toed woodpeckers (P. dorsalis) in South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean R. Mohren; Mark A. Rumble; Chadwick P. Lehman; Stanley H. Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus, [BBWO]) and American three-toed woodpeckers (P. dorsalis, [ATTW]) are uncommon inhabitants of conifer forests and are sympatric in some areas, including the Black Hills. Both species exhibit genetic characteristics associated with isolated populations, are species of special management concern, and for which data...

  12. Seasonal diet of the Great Spotted Woodpecker (Picoides major) in shelterwood plantations of Wulate Qianqi County, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Zhen-biao; WAN Tao; WEN Jun-bao; HU Jia-fu; LUO You-qing; FU Lin-ju; Zhang Lin-sheng

    2008-01-01

    The feeding habits of the Great Spotted Woodpecker (Picoides major) were surveyed by field observations and trace checking from 2005 to 2007, in Wulate Qianqi County, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, during which the woodpecker performed fourteen types of foraging techniques. Pecking and hammering were most common in winter; gleaning and probing were most common at times of high food availability at the trunk and tree branches during the breeding season and in summer. The woodpecker gleans arthropods and insect larvae in the breeding season and summer, seeds and nuts mainly in the winter and pokes holes for sap-sucking in winter. The main diet consisted of arthropods and plant seeds. The diet was significantly different between seasons. The Great Spotted Woodpecker primarily consumes defoliators and the food on tree trunks from March to October. The contribution of wood borers to the diet was higher in winter, lower in the breeding season and summer. The proportion of the food on ground was small in the breeding season and high in the Summer and winter.

  13. The relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population genetic variation in the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Douglas J; Wiegand, Thorsten; Fernández, Néstor

    2010-09-01

    The relative influence of habitat loss, fragmentation and matrix heterogeneity on the viability of populations is a critical area of conservation research that remains unresolved. Using simulation modelling, we provide an analysis of the influence both patch size and patch isolation have on abundance, effective population size (N(e)) and F(ST). An individual-based, spatially explicit population model based on 15 years of field work on the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) was applied to different landscape configurations. The variation in landscape patterns was summarized using spatial statistics based on O-ring statistics. By regressing demographic and genetics attributes that emerged across the landscape treatments against proportion of total habitat and O-ring statistics, we show that O-ring statistics provide an explicit link between population processes, habitat area, and critical thresholds of fragmentation that affect those processes. Spatial distances among land cover classes that affect biological processes translated into critical scales at which the measures of landscape structure correlated best with genetic indices. Therefore our study infers pattern from process, which contrasts with past studies of landscape genetics. We found that population genetic structure was more strongly affected by fragmentation than population size, which suggests that examining only population size may limit recognition of fragmentation effects that erode genetic variation. If effective population size is used to set recovery goals for endangered species, then habitat fragmentation effects may be sufficiently strong to prevent evaluation of recovery based on the ratio of census:effective population size alone.

  14. Consumer Insights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANKOT

    2004-01-01

    Fang Jun, the head of consumer and market insights of Unilever Shanghai, has summarized his early life as a market in two sentences: rush about to study market changes;act all day to observe consumer behavior. And now?"Tell stories, conduct interviews and piece together different data; calculate numbers,build models and write reports."

  15. Kohler's Insight Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholtz, George

    1985-01-01

    Psychology textbooks frequently present Wolfgang Kohler's two-stick experiment with chimpanzees as having demonstrated insight in learning. Studies that replicated Kohler's work support his findings but not his interpretation in terms of insightful solution. The uncritical inclusion of Kohler's insight interpretation in texts is not warranted in…

  16. Inside PixInsight

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    In this book, Warren Keller reveals the secrets of astro-image processing software PixInsight in a practical and easy to follow manner, allowing the reader to produce stunning astrophotographs from even mediocre data. As the first comprehensive post-processing platform to be created by astro-imagers for astro-imagers, it has for many, replaced the generic graphics editors as the software of choice. With clear instructions from Keller, astrophotographers can get the most from its tools to create amazing images. Capable of complex post-processing routines, PixInsight is also an advanced pre-processing software, through which astrophotographers calibrate and stack their exposures into completed master files.This is the most comprehensive resource on PixInsight to date. With screenshots to help illustrate the process, it is a vital guide.

  17. Dreaming and insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Edwards

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years. Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996 therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams. The need to distinguish ‘aha’ experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from ‘aha’ experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared.

  18. Dreaming and insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christopher L; Ruby, Perrine M; Malinowski, Josie E; Bennett, Paul D; Blagrove, Mark T

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish "aha" experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from "aha" experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared.

  19. Dreaming and insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christopher L.; Ruby, Perrine M.; Malinowski, Josie E.; Bennett, Paul D.; Blagrove, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish “aha” experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from “aha” experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared. PMID:24550849

  20. OpenGL Insights

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzi, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Get Real-World Insight from Experienced Professionals in the OpenGL Community With OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL, real-time rendering is becoming available everywhere, from AAA games to mobile phones to web pages. Assembling contributions from experienced developers, vendors, researchers, and educators, OpenGL Insights presents real-world techniques for intermediate and advanced OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL developers. Go Beyond the Basics The book thoroughly covers a range of topics, including OpenGL 4.2 and recent extensions. It explains how to optimize for mobile devices, explores the design

  1. Outsourcing/Offshoring Insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tate, Wendy; Bals, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    Findings: Both the geographical and governance dimensions are part of the rightshoring decision which is an important conceptual foundation for this special issue, as it invited insightful pieces on all of these phenomena (e.g. outsourcing, insourcing, offshoring, reshoring), acknowledging that t...

  2. Death: 'nothing' gives insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettema, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death.

  3. World energy insight 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The World Energy Insight 2011 is the official publication of the World Energy Council. It includes interviews, articles and case studies from a distinguished panel of World Energy Council Officers, CEOs, government ministers, academics and opinion formers from all areas of the energy sector and provides perspectives from around the globe. Government, industry and NGO's offer both policy and technology perspectives. The insights within this publication add to the work that WEC is doing to provide the forum for energy leaders, along with the on-going WEC studies and programmes on Energy Policies, 2050 Energy Scenarios, Energy Resources & Technologies, Energy for Urban Innovation, Rules Of Energy Trade and Global Energy Access.

  4. The politics of insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs.

  5. Modeling for Insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Gretchen Matthern

    2007-04-01

    System Dynamics is a computer-aided approach to evaluating the interrelationships of different components and activities within complex systems. Recently, System Dynamics models have been developed in areas such as policy design, biological and medical modeling, energy and the environmental analysis, and in various other areas in the natural and social sciences. The real power of System Dynamic modeling is gaining insights into total system behavior as time, and system parameters are adjusted and the effects are visualized in real time. System Dynamic models allow decision makers and stakeholders to explore long-term behavior and performance of complex systems, especially in the context of dynamic processes and changing scenarios without having to wait decades to obtain field data or risk failure if a poor management or design approach is used. The Idaho National Laboratory recently has been developing a System Dynamic model of the US Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The model is intended to be used to identify and understand interactions throughout the entire nuclear fuel cycle and suggest sustainable development strategies. This paper describes the basic framework of the current model and presents examples of useful insights gained from the model thus far with respect to sustainable development of nuclear power.

  6. Insights on STEM Careers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Joanne Roth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-05

    This presentation will provide career advice for individuals seeking to go beyond just having a job to building a successful career in the areas of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Careful planning can be used to turn a job into a springboard for professional advancement and personal satisfaction. Topics to be addressed include setting priorities, understanding career ladders, making tough choices, overcoming stereotypes and assumptions by others, networking, developing a professional identify, and balancing a career with family and other personal responsibilities. Insights on the transition from individual technical work to leadership will also be provided. The author will draw upon experiences gained in academic, industrial, and government laboratory settings, as well as extensive professional service and community involvement.

  7. Insights into business student's book

    CERN Document Server

    Lannon, Michael; Trappe, Tonya

    1993-01-01

    With Challenging reading and listening texts from a range of authentic business sources, New Insights into Business will really engage your students. The thorough language and vocabulary syllabus together with the strong focus on business skills development gives students everything they need to function effectively in the workplace. New Insights into Business is a self-contained course and is also an ideal follow-on to First Insights into Business.

  8. Insight with hands and things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallée-Tourangeau, Frédéric; Steffensen, S. V.; Vallée-Tourangeau, Gaëlle

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether different task ecologies influenced insight problem solving. The 17 animals problem was employed, a pure insight problem. Its initial formulation encourages the application of a direct arithmetic solution, but its solution requires the spatial arrangement of sets...

  9. Cognitive insight: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, L S C; Sabbe, B G C; Oldenburg, J F E

    2017-07-01

    Cognitive insight is the ability to re-evaluate thoughts and beliefs in order to make thoughtful conclusions. It differs from clinical insight, as it focuses on more general metacognitive processes. Therefore, it could be relevant to diverse disorders and non-clinical subjects. There is a growing body of research on cognitive insight in individuals with and without psychosis. This review has summarised the current state of the art regarding this topic. We conclude that while cognitive insight in its current form seems valid for use in individuals with psychosis, it is less so for individuals without psychosis. Additionally, higher cognitive insight not always leads to better psychological functioning. For instance, higher levels of self-reflection are often associated with depressive mood. We therefore recommend the sub-components of cognitive insight to be studied separately. Also, it is unclear what position cognitive insight takes within the spectrum of metacognitive processes and how it relates to other self-related concepts that have been defined previously in literature. Combining future and past research on cognitive insight and its analogue concepts will help in the formation of a uniform definition that fits all subjects discussed here. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Systemic sclerosis: Recent insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhai, Muriel; Avouac, Jérôme; Kahan, André; Allanore, Yannick

    2015-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis is an orphan connective tissue disease characterized by alterations of the microvasculature, disturbances of the immune system and massive deposition of collagen and other matrix substances in the skin and internal organs. A major achievement of the recent years has been the validation of new classification criteria, allowing earlier diagnosis and earlier treatment of systemic sclerosis, before irreversible fibrosis and organ damage appeared ("window of opportunity"). Raynaud's phenomenon is usually the first sign of the disease and is considered as the main sentinel sign for the identification of very early systemic sclerosis. Systemic sclerosis is clinically heterogeneous and disease course remains unpredictable. Its prognosis depends on cardiopulmonary involvement and recent studies aim to identify serum or genetic biomarkers predictive of severe organ involvement. Moreover, the prospective follow-up of large cohorts has provided and will offer critical material to identify strong prognostic factors. Whereas the outcomes of vascular manifestations of the disease has been recently improved due to targeted therapy, recent data have highlighted that mortality has not changed over the past 40 years. This reflects the absence of efficacy of current available drugs to counteract the fibrotic process. Nevertheless, several targeted immunity therapies, commonly with proven efficacy in other immune diseases, are about to be investigated in systemic sclerosis. Indeed, promising results in small and open studies have been reported. This article deals with recent insights into classification criteria, pathogenesis, organ involvements, outcome and current and possible future therapeutic options in systemic sclerosis.

  11. O insight em psiquiatria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida P. Cardoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O sinal de que algo está a acontecer contribui para que o paciente reconheça que alguma coisa de estranho se está a passar consigo. Este reconhecimento faz com que o sujeito possa desempenhar uma função activa e seja um elemento colaborante do seu processo de recuperação. Cada doença apresenta, contudo, diferentes sintomas, uma vez que cada doença psiquiátrica consiste em diferentes perturbações com diversos efeitos sobre o funcionamento mental. Desta maneira, o fenómeno do insight que é registado em cada doença é diferente e expressa-se sob diferentes formas, não somente devido às manifestações clínicas da doença mas também devido às características individuais do sujeito.

  12. Recent Neurobiological Insights into the Concept of Insight in Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mythri, Starlin Vijay; Sanjay, Y

    2016-01-01

    The concept of insight in psychosis has been an interesting area in clinical psychiatry for well over a century with a surge in research interest over the past 25 years. Moreover, the past 5 years have been particularly fruitful in deciphering its neurobiological underpinnings. This article presents the development of the concept of insight in psychosis and reviews the current neurobiological research findings in this area.

  13. Recent Neurobiological Insights into the Concept of Insight in Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mythri, Starlin Vijay; Sanjay, Y

    2016-01-01

    The concept of insight in psychosis has been an interesting area in clinical psychiatry for well over a century with a surge in research interest over the past 25 years. Moreover, the past 5 years have been particularly fruitful in deciphering its neurobiological underpinnings. This article presents the development of the concept of insight in psychosis and reviews the current neurobiological research findings in this area. PMID:27335512

  14. Understanding Insight in the Context of Q

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, David

    2012-01-01

    In Revans' learning formula, L = P + Q, Q represents "questioning insight", by which Revans means that insight comes out of the process of questioning programmed knowledge (P) in the light of experience. We typically focus on the content of an insight rather than on the act of insight. Drawing primarily on the work of Bernard Lonergan this paper…

  15. Approaching the Distinction between Intuition and Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonglu; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intuition and insight share similar cognitive and neural basis. Though, there are still some essential differences between the two. Here in this short review, we discriminated between intuition, and insight in two aspects. First, intuition, and insight are toward different aspects of information processing. Whereas intuition involves judgment about "yes or no," insight is related to "what" is the solution. Second, tacit knowledge play different roles in between intuition and insight. On the one hand, tacit knowledge is conducive to intuitive judgment. On the other hand, tacit knowledge may first impede but later facilitate insight occurrence. Furthermore, we share theoretical, and methodological views on how to access the distinction between intuition and insight.

  16. Insights from a Math Phobic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Anne Wescott

    1992-01-01

    The author's personal experiences in overcoming mathematics anxiety provide insights into how teachers can create a classroom environment to help students develop self-confidence by assessing students' feelings, using cooperative-learning techniques, showing more patience, and having students write about their experiences. (MDH)

  17. Global China Insights December 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Rien T.; Havinga, Marieke; Fischer, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  18. New Insights into Behavioral Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Baltussen (Guido)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis applies insights from psychology and other behavioral sciences to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional finance approach (which assumes that agents and markets are rational) and improves our understanding of financial markets and its participants. More specific, this t

  19. Investigating Insight as Sudden Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ivan K.; Jee, Benjamin D.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Gestalt psychologists proposed two distinct learning mechanisms. Associative learning occurs gradually through the repeated co-occurrence of external stimuli or memories. Insight learning occurs suddenly when people discover new relationships within their prior knowledge as a result of reasoning or problem solving processes that re-organize or…

  20. Global China Insights June 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingrid Fischer; Rien T. Segers

    2013-01-01

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  1. Sôbre um Nematódeo spirurídeo parasito de Bradypus Tridactylus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Julio Vicente

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Paraleiuris has a single species P. lochii Vaz & Pereira, 1929. The new species here described is different from it mainly by the aspect of the bucal capsule which is rectangular and its longer spicule differs in size and form.

  2. SCIENCE CHINA In-Sight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE ShiGang

    2010-01-01

    @@ 2010 celebrates the 60th anniversary of this journal.From this issue, the journal features a brand new section: 'In-Sight'.Equivalent to the Cutting Edge of the Cell, News and Views of the Nature and Perspective of the Science, 'In-Sight' provides a forum for discussions about science and science policies in China, the history and future development of this journal and the highlights of scientific progresses published in the current issue.

  3. Theoretical Insight into Shocked Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiding, Jeffery Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    I present the results of statistical mechanical calculations on shocked molecular gases. This work provides insight into the general behavior of shock Hugoniots of gas phase molecular targets with varying initial pressures. The dissociation behavior of the molecules is emphasized. Impedance matching calculations are performed to determine the maximum degree of dissociation accessible for a given flyer velocity as a function of initial gas pressure.

  4. Quantifying the Qualitative: Measuring the Insight Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    No scales currently exist that measure variability in the insight experience. Two scales were created to measure two factors hypothesized to be key drivers of the insight experience: insight radicality (i.e., perceived deviation between previous and new problem representations) and restructuring experience (i.e., the subjective experience of the…

  5. The INSIGHT SEIS VBB Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillier, S.; De Raucourt, S.; Lognonne, P. H.; Banerdt, B.; Mimoun, D.; Giardini, D.; Christensen, U. R.; Pike, W. T.; Zweifel, P.; Mance, D.; Bierwirth, M.; Laudet, P.; Perez, R.; Kerjean, L.; Hurst, K. J.; Mocquet, A.; Garcia, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    The SEIS experiment is the primary payload of the Interior Structure investigation using Seismology and Heat Transport (INSIGHT) Mission Proposal, submitted to NASA in the frame of the 2010 Discovery program, and selected for a competitive phase A study, together with two other projects. The objective of the INSIGHT SEIS experiment is the determination of the deep internal structure of Mars. In particular, geophysical parameters of first importance, such as the state (liquid/solid) and size of the core, structure of the mantle, shape of discontinuities, thickness of the crust will be determined by the experiment. It will measure seismic activity in a very broad band of signal, from the tidal frequencies (0.05 mHz) up to the short period frequencies (50 Hz), to address the widest range of scientific questions, from the state of the core to the meteoritic impact and quake rates. The instrument integrates a Very Broad Band (VBB) 3 axis seismometer, completed by another trihedron of MEMS short period seismometers, environmental sensors for pressure, wind and temperature, The sensors will be deployed on the Martian ground by a robotic arm from a Phoenix-type lander platform and protected by a wind and thermal shield. The sensor assembly, which contains all seismic sensors, the leveling system, as well as house-keeping and temperature measurements, will be deployed on the soil in order to allow the best possible mechanical coupling with the ground motion. The wind and thermal shield, the sensors' specific containers (vacuum sphere for VBBs) and a passive thermal compensation system will achieve a very high protection of the VBB against temperature and pressure variations, allowing the sensor to operate in the rough Martian thermal environment while reaching a deection threshold below 10-9 ms-2 Hz-1/2 in the VBB bandwidth. A dedicated electronics will manage the overall experiment and ultra-low noise, space qualified 24 bits A/D converters will perform the acquisition

  6. Takotsubo Syndrome: Insights from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Ishihara, Masaharu

    2016-10-01

    We report the history and new insights of takotsubo syndrome based on the achievements that Japanese researchers have contributed and summarize the evidence originally presented from Japan. Takotsubo syndrome is a newly described heart failure characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction. We should be aware of this entity as a syndrome, not actual cardiomyopathy. Japanese researchers focus on the experimental approaches for clinical diagnosis and treatment of takotsubo syndrome. As representatives from a country originally naming this syndrome takotsubo, a global registry for takotsubo syndrome including Japan should be established. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Theory of mind correlates with clinical insight but not cognitive insight in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Xu; Parker, Giverny J; Hong, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Yi; Lui, Simon S Y; Neumann, David L; Cheung, Eric F C; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-03-30

    Research on the relationship between insight and social cognition, in particular Theory of Mind (ToM), in schizophrenia has yielded mixed findings to date. Very few studies, however, have assessed both clinical insight and cognitive insight when examining their relationships with ToM in schizophrenia. The current study thus investigated the relationship between clinical insight, cognitive insight, and ToM in a sample of 56 patients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls. Twenty-seven patients were classified as low in clinical insight according to their scores on the 'insight' item (G12) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Moreover, cognitive insight and ToM were assessed with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and the Yoni task, respectively. The results indicated that patients with poor clinical insight performed worse on tasks of second-order cognitive and affective ToM, while the ToM performance of patients with high clinical insight was equivalent to that of healthy controls. Furthermore, while clinical insight was correlated with ToM and clinical symptoms, cognitive insight did not correlate with clinical insight, ToM, or clinical symptoms. Clinical insight thus appears to be an important factor related to ToM in schizophrenia.

  8. Insight with hands and things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée-Tourangeau, Frédéric; Steffensen, Sune Vork; Vallée-Tourangeau, Gaëlle; Sirota, Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments examined whether different task ecologies influenced insight problem solving. The 17 animals problem was employed, a pure insight problem. Its initial formulation encourages the application of a direct arithmetic solution, but its solution requires the spatial arrangement of sets involving some degree of overlap. Participants were randomly allocated to either a tablet condition where they could use a stylus and an electronic tablet to sketch a solution or a model building condition where participants were given material with which to build enclosures and figurines. In both experiments, participants were much more likely to develop a working solution in the model building condition. The difference in performance elicited by different task ecologies was unrelated to individual differences in working memory, actively open-minded thinking, or need for cognition (Experiment 1), although individual differences in creativity were correlated with problem solving success in Experiment 2. The discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for the prevailing metatheoretical commitment to methodological individualism that places the individual as the ontological locus of cognition.

  9. GOES-R: Satellite Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Leon, Nancy J.; Novati, Alexander; Lincoln, Laura K.; Fisher, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    GOES-R: Satellite Insight seeks to bring awareness of the GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite -- R Series) satellite currently in development to an audience of all ages on the emerging medium of mobile games. The iPhone app (Satellite Insight) was created for the GOES-R Program. The app describes in simple terms the types of data products that can be produced from GOES-R measurements. The game is easy to learn, yet challenging for all audiences. It includes educational content and a path to further information about GOESR, its technology, and the benefits of the data it collects. The game features action-puzzle game play in which the player must prevent an overflow of data by matching falling blocks that represent different types of GOES-R data. The game adds more different types of data blocks over time, as long as the player can prevent a data overflow condition. Points are awarded for matches, and players can compete with themselves to beat their highest score.

  10. Managing complexity insights, concepts, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Each chapter in Managing Complexity focuses on analyzing real-world complex systems and transferring knowledge from the complex-systems sciences to applications in business, industry and society. The interdisciplinary contributions range from markets and production through logistics, traffic control, and critical infrastructures, up to network design, information systems, social conflicts and building consensus. They serve to raise readers' awareness concerning the often counter-intuitive behavior of complex systems and to help them integrate insights gained in complexity research into everyday planning, decision making, strategic optimization, and policy. Intended for a broad readership, the contributions have been kept largely non-technical and address a general, scientifically literate audience involved in corporate, academic, and public institutions.

  11. Illness Insight and Recovery: How Important is Illness Insight in Peoples’ Recovery Process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbek, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Topic: This account reflects on the topic of illness insight and recovery. Purpose: The purpose of the account is to clarify our understanding about the importance of illness insight in peoples’ recovery process, especially when relating the question of illness insight to the question of identity....... Sources Used:The writing is based on research literature related to illness insight and on personal recovery experiences.Conclusions and Implications for Practice: It is helpful to consider the integration of the issue of illness insight when addressing the questions and consequences of diagnosis...... in relation to the importance of illness insight in the recovery process....

  12. First insights into disassembled "evapotranspiration"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chormański, Jarosław; Kleniewska, Małgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Okruszko, Tomasz; Szatyłowicz, Jan; Batelaan, Okke

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present an initial data analysis obtained from a complex tool for measuring water fluxes in wetland ecosystems. The tool was designed to quantify processes related to interception storage on plants leafs. The measurements are conducted by combining readings from various instruments, including: eddy covariance tower (EC), field spectrometer, SapFlow system, rain gauges above and under canopy, soil moisture probes and other. The idea of this set-up is to provide continuous measurement of overall water flux from the ecosystem (EC tower), intercepted water volume and timing (field spectrometers), through-fall (rain gauges above and under canopy), transpiration (SapFlow), evaporation and soil moisture (soil moisture probes). Disassembling the water flux to the above components allows giving more insight to the interception related processes and differentiates them fromthe total evapotranspiration. The measurements are conducted in the Upper Biebrza Basin (NE Poland). The study area is part of the valley and is covered by peat soils (mainly peat moss with the exception of areas near the river) and receives no inundations waters of the Biebrza. The plant community of Agrostietum-Carici caninae has a dominant share here creating an up to 0.6 km wide belt along the river. The area is covered also by Caricion lasiocarpae as well as meadows and pastures Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Phragmitetum communis. Sedges form a hummock pattern characteristic for the sedge communities in natural river valleys with wetland vegetation. The main result of the measurement set-up will be the analyzed characteristics and dynamics of interception storage for sedge ecosystems and a developed methodology for interception monitoring by use spectral reflectance technique. This will give a new insight to processes of evapotranspiration in wetlands and its component transpiration, evaporation from interception and evaporation from soil. Moreover, other important results of this project

  13. Working wonders? investigating insight with magic tricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danek, Amory H; Fraps, Thomas; von Müller, Albrecht; Grothe, Benedikt; Ollinger, Michael

    2014-02-01

    We propose a new approach to differentiate between insight and noninsight problem solving, by introducing magic tricks as problem solving domain. We argue that magic tricks are ideally suited to investigate representational change, the key mechanism that yields sudden insight into the solution of a problem, because in order to gain insight into the magicians' secret method, observers must overcome implicit constraints and thus change their problem representation. In Experiment 1, 50 participants were exposed to 34 different magic tricks, asking them to find out how the trick was accomplished. Upon solving a trick, participants indicated if they had reached the solution either with or without insight. Insight was reported in 41.1% of solutions. The new task domain revealed differences in solution accuracy, time course and solution confidence with insight solutions being more likely to be true, reached earlier, and obtaining higher confidence ratings. In Experiment 2, we explored which role self-imposed constraints actually play in magic tricks. 62 participants were presented with 12 magic tricks. One group received verbal cues, providing solution relevant information without giving the solution away. The control group received no informative cue. Experiment 2 showed that participants' constraints were suggestible to verbal cues, resulting in higher solution rates. Thus, magic tricks provide more detailed information about the differences between insightful and noninsightful problem solving, and the underlying mechanisms that are necessary to have an insight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mining Login Data for Actionable Student Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Lalitha; Aghababyan, Ani; Mojarad, Shirin; Riedesel, Mark; Essa, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    Student login data is a key resource for gaining insight into their learning experience. However, the scale and the complexity of this data necessitate a thorough exploration to identify potential actionable insights, thus rendering it less valuable compared to student achievement data. To compensate for the underestimation of login data…

  15. Course of insight in manic episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insight is an important factor associated with non compliance and poor outcome. Poor level of insight has been described as a characteristic in patients with acute bipolar disorder with more unawareness in social consequences with increasing severity in manic episode. Aim: Main aim of study was to see the baseline and longitudinal relationship between dimensions of insight with improvement in psychopathology. Setting and Design: Forty four patients diagnosed with mania, were selected from an inpatient setting at Institute of Mental Health and Hospital, Agra with mean age of 31.07(±9.00 years. They were assessed at base line and were followed up weekly or psychopathology and insight. Materials and Methods: The Young′s mania rating scale for psychopathology and insight was assessed on three dimensions of SUMD. Results: Twenty five patients eventually completed the study. There was a positive correlation with global insight and with psychopathology consistent in longitudinal follow-up (P<0.05, but not correlating for awareness for achieved effect of medication and social consequences. Linear regression showed a positive relationship at the first and second week of assessment of SUMD and YMRS scores (P=0.001; 0.019. Conclusion: Improvement in insight is graded in a manic episode as compared to psychopathology. There is slower improvement in awareness of social consequences of mental disorder. It means that improvement in psychopathology may not necessarily indicate remission and need further supervision to improve insight and hence monitoring.

  16. Towards Responsible Steel: Preliminary Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Benn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the structures and processes underpinning the attempt of the Australian steel industry to establish a certification scheme for Responsible Steel. We take it as a case example of how collective action and collaboration along a supply chain has the potential to be a win-win situation for the environment and for the competitiveness of an industry sector. The paper identifies the drivers that have prompted key stakeholders from all major sectors of the Australian steel product life cycle from mining through steel manufacturing, processing, product fabrication, use and re-use, and recycling to collaborate in the establishment of the Steel Stewardship Forum (SSF, the structure established to lead the development of the certification scheme. The development of this initiative is indicative of the wider shift to sustainability-related certification schemes as a means of garnering legitimacy and market advantage and provides detailed insights into both the drivers for and the challenges associated with such initiatives. Findings from the paper contribute to our understanding of the shift to sustainable supply chains as it is interpreted through institutional and institutional entrepreneurship theory.

  17. Schizophrenia - Insight, Depression: A Correlation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth Ampalam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is one of the severe forms of mental illness which demands enormous personal and economical costs. Recent years have attracted considerable interest in the dual problem of depression in schizophrenia and its relation to insight. Most clinicians believe that poor insight in patients with schizophrenia, though problematic for treatment adherence, may be protective with respect to suicide. The assumption is that patients who do not believe that they are ill are less likely to be suicidal. Alternatively, those patients with schizophrenia who recognize and acknowledge the illness will be more of a suicidal nature. Aim of the Study: The aim of the study is to find out the correlation between insight and depression in schizophrenic population. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional, single-centred, correlation study done in a total of 60 subjects. Inclusion Criteria - Subjects between 20-60 years, who were diagnosed to have schizophrenia as per International clasification of diseases-10 and who have given written consent to participate in the study. Exclusion Criteria - Subjects who have other diagnosis such as mood disorder, schizoaffective disorder, mental retardation, epilepsy or detectable organic disease and co morbid substance abuse are excluded from the study. Schizophrenics who have acute exacerbation are also excluded. Instruments - For insight assessment, schedule for assessment of insight, a three item rating scale, is used. For depressive symptoms assessment a nine item rating scale, Calgary depression rating scale, is administrated. Results: Insight and depression are strongly correlated in schizophrenic population with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.758. The correlation between insight and depression is high in subjects with less duration of illness. Conclusion: Better insight was significantly correlated with lower mood. In addition, it suggests that poor insight may protect against

  18. Newer insights in teledermatology practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garehatty Rudrappa Kanthraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study and practice of dermatology care using interactive audio, visual, and data communications from a distance is called teledermatology. A teledermatology practice (TP provides teleconsultation as well tele-education. Initially, dermatologists used videoconference. Convenience, cost-effectiveness and easy application of the practice made "store and forward" to emerge as a basic teledermatology tool. The advent of newer technologies like third generation (3G and fourth generation (4G mobile teledermatology (MT and dermatologists′ interest to adopt tertiary TP to pool expert (second opinion to address difficult-to-manage cases (DMCs has resulted in a rapid change in TP. Online discussion groups (ODGs, author-based second opinion teledermatology (AST, or a combination of both are the types of tertiary TP. This article analyzes the feasibility studies and provides latest insight into TP with a revised classification to plan and allocate budget and apply appropriate technology. Using the acronym CAP-HAT, which represents five important factors like case, approach, purpose, health care professionals, and technology, one can frame a TP. Store-and-forward teledermatology (SAFT is used to address routine cases (spotters. Chronic cases need frequent follow-up care. Leg ulcer and localized vitiligo need MT while psoriasis and leprosy require SAFT. Pigmented skin lesions require MT for triage and combination of teledermoscopy, telepathology, and teledermatology for diagnosis. A self-practising dermatologist and national health care system dermatologist use SAFT for routine cases and a combination of ASTwith an ODG to address a DMC. A TP alone or in combination with face-to-face consultation delivers quality care.

  19. Blindness and Insight in King Lear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳元玉

    2008-01-01

    This paper intends to explore how William Shakespeare illustrates the theme of blindness and insight in his great tragedy "King Lear".Four characters’ deeds and their fate are used as a case study to examine what blindness is,what insight is,and the relationship between the two.The writer finds that by depicting the characters’ deeds and their fate in a double plot,Shakespeare renders the folly of blindness,the transition from blindness to insight,and the use of reason and thought to understand the truth.

  20. Managing Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Stands for the Restoration of Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    field hairsedge graminoid/herb Carex glaucescens southern waxy sedge graminoid/herb Cyperus grayi Gray’s flatsedge graminoid/herb Cyperus...scandens 41.7 0.0018 Bignonia capreolata 34.0 0.0198 Carex glaucescens 34.7 0.0116

  1. Investigating visual analogies for visual insight problems

    OpenAIRE

    Corina Sas; Eric Luchian; Linden Ball

    2010-01-01

    Much research has focused on the impact of analogies in insight problem solving, but less work has investigated how the visual analogies for insight are actually constructed. Thus, it appears that in the search for their facilitative impact on the incubation effect, the understanding of what makes good visual analogies has somehow been lost. This paper presents preliminary work of constructing a set of 6 visual analogies and evaluating their impact on solving the visual problem of eight coins...

  2. Insight and theory of mind in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Rowena; Fish, Scott; Granholm, Eric

    2015-01-30

    Theory of mind (ToM) impairment is common in individuals with schizophrenia and is associated with poor social functioning. Poor insight has also been linked to poor outcome in schizophrenia. Social developmental research has shown representations of self (insight) and representations of others (ToM) are related. In schizophrenia, contradictory reports of associations between insight and ToM have emerged, possibly due to a failure to account for neurocognitive impairments and symptoms associated with both mentalization constructs. This study investigated the relationships between ToM (intentions of others on the Hinting Task) and clinical and cognitive insight, while accounting for shared variance with neurocognitive impairment and symptom severity in 193 individuals with schizophrenia. Clinical, but not cognitive, insight was associated with ToM. A unique association between Awareness of Mental Illness and Hinting Task performance was found, independent of shared variance with neurocognition and symptoms. Importantly, ToM was found to mediate Awareness of Mental Illness and neurocognition. Results suggested that treatments targeting mentalization abilities that contribute to representations of self and others may improve insight deficits associated with poor outcome in schizophrenia.

  3. Is Insight Always the Same? A Protocol Analysis of Insight in Compound Remote Associate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, Edward A.; Moss, Jarrod

    2012-01-01

    Compound Remote Associate (CRA) problems have been used to investigate insight problem solving using both behavioral and neuroimaging techniques. However, it is unclear to what extent CRA problems exhibit characteristics of insight such as impasses and restructuring. CRA problem-solving characteristics were examined in a study in which…

  4. Human Performance on Insight Problem Solving: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yun; MacGregor, James N.

    2011-01-01

    The article provides a review of recent research on insight problem-solving performance. We discuss what insight problems are, the different types of classic and newer insight problems, and how we can classify them. We also explain some of the other aspects that affect insight performance, such as hints, analogs, training, thinking aloud, and…

  5. Transference, Insight, and the Course of Time-Limited Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelso, Charles J.; Kivlighan, Dennis M.; Wine, Bruce; Jones, Alissa; Friedman, Suzanne C.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the interactive role of therapist-rated transference and insight in predicting both the outcome of time-limited therapy and the course of therapist-rated transference and insight. Results indicate that neither transference nor insight alone predicted outcome; the interaction of transference and emotional insight influenced client- and…

  6. Insight, Cognitive Insight and Sociodemographic Features in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Presenting with Reactive and Autogeneus Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katre ÇAMLI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to test hypothesis that obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD patients who have autogenous obsessions and reactive obsessions show different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with different insight and cognitive insight levels. Method: Sixty-one patients diagnosed as OCD according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-I are recruited. 31 patients had reactive obsessions and 30 had autogenous obsessions. The sociodemographic characteristics of patients and the symptomatology were evaluated using psychiatric scales including SCID-I, Yale Brown Obsessive- Compulsive Scale (YBOCS, Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist (YBOCS-SC and Beck Insight Scale. Results: The percentage of women in reactive obsessive group was higher and also this group had significantly less antipsychotic medication prescribed than the autogenous obsessive group. No significant difference was found for the other demographic variables. No significant difference was identified for the Beck Insight Self-Reflectiveness subscale but for the Self-Certainty subscale, reactive obsessives had higher scores. Although there was no significant difference for the composit index points, which is the subtraction of the two subscales, the p value was close to the limit. On the other hand YBOCS item- 11 scores which evaluates insight were higher in autogenous obsessives meaning low levels of insight. Conclusion: For the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; there was no significant difference between the groups except gender distribution and antipsychotic medication. Our data about insight seems inconsistent but insight and cognitive insight can be different entities which show different levels of insight. Further investigation with different obsession types is needed.

  7. Gestures and insight in advanced mathematical thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Caroline; Thomas, Michael O. J.; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2011-10-01

    What role do gestures play in advanced mathematical thinking? We argue that the role of gestures goes beyond merely communicating thought and supporting understanding - in some cases, gestures can help generate new mathematical insights. Gestures feature prominently in a case study of two participants working on a sequence of calculus activities. One participant uses gestures to clarify the relationships between a function, its derivative and its antiderivative. We show how these gestures help create a virtual mathematical construct, which in turn leads to a new problem-solving strategy. These results suggest that gestures are a productive, but potentially undertapped resource for generating new insights in advanced levels of mathematics.

  8. Global China Insights June 2014 : CGI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Rien T.; Fischer, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  9. Insight in schizophrenia : Associations with empathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, G. H. M.; Spikman, J. M.; Jeronimus, B. F.; Aleman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Many people with schizophrenia (50-80 %) demonstrate impaired insight, something which has been associated with a poorer outcome. Two types of empathy can be distinguished: affective empathy via shared emotions and cognitive empathy, also referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM). ToM can be subdivided in

  10. Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnabi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…

  11. Developmental Social Cognitive Neuroscience: Insights from Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David; Singleton, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    The condition of deafness presents a developmental context that provides insight into the biological, cultural, and linguistic factors underlying the development of neural systems that impact social cognition. Studies of visual attention, behavioral regulation, language development, and face and human action perception are discussed. Visually…

  12. Gestures and Insight in Advanced Mathematical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Caroline; Thomas, Michael O. J.; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    What role do gestures play in advanced mathematical thinking? We argue that the role of gestures goes beyond merely communicating thought and supporting understanding--in some cases, gestures can help generate new mathematical insights. Gestures feature prominently in a case study of two participants working on a sequence of calculus activities.…

  13. Recent Insights into the Neurobiology of Impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Marci R.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is associated with various psychopathologies, and elevated impulsivity is typically disadvantageous. This manuscript reviews recent investigations into the neurobiology of impulsivity using human imaging techniques and animal models. Both human imaging and preclinical pharmacological manipulations have yielded important insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of impulsivity. A more thorough understanding of the complex neurobiology underlying aspects of impulsivity may pro...

  14. Factorising a Quadratic Expression with Geometric Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joarder, Anwar H.

    2015-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for factorising a quadratic expression to facilitate instruction and learning. It appeals to elementary geometry which may provide better insights to some students or teachers. There have been many methods for factorising a quadratic expression described in school text books. However, students often seem to struggle with…

  15. InSight Planetary Protection Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardini, James; Vaishampayan, Parag; Chen, Fei; Kazarians, Gayane; Willis, Jason; Witte, Joe; Hendrickson, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    The InSight Project is a Discovery mission that consists of a single spacecraft with an overarching mission goal of illuminating the fundamentals of formation and evolution of terrestrial planets by investigating the interior structure and processes of Mars. The flight system is comprised of a 2008 Phoenix mission heritage cruise stage, aeroshell (heatshield and backshell), and lander. The lander payload contains cameras, a seismometer, a mole to penetrate the regolith (≤5 meters) to measure the geothermal gradient of Mars, and an auxiliary payload sensor suite to measure wind, temperature, and pressure. As a Mars lander mission without life detection instruments, the InSight mission has been designated PP Category IVa. Therefore, planetary protection bioburden requirements are applicable to this mission and require microbial reduction procedures and biological burden reports. Due to primary payload technical issues, InSight's 2016 launch has been delayed by NASA. The mission is currently under a re-planning phase. InSight has completed an approved Planetary Protection Plan, Subsidiary PP Plans, PP Implementation Documentation, and ~50% of the PPO verification biological assays. The flight system and additional payloads were assembled and being readied for launch at the launch site at the time of the project stand-down and has since been secured for storage. The status of the PP activities will be reported.

  16. Proteomics insights into plant signaling and development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, K.; Smaczniak, C.D.; Vries, de S.C.; Angenent, G.C.; Karlova, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is used to gain insight into the abundance and subcellular localization of cellular signaling components, the composition of molecular complexes and the regulation of signaling pathways. Multicellular organisms have evolved signaling networks and fast responses to

  17. Innovative Leadership: Insights from a Learning Technologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Professor Ricardo Torres Kompen is a leading proponent for, and researcher in, personal learning environments (PLEs). During his interview, Torres Kompen clarified his research on PLEs, particularly the digital toolbox within PLEs. He elaborated on experiences with implementing PLE initiatives, personal insights on using social media and Web 2.0…

  18. Cognitive Psychology--An Educational Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive psychology offers relevant insights into improving the teaching and learning process. The author has selected ten questions from a graduate class in cognition and learning taken at The Teachers College, Columbia University. The questions will be used to examine the most effective ways to learn and recall information.

  19. Insight in schizophrenia : Associations with empathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, G. H. M.; Spikman, J. M.; Jeronimus, B. F.; Aleman, A.

    Many people with schizophrenia (50-80 %) demonstrate impaired insight, something which has been associated with a poorer outcome. Two types of empathy can be distinguished: affective empathy via shared emotions and cognitive empathy, also referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM). ToM can be subdivided

  20. Gestures and Insight in Advanced Mathematical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Caroline; Thomas, Michael O. J.; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    What role do gestures play in advanced mathematical thinking? We argue that the role of gestures goes beyond merely communicating thought and supporting understanding--in some cases, gestures can help generate new mathematical insights. Gestures feature prominently in a case study of two participants working on a sequence of calculus activities.…

  1. Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnabi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…

  2. The "Insight Paradox" in Schizophrenia: Magnitude, Moderators and Mediators of the Association Between Insight and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvederi Murri, Martino; Amore, Mario; Calcagno, Pietro; Respino, Matteo; Marozzi, Valentina; Masotti, Mattia; Bugliani, Michele; Innamorati, Marco; Pompili, Maurizio; Galderisi, Silvana; Maj, Mario

    2016-09-01

    The so-called "insight paradox" posits that among patients with schizophrenia higher levels of insight are associated with increased levels of depression. Although different studies examined this issue, only few took in account potential confounders or factors that could influence this association. In a sample of clinically stable patients with schizophrenia, insight and depression were evaluated using the Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. Other rating scales were used to assess the severity of psychotic symptoms, extrapyramidal symptoms, hopelessness, internalized stigma, self-esteem, and service engagement. Regression models were used to estimate the magnitude of the association between insight and depression while accounting for the role of confounders. Putative psychological and sociodemographic factors that could act as mediators and moderators were examined using the PROCESS macro. By accounting for the role of confounding factors, the strength of the association between insight into symptoms and depression increased from 13% to 25% explained covariance. Patients with lower socioeconomic status (F = 8.5, P = .04), more severe illness (F = 4.8, P = .03) and lower levels of service engagement (F = 4.7, P = .03) displayed the strongest association between insight and depression. Lastly, hopelessness, internalized stigma and perceived discrimination acted as significant mediators. The relationship between insight and depression should be considered a well established phenomenon among patients with schizophrenia: it seems stronger than previously reported especially among patients with lower socioeconomic status, severe illness and poor engagement with services. These findings may have relevant implications for the promotion of insight among patients with schizophrenia.

  3. Safety insights from forensics evaluations at Daiichi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rempe

    2017-01-01

    Information obtained from Daiichi is required to inform Decontamination and Decommissioning activities, improving the ability of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO to characterize potential hazards and to ensure the safety of workers involved with cleanup activities. This paper reports initial results from the US Forensics Effort to utilize examination information obtained by TEPCO to enhance the safety of existing and future nuclear power plant designs. In this paper, three examples are presented in which examination information, such as visual images, dose surveys, sample evaluations, and muon tomography examinations, along with data from plant instrumentation, are used to obtain significant safety insights in the areas of component performance, fission product release and transport, debris end-state location, and combustible gas generation and transport. In addition to reducing uncertainties related to severe accident modeling progression, these insights confirm actions, such as the importance of water addition and containment venting, that are emphasized in updated guidance for severe accident prevention, mitigation, and emergency planning.

  4. Insights from Human/Mouse genome comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Large-scale public genomic sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of vertebrate sequence data poised to provide insights into mammalian biology. These include deep genomic sequence coverage of human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and two pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis) (Aparicio et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001; Waterston et al. 2002). In addition, a high-priority has been placed on determining the genomic sequence of chimpanzee, dog, cow, frog, and chicken (Boguski 2002). While only recently available, whole genome sequence data have provided the unique opportunity to globally compare complete genome contents. Furthermore, the shared evolutionary ancestry of vertebrate species has allowed the development of comparative genomic approaches to identify ancient conserved sequences with functionality. Accordingly, this review focuses on the initial comparison of available mammalian genomes and describes various insights derived from such analysis.

  5. Genomic insights into the marine sponge microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Ute; Piel, Jörn; Degnan, Sandie M; Taylor, Michael W

    2012-09-01

    Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) often contain dense and diverse microbial communities, which can constitute up to 35% of the sponge biomass. The genome of one sponge, Amphimedon queenslandica, was recently sequenced, and this has provided new insights into the origins of animal evolution. Complementary efforts to sequence the genomes of uncultivated sponge symbionts have yielded the first glimpse of how these intimate partnerships are formed. The remarkable microbial and chemical diversity of the sponge-microorganism association, coupled with its postulated antiquity, makes sponges important model systems for the study of metazoan host-microorganism interactions, and their evolution, as well as for enabling access to biotechnologically important symbiont-derived natural products. In this Review, we discuss our current understanding of the interactions between marine sponges and their microbial symbiotic consortia, and highlight recent insights into these relationships from genomic studies.

  6. Exploring Insight: Focus on Shifts of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik, Alik; Koichu, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents and analyses a sequence of events that preceded an insight solution to a challenging problem in the context of numerical sequences. A three­week long solution process by a pair of ninth­-grade students is analysed by means of the theory of shifts of attention. The goal for this article is to reveal the potential of this theory…

  7. Modelling marine protected areas: insights and hurdles

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth A Fulton; Bax, Nicholas J.; Bustamante, Rodrigo H.; Jeffrey M. Dambacher; Dichmont, Catherine; Dunstan, Piers K.; Hayes, Keith R.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Pitcher, Roland; Plagányi, Éva E.; Punt, André E; Savina-rolland, Marie; Anthony D M Smith; David C. Smith

    2015-01-01

    Models provide useful insights into conservation and resource management issues and solutions. Their use to date has highlighted conditions under which no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) may help us to achieve the goals of ecosystem-based management by reducing pressures, and where they might fail to achieve desired goals. For example, static reserve designs are unlikely to achieve desired objectives when applied to mobile species or when compromised by climate-related ecosystem restructur...

  8. Biblical Leadership: Insights for Today's Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Hershey H. Friedman; Friedman, Linda

    2004-01-01

    The scholarly literature in management has paid little attention to the study of Biblical figures as leaders. This paper aims to advance the effort to fill this gap by demonstrating that many insights about successful and unsuccessful leadership may be derived from the Bible. Successful leaders demonstrated a willingness to be different, a passion for justice, humility, and a concern for others. Unsuccessful leaders were sidetracked from their mission by the hunger for power or by lust and envy.

  9. PSYCHOLOGICAL INSIGHT INTO ARTISTIC DESCRIPTION OF MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Valeryevna Sivakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to such an interesting and diverse in science phenomenon as psychological insight. In two directions of philology – Literature Studies and Linguistics – psychological insight is understood differently. That is why the authors take into account both definitions in order to create a complete picture.Based on consideration of the notion of psychological insight from the point of view of Literature Studies and Linguistics, the authors highlight its common philological criteria (soul and feelings of the character, description of the inner world of the character through the details, fragments of the text showing events, thoughts and motivates of the character; cognitive and pragma-linguistic features (supposition, influence upon the reader; methods and ways of its representation in the works of art (the author’s direct indication of the feelings in the character’s soul, inner details: inner monologue and author’s psychological narration, inner speech, memory images and imagination, description of dreams. The article also analyzes the examples of psychological impact of music on consciousness and subconsciousness of the characters of the texts

  10. 2016 Mars Insight Mission Design and Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abilleira, Fernando; Frauenholz, Ray; Fujii, Ken; Wallace, Mark; You, Tung-Han

    2014-01-01

    Scheduled for a launch in the 2016 Earth to Mars opportunity, the Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport (InSight) Mission will arrive to Mars in late September 2016 with the primary objective of placing a science lander on the surface of the Red Planet followed by the deployment of two science instruments to investigate the fundamental processes of terrestrial planet formation and evolution. In order to achieve a successful landing, the InSight Project has selected a launch/arrival strategy that satisfies the following key and driving requirements: (1) Deliver a total launch mass of 727 kg, (2) target a nominal landing site with a cumulative Delta V99 less than 30 m/s, and (3) approach EDL with a V-infinity upper limit of 3.941 km/s and (4) an entry flight-path angle (EFPA) of -12.5 +/- 0.26 deg, 3-sigma; the InSight trajectories have been designed such that they (5) provide UHF-band communications via Direct-To-Earth and MRO from Entry through landing plus 60 s, (6) with injection aimpoints biased away from Mars such that the probability of the launch vehicle upper stage impacting Mars is less than 1.0 X 10(exp 4) for fifty years after launch, and (7) non-nominal impact probabilities due to failure during the Cruise phase less than 1.0 X 10(exp 2).

  11. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Foerder

    Full Text Available The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.

  12. A study of insight and its relative factors in schizophrenia.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical value of the insight and its relative factors in schizophrenic patients. Methods: The insight, the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS), the scale for the assessment of negative symptoms (SANS), the scale for the assessment of

  13. Correlates of Insight among Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Adam B.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Peris, Tara S.; Chang, Susanna; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) may lack insight into the irrational nature of their symptoms. Among adults with OCD, poor insight has been linked to greater symptom severity, increased likelihood of comorbid symptoms, lower adaptive functioning, and worse treatment outcomes. Parallel work regarding insight among…

  14. Correlates of Insight among Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Adam B.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Peris, Tara S.; Chang, Susanna; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) may lack insight into the irrational nature of their symptoms. Among adults with OCD, poor insight has been linked to greater symptom severity, increased likelihood of comorbid symptoms, lower adaptive functioning, and worse treatment outcomes. Parallel work regarding insight among…

  15. The relationship between cognitive insight, clinical insight, and depression in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Okan; Ugurlu, Görkem Karakas; Albayrak, Yakup; Arslan, Murat; Caykoylu, Ali

    2012-02-01

    Despite comorbid depression being relatively common even in subjects with schizophrenia, to the best of our knowledge, there is, to date, no report in the literature specifically and detailed examining the cognitive and clinical insight in subjects with schizophrenia and a comorbid depressive syndrome. Hence, in this study, we sought to compare the cognitive and clinical insight in our subjects with schizophrenia with and without a comorbid depressive syndrome. We found that participants in the depressive group scored significantly higher on self-reflectiveness and the reflectiveness-certainty (R-C) index scores than those in the nondepressive group. There was no significant difference among groups on the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, and clinical insight scores assessed by the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder. In addition, self-reflectiveness scores significantly correlated with depression, observed depression, hopelessness, and suicidality subscores of the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. A better understanding of the cognitive component of insight in schizophrenia with comorbid depression may contribute to develop more efficient cognitive strategies, thus improving patient outcome. However, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of exacerbating a sense of hopelessness and suicide risk during the interventions that improve cognitive insight. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hmong Cosmology: Proposed Model, Preliminary Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent K. Her

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Is there an underlying structure to Hmong cosmology? What are its components? And how might these interrelate? In this paper, I will show that the Hmong cosmos consists of three separate realms and that these are connected together by the cycle of the human soul. Using zaaj qhuabke, I will trace the journey of the deceased and look at how ritual movement is expressive of human agency, narrative experience and community history. My insights are based on primary fieldwork research carried out for a doctoral dissertation on Hmong funeral rites in the Midwest.

  17. Insights on bovine genetic engineering and cloning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana F. Bressan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic technology has become an essential tool for the development of animal biotechnologies, and animal cloning through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT enabled the generation of genetically modified animals utilizing previously modified and selected cell lineages as nuclei donors, assuring therefore the generation of homogeneous herds expressing the desired modification. The present study aimed to discuss the use of SCNT as an important methodology for the production of transgenic herds, and also some recent insights on genetic modification of nuclei donors and possible effects of gene induction of pluripotency on SCNT.

  18. Treatment of candidiasis: insights from host genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsing, Corine E; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Netea, Mihai G

    2012-08-01

    Candida species are major causes of mucosal and invasive infections, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. Despite the development of new classes of antifungal drugs, mortality in patients with systemic candidiasis remains high. Host-Candida interaction plays an important role in effective elimination of the pathogen. Genetic studies have rendered important insights into antifungal host defense and have identified potential targets for adjunctive therapy. In this article, the authors review the genetic variations in the host defense to Candida and their implications for the treatment of mucosal and systemic candidiasis.

  19. New insights on pseudospin doublets in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desplanques, B. [Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, INPG, LPSC, Grenoble Cedex (France); Marcos, S. [Universidad de Cantabria, Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Santander (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    The relevance of pseudospin symmetry in nuclei is considered. New insights are obtained from looking at the continuous transition from a non-relativistic model satisfying spin symmetry to another one satisfying pseudospin symmetry. This study suggests that there are models allowing no missing single-particle states in this transition, contrary to what is usually advocated. It rather points to an association of pseudospin partners that is quite different from the one generally assumed, together with a strong violation of the corresponding symmetry. This assignment is supported by an examination of the wave functions and related quantities for the pseudospin partners. (orig.)

  20. Is Humanity Doomed? Insights from Astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth D. Baum

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Astrobiology, the study of life in the universe, offers profound insights into human sustainability. However, astrobiology is commonly neglected in sustainability research. This paper develops three topics connecting astrobiology to sustainability: constraints on what zones in the universe are habitable, the absence of observations of extraterrestrial civilizations, and the physical fate of the universe. These topics have major implications for our thinking and action on sustainability. While we may not be doomed, we must take certain actions to sustain ourselves in this universe. The topics also suggest that our current sustainability efforts may be of literally galactic importance.

  1. Insight into Phenomena of Symmetry Breaking Bifurcation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Tong; ZHANG Ying

    2008-01-01

    @@ We show that symmetry-breaking (SB) bifurcation is just a transition of different forms of symmetry, while still preserving system's symmetry. SB bifurcation always associates with a periodic saddle-node bifurcation, identifiable by a zero maximum of the top Lyapunov exponent of the system. In addition, we show a significant phase portrait of a newly born periodic saddle and its stable and unstable invariant manifolds, together with their neighbouring flow pattern of Poincaré mapping points just after the periodic saddle-node bifurcation, thus gaining an insight into the mechanism of SB bifurcation.

  2. Insights to regenerate materials: learning from nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aznar, J. M.; Valero, C.; Gómez-Benito, M. J.; Javierre, E.

    2016-08-01

    Self-healing materials, both biological and engineered, integrate the ability to repair themselves and recover their functionality using the resources inherently available to them. Although significant advances have been made, in recent years, for the design of different concepts of self-healing materials, this work aims to provide some insights into how living materials are able to regenerate or heal when a fracture or injury occurs. The main sensors that regulate this adaptive and regenerative behavior are the cells. These are able to sense the mechanical alterations in their surroundings and regulate their activity in order to remove dead tissue and/or create new tissue. Therefore, understanding how cells are able to regenerate tissues under complex and multiphysics conditions can define the biomimetics guidelines to heal through inert or traditional engineering materials. In this work, we present a combination of experiments and different kinds of multiscale and multiphysics models in order to understand how mechanics regulate some mechanisms at cell and tissue level. This combination of results aims to gain insight into the development of novel strategies for self-healing materials, mimicking the behavior induced by cells and biological tissues.

  3. Risk Insights Gained from Fire Incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarians, Mardy; Nowlen, Steven P.

    1999-06-10

    There now exist close to 20 years of history in the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for the analysis of fire risk at nuclear power plants. The current methods are based on various assumptions regarding fire phenomena, the impact of fire on equipment and operator response, and the overall progression of a fire event from initiation through final resolution. Over this same time period, a number of significant fire incidents have occurred at nuclear power plants around the world. Insights gained from US experience have been used in US studies as the statistical basis for establishing fire initiation frequencies both as a function of the plant area and the initiating fire source.To a lesser extent, the fire experience has also been used to assess the general severity and duration of fires. However, aside from these statistical analyses, the incidents have rarely been scrutinized in detail to verify the underlying assumptions of fire PRAs. This paper discusses an effort, under which a set of fire incidents are being reviewed in order to gain insights directly relevant to the methods, data, and assumptions that form the basis for current fire PRAs. The paper focuses on the objectives of the effort, the specific fire events being reviews methodology, and anticipated follow-on activities.

  4. The InSiGHT database : utilizing 100 years of insights into Lynch Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plazzer, J. P.; Sijmons, R. H.; Woods, M. O.; Peltomaki, P.; Thompson, B.; Den Dunnen, J. T.; Macrae, F.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a historical overview of the online database (www.insight-group.org/mutations) maintained by the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours. The focus is on the mismatch repair genes which are mutated in Lynch Syndrome. APC, MUTYH and other genes are also an

  5. Premorbid personality and insight in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Maria S; Garcia-Jalon, Elena; Gilleen, James K; David, Anthony S; Peralta, Victor M D; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2011-01-01

    Insight in psychosis and schizophrenia is considered a complex biopsychosocial phenomenon. Premorbid personality is regarded by some authors as part of the substrate to many psychiatric phenomena, but it is not clear if this applies to insight. To examine longitudinal relationships between personality traits and insight dimensions in first-episode psychosis. One hundred consecutive antipsychotic-naïve first-episode nonaffective psychotic patients admitted to hospital were included in the study. Eighty-one patients completed at 1 month a premorbid personality evaluation, plus baseline, and 6-month insight assessments. We used the Assessment and Documentation of Psychopathology inventory for assessing insight dimensions (not feeling ill, lack of insight, and refusal of treatment) and the Personality Assessment Schedule for ascertaining 5 dimensions of premorbid personality (schizoid, passive-dependent, anancastic, sociopathic, and schizotypy). At baseline, personality dimensions did not show any association with insight dimensions, with the exception of schizotypy traits. At 6 months, schizoid and sociopathic personality showed a significant association with not feeling ill (r = .30, P ≤ .007; r = .27, P = .01) and lack of insight (r = .36, P = .001; r = .41, P schizoid and sociopathic personality had moderate correlation with the lack of insight dimension (r = -.34, P = .002; r = .38, P schizoid personality significantly predicted lack of insight at 6 months and change from baseline to the 6 months assessment. Sociopathic and schizoid personality dimensions were not only significantly associated with lack of insight at 6 months but also predicted change on lack of insight over 6 months. Therefore, exploring premorbid personality traits at the beginning of a psychotic episode may be helpful in identifying patients at high risk for lack of insight during the initial course of the illness.

  6. The SEIS InSight VBB Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebut, T.; Lognonne, P. H.; Banerdt, W. B.; De Raucourt, S.; Beyneix, J.; Dandonneau, P. A.; Gabsi, T.; Robert, O.; Tillier, S.; Hurst, K. J.; Mimoun, D.; Christensen, U. R.; Bierwierth, M.; Roll, R.; Pike, W. T.; Calcutt, S. B.; Giardini, D.; Mance, D.; Zweifel, P.; Laudet, P.; Kerjean, L.; Perez, R.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The SEIS experiment is the primary payload of the Interior Structure Investigation using Seismology and Heat Transport (InSight) mission selected by NASA in August 2012 to be the next Mars mission. The objective of the InSight SEIS experiment is the determination of the deep internal structure of Mars. In particular, geophysical parameters of first importance, such as the state (liquid/solid) and size of the core, structure of the mantle, shape of discontinui-ties and thickness of the crust will be determined by the experiment. It will measure seismic activity over a very broad frequency band, from tidal frequencies (0.05 mHz) up to high frequencies (50 Hz), to address a wide range of scientific questions, from the state of the core to the meteoritic impact rate, marsquake rate and the response of the planet to the Phobos tide. Description of the instrument: The instrument includes notably a Very Broad Band (VBB) 3 axis seis-mometer which is developed by the ';Institut du Globe de Paris' (IPGP) under the funding of CNES. The sensor assembly, which also contains a MEMS short-period seismometer, will be deployed on the Martian ground by a robotic arm from a Phoenix-type lander platform and will be protected by a wind and thermal shield. The wind and thermal shield,together with a vacuum sphere and a passive compensation system will achieve a very high protection of the VBB against temperature and pressure variations, allowing the sensor to operate in the rough Martian thermal environment while reaching a detection threshold below 10-9 ms-2 Hz-1/2 in the VBB bandwidth. Conclusion: Performance has been demonstrated with previous prototypes and the SEIS experiment of the InSight mission will therefore provide high-quality seismic signal acquisition and associated seismic information during one martian year. The delivery of the payload is planned for the end of 2014 and the launch is in March 2016 SEIS deployed on the ground next to the lander Single

  7. Structural insights into microtubule doublet interactions inaxonemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Kenneth H.; Sui, Haixin

    2007-06-06

    Coordinated sliding of microtubule doublets, driven by dynein motors, produces periodic beating of the axoneme. Recent structural studies of the axoneme have used cryo-electron tomography to reveal new details of the interactions among some of the multitude of proteins that form the axoneme and regulate its movement. Connections among the several sets of dyneins, in particular, suggest ways in which their actions may be coordinated. Study of the molecular architecture of isolated doublets has provided a structural basis for understanding the doublet's mechanical properties that are related to the bending of the axoneme, and has also offered insight into its potential role in the mechanism of dynein activity regulation.

  8. New insights into thyroid hormone action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Arturo; Hollenberg, Anthony N

    2017-05-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are endocrine messengers essential for normal development and function of virtually every vertebrate. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is exquisitely modulated to maintain nearly constant TH (T4 and T3) levels in circulation. However peripheral tissues and the CNS control the intracellular availability of TH, suggesting that circulating concentrations of TH are not fully representative of what each cell type sees. Indeed, recent work in the field has identified that TH transporters, deiodinases and thyroid hormone receptor coregulators can strongly control tissue-specific sensitivity to a set amount of TH. Furthermore, the mechanism by which the thyroid hormone receptors regulate target gene expression can vary by gene, tissue and cellular context. This review will highlight novel insights into the machinery that controls the cellular response to TH, which include unique signaling cascades. These findings shed new light into the pathophysiology of human diseases caused by abnormal TH signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Imaging morphogenesis: technological advances and biological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Philipp J

    2013-06-01

    Morphogenesis, the development of the shape of an organism, is a dynamic process on a multitude of scales, from fast subcellular rearrangements and cell movements to slow structural changes at the whole-organism level. Live-imaging approaches based on light microscopy reveal the intricate dynamics of this process and are thus indispensable for investigating the underlying mechanisms. This Review discusses emerging imaging techniques that can record morphogenesis at temporal scales from seconds to days and at spatial scales from hundreds of nanometers to several millimeters. To unlock their full potential, these methods need to be matched with new computational approaches and physical models that help convert highly complex image data sets into biological insights.

  10. Tropomyosin structure and function new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuchamy, M; Rethinasamy, P; Wieczorek, D F

    1997-05-01

    Cardiac muscle contraction is dependent upon a cooperative interaction between thick and thin filament sarcomeric proteins. Tropomyosin (TM), an essential thin filament protein, interacts with actin and the troponin complex to regulate contractile activity. During muscle contraction, an increase of calcium (Ca(2+)) in the myofilament space promotes binding of Ca(2+) to troponin C, which alters the conformational state of TM and facilitates acto-myosin interactions. By coupling classic genetic approaches with recent developments in transgenic animal model systems, new insights have been provided on the functional role of TM isoforms in both normal and disease states. The focus of this article is to review the current state of knowledge on TM structure and function, with a particular emphasis on myocardial expression in transgenic mouse model systems. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:124-128). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  11. Vitamin B12: advances and insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeid, Rima

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) constitutes an amazing area of research with many hidden facets. Key milestones in this area have been developed over 10 decades. This long process of trials and errors, and search and discoveries has radically changed our understanding for the role of this nutrient...... in health and diseases. The impact of vitamin B12 on human health has been shifted from ‘treatment’ of a deadly condition to ‘prevention’ of diseases. The importance of B12 has now taken global dimensions on a population level given the high prevalence of subclinical B12 deficiency that affects many...... individuals in critical life phases. This book has been written by experts who documented latest developments in the field. It is written for individuals looking for in depth knowledge of the nutritional, chemistry, biochemistry, health and medical relevance of the vitamin. The book provides insights...

  12. Insights into Mechanisms of Chronic Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail B. Diack

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, Parkinson’s disease (PD, and prion diseases are characterised by the accumulation of abnormal conformers of a host encoded protein in the central nervous system. The process leading to neurodegeneration is still poorly defined and thus development of early intervention strategies is challenging. Unique amongst these diseases are Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases, which have the ability to transmit between individuals. The infectious nature of these diseases has permitted in vivo and in vitro modelling of the time course of the disease process in a highly reproducible manner, thus early events can be defined. Recent evidence has demonstrated that the cell-to-cell spread of protein aggregates by a “prion-like mechanism” is common among the protein misfolding diseases. Thus, the TSE models may provide insights into disease mechanisms and testable hypotheses for disease intervention, applicable to a number of these chronic neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Insight into the biosensing of graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide, a century old material has attracted the interest of researchers owing to its specific 2D structure and unique electronic, optical, thermal, mechanical and electrochemical properties. The recent advancements in the field of biotechnology and biomedical engineering are targeted at exploring the biosensing applications of graphene oxide due to its biocompatibility. It is considered to be one of the most versatile materials, with wide range of applications which can be tailored by functionalization of the different oxygen containing groups present in the structure. In this review the focus is on the biosensing applications of graphene oxide, detection of analytes with high sensitivity and selectivity. This would give insight into the designing of feasible protocols for the analysis of therapeutic diseases and environmental safety, thereby improving the quality of human life.

  14. Leprosy and tuberculosis: an insight-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tahziba

    2007-01-01

    A quick glance at this review article provides an insight into the common and different features of M. leprae and M. tuberculosis and the diseases caused by these organisms. Table I provides the popular names, history, stigma, description of the disease, clinical features, classification and the types of disease manifestations, who are affected, Signs and Symptoms, Clinical examination, treatment regimens, reactions, relapses, immunity, infectiousness, risk groups, deformities, sequelae, transmission, prevention, complications, vaccination, laboratory studies, days of importance for both the diseases. Table II provides information regarding the causative organisms, M. leprae and M. tuberculosis, their size, genome, protein coding region, lost genes, pseudogenes, classification, predilection, incubation period, ecology, cell structure, metabolism, resistance, bacterial index, growth in vitro, experimental animals, etc. Table III provides figures of M. leprae and M. tuberculosis, their genome, Lepromin and Tuberculin testing, Global scenario, Indian scenario, colonies of M. leprae and M. tuberculosis, drugs for treatment of tuberculosis and leprosy (MDT blister pack), and so on.

  15. Quantitative model validation techniques: new insights

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, You

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops new insights into quantitative methods for the validation of computational model prediction. Four types of methods are investigated, namely classical and Bayesian hypothesis testing, a reliability-based method, and an area metric-based method. Traditional Bayesian hypothesis testing is extended based on interval hypotheses on distribution parameters and equality hypotheses on probability distributions, in order to validate models with deterministic/stochastic output for given inputs. Two types of validation experiments are considered - fully characterized (all the model/experimental inputs are measured and reported as point values) and partially characterized (some of the model/experimental inputs are not measured or are reported as intervals). Bayesian hypothesis testing can minimize the risk in model selection by properly choosing the model acceptance threshold, and its results can be used in model averaging to avoid Type I/II errors. It is shown that Bayesian interval hypothesis testing...

  16. Iron homeostasis: new players, newer insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Eunice S; Bajel, Ashish; Chandy, Mammen

    2008-12-01

    Although iron is a relatively abundant element in the universe, it is estimated that more than 2 billion people worldwide suffer from iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency results in impaired production of iron-containing proteins, the most prominent of which is hemoglobin. Cellular iron deficiency inhibits cell growth and subsequently leads to cell death. Hemochromatosis, an inherited disorder results in disproportionate absorption of iron and the extra iron builds up in tissues resulting in organ damage. As both iron deficiency and iron overload have adverse effects, cellular and systemic iron homeostasis is critically important. Recent advances in the field of iron metabolism have led to newer understanding of the pathways involved in iron homeostasis and the diseases which arise from alteration in the regulators. Although insight into this complex regulation of the proteins involved in iron homeostasis has been obtained mainly through animal studies, it is most likely that this knowledge can be directly extrapolated to humans.

  17. Intravital microscopy: new insights into cellular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavins, Felicity N E

    2012-10-01

    Inflammation is the body's way of combating invading pathogens or noxious stimuli. Under normal conditions, the complex host response of rubor, dolor, calor, tumor, and functio laesa is essential for survival and the return to homeostasis. However, unregulated inflammation is all too often observed in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, stroke, and cancer. The host inflammatory response is governed by a number of tightly regulated processes that enable cellular trafficking to occur at the sites of damage to ultimately ensure the resolution of inflammation. Intravital microscopy (IVM) provides quantitative, qualitative, and dynamic insights into cell biology and these cellular interactions. This review highlights the pros and cons of this specialized technique and how it has evolved to help understand the physiology and pathophysiology of inflammatory events in a number of different disease states, leading to a number of potential therapeutic targets for drug discovery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [New insights in adrenal Cushing syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haissaguerre, M; Tabarin, A

    2014-10-01

    The development of molecular biology tools has allowed major advances in the genetic determinism and the pathophysiology of pheochromocytomas and Conn's adenomas. However, the molecular pathophysiology of ACTH-independent Cushing's Syndrome was mostly unknown until recently. In 2014, major new insights concerning the physiopathology of ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasias (AIMAH) and the cortisol-secreting adenomas have been published. Elsewhere, the cardiovascular consequences of the subclinical hypercortisolism due to adrenal incidentalomas, was described only in some cross-sectional studies. The natural history of these lesions has been documented in two large follow-up studies. These new data presented during the Endocrine Congress are summarized herein. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Teaching insights from adult learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Cassandra Volpe

    2007-01-01

    How do undergraduate and graduate students learn? How can we use what we know about the learning process to teach more effectively? While the research has yet to connect fundamental processes in the brain to what we do as teachers with certainty, the past half-century of work on adult learning has produced several useful theories that can inform instructional choices. This article provides an overview of three learning models that yield insights into teaching practice--novice/expert behaviors, cognitive development, and learning styles--along with ways in which instructors can draw on these models in course planning and classroom teaching. Application of the theories toward refinement, reduction, and replacement of live animals in the veterinary medical curriculum is also discussed.

  20. Insights into software development in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Lorraine M.

    1992-01-01

    The interdependence of the U.S.-Japanese economies makes it imperative that we in the United States understand how business and technology developments take place in Japan. We can gain insight into these developments in software engineering by studying the context in which Japanese software is developed, the practices that are used, the problems encountered, the setting surrounding these problems, and the resolution of these problems. Context includes the technological and sociological characteristics of the software development environment, the software processes applied, personnel involved in the development process, and the corporate and social culture surrounding the development. Presented in this paper is a summary of results of a study that addresses these issues. Data for this study was collected during a three month visit to Japan where the author interviewed 20 software managers representing nine companies involved in developing software in Japan. These data are compared to similar data from the United States in which 12 managers from five companies were interviewed.

  1. Novel insights into adrenal insufficiency in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Shraga, Y; Pinhas-Hamiel, O

    2014-12-01

    Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a rare disease in childhood and adolescence that results from disruption in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Pediatricians should be familiar with this entity since acute adrenal crisis is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate treatment. In the early stages of AI, the clinical manifestations may be subtle and non-specific; thus, they are frequently unrecognized. The main therapeutic approach in all forms of adrenal insufficiency is glucocorticoid replacement; the dose should be titrated appropriately to avoid under or overtreatment. Patient and family education is particularly important, to enable adjustment of dosage replacement therapy during stress and to prevent crisis. This article summarizes the current knowledge of AI and provides new insights on its management in children.

  2. Function of hippocampus in "insight" of problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Niki, Kazuhisa

    2003-01-01

    Since the work of Wolfgang Kohler, the process of "insight" in problem solving has been the subject of considerable investigation. Yet, the neural correlates of "insight" remain unknown. Theoretically, "insight" means the reorientation of one's thinking, including breaking of the unwarranted "fixation" and forming of novel, task-related associations among the old nodes of concepts or cognitive skills. Processes closely related to these aspects have been implicated in the hippocampus. In this research, the neural correlates of "insight" were investigated using Japanese riddles, by imaging the answer presentation and comprehension events, just after participants failed to resolve them. The results of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis demonstrated that the right hippocampus was critically highlighted and that a wide cerebral cortex was also involved in this "insight" event. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first neuroimaging study to have investigated the neural correlates of "insight" in problem solving.

  3. The art of insight in science and engineering mastering complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, Sanjoy

    2014-01-01

    In this book, Sanjoy Mahajan shows us that the way to master complexity is through insight rather than precision. Precision can overwhelm us with information, whereas insight connects seemingly disparate pieces of information into a simple picture. Unlike computers, humans depend on insight. Based on the author's fifteen years of teaching at MIT, Cambridge University, and Olin College, The Art of Insight in Science and Engineering shows us how to build insight and find understanding, giving readers tools to help them solve any problem in science and engineering. To master complexity, we can organize it or discard it. The Art of Insight in Science and Engineering first teaches the tools for organizing complexity, then distinguishes the two paths for discarding complexity: with and without loss of information. Questions and problems throughout the text help readers master and apply these groups of tools. Armed with this three-part toolchest, and without complicated mathematics, readers can estimate the flight ...

  4. INSIGHT Responsive Parenting Intervention and Infant Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ian M; Savage, Jennifer S; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Marini, Michele E; Mindell, Jodi A; Birch, Leann L

    2016-07-01

    Inadequate sleep during infancy is associated with adverse outcomes for infants and families. We sought to improve sleep behaviors and duration through a responsive parenting (RP) intervention designed for obesity prevention. The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) study is a randomized trial comparing a RP intervention with a safety control. Primiparous mother-newborn dyads were randomized after childbirth, and research nurses delivered intervention content at home visits at infant ages 3, 16, 28, and 40 weeks and at a research center visit at 1 year. The RP sleep component included developmentally appropriate messages about bedtime routines, sleep location and behaviors, and responses to wakings. Portions of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire were administered 2, 8, and 52 weeks after birth with expanded sleep-related data collection at 16 and 40 weeks. Two hundred and seventy-nine dyads completed the first home visit; 90.7% completed the 1-year visit. Compared with controls, RP group infants were less likely to have prolonged bedtime routines >45 minutes and more likely to have earlier bedtimes at 16 and 40 weeks. They were less likely to be fed immediately before bed and more likely to self-soothe to sleep. At 8, 16, and 40 weeks, RP group nocturnal sleep duration was longer by 35, 25, and 22 minutes, respectively (P < .05 for all). Sleep duration at 1 year was similar between groups. The INSIGHT RP intervention positively influenced developmentally appropriate bedtime routines, sleep-related behaviors, and sleep duration for infants. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Diary Insights of an EFL Reading Teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopera Medina Sergio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that classroom diaries are subjective. This article explores the diary insights of a foreign language reading teacher. The inquiry was based on the following research question: What do the diary insights really evidence about the teaching practices of a foreign language reading teacher? As a research method, a case study was implemented. Five instruments were used to collect data: diary of the teacher, observations, questionnaires, tests, and focus groups. Given that motivation, interaction, reading improvement, and the application of reading strategies were supported by the research instruments, it would seem that a diary can be objective.A menudo se argumenta que los diarios de clase son subjetivos. En este artículo se exploran las apreciaciones que un profesor de lectura en inglés como lengua extranjera registra en su diario. La indagación se basó en la siguiente pregunta de investigación: ¿Qué apoya realmente las anotaciones de diario acerca de las prácticas de enseñanza de un profesor de lectura en lengua extranjera? Como método de estudio se implementó el estudio de caso. Se utilizaron cinco instrumentos para recolectar la información: diario del profesor, observaciones de clase, cuestionarios, exámenes y grupos focales. Dado que estos instrumentos de investigación incidieron en la motivación, la interacción, la mejoría en lectura y en la aplicación de las estrategias de lecturas, se podría concluir que un diario puede ser objetivo.

  6. Insights from simulations of star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Richard B [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Although the basic physics of star formation is classical, numerical simulations have yielded essential insights into how stars form. They show that star formation is a highly nonuniform runaway process characterized by the emergence of nearly singular peaks in density, followed by the accretional growth of embryo stars that form at these density peaks. Circumstellar discs often form from the gas being accreted by the forming stars, and accretion from these discs may be episodic, driven by gravitational instabilities or by protostellar interactions. Star-forming clouds typically develop filamentary structures, which may, along with the thermal physics, play an important role in the origin of stellar masses because of the sensitivity of filament fragmentation to temperature variations. Simulations of the formation of star clusters show that the most massive stars form by continuing accretion in the dense cluster cores, and this again is a runaway process that couples star formation and cluster formation. Star-forming clouds also tend to develop hierarchical structures, and smaller groups of forming objects tend to merge into progressively larger ones, a generic feature of self-gravitating systems that is common to star formation and galaxy formation. Because of the large range of scales and the complex dynamics involved, analytic models cannot adequately describe many aspects of star formation, and detailed numerical simulations are needed to advance our understanding of the subject. 'The purpose of computing is insight, not numbers.' Richard W Hamming, in Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers (1962) 'There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy.' William Shakespeare, in Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (1604) (key issues review)

  7. Premorbid Personality and Insight in First-Episode Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Maria S.; Garcia-Jalon, Elena; Gilleen, James K.; David, Anthony S.; Peralta MD, Victor; Cuesta, Manuel J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Insight in psychosis and schizophrenia is considered a complex biopsychosocial phenomenon. Premorbid personality is regarded by some authors as part of the substrate to many psychiatric phenomena, but it is not clear if this applies to insight. Aim: To examine longitudinal relationships between personality traits and insight dimensions in first-episode psychosis. Methods: One hundred consecutive antipsychotic-naïve first-episode nonaffective psychotic patients admitted to hospital...

  8. INSIGHT AND SELF-STIGMA IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Domagoj; Brecić, Petrana; Vilibić, Maja; Jukić, Vlado

    2016-03-01

    Poor insight and high level of self-stigma are often present among patients with schizophrenia and are related to poorer treatment adherence, poorer social function and rehabilitation, aggressive behavior, higher level of depression, social anxiety, lower quality of life and self-esteem. Reports on a relationship between insight and stigma are controversial. We examined the relationship of the level of insight and self-stigma in a sample of 149 patients with schizophrenia. Insight was measured with the Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder and self-stigma with the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness. Results showed 88.6% of the patients to have high or moderate insight, with a mean value of 2.73. General insight showed the highest level (2.58) and insight in positive symptoms the lowest level (2.9). The self-stigma score in general was 2.13, with stereotype endorsement being lowest (1.98). According to study results, 77.1% of patients felt minimal or low self-stigma across all subscales, except for stigma resistance subscale. Statistically significant correlation was found between insight and four subscales of self-stigma, while no correlation was found for the stigma resistance subscale only. These results imply the need of individually tailored antistigma and insight promoting programs for patients with schizophrenia.

  9. Impact of interpersonal factors on insight in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélène, Tastet; Hélène, Verdoux; Jean, Bouisson; Jean-Marc, Destaillats; Antoinette, Prouteau

    2014-11-01

    Whereas clinical insight in schizophrenia has been consistently associated with personal factors (i.e. sociodemographic characteristics, symptoms or cognition), little is known about its relationships with interpersonal factors (i.e. close environment and personal characteristics involved in social interactions). Most of the few studies available have focused on one particular interpersonal factor, such as social cognition, contact frequencies or therapeutic alliance. To date, no study has explored the specificity of associations between clinical insight and different levels of interpersonal factors, neither if these associations are independent of personal factors. Associations between insight and interpersonal factors were explored through multiple regression in a sample of 80 outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Lower insight was associated with lower interpersonal functioning, independently from personal factors such as age, gender, age at first hospitalization, executive functioning and symptoms. Our findings replicate previous studies with regard to the associations between clinician-rated insight and social cognition or social contact frequencies. They also provide new information about specific associations between clinician-rated insight and perceived social support as well as between patient-rated insight and therapeutic alliance. Finally, models of insight based on personal factors were significantly improved by the inclusion of interpersonal factors. These results strongly support the crucial role of interpersonal factors in insight, both from the clinician's and the patient's point of view. These exploratory data require further replication.

  10. A Case Study Using Visualization Interaction Logs and Insight Metrics to Understand How Analysts Arrive at Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hua; Gomez, Steven R; Ziemkiewicz, Caroline; Laidlaw, David H

    2016-01-01

    We present results from an experiment aimed at using logs of interactions with a visual analytics application to better understand how interactions lead to insight generation. We performed an insight-based user study of a visual analytics application and ran post hoc quantitative analyses of participants' measured insight metrics and interaction logs. The quantitative analyses identified features of interaction that were correlated with insight characteristics, and we confirmed these findings using a qualitative analysis of video captured during the user study. Results of the experiment include design guidelines for the visual analytics application aimed at supporting insight generation. Furthermore, we demonstrated an analysis method using interaction logs that identified which interaction patterns led to insights, going beyond insight-based evaluations that only quantify insight characteristics. We also discuss choices and pitfalls encountered when applying this analysis method, such as the benefits and costs of applying an abstraction framework to application-specific actions before further analysis. Our method can be applied to evaluations of other visualization tools to inform the design of insight-promoting interactions and to better understand analyst behaviors.

  11. Insight and satisfaction with life among adolescents with mental disorders: assessing associations with self-stigma and parental insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziel, M; Hasson-Ohayon, I; Morag-Yaffe, M; Schapir, L; Zalsman, G; Shoval, G

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the associations of illness perception-related variables with satisfaction with life (SwL) among adolescents with mental disorders. Insight into mental disorder (SAI-E), Internalized stigma of mental illness (ISMI) and Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS) were administrated to 30 adolescent patients. Adapted version for parents of the SAI-E was also administrated to 37 of their parents. Significant positive correlations were found between insight into the illness, self-stigma and parental insight. Insight and self-stigma were significantly negatively related to the total score of SwL and few of its dimensions while parental insight was significantly associated only with the SwL dimensions of school and self. Regression models revealed main negative effects of insight and self-stigma on SwL and no interaction effect. The possible independent contribution of insight and self-stigma to SwL should be addressed in interventions designed for family and adolescents coping with mental illness. Special attention should be given to the possible negative implications that insight possesses. In lack of support of the moderation role of self-stigma, reported in studies among adults with mental illness, future studies should trace other variables in order to further understand the insight paradox among adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. New observation techniques lead to new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenije, H. H. G.

    2009-04-01

    Most scientific discoveries are the result of new observations. A researcher who observes something that at first sight seems odd is triggered to think beyond the obvious. The obvious often corresponds with an established theory. The interesting moment arises when an observation challenges established theory. Some researchers may then be inclined to get rid of the unexpected observation, so as not to harm the well-established theory, while others see it as an opportunity to improve the theory. New observations, from a different or unexpected angle, may offer a new perspective on a physical phenomenon, and hence are important triggers for innovation. Established theory has not been able to provide adequate answers to the high predictive uncertainty of most hydrological models. Several hydrologists have indicated that our fixture on catchment runoff as the main state variable for calibration is partly to blame for that. What we indeed need is 'orthogonal' information that provides a perspective into the inner functioning of a catchment, preferably as an integrated signal at the scale of our model. Some observation techniques offer themselves to hydrology as an opportunity (since they were developed for other purposes). Good examples of such opportunities are: the GRACE mission, which offers insights into stock variations at the river basin scale; new satellites providing insight into the state of vegetation and the processes determining evaporation; LIDAR, providing detailed DEMs, and the cellular telephone network, which allows high resolution estimates of rainfall reaching the surface. Also there are new instruments that can be readily used for hydrological research, such as the DTS (distributed temperature sensing) fiber optic cable, or the Liquid-Water Isotope Analyser. But there are also instruments that can be developed specifically to get a better grip on a particular process or its spatial distribution. Recently instruments have been developed to continuously

  13. Training Insight Problem Solving through Focus on Barriers and Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walinga, Jennifer; Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has reported successful training interventions that improve insight problem solving. In some ways this is surprising, because the processes involved in insight solutions are often assumed to be unconscious, whereas the training interventions focus on conscious cognitive strategies. We propose one mechanism that may help to explain…

  14. Productive and Re-Productive Thinking in Solving Insight Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

    2014-01-01

    Many innovations in organizations result when people discover insightful solutions to problems. Insightful problem-solving was considered by Gestalt psychologists to be associated with productive, as opposed to re-productive, thinking. Productive thinking is characterized by shifts in perspective which allow the problem solver to consider new,…

  15. Mind Wandering and the Incubation Effect in Insight Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tengteng; Zou, Hong; Chen, Chuansheng; Luo, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Although many anecdotes suggest that creative insights often arise during mind wandering, empirical research is still sparse. In this study, the number reduction task (NRT) was used to assess whether insightful solutions were related to mind wandering during the incubation stage of the creative process. An experience sampling paradigm was used to…

  16. Neural activity when people solve verbal problems with insight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Jung-Beeman

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available People sometimes solve problems with a unique process called insight, accompanied by an "Aha!" experience. It has long been unclear whether different cognitive and neural processes lead to insight versus noninsight solutions, or if solutions differ only in subsequent subjective feeling. Recent behavioral studies indicate distinct patterns of performance and suggest differential hemispheric involvement for insight and noninsight solutions. Subjects solved verbal problems, and after each correct solution indicated whether they solved with or without insight. We observed two objective neural correlates of insight. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (Experiment 1 revealed increased activity in the right hemisphere anterior superior temporal gyrus for insight relative to noninsight solutions. The same region was active during initial solving efforts. Scalp electroencephalogram recordings (Experiment 2 revealed a sudden burst of high-frequency (gamma-band neural activity in the same area beginning 0.3 s prior to insight solutions. This right anterior temporal area is associated with making connections across distantly related information during comprehension. Although all problem solving relies on a largely shared cortical network, the sudden flash of insight occurs when solvers engage distinct neural and cognitive processes that allow them to see connections that previously eluded them.

  17. Insight in Schizophrenia : Involvement of Self-Reflection Networks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Lisette; de Vos, Annerieke E.; Stiekema, Annemarie P. M.; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H. M.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Nolen, Willem A.; David, Anthony S.; Aleman, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired insight is a common feature in psychosis and an important predictor of variables such as functional outcome, prognosis, and treatment adherence. A cognitive process that may underlie insight in psychosis is self-reflection, or the conscious evaluation of one's traits and charact

  18. Monoamine transporters: Insights from molecular dynamics simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eGrouleff

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The human monoamine transporters facilitate the reuptake of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine from the synaptic cleft. Imbalance in monoaminergic neurotransmission is linked to various diseases including major depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease. Inhibition of the monoamine transporters is thus an important strategy for treatment of such diseases. The monoamine transporters are sodium-coupled transport proteins belonging to the neurotransmitter/Na+ symporter (NSS family, and the publication of the first high-resolution structure of a NSS family member, the bacterial leucine transporter LeuT, in 2005, proved to be a major stepping stone for understanding this family of transporters. Structural data allows for the use of computational methods to study the monoamine transporters, which in turn has led to a number of important discoveries. The process of substrate translocation across the membrane is an intrinsically dynamic process. Molecular dynamics simulations, which can provide atomistic details of molecular motion on ns to ms timescales, are therefore well-suited for studying transport processes. In this review, we outline how molecular dynamics simulations have provided insight into the large scale motions associated with transport of the neurotransmitters, as well as the presence of external and internal gates, the coupling between ion and substrate transport, and differences in the conformational changes induced by substrates and inhibitors.

  19. Causal inference, probability theory, and graphical insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stuart G

    2013-11-10

    Causal inference from observational studies is a fundamental topic in biostatistics. The causal graph literature typically views probability theory as insufficient to express causal concepts in observational studies. In contrast, the view here is that probability theory is a desirable and sufficient basis for many topics in causal inference for the following two reasons. First, probability theory is generally more flexible than causal graphs: Besides explaining such causal graph topics as M-bias (adjusting for a collider) and bias amplification and attenuation (when adjusting for instrumental variable), probability theory is also the foundation of the paired availability design for historical controls, which does not fit into a causal graph framework. Second, probability theory is the basis for insightful graphical displays including the BK-Plot for understanding Simpson's paradox with a binary confounder, the BK2-Plot for understanding bias amplification and attenuation in the presence of an unobserved binary confounder, and the PAD-Plot for understanding the principal stratification component of the paired availability design.

  20. Computational insight into nitration of human myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Wu; Shu, Xiao-Gang; Du, Ke-Jie; Nie, Chang-Ming; Wen, Ge-Bo

    2014-10-01

    Protein nitration is an important post-translational modification regulating protein structure and function, especially for heme proteins. Myoglobin (Mb) is an ideal protein model for investigating the structure and function relationship of heme proteins. With limited structural information available for nitrated heme proteins from experiments, we herein performed a molecular dynamics study of human Mb with successive nitration of Tyr103, Tyr146, Trp7 and Trp14. We made a detailed comparison of protein motions, intramolecular contacts and internal cavities of nitrated Mbs with that of native Mb. It showed that although nitration of both Tyr103 and Tyr146 slightly alters the local conformation of heme active site, further nitration of both Trp7 and Trp14 shifts helix A apart from the rest of protein, which results in altered internal cavities and forms a water channel, representing an initial stage of Mb unfolding. The computational study provides an insight into the nitration of heme proteins at an atomic level, which is valuable for understanding the structure and function relationship of heme proteins in non-native states by nitration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. New insights in prolactin: pathological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Valérie; Young, Jacques; Chanson, Philippe; Binart, Nadine

    2015-05-01

    Prolactin is a hormone that is mainly secreted by lactotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland, and is involved in many biological processes including lactation and reproduction. Animal models have provided insights into the biology of prolactin proteins and offer compelling evidence that the different prolactin isoforms each have independent biological functions. The major isoform, 23 kDa prolactin, acts via its membrane receptor, the prolactin receptor (PRL-R), which is a member of the haematopoietic cytokine superfamily and for which the mechanism of activation has been deciphered. The 16 kDa prolactin isoform is a cleavage product derived from native prolactin, which has received particular attention as a result of its newly described inhibitory effects on angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. The discovery of multiple extrapituitary sites of prolactin secretion also increases the range of known functions of this hormone. This Review summarizes current knowledge of the biology of prolactin and its receptor, as well as its physiological and pathological roles. We focus on the role of prolactin in human pathophysiology, particularly the discovery of the mechanism underlying infertility associated with hyperprolactinaemia and the identification of the first mutation in human PRLR.

  2. Statistical insights into major human muscular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shakti; Kim, Sung-Min; Wang, Yu; Dinasarapu, Ashok Reddy; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2014-07-15

    Muscular diseases lead to muscle fiber degeneration, impairment of mobility, and in some cases premature death. Many of these muscular diseases are largely idiopathic. The goal of this study was to identify biomarkers based on their functional role and possible mechanisms of pathogenesis, specific to individual muscular disease. We analyzed the muscle transcriptome from five major muscular diseases: acute quadriplegic myopathy (AQM), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM) using pairwise statistical comparison to identify uniquely regulated genes in each muscular disease. The genome-wide information encoded in the transcriptome provided biomarkers and functional insights into dysregulation in each muscular disease. The analysis showed that the dysregulation of genes in forward membrane pathway, responsible for transmitting action potential from neural excitation, is unique to AQM, while the dysregulation of myofibril genes, determinant of the mechanical properties of muscle, is unique to ALS, dysregulation of ER protein processing, responsible for correct protein folding, is unique to DM, and upregulation of immune response genes is unique to PM. We have identified biomarkers specific to each muscular disease which can be used for diagnostic purposes.

  3. The ADVANCE project: Insights and achievments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    ADVANCE [Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation ConcEpt] was a public/private partnership conceived and developed by four founding parties. The founding parties include the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), the University of Illinois at Chicago and Northwestern University operating together under the auspices of the Illinois Universities Transportation Research Consortium (IUTRC), and Motorola, Inc. The major responsibilities of each party are fully described in the Project agreement. Subsequently, these four were joined on the Steering Committee by the American Automobile Association (AAA). This unique blending of public sector, private sector and university interests, augmented by more than two dozen other private sector participants, provided a strong set of resources for ADVANCE. The ADVANCE test area covered over 300 square miles including portions of the City of Chicago and 40 northwest suburban communities. The Project encompasses the high growth areas adjacent to O`Hare International Airport, the Schaumburg/Hoffman Estates office and retail complexes, and the Lake-Cook Road development corridor. It also includes major sports and entertainment complexes such as the Arlington International Racecourse and the Rosemont Horizon. The population in the area is more than 750,000. The Insights and Perspectives Compendium is intended to provide useful information to project managers, system developers, and system integrators of future similar ITS implementations. It is intended for those that are technically interested in the ADVANCE Project and have a basic understanding of the project.

  4. Insights from genomics into bacterial pathogen populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Wilson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens impose a heavy burden of disease on human populations worldwide. The gravest threats are posed by highly virulent respiratory pathogens, enteric pathogens, and HIV-associated infections. Tuberculosis alone is responsible for the deaths of 1.5 million people annually. Treatment options for bacterial pathogens are being steadily eroded by the evolution and spread of drug resistance. However, population-level whole genome sequencing offers new hope in the fight against pathogenic bacteria. By providing insights into bacterial evolution and disease etiology, these approaches pave the way for novel interventions and therapeutic targets. Sequencing populations of bacteria across the whole genome provides unprecedented resolution to investigate (i within-host evolution, (ii transmission history, and (iii population structure. Moreover, advances in rapid benchtop sequencing herald a new era of real-time genomics in which sequencing and analysis can be deployed within hours in response to rapidly changing public health emergencies. The purpose of this review is to highlight the transformative effect of population genomics on bacteriology, and to consider the prospects for answering abiding questions such as why bacteria cause disease.

  5. Thermodynamics Insights for the Redshift Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Jian; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2015-01-01

    The secular redshift drift is a potential measurement to directly probe the cosmic expansion. Previous study on the redshift drift mainly focused on the model-dependent simulation. Apparently, the physical insights on the redshift drift are very necessary. So in this paper, it is investigated using thermodynamics on the apparent, Hubble and event horizons. Thermodynamics could analytically present the model-independent upper bounds of redshift drift. For specific assumption on the cosmological parameters, we find that the thermodynamics bounds are nearly one order of magnitude larger than the expectation in standard ΛCDM model. We then examine ten observed redshift drift from Green Bank Telescope at redshift 0.09 < z < 0.69, and find that these observational results are inconsistent with the thermodynamics. The size of the errorbars on these measurements is about three orders of magnitude larger than the effect of thermodynamical bounds for the redshift drift. Obviously, we have not yet hit any instrumental systematics at the shift level of 1m s-1 yr-1.

  6. Modelling marine protected areas: insights and hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Elizabeth A; Bax, Nicholas J; Bustamante, Rodrigo H; Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Dichmont, Catherine; Dunstan, Piers K; Hayes, Keith R; Hobday, Alistair J; Pitcher, Roland; Plagányi, Éva E; Punt, André E; Savina-Rolland, Marie; Smith, Anthony D M; Smith, David C

    2015-11-05

    Models provide useful insights into conservation and resource management issues and solutions. Their use to date has highlighted conditions under which no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) may help us to achieve the goals of ecosystem-based management by reducing pressures, and where they might fail to achieve desired goals. For example, static reserve designs are unlikely to achieve desired objectives when applied to mobile species or when compromised by climate-related ecosystem restructuring and range shifts. Modelling tools allow planners to explore a range of options, such as basing MPAs on the presence of dynamic oceanic features, and to evaluate the potential future impacts of alternative interventions compared with 'no-action' counterfactuals, under a range of environmental and development scenarios. The modelling environment allows the analyst to test if indicators and management strategies are robust to uncertainties in how the ecosystem (and the broader human-ecosystem combination) operates, including the direct and indirect ecological effects of protection. Moreover, modelling results can be presented at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and relative to ecological, economic and social objectives. This helps to reveal potential 'surprises', such as regime shifts, trophic cascades and bottlenecks in human responses. Using illustrative examples, this paper briefly covers the history of the use of simulation models for evaluating MPA options, and discusses their utility and limitations for informing protected area management in the marine realm. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. Monoamine transporters: insights from molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grouleff, Julie; Ladefoged, Lucy Kate; Koldsø, Heidi; Schiøtt, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    The human monoamine transporters (MATs) facilitate the reuptake of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine from the synaptic cleft. Imbalance in monoaminergic neurotransmission is linked to various diseases including major depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease. Inhibition of the MATs is thus an important strategy for treatment of such diseases. The MATs are sodium-coupled transport proteins belonging to the neurotransmitter/Na+ symporter (NSS) family, and the publication of the first high-resolution structure of a NSS family member, the bacterial leucine transporter LeuT, in 2005, proved to be a major stepping stone for understanding this family of transporters. Structural data allows for the use of computational methods to study the MATs, which in turn has led to a number of important discoveries. The process of substrate translocation across the membrane is an intrinsically dynamic process. Molecular dynamics simulations, which can provide atomistic details of molecular motion on ns to ms timescales, are therefore well-suited for studying transport processes. In this review, we outline how molecular dynamics simulations have provided insight into the large scale motions associated with transport of the neurotransmitters, as well as the presence of external and internal gates, the coupling between ion and substrate transport, and differences in the conformational changes induced by substrates and inhibitors. PMID:26528185

  8. Understanding cochleate formation: insights into structural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarsekar, Kalpa; Ashtikar, Mukul; Steiniger, Frank; Thamm, Jana; Schacher, Felix; Fahr, Alfred

    2016-04-20

    Understanding the structure and the self-assembly process of cochleates has become increasingly necessary considering the advances of this drug delivery system towards the pharmaceutical industry. It is well known that the addition of cations like calcium to a dispersion of anionic lipids such as phosphatidylserines results in stable, multilamellar cochleates through a spontaneous assembly. In the current investigation we have studied the intermediate structures generated during this self-assembly of cochleates. To achieve this, we have varied the process temperature for altering the rate of cochleate formation. Our findings from electron microscopy studies showed the formation of ribbonlike structures, which with proceeding interaction associate to form lipid stacks, networks and eventually cochleates. We also observed that the variation in lipid acyl chains did not make a remarkable difference to the type of structure evolved during the formation of cochleates. More generally, our observations provide a new insight into the self-assembly process of cochleates based on which we have proposed a pathway for cochleate formation from phosphatidylserine and calcium. This knowledge could be employed in using cochleates for a variety of possible biomedical applications in the future.

  9. Latest insights on adenovirus structure and assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín, Carmen

    2012-05-01

    Adenovirus (AdV) capsid organization is considerably complex, not only because of its large size (~950 Å) and triangulation number (pseudo T = 25), but also because it contains four types of minor proteins in specialized locations modulating the quasi-equivalent icosahedral interactions. Up until 2009, only its major components (hexon, penton, and fiber) had separately been described in atomic detail. Their relationships within the virion, and the location of minor coat proteins, were inferred from combining the known crystal structures with increasingly more detailed cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) maps. There was no structural information on assembly intermediates. Later on that year, two reports described the structural differences between the mature and immature adenoviral particle, starting to shed light on the different stages of viral assembly, and giving further insights into the roles of core and minor coat proteins during morphogenesis [1,2]. Finally, in 2010, two papers describing the atomic resolution structure of the complete virion appeared [3,4]. These reports represent a veritable tour de force for two structural biology techniques: X-ray crystallography and cryoEM, as this is the largest macromolecular complex solved at high resolution by either of them. In particular, the cryoEM analysis provided an unprecedented clear picture of the complex protein networks shaping the icosahedral shell. Here I review these latest developments in the field of AdV structural studies.

  10. Marketing Green Fertilizers: Insights into Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Dahlin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to support the long-term viability of the bioenergy industry through an end market for digestate, we investigated purchasing preferences for fertilizer product features in the home gardening market. We conducted a discrete choice experiment (DCE, presenting 504 respondents with a total of 6048 product attribute choices in a simulated context that replicated the tradeoff decisions made in the real marketplace. We analyzed the choice data using a hierarchical Bayes estimate to generate part-worth utilities for fertilizer product attributes. We then conducted a latent class analysis to identify market segments that could be expected to respond to differentiated product design strategies. We were able to quantify both purchasing preferences for fertilizer product attributes as well as the importance of each attribute to the perceived utility of a product. We were further able to identify five distinct market segments that make clear the potential for differentiated strategies in the home gardening market. We found both negative and positive price sensitivities, with sociodemographically distinct subgroups that favored low-, mid-, and high-priced products. We also found purchasing preferences for brand status, product labeling and nutrient values. Our results provide insights that should help product managers in the biogas industry develop marketing strategies to integrate digestate into a sustainable energy production system.

  11. Lipodystrophy: metabolic insights from a rare disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Doran, Isabel; Sleigh, Alison; Rochford, Justin J; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Savage, David B

    2010-12-01

    Obesity, insulin resistance and their attendant complications are among the leading causes of morbidity and premature mortality today, yet we are only in the early stages of understanding the molecular pathogenesis of these aberrant phenotypes. A powerful approach has been the study of rare patients with monogenic syndromes that manifest as extreme phenotypes. For example, there are striking similarities between the biochemical and clinical profiles of individuals with excess fat (obesity) and those with an abnormal paucity of fat (lipodystrophy), including severe insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, hepatic steatosis and features of hyperandrogenism. Rare lipodystrophy patients therefore provide a tractable genetically defined model for the study of a prevalent human disease phenotype. Indeed, as we review herein, detailed study of these syndromes is beginning to yield valuable insights into the molecular genetics underlying different forms of lipodystrophy, the essential components of normal adipose tissue development and the mechanisms by which disturbances in adipose tissue function can lead to almost all the features of the metabolic syndrome.

  12. Structural insight into Slit-Robo signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenester, Erhard

    2008-04-01

    Drosophila Slit and its vertebrate orthologues Slit1-Slit3 are secreted glycoproteins that play important roles in the development of the nervous system and other organs. Human Slits are also involved in a number of pathological situations, such as cancer and inflammation. Slits exert their effects by activating receptors of the Robo (Roundabout) family, which resemble cell adhesion molecules in their ectodomains and have large, mainly unstructured cytosolic domains. HS (heparan sulfate) is required for Slit-Robo signalling. The hallmark of Slit proteins is a tandem of four LRR (leucine-rich repeat) domains, which mediate binding to the IG (immunoglobulin-like) domains of Robos. A major question is how Slit binding is translated into the recruitment of effector molecules to the cytosolic domain of Robo. Detailed structure-function studies have shown that the second LRR domain of Slit (D2) binds to the first two IG domains of Robo, and that HS serves to stabilize the Slit-Robo interaction and is required for biological activity of Slit D2. Very recently, the crystal structure of a minimal Slit-Robo complex revealed that the IG1 domain of Robo is bound by the concave face of Slit D2, confirming earlier mutagenesis data. To define the mechanism of Robo transmembrane signalling, these structural insights will have to be complemented by new cell biology and microscopy approaches.

  13. Hydrogeology of Montserrat review and new insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brioch Hemmings

    2015-03-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: A new groundwater recharge model predicts whole island recharge of 266 mm/year, between 10% and 20% of annual rainfall. Core scale permeability tests reveal ranges from 10−14 to 10−12 m2 for volcaniclastic rocks with coarse matrix, to a minimum of 10−18 m2 for andesitic lavas and volcaniclastics with fine or altered matrix. Analysis of historical pumping tests on aquifers in reworked, channel and alluvial sediment indicate permeabilities ∼10−10 m2. Springs at elevations between 200 and 400 m above mean sea level on Centre Hills currently discharge over 45 L/s. High discharge require a reasonably laterally continuous low permeability body. Contrasting conceptual models are presented to illustrate two potential hydrogeological scenarios. New field observations also reveal systematic spatial variations in spring water temperature and specific electrical conductivity indicating that meteoric waters supplying the springs are mixed with a deeper groundwater source at some sites.

  14. Latest Insights on Adenovirus Structure and Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen San Martín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adenovirus (AdV capsid organization is considerably complex, not only because of its large size (~950 Å and triangulation number (pseudo T = 25, but also because it contains four types of minor proteins in specialized locations modulating the quasi-equivalent icosahedral interactions. Up until 2009, only its major components (hexon, penton, and fiber had separately been described in atomic detail. Their relationships within the virion, and the location of minor coat proteins, were inferred from combining the known crystal structures with increasingly more detailed cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM maps. There was no structural information on assembly intermediates. Later on that year, two reports described the structural differences between the mature and immature adenoviral particle, starting to shed light on the different stages of viral assembly, and giving further insights into the roles of core and minor coat proteins during morphogenesis [1,2]. Finally, in 2010, two papers describing the atomic resolution structure of the complete virion appeared [3,4]. These reports represent a veritable tour de force for two structural biology techniques: X-ray crystallography and cryoEM, as this is the largest macromolecular complex solved at high resolution by either of them. In particular, the cryoEM analysis provided an unprecedented clear picture of the complex protein networks shaping the icosahedral shell. Here I review these latest developments in the field of AdV structural studies.

  15. Insights from a Modular Interdisciplinary Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.; Carmona, V.

    2016-12-01

    A laboratory curriculum is naturally oriented towards "hands on" and problem-based learning. An earth science course, like chemical ecology, has the additional advantage of interdisciplinary education. Our Chemical Ecology course at Loyola Marymount University was structured as a small modular workshop. Students first gained hands-on experience with each analytical technique in the laboratory. The class then discussed these first datasets, delved into lecture topics, and tweaked their experimental procedures. Lastly, students were given time to design and execute their own experiments and present their findings. Three-to-four class periods were allotted for each laboratory topic. Detailed information and student reflections will be presented from the Spectroscopy module. Students used the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent method to extract the phenolic content of vegetation and/or soils. Because phenols are produced by plants for defense, this spectroscopic laboratory activity provided insight on allelopathy using analytical chemistry. Students were extremely engaged and learned not only the lab theory and technique, but also its application to our local ecology.

  16. Structural insights into calicivirus attachment and uncoating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhella, David; Gatherer, Derek; Chaudhry, Yasmin; Pink, Rebecca; Goodfellow, Ian G

    2008-08-01

    The Caliciviridae family comprises positive-sense RNA viruses of medical and veterinary significance. In humans, caliciviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis, while in animals respiratory illness, conjunctivitis, stomatitis, and hemorrhagic disease are documented. Investigation of virus-host interactions is limited by a lack of culture systems for many viruses in this family. Feline calicivirus (FCV), a member of the Vesivirus genus, provides a tractable model, since it may be propagated in cell culture. Feline junctional adhesion molecule 1 (fJAM-1) was recently identified as a functional receptor for FCV. We have analyzed the structure of this virus-receptor complex by cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction, combined with fitting of homology modeled high-resolution coordinates. We show that domain 1 of fJAM-1 binds to the outer face of the P2 domain of the FCV capsid protein VP1, inducing conformational changes in the viral capsid. This study provides the first structural view of a native calicivirus-protein receptor complex and insights into the mechanisms of virus attachment and uncoating.

  17. INSIGHT AGONISTES: A READING OF SOPHOCLES'S OEDIPUS THE KING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Eugene J

    2015-07-01

    In this reading of Sophocles's Oedipus the King, the author suggests that insight can be thought of as the main protagonist of the tragedy. He personifies this depiction of insight, calling it Insight Agonistes, as if it were the sole conflicted character on the stage, albeit masquerading at times as several other characters, including gods, sphinxes, and oracles. This psychoanalytic reading of the text lends itself to an analogy between psychoanalytic process and Sophocles's tragic hero. The author views insight as always transgressing against, always at war with a conservative, societal, or intrapsychic chorus of structured elements. A clinical vignette is presented to illustrate this view of insight. © 2015 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  18. The relationship between insight and theory of mind in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantakopoulos, George; Ploumpidis, Dimitris; Oulis, Panagiotis; Patrikelis, Panayiotis; Nikitopoulou, Stavrina; Papadimitriou, George N; David, Anthony S

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that theory of mind (ToM) deficits underlying difficulties in taking the perspective of others may substantially contribute to insight impairment in schizophrenia. The present study aimed to explore the effect of ToM deficits on insight impairment independently of co-existent neurocognitive deficits and symptom severity in chronic schizophrenia. Fifty-eight chronic patients with schizophrenia and 56 matched healthy participants were assessed with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight (SAI-E) along with a series of ToM tasks and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological measures. Symptoms were measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. ToM impairment explained a substantial proportion of variance in overall insight and its three major components: awareness of illness, relabelling of symptoms and treatment compliance. Moreover, the effect of ToM deficits on insight remained significant even after controlling for all neurocognitive factors and symptom ratings. Regression analysis showed that symptoms and cognitive deficits also contribute to impaired insight in schizophrenia. General intellectual ability was negatively associated with both overall insight and relabelling of symptoms. Executive functions were negatively associated with relabelling. Our findings confirm that ToM deficits negatively affect insight independently of neurocognitive deficits and symptom severity in chronic schizophrenia. The effect of ToM deficits on insight should be further examined in the broader context of the failures in metacognition and their relationships with insight impairment in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dispositional Insight Scale: Development and Validation of a Tool That Measures Propensity toward Insight in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovington, Linda A.; Saliba, Anthony J.; Goldring, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the development of a brief self-report measure of dispositional insight problem solving, the Dispositional Insight Scale (DIS). From a representative Australian database, 1,069 adults (536 women and 533 men) completed an online questionnaire. An exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed a 5-item scale, with all…

  20. Recent Insights Into the Prenucleation Cluster Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, D.; Kellermeier, M.; Berg, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    Stable calcium carbonate pre-nucleation clusters (PNCs) form in aqueous solution prior to nucleation of CaCO3 (1). Computer simulations suggest that the thermodynamic stability of PNCs is based upon strong hydration in combination with a distinct entropic contribution (2). In this way, PNCs can compete enthalpically with ion pairs and entropically with amorpous calcium carbonate (ACC). The clue is a high degree of structural disorder in highly dynamic, liquid- and chain-like polymeric structures of calcium carbonate ion pairs (2). Nucleation of solid calcium carbonate from these polymeric species proceeds via PNC aggregation rather than via ion-by-ion additions to un-/metastable nuclei (3). Owing to these basic characteristics, the pre-nucleation cluster pathway has been referred to as "non-classical nucleation" (4). Non-classical nucleation leads to distinct short-range structural features in ACC, and depending on pH they relate to the crystalline long-range order of calcite or vaterite (5). This suggests that calcium carbonate exhibits polyamorphism, and that distinct polyamorphs may play a central role during polymorph selection. In this contribution, we outline the scenario described above, and focus on recent insights into the pre-nucleation cluster pathway. 1. D. Gebauer, A. Völkel & H. Cölfen, Science 322, 1819-1822 (2008). 2. R. Demichelis, P. Raiteri, J.D. Gale, D. Quigley, D. Gebauer, Nat. Commun. 2, 590 (2011). 3. M. Kellermeier et al., Adv. Funct. Mater., DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200953 (2012). 4. D. Gebauer, H. Cölfen, Nano Today 6, 564-584 (2011). 5. D. Gebauer et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 8889-8891 (2010).

  1. Basalt: structural insight as a construction material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SMRITI RAJ; V RAMESH KUMAR; B H BHARATH KUMAR; NAGESH R IYER

    2017-01-01

    The need for the development of novel and innovative materials is instrumental at every stage of societal improvements, leading to the overall development of a country. One such material of abundant source is basalt. The use of basalt in different forms like fibre, rod, grid and laminates has captured the interest of society from the 20th century onwards. Lately, basalt fibre has attracted attention as a possible construction material due to its properties such as high modulus of elasticity, high elastic strength, corrosion resistance, high-temperature resistance, extended operating temperature range and ease of handling. This paper explores the state of the art of basalt used in the construction industry with the overall layout of different subcategories of historical background starting from fibre development and different chemical and mechanical fibre properties to its applications in the field. Comparative studies have also been reported with respect to other high-strength fibre like glass, steel and carbon fibre based on different physical, chemical and mechanical properties. Along with these, a review hasbeen done on the usage of different basalt products like aggregate, rod, fibre, mesh, etc. in structural applications. The review also tends to identify critical constraints that restrain the implementation of basalt as a global construction material, thereby opening avenues of needed research. An insight on inconsistency reported in the literature with respect to the behaviour of basalt-fibre-reinforced composites is also expressed in this paper. The overall idea is to gain information and identify and prioritize research areas of the possible applications of basalt towards sustainable construction.

  2. Neural correlates of fear: insights from neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garfinkel SN

    2014-12-01

    the insights into fear, anxiety, and avoidance at the individual level extrapolate to groups and populations and can be meaningfully applied to economics, prejudice, and politics. Fear is ultimately a contagious social emotion. Keywords: amygdala, anxiety, arousal, autonomic, emotion, phobia

  3. Insights into multimodal imaging classification of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B Colby

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD currently is diagnosed in children by clinicians via subjective ADHD-specific behavioral instruments and by reports from the parents and teachers. Considering its high prevalence and large economic and societal costs, a quantitative tool that aids in diagnosis by characterizing underlying neurobiology would be extremely valuable. This provided motivation for the ADHD-200 machine learning (ML competition, a multisite collaborative effort to investigate imaging classifiers for ADHD. Here we present our ML approach, which used structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data, combined with demographic information, to predict diagnostic status of individuals with ADHD from typically developing children across eight different research sites. Structural features included quantitative metrics from 113 cortical and non-cortical regions. Functional features included Pearson correlation functional connectivity matrices, nodal and global graph theoretical measures, nodal power spectra, voxelwise global connectivity, and voxelwise regional homogeneity. We performed feature ranking for each site and modality using the multiple support vector machine recursive feature elimination algorithm, and feature subset selection by optimizing the expected generalization performance of a radial basis function kernel SVM (RBF-SVM trained across a range of the top features. Site-specific RBF-SVMs using these optimal feature sets from each imaging modality were used to predict the class labels of an independent hold-out test set. A voting approach was used to combine these multiple predictions and assign final class labels. With this methodology we were able to predict diagnosis of ADHD with 55% accuracy (versus a 39% chance level in this sample, 33% sensitivity, and 80% specificity. This approach also allowed us to evaluate predictive structural and functional features giving insight into abnormal brain circuitry in

  4. Solving Classical Insight Problems without Aha! Experience: 9 Dot, 8 Coin, and Matchstick Arithmetic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danek, Amory H.; Wiley, Jennifer; Öllinger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Insightful problem solving is a vital part of human thinking, yet very difficult to grasp. Traditionally, insight has been investigated by using a set of established "insight tasks," assuming that insight has taken place if these problems are solved. Instead of assuming that insight takes place during every solution of the 9 Dot, 8 Coin,…

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of insight intraoral film on dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Young Nam; Lee, Byung Do [Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of Kodak Insight film with other intra-oral films in the detection of dental caries. Periapical radiographs of 99 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were made on Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Kodak Insight films and automatically processed. Six dentists examined the presence of dental caries using a five-point confidence rating scale and compared the diagnostic accuracy by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and ANOVA test. The sensitivity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.84, 0.77, 0.75 and 0.79 respectively. The specificity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.97, 0.95, 0.96 and 0.94 respectively. The mean ROC areas (Az) of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.917, 0.910, 0.894, 0.909 respectively. There was no significant differences between Az of Insight film and other films (p = 0.178). Theses results suggested that Kodak Insight film have the comparative diagnostic accuracy of dental caries with Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed films. (77)

  6. Dimensional correlates of poor insight in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Pittenger, Christopher; Torres, Albina Rodrigues; Fontenelle, Leonardo Franklin; do Rosario, Maria Conceicao; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Bloch, Michael H

    2011-08-15

    Cross-sectional studies have associated poor insight in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with increased OCD symptom severity, earlier age of onset, comorbid depression, and treatment response. The goal of this current study was to examine the relationship between dimensions of OCD symptomatology and insight in a large clinical cohort of Brazilian patients with OCD. We hypothesized that poor insight would be associated with total symptom severity as well as with hoarding symptoms severity, specifically. 824 outpatients underwent a detailed clinical assessment for OCD, including the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS), the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS), a socio-demographic questionnaire, and the Structured Clinical Interview for axis I DSM-IV disorders (SCID-P). Tobit regression models were used to examine the association between level of insight and clinical variables of interest. Increased severity of current and worst-ever hoarding symptoms and higher rate of unemployment were associated with poor insight in OCD after controlling for current OCD severity, age and gender. Poor insight was also correlated with increased severity of current OCD symptoms. Hoarding and overall OCD severity were significantly but weakly associated with level of insight in OCD patients. Further studies should examine insight as a moderator and mediator of treatment response in OCD in both behavioral therapy and pharmacological trials. Behavioral techniques aimed at enhancing insight may be potentially beneficial in OCD, especially among patients with hoarding. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Technical Insights for Saltstone PA Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.; Mahadevan, S.; Kosson, D.

    2011-07-20

    compatibility with existing CBP expertise and already-planned activities. Based on these criteria, the five original topics were down-selected to two: external sulfate attack and mechanistic geochemical prediction. For each of the selected topics, the CBP communicated with the PA analysts and subject matter experts at Savannah River to acquire input data specific to the Saltstone facility and related laboratory experiments. Simulations and analyses were performed for both topics using STADIUM (SIMCO 2008), LeachXS/ORCHESTRA (ECN 2007, Meeussen 2003), and other software tools. These supplemental CBP analyses produced valuable technical insights that can be used to strengthen the Saltstone PA using the ongoing PA maintenance process. This report in part summarizes key information gleaned from more comprehensive documents prepared by Sarkar et al. (2010), Samson (2010), and Sarkar (2010).

  8. PROJECT–BASED UNIVERSITY: THEORETICAL INSIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Stokaitė

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To provide a review of projects as a social force for the optimization of universities and to set the research guidelines for the integration of information and communication technologies (hereinafter ICT into the overall university entrepreneurship strategy. Methodology: Using different techniques of the analysis of scientific literature trying to justify the transformation of the object of research – a university – from organization to project–based organization in Lithuania. Findings: 1.\tTo discuss the changing attitude towards the project management; 2.\tTo promote the concept of a university as a project–based organization; 3.\tTo propose alternatives for the entrepreneurship education of universities through the use of ICT. Research limitations/implications: A general review provided in the article on the basis of the examples of good practices of foreign countries and insights of the Lithuanian scientists reveals the need for more detailed research on the subject analysed both nationally and internationally. There is an apparent need for broader theoretical and empirical research as well as the necessity for interdisciplinary discussions in order to get a better understanding of the subject and development of perspectives thereof in social sciences. Practical implications: Even though the application of technologies is mentioned in the project management term itself – ,,Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and technologies in the implementation of a project in order to meet the needs of all participants” (PMI, 2004 – however, detailed research on the integration of the ICT into the project management and university entrepreneurship strategy is very limited. A general review of a university as a project–based organization presented in the article defines the basis for research, the core of which was selected to be an impact of ICT on the promotion of entrepreneurship of higher

  9. JUST Revisited: Panchronic and Contrastive Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Romano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrastive studies of cognate pragmatic markers involving modality have become increasingly salient in recent times. In describing semantic and discursive differences in different languages and language families, these studies are paving the way for a better understanding of grammaticalization, pragmaticalization and (intersubjectification paths. The present paper aims at contributing to the discussion by means of providing a synchronic and diachronic account of the marker JUST that combines semasiological and onomasiological insights. As thoroughly described in previous studies, JUST is a complex polycentric category in which overlapping nuances have been activated over time. In English and in other languages, the diachronic evolution of JUST involves an increasing semantic expansion from scalar to subjectified meanings and an increasing restriction in grammatical flexibility. However, polysemization and the emergence of grammaticalized readings seem to have gone further in English than in other languages. The present study, situated within the emerging field of panchronic cross-linguistic research on discourse markers, aims at ascertaining why.El estudio contrastivo de los marcadores pragmáticos de modalidad ocupa una posición central en el campo de la gramaticalización, la pragmaticalización y la (intersubjetivización, ya que permite trazar rutas de cambio a través de la descripción de peculiaridades semánticas y discursivas en distintas lenguas y familias lingüísticas. Este trabajo contribuye al debate ofreciendo un análisis semasiológico y onomasiológico del marcador JUST en sincronía y diacronía. Se trata de una categoría policéntrica en la que se han ido activando lecturas cruzadas a lo largo del tiempo. Su evolución está marcada, tanto en inglés como en otras lenguas, por una expansión semántica cada vez mayor, transitando desde lecturas escalares hacia lecturas subjetivizadas, y por una flexibilidad gramatical

  10. Decision insight into stakeholder conflict for ERN.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siirola, John; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Benz, Zachary O.; Stansbury, Melanie; Richards, Elizabeth H.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Galisteo Consulting); Warrender, Christina E.; Morrow, James Dan

    2012-02-01

    Participatory modeling has become an important tool in facilitating resource decision making and dispute resolution. Approaches to modeling that are commonly used in this context often do not adequately account for important human factors. Current techniques provide insights into how certain human activities and variables affect resource outcomes; however, they do not directly simulate the complex variables that shape how, why, and under what conditions different human agents behave in ways that affect resources and human interactions related to them. Current approaches also do not adequately reveal how the effects of individual decisions scale up to have systemic level effects in complex resource systems. This lack of integration prevents the development of more robust models to support decision making and dispute resolution processes. Development of integrated tools is further hampered by the fact that collection of primary data for decision-making modeling is costly and time consuming. This project seeks to develop a new approach to resource modeling that incorporates both technical and behavioral modeling techniques into a single decision-making architecture. The modeling platform is enhanced by use of traditional and advanced processes and tools for expedited data capture. Specific objectives of the project are: (1) Develop a proof of concept for a new technical approach to resource modeling that combines the computational techniques of system dynamics and agent based modeling, (2) Develop an iterative, participatory modeling process supported with traditional and advance data capture techniques that may be utilized to facilitate decision making, dispute resolution, and collaborative learning processes, and (3) Examine potential applications of this technology and process. The development of this decision support architecture included both the engineering of the technology and the development of a participatory method to build and apply the technology

  11. Insight in bipolar disorder: a comparison between mania, depression and euthymia using the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Assis da Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate whether having general insight into bipolar disorder and its symptoms is affected by the mood state of the patient, using the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders, a hetero-application scale for people with mood disorders.Methods: Ninety-five patients with bipolar disorder were evaluated and divided into different groups according to the mood state presented during assessment (i.e., euthymia, mania and depression. Sociodemographic and clinical data (Hamilton Depression Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Clinical Global Impressions Scale were recorded. Insight was evaluated using the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders.Results: Patients with bipolar disorder in mania show less insight about their condition than patients in depression or euthymia, and less insight about their symptoms than patients with depression, with the exception of awareness of weight change.Conclusions: Loss of insight during mania may have important implications for treatment compliance and adherence and needs to be taken into account in the clinical management of people with bipolar disorder.

  12. Insight, Automatization and Creativity in F-L Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuleers, Alfons

    1975-01-01

    One approach to language learning unites insight into explicit rules, systematic drill and contextual communication. By thinking, creating and speaking, language rules are created and transferred to other situations. Repeated remodelling of sentences seems to yield fastest learning. (CHK)

  13. Oligodendrocyte differentiation and implantation : new insights for remyelinating cell therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sher, Falak; Balasubramaniyan, Veerakumar; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent research on oligodendrocyte development has yielded new insights on the involvement of morphogens and differentiation factors in oligodendrogenesis. This knowledge has improved strategies to control neural stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte differentiation and functional matu

  14. Exploring energy transition pathways: insights from Denmark and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, L.M.; Vernay, A.L.; Ravesteijn, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores energy transition pathways that are broadly considered successful in terms of technology development and implementation. From that, it aims to derive insights for better understanding transition processes and to improve management and governance methods for steering these

  15. Youth, creativity and urban life: insights from classics | Iraki | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Youth, creativity and urban life: insights from classics. ... African life mutates rapidly as the pressure of modern life redefines social roles and responsibilities. The youth is faced with a conflict of cultures, urban poverty, parental neglect, and lack ...

  16. Distributed large-scale dimensional metrology new insights

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschini, Fiorenzo; Maisano, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Focuses on the latest insights into and challenges of distributed large scale dimensional metrology Enables practitioners to study distributed large scale dimensional metrology independently Includes specific examples of the development of new system prototypes

  17. Stepping out of history : Mindfulness improves insight problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostafin, B.D.; Kassman, K.T.

    2012-01-01

    Insight problem solving is hindered by automated verbal-conceptual processes. Because mindfulness meditation training aims at "nonconceptual awareness" which involves a reduced influence of habitual verbal-conceptual processes on the interpretation of ongoing experience, mindfulness may facilitate i

  18. New insights into domestication of carrot from root transcriptome analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rong, J.; Lammers, Y.; Strasburg, J.L.; Schidlo, N.S.; Ariyurek, Y.; Jong, de T.J.; Klinkhamer, P.G.L.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Vrieling, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background - Understanding the molecular basis of domestication can provide insights into the processes of rapid evolution and crop improvement. Here we demonstrated the processes of carrot domestication and identified genes under selection based on transcriptome analyses. Results - The root transcr

  19. SOME INSIGHTS THAT ORALITY-LITERACY STUDIES CAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    literacy studies can offer language teachers any insights into teaching students ... associated with social and cognitive consequences (Street. 1984:1ff). ..... different of time have ..• expressed doubts about the grander claims made for literacy.

  20. Insight into Nek2A activity regulation and its pharmacological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ambuj Kumar

    2012-11-28

    Nov 28, 2012 ... 3. Nek2A activity regulation and associated pathological outcomes . .... vide a detailed insight into how they coordinate the cell cycle .... the adenine subpocket creating steric hindrance in the plane of ... Three dimensional.

  1. Stepping out of history : Mindfulness improves insight problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostafin, B.D.; Kassman, K.T.

    2012-01-01

    Insight problem solving is hindered by automated verbal-conceptual processes. Because mindfulness meditation training aims at "nonconceptual awareness" which involves a reduced influence of habitual verbal-conceptual processes on the interpretation of ongoing experience, mindfulness may facilitate i

  2. Stepping out of history : Mindfulness improves insight problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostafin, B.D.; Kassman, K.T.

    Insight problem solving is hindered by automated verbal-conceptual processes. Because mindfulness meditation training aims at "nonconceptual awareness" which involves a reduced influence of habitual verbal-conceptual processes on the interpretation of ongoing experience, mindfulness may facilitate

  3. Consumer Insight as Competitive Advantage Using Big Data and Analytics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adnan Veysel Ertemel

    2015-01-01

    .... This paper explores the characteristics of this phenomenon called Big Data together with Analytics as a tool for marketers to gain insights about consumer behavior and hence provide competitive...

  4. Contemporary HIV/AIDS research: Insights from knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contemporary HIV/AIDS research: Insights from knowledge management theory. ... paradigm theory of innovation, and in the argument by Lakatos that scientific research can ... research problem solving, real time research, theory development ...

  5. The Rookie's Playbook: Insights and Dirt for New Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooms, Autumn

    2003-01-01

    Principal shares lessons and insights with beginning principals. Discusses differences between principals and assistant principals, staff relationships, competition for resources, giving and receiving loyalty, identifying and following a moral compass. (PKP)

  6. Reading skills, creativity, and insight: exploring the connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourgues, Catalina V; Preiss, David D; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2014-08-04

    Studies of the relationship between creativity and specific reading disabilities have produced inconclusive results. We explored their relationship in a sample of 259 college students (age range: 17 to 38 years-old) from three Chilean universities. The students were tested on their verbal ability, creativity, and insight. A simple linear regression was performed on the complete sample, and on high- and low-achievement groups that were formed based on reading test scores. We observed a significant correlation in the total sample between outcomes on the verbal ability tasks, and on the creativity and insight tasks (range r =. 152 to r =. 356, ps creativity and insight tasks (range β = .315 to β = .155, ps creative tasks. Instead, higher verbal ability was found to be associated with higher creativity and insight.

  7. Fed manufacturing surveys provide insight into national economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Emily; Pia M. Orrenius; Wang, Jack; Canas, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Regional Federal Reserve Banks’ manufacturing surveys provide important insight into national economic conditions. The Dallas Fed’s Texas Manufacturing Outlook Survey performs well forecasting the ISM manufacturing index and U.S. industrial production.

  8. Cortical thickness and low insight into symptoms in enduring schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Seema; Guimond, Synthia; Mallar Chakravarty, M; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Poor insight is a common, multidimensional phenomenon in patients with schizophrenia, associated with poorer outcomes and treatment non-adherence. Yet scant research has investigated the neuronal correlates of insight into symptoms (IS), a dimension of insight that may be particularly significant in enduring schizophrenia. Sixty-six patients with enduring schizophrenia (duration >4years) and 33 healthy controls completed MRI scanning and IQ, depression, and anxiety assessments. The Scale to Assess Insight-Expanded (SAI-E) measured insight into patients' four most prominent symptoms and patients were classified into two groups: low IS (0-2; n=33), and high IS (>2; n=33). We evaluated the association between cortical thickness (CT) and insight into symptoms using two methods: (1) a between-patients region-of-interest analysis in the insula, superior temporal gyrus (STG) and frontal lobe; and (2) a whole-brain exploratory regression between patient and controls. Brain regions were segmented using a neuroanatomical atlas and vertex-wise CT analyses were conducted with CIVET, covaried for age and sex. ROI analysis revealed thinner insula cortex in patients with low IS (pinsight-related differences in CT that has been previously unexplored in enduring schizophrenia.

  9. The evolution of insight, paranoia and depression during early schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, R J; Pickles, A; Bentall, R P; Kinderman, P; Haddock, G; Tarrier, N; Lewis, S W

    2004-02-01

    How insight, paranoia and depression evolve in relation to each other during and after the first episode of schizophrenia is poorly understood but of clinical importance. Serial assessments over 18 months were made using multiple instruments in a consecutive sample of 257 patients with first episode DSM-IV non-affective psychosis. Repeated measures of paranoia, insight, depression and self-esteem were analysed using structural equation modelling, to examine the direction of relationships over time after controlling for confounds. Depression was predicted directly by greater insight, particularly at baseline, and by greater paranoia at every stage of follow-up. Neither relationship was mediated by self-esteem, although there was a weak association of lower self-esteem with greater depression and better insight. Paranoia was not strongly associated with insight. Duration of untreated psychosis and substance use at baseline predicted depression at 18 months. In first-episode psychosis, good insight predicts depression. Subsequently, paranoia is the strongest predictor. Neither effect is mediated by low self-esteem. Effective treatment of positive symptoms is important in preventing and treating low mood in early schizophrenia.

  10. Astrobiology, Evolution, and Society: Public Engagement Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertka, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    frequently was “my religious beliefs.” A review of religious identification in this country will be presented in the context of offering insights for public engagement on the topic of evolution, and the contribution that astrobiology could make to encouraging a positive relationship between science and religion. A widespread acceptance of evolution in the United States may require that the scientific community go beyond a simple contrast approach to science and religion and be willing to encourage, and participate in, a program of in-depth and long-term engagement with theologians and religious community leaders. Astrobiology as a discipline is particularly burdened, perhaps blessed, with the responsibility to engage this issue. After all, humanity itself may be inherently defined by the ability we collectively posses to ask “Where did we come from?,” “Are we alone?,” and “Where are we going?”

  11. 75 FR 77881 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Recruitment and Screening for the Insight Into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... Screening for the Insight Into Determination of Exceptional Aging and Longevity (IDEAL) Study SUMMARY: Under... control number. Proposed Collection Title: Recruitment and Screening for the Insight into Determination...

  12. Insight, grey matter and cognitive function in first-onset psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Kevin D

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have suggested that neuropsychological and structural brain deficits are implicated in poor insight. Few insight studies however have combined neurocognitive and structural neuroanatomical measures.

  13. Psychophysiological prediction of choice: relevance to insight and drug addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Scott J.; Hajcak, Greg; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Dunning, Jonathan P.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2012-01-01

    An important goal of addiction research and treatment is to predict behavioural responses to drug-related stimuli. This goal is especially important for patients with impaired insight, which can interfere with therapeutic interventions and potentially invalidate self-report questionnaires. This research tested (i) whether event-related potentials, specifically the late positive potential, predict choice to view cocaine images in cocaine addiction; and (ii) whether such behaviour prediction differs by insight (operationalized in this study as self-awareness of image choice). Fifty-nine cocaine abusers and 32 healthy controls provided data for the following laboratory components that were completed in a fixed-sequence (to establish prediction): (i) event-related potential recordings while passively viewing pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine images, during which early (400–1000 ms) and late (1000–2000 ms) window late positive potentials were collected; (ii) self-reported arousal ratings for each picture; and (iii) two previously validated tasks: one to assess choice for viewing these same images, and the other to group cocaine abusers by insight. Results showed that pleasant-related late positive potentials and arousal ratings predicted pleasant choice (the choice to view pleasant pictures) in all subjects, validating the method. In the cocaine abusers, the predictive ability of the late positive potentials and arousal ratings depended on insight. Cocaine-related late positive potentials better predicted cocaine image choice in cocaine abusers with impaired insight. Another emotion-relevant event-related potential component (the early posterior negativity) did not show these results, indicating specificity of the late positive potential. In contrast, arousal ratings better predicted respective cocaine image choice (and actual cocaine use severity) in cocaine abusers with intact insight. Taken together, the late positive potential could serve as a biomarker

  14. Insight and analysis problem solving in microbes to machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2015-11-01

    A key feature for obtaining solutions to difficult problems, insight is oftentimes vaguely regarded as a special discontinuous intellectual process and/or a cognitive restructuring of problem representation or goal approach. However, this nearly century-old state of art devised by the Gestalt tradition to explain the non-analytical or non-trial-and-error, goal-seeking aptitude of primate mentality tends to neglect problem-solving capabilities of lower animal phyla, Kingdoms other than Animalia, and advancing smart computational technologies built from biological, artificial, and composite media. Attempting to provide an inclusive, precise definition of insight, two major criteria of insight, discontinuous processing and problem restructuring, are here reframed using terminology and statistical mechanical properties of computational complexity classes. Discontinuous processing becomes abrupt state transitions in algorithmic/heuristic outcomes or in types of algorithms/heuristics executed by agents using classical and/or quantum computational models. And problem restructuring becomes combinatorial reorganization of resources, problem-type substitution, and/or exchange of computational models. With insight bounded by computational complexity, humans, ciliated protozoa, and complex technological networks, for example, show insight when restructuring time requirements, combinatorial complexity, and problem type to solve polynomial and nondeterministic polynomial decision problems. Similar effects are expected from other problem types, supporting the idea that insight might be an epiphenomenon of analytical problem solving and consequently a larger information processing framework. Thus, this computational complexity definition of insight improves the power, external and internal validity, and reliability of operational parameters with which to classify, investigate, and produce the phenomenon for computational agents ranging from microbes to man-made devices.

  15. Neurocognitive insight and objective cognitive functioning in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Cynthia Z; Harvey, Philip D; Patterson, Thomas L; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2016-03-01

    Neurocognitive impairment is a core component of schizophrenia affecting everyday functioning; the extent to which individuals with schizophrenia show awareness of neurocognitive impairment (neurocognitive insight) is unclear. This study investigated neurocognitive insight and examined the cross-sectional relationships between neurocognitive insight and objective neurocognition and functional capacity performance in a large outpatient sample. 214 participants with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders completed measures of neurocognition, functional capacity, and self-reported neurocognitive problems. Latent profile analysis classified participants with regard to neuropsychological performance and self-report of neurocognitive problems. The resulting classes were then compared on executive functioning performance, functional capacity performance, and psychiatric symptom severity. More than three quarters of the sample demonstrated objective neurocognitive impairment (global deficit score≥0.50). Among the participants with neurocognitive impairment, 54% were classified as having "impaired" neurocognitive insight (i.e., reporting few neurocognitive problems despite having objective neurocognitive impairment). Participants with impaired vs. intact neurocognitive insight did not differ on executive functioning measures or measures of functional capacity or negative symptom severity, but those with intact neurocognitive insight reported higher levels of positive and depressive symptoms. A substantial portion of individuals with schizophrenia and objectively measured neurocognitive dysfunction appear unaware of their deficits. Patient self-report of neurocognitive problems, therefore, is not likely to reliably assess neurocognition. Difficulty self-identifying neurocognitive impairment appears to be unrelated to executive functioning, negative symptoms, and functional capacity. For those with intact neurocognitive insight, improving depressive and psychotic symptoms may be

  16. Insight and gender in schizophrenia and other psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Jesus; Nieto, Lourdes; Ochoa, Susana; Pousa, Esther; Usall, Judith; Baños, Iris; González, Beatriz; Ruiz, Isabel; Ruiz, Ada I

    2016-09-30

    This study aimed to evaluate gender differences in the deficit of insight in psychosis and determine influences of clinical, functional, and sociodemographic variables. A multicenter sample of 401 adult patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders who agreed to participate was evaluated in four centers of the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Catalonia). Psychopathological assessment was performed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Lindenmayers' Factors. Insight and its dimensions were assessed by means of the Scale of Unawareness of Mental Disorder. Significant differences were apparent neither between men and women in the three dimensions of insight, nor in the total awareness, nor in the total attribution subscales. However, statistically significant differences were found in awareness and attribution of particular symptoms. Women showed a worse awareness of thought disorder and alogia and a higher misattribution of apathy. Higher cognitive and positive symptoms, early stage of the illness, and having been married explained deficits of insight dimensions in women. In men, other variables such as lower functioning, higher age, other psychosis diagnosis, and, to a lower extent, higher scores in cognitive, positive, and excitative symptoms, explained deficits of insight dimensions. These data could help to design gender-specific preventive and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neural correlates of mental preparation for successful insight problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, F; Tu, S; Qiu, J; Lv, J Y; Wei, D T; Su, Y H; Zhang, Q L

    2011-01-20

    A distinct type of mental preparation (activity in medial frontal and temporal areas) had been found to facilitate insight problem solving independent of specific problems [25]. In order to explore whether neural activity during a preparatory interval (mental preparation) is associated with which insight problems would be solved or not, we developed a task that uses Chinese logogriphs (riddles) as materials. Blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI contrasts between Successful and Unsuccessful mental preparation were measured. Results showed that mental preparation leading to successful problem solving involves heightened activity in the left middle/medial frontal gyrus, the left middle/superior temporal gyrus, the right cerebellum, the bilateral claustrum and the left postcentral gyrus. We discussed the role of these areas in mental preparation for successful insight problem solving.

  18. The Neurocircuitry of Impaired Insight in Drug Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, R.Z.; Craig, A.D.; Bechara, A.; Garavan, H.; Childress, A.R.; Paulus, M.P.; Volkow, N.D.

    2009-08-27

    More than 80% of addicted individuals fail to seek treatment, which might reflect impairments in recognition of severity of disorder. Considered by some as intentional deception, such 'denial' might instead reflect dysfunction of brain networks subserving insight and self-awareness. Here we review the scant literature on insight in addiction and integrate this perspective with the role of: (i) the insula in interoception, self-awareness and drug craving; (ii) the anterior cingulate in behavioral monitoring and response selection (relevant to disadvantageous choices in addiction); (iii) the dorsal striatum in automatic habit formation; and (iv) drug-related stimuli that predict emotional behavior in addicted individuals, even without conscious awareness. We discuss implications for clinical treatment including the design of interventions to improve insight into illness severity in addiction.

  19. InsightDroid-动态追踪Android应用方法%InsightDroid-Dynamic Method Trace in Android Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱凌志; 张梓雄; 孙国梓

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of Android platform,there are many security vulnerabilities in the alternative applications.As the first step of applications analysis,generally,researchers would like to observe applications'runtime features dynamically.However,traditional dynamic analysis methods such as TaintDroid,are required to work in a custom sandbox and have limitation in robustness and compatibility.This paper presents InsightDroid,a dynamic analysis system using dynamic instrumentation technique for tracing target methods to help researchers having insight into Android applications'runtime features.The authors evaluate InsightDroid on different devices with multiple Android versions to prove that the system has better compatibility than TaintDroid.They also present an evaluation of InsightDroid with 10 closed source applications,as well as 50 open source applications.The results show that InsightDroid can trace methods of target applications successfully and notify users effectively when some sensitive APIs are invoked.The success rates are 100% and 83% respectively.%随着Android平台的快速发展,第三方应用出现大量安全漏洞.一般而言,作为应用分析的第一步,研究人员需要运行Android应用观察其运行时特征.然而,现有的动态分析方法如TaintDroid,必须运行于定制的沙盒环境中,鲁棒性和兼容性存在局限.本文提出一种动态分析系统——InsightDroid,该系统使用动态插桩技术追踪目标应用的成员方法,以帮助研究人员洞悉应用运行时特征对应的本质代码.作者已在多个设备的不同Android版本中成功加载了InsightDroid,证明该系统相较TaintDroid而言,拥有更好的兼容性.此外,选取了10个闭源应用和50个开源应用对InsightDroid进行评估,结果表明InsightDroid 可以成功追踪目标应用的方法并有效反馈敏感API的调用,追踪成功率分别为100%和83%.

  20. New Insight into the Cosmic Renaissance Epoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    at even higher redshifts" , adds Matthew Lehnert. "With a larger sample of such distant objects, we can then obtain insight into their nature and the variation of their density in the sky." A British Premiere The observations presented here are among the first major discoveries by British scientists since the UK became a member of ESO in July 2002. Richard Wade from the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council ( PPARC), which funds the UK subscription to ESO, is very pleased: " In joining the European Southern Observatory, UK astronomers have been granted access to world-leading facilities, such as the VLT. These exciting new results, of which I am sure there will be many more to come, illustrate how UK astronomers are contributing with cutting-edge discoveries. " More information The results described in this Press Release are about to appear in the research journal Astrophysical Journal (" Luminous Lyman Break Galaxies at z>5 and the Source of Reionization" by M. D. Lehnert and M. Bremer). It is available electronically as astro-ph/0212431 . Notes [1]: This is a coordinated ESO/PPARC Press Release. The PPARC version of the release can be found here. [2]: This work was carried out by Malcolm Bremer (University of Bristol, The United Kingdom) and Matthew Lehnert (Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany). [3]: The measured redshifts of the galaxies in the Bremer Deep Field are z = 4.8-5.8, with one unexpected (and surprising) redshift of 6.6. In astronomy, the redshift denotes the fraction by which the lines in the spectrum of an object are shifted towards longer wavelengths. The observed redshift of a remote galaxy provides an estimate of its distance. The distances indicated in the present text are based on an age of the Universe of 13.7 billion years. At the indicated redshift, the Lyman-alpha line of atomic hydrogen (rest wavelength 121.6 nm) is observed at 680 to 920 nm, i.e. in the red spectral region.

  1. Consumer Insight as Competitive Advantage Using Big Data and Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Veysel Ertemel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital revolution serves as a competitive advantage to businesses that are able to analyze consumer behavior in order to gain insights for their strategic advantage. After the advent of Internet, the past two decades witnessed generation of vast amount of business data. The amount of data is so huge that traditional database management system approaches falls short of managing and analyzing this data. This paper explores the characteristics of this phenomenon called Big Data together with Analytics as a tool for marketers to gain insights about consumer behavior and hence provide competitive advantage to the businesses. It also discusses some best practices as case studies.

  2. Analysis Insights: Energy Storage - Possibilities for Expanding Electric Grid Flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    NREL Analysis Insights mines our body of analysis work to synthesize topical insights and key findings. In this issue, we explore energy storage and the role it is playing and could potentially play in increasing grid flexibility and renewable energy integration. We explore energy storage as one building block for a more flexible power system, policy and R and D as drivers of energy storage deployment, methods for valuing energy storage in grid applications, ways that energy storage supports renewable integration, and emerging opportunities for energy storage in the electric grid.

  3. Data smart using data science to transform information into insight

    CERN Document Server

    Foreman, John W

    2013-01-01

    Data Science gets thrown around in the press like it's magic. Major retailers are predicting everything from when their customers are pregnant to when they want a new pair of Chuck Taylors. It's a brave new world where seemingly meaningless data can be transformed into valuable insight to drive smart business decisions. But how does one exactly do data science? Do you have to hire one of these priests of the dark arts, the ""data scientist,"" to extract this gold from your data? Nope. Data science is little more than using straight-forward steps to process raw data into actionable insight.

  4. The Empty Shops Project: Developing Rural Students' Sociological Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Evan; Burns, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    An informal research project with high local relevance was developed for a first-year sociology course at an Australian rural university campus. The project developed students' sociological insight by challenging them to investigate "truths" about their own region, rather than immediately pushing them to comprehend new and different…

  5. Mood disorders insight scale: Validation of Persian version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Ahmadi Vazmalaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of insight in patients with bipolar I disorder has been associated with poor course and clinical outcome and compromised therapeutic compliance. Therefore, it is important to evaluate insight and use more specialized scales such as Mood Disorder Insight Scale (MDIS in these patients. Our objective in this study was to assess validity and reliability of Persian version of MDIS. Materials and Methods: A hundred forty five bipolar patients were selected from Iran Hospital of Psychiatry. They were interviewed by The Persian Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, 4th edition′s (DSM-IV axis I disorders (SCID-I and the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD. The translated version of MDIS in Persian was subsequently completed by patients. Results: The internal consistency was satisfactory (Cronbach alpha coefficients = 0.8. The test-retest reliability (coefficient alpha was 0.95 (p < 0.01. Construct validity and concurrent validity were supported by factor analysis and Spearman rank correlation between MDIS and SUMD (0.85. Conclusions: Persian version of the MDIS could be a useful instrument for assessing insight in patients with bipolar I disorder.

  6. The Training of Microcomputer Users: Insights from Two Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine, Walter D.; Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    1992-01-01

    Research in human computer interaction and instructional design can provide insights into effective methods for training microcomputer users. Suggestions include utilizing error recognition and recovery, development of mental models, simplification of documentation, and using cognitive approaches that allow transfer of knowledge to new situations.…

  7. Neural correlates of insight in dreaming and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Martin; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Steiger, Axel; Holsboer, Florian; Czisch, Michael; Hobson, J Allan

    2015-04-01

    The idea that dreaming can serve as a model for psychosis has a long and honourable tradition, however it is notoriously speculative. Here we demonstrate that recent research on the phenomenon of lucid dreaming sheds new light on the debate. Lucid dreaming is a rare state of sleep in which the dreamer gains insight into his state of mind during dreaming. Recent electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for the first time allow very specific hypotheses about the dream-psychosis relationship: if dreaming is a reasonable model for psychosis, then insight into the dreaming state and insight into the psychotic state should share similar neural correlates. This indeed seems to be the case: cortical areas activated during lucid dreaming show striking overlap with brain regions that are impaired in psychotic patients who lack insight into their pathological state. This parallel allows for new therapeutic approaches and ways to test antipsychotic medication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nursing Home Care Quality: Insights from a Bayesian Network Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Justin; Jang, Wooseung; Rantz, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is twofold. The first purpose is to utilize a new methodology (Bayesian networks) for aggregating various quality indicators to measure the overall quality of care in nursing homes. The second is to provide new insight into the relationships that exist among various measures of quality and how such measures…

  9. New insights into the surgical treatment of mitral regurgitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Wobbe

    2016-01-01

    New Insights into the Surgical Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation. The mitral valve and mitral valve repair techniques have been subject of extensive research over the past few decades. Mitral valve repair techniques have evolved considerably and have become the gold standard for common conditions su

  10. Administrator Responses to Financial Incentives: Insights from a TIF Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    King Rice, Jennifer; Malen, Betty; Jackson, Cara; Hoyer, Kathleen Mulvaney

    2017-01-01

    This article provides evidence and generates insights about the power of financial rewards to motivate school administrators and the design features that influence their motivational potency. The multi-year mixed-methods study is grounded in expectancy and goal setting theories that suggest (a) awards must be salient and sizable enough to appeal…

  11. Clinical and molecular insights into primary pediatric liver cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.B. Weeda

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to give insight into the clinical status quo of primary pediatric liver tumors and investigate signaling pathways that may be of importance for liver tumorigenesis. The most recent series of the International Childhood Liver Tumors Strategy Group (SIOPEL) of hepatocellular carcinoma

  12. Insights into the Support Services for Students with Vision Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Poulomee; Palmer, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    There is a general need for research in Australia on whether the support services provided in schools prove useful for students with disabilities (Datta, 2015; O'Rourke & Houghton, 2006), especially students with vision impairment. This qualitative study aimed to provide insights into the influence of the support services delivered in South…

  13. Selecting Solar. Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This analysis leverages available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  14. Nursing Home Care Quality: Insights from a Bayesian Network Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Justin; Jang, Wooseung; Rantz, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is twofold. The first purpose is to utilize a new methodology (Bayesian networks) for aggregating various quality indicators to measure the overall quality of care in nursing homes. The second is to provide new insight into the relationships that exist among various measures of quality and how such measures…

  15. Abdominal aortic aneurysms : clinical insights and outcome after endovascular repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, H.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a focal dilatation of the abdominal aorta. The pathophysiology of AAA is a complex multifactorial process and much is still unknown. Histologic and biochemical analysis of AAA wall characteristics can contribute to a better insight in AAA pathophysiology. To make t

  16. Financing sustainability: insights for investors, corporate executives, and policymakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Rosenboom, N.; Sikken, B.J.; Weda, J.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability thinking is rapidly gaining traction. It o­ffers an inspiring vision for the future of the world and provides significant business and investment opportunities. Based on insights from over 300 empirical studies, this book explores the possibilities in the field of renewable energy fin

  17. Molecular Electronics: Insight from First-Principles Transport Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsson, Magnus; Frederiksen, Thomas; Brandbyge, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Conduction properties of nanoscale contacts can be studied using first-principles simulations. Such calculations give insight into details behind the conductance that is not readily available in experiments. For example, we may learn how the bonding conditions of a molecule to the electrodes affect...

  18. Financial insight and behaviour of household consumers in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The key focus of this study was to gather empirical evidence of the actual extent of this problem ... key socio-demographic variables that could impact on financial insight directly and financial .... Results from a diverse sample (n = 267) of consumers confirmed ... of workers was the most critical unaddressed workplace issue.

  19. Closing the Degree Gap: The West's Contributions. Policy Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This "Policy Insight" is a supplement to the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education's (WICHE's) annual "Benchmarks" indicators, which summarize the Western states' progress with improving access to, success in, and financing of higher education. This brief explores one variant for how WICHE states might meet…

  20. Hydrothermal Processes in the Archean - New Insights from Imaging Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenbeek, F.J.A. van

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to gain new insights in fossil hydrothermal systems using airborne imaging spectroscopy. Fossil submarine hydrothermal systems in Archean greenstone belts and other geologic terranes are important because of their relationship with volcanic massive sulfide (VMS) mineral

  1. Accounting choices of controllers : An insight into controller deliberations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Therèse

    2015-01-01

    This doctoral thesis provides insights into the accounting choice process of business controllers. The main contribution is a new approach in analyzing financial accounting choices, using an interpretive methodology. Moreover, the overall framework of analysis developed in this thesis can help organ

  2. Insights on Caring for Early Childhood Professionals and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin James

    2007-01-01

    Caring is the core value that empowers families and early childhood professionals. This article articulates the meaning and power of caring in the lives of children and families. It also explores family, professional, and community strategies for creating caring and nurturing children and families. In particular, insights that show that caring is…

  3. Facilitate insight by non-invasive brain stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Chi

    Full Text Available Our experiences can blind us. Once we have learned to solve problems by one method, we often have difficulties in generating solutions involving a different kind of insight. Yet there is evidence that people with brain lesions are sometimes more resistant to this so-called mental set effect. This inspired us to investigate whether the mental set effect can be reduced by non-invasive brain stimulation. 60 healthy right-handed participants were asked to take an insight problem solving task while receiving transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to the anterior temporal lobes (ATL. Only 20% of participants solved an insight problem with sham stimulation (control, whereas 3 times as many participants did so (p = 0.011 with cathodal stimulation (decreased excitability of the left ATL together with anodal stimulation (increased excitability of the right ATL. We found hemispheric differences in that a stimulation montage involving the opposite polarities did not facilitate performance. Our findings are consistent with the theory that inhibition to the left ATL can lead to a cognitive style that is less influenced by mental templates and that the right ATL may be associated with insight or novel meaning. Further studies including neurophysiological imaging are needed to elucidate the specific mechanisms leading to the enhancement.

  4. Behavioral Public Administration : Combining Insights from Public Administration and Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405; Jilke, Sebastian; Leth Olsen, Asmus; Tummers, L.G.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing upon insights from psychology on behavior of individuals and groups. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on theories and

  5. Translation in Language Teaching: Insights from Professional Translator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreres, Angeles; Noriega-Sanchez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The past three decades have seen vast changes in attitudes towards translation, both as an academic discipline and as a profession. The insights we have gained in recent years, in particular in the area of professional translator training, call for a reassessment of the role of translation in language teaching. Drawing on research and practices in…

  6. Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Linda L.; Strachan, Jane; Lazaridou, Angeliki

    2012-01-01

    "Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide" contains evocative portraits of twenty-three women educators and leaders from around the world whose actions are shaping social justice leadership. Woven from words of their own narratives, the women's voices lift off the page into readers' hearts and minds to inspire and…

  7. Behavioral Public Administration : Combining Insights from Public Administration and Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.; Jilke, Sebastian; Leth Olsen, Asmus; Tummers, L.G.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing upon insights from psychology on behavior of individuals and groups. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on theories and me

  8. The Domain-Specificity of Creativity: Insights from New Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julmi, Christian; Scherm, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    The question of the domain-specificity of creativity represents one of the key questions in creativity research. This article contributes to the discussion by applying insights from "new phenomenology," which is a phenomenological movement from Germany initiated by philosopher Hermann Schmitz. The findings of new phenomenology suggest…

  9. Deception Detection: An Educator's Guide to the Art of Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, Jeffrey

    This book argues that developing insight into the ordinary is a major part of education. Each of the five chapters contains ideas and activities designed to help students and teachers sharpen their perception of their day-to-day physical and social environment. "Survival Skills in a Consumer Society" examines the way people are persuaded to…

  10. Hydrothermal Processes in the Archean - New Insights from Imaging Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenbeek, F.J.A. van

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to gain new insights in fossil hydrothermal systems using airborne imaging spectroscopy. Fossil submarine hydrothermal systems in Archean greenstone belts and other geologic terranes are important because of their relationship with volcanic massive sulfide (VMS) mineral

  11. Extinction risks from climate change: macroecological and historical insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Roland

    2009-06-09

    Human-induced climate change may threaten a large proportion of Earth's biota, but the uncertainties involved in projecting the future geographical distributions of species make quantitative predictions of extinction risk difficult to make. I discuss how insight from recent advances in macroecology and knowledge about species responses to past climate change can help predict extinction risks more accurately.

  12. The Domain-Specificity of Creativity: Insights from New Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julmi, Christian; Scherm, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    The question of the domain-specificity of creativity represents one of the key questions in creativity research. This article contributes to the discussion by applying insights from "new phenomenology," which is a phenomenological movement from Germany initiated by philosopher Hermann Schmitz. The findings of new phenomenology suggest…

  13. An Insight Into Budgeting, The Funding And Cost Recovery of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Insight Into Budgeting, The Funding And Cost Recovery of Tertiary ... state in terms of financial provision and physical infrastructure and in the relationship ... Ministry of Education, the National Council for Tertiary Education and the World Bank. ... The students loan scheme was also found to be poorly managed hence the ...

  14. Theory of Mind in Schizophrenia: Associations With Clinical and Cognitive Insight Controlling for Levels of Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popolo, Raffaele; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Luther, Lauren; Vinci, Giancarlo; Salvatore, Giampaolo; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-03-01

    Poor insight in schizophrenia is a risk factor for both poor outcomes and treatment adherence. Accordingly, interest in identifying causes of poor insight has increased. This study explored whether theory of mind (ToM) impairments are linked to poor clinical and cognitive insight independent of psychopathology. Participants with schizophrenia (n = 37) and control subjects (n = 40) completed assessments of ToM with the Hinting Task and the Brüne Picture Sequencing Task, clinical insight and psychopathology with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and cognitive insight with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. Results indicated that the schizophrenia group had greater impairments in ToM relative to control subjects. In the schizophrenia group, the Hinting Task performance was related to both cognitive and clinical insight, with only the relationship with cognitive insight persisting after controlling for psychopathology. Picture Sequencing Task performance was related to cognitive insight only. Future research directions and clinical implications are discussed.

  15. Assessing cognitive insight in nonpsychiatric individuals and outpatients with schizophrenia in Taiwan: an investigation using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Chien-Wen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS was designed for the assessment of the cognitive processes involved in self-reflection and the ability to modify erroneous beliefs and misinterpretations. Studies investigating the factor structure of the BCIS have indicated a two-factor model in the psychotic population. The factor structure of the BCIS, however, has not received much consideration in the nonpsychiatric population. The present study examined the factor structure and validity of the BCIS and compared its scores between nonpsychiatric individuals and outpatients with psychosis. Method The Taiwanese version of the BCIS was administered to 507 nonpsychiatric individuals and 118 outpatients with schizophrenia. The psychometric properties of the BCIS were examined through the following analyses: exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, reliability, correlation analyses, and discriminative validity. Results The BCIS showed adequate internal consistency and stability over time. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the 15-item measure indicated a two-factor solution that supported the two dimensions of the Taiwanese BCIS, which was also observed with the original BCIS. Following the construct validation, we obtained a composite index (self-reflectiveness minus self-certainty of the Taiwanese BCIS that reflected cognitive insight. Consistent with previous studies, our results indicated that psychosis is associated with low self-reflectiveness and high self-certainty, which possibly reflect lower cognitive insight. Our results also showed that better cognitive insight is related to worse depression in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, but not in nonpsychiatric individuals. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC analyses revealed that the area under the curve (AUC was 0.731. A composite index of 3 was a good limit, with a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 51%. Conclusion The BCIS proved to be

  16. Key insights for the future of urban ecosystem services research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peleg Kremer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamics of urban ecosystem services is a necessary requirement for adequate planning, management, and governance of urban green infrastructure. Through the three-year Urban Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (URBES research project, we conducted case study and comparative research on urban biodiversity and ecosystem services across seven cities in Europe and the United States. Reviewing > 50 peer-reviewed publications from the project, we present and discuss seven key insights that reflect cumulative findings from the project as well as the state-of-the-art knowledge in urban ecosystem services research. The insights from our review indicate that cross-sectoral, multiscale, interdisciplinary research is beginning to provide a solid scientific foundation for applying the ecosystem services framework in urban areas and land management. Our review offers a foundation for seeking novel, nature-based solutions to emerging urban challenges such as wicked environmental change issues.

  17. Adolescents and cancer: discrepancy between untroubled appearance and insight disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimo, L M; Caprino, D

    2011-04-01

    The care of adolescents suffering from high risk disease is a demanding challenge. At times, adolescents may well be too old for the pediatrician and Pediatric Units, and yet too young for the adult practitioner. A dedicated approach that builds on the insight deriving from special attention to, and reflection on the adolescent patient's true desire to share feelings is pivotal to the efforts that must be made to improve the perceived quality of life. The specific age class of adolescence is the focus of few papers, and we feel that a broader discussion of the subject would be useful. In our short article we report the pieces written by three very positive-minded girls suffering from cancer for the journal of our Department. They show deep and severe insight disturbance.

  18. Quantum-chemical insights from deep tensor neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütt, Kristof T.; Arbabzadah, Farhad; Chmiela, Stefan; Müller, Klaus R.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Learning from data has led to paradigm shifts in a multitude of disciplines, including web, text and image search, speech recognition, as well as bioinformatics. Can machine learning enable similar breakthroughs in understanding quantum many-body systems? Here we develop an efficient deep learning approach that enables spatially and chemically resolved insights into quantum-mechanical observables of molecular systems. We unify concepts from many-body Hamiltonians with purpose-designed deep tensor neural networks, which leads to size-extensive and uniformly accurate (1 kcal mol-1) predictions in compositional and configurational chemical space for molecules of intermediate size. As an example of chemical relevance, the model reveals a classification of aromatic rings with respect to their stability. Further applications of our model for predicting atomic energies and local chemical potentials in molecules, reliable isomer energies, and molecules with peculiar electronic structure demonstrate the potential of machine learning for revealing insights into complex quantum-chemical systems.

  19. Numerical Experiments Providing New Insights into Plasma Focus Fusion Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing Lee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent extensive and systematic numerical experiments have uncovered new insights into plasma focus fusion devices including the following: (1 a plasma current limitation effect, as device static inductance is reduced towards very small values; (2 scaling laws of neutron yield and soft x-ray yield as functions of storage energies and currents; (3 a global scaling law for neutron yield as a function of storage energy combining experimental and numerical data showing that scaling deterioration has probably been interpreted as neutron ‘saturation’; and (4 a fundamental cause of neutron ‘saturation’. The ground-breaking insights thus gained may completely change the directions of plasma focus fusion research.

  20. Dynamic statistical models of biological cognition: insights from communications theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2014-10-01

    Maturana's cognitive perspective on the living state, Dretske's insight on how information theory constrains cognition, the Atlan/Cohen cognitive paradigm, and models of intelligence without representation, permit construction of a spectrum of dynamic necessary conditions statistical models of signal transduction, regulation, and metabolism at and across the many scales and levels of organisation of an organism and its context. Nonequilibrium critical phenomena analogous to physical phase transitions, driven by crosstalk, will be ubiquitous, representing not only signal switching, but the recruitment of underlying cognitive modules into tunable dynamic coalitions that address changing patterns of need and opportunity at all scales and levels of organisation. The models proposed here, while certainly providing much conceptual insight, should be most useful in the analysis of empirical data, much as are fitted regression equations.

  1. Perioperative leadership: managing change with insights, priorities, and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David L

    2014-07-01

    The personal leadership of the perioperative director is a critical factor in the success of any change management initiative. This article presents an approach to perioperative nursing leadership that addresses obstacles that prevent surgical departments from achieving high performance in clinical and financial outcomes. This leadership approach consists of specific insights, priorities, and tools: key insights include self-understanding of personal barriers to leadership and accuracy at understanding economic and strategic considerations related to the OR environment; key priorities include creating a customer-centered organization, focusing on process improvement, and concentrating on culture change; and key tools include using techniques (e.g., direct engagement, collaborative leadership) to align surgical organizations with leadership priorities and mitigate specific perioperative management risks. Included in this article is a leadership development plan for perioperative directors. Copyright © 2014 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Medicine in 2035: Selected Insights From ACGME's Scenario Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasca, Thomas J; Thomas, Charles W

    2015-03-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has the responsibility for overseeing the preparation of future physician specialists and subspecialists to serve the American public. To ensure ACGME's ability to adapt and sustain its accreditation activities in a future marked by significant uncertainty, its administration and board of directors embarked on a planning process that would frame its strategic actions in support of this responsibility. We describe the scenario planning process, and report key insights that resulted from it. We also discuss in greater depth a subset of those insights, which challenge certain conventional truths, call for new collaborative directions for the ACGME, and reaffirm the importance of professionalism in service of the public across all future scenarios evaluated.

  3. Fetal programming by maternal stress: Insights from a conflict perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-10-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy has pervasive effects on the offspring's physiology and behavior, including the development of anxious, reactive temperament and increased stress responsivity. These outcomes can be seen as the result of adaptive developmental plasticity: maternal stress hormones carry useful information about the state of the external world, which can be used by the developing fetus to match its phenotype to the predicted environment. This account, however, neglects the inherent conflict of interest between mother and fetus about the outcomes of fetal programming. The aim of this paper is to extend the adaptive model of prenatal stress by framing mother-fetus interactions in an evolutionary conflict perspective. In the paper, I show how a conflict perspective provides many new insights in the functions and mechanisms of fetal programming, with particular emphasis on human pregnancy. I then take advantage of those insights to make sense of some puzzling features of maternal and fetal physiology and generate novel empirical predictions.

  4. Circulating tumor cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma: An insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B V Prakruthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are those cells present in the blood and have antigenic and/or genetic characteristics of a specific tumor type. CTCs can be detected in the peripheral blood of cancer patients. Various techniques are available for detection of CTCs, which provide evidence for future metastasis. CTCs may provide new insight into the biology of cancer and process of metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. The detection of CTCs may represent a new diagnostic tool for predicting the occurrence of metastatic disease in OSCC and endow with the treatment strategies to efficiently treat and prevent cancer metastasis. This review gives an insight into the significance of CTCs and different techniques for detection of CTCs.

  5. New insights into cystic fibrosis: molecular switches that regulate CFTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggino, William B; Stanton, Bruce A

    2006-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a Cl(-)-selective ion channel, is a prototypic member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily that is expressed in several organs. In these organs, CFTR assembles into large, dynamic macromolecular complexes that contain signalling molecules, kinases, transport proteins, PDZ-domain-containing proteins, myosin motors, Rab GTPases, and SNAREs. Understanding how these complexes regulate the intracellular trafficking and activity of CFTR provides a unique insight into the aetiology of cystic fibrosis and other diseases.

  6. Insight na psicose: uma análise conceitual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas F. B. Mella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: No contexto da psiquiatria clínica, insight ou crítica da doença é definida como uma subcategoria do autoconhecimento dos pacientes relativa ao reconhecimento das manifestações patológicas que os afetam e também à apreciação das mudanças que tais manifestações causam na sua interação com o mundo. OBJETIVO: Examinar as formas de apresentação do insight na esquizofrenia e em outras psicoses. MÉTODOS: Análise conceitual, com vinhetas clínicas ilustrativas, da relação entre insight e as diversas dimensões sintomatológicas da esquizofrenia e condições relacionadas, considerando aspectos clínicos, neurocognitivos, psicodinâmicos e transculturais. RESULTADOS: Do ponto de vista conceitual, o construto é conformado pela perspectiva teórica adotada; do ponto de vista clínico, sua apresentação nas psicoses é a resultante da interação com os diferentes domínios sintomatológicos e aspectos subjetivos e culturais do paciente. CONCLUSÃO: A avaliação psicopatológica do insight deve levar em conta a complexidade do fenômeno, o recorte teórico em que está situada e a finalidade clínica com que é realizada.

  7. Pharmacological treatment of pain: future trends and novel insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascorbi, I

    2015-02-01

    The pharmacological treatment of chronic pain is generally hampered by a limited clinical outcome. Hence, there is a strong need for new therapeutic concepts considering the identification of novel targets and related drugs, but also optimization of established therapeutic regimes through individualization. In this issue, focused on "Pain," we discuss some of the recent new concepts in pain treatment, understanding of pain heterogeneity, and subsequent optimization of analgesic treatment, but also novel insights into interactions of nonopioids.

  8. Proteomic insights into Acinetobacter baumannii drug resistance and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Quanxin; Huang, Changwu; Liao, Pu; Xie, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunist pathogen, due to severe antibiotic resistance and nosocomial infection. The epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of A.baumannii have been extensively reviewed, but the pathogenesis and virulence remain unclear. Proteomics analysis has been applied to study the mechanism of drug resistance, biofilm, micronutrient acquisition, and the extracellular compartment. This review summarizes applications of proteomics in A. baumannii, aiming to summarize novel insights into the mechanism of A. baumannii pathogenesis and drug resistance.

  9. Cellulases from Thermophilic Fungi: Recent Insights and Biotechnological Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Duo-Chuan Li; An-Na Li; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C.

    2011-01-01

    Thermophilic fungal cellulases are promising enzymes in protein engineering efforts aimed at optimizing industrial processes, such as biomass degradation and biofuel production. The cloning and expression in recent years of new cellulase genes from thermophilic fungi have led to a better understanding of cellulose degradation in these species. Moreover, crystal structures of thermophilic fungal cellulases are now available, providing insights into their function and stability. The present pap...

  10. New insights from inside-out Doppler tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Kotze, Enrico J

    2015-01-01

    We present preliminary results from our investigation into using an 'inside-out' velocity space for creating a Doppler tomogram. The aim is to transpose the inverted appearance of the Cartesian velocity space used in normal Doppler tomography. In a comparison between normal and inside-out Doppler tomograms of cataclysmic variables, we show that the inside-out velocity space has the potential to produce new insights into the accretion dynamics in these systems.

  11. Charge transport in conducting polymers: insights from impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinson, Judith F; Kayinamura, Yohani P

    2009-12-01

    This tutorial review gives a brief introduction to impedance spectroscopy and discusses how it has been used to provide insight into charge transport through conducting polymers, particularly when the polymers are used as electrodes for solution studies or the design of electrodes for biomedical applications. As such it provides both an introduction to the topic and references to both classic and contemporary work for the more advanced reader.

  12. Theory to Strategy: War Insight for the Strategic Soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    Library Typography , New York, 1993, 162. 3 Additionally, these models may provide insights as to what an adversary may do depending on the nature of...11. 7 Carl Von Clausewitz, On War (edited and translated by Michael Howard and Peter Paret), Everyman’s Library Typography , New York, 1993, 73...Paret), Everyman’s Library Typography , New York, 1993, 88. 8 common enemy. Minimizing the amount of allies an adversary has may also limit its

  13. Working memory and insight in the nine-dot problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chein, Jason M; Weisberg, Robert W; Streeter, Naomi L; Kwok, Shaleigh

    2010-10-01

    In the present article, we examine the contribution of working memory (WM) to solution of the nine-dot problem, a classic insight problem. Prior research has generally demonstrated a limited role for WM in the solution of insight problems, which are typically assumed to be solved without conscious planning. However, MacGregor, Ormerod, and Chronicle (2001) proposed an information-processing model that solves the nine-dot problem by relying on a visual WM mechanism, which they term lookahead. In the present research, we examine whether performance on the nine-dot problem is indeed predicted by WM capacity. The results indicated that spatial WM capacity predicted the tendency to draw lines outside the configuration of dots and predicted the solution on a hint-aided version of the problem. Furthermore, within those solving the problem, higher spatial WM capacity was also related to faster solutions. The results support the information-processing model and suggest a more essential role for WM and planning in insight problem solving than has previously been acknowledged.

  14. Towards a theory of regional diversification : Combining insights from Evolutionary Economic Geography and Transition Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Coenen, Lars; Frenken, K.; Truffer, B.

    2017-01-01

    Towards a theory of regional diversification: combining insights from Evolutionary Economic Geography and Transition Studies. Regional Studies. This paper develops a theoretical framework of regional diversification by combining insights from Evolutionary Economic Geography and Transition Studies.

  15. Insight in bipolar disorder : associations with cognitive and emotional processing and illness characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf - Eldering, Marieke; van der Meer, Lisette; Burger, Huibert; Holthausen, Esther; Nolen, W.A.; Aleman, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the multifactorial relationship between illness insight, cognitive and emotional processes, and illness characteristics in bipolar disorder patients. Methods: Data from 85 euthymic or mildly to moderately depressed bipolar disorder patients were evaluated. Insight was measu

  16. Insight in bipolar disorder : associations with cognitive and emotional processing and illness characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf - Eldering, Marieke; van der Meer, Lisette; Burger, Huibert; Holthausen, Esther; Nolen, W.A.; Aleman, Andre

    Objective: To investigate the multifactorial relationship between illness insight, cognitive and emotional processes, and illness characteristics in bipolar disorder patients. Methods: Data from 85 euthymic or mildly to moderately depressed bipolar disorder patients were evaluated. Insight was

  17. Child Disruptive Behavior and Parenting Efficacy: A Comparison of the Effects of Two Models of Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Erin; Rodriguez, Eileen; Cappella, Elise; Morris, Jordan; McClowry, Sandee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament (INSIGHTS), a temperament-based preventive intervention, in reducing the disruptive behavior problems of young children from low-income, urban families. Results indicate that children enrolled in INSIGHTS evidenced a decrease in disruptive behavior problems…

  18. Implicit and explicit self-related processing in relation to insight in patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Annerieke E.; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H. M.; Aleman, Andre; van der Meer, Lisette

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Self-related processing (SRP) has been associated with clinical and cognitive insight. We investigated the relationship between implicit SRP (ISRP) and explicit SRP (ESRP) and insight. We first hypothesised that impaired insight is associated with the extent to which implicit feedback

  19. Self-clarity and different clusters of insight and self-stigma in mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Lysaker, Paul H; Roe, David

    2016-06-30

    The current study explored the self-experience of persons with Serious Mental Illness (SMI) by investigating the associations between different insight and self-stigma clusters, self-clarity, hope, recovery, and functioning. One hundred seven persons diagnosed with a SMI were administered six scales: self-concept clarity, self-stigma, insight into the illness, hope, recovery, and functioning. Correlations and cluster analyses were performed. Insight, as measured by a self-report scale was not related to any other variable. Self-stigma was negatively associated with self-clarity, hope, recovery and functioning. Three clusters emerged: moderate stigma/high insight (n=31), high stigma/moderate insight (n=28), and low stigma/low insight (n=42). The group with low stigma and low insight had higher mean levels of self-clarity and hope than the other two groups. There were no significant differences between cluster 1 (moderate stigma/high insight) and cluster 2 (high stigma/moderate insight) in all the variables beside self-clarity. The group with moderate stigma and high insight had significantly higher mean levels of self-clarity than the group with high stigma and moderate insight. Results reveal that when people diagnosed with SMI do not have high levels of self-stigma they often report a positive and clear sense of self accompanied with hope, regardless of having low insight.

  20. Relationship between cognition, clinical and cognitive insight in psychotic disorders : A review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, Akshay; Palmer, Emma Claire; Aleman, Andre; David, Anthony S.

    2014-01-01

    The neurocognitive theory of insight posits that poor insight in psychotic illnesses is related to cognitive deficits in cognitive self-appraisal mechanisms. In this paper we perform a comprehensive meta-analysis examining relationships between clinical insight and neurocognition in psychotic disord

  1. Self-Reflection, Insight, and Individual Differences in Various Language Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationships of self-reflection and insight with individuals' performances on various language tasks. The Self-Reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS; Grant, Franklin, & Langford, 2002) assessed individual differences in three factors: engagement in reflection, need for reflection, and insight. A high need for reflection was…

  2. Right Hemispheric Dominance of Creative Insight: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wangbing; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Xiaojiang; Zhao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Yalin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemispheric effect of creative insight. This study used high-density ERPs to record participants' brain activity while they performed an insight task. Results showed that both insight solutions and incomprehension solutions elicited a more negative ERP deflection (N320~550) than noninsight solutions…

  3. Insight change in psychosis : relationship with neurocognition, social cognition, clinical symptoms and phase of illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, P. J.; van der Meer, L.; Krabbendam, L.; de Haan, L.; Cahn, W.; Wiersma, D.; van Beveren, N.; Pijnenborg, G. H. M.; Mulder, C. L.; Bruggeman, R.; Aleman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Impaired insight is an important and prevalent symptom of psychosis. It remains unclear whether cognitive disturbances hamper improvements in insight. We investigated the neurocognitive, social cognitive, and clinical correlates of changes in insight. Method: One hundred and fifty-four pa

  4. Child Disruptive Behavior and Parenting Efficacy: A Comparison of the Effects of Two Models of Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Erin; Rodriguez, Eileen; Cappella, Elise; Morris, Jordan; McClowry, Sandee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament (INSIGHTS), a temperament-based preventive intervention, in reducing the disruptive behavior problems of young children from low-income, urban families. Results indicate that children enrolled in INSIGHTS evidenced a decrease in disruptive behavior problems…

  5. 77 FR 14832 - Plumchoice, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Balance Staffing, Insight Global Staffing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... Staffing, Insight Global Staffing, and Technisource, Scarborough, ME; Amended Certification Regarding..., Inc., including on-site leased workers from Balance Staffing, Insight Global Staffing, and... from Balance Staffing, Insight Global Staffing, and Technisource, Scarborough, Maine, who...

  6. The relationship between consumer insight and provider-consumer agreement regarding consumer's quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Roe, David; Kravetz, Shlomo; Levy-Frank, Itamar; Meir, Taly

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between insight and mental health consumers and providers agreement regarding consumers rated quality of life (QoL). Seventy mental health consumers and their 23 care providers filled-out parallel questionnaires designed to measure consumer QoL. Consumers' insight was also assessed. For most QoL domains, agreement between consumers and providers was higher for persons with high insight. For the Psychological well being dimension a negative correlation was uncovered for persons with low insight indicating disagreement between consumer and provider. These findings are discussed within the context of the literature on insight and agreement between consumer and provider as related to the therapeutic alliance.

  7. New insights into the evolutionary history of biological nitrogen fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eBoyd

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogenase, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent reduction of dinitrogen (N2 to ammonia (NH3, accounts for roughly half of the bioavailable nitrogen supporting extant life. The fundamental requirement for fixed forms of nitrogen for life on Earth, both at present and in the past, has led to broad and significant interest in the origin and evolution of this fundamental biological process. One key question is whether the limited availability of fixed nitrogen was a factor in life’s origin or whether there were ample sources of fixed nitrogen produced by abiotic processes or delivered through the weathering of bolide impact materials to support this early life. If the latter, the key questions become what were the characteristics of the environment that precipitated the evolution of this oxygen sensitive process, when did this occur, and how was its subsequent evolutionary history impacted by the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis and the rise of oxygen in the Earth’s biosphere. Since the availability of fixed sources of nitrogen capable of supporting early life is difficult to glean from the geologic record, there are limited means to get direct insights into these questions. Indirect insights, however, can be gained by deep phylogenetic studies of nitrogenase structural gene products and additional gene products involved in the biosynthesis of the complex metal-containing prosthetic groups associated with this enzyme complex. Insights gained from such studies, as reviewed herein, challenge traditional models for the evolution of biological nitrogen fixation and provide the basis for the development of new conceptual models that explain the stepwise evolution of this highly complex and life sustaining process.

  8. Model year 2010 Honda insight level-1 testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rask, E.; Bocci, D.; Duoba, M.; Lohse-Busch, H. (Energy Systems)

    2011-03-22

    As a part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), a model year 2010 Honda Insight was procured by eTec (Phoenix, AZ) and sent to ANL's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility for the purposes of vehicle-level testing in support of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). Data was acquired during testing using non-intrusive sensors, vehicle network information, and facilities equipment (emissions and dynamometer data). Standard drive cycles, performance cycles, steady-state cycles and A/C usage cycles were tested. Much of this data is openly available for download in ANL's Downloadable Dynamometer Database (D3). The major results are shown here in this report. Given the preliminary nature of this assessment, the majority of the testing was done over standard regulatory cycles and seeks to obtain a general overview of how the vehicle performs. These cycles include the US FTP cycle (Urban) and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycle as well as the US06, a more aggressive supplemental regulatory cycle. Data collection for this testing was kept at a fairly high level and includes emissions and fuel measurements from an exhaust emissions bench, high-voltage and accessory current and voltage from a DC power analyzer, and CAN bus data such as engine speed, engine load, and electric machine operation when available. The following sections will seek to explain some of the basic operating characteristics of the MY2010 Insight and provide insight into unique features of its operation and design.

  9. Experimental hydrodynamics of fish locomotion: functional insights from wake visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Eliot G; Lauder, George V

    2002-04-01

    Despite enormous progress during the last twenty years in understanding the mechanistic basis of aquatic animal propulsion-a task involving the construction of a substantial data base on patterns of fin and body kinematics and locomotor muscle function-there remains a key area in which biologists have little information: the relationship between propulsor activity and water movement in the wake. How is internal muscular force translated into external force exerted on the water? What is the pattern of fluid force production by different fish fins (e.g., pectoral, caudal, dorsal) and how does swimming force vary with speed and among species? These types of questions have received considerable attention in analyses of terrestrial locomotion where force output by limbs can be measured directly with force plates. But how can forces exerted by animals moving through fluid be measured? The advent of digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) has provided an experimental hydrodynamic approach for quantifying the locomotor forces of freely moving animals in fluids, and has resulted in significant new insights into the mechanisms of fish propulsion. In this paper we present ten "lessons learned" from the application of DPIV to problems of fish locomotion over the last five years. (1) Three-dimensional DPIV analysis is critical for reconstructing wake geometry. (2) DPIV analysis reveals the orientation of locomotor reaction forces. (3) DPIV analysis allows calculation of the magnitude of locomotor forces. (4) Swimming speed can have a major impact on wake structure. (5) DPIV can reveal interspecific differences in vortex wake morphology. (6) DPIV analysis can provide new insights into the limits to locomotor performance. (7) DPIV demonstrates the functional versatility of fish fins. (8) DPIV reveals hydrodynamic force partitioning among fins. (9) DPIV shows that wake interaction among fins may enhance thrust production. (10) Experimental hydrodynamic analysis can provide

  10. Insights into the regulation of transcription by scanning force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, R T; Wyman, C; Goosen, N

    2003-12-01

    The scanning force microscope (SFM) is a valuable tool for the structural analysis of complexes between protein(s) and DNA. In recent years the application of scanning force microscopy to the field of transcription regulation has been reported in numerous studies. Using this technique, novel insights could be obtained into the architecture and dynamics of complexes, which are relevant to the transcription process and the mechanisms by which this process is regulated. In this article an overview is given of SFM studies addressing, in particular, topics in the field of transcription in prokaryotic organisms.

  11. Combinatorial antibody libraries: new advances, new immunological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Immunochemists have become quite proficient in engineering existing antibody molecules to control their pharmacological properties. However, in terms of generating new antibodies, the combinatorial antibody library has become a central feature of modern immunochemistry. These libraries are essentially an immune system in a test tube and enable the selection of antibodies without the constraints of whole animal or cell-based systems. This Review provides an overview of how antibody libraries are constructed and discusses what can be learnt from these synthetic systems. In particular, the Review focuses on new biological insights from antibody libraries - such as the concept of 'SOS antibodies' - and the growing use of intracellular antibodies to perturb cellular functions.

  12. Big Data-Led Cancer Research, Application, and Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James A L; Ni Chonghaile, Triona; Matchett, Kyle B; Lynam-Lennon, Niamh; Kiely, Patrick A

    2016-11-01

    Insights distilled from integrating multiple big-data or "omic" datasets have revealed functional hierarchies of molecular networks driving tumorigenesis and modifiers of treatment response. Identifying these novel key regulatory and dysregulated elements is now informing personalized medicine. Crucially, although there are many advantages to this approach, there are several key considerations to address. Here, we examine how this big data-led approach is impacting many diverse areas of cancer research, through review of the key presentations given at the Irish Association for Cancer Research Meeting and importantly how the results may be applied to positively affect patient outcomes. Cancer Res; 76(21); 6167-70. ©2016 AACR.

  13. Building structure-activity insights through patent mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Meihua; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Guzman-Perez, Angel; Filipski, Kevin J

    2012-11-01

    One gap in current patent-mining practice is the lack of tools to build SAR knowledge. Here, we report a novel technique that enabled us to derive useful SAR information from the exemplified structures of a series of patents. In our approach, exemplified chemical structures were extracted from patent documents. They were grouped into structural series based on similarity and binding mode, after which the R-group table was generated. By analyzing R-group usages over time, we were able to build insights into SAR of a structural series, even though the biological activities were not available.

  14. New insights into innate immune control of systemic candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionakis, Michail S

    2014-08-01

    Systemic infection caused by Candida species is the fourth leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in modern hospitals and carries high morbidity and mortality despite antifungal therapy. A recent surge of immunological studies in the mouse models of systemic candidiasis and the parallel discovery and phenotypic characterization of inherited genetic disorders in antifungal immune factors that are associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to the infection have provided new insights into the cellular and molecular basis of protective innate immune responses against Candida. In this review, the new developments in our understanding of how the mammalian immune system responds to systemic Candida challenge are synthesized and important future research directions are highlighted.

  15. Distant X-ray Galaxies: Insights from the Local Population

    CERN Document Server

    Moran, E C

    2004-01-01

    A full understanding of the origin of the hard X-ray background requires a complete and accurate census of the distant galaxies that produce it. Unfortunately, distant X-ray galaxies tend to be very faint at all wavelengths, which hinders efforts to perform this census. This chapter discusses the insights that can be obtained through comparison of the distant population to local X-ray galaxies, whose properties are well characterized. Such comparisons will ultimately aid investigations into the cosmic evolution of supermassive black holes and their environments.

  16. The South African wine industry: Insights survey 2013

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blok, T

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available professionals who understand the specific challenges the industry faces. Our aim remains to make a meaningful contribution to the industry with projects like this insights survey, and to work alongside industry leaders to provide advice and seek solutions...-sector, as well as persistent increases in energy costs, it is not surprising to see labour and electricity as the expenses that executives are most concerned about over the next 12 to 36 months. Labour Marketing and sales Bottling and packaging Chemicals...

  17. Insights into rare diseases from social media surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, William

    2016-11-09

    The internet, and social media platforms, are increasingly being used by substantial sectors of the worldwide population. By engaging effectively with online and social media, scientists and clinicians can obtain unprecedented access to relatively large cohorts of individuals with rare diseases, as well as their relatives, carers and professionals involved in their healthcare. Online surveys of these stakeholder groups may provide important new insights into rare conditions and their management relatively quickly and easily, with the possibility of rapid translation into healthcare interventions and policy. Here, I describe our recent positive experience with the online survey approach to a rare disease (X-linked ichthyosis), and review its advantages and limitations.

  18. Fluorescein angiography: insight and serendipity a half century ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, Michael F; Ravin, James G

    2011-07-01

    It has been 50 years since fluorescein angiography was developed as a clinical procedure by 2 medical students at Indiana University. The story of its discovery and the recognition of its value to ophthalmology involve a combination of insight and serendipity. Fluorescein had been in use clinically for more than half a century, but it took a pulmonary medicine laboratory to provide the stimulus for the development of flash and barrier filters that would make vascular photography practical. The first article was rejected by the ophthalmology literature, but several clinics heard about it and soon documented the enormous diagnostic value of the procedure.

  19. Lead Nanopowder as Advanced Semi-Conductor, An Insight

    CERN Document Server

    Theivasanthi, T

    2013-01-01

    This work reports aspect related to semi-conducting nature of nano-sized particles of lead. This attempt finds its semiconducting behaviors elaborately and such advanced insight has so far not been said in literatures. New findings of Pb nanopowder (metal) by optical, fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry and four probe studies are presented in this study. The successful calculations of band gap, resistance value confirm its semi-conducting nature and explore its potential application in various industries. This work throws some light on and helps further research.

  20. The attentive brain: insights from developmental cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amso, Dima; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-10-01

    Visual attention functions as a filter to select environmental information for learning and memory, making it the first step in the eventual cascade of thought and action systems. Here, we review studies of typical and atypical visual attention development and explain how they offer insights into the mechanisms of adult visual attention. We detail interactions between visual processing and visual attention, as well as the contribution of visual attention to memory. Finally, we discuss genetic mechanisms underlying attention disorders and how attention may be modified by training.

  1. Designing for Insight: A Case Study from Tennis Player Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Kim; Yucesoy, Burcu

    2016-01-01

    Visualization is an important tool, necessary for making sense of vast amounts of data. Many data science projects make use of visualization techniques to illustrate and explain their results. But complex interactive visualizations can also be excellent exploration tools to help guide the analysis, detect early signs of problems and irregularities, suggest new discoveries, and test the effectiveness and efficiency of scientific models. This article describes a combinatory design process that uses a method of incremental addition to create increasingly complex arrangements and thus create new ways to see data and discover new insights.

  2. Active zone stability: insights from fly neuromuscular junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presynaptic active zone is a dynamic structure that orchestrates regulated release of neurotransmitters. Developmental and aging processes, and changes in neuronal network activity can all modulate the number, size and composition of active zone and thereby synaptic efficacy. However, very little is known about the mechanism that controls the structural stability of active zone. By studying a model synapse, the Drosophila neuromuscular junction, our recent work shed light on how two scaffolding proteins at the active zone regulate active zone stability by promoting a localized dephosphorylation event at the nerve terminal. Here we discuss the major insights from our findings and their implications for future research.

  3. Amoebic anal fistula: new insight into an old disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Vivek; Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Jain, Bhupendra Kumar; Mishra, Kiran; Mohanty, Debajyoti

    2014-04-01

    A 67-year-old gentleman underwent fistulectomy for low trans-sphincteric anal fistula along with curettage for an associated abscess extending proximally for half a centimeter into the intersphincteric plane. The roof of the cavity became clearly visible after satisfactory culmination of the surgical procedure. Histopathological examination of the fistulous tract and the curetted granulation tissue revealed presence of multiple trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica exhibiting erythrophagocytosis in the background of mixed inflammatory infiltrate. This case report provides the outlook that yields the novel insight into the possible role of Entamoeba histolytica in the pathogenesis and persistence of the fistulous tract.

  4. New insights into the proton structure with ep collider HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Z

    2000-01-01

    Since its commissioning in 1991, the ep collider HERA has been running successfully for almost a decade without stopping improving its performance. In this report, the inclusive cross section and structure function measurements for the deep inelastic scattering of neutral and charged current processes in the full HERA kinematic domain are reviewed. The results are compared with the Standard Model expectations for the deep inelastic scattering processes. The new insights into the proton structure and on the underlying strong and electroweak interactions are discussed.

  5. A three-dimensional model of thoughts: insight into depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desseilles, Martin; Chang, Trina; Piguet, Camille; Bertschy, Gilles; Dayer, Alexandre G

    2012-01-01

    Thought processing and mood regulation are closely linked, but existing classifications of mood disorders fail to recognize the complex interplay between these two clinical dimensions. Furthermore, existing classifications fail to account for the possibility that depression might be associated with an increased frequency of self-referential thoughts that could in some circumstances be related to creativity processes. Based on recent evidence from clinical phenomenology, experimental psychology and affective neuroscience, we propose a novel comprehensive theoretical framework that incorporates thought processing and emotional valence. This new taxonomy provides insights into the clinical understanding of the spectrum of mood disorders and accounts for the possibility of increased creativity in altered mood states.

  6. Insights into the role of patents in R&D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst has called on a group of international experts to explore key themes relating to intellectual property within the context of the fields of medical and pharmaceutical science. Topics include a reflection on how worrying the patent cliff really is, and adapting to life beyond it; to the ways in which social media is affecting how lawyers share information, and steps for protecting IP against the risks posed by hacking and cybersurveillance. We hope you enjoy these insightful contributions. Commissioned and edited by Gino D'Oca, Head of Commissioning.

  7. Insights from 20 years of bacterial genome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Jun, Se-Ran

    2015-01-01

    the genome as well. Sequencing of bacterial genome sequences is now a standard procedure, and the information from tens of thousands of bacterial genomes has had a major impact on our views of the bacterial world. In this review, we explore a series of questions to highlight some insights that comparative...... (close to 90 % of bacterial genomes in GenBank are currently not complete); third-generation sequencing can potentially produce a finished genome in a few hours, and at the same time provide methlylation sites along the entire chromosome. The diversity of bacterial communities is extensive as is evident...

  8. Insights from Development of Regulatory PSA Model for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Ju; Cho, Nam Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Inn Seock [ISSA Technology, Maryland (United States); Lee, Yong Suk [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    SMART (System-Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is a first-of-the-kind integral reactor with 330 MW thermal power under active development by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for power generation and seawater desalination. SMART employs various design features that are not typically found in other nuclear power plants. Examples include a unique passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS), and enclosure of a pressurizer, eight helical steam generators, and eight canned reactor coolant pumps inside the reactor pressure vessel. This paper presents risk insights on the SMART reactor gained during the development of a regulatory PSA model by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS)

  9. Evolutionary Transcriptomics and Proteomics: Insight into Plant Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelckel, Claudia; Gruenheit, Nicole; Lockhart, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Comparative transcriptomics and proteomics (T&P) have brought biological insight into development, gene function, and physiological stress responses. However, RNA-seq and high-throughput proteomics remain underutilised in studies of plant adaptation. These methodologies have created discovery tools with the potential to significantly advance our understanding of adaptive diversification. We outline experimental recommendations for their application. We discuss analysis models and approaches that accelerate the identification of adaptive gene sets and integrate transcriptome, proteome, phenotypic, and environmental data. Finally, we encourage widespread uptake and future developments in T&P that will advance our understanding of evolution and adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Stroke rehabilitation 2009: old chestnuts and new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Lalit

    2010-02-01

    The past year has continued to see growth in stroke rehabilitation literature, ranging from important insights into the basic science of stroke recovery to broader multidisciplinary aspects aimed at improving global quality of life in stroke survivors. The areas that particularly stand out include 1) new evidence on old treatment strategies in clinical rehabilitation; 2) developments in the treatment of "neglected" impairments, such as hemianopia and sensory loss; 3) evaluation of the use of technology in stroke rehabilitation; and 4) advances in neurorestorative treatments after stroke.

  11. Reduced connectivity in the self-processing network of schizophrenia patients with poor insight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith J Liemburg

    Full Text Available Lack of insight (unawareness of illness is a common and clinically relevant feature of schizophrenia. Reduced levels of self-referential processing have been proposed as a mechanism underlying poor insight. The default mode network (DMN has been implicated as a key node in the circuit for self-referential processing. We hypothesized that during resting state the DMN network would show decreased connectivity in schizophrenia patients with poor insight compared to patients with good insight. Patients with schizophrenia were recruited from mental health care centers in the north of the Netherlands and categorized in groups having good insight (n= 25 or poor insight (n = 19. All subjects underwent a resting state fMRI scan. A healthy control group (n = 30 was used as a reference. Functional connectivity of the anterior and posterior part of the DMN, identified using Independent Component Analysis, was compared between groups. Patients with poor insight showed lower connectivity of the ACC within the anterior DMN component and precuneus within the posterior DMN component compared to patients with good insight. Connectivity between the anterior and posterior part of the DMN was lower in patients than controls, and qualitatively different between the good and poor insight patient groups. As predicted, subjects with poor insight in psychosis showed decreased connectivity in DMN regions implicated in self-referential processing, although this concerned only part of the network. This finding is compatible with theories implying a role of reduced self-referential processing as a mechanism contributing to poor insight.

  12. Brief report: Insight into illness and social attributional style in Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didehbani, Nyaz; Shad, Mujeeb U; Kandalaft, Michelle R; Allen, Tandra T; Tamminga, Carol A; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Chapman, Sandra B

    2012-12-01

    A number of psychiatric illnesses have been recognized to have some level of insight deficits, including developmental disorders, such as Asperger's Syndrome (ASP). However insight into illness has not been empirically investigated in ASP and little research has examined how individuals with ASP view their deficits. This is the first study to assess insight and the relationship between insight and externalizing bias (EB) in ASP. Participants with ASP (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 24) were recruited. Attributional style was assessed with the internal, personal, and situational attribution questionnaire. Insight was assessed with both a clinician-administered and a self-administered measure. Results revealed that EB was negatively correlated with insight as assessed with the clinician-administered but not the self-administered measure of insight.

  13. Categories of Insight and Their Correlates: An Exploration of Relationships among Classic-Type Insight Problems, Rebus Puzzles, Remote Associates and Esoteric Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.; Gibb, Jenny; Haar, Jarrod

    2009-01-01

    A central question in creativity concerns how insightful ideas emerge. Anecdotal examples of insightful scientific and technical discoveries include Goodyear's discovery of the vulcanization of rubber, and Mendeleev's realization that there may be gaps as he tried to arrange the elements into the Periodic Table. Although most people would regard…

  14. Cyclone Center: Insights on Historical Tropical Cyclones from Citizen Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, P.; Hennon, C. C.; Knapp, K. R.; Schreck, C. J., III; Stevens, S. E.; Kossin, J. P.; Rennie, J.; Hennon, P. A.; Kruk, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The cyclonecenter.org project started in fall 2012 and has been collecting citizen scientist volunteer tropical cyclone intensity estimates ever since. The project is hosted by the Citizen Science Alliance (zooniverse) and the platform is supported by a range of scientists. We have over 30 years of satellite imagery of tropical cyclones but the analysis to date has been done on an ocean-basin by ocean-basin basis and worse still practices have changed over time. We therefore do not, presently, have a homogeneous record relevant for discerning climatic changes. Automated techniques can classify many of the images but have a propensity to be challenged during storm transitions. The problem is fundamentally one where many pairs of eyes are invaluable as there is no substitute for human eyes in discerning patterns. Each image is classified by ten unique users before it is retired. This provides a unique insight into the uncertainty inherent in classification. In the three years of the project much useful data has accrued. This presentation shall highlight some of the results and analyses to date and touch on insights as to what has worked and what perhaps has not worked so well. There are still many images left to complete so its far from too late to jump over to www.cyclonecenter.org and help out.

  15. Unanticipated Insights into Biomedicine from the Study of Acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Hugh; Hammerschlag, Richard; Coeytaux, Remy R; Davis, Robert T; Harris, Richard E; Kong, Jiang-Ti; Langevin, Helene M; Lao, Lixing; Milley, Ryan J; Napadow, Vitaly; Schnyer, Rosa N; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Witt, Claudia M; Wayne, Peter M

    2016-02-01

    Research into acupuncture has had ripple effects beyond the field of acupuncture. This paper identifies five exemplars to illustrate that there is tangible evidence of the way insights gleaned from acupuncture research have informed biomedical research, practice, or policy. The first exemplar documents how early research into acupuncture analgesia has expanded into neuroimaging research, broadening physiologic understanding and treatment of chronic pain. The second describes how the acupuncture needle has become a tool to enhance biomedical knowledge of connective tissue. The third exemplar, which illustrates use of a modified acupuncture needle as a sham device, focuses on emergent understanding of placebo effects and, in turn, on insights into therapeutic encounters in treatments unrelated to acupuncture. The fourth exemplar documents that two medical devices now in widespread use were inspired by acupuncture: transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators for pain control and antinausea wrist bands. The final exemplar describes how pragmatic clinical trial designs applied in acupuncture research have informed current general interest in comparative effectiveness research. In conclusion, these exemplars of unanticipated outcomes of acupuncture research comprise an additional rationale for continued support of basic and clinical research evaluating acupuncture and other under-researched therapies.

  16. Quantum-chemical insights from deep tensor neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütt, Kristof T.; Arbabzadah, Farhad; Chmiela, Stefan; Müller, Klaus R.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Learning from data has led to paradigm shifts in a multitude of disciplines, including web, text and image search, speech recognition, as well as bioinformatics. Can machine learning enable similar breakthroughs in understanding quantum many-body systems? Here we develop an efficient deep learning approach that enables spatially and chemically resolved insights into quantum-mechanical observables of molecular systems. We unify concepts from many-body Hamiltonians with purpose-designed deep tensor neural networks, which leads to size-extensive and uniformly accurate (1 kcal mol−1) predictions in compositional and configurational chemical space for molecules of intermediate size. As an example of chemical relevance, the model reveals a classification of aromatic rings with respect to their stability. Further applications of our model for predicting atomic energies and local chemical potentials in molecules, reliable isomer energies, and molecules with peculiar electronic structure demonstrate the potential of machine learning for revealing insights into complex quantum-chemical systems. PMID:28067221

  17. Big Data Offers Novel Insights for Oncolytic Virus Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L. Swift

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale assays, such as microarrays, next-generation sequencing and various “omics” technologies, have explored multiple aspects of the immune response following virus infection, often from a public health perspective. Yet a lack of similar data exists for monitoring immune engagement during oncolytic virus immunotherapy (OVIT in the cancer setting. Tracking immune signatures at the tumour site can create a snapshot or longitudinally analyse immune cell activation, infiltration and functionality within global populations or individual cells. Mapping immune changes over the course of oncolytic biotherapy—from initial infection to tumour stabilisation/regression through to long-term cure or escape/relapse—has the potential to generate important therapeutic insights around virus-host interactions. Further, correlating such immune signatures with specific tumour outcomes has significant value for guiding the development of novel oncolytic virus immunotherapy strategies. Here, we provide insights for OVIT from large-scale analyses of immune populations in the infection, vaccination and immunotherapy setting. We analyse several approaches to manipulating immune engagement during OVIT. We further explore immunocentric changes in the tumour tissue following immunotherapy, and compile several immune signatures of therapeutic success. Ultimately, we highlight clinically relevant large-scale approaches with the potential to strengthen future oncolytic strategies to optimally engage the immune system.

  18. Structural and functional insights into asymmetric enzymatic dehydration of alkenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestl, Bettina M; Geinitz, Christopher; Popa, Stephanie; Rizek, Sari; Haselbeck, Robert J; Stephen, Rosary; Noble, Michael A; Fischer, Max-Philipp; Ralph, Erik C; Hau, Hoi Ting; Man, Henry; Omar, Muhiadin; Turkenburg, Johan P; van Dien, Stephen; Culler, Stephanie J; Grogan, Gideon; Hauer, Bernhard

    2017-03-01

    The asymmetric dehydration of alcohols is an important process for the direct synthesis of alkenes. We report the structure and substrate specificity of the bifunctional linalool dehydratase isomerase (LinD) from the bacterium Castellaniella defragrans that catalyzes in nature the hydration of β-myrcene to linalool and the subsequent isomerization to geraniol. Enzymatic kinetic resolutions of truncated and elongated aromatic and aliphatic tertiary alcohols (C5-C15) that contain a specific signature motif demonstrate the broad substrate specificity of LinD. The three-dimensional structure of LinD from Castellaniella defragrans revealed a pentamer with active sites at the protomer interfaces. Furthermore, the structure of LinD in complex with the product geraniol provides initial mechanistic insights into this bifunctional enzyme. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed active site amino acid residues essential for its dehydration and isomerization activity. These structural and mechanistic insights facilitate the development of hydrating catalysts, enriching the toolbox for novel bond-forming biocatalysis.

  19. An insight of traditional plasmid curing in Vibrio species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadesh eLetchumanan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As the causative agent of foodborne related illness, Vibrio species causes a huge impact on the public health and management. Vibrio species is often associated with seafood as the latter plays a role as a vehicle to transmit bacterial infections. Hence, antibiotics are used not to promote growth but rather to prevent and treat bacterial infections. The extensive use of antibiotics in the aquaculture industry and environment has led to the emerging of antibiotic resistant strains. This phenomenon has triggered an alarming public health concern due to the increase number of pathogenic Vibrio strains that are resistant to clinically used antibiotics and is found in the environment. Antibiotic resistance and the genes location in the strains can be detected through plasmid curing assay. The results derived from plasmid curing assay is fast, cost effective, sufficient in providing insights and influence the antibiotic management policies in the aquaculture industry. This presentation aims in discussing and providing insights on various curing agents in Vibrio species. To our best of knowledge, this is a first review written discussing on plasmid curing in Vibrio species.

  20. Simulations in Medicine and Biology: Insights and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Modern medicine and biology have been transformed into quantitative sciences of high complexity, with challenging objectives. The aims of medicine are related to early diagnosis, effective therapy, accurate intervention, real time monitoring, procedures/systems/instruments optimization, error reduction, and knowledge extraction. Concurrently, following the explosive production of biological data concerning DNA, RNA, and protein biomolecules, a plethora of questions has been raised in relation to their structure and function, the interactions between them, their relationships and dependencies, their regulation and expression, their location, and their thermodynamic characteristics. Furthermore, the interplay between medicine and biology gives rise to fields like molecular medicine and systems biology which are further interconnected with physics, mathematics, informatics, and engineering. Modelling and simulation is a powerful tool in the fields of Medicine and Biology. Simulating the phenomena hidden inside a diagnostic or therapeutic medical procedure, we are able to obtain control on the whole system and perform multilevel optimization. Furthermore, modelling and simulation gives insights in the various scales of biological representation, facilitating the understanding of the huge amounts of derived data and the related mechanisms behind them. Several examples, as well as the insights and the perspectives of simulations in biomedicine will be presented.

  1. Big Data Offers Novel Insights for Oncolytic Virus Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Stephanie L.; Stojdl, David F.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale assays, such as microarrays, next-generation sequencing and various “omics” technologies, have explored multiple aspects of the immune response following virus infection, often from a public health perspective. Yet a lack of similar data exists for monitoring immune engagement during oncolytic virus immunotherapy (OVIT) in the cancer setting. Tracking immune signatures at the tumour site can create a snapshot or longitudinally analyse immune cell activation, infiltration and functionality within global populations or individual cells. Mapping immune changes over the course of oncolytic biotherapy—from initial infection to tumour stabilisation/regression through to long-term cure or escape/relapse—has the potential to generate important therapeutic insights around virus-host interactions. Further, correlating such immune signatures with specific tumour outcomes has significant value for guiding the development of novel oncolytic virus immunotherapy strategies. Here, we provide insights for OVIT from large-scale analyses of immune populations in the infection, vaccination and immunotherapy setting. We analyse several approaches to manipulating immune engagement during OVIT. We further explore immunocentric changes in the tumour tissue following immunotherapy, and compile several immune signatures of therapeutic success. Ultimately, we highlight clinically relevant large-scale approaches with the potential to strengthen future oncolytic strategies to optimally engage the immune system. PMID:26861383

  2. Mechanistic insights into influenza vaccine-associated narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S Sohail; Steinman, Lawrence

    2016-12-01

    We previously reported an increased frequency of antibodies to hypocretin (HCRT) receptor 2 in sera obtained from narcoleptic patients who received the European AS03-adjuvanted vaccine Pandemrix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, s.a.) for the global influenza A H1N1 pandemic in 2009 [A(H1N1)pdm09]. These antibodies cross-reacted with a particular fragment of influenza nucleoprotein (NP) - one of the proteins naturally contained in the virus used to make seasonal influenza vaccine and pandemic influenza vaccines. The purpose of this commentary is to provide additional insights and interpretations of the findings and share additional data not presented in the original paper to help the reader appreciate the key messages of that publication. First, a brief background to narcolepsy and vaccine-induced narcolepsy will be provided. Then, additional insights and clarification will be provided on the following topics: 1) the critical difference identified in the adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines, 2) the contributing factor likely for the discordant association of narcolepsy between the AS03-adjuvanted pandemic vaccines Pandemrix and Arepanrix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, s.a.), 3) the significance of detecting HCRT receptor 2 (HCRTr2) antibodies in some Finnish control subjects, 4) the approach used for the detection of HCRTr2 antibodies in vaccine-associated narcolepsy, and 5) the plausibility of the proposed mechanism involving HCRTr2 modulation in vaccine-associated narcolepsy.

  3. Orbital debris hazard insights from spacecraft anomalies studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Darren S.

    2016-09-01

    Since the dawning of the space age space operators have been tallying spacecraft anomalies and failures then using these insights to improve the space systems and operations. As space systems improved and their lifetimes increased, the anomaly and failure modes have multiplied. Primary triggers for space anomalies and failures include design issues, space environmental effects, and satellite operations. Attempts to correlate anomalies to the orbital debris environment have started as early as the mid-1990's. Early attempts showed tens of anomalies correlated well to altitudes where the cataloged debris population was the highest. However, due to the complexity of tracing debris impacts to mission anomalies, these analyses were found to be insufficient to prove causation. After the fragmentation of the Chinese Feng-Yun satellite in 2007, it was hypothesized that the nontrackable fragments causing anomalies in LEO would have increased significantly from this event. As a result, debris-induced anomalies should have gone up measurably in the vicinity of this breakup. Again, the analysis provided some subtle evidence of debris-induced anomalies but it was not convincing. The continued difficulty in linking debris flux to satellite anomalies and failures prompted the creation of a series of spacecraft anomalies and failure workshops to investigate the identified shortfalls. These gatherings have produced insights into why this process is not straightforward. Summaries of these studies and workshops are presented and observations made about how to create solutions for anomaly attribution, especially as it relates to debris-induced spacecraft anomalies and failures.

  4. Insights from advanced analytics at the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fihn, Stephan D; Francis, Joseph; Clancy, Carolyn; Nielson, Christopher; Nelson, Karin; Rumsfeld, John; Cullen, Theresa; Bates, Jack; Graham, Gail L

    2014-07-01

    Health care has lagged behind other industries in its use of advanced analytics. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has three decades of experience collecting data about the veterans it serves nationwide through locally developed information systems that use a common electronic health record. In 2006 the VHA began to build its Corporate Data Warehouse, a repository for patient-level data aggregated from across the VHA's national health system. This article provides a high-level overview of the VHA's evolution toward "big data," defined as the rapid evolution of applying advanced tools and approaches to large, complex, and rapidly changing data sets. It illustrates how advanced analysis is already supporting the VHA's activities, which range from routine clinical care of individual patients--for example, monitoring medication administration and predicting risk of adverse outcomes--to evaluating a systemwide initiative to bring the principles of the patient-centered medical home to all veterans. The article also shares some of the challenges, concerns, insights, and responses that have emerged along the way, such as the need to smoothly integrate new functions into clinical workflow. While the VHA is unique in many ways, its experience may offer important insights for other health care systems nationwide as they venture into the realm of big data.

  5. Mechanistic insights into acyclovir-polyethylene glycol 20000 binary dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateskumar, Krishnamoorthy; Parasuraman, Subramani; Gunasunderi, Raju; Sureshkumar, Krishnan; Nayak, M. Muralidhar; Shah, Syed Adnan Ali; Kassen, Khoo; Kai, Heng Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to provide a mechanistic insight into solubility enhancement and dissolution of acyclovir (ACY) by polyethylene glycol20000 (PEG20000). Materials and Methods: Solid dispersions with differing ratios of drug (ACY) and carrier (PEG20000) were prepared and evaluated by phase solubility, in vitro release studies, kinetic analysis, in situ perfusion, and in vitro permeation studies. Solid state characterization was also done by Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis and surface morphology was assessed by Polarizing Microscopic Image (PMI) analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis. Results: Thermodynamic parameters proved the solubilization effect of carrier. The aqueous solubility and dissolution of ACY were increased in all samples. Formation of solid solution, crystallinity reduction, and absence of interaction between drug and carrier was proved by XRD, DSC, and FTIR analysis. The particle size reduction and change in surface morphology were confirmed by SEM and AFM and analysis. The permeation coefficient and amount of drug diffused was higher in samples as compared to ACY. The stability was high in dispersions, and it was proved by NMR analysis. Conclusion: The mechanical insights into the enhancement of solubility and dissolution could be used as a platform to improve the aqueous solubility for other poor water soluble drugs. PMID:28123988

  6. Coronary artery disease: new insights and their implications for radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Marc; Kivelitz, Dietmar; Taupitz, Matthias; Wagner, Susanne; Hamm, Bernd [Department of Radiology, Charite Medical School, Freie Universitaet und Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Schumannstrasse 20/21, P.O. Box 10098, 10117, Berlin (Germany); Borges, Adrian C.; Baumann, Gert [Division of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, Medical Department and Outpatient Centre, Charite Medical School, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-06-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) diminishes local, regional, or global blood supply to the heart and is most commonly caused by coronary atherosclerosis. New insights into the etiology of atherosclerosis suggest that CAD is an inflammatory disorder that responds well to modulation rather than an unchangeable chronic process. Since 75% of all acute coronary syndromes result from rupture of atherosclerotic plaques, factors causing rupture have a crucial role. Magnetic resonance imaging and CT have the potential to visualize the composition of coronary artery plaques and thus to identify plaques at risk. Considering the new insights into stunning and hibernation, myocardial late enhancement on MRI might provide pivotal information for therapeutic decision making among lysis therapy, catheter intervention, and bypass surgery. Exercise electrocardiography without or with right precordial leads, stress echocardiography, and stress scintigraphy are simple clinical procedures to identify CAD with high sensitivities of 67, 92, 76, and 88%, respectively. The MRI and CT have to be compared with these good results. Nevertheless, we are expecting that MRI and CT will replace the conventional diagnostic modalities, gain a central role in diagnosing patients with suspected CAD, and prove to be cost-effective in this regard. (orig.)

  7. Isotopic insights into biological regulation of zinc in contaminated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanty, Richard B.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Wesner, Jeff S.; Walters, David; Schmidt, Travis S.; Podda, Francesca; De Giudici, G.; Stricker, Craig A.; Kraus, Johanna M.; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Wolf, Ruth E.; Cidu, R.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic organisms use a variety of biogeochemical reactions to regulate essential and non-essential trace metals. Many of these mechanisms can lead to isotopic fractionation, thus measurement of metal isotopes may yield insights into the processes by which organisms respond to metal exposure. We illustrate these concepts with two case studies, one involving an intra- and the other an extra-cellular mechanism of Zn sequestration. In the first study, the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer was grown in the laboratory, and fed a diet of Zn-doped diatoms at Zn levels exceeding the requirements for normal mayfly life functions. The N. triangulifer larvae consumed the diatoms and retained their Zn isotopic signature. Upon metamorphosis, the subimago life stage lost Zn mass either in the exuvia or by excretion, and the Zn retained was isotopically enriched. Thus, Zn uptake is nonfractionating, but Zn regulation favors the lighter isotope. Thus the Zn remaining in the subimago was isotopically heavier. In the second study, Zn was adsorbed on the cell walls and exopolysaccharide secretions of cyanobacteria, which favored the heavier Zn isotope. Continued adsorption eventually resulted in nucleation and biomineralization of hydrozincite {Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6}. These case studies demonstrate the utility of Zn isotopes to provide insights into how aquatic insects respond to metal exposure.

  8. Insights into phase transitions and entanglement from density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo-Bo

    2016-11-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) has met great success in solid state physics, quantum chemistry and in computational material sciences. In this work we show that DFT could shed light on phase transitions and entanglement at finite temperatures. Specifically, we show that the equilibrium state of an interacting quantum many-body system which is in thermal equilibrium with a heat bath at a fixed temperature is a universal functional of the first derivatives of the free energy with respect to temperature and other control parameters respectively. This insight from DFT enables us to express the average value of any physical observable and any entanglement measure as a universal functional of the first derivatives of the free energy with respect to temperature and other control parameters. Since phase transitions are marked by the nonanalytic behavior of free energy with respect to control parameters, the physical quantities and entanglement measures may present nonanalytic behavior at critical point inherited from their dependence on the first derivative of free energy. We use two solvable models to demonstrate these ideas. These results give new insights for phase transitions and provide new profound connections between entanglement and phase transitions in interacting quantum many-body physics.

  9. P03-241 - Improving insight in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and understanding insight from a patient perspective - a mixed methods study. European Psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R; Hansson, L; Zoffmann, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    The method Guided Self-Determination (GSD), originally developed and proven effective in difficult diabetes care, has been adjusted to patients with schizophrenia. Currently a randomised controlled study investigates if the method GSD has effect on the outcomes insight, self-esteem, recovery......, psychopathology and social functioning when applied in psychiatric care in 3 Assertive Outreach Teams and 3 Psychosis Teams. As an extension from the RCT we just started a qualitative study using Classic Grounded Theory. The overall approach is a Mixed Methods Approach with a Sequential Explanatory Strategy....... The RCT hypothesize that the method GSD improves both clinical and cognitive insight in patients, measured by Birchwood Insight Scale and Beck Cognitive Insight Scale that both are self-rating scales. Lack of insight into illness is often associated with patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Also poorer...

  10. Correlation Between Insight Level and Suicidal Behavior/Ideation in Bipolar Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Mograbi, Daniel C; Bifano, Jaqueline; Santana, Cristina M T; Cheniaux, Elie

    2017-03-01

    Suicide is a relatively common outcome along the course of bipolar disorder. Studies have shown a positive correlation between ideation or attempts of suicide and higher insight in schizophrenic patients. Nevertheless there are still few studies that evaluate the relationship between suicide and insight in mood disorders. Evaluate the relationship between insight and suicidal ideation or behavior in bipolar depression. A group of 165 bipolar patients were followed up along 1 year. Each patient's mood was assessed in every consultation according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Suicidal ideation and behavior were prospectively assessed through item 3 of HAM-D whenever a major depressive episode was diagnosed. Insight was evaluated through the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders. A history of suicidal attempts was associated with worse insight in 60 patients with one episode of bipolar depression. The difference remained even when the supposed effect of depression over insight was controlled. No correlation between current suicidal ideation and insight level was found though. Our results suggest that a history of suicide attempts may correlate with higher impairment of insight in bipolar depression. No relationship was found between current suicidal ideation and insight.

  11. Do people have insight into their face recognition abilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Romina; Rossion, Bruno; Rhodes, Gillian; Laguesse, Renaud; Tez, Tolga; Hall, Bronwyn; Albonico, Andrea; Malaspina, Manuela; Daini, Roberta; Irons, Jessica; Al-Janabi, Shahd; Taylor, Libby C; Rivolta, Davide; McKone, Elinor

    2017-02-01

    Diagnosis of developmental or congenital prosopagnosia (CP) involves self-report of everyday face recognition difficulties, which are corroborated with poor performance on behavioural tests. This approach requires accurate self-evaluation. We examine the extent to which typical adults have insight into their face recognition abilities across four experiments involving nearly 300 participants. The experiments used five tests of face recognition ability: two that tap into the ability to learn and recognize previously unfamiliar faces [the Cambridge Face Memory Test, CFMT; Duchaine, B., & Nakayama, K. (2006). The Cambridge Face Memory Test: Results for neurologically intact individuals and an investigation of its validity using inverted face stimuli and prosopagnosic participants. Neuropsychologia, 44(4), 576-585. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.07.001; and a newly devised test based on the CFMT but where the study phases involve watching short movies rather than viewing static faces-the CFMT-Films] and three that tap face matching [Benton Facial Recognition Test, BFRT; Benton, A., Sivan, A., Hamsher, K., Varney, N., & Spreen, O. (1983). Contribution to neuropsychological assessment. New York: Oxford University Press; and two recently devised sequential face matching tests]. Self-reported ability was measured with the 15-item Kennerknecht et al. questionnaire [Kennerknecht, I., Ho, N. Y., & Wong, V. C. (2008). Prevalence of hereditary prosopagnosia (HPA) in Hong Kong Chinese population. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 146A(22), 2863-2870. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.32552]; two single-item questions assessing face recognition ability; and a new 77-item meta-cognition questionnaire. Overall, we find that adults with typical face recognition abilities have only modest insight into their ability to recognize faces on behavioural tests. In a fifth experiment, we assess self-reported face recognition ability in people with CP and find that some people who expect to

  12. Clinical insights into use of apomorphine in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Tove

    2014-01-01

    Apomorphine was introduced before the era of levodopa as a treatment for idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD). A number of practical obstacles were to be solved before a wider use of the drug was possible. Today, however, the drug is probably still underutilized. Apomorphine is a strong nonergoline...... D1 and D2 receptor agonist with a dopaminergic effect comparable with levodopa. In this review motor and non-motor indications for intermittent injections and subcutaneous apomorphine infusions are listed. The reduction of 'off' periods is more than 50% on infusion therapy and if monotherapy...... is achieved a significant reduction of pre-existing levodopainduced dyskinesias is seen. The aim of this review is to give practical insight into apomorphine treatment, highlighting side effects, and complications and device-related problems are discussed with advice on how to prevent or handle these, should...

  13. Genomic analyses provide insights into the history of tomato breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Zhu, Guangtao; Zhang, Junhong; Xu, Xiangyang; Yu, Qinghui; Zheng, Zheng; Zhang, Zhonghua; Lun, Yaoyao; Li, Shuai; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Zejun; Li, Junming; Zhang, Chunzhi; Wang, Taotao; Zhang, Yuyang; Wang, Aoxue; Zhang, Yancong; Lin, Kui; Li, Chuanyou; Xiong, Guosheng; Xue, Yongbiao; Mazzucato, Andrea; Causse, Mathilde; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, James J; Chetelat, Roger T; Zamir, Dani; Städler, Thomas; Li, Jingfu; Ye, Zhibiao; Du, Yongchen; Huang, Sanwen

    2014-11-01

    The histories of crop domestication and breeding are recorded in genomes. Although tomato is a model species for plant biology and breeding, the nature of human selection that altered its genome remains largely unknown. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of tomato evolution based on the genome sequences of 360 accessions. We provide evidence that domestication and improvement focused on two independent sets of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), resulting in modern tomato fruit ∼100 times larger than its ancestor. Furthermore, we discovered a major genomic signature for modern processing tomatoes, identified the causative variants that confer pink fruit color and precisely visualized the linkage drag associated with wild introgressions. This study outlines the accomplishments as well as the costs of historical selection and provides molecular insights toward further improvement.

  14. Genomic and epigenetic insights into the molecular bases of heterosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2013-07-01

    Heterosis, also known as hybrid vigour, is widespread in plants and animals, but the molecular bases for this phenomenon remain elusive. Recent studies in hybrids and allopolyploids using transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, epigenomic and systems biology approaches have provided new insights. Emerging genomic and epigenetic perspectives suggest that heterosis arises from allelic interactions between parental genomes, leading to altered programming of genes that promote the growth, stress tolerance and fitness of hybrids. For example, epigenetic modifications of key regulatory genes in hybrids and allopolyploids can alter complex regulatory networks of physiology and metabolism, thus modulating biomass and leading to heterosis. The conceptual advances could help to improve plant and animal productivity through the manipulation of heterosis.

  15. Gaining insights from social media language: Methodologies and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Margaret L; Park, Gregory; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Schwartz, H Andrew; Sap, Maarten; Smith, Laura K; Ungar, Lyle H

    2016-12-01

    Language data available through social media provide opportunities to study people at an unprecedented scale. However, little guidance is available to psychologists who want to enter this area of research. Drawing on tools and techniques developed in natural language processing, we first introduce psychologists to social media language research, identifying descriptive and predictive analyses that language data allow. Second, we describe how raw language data can be accessed and quantified for inclusion in subsequent analyses, exploring personality as expressed on Facebook to illustrate. Third, we highlight challenges and issues to be considered, including accessing and processing the data, interpreting effects, and ethical issues. Social media has become a valuable part of social life, and there is much we can learn by bringing together the tools of computer science with the theories and insights of psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Insights of genius imagery and creativity in science and art

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Arthur I

    1996-01-01

    Here, distinguished science historian Arthur I. Miller delves into the connections between modern art and modern physics. He takes us on a wide-ranging study to demonstrate that scientists and artists have a common aim: a visual interpretation of both the visible and invisible aspects of nature. Along the way, we encounter the philosophy of mind and language, cognitive science and neurophysiology in our search for the origins and meaning of visual imagery. At a time when the media are overeager to portray science as a godless, dehumanising exercise undermining the very fabric of society, this sixth book by Professor Miller shows how scientists are struggling to understand nature, convince their peers, inform the public and deal with the reactions to their research. Thus, Insights of Genuis must interest everyone who cares about science and its place in our culture.

  17. Molecular dynamics insights into human aquaporin 2 water channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, A R; Kamali, R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the first molecular dynamics simulation of the human aquaporin 2 is performed and for a better understanding of the aquaporin 2 permeability performance, the characteristics of water transport in this protein channel and key biophysical parameters of AQP2 tetramer including osmotic and diffusive permeability constants and the pore radius are investigated. For this purpose, recently recovered high resolution X-ray crystal structure of` the human aquaporin 2 is used to perform twenty nanosecond molecular dynamics simulation of fully hydrated tetramer of this protein embedded in a lipid bilayer. The resulting water permeability characteristics of this protein channel showed that the water permeability of the human AQP2 is in a mean range in comparison with other human aquaporins family. Finally, the results reported in this research demonstrate that molecular dynamics simulation of human AQP2 provided useful insights into the mechanisms of water permeation and urine concentration in the human kidney.

  18. Insights into Contaminant Leaching Through An Intensive Field Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, D.; Ireson, A. M.; Ali, M.; Steele, C.; Penrod, D.

    2014-12-01

    Risks to groundwater quality from mobile contaminants in the unsaturated zone associated with active or legacy mines present significant challenges for land managers and policy makers worldwide. Unsaturated zone flow processes are a dominant control on contaminant loading. However, the presence of unsaturated zone heterogeneity results in spatially and temporally variable flow pathways, due to capillary breaks and hydraulic barriers forming in various locations. This can result in the development of focused flow paths from where rapid contaminant transport to the water table may occur. In this study we designed an intensive monitoring program to attempt to characterise time-varying flow paths through a highly heterogeneous unsaturated zone through a dense network of combined soil moisture, electric conductivity and temperature probes. Estimations of surface fluxes and soil drainage along with observed water table response at a waste management site in Chalk River, Canada are presented providing insights into flow and transport processes.

  19. Aesthetics and ethics in engineering: insights from Polanyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Priyan

    2011-06-01

    Polanyi insisted that scientific knowledge was intensely personal in nature, though held with universal intent. His insights regarding the personal values of beauty and morality in science are first enunciated. These are then explored for their relevance to engineering. It is shown that the practice of engineering is also governed by aesthetics and ethics. For example, Polanyi's three spheres of morality in science--that of the individual scientist, the scientific community and the wider society--has parallel entities in engineering. The existence of shared values in engineering is also demonstrated, in aesthetics through an example that shows convergence of practitioner opinion to solutions that represent accepted models of aesthetics; and in ethics through the recognition that many professional engineering institutions hold that the safety of the public supersedes the interests of the client. Such professional consensus can be seen as justification for studying engineering aesthetics and ethics as inter-subjective disciplines.

  20. Single molecule insights on conformational selection and induced fit mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatzakis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Biomolecular interactions regulate a plethora of vital cellular processes, including signal transduction, metabolism, catalysis and gene regulation. Regulation is encoded in the molecular properties of the constituent proteins; distinct conformations correspond to different functional outcomes...... of unsynchronized molecules, often masking intrinsic dynamic behavior of proteins and biologically significant transient intermediates. Single molecule measurements are emerging as a powerful tool for characterizing protein function. They offer the direct observation and quantification of the activity, abundance...... and lifetime of multiple states and transient intermediates in the energy landscape, that are typically averaged out in non-synchronized ensemble measurements. Here we survey new insights from single molecule studies that advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying biomolecular recognition....

  1. New insights into Prevotella diversity and medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alauzet, Corentine; Marchandin, Hélène; Lozniewski, Alain

    2010-11-01

    In light of recent studies based on cultivation-independent methods, it appears that the diversity of Prevotella in human microbiota is greater than was previously assumed from cultivation-based studies, and that the implication of these bacteria in several human diseases was unrecognized. While some Prevotella taxa were found during opportunistic infections, changes in Prevotella abundance and diversity were discovered during dysbiosis-associated diseases. As member of the microbiota, Prevotella may also be considered as a reservoir for resistance genes. Greater knowledge on Prevotella diversity, as well as new insights into its pathogenic potential and implication in dysbiosis are expected from the use of human microbe identification microarrays, from whole-genome sequence analyse, and from the NIH Human Microbiome Project data. New approaches, including molecular-based methods, could contribute to improve the diagnosis of Prevotella infections.

  2. Consciousness, awareness of insight and neural mechanisms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touskova, Tereza; Bob, Petr

    2015-01-01

    According to recent research, disturbances of self-awareness and conscious experience have a critical role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and in this context, schizophrenia is currently understood as a disorder characterized by distortions of acts of awareness, self-consciousness, and self-monitoring. Together, these studies suggest that the processes of disrupted awareness and conscious disintegration in schizophrenia might be related and represented by similar disruptions on the brain level, which, in principle, could be explained by various levels of disturbed connectivity and information disintegration that may negatively affect usual patterns of synchronous activity constituting adaptive integrative functions of consciousness. On the other hand, mental integration based on self-awareness and insight may significantly increase information integration and directly influence neural mechanisms underlying basic pathophysiological processes in schizophrenia.

  3. Distributed representations in memory: insights from functional brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissman, Jesse; Wagner, Anthony D

    2012-01-01

    Forging new memories for facts and events, holding critical details in mind on a moment-to-moment basis, and retrieving knowledge in the service of current goals all depend on a complex interplay between neural ensembles throughout the brain. Over the past decade, researchers have increasingly utilized powerful analytical tools (e.g., multivoxel pattern analysis) to decode the information represented within distributed functional magnetic resonance imaging activity patterns. In this review, we discuss how these methods can sensitively index neural representations of perceptual and semantic content and how leverage on the engagement of distributed representations provides unique insights into distinct aspects of memory-guided behavior. We emphasize that, in addition to characterizing the contents of memories, analyses of distributed patterns shed light on the processes that influence how information is encoded, maintained, or retrieved, and thus inform memory theory. We conclude by highlighting open questions about memory that can be addressed through distributed pattern analyses.

  4. Reentry Programming for High-Risk Offenders: Insights From Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly A; Cobbina, Jennifer E; McGarrell, Edmund F

    2016-10-01

    The mass increase in imprisonment of the last two decades has led to an increasing number of adults released from prison. Scholarly accounts of prisoner reentry have demonstrated that incarcerated individuals face barriers on release from prison and that intervention programs are necessary to assist their transition to the community. Here, we build from the insights of previous research by examining how high-risk offenders perceive a reentry program. Using a qualitative approach, our findings suggest that procedural and substantive justice affect their satisfaction and involvement with the program. This study highlights the importance of providing employment opportunities, social support, and fair and respectful delivery of services to assist incarcerated individuals transitioning to the community.

  5. Starting age and other influential factors: Insights from learner interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Muñoz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study uses oral interviews with foreign language learners in search of influential factors in their language learning histories. The sample for the study was drawn from a larger sample of intermediate/advanced learners of English as a foreign language with a minimum of 10 years of exposure/instruction. The sample includes 6 early learners (range of starting age: 3.2-6.5 and 6 late learners (starting age: 11+. Half of them in each group were among those with the highest scores on two English language tests in the larger sample and half among those with the lowest scores on those same tests. A qualitative analysis of the interviews of these learners yields insights into their experience of foreign language learning and the role played in it by starting age and other significant factors, such as motivation and intensive contact with the language.

  6. Unicystic plexiform ameloblastoma: An insight for pediatric dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavagal C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastomas have been categorized broadly into three biologic variants: cystic (unicystic, solid, and peripheral. The term plexiform unicystic ameloblastoma refers to a pattern of epithelial proliferation that has been described in cystic lesions of the jaws. Although the histology suggests that cystic ameloblastomas follow a biologically low-grade course, recent evidence suggests that they may often behave clinically as biologically aggressive tumors. This is supported by the high incidence of cortical perforation, tooth resorption, lesion size, bony destruction, and a high rate of recurrence after simple enucleation. This article tries to provide an insight for pediatric dentists regarding this biologically distinct entity. A literature review on the topic has been added along with a case report highlighting the state-of-the-art approach and management of such ameloblastomas, in pediatric patients.

  7. Evolutionary insights into scleractinian corals using comparative genomic hybridizations.

    KAUST Repository

    Aranda, Manuel

    2012-09-21

    Coral reefs belong to the most ecologically and economically important ecosystems on our planet. Yet, they are under steady decline worldwide due to rising sea surface temperatures, disease, and pollution. Understanding the molecular impact of these stressors on different coral species is imperative in order to predict how coral populations will respond to this continued disturbance. The use of molecular tools such as microarrays has provided deep insight into the molecular stress response of corals. Here, we have performed comparative genomic hybridizations (CGH) with different coral species to an Acropora palmata microarray platform containing 13,546 cDNA clones in order to identify potentially rapidly evolving genes and to determine the suitability of existing microarray platforms for use in gene expression studies (via heterologous hybridization).

  8. Selecting Solar: Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Before investing in a system, a prospective PV customer must not only have initial concept 'buy in,' but also be able to evaluate the tradeoffs associated with different system parameters. Prospective customers might need to evaluate disparate costs for each system attribute by comparing multiple bids. The difficulty of making such an evaluation with limited information can create a cognitive barrier to proceeding with the investment. This analysis leverages recently available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  9. Senescence gives insights into the morphogenetic evolution of anamniotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Villiard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Senescence represents a mechanism to avoid undesired cell proliferation that plays a role in tumor suppression, wound healing and embryonic development. In order to gain insight on the evolution of senescence, we looked at its presence in developing axolotls (urodele amphibians and in zebrafish (teleost fish, which are both anamniotes. Our data indicate that cellular senescence is present in various developing structures in axolotls (pronephros, olfactory epithelium of nerve fascicles, lateral organs, gums and in zebrafish (epithelium of the yolk sac and in the lower part of the gut. Senescence was particularly associated with transient structures (pronephros in axolotls and yolk sac in zebrafish suggesting that it may play a role in the elimination of these tissues. Our data supports the notion that cellular senescence evolved early in vertebrate evolution to influence embryonic development.

  10. New insights into cystic fibrosis-related diabetes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ode, Katie L; Moran, Antoinette

    2013-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is the most common complication of cystic fibrosis. It is associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality in adults and children. Adolescents with cystic fibrosis have a much higher prevalence of diabetes than any other similar age population. Glucose abnormalities that precede diabetes are even more common, especially in children younger than 10 years. The pathophysiology of glucose metabolic abnormalities is poorly understood, but insulin insufficiency is clearly the main component. Findings from animal studies have provided insight into the pathophysiology of CFRD, and imply that carbohydrate metabolic abnormalities might begin at much younger ages than was previously thought in patients with cystic fibrosis, and might be related to the basic cystic fibrosis chloride channel defect. In this Review we explore present knowledge of CFRD in children and adolescents, and new data that indicate that the pathophysiology of CFRD begins in very young patients.

  11. "Omics of the mammalian gut new insights into function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamendella, Regina [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Jansson, Janet [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2012-01-01

    To understand the role of gut microbes in host health, it is imperative to probe their genetic potential, expression, and ecological status. The current high-throughput sequencing revolution, in addition to advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics, have recently enabled deep access to these complex environments, and are revealing important insights into the roles of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota in host physiology and health. This review discusses examples of how the integration of cutting-edge meta-omics technologies are providing new knowledge about the relationships between host health status in mammals and the microbes inhabiting the GI tract. In addition, we address some promises that these techniques hold for future therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  12. Understanding the vertebrate immune system: insights from the reptilian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, L M; Vogel, L A; Bowden, R M

    2010-03-01

    Reptiles are ectothermic amniotes, providing the key link between ectothermic anamniotic fishes and amphibians, and endothermic amniotic birds and mammals. A greater understanding of reptilian immunity will provide important insights into the evolutionary history of vertebrate immunity as well as the growing field of eco-immunology. Like mammals, reptile immunity is complex and involves innate, cell-mediated and humoral compartments but, overall, there is considerably less known about immune function in reptiles. We review the current literature on each branch of the reptilian immune system, placing this information in context to other vertebrates. Further, we identify key areas that are prime for research as well as areas that are lagging because of lack of reagents in non-model systems.

  13. Insights into cytokine-receptor interactions from cytokine engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Jamie B; Moraga, Ignacio; Mendoza, Juan L; Garcia, K Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines exert a vast array of immunoregulatory actions critical to human biology and disease. However, the desired immunotherapeutic effects of native cytokines are often mitigated by toxicity or lack of efficacy, either of which results from cytokine receptor pleiotropy and/or undesired activation of off-target cells. As our understanding of the structural principles of cytokine-receptor interactions has advanced, mechanism-based manipulation of cytokine signaling through protein engineering has become an increasingly feasible and powerful approach. Modified cytokines, both agonists and antagonists, have been engineered with narrowed target cell specificities, and they have also yielded important mechanistic insights into cytokine biology and signaling. Here we review the theory and practice of cytokine engineering and rationalize the mechanisms of several engineered cytokines in the context of structure. We discuss specific examples of how structure-based cytokine engineering has opened new opportunities for cytokines as drugs, with a focus on the immunotherapeutic cytokines interferon, interleukin-2, and interleukin-4.

  14. Magnetic apatite for structural insights on the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanca, Sarmiza E; Müller, Robert; Dellith, Jan; Nietzsche, Sandor; Stöckel, Stephan; Biskup, Christoph; Deckert, Volker; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2015-01-21

    The iron oxide-hydroxyapatite (FeOxHA) nanoparticles reported here differ from those reported before by their advantage of homogeneity and simple preparation; moreover, the presence of carboxymethyldextran (CMD), together with hydroxyapatite (HA), allows access to the cellular membrane, which makes our magnetic apatite unique. These nanoparticles combine magnetic behavior, Raman label ability and the property of interaction with the cellular membrane; they therefore represent an interesting material for structural differentiation of the cell membrane. It was observed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy that FeOxHA adheres to the plasma membrane and does not penetrate the membrane. These insights make the nanoparticles a promising material for magnetic cell sorting, e.g. in microfluidic device applications.

  15. Analysis of Patent Databases Using VxInsight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYACK,KEVIN W.; WYLIE,BRIAN N.; DAVIDSON,GEORGE S.; JOHNSON,DAVID K.

    2000-12-12

    We present the application of a new knowledge visualization tool, VxInsight, to the mapping and analysis of patent databases. Patent data are mined and placed in a database, relationships between the patents are identified, primarily using the citation and classification structures, then the patents are clustered using a proprietary force-directed placement algorithm. Related patents cluster together to produce a 3-D landscape view of the tens of thousands of patents. The user can navigate the landscape by zooming into or out of regions of interest. Querying the underlying database places a colored marker on each patent matching the query. Automatically generated labels, showing landscape content, update continually upon zooming. Optionally, citation links between patents may be shown on the landscape. The combination of these features enables powerful analyses of patent databases.

  16. ‘Occupy Wall Street’ and IPE: Insights and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Cobbett

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The academic discipline of International Political Economy (IPE is a hard-nosed and empirically-oriented field of study. The usual subjects of IPE often include the organization of international trade, global finance, transnational production, national welfare and competitiveness, productivity levels and of course state actions and expenditures. The actions of a handful of protestors such as the ‘Occupy Wall Street’(OWS movement rarely attract academic attention. In this case, however, we should take note. In our view, the actions of OWS provide further clues that we are entering an era of significant transformation in the organization and structure of world order. The insights generated by reflecting on this movement suggest that the inter-subjective mentality at the heart of global capitalism is no longer coherent, with the implication thatwe are at long last about to leave behind a half century of American hegemony.

  17. Insights into Chromatin Structure and Dynamics in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Rosa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The packaging of chromatin into the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell requires an extraordinary degree of compaction and physical organization. In recent years, it has been shown that this organization is dynamically orchestrated to regulate responses to exogenous stimuli as well as to guide complex cell-type-specific developmental programs. Gene expression is regulated by the compartmentalization of functional domains within the nucleus, by distinct nucleosome compositions accomplished via differential modifications on the histone tails and through the replacement of core histones by histone variants. In this review, we focus on these aspects of chromatin organization and discuss novel approaches such as live cell imaging and photobleaching as important tools likely to give significant insights into our understanding of the very dynamic nature of chromatin and chromatin regulatory processes. We highlight the contribution plant studies have made in this area showing the potential advantages of plants as models in understanding this fundamental aspect of biology.

  18. Personal semantic memory: insights from neuropsychological research on amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2014-08-01

    This paper provides insight into the cognitive and neural mechanisms of personal semantic memory, knowledge that is specific and unique to individuals, by reviewing neuropsychological research on stable amnesia secondary to medial temporal lobe damage. The results reveal that personal semantic memory does not depend on a unitary set of cognitive and neural mechanisms. Findings show that autobiographical fact knowledge reflects an experience-near type of personal semantic memory that relies on the medial temporal lobe for retrieval, albeit less so than personal episodic memory. Additional evidence demonstrates that new autobiographical fact learning likely relies on the medial temporal lobe, but the extent to which remains unclear. Other findings show that retrieval of personal traits/roles and new learning of personal traits/roles and thoughts/beliefs are independent of the medial temporal lobe and thus may represent highly conceptual types of personal semantic memory that are stored in the neocortex.

  19. Novel Insights into Chromosome Evolution in Birds, Archosaurs, and Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho T.; Damas, Joana; Auvil, Loretta; Li, Cai; Jarvis, Erich D.; Burt, David W.; Griffin, Darren K.; Larkin, Denis M.

    2016-01-01

    Homologous synteny blocks (HSBs) and evolutionary breakpoint regions (EBRs) in mammalian chromosomes are enriched for distinct DNA features, contributing to distinct phenotypes. To reveal HSB and EBR roles in avian evolution, we performed a sequence-based comparison of 21 avian and 5 outgroup species using recently sequenced genomes across the avian family tree and a newly-developed algorithm. We identified EBRs and HSBs in ancestral bird, archosaurian (bird, crocodile, and dinosaur), and reptile chromosomes. Genes involved in the regulation of gene expression and biosynthetic processes were preferably located in HSBs, including for example, avian-specific HSBs enriched for genes involved in limb development. Within birds, some lineage-specific EBRs rearranged genes were related to distinct phenotypes, such as forebrain development in parrots. Our findings provide novel evolutionary insights into genome evolution in birds, particularly on how chromosome rearrangements likely contributed to the formation of novel phenotypes. PMID:27401172

  20. Insights into bacteriophage application in controlling Vibrio species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadesh Letchumanan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections from various organisms including Vibrio sp. pose a serious hazard to humans in many forms from clinical infection to affecting the yield of agriculture and aquaculture via infection of livestock. Vibrio sp. is one of the main foodborne pathogens causing human infection and is also a common cause of losses in the aquaculture industry. Prophylactic and therapeutic usage of antibiotics has become the mainstay of managing this problem, however this in turn led to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains of bacteria in the environment; which has raised awareness of the critical need for alternative non antibiotic based methods of preventing and treating bacterial infections. Bacteriophages - viruses that infect and result in the death of bacteria – are currently of great interest as a highly viable alternative to antibiotics. This article provides an insight into bacteriophage application in controlling Vibrio species as well underlining the advantages and drawbacks of phage therapy.

  1. Insights from a refined decomposition of cloud feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinka, Mark D.; Zhou, Chen; Klein, Stephen A.

    2016-09-01

    Decomposing cloud feedback into components due to changes in several gross cloud properties provides valuable insights into its physical causes. Here we present a refined decomposition that separately considers changes in free tropospheric and low cloud properties, better connecting feedbacks to individual governing processes and avoiding ambiguities present in a commonly used decomposition. It reveals that three net cloud feedback components are robustly nonzero: positive feedbacks from increasing free tropospheric cloud altitude and decreasing low cloud cover and a negative feedback from increasing low cloud optical depth. Low cloud amount feedback is the dominant contributor to spread in net cloud feedback but its anticorrelation with other components damps overall spread. The ensemble mean free tropospheric cloud altitude feedback is roughly 60% as large as the standard cloud altitude feedback because it avoids aliasing in low cloud reductions. Implications for the "null hypothesis" climate sensitivity from well-understood and robustly simulated feedbacks are discussed.

  2. Insights from human studies into the host defense against candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filler, Scott G

    2012-04-01

    Candida spp. are the most common cause of mucosal and disseminated fungal infections in humans. Studies using mutant strains of mice have provided initial information about the roles of dectin-1, CARD9, and Th17 cytokines in the host defense against candidiasis. Recent technological advances have resulted in the identification of mutations in specific genes that predispose humans to develop candidal infection. The analysis of individuals with these mutations demonstrates that dectin-1 is critical for the host defense against vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. They also indicate that CARD9 is important for preventing both mucosal and disseminated candidiasis, whereas the Th17 response is necessary for the defense against mucocutaneous candidiasis. This article reviews the recent studies of genetic defects in humans that result in an increased susceptibility to candidiasis and discusses how these studies provide new insight into the host defense against different types of candidal infections.

  3. Advances in treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: insights from pathophysiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucic, Steve; Rothstein, Jeffrey D; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2014-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most frequently occurring of the neuromuscular degenerative disorders, with a median survival time of 3-5 years. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying ALS are multifactorial, with a complex interaction between genetic factors and molecular pathways. To date 16 genes and loci have been associated with ALS, with mutations in DNA/RNA-regulating genes including the recently described c9orf72 (chromosome 9 open reading frame 72) gene, suggesting an important role for dysregulation of RNA metabolism in ALS pathogenesis. Further, dysfunction of molecular pathways, including glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, has been identified in sporadic and familial ALS, indicating the existence of a common pathogenic pathway. These pathophysiological insights have suggested novel therapeutic approaches, including stem cell and genetics-based strategies, providing hope for feasible treatment of ALS.

  4. Pigs and Pollards: Medieval Insights for UK Wood Pasture Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Jørgensen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available English wood pastures have become a target for ecological restoration, including the restoration of pollarded trees and grazing animals, although pigs have not been frequently incorporated into wood pasture restoration schemes. Because wood pastures are cultural landscapes, created through the interaction of natural processes and human practices, a historical perspective on wood pasture management practices has the potential to provide insights for modern restoration projects. Using a wide range of both written and artistic sources form the Middle Ages, this article argues that pigs were fed in wood pastures both during the mast season when acorns were available and at other times as grazing fields. Pollarded pedunculate oak (Quercus robur likely dominated these sustainable cultural landscapes during the medieval period.

  5. Magnetic apatite for structural insights on the plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanca, Sarmiza E.; Müller, Robert; Dellith, Jan; Nietzsche, Sandor; Stöckel, Stephan; Biskup, Christoph; Deckert, Volker; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The iron oxide-hydroxyapatite (FeOxHA) nanoparticles reported here differ from those reported before by their advantage of homogeneity and simple preparation; moreover, the presence of carboxymethyldextran (CMD), together with hydroxyapatite (HA), allows access to the cellular membrane, which makes our magnetic apatite unique. These nanoparticles combine magnetic behavior, Raman label ability and the property of interaction with the cellular membrane; they therefore represent an interesting material for structural differentiation of the cell membrane. It was observed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy that FeOxHA adheres to the plasma membrane and does not penetrate the membrane. These insights make the nanoparticles a promising material for magnetic cell sorting, e.g. in microfluidic device applications.

  6. Quantum-Chemical Insights from Deep Tensor Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Schütt, Kristof T; Chmiela, Stefan; Müller, Klaus R; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Learning from data has led to paradigm shifts in a multitude of disciplines, including web, text, and image search, speech recognition, as well as bioinformatics. Can machine learning enable similar breakthroughs in understanding quantum many-body systems? Here we develop an efficient deep learning approach that enables spatially and chemically resolved insights into quantum-mechanical observables of molecular systems. We unify concepts from many-body Hamiltonians with purpose-designed deep tensor neural networks (DTNN), which leads to size-extensive and uniformly accurate (1 kcal/mol) predictions in compositional and configurational chemical space for molecules of intermediate size. As an example of chemical relevance, the DTNN model reveals a classification of aromatic rings with respect to their stability -- a useful property that is not contained as such in the training dataset. Further applications of DTNN for predicting atomic energies and local chemical potentials in molecules, reliable isomer energies...

  7. Structural insight into CIDE domains: the Janus face of CIDEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Ho

    2015-02-01

    Cell-death inducing DFF45-like effect domain (CIDE domain) is a protein interaction module that was initially found in DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) proteins DFF40 and DFF45. Several other CIDE-containing proteins, CIDE-A, CIDE-B, and CIDE-3, have since been identified in humans. Although the main function of these proteins is associated with apoptosis, recent studies have identified roles of CIDE-containing proteins in energy metabolism, especially involvement in control of the size of lipid droplets. Because CIDE-containing proteins perform critical tasks in apoptosis and energy metabolism and have been linked to many human diseases including cancer and obesity, studies of CIDE domains and CIDE-containing proteins are of great biological importance. This review summarizes the structural insight into CIDE and the CIDE-CIDE complex and speculates on a generalized strategy for the CIDE-CIDE interaction based on the available CIDE structures and molecular modelling.

  8. Insights on PRA Review Practices: Necessity for Model Shaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Inn Seock; Jang, Mi suk; Kim, Seoung Rae [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is increasingly used as a technique to help ensure design and operational safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the nuclear industry. Hence, there is considerable interest in the PRA quality, and as a result, a peer review of the PRA model is typically performed to ensure its technical adequacy as part of the PRA development process or for any other reason (e.g., regulatory requirement). For the PRA model to be used as a valuable vehicle for risk-informed applications, it is essential that the PRA model must yield correct and physically meaningful accident sequences and minimal cutsets for specific plant configurations or conditions relating to the applications. Hence, the existing peer review guidelines need to be updated to reflect these insights so that risk-informed applications could be more actively pursued with confidence.

  9. CRISPR-Cas adaptation: insights into the mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitai, Gil; Sorek, Rotem

    2016-02-01

    Since the first demonstration that CRISPR-Cas systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity against phages and plasmids, numerous studies have yielded key insights into the molecular mechanisms governing how these systems attack and degrade foreign DNA. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation stage, in which new immunological memory is formed, have until recently represented a major unresolved question. In this Progress article, we discuss recent discoveries that have shown both how foreign DNA is identified by the CRISPR-Cas adaptation machinery and the molecular basis for its integration into the chromosome to form an immunological memory. Furthermore, we describe the roles of each of the specific CRISPR-Cas components that are involved in memory formation, and consider current models for their evolutionary origin.

  10. The origins of variation: evolutionary insights from developmental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickliter, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from contemporary epigenetic research indicates that it is not biologically meaningful to discuss genes without reference to the molecular, cellular, organismal, and environmental context within which they are activated and expressed. Genetic and nongenetic factors, including those beyond the organism, constitute a dynamic relational developmental system. This insight highlights the importance of bringing together genetics, development, and ecology into one explanatory framework for a more complete understanding of the emergence and maintenance of phenotypic stability and variability. In this Chapter, I review some examples of this integrative effort and explore its implications for developmental and evolutionary science, with a particular emphasis on the origins of phenotypic novelty. I argue that developmental science is critical to this integrative effort, in that evolutionary explanation cannot be complete without developmental explanation. This is the case because the process of development generates the phenotypic variation on which natural selection can act.

  11. Strategic Insights from Mystery Shopping in B2B Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how mystery shopping can be used to gain valuable strategic input in B2B service relationships. We account for a longitudinal case study framed as a natural experiment (duration 18 months) in a Swedish group of consultancy companies offering a wide selection of industrial...... services to large Scandinavian corporations. We account for and analyse the process of building a mystery shopping procedure to get strategic insights from engineers delivering temporary consultancy services to these clients. After a successful trial period with three mystery shoppers the experiment (a...... guideline covering the themes of map, smoke and mirror as metaphors) has been extended to comprise a larger group of engineers and may be taken up in a company-wide way. The experiment was deemed effective in developing both a procedure for mystery shopping and a new way to train the consultants....

  12. A hundred-year-old insight into the gut microbiome!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Ramy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As the National Institutes of Health-funded Human Microbiome Project enters its second phase, and as a major part of this project focuses on the human gut microbiome and its effects on human health, it might help us to travel a century back in time and examine how microbiologists dealt with microbiome-related challenges similar to those of the 21st century using the tools of their time. An article by Arthur I. Kendall, published in The Journal of Biological Chemistry in November 1909 (Some observations on the study of the intestinal bacteria J Biol Chem 1909, 6:499-507, offers a visionary insight into many of today's hot research questions.

  13. Shareholders' Participation in the Affairs of Public Companies: An Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokulo-Sodipe, J. O.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to have an insight into theparticipation of shareholders in the affairs of publiccompanies. The information gathered in relation tothis study revealed that the only way shareholders canactively participate in the affairs of public companies wasby attending the Annual General Meeting (AGM andexercise the powers reserved for them. However, as a matterof law, there is no enforceable obligation on the shareholdersto attend the AGM of their companies for that matter, orindeed, actively participate in the affairs of the company,but such shareholders remain bound by any decision themeeting may take, their nonparticipation notwithstanding.Conclusively, the study submitted that active participationof shareholders in the AGM is capable of saving theircompanies from possible lapses that may be as a resultof mismanagement. Therefore shareholders should attendmeetings of their companies, mostly the AGM.

  14. The multitasking organ: recent insights into skin immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Meglio, Paola; Perera, Gayathri K; Nestle, Frank O

    2011-12-23

    The skin provides the first line defense of the human body against injury and infection. By integrating recent findings in cutaneous immunology with fundamental concepts of skin biology, we portray the skin as a multitasking organ ensuring body homeostasis. Crosstalk between the skin and its microbial environment is also highlighted as influencing the response to injury, infection, and autoimmunity. The importance of the skin immune network is emphasized by the identification of several skin-resident cell subsets, each with its unique functions. Lessons learned from targeted therapy in inflammatory skin conditions, such as psoriasis, provide further insights into skin immune function. Finally, we look at the skin as an interacting network of immune signaling pathways exemplified by the development of a disease interactome for psoriasis.

  15. Haze insights and mitigation in China: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xuliang; Wang, Yuesi; He, Hong; Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Xinming; Zhu, Tingyu; Ge, Maofa; Zhou, Ju; Tang, Guiqian; Ma, Jinzhu

    2014-01-01

    The present article provides an overview of the chemical and physical features of haze in China, focusing on the relationship between haze and atmospheric fine particles, and the formation mechanism of haze. It also summarizes several of control technologies and strategies to mitigate the occurrence of haze. The development of instruments and the analysis of measurements of ambient particles and precursor concentrations have provided important information about haze formation. Indeed, the use of new instruments has greatly facilitated current haze research in China. Examples of insightful results include the relationship between fine particles and haze, the chemical compositions and sources of particles, the impacts of the aging process on haze formation, and the application of technologies that control the formation of haze. Based on these results, two relevant issues need to be addressed: understanding the relationship between haze and fine particles and understanding how to control PM2.5.

  16. Metallomics insights for in vivo studies of metal based nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Feng, Weiyue; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2013-06-01

    With the rapid development of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) and wide biomedical applications for new types of multifunctional NMs, an understanding of the behavior patterns of NMs in vivo and clarification of their potential health impact as a result of their novel physicochemical properties is essential for ensuring safety in biomedical applications of nanotechnology. NMs have heterogeneous characteristics in that they combine the bulk properties of solids with the mobility of molecules, and present phase transformation, dissolution, oxidation/reduction as well as nano-bio interface reactions in biological milieu, which affect their in vivo behaviors and biological effects. The accurate study of identification, quantification, transformation state of NMs and their biological effects in vivo remains a challenge. This review aims to provide a "metallomics" (an integrated metal-assisted function bioscience) insight into the in vivo behavior and biological effects of NMs, particularly for metal-based nanomaterials (MNMs) and is based mainly on our own research and other previous works.

  17. Understanding Spatial Genome Organization:Methods and Insights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay Ramani; Jay Shendure; Zhijun Duan

    2016-01-01

    The manner by which eukaryotic genomes are packaged into nuclei while maintaining crucial nuclear functions remains one of the fundamental mysteries in biology. Over the last ten years, we have witnessed rapid advances in both microscopic and nucleic acid-based approaches to map genome architecture, and the application of these approaches to the dissection of higher-order chromosomal structures has yielded much new information. It is becoming increasingly clear, for example, that interphase chromosomes form stable, multilevel hierarchical structures. Among them, self-associating domains like so-called topologically associating domains (TADs) appear to be building blocks for large-scale genomic organization. This review describes features of these broadly-defined hierarchical structures, insights into the mechanisms underlying their formation, our current understanding of how interactions in the nuclear space are linked to gene regulation, and important future directions for the field.

  18. Active zone stability:insights from fly neuromuscular junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolin Tian; Chunlai Wu

    2015-01-01

    The presynaptic active zone is a dynamic structure that orchestrates regulated release of neurotrans-mitters. Developmental and aging processes, and changes in neuronal network activity can all modulate the number, size and composition of active zone and thereby synaptic efifcacy. However, very little is known about the mechanism that controls the structural stability of active zone. By study-ing a model synapse, theDrosophila neuromuscular junction, our recent work shed light on how two scaffolding proteins at the active zone regulate active zone stability by promoting a localized dephos-phorylation event at the nerve terminal. Here we discuss the major insights from our ifndings and their implications for future research.

  19. Insights into Bacteriophage Application in Controlling Vibrio Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Saokaew, Surasak; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Goh, Bey-Hing; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Lee, Learn-Han

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections from various organisms including Vibrio sp. pose a serious hazard to humans in many forms from clinical infection to affecting the yield of agriculture and aquaculture via infection of livestock. Vibrio sp. is one of the main foodborne pathogens causing human infection and is also a common cause of losses in the aquaculture industry. Prophylactic and therapeutic usage of antibiotics has become the mainstay of managing this problem, however, this in turn led to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains of bacteria in the environment; which has raised awareness of the critical need for alternative non-antibiotic based methods of preventing and treating bacterial infections. Bacteriophages – viruses that infect and result in the death of bacteria – are currently of great interest as a highly viable alternative to antibiotics. This article provides an insight into bacteriophage application in controlling Vibrio species as well underlining the advantages and drawbacks of phage therapy. PMID:27486446

  20. Hanny's Voorwerp and the Antikythera Mechanism - similarities, differences and insights

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    I present some insights into Hanny's Voorwerp and the Antikythera mechanism - contrasting their similarities and differences. They are both excellent examples of serendipitous discoveries in which human curiosity and perseverance have played an important role. Both objects have captured the imagination of the general public, and their discovery was only made possible via the introduction of new technologies. One major difference is that there is only one Antikythera device but there are now many Voorwerpen or "voorwerpjes", as they are more commonly known. The study of a collection of objects, as is common in astronomy, greatly aids our understanding of cosmic phenomena. In the case of the voorwepjes, we now know that such systems are to be identified with obscured galaxies or Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) that appear to have recently and indeed rapidly turned off. Clearly, the discovery of more examples of devices similar to the Antikythera mechanism would have a significant affect in advancing our understand...

  1. The Adaptation Finance Gap Update - with insights from the INDCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olhoff, Anne; Bee, Skylar; Puig, Daniel

    In 2014 the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) published its first global Adaptation Gap Report (AGR 2014) (UNEP, 2014), which put forward a preliminary framework for assessing adaptation gaps along with an initial assessment in three selected areas: finance, technology and knowledge...... will be published in the spring of 2016. This update is intended as an input to discussions at the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It brings together key findings on adaptation costs and finance from AGR 2014...... and preliminary findings from the 2016 assessment. Furthermore, it draws on insights concerning adaptation costs and related finance needs, as stated in the adaptation components in the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) – the post-2020 climate actions that countries intend to undertake...

  2. Insights into shaving and its impact on skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, K; Vanoosthuyze, K

    2012-03-01

    Male grooming has its roots in antiquity. Control and styling of facial hair has invariably required the development and use of metal instrumentation. Once crude and unreliable, it has latterly become sophisticated and subject to intense research and development at the highest scientific level. This paper describes how male grooming is being impacted by improvements in fundamental understanding of male skin. Skin issues associated with poor hair removal approaches are common, but are often overlooked or their aetiology misunderstood by patients and physicians. By incorporating advanced scientific measurement and imaging technology into clinical testing, insights are being gained into both the common concerns which men express and optimal solutions for these concerns. Specific aspects such as the study of nicks and cuts and the identification and release of trapped hairs are discussed. Finally, details are presented on how the individual elements of technologically advanced razors play a role in managing the skin and hair, highlighting further the complexity of the shaving process.

  3. Analytical insights into optimality and resonance in fish swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohannim, Saba; Iwasaki, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides analytical insights into the hypothesis that fish exploit resonance to reduce the mechanical cost of swimming. A simple body–fluid fish model, representing carangiform locomotion, is developed. Steady swimming at various speeds is analysed using optimal gait theory by minimizing bending moment over tail movements and stiffness, and the results are shown to match with data from observed swimming. Our analysis indicates the following: thrust–drag balance leads to the Strouhal number being predetermined based on the drag coefficient and the ratio of wetted body area to cross-sectional area of accelerated fluid. Muscle tension is reduced when undulation frequency matches resonance frequency, which maximizes the ratio of tail-tip velocity to bending moment. Finally, hydrodynamic resonance determines tail-beat frequency, whereas muscle stiffness is actively adjusted, so that overall body–fluid resonance is exploited. PMID:24430125

  4. Insights revealed by rodent models of sugar binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan M; Tulloch, Alastair J; Chen, Eunice Y; Avena, Nicole M

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating is seen across the spectrum of eating disorder diagnoses as well as among individuals who do not meet diagnostic criteria. Analyses of the specific types of foods that are frequently binged upon reveal that sugar-rich items feature prominently in binge-type meals, making the effects of binge consumption of sugar an important focus of study. One avenue to do this involves the use of animal models. Foundational and recent studies of animal models of sugar bingeing, both outlined here, lend insight into the various neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that may participate in or be altered by this behavior. Further, several preclinical studies incorporating sugar bingeing paradigms have explored the utility of pharmacological agents that target such neural systems for reducing sugar bingeing in an effort to enhance clinical treatment. Indeed, the translational implications of findings generated using animal models of sugar bingeing are considered here, along with potential avenues for further study.

  5. Biological Actions of Artemisinin: Insights from Medicinal Chemistry Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinins have become essential antimalarial drugs for increasingly widespread drug-resistant malaria strains. Although tremendous efforts have been devoted to decipher how this class of molecules works, their exact antimalarial mechanism is still an enigma. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain their actions, including alkylation of heme by carbon-centered free radicals, interference with proteins such as the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic calcium ATPase (SERCA, as well as damaging of normal mitochondrial functions. Besides artemisinins, other endoperoxides with various backbones have also been synthesized, some of which showed comparable or even higher antimalarial effects. It is noteworthy that among these artemisinin derivatives, some enantiomers displayed similar in vitro malaria killing efficacy. In this article, the proposed mechanisms of action of artemisinins are reviewed in light of medicinal chemistry findings characterized by efficacy-structure studies, with the hope of gaining more insight into how these potent drugs work.

  6. Pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: insights from molecular and metabolic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Olga; Barkhof, Frederik; Bodini, Benedetta; De Stefano, Nicola; Golay, Xavier; Nicolay, Klaas; Pelletier, Daniel; Pouwels, Petra J W; Smith, Seth A; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Stankoff, Bruno; Yousry, Tarek; Miller, David H

    2014-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis induce the changes that underpin relapse-associated and progressive disability. Disease mechanisms can be investigated in preclinical models and patients with multiple sclerosis by molecular and metabolic imaging techniques. Many insights have been gained from such imaging studies: persisting inflammation in the absence of a damaged blood-brain barrier, activated microglia within and beyond lesions, increased mitochondrial activity after acute lesions, raised sodium concentrations in the brain, increased glutamate in acute lesions and normal-appearing white matter, different degrees of demyelination in different patients and lesions, early neuronal damage in grey matter, and early astrocytic proliferation and activation in lesions and white matter. Clinical translation of molecular and metabolic imaging and extension of these techniques will enable the assessment of novel drugs targeted at these disease mechanisms, and have the potential to improve health outcomes through the stratification of patients for treatments.

  7. Managing Water Resources for Drought: Insights from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Azuara, Josue; Lund, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Droughts bring great opportunities to better understand and improve water systems. California's economic powerhouse relies on highly engineered water systems to fulfill large and growing urban and agricultural water demands. Current and past droughts show these systems are highly robust and resilient to droughts, as they recover promptly. However, environmental systems remain highly vulnerable and have shown less resilience to drought, with each drought bringing additional native species closer to extinction, often with little recovery following the drought. This paper provides an overview of the economic and ecosystem impacts of the recent multi-year drought in California in the context of a global economy. We explore the potential of water markets, groundwater management and use of remote sensing technology to improve understanding of adaptation to drought. Insights for future management of water resources and scientific work are discussed.

  8. Insights into particle cycling from thorium and particle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Phoebe J; Marchal, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Marine particles are a main vector by which the biological carbon pump in the ocean transfers carbon from the atmosphere to the deep ocean. Marine particles exist in a continuous spectrum of sizes, but they can be functionally grouped into a small, suspended class (which constitutes most of the total particle mass) and a large, sinking class (which contributes most of the particle flux). These two classes are connected by aggregation and disaggregation processes. The interplay of processes that create, aggregate, and destroy marine particles determines the strength and transfer efficiency of the biological pump. Measurements of radiocarbon, barium, and organic biomarkers on suspended and sinking particles have provided qualitative insights into particle dynamics, and measurements of thorium isotopes have provided quantitative estimates of rates. Here, we review what has been learned so far about particle dynamics in the ocean from chemical measurements on suspended and sinking particles. We then discuss future directions for this approach.

  9. New insights into TRP channels: Interaction with pattern recognition receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Huirong; Yi, Fan

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have implicated that the activation of innate immune system and inflammatory mechanisms are of importance in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. The innate immune system is present in almost all multicellular organisms in response to pathogens or tissue injury, which is performed via germ-line encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or dangers-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Intracellular pathways linking immune and inflammatory response to ion channel expression and function have been recently identified. Among ion channels, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a major family of non-selective cation-permeable channels that function as polymodal cellular sensors involved in many physiological and pathological processes. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about classifications, functions, and interactions of TRP channels and PRRs, which may provide new insights into their roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases.

  10. Sleeping beauties in theoretical physics 26 surprising insights

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Thanu

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a fascinating set of questions in theoretical physics which will both entertain and enlighten all students, teachers and researchers and other physics aficionados. These range from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory and cover several puzzling issues that do not appear in standard textbooks. Some topics cover conceptual conundrums, the solutions to which lead to surprising insights; some correct popular misconceptions in the textbook discussion of certain topics; others illustrate deep connections between apparently unconnected domains of theoretical physics; and a few provide remarkably simple derivations of results which are not often appreciated. The connoisseur of theoretical physics will enjoy a feast of pleasant surprises skilfully prepared by an internationally acclaimed theoretical physicist. Each topic is introduced with proper background discussion and special effort is taken to make the discussion self-contained, clear and comprehensible to anyone with an undergraduate e...

  11. Ice Formation on Kaolinite: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Sosso, Gabriele C; Zen, Andrea; Pedevilla, Philipp; Michaelides, Angelos

    2016-01-01

    The formation of ice affects many aspects of our everyday life as well as technologies such as cryotherapy and cryopreservation. Foreign substances almost always aid water freezing through heterogeneous ice nucleation, but the molecular details of this process remain largely unknown. In fact, insight into the microscopic mechanism of ice formation on different substrates is difficult to obtain even via state-of-the-art experimental techniques. At the same time, atomistic simulations of heterogeneous ice nucleation frequently face extraordinary challenges due to the complexity of the water-substrate interaction and the long timescales that characterize nucleation events. Here, we have investigated several aspects of molecular dynamics simulations of heterogeneous ice nucleation considering as a prototypical ice nucleating material the clay mineral kaolinite, which is of relevance in atmospheric science. We show via seeded molecular dynamics simulations that ice nucleation on the hydroxylated (001) face of kaol...

  12. Global Insights Based on the Multidimensional Energy Poverty Index (MEPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Howells

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy access metrics are needed to track the progress towards providing sustainable energy for all. This paper presents advancements in the development of the Multidimensional Energy Poverty Index (MEPI, as well as results and analysis for a number of developing countries. The MEPI is a composite index designed to shed light on energy poverty by assessing the services that modern energy provides. The index captures both the incidence and intensity of energy poverty. It provides valuable insights–allowing the analysis of determinants of energy poverty–and, subsequently insights into policy efficacy. Building on previous work, this paper presents results obtained as a result of both increased data availability and enhanced methodology. Specifically, this analysis (i includes an increased number of countries, and (ii tracks the evolution of energy poverty over time of energy poverty in selected countries is reported.

  13. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN AWARENESS OF ILLNESS (INSIGHT AND HISTORY OF ADDICTION IN HEROIN-ADDICTED PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Giovanni Icro eMaremmani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In a group of 1066 heroin addicts, who were seeking treatment for opioid agonist treatment, we looked for differences in historical, demographic and clinical characteristics, between patients with different levels of awareness of illness (insight. The results showed that, in the cohort studied, a majority of subjects lacked insight into their heroin-use behaviour. Compared with the impaired-insight group, those who possessed insight into their illness showed significantly greater awareness of past social, somatic and psychopathological impairments, and had a greater number of past treatment-seeking events for heroin addiction. In contrast with other psychiatric illnesses, the presence of awareness appears to be related to the passing of time and to the worsening of the illness. Methodologies to improve the insight of patients should, therefore, be targeted more directly on patients early in their history of heroin dependence, because the risk of lack of insight is greatest during this period.

  14. Inspiring your audience to action: insights from theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, W.; Hekkers, J.; Mott, B.

    2011-12-01

    Findings from market research sponsored by The Ocean Project, along with many other recent studies, have revealed two troubling facts: 1. Despite increased efforts to grow climate and ocean literacy among the general public, American adult's knowledge of climate and ocean health has remained stagnant in the past decade; and 2. Knowledge and level of concern about climate change show little correlation, i.e. the people who are most concerned about climate change are not the ones who know most about the science of climate change, and vice versa. If knowledge does not lead to action among the general public, what implications does this have for those of us working for conservation? How can we motivate people to act for conservation? The Ocean Project's large-scale survey of American attitudes and values vis-à-vis ocean, climate change, and related conservation issues provides answers to many such burning questions. Our research findings reveal critical insights about what, who, and how we can communicate for maximum efficacy. In particular, youth and minorities emerged as important constituencies: not only are they more environmentally aware and/or socially conscious, they are important influencers who demonstrate greater propensity to modify their behaviors and/or engage in conservation advocacy. Our presentation will discuss the implications of these findings for strategic communication for conservation action as well as present case studies from the Monterey Bay Aquarium that support these research findings and provide insights from evaluation of two significantly different interpretive approaches to communicate about climate change-a live animal exhibit and a video-based, live-narrated auditorium program.

  15. New insight on petroleum system modeling of Ghadames basin, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Deepender; Dubey, Siddharth

    2015-12-01

    Underdown and Redfern (2008) performed a detailed petroleum system modeling of the Ghadames basin along an E-W section. However, hydrocarbon generation, migration and accumulation changes significantly across the basin due to complex geological history. Therefore, a single section can't be considered representative for the whole basin. This study aims at bridging this gap by performing petroleum system modeling along a N-S section and provides new insights on source rock maturation, generation and migration of the hydrocarbons using 2D basin modeling. This study in conjunction with earlier work provides a 3D context of petroleum system modeling in the Ghadames basin. Hydrocarbon generation from the lower Silurian Tanezzuft formation and the Upper Devonian Aouinet Ouenine started during the late Carboniferous. However, high subsidence rate during middle to late Cretaceous and elevated heat flow in Cenozoic had maximum impact on source rock transformation and hydrocarbon generation whereas large-scale uplift and erosion during Alpine orogeny has significant impact on migration and accumulation. Visible migration observed along faults, which reactivated during Austrian unconformity. Peak hydrocarbon expulsion reached during Oligocene for both the Tanezzuft and the Aouinet Ouenine source rocks. Based on modeling results, capillary entry pressure driven downward expulsion of hydrocarbons from the lower Silurian Tanezzuft formation to the underlying Bir Tlacsin formation observed during middle Cretaceous. Kinetic modeling has helped to model hydrocarbon composition and distribution of generated hydrocarbons from both the source rocks. Application of source to reservoir tracking technology suggest some accumulations at shallow stratigraphic level has received hydrocarbons from both the Tanezzuft and Aouinet Ouenine source rocks, implying charge mixing. Five petroleum systems identified based on source to reservoir correlation technology in Petromod*. This Study builds

  16. The relationship between insight and neurological dysfunction in first-episode psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hill, M

    2012-04-01

    Impaired insight is commonly seen in psychosis and some studies have proposed that is a biologically based deficit. Support for this view comes from the excess of neurological soft signs (NSS) observed in patients with psychoses and their neural correlates which demonstrate a degree of overlap with the regions of interest implicated in neuroimaging studies of insight. The aim was to examine the relationship between NSS and insight in a sample of 241 first-episode psychosis patients.

  17. O conceito do insight em pacientes com transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo The concept of insight in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia M. Fontenelle

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Atualizar os clínicos sobre a existência de um possível subtipo do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo caracterizado por pouco insight. MÉTODO: Revisão opinativa baseada em estudos indexados na base de dados PubMed e PsychINFO, identificados por meio dos unitermos "obsessive-compulsive disorder" e "insight" ou "ego-dystonic" e publicados entre 1966 e outubro de 2009. Os resultados foram examinados de acordo com a estratégia utilizada para abordar o insight, i.e. categórica vs. dimensional. RESULTADOS: Análise dos estudos nos permitiu identificar pontos que colocam em dúvida a existência de um subtipo do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo bem delimitado caracterizado por pouco insight. Estes pontos incluem 1 prevalência extremamente variável do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo com insight reduzido encontrada em estudos categóricos, 2 homogeneidade dos achados fenotípicos (i.e. maior gravidade associados a baixo insight em estudos categóricos e dimensionais e 3 ausência de estudos que investigam "zonas de raridade" entre as formas de transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo com pouco e bom insight. CONCLUSÃO: Embora uma abordagem categórica do insight no transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo seja importante em ambientes clínicos, uma vez que neles existem demandas prementes para tomada de decisões, a abordagem dimensional do insight parece refletir de forma mais fidedigna o fenômeno apresentado pelos pacientes em tela.OBJECTIVE: To update clinicians regarding the existence of a putative subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder based on poor insight. METHOD: Opinionative review based on studies indexed in the PubMed and PsychINFO databases, identified by means of the keywords "obsessive-compulsive disorder" AND "insight" OR "ego-syntonic", and published between 1966 and October 2009. The results were analyzed according to the approach adopted, i.e. a categorical or dimensional view of insight in obsessive-compulsive disorder. RESULTS: The

  18. Depression in schizophrenia: the influence of the different dimensions of insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misdrahi, David; Denard, Sophie; Swendsen, Joel; Jaussent, Isabelle; Courtet, Philippe

    2014-04-30

    Improving insight in patients with schizophrenia appears necessary to enhance medication adherence and clinical outcome, but in some patients acquiring insight can paradoxically increase hopelessness, depression and suicidal behavior. The aim of this study is to explore the association of two dimensions of insight (cognitive and clinical) with depression, hopelessness and clinical variables in patients with psychosis. Using a cross-sectional design, 61 remitted outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders were included. Insight was assessed using the "Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder" (SUMD), the PANSS-item G12 and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS). Overall, 41.2% of the sample had a history of suicide attempts. Patients in the high clinical insight group had significantly higher depression scores, higher hopelessness scores, greater histories of suicide attempts and were more likely to have received psychoeducation. Compared to patients with low cognitive insight, those with high overall cognitive insight were significantly more depressed and had more often received psychoeducation. Greater insight may have negative consequences in terms of depressive symptoms and therefore presents a challenge to clinicians in assessing the individual risks and benefits of strategies intended to enhance awareness of mental disorder.

  19. Insight in psychotic disorder: relation with psychopathology and frontal lobe function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atmesh; Sharma, Pranjal; Das, Shyamanta; Nath, Kamal; Talukdar, Uddip; Bhagabati, Dipesh

    2014-01-01

    Through conceptualising poor insight in psychotic disorders as a form of anosognosia, frontal lobe dysfunction is often ascribed a vital role in its pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to compare the relation of insight in patients with psychotic illness to that of psychopathology and frontal lobe function. Forty patients with psychotic disorder were selected from those attending the Department of Psychiatry in a tertiary care teaching hospital. The evaluation of insight was carried out using the Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI), that of frontal lobe function by the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and psychopathology by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). The correlation coefficients were determined. A negative correlation between SAI and BPRS scores means that the BPRS score is opposite to SAI scores. When the SAI total score was compared with the FAB total score, the correlation coefficient demonstrated a positive correlation. Better insight predicted lesser psychopathology and also that poor insight would exist with greater psychopathology. Better insight predicted a higher functional status of frontal lobes and prefrontal cortex in particular. Insight deficits in schizophrenia and other psychotic illnesses are multidimensional. Integration of different aetiological factors like biological, psychopathological, environmental ones and others are necessary for a better understanding of insight in psychosis. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The VBB SEIS experiment of InSight

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Raucourt, Sebastien; Gabsi, Taoufik; Tanguy, Nebut; Mimoun, David; Lognonne, Philippe; Gagnepain-Beyneix, Jeannine; Banerdt, William; Tillier, Sylvain; Hurst, Kenneth

    2012-07-01

    SEIS is the core payload of InSight, one of the three missions selected for competitive phase A in the frame of the 2010 Discovery AO. It aims at providing unique observation of the interior structure of Mars and to monitor seismic activity of Mars. SEIS will provide the first seismic model from another planet than Earth. SEIS is an hybrid seismometer composed of 3 SPs and 3 VBBs axes providing ground motion measurement from Dc to 50Hz. A leveling system will ensure the coupling between the ground and the sensors as well as the horizontality of the VBB sphere. This assembly will be deployed on the ground of Mars and will be shielded by a strong thermal insulation and a wind shield. The 24 bits low noise acquisition electronics will remain in the warm electronic box of the lander with the sensors feedback and leveling system electronics. The VBB sphere enclosed three single axis sensors. Those sensors are based on an inverted leaf spring pendulum, which convert ground acceleration into mobile mass displacement. A capacitive displacement sensor monitors this mass displacement to provide a measurement. A force feedback allows transfer function and sensitivity tuning. The VBB sensor has a very strong heritage from previous project and benefits from recent work to improve its performances. Both the mechanical design and the displacement sensors have optimized to improve performances while reducing technological risk and keeping a high TRL. From those development a self-noise well below 10 ^{-9} m.s ^{-2}/sqrt Hz is expected. Environmental sensitivity of SEIS has been minimized by the design of a very efficient wind and thermal shield. Remaining noise is expected to be very close to the VBB self-noise. Associated sources and budget will be discussed. If InSight is selected to fly in 2016, this experiment will provide very high quality seismic signal measurement with a wider bandwidth, higher sensitivity and lower noise than previous Mars seismometer (Viking and Optimism

  1. Oligomeric protein structure networks: insights into protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda KV

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein association is essential for a variety of cellular processes and hence a large number of investigations are being carried out to understand the principles of protein-protein interactions. In this study, oligomeric protein structures are viewed from a network perspective to obtain new insights into protein association. Structure graphs of proteins have been constructed from a non-redundant set of protein oligomer crystal structures by considering amino acid residues as nodes and the edges are based on the strength of the non-covalent interactions between the residues. The analysis of such networks has been carried out in terms of amino acid clusters and hubs (highly connected residues with special emphasis to protein interfaces. Results A variety of interactions such as hydrogen bond, salt bridges, aromatic and hydrophobic interactions, which occur at the interfaces are identified in a consolidated manner as amino acid clusters at the interface, from this study. Moreover, the characterization of the highly connected hub-forming residues at the interfaces and their comparison with the hubs from the non-interface regions and the non-hubs in the interface regions show that there is a predominance of charged interactions at the interfaces. Further, strong and weak interfaces are identified on the basis of the interaction strength between amino acid residues and the sizes of the interface clusters, which also show that many protein interfaces are stronger than their monomeric protein cores. The interface strengths evaluated based on the interface clusters and hubs also correlate well with experimentally determined dissociation constants for known complexes. Finally, the interface hubs identified using the present method correlate very well with experimentally determined hotspots in the interfaces of protein complexes obtained from the Alanine Scanning Energetics database (ASEdb. A few predictions of interface hot

  2. Impaired insight in cocaine addiction: laboratory evidence and effects on cocaine-seeking behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, S.J.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-04-15

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessed objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes.

  3. Changes in insight during treatment for psychotic disorders : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, Gerdina H. M.; van Donkersgoed, Rozanne J. M.; David, Anthony S.; Aleman, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Poor insight, or awareness of illness, has a negative impact on the outcome of the psychosis, and is therefore a logical target for treatment. A meta-analysis of the effect of psychological and pharmacological treatments on insight in psychosis was conducted to give a comprehensive overvi

  4. The Client's Potential for Therapeutic Insight Assessed through the Ability to Reflect Verbally and Musically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Niels

    1999-01-01

    to the question of whether a client can gain a greater insight in his or her psychological structure and relational patterns of behavior in the course of music therapy: Is there a potential for psychological growth? Gaining insight is in this context related to the reflective ability of the client; reflection...

  5. Genetic influences on insight problem solving: the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weili; Shang, Siyuan; Su, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    People may experience an "aha" moment, when suddenly realizing a solution of a puzzling problem. This experience is called insight problem solving. Several findings suggest that catecholamine-related genes may contribute to insight problem solving, among which the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is the most promising candidate. The current study examined 753 healthy individuals to determine the associations between 7 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms on the COMT gene and insight problem-solving performance, while considering gender differences. The results showed that individuals carrying A allele of rs4680 or T allele of rs4633 scored significantly higher on insight problem-solving tasks, and the COMT gene rs5993883 combined with gender interacted with correct solutions of insight problems, specifically showing that this gene only influenced insight problem-solving performance in males. This study presents the first investigation of the genetic impact on insight problem solving and provides evidence that highlights the role that the COMT gene plays in insight problem solving.

  6. Test Review: Beal, A. L. (2011). "Insight Test of Cognitive Abilities." Markham, Ontario, Canadian Test Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colp, S. Mitchell; Nordstokke, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Published by the Canadian Test Centre (CTC), "Insight" represents a group-administered test of cognitive functioning that has been built entirely upon the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theoretical framework. "Insight" is intended to be administered by educators and screen entire classrooms for students who present learning…

  7. Brief Report: Insight into Illness and Social Attributional Style in Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didehbani, Nyaz; Shad, Mujeeb U.; Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Allen, Tandra T.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2012-01-01

    A number of psychiatric illnesses have been recognized to have some level of insight deficits, including developmental disorders, such as Asperger's Syndrome (ASP). However insight into illness has not been empirically investigated in ASP and little research has examined how individuals with ASP view their deficits. This is the first study to…

  8. The VAGUS insight into psychosis scale--self-report and clinician-rated versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerretsen, Philip; Remington, Gary; Borlido, Carol; Quilty, Lena; Hassan, Sabrina; Polsinelli, Gina; Teo, Celine; Mar, Wanna; Simon, Regina; Menon, Mahesh; Pothier, David D; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Caravaggio, Fernando; Mamo, David C; Rajji, Tarek K; Mulsant, Benoit H; Deluca, Vincenzo; Ganguli, Rohan; Pollock, Bruce G; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2014-12-30

    The aim of this study was to develop self-report and clinician-rated versions of an insight scale that would be easy to administer, sensitive to small changes, and inclusive of the core dimensions of clinical insight into psychosis. Ten-item self-report (VAGUS-SR) and five-item clinician-rated (VAGUS-CR) scales were designed to measure the dimensions of insight into psychosis and evaluated in 215 and 140 participants, respectively (www.vagusonline.com). Tests of reliability and validity were performed. Both the VAGUS-SR and VAGUS-CR showed good internal consistency and reliability. They demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity. Both versions were strongly correlated with one another and with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight and Birchwood Insight Scale. Exploratory factor analyses identified three possible latent components of insight. The VAGUS-CR and VAGUS-SR are valid, reliable and easy to administer. They are build on previous insight scales with separate clinician-rated and self-report versions. The VAGUS-SR exhibited a multidimensional factor structure. Using a 10-point Likert scale for each item, the VAGUS has the capacity to detect small, temporally sensitive changes in insight, which is essential for intervention studies with neurostimulation or rapidly acting medications.

  9. The VAGUS insight into psychosis scale – Self-report & clinician-rated versions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerretsen, Philip; Remington, Gary; Borlido, Carol; Quilty, Lena; Hassan, Sabrina; Polsinelli, Gina; Teo, Celine; Mar, Wanna; Simon, Regina; Menon, Mahesh; Pothier, David D.; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Caravaggio, Fernando; Mamo, David C.; Rajji, Tarek K.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Deluca, Vincenzo; Ganguli, Rohan; Pollock, Bruce G.; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop self-report and clinician-rated versions of an insight scale that would be easy to administer, sensitive to small changes, and inclusive of the core dimensions of clinical insight into psychosis. Ten-item self-report (VAGUS-SR) and five-item clinician-rated (VAGUS-CR) scales were designed to measure the dimensions of insight into psychosis and evaluated in 215 and 140 participants, respectively (www.vagusonline.com). Tests of reliability and validity were performed. Both the VAGUS-SR and VAGUS-CR showed good internal consistency and reliability. They demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity. Both versions were strongly correlated with one another and with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight and Birchwood Insight Scale. Exploratory factor analyses identified three possible latent components of insight. The VAGUS-CR and VAGUS-SR are valid, reliable and easy to administer. They are build on previous insight scales with separate clinician-rated and self-report versions. The VAGUS-SR exhibited a multidimensional factor structure. Using a 10-point Likert scale for each item, the VAGUS has the capacity to detect small, temporally sensitive changes in insight, which is essential for intervention studies with neurostimulation or rapidly acting medications. PMID:25246410

  10. Measuring the development of insight by dental health professionals in training using workplace-based assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prescott-Clements, L.E.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Schuwirth, L.; Gibb, E.; Hurst, Y.; Rennie, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: For health professionals, the development of insight into their performance is vital for safe practice, professional development and self-regulation. This study investigates whether the development of dental trainees' insight, when provided with external feedback on performance, can be

  11. Changes in insight during treatment for psychotic disorders : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, Gerdina H. M.; van Donkersgoed, Rozanne J. M.; David, Anthony S.; Aleman, Andre

    Objective: Poor insight, or awareness of illness, has a negative impact on the outcome of the psychosis, and is therefore a logical target for treatment. A meta-analysis of the effect of psychological and pharmacological treatments on insight in psychosis was conducted to give a comprehensive

  12. Making Sustainable Energy Choices: Insights on the Energy/Water/Land Nexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    This periodic publication summarizes insights from the body of NREL analysis work. In this issue of Analysis Insights, we examine the implications of our energy choices on water, land use, climate, developmental goals, and other factors. Collectively, NREL's work helps policymakers and investors understand and evaluate energy choices within the complex web of connections, or nexus, between energy, water, and land.

  13. Toward a model of cognitive insight in first-episode psychosis: verbal memory and hippocampal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchy, L; Czechowska, Y; Chochol, C; Malla, A; Joober, R; Pruessner, J; Lepage, M

    2010-09-01

    Our previous work has linked verbal learning and memory with cognitive insight, but not clinical insight, in individuals with a first-episode psychosis (FEP). The current study reassessed the neurocognitive basis of cognitive and clinical insight and explored their neural basis in 61 FEP patients. Cognitive insight was measured with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and clinical insight with the Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). Global measures for 7 domains of cognition were examined. Hippocampi were manually segmented in to 3 parts: the body, head, and tail. Verbal learning and memory significantly correlated with the BCIS composite index. Composite index scores were significantly associated with total left hippocampal (HC) volume; partial correlations, however, revealed that this relationship was attributable largely to verbal memory performance. The BCIS self-certainty subscale significantly and inversely correlated with bilateral HC volumes, and these associations were independent of verbal learning and memory performance. The BCIS self-reflectiveness subscale significantly correlated with verbal learning and memory but not with HC volume. No significant correlations emerged between the SUMD and verbal memory or HC volume. These results strengthen our previous assertion that in individuals with an FEP cognitive insight may rely on memory whereby current experiences are appraised based on previous ones. The HC may be a viable location among others for the brain system that underlies aspects of cognitive insight in individuals with an FEP.

  14. Tracking Online Data with YouTube's Insight Tracking Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    YouTube users have access to the powerful data collection tool, Insight. Insight allows YouTube content producers to collect data about the number of online views, geographic location of viewers by country, the demographics of the viewers, how a video was discovered, and the attention span of the viewer while watching the video. This article…

  15. Insight and Psychosis : Functional and Anatomical Brain Connectivity and Self-Reflection in Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curcic-Blake, Branisalava; van der Meer, Lisette; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H. M.; David, Anthony S.; Aleman, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Impaired insight into illness, associated with worse treatment outcome, is common in schizophrenia. Insight has been related to the self-reflective processing, centred on the medial frontal cortex. We hypothesized that anatomical and functional routes to and from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (

  16. Relationship between insight and theory of mind in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre

    2017-03-14

    Poor insight in schizophrenia has been associated with executive dysfunction and deficits in general cognitive ability. The overall outcome of available neurocognitive studies suggests that there is a significant but modest relationship between cognitive deficits and poor insight in schizophrenia. However, social cognitive abilities, particularly, theory of mind (ToM), might also play a role in poor insight in schizophrenia. A novel meta-analysis of the relationship between ToM and insight in schizophrenia was conducted. Current meta-analysis included 16 studies including 1085 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. There was a significant association between ToM and clinical insight (r=0.28, CI=0.20-0.36). By contrast, there was no significant relationship between ToM and cognitive insight. Current findings suggest that there is a small but significant relationship between ToM and clinical insight in schizophrenia. ToM impairment is one of the factors contributing to poor insight in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Genetic influences on insight problem solving: The role of catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT gene polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili eJiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available People may experience an aha moment, when suddenly realizing a solution of a puzzling problem. This experience is called insight problem solving. Several findings suggest that catecholamine-related genes may contribute to insight problem solving, among which the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT gene is the most promising candidate. The current study examined 753 healthy individuals to determine the associations between 7 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms on the COMT gene and insight problem-solving performance, while considering gender differences. The results showed that individuals carrying A allele of rs4680 or T allele of rs4633 scored significantly higher on insight problem-solving tasks, and the COMT gene rs5993883 combined with gender interacted with correct solutions of insight problems, specifically showing that this gene only influenced insight problem-solving performance in males. This study presents the first investigation of the genetic impact on insight problem solving and provides evidence that highlights the role that the COMT gene plays in insight problem solving.

  18. The Self-Organization of Insight: Entropy and Power Laws in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Damian G.; Dixon, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Explaining emergent structure remains a challenge for all areas of cognitive science, and problem solving is no exception. The modern study of insight has drawn attention to the issue of emergent cognitive structure in problem solving research. We propose that the explanation of insight is beyond the scope of conventional approaches to cognitive…

  19. Predictors of subjective well-being in patients with paranoid symptoms: is insight necessarily advantageous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Carmen; Provencio, María; Espinosa, Regina; Chaves, Covadonga; Fuentenebro, Filiberto

    2011-09-30

    In schizophrenia, poor insight has been associated with negative outcome. In fact, some studies have found insight to be associated with greater treatment adherence and lower levels of symptomatology, as well as better psychosocial functioning. However, others have found that insight into illness is associated with an increase in depression, low self-esteem, and possibly higher risk of suicide. We investigated the relationship between insight and well-being in a sample of 40 people presenting paranoid symptoms and diagnosed with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that compared to a paranoid group with high insight, paranoid participants with low insight had more self-acceptance, higher sense of autonomy and personal growth, and greater orientation towards gratification. Moderation analyses showed that when experiential avoidance was high, insight into paranoia had a detrimental effect on self-acceptance. Overall, our results support the need to explore which psychological variables moderate insight in patients with persecutory beliefs. We discuss the implications of these results for the research of paranoia.

  20. Dynamic neural network of insight: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study on solving Chinese 'chengyu' riddles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbai Zhao

    Full Text Available The key components of insight include breaking mental sets and forming the novel, task-related associations. The majority of researchers have agreed that the anterior cingulate cortex may mediate processes of breaking one's mental set, while the exact neural correlates of forming novel associations are still debatable. In the present study, we used a paradigm of answer selection to explore brain activations of insight by using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging during solving Chinese 'chengyu' (in Chinese pinyin riddles. Based on the participant's choice, the trials were classified into the insight and non-insight conditions. Both stimulus-locked and response-locked analyses are conducted to detect the neural activity corresponding to the early and late periods of insight solution, respectively. Our data indicate that the early period of insight solution shows more activation in the middle temporal gyrus, the middle frontal gyrus and the anterior cingulate cortex. These activities might be associated to the extensive semantic processing, as well as detecting and resolving cognitive conflicts. In contrast, the late period of insight solution produced increased activities in the hippocampus and the amygdala, possibly reflecting the forming of novel association and the concomitant "Aha" feeling. Our study supports the key role of hippocampus in forming novel associations, and indicates a dynamic neural network during insight solution.

  1. Molecular asymmetry in extraterrestrial chemistry: Insights from a pristine meteorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, Sandra; Huang, Yongsong; Alexandre, Marcelo R

    2008-03-11

    The nonracemic amino acids of meteorites provide the only natural example of molecular asymmetry measured so far outside the biosphere. Because extant life depends on chiral homogeneity for the structure and function of biopolymers, the study of these meteoritic compounds may offer insights into the establishment of prebiotic attributes in chemical evolution as well as the origin of terrestrial homochirality. However, all efforts to understand the origin, distribution, and scope of these amino acids' enantiomeric excesses (ee) have been frustrated by the ready exposure of meteorites to terrestrial contaminants and the ubiquitous homochirality of such contamination. We have analyzed the soluble organic composition of a carbonaceous meteorite from Antarctica that was collected and stored under controlled conditions, largely escaped terrestrial contamination and offers an exceptionally pristine sample of prebiotic material. Analyses of the meteorite diastereomeric amino acids alloisoleucine and isoleucine allowed us to show that their likely precursor molecules, the aldehydes, also carried a sizable molecular asymmetry of up to 14% in the asteroidal parent body. Aldehydes are widespread and abundant interstellar molecules; that they came to be present, survived, and evolved in the solar system carrying ee gives support to the idea that biomolecular traits such as chiral asymmetry could have been seeded in abiotic chemistry ahead of life.

  2. Preventing clonal evolutionary processes in cancer: Insights from mathematical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Brenes, Ignacio A; Wodarz, Dominik

    2015-07-21

    Clonal evolutionary processes can drive pathogenesis in human diseases, with cancer being a prominent example. To prevent or treat cancer, mechanisms that can potentially interfere with clonal evolutionary processes need to be understood better. Mathematical modeling is an important research tool that plays an ever-increasing role in cancer research. This paper discusses how mathematical models can be useful to gain insights into mechanisms that can prevent disease initiation, help analyze treatment responses, and aid in the design of treatment strategies to combat the emergence of drug-resistant cells. The discussion will be done in the context of specific examples. Among defense mechanisms, we explore how replicative limits and cellular senescence induced by telomere shortening can influence the emergence and evolution of tumors. Among treatment approaches, we consider the targeted treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We illustrate how basic evolutionary mathematical models have the potential to make patient-specific predictions about disease and treatment outcome, and argue that evolutionary models could become important clinical tools in the field of personalized medicine.

  3. Insights into secondary reactions occurring during atmospheric ablation of micrometeoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Richard W.; Tan, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Ablation of micrometeoroids during atmospheric entry yields volatile gases such as water, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide, capable of altering atmospheric chemistry and hence the climate and habitability of the planetary surface. While laboratory experiments have revealed the yields of these gases during laboratory simulations of ablation, the reactions responsible for the generation of these gases have remained unclear, with a typical assumption being that species simply undergo thermal decomposition without engaging in more complex chemistry. Here, pyrolysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveals that mixtures of meteorite-relevant materials undergo secondary reactions during simulated ablation, with organic matter capable of taking part in carbothermic reduction of iron oxides and sulfates, resulting in yields of volatile gases that differ from those predicted by simple thermal decomposition. Sulfates are most susceptible to carbothermic reduction, producing greater yields of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide at lower temperatures than would be expected from simple thermal decomposition, even when mixed with meteoritically relevant abundances of low-reactivity Type IV kerogen. Iron oxides were less susceptible, with elevated yields of water, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide only occurring when mixed with high abundances of more reactive Type III kerogen. We use these insights to reinterpret previous ablation simulation experiments and to predict the reactions capable of occurring during ablation of carbonaceous micrometeoroids in atmospheres of different compositions.

  4. [Charles Bonnet's syndrome: clinical insights in a fascinating disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elflein, H M

    2013-12-01

    Even mentally and cognitively healthy people can experience visual hallucinations. These are called Charles Bonnet's syndrome, named after the Swiss scientist, who first described such perceptions in the 18th century. Usually patients possess insight in the unreality of their visual experiences. The definitions of CBS are not consistent. Visual impairment or blindness is not part of every definition, but often is associated with CBS. Ophthalmologists should be aware of this syndrome, since its prevalence is high among blind or visually impaired people: patients often are reluctant to admit their hallucinatory experiences, because of the fear of being stigmatised. Possibly women are affected more often than men. CBS is well investigated in the elderly, but also young people might experience visual hallucinations. Hallucinatory contents commonly are persons, with varying duration of the hallucinations. Most patients experience more than one hallucinatory episode. CBS is best investigated in patients suffering from AMD. Neuroimaging studies suggest that cerebral abnormalities, mainly in the occipital cortex, might also play a role in the pathogenesis of CBS. Many patients do not require (drug) treatment, since education itself is helpful in most cases. The pathophysiology remains unclear, but there are a couple of theories.

  5. Seasonal affective disorder, winter type: current insights and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meesters Y

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ybe Meesters,1 Marijke CM Gordijn,2,3 1University Center for Psychiatry, University Medical Center Groningen, 2Department of Chronobiology, GeLifes, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 3Chrono@Work B.V., Groningen, the Netherlands Abstract: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD, winter type, is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes most commonly occurring in autumn or winter and remitting in spring/summer. The syndrome has been well-known for more than three decades, with light treatment being the treatment of first choice. In this paper, an overview is presented of the present insights in SAD. Description of the syndrome, etiology, and treatment options are mentioned. Apart from light treatment, medication and psychotherapy are other treatment options. The predictable, repetitive nature of the syndrome makes it possible to discuss preventive treatment options. Furthermore, critical views on the concept of SAD as a distinct diagnosis are discussed. Keywords: seasonal affective disorder, review, light treatment, medication, psychotherapy, prevention

  6. Hard to Swallow: Developmental Biological Insights into Pediatric Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel; Moody, Sally A.; Maynard, Thomas M.; Karpinski, Beverly A.; Zohn, Irene E.; Mendelowitz, David; Lee, Norman H.; Popratiloff, Anastas

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric dysphagia—feeding and swallowing difficulties that begin at birth, last throughout childhood, and continue into maturity—is one of the most common, least understood complications in children with developmental disorders. We argue that a major cause of pediatric dysphagia is altered hindbrain patterning during pre-natal development. Such changes can compromise craniofacial structures including oropharyngeal muscles and skeletal elements as well as motor and sensory circuits necessary for normal feeding and swallowing. Animal models of developmental disorders that include pediatric dysphagia in their phenotypic spectrum can provide mechanistic insight into pathogenesis of feeding and swallowing difficulties. A fairly common human genetic developmental disorder, DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) includes a substantial incidence of pediatric dysphagia in its phenotypic spectrum. Infant mice carrying a parallel deletion to 22q11DS patients have feeding and swallowing difficulties. Altered hindbrain patterning, neural crest migration, craniofacial malformations, and changes in cranial nerve growth prefigure these difficulties. Thus, in addition to craniofacial and pharyngeal anomalies that arise independently of altered neural development, pediatric dysphagia may reflect disrupted hindbrain patterning and its impact on neural circuit development critical for feeding and swallowing. The mechanisms that disrupt hindbrain patterning and circuitry may provide a foundation to develop novel therapeutic approaches for improved clinical management of pediatric dysphagia. PMID:26554723

  7. Comparative genomics provide insights into evolution of trichoderma nutrition style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin-Bin; Qin, Qi-Long; Shi, Mei; Chen, Lei-Lei; Shu, Yan-Li; Luo, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Rong, Jin-Cheng; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Dan; Sun, Cai-Yun; Liu, Gui-Ming; Dong, Xiao-Wei; Pang, Xiu-Hua; Huang, Feng; Liu, Weifeng; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2014-02-01

    Saprotrophy on plant biomass is a recently developed nutrition strategy for Trichoderma. However, the physiology and evolution of this new nutrition strategy is still elusive. We report the deep sequencing and analysis of the genome of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, an efficient cellulase producer. The 31.7-Mb genome, smallest among the sequenced Trichoderma species, encodes fewer nutrition-related genes than saprotrophic T. reesei (Tr), including glycoside hydrolases and nonribosomal peptide synthetase-polyketide synthase. Homology and phylogenetic analyses suggest that a large number of nutrition-related genes, including GH18 chitinases, β-1,3/1,6-glucanases, cellulolytic enzymes, and hemicellulolytic enzymes, were lost in the common ancestor of T. longibrachiatum (Tl) and Tr. dN/dS (ω) calculation indicates that all the nutrition-related genes analyzed are under purifying selection. Cellulolytic enzymes, the key enzymes for saprotrophy on plant biomass, are under stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr than in mycoparasitic species, suggesting that development of the nutrition strategy of saprotrophy on plant biomass has increased the selection pressure. In addition, aspartic proteases, serine proteases, and metalloproteases are subject to stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr, suggesting that these enzymes may also play important roles in the nutrition. This study provides insights into the physiology and evolution of the nutrition strategy of Trichoderma.

  8. Genomic and epigenomic insights into nutrition and brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauncey, Margaret Joy

    2013-03-15

    Considerable evidence links many neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders with multiple complex interactions between genetics and environmental factors such as nutrition. Mental health problems, autism, eating disorders, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and brain tumours are related to individual variability in numerous protein-coding and non-coding regions of the genome. However, genotype does not necessarily determine neurological phenotype because the epigenome modulates gene expression in response to endogenous and exogenous regulators, throughout the life-cycle. Studies using both genome-wide analysis of multiple genes and comprehensive analysis of specific genes are providing new insights into genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying nutrition and neuroscience. This review provides a critical evaluation of the following related areas: (1) recent advances in genomic and epigenomic technologies, and their relevance to brain disorders; (2) the emerging role of non-coding RNAs as key regulators of transcription, epigenetic processes and gene silencing; (3) novel approaches to nutrition, epigenetics and neuroscience; (4) gene-environment interactions, especially in the serotonergic system, as a paradigm of the multiple signalling pathways affected in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. Current and future advances in these four areas should contribute significantly to the prevention, amelioration and treatment of multiple devastating brain disorders.

  9. A new insight into the V1184 Tau variability

    CERN Document Server

    Giannini, T; Harutyunyan, A; Causi, G Li; Antoniucci, S; Arkharov, A A; Larionov, V M; Strafella, F

    2016-01-01

    V1184 Tau is a young variable for long time monitored at optical wavelengths. Its variability has been ascribed to a sudden and repetitive increase of the circumstellar extinction (UXor-type variable), but the physical origin of such variation, although hypothesized, has not been fully supported on observational basis. To get a new insight into the variability of V1184 Tau, we present new photometric and spectroscopic observations taken in the period 2008-2015. During these years the source has reached the same high brightness level that had before the remarkable fading of about 5 mag undergone in 2004. The optical spectrum is the first obtained when the continuum is at its maximum level. The observations are interpreted in the framework of extinction driven variability. We analyze light curves, optical and near-infrared colors, SED and optical spectrum. The emerging picture indicates that the source fading is due to an extinction increase of DeltaA_V about 5 mag, associated with a strong infrared excess, att...

  10. New insights in human memory interference and consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Edwin M

    2012-01-24

    Learning new facts and skills in succession can be frustrating because no sooner has new knowledge been acquired than its retention is being jeopardized by learning another set of skills or facts. Interference between memories has recently provided important new insights into the neural and psychological systems responsible for memory processing. For example, interference not only occurs between the same types of memories, but can also occur between different types of memories, which has important implications for our understanding of memory organization. Converging evidence has begun to reveal that the brain produces interference independently from other aspects of memory processing, which suggests that interference may have an important but previously overlooked function. A memory's initial susceptibility to interference and subsequent resistance to interference after its acquisition has revealed that memories continue to be processed 'off-line' during consolidation. Recent work has demonstrated that off-line processing is not limited to just the stabilization of a memory, which was once the defining characteristic of consolidation; instead, off-line processing can have a rich diversity of effects, from enhancing performance to making hidden rules explicit. Off-line processing also occurs after memory retrieval when memories are destabilized and then subsequently restabalized during reconsolidation. Studies are beginning to reveal the function of reconsolidation, its mechanistic relationship to consolidation and its potential as a therapeutic target for the modification of memories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. THE AMAZING UNIVERSE OF RUSSIAN MULTINATIONALS: NEW INSIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUŢA DURA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, large multinational companies originating from Russia have shown outstanding performances alongside their road from regional dominance to global leaders. Taking stock of recent approaches in the literature and statistical data released by well-known international organizations, our papers aims to provide some new insights from the amazing universe of Russian multinationals, following the 2008-2009 global economic crisis. The list of the largest multinationals from Russia shows that corporations from oil & gas and metallurgical sector are prevailing, as a consequence of the resource – based character of the Russian economy. Although Russian giants represents a quite heterogeneous class of companies, they do share several common features such as their propel mechanism of expansion on the global business stage (leveraged by the resource-based nature of their home economy, their tendency to invest in the neighboring countries (like Commonwealth of Independent States or East European countries, their modes of entry (through brownfield projects etc.

  12. Biological Insights From 108 Schizophrenia-Associated Genetic Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James TR; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A; Lee, Phil; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B; Black, Donald W; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G; Buckner, Randy L; Byerley, William; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M; Carr, Vaughan J; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V; Chambert, Kimberley D; Chan, Raymond CK; Chan, Ronald YL; Chen, Eric YH; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric FC; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crowley, James J; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L; Degenhardt, Franziska; Del Favero, Jurgen; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Durmishi, Naser; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H; Farrell, Martilias S; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B; Friedl, Marion; Friedman, Joseph I; Fromer, Menachem; Genovese, Giulio; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I; Golimbet, Vera; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M; Henskens, Frans A; Herms, Stefan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V; Hougaard, David M; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julià, Antonio; Kahn, René S; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C; Kennedy, James L; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Kähler, Anna K; Laurent, Claudine; Lee, Jimmy; Lee, S Hong; Legge, Sophie E; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Loughland, Carmel M; Lubinski, Jan; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Maher, Brion S; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W; Mors, Ole; Murphy, Kieran C; Murray, Robin M; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O’Callaghan, Eadbhard; O’Dushlaine, Colm; O’Neill, F Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; Van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T; Paunio, Tiina; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Perkins, Diana O; Pietiläinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E; Purcell, Shaun M; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A; Richards, Alexander L; Roffman, Joshua L; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R; Schulze, Thomas G; Schwab, Sibylle G; Scolnick, Edward M; Scott, Rodney J; Seidman, Larry J; Shi, Jianxin; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Silagadze, Teimuraz; Silverman, Jeremy M; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; Smoller, Jordan W; So, Hon-Cheong; Spencer, Chris C A; Stahl, Eli A; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M; Szatkiewicz, Jin P; Söderman, Erik; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tosato, Sarah; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter B; Williams, Nigel M; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H; Wolen, Aaron R; Wong, Emily HM; Wormley, Brandon K; Xi, Hualin Simon; Zai, Clement C; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R; Stefansson, Kari; Visscher, Peter M; Adolfsson, Rolf; Andreassen, Ole A; Blackwood, Douglas HR; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Børglum, Anders D; Cichon, Sven; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tõnu; Gejman, Pablo V; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V; Jönsson, Erik G; Kendler, Kenneth S; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F; Li, Qingqin S; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K; McCarroll, Steven A; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L; Mortensen, Preben B; Mowry, Bryan J; Nöthen, Markus M; Ophoff, Roel A; Owen, Michael J; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N; Petryshen, Tracey L; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C; Sklar, Pamela; St Clair, David; Weinberger, Daniel R; Wendland, Jens R; Werge, Thomas; Daly, Mark J; Sullivan, Patrick F; O’Donovan, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Summary Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here, we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls. We identify 128 independent associations spanning 108 conservatively defined loci that meet genome-wide significance, 83 of which have not been previously reported. Associations were enriched among genes expressed in brain providing biological plausibility for the findings. Many findings have the potential to provide entirely novel insights into aetiology, but associations at DRD2 and multiple genes involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission highlight molecules of known and potential therapeutic relevance to schizophrenia, and are consistent with leading pathophysiological hypotheses. Independent of genes expressed in brain, associations were enriched among genes expressed in tissues that play important roles in immunity, providing support for the hypothesized link between the immune system and schizophrenia. PMID:25056061

  13. Computational insight into the chemical space of plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushkov, Nikolay A; Veselov, Mark S; Chuprov-Netochin, Roman N; Marusich, Elena I; Majouga, Alexander G; Volynchuk, Polina B; Shumilina, Daria V; Leonov, Sergey V; Ivanenkov, Yan A

    2016-02-01

    An enormous technological progress has resulted in an explosive growth in the amount of biological and chemical data that is typically multivariate and tangled in structure. Therefore, several computational approaches have mainly focused on dimensionality reduction and convenient representation of high-dimensional datasets to elucidate the relationships between the observed activity (or effect) and calculated parameters commonly expressed in terms of molecular descriptors. We have collected the experimental data available in patent and scientific publications as well as specific databases for various agrochemicals. The resulting dataset was then thoroughly analyzed using Kohonen-based self-organizing technique. The overall aim of the presented study is to investigate whether the developed in silico model can be applied to predict the agrochemical activity of small molecule compounds and, at the same time, to offer further insights into the distinctive features of different agrochemical categories. The preliminary external validation with several plant growth regulators demonstrated a relatively high prediction power (67%) of the constructed model. This study is, actually, the first example of a large-scale modeling in the field of agrochemistry.

  14. Biological restoration in pediatric dentistry: a brief insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md, Indira; Singh Dhull, Kanika; Nandlal, B; Kumar Ps, Praveen; Singh Dhull, Rachita

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent disease in humans, especially during early childhood. The restoration of such an extensive carious lesion should be done properly to reestablish their anatomy and hence their masticatory, phonetic, esthetic and space-maintainer functions in the dental arches. The consequences of premature loss of primary teeth are well known, namely the loss of vertical dimension of occlusion, tongue thrusting and mouth breathing habits, which can be the sources of future malocclusion. Satisfactory restoration of these teeth, improving esthetics, along with the management of space and function has always been a challenge for pediatric dentist. An ever increasing demand for esthetics has led to innovation and development of newer treatment modalities for these problems. In an attempt to widen the treatment options as biologically and conservatively as possible, tooth structure is used as a restorative material to rehabilitate severely destroyed tooth crowns. This technique consists of bonding sterile dental fragments, obtained either from the patient or from a tooth bank, to the teeth. Such a technique was termed as 'biological restoration'. This article aims at reviewing the evolution, techniques and outcome of such biological restorations. How to cite this article: MD Indira, Dhull KS, Nandlal B, Kumar PSP, Dhull RS. Biological Restoration in Pediatric Dentistry: A Brief Insight. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):197-201.

  15. Improving proton therapy by metal-containing nanoparticles: nanoscale insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlathölter, Thomas; Eustache, Pierre; Porcel, Erika; Salado, Daniela; Stefancikova, Lenka; Tillement, Olivier; Lux, Francois; Mowat, Pierre; Biegun, Aleksandra K; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; Remita, Hynd; Lacombe, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles to enhance the effect of radiation-based cancer treatments is a growing field of study and recently, even nanoparticle-induced improvement of proton therapy performance has been investigated. Aiming at a clinical implementation of this approach, it is essential to characterize the mechanisms underlying the synergistic effects of nanoparticles combined with proton irradiation. In this study, we investigated the effect of platinum- and gadolinium-based nanoparticles on the nanoscale damage induced by a proton beam of therapeutically relevant energy (150 MeV) using plasmid DNA molecular probe. Two conditions of irradiation (0.44 and 3.6 keV/μm) were considered to mimic the beam properties at the entrance and at the end of the proton track. We demonstrate that the two metal-containing nanoparticles amplify, in particular, the induction of nanosize damages (>2 nm) which are most lethal for cells. More importantly, this effect is even more pronounced at the end of the proton track. This work gives a new insight into the underlying mechanisms on the nanoscale and indicates that the addition of metal-based nanoparticles is a promising strategy not only to increase the cell killing action of fast protons, but also to improve tumor targeting. PMID:27143877

  16. From big data to deep insight in developmental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Rick O

    2016-01-01

    The use of the term 'big data' has grown substantially over the past several decades and is now widespread. In this review, I ask what makes data 'big' and what implications the size, density, or complexity of datasets have for the science of human development. A survey of existing datasets illustrates how existing large, complex, multilevel, and multimeasure data can reveal the complexities of developmental processes. At the same time, significant technical, policy, ethics, transparency, cultural, and conceptual issues associated with the use of big data must be addressed. Most big developmental science data are currently hard to find and cumbersome to access, the field lacks a culture of data sharing, and there is no consensus about who owns or should control research data. But, these barriers are dissolving. Developmental researchers are finding new ways to collect, manage, store, share, and enable others to reuse data. This promises a future in which big data can lead to deeper insights about some of the most profound questions in behavioral science.

  17. Genetic Aspects of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Insights from Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati eBanerjee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that display a triad of core behavioral deficits including restricted interests, often accompanied by repetitive behavior, deficits in language and communication, and an inability to engage in reciprocal social interactions. ASD is among the most heritable disorders but is not a simple disorder with a singular pathology and has a rather complex etiology. It is interesting to note that perturbations in synaptic growth, development and stability underlie a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including ASD, schizophrenia, epilepsy and intellectual disability. Biological characterization of an increasing repertoire of synaptic mutants in various model organisms indicates synaptic dysfunction as causal in the pathophysiology of ASD. Our understanding of the genes and genetic pathways that contribute towards the formation, stabilization and maintenance of functional synapses coupled with an in-depth phenotypic analysis of the cellular and behavioral characteristics is therefore essential to unraveling the pathogenesis of these disorders. In this review, we discuss the genetic aspects of ASD emphasizing on the well conserved set of genes and genetic pathways implicated in this disorder, many of which contribute to synapse assembly and maintenance across species. We also review how fundamental research using animal models is providing key insights into the various facets of human ASD.

  18. Novel Insights into the Health Importance of Natural Honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajibola, Abdulwahid

    2015-09-01

    Honey is a sweet, flavourful liquid substance with several beneficial constituents. Extensive research has shown the therapeutic promise of the use of honey in enhancing health values and improving body systems. This manuscript documents the ancient medicinal uses of honey and provides evidence-based data demonstrating its benefits in animal models, patients, and healthy individuals. Several reports by various researchers are discussed regarding health indices and biomarkers used following apitherapy. These include physiological processes in virtually all animal and human organs. The responses of body systems after oral and systemic administration of honey are also mentioned. Honey is also evaluated for its wide acceptability as a complementary and alternative medicine for most ailments. All types of honey exhibit different biochemical activities and show greater variability in their potency as apitherapeutic agents than conventional medicines. The mechanisms of action conferring honey's protective effects, as suggested by various authors, are documented. These entail synergistic interaction of the bioactive physical and chemical constituents of honey to produce the desired beneficial effects. The use of apitherapy in synergy with chemotherapy to manage microbial and cancer ailments is also helpful in reducing drug-induced cytotoxicity. The mechanistic insights into the overall protective, preventive, and therapeutic effects of honey portend the presence of a unique factor, a 'synergistic multiple ingredients factor', designated SMIF.

  19. Controlling gene expression by DNA mechanics: emerging insights and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levens, David; Baranello, Laura; Kouzine, Fedor

    2016-11-01

    Transcription initiation is a major control point for the precise regulation of gene expression. Our knowledge of this process has been mainly derived from protein-centric studies wherein cis-regulatory DNA sequences play a passive role, mainly in arranging the protein machinery to coalesce at the transcription start sites of genes in a spatial and temporal-specific manner. However, this is a highly dynamic process in which molecular motors such as RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), helicases, and other transcription factors, alter the level of mechanical force in DNA, rather than simply a set of static DNA-protein interactions. The double helix is a fiber that responds to flexural and torsional stress, which if accumulated, can affect promoter output as well as change DNA and chromatin structure. The relationship between DNA mechanics and the control of early transcription initiation events has been under-investigated. Genomic techniques to display topological stress and conformational variation in DNA across the mammalian genome provide an exciting new insight on the role of DNA mechanics in the early stages of the transcription cycle. Without understanding how torsional and flexural stresses are generated, transmitted, and dissipated, no model of transcription will be complete and accurate.

  20. Cholinergic modulation of cognitive processing: insights drawn from computational models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehren L Newman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine plays an important role in cognitive function, as shown by pharmacological manipulations that impact working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory function. Acetylcholine also shows striking modulatory influences on the cellular physiology of hippocampal and cortical neurons. Modeling of neural circuits provides a framework for understanding how the cognitive functions may arise from the influence of acetylcholine on neural and network dynamics. We review the influences of cholinergic manipulations on behavioral performance in working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory tasks, the physiological effects of acetylcholine on neural and circuit dynamics, and the computational models that provide insight into the functional relationships between the physiology and behavior. Specifically, we discuss the important role of acetylcholine in governing mechanisms of active maintenance in working memory tasks and in regulating network dynamics important for effective processing of stimuli in attention and episodic memory tasks. We also propose that theta rhythm play a crucial role as an intermediary between the physiological influences of acetylcholine and behavior in episodic and spatial memory tasks. We conclude with a synthesis of the existing modeling work and highlight future directions that are likely to be rewarding given the existing state of the literature for both empiricists and modelers.

  1. Insights into Monascus biology at the genetic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yanchun; Lei, Ming; Mao, Zejing; Zhou, Youxiang; Chen, Fusheng

    2014-05-01

    The genus of Monascus was nominated by van Tieghem in 1884, but its fermented product-red mold rice (RMR), namely red yeast rice, has been used as folk medicines, food colorants, and fermentation starters for more than thousands of years in oriental countries. Nowadays, RMR is widely developed as food supplements around the world due to its functional compounds such as monacolin K (MK, also called lovastatin) and γ-aminobutyric acid. But the usage of RMR also incurs controversy resulting from contamination of citrinin (a kind of mycotoxin) produced by some Monascus strains. In the past decade, it has made great progress to Monascus spp. at the genetic level with the application of molecular biology techniques to restrain the citrinin production and increase the yields of MK and pigment in RMR, as well as aid Monascus classification and phylogenesis. Up to now, hundreds of papers about Monascus molecular biology (MMB) have been published in the international primary journals. However, to our knowledge, there is no MMB review issued until now. In this review, current understanding of Monascus spp. from the view of molecular biology will be covered and insights into research areas that need to be further investigated will also be discussed.

  2. Zebrafish Models of Human Leukemia: Technological Advances and Mechanistic Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Nicholas R; Laroche, Fabrice J F; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Feng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Insights concerning leukemic pathophysiology have been acquired in various animal models and further efforts to understand the mechanisms underlying leukemic treatment resistance and disease relapse promise to improve therapeutic strategies. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a vertebrate organism with a conserved hematopoietic program and unique experimental strengths suiting it for the investigation of human leukemia. Recent technological advances in zebrafish research including efficient transgenesis, precise genome editing, and straightforward transplantation techniques have led to the generation of a number of leukemia models. The transparency of the zebrafish when coupled with improved lineage-tracing and imaging techniques has revealed exquisite details of leukemic initiation, progression, and regression. With these advantages, the zebrafish represents a unique experimental system for leukemic research and additionally, advances in zebrafish-based high-throughput drug screening promise to hasten the discovery of novel leukemia therapeutics. To date, investigators have accumulated knowledge of the genetic underpinnings critical to leukemic transformation and treatment resistance and without doubt, zebrafish are rapidly expanding our understanding of disease mechanisms and helping to shape therapeutic strategies for improved outcomes in leukemic patients.

  3. An insight into the sialome of blood-feeding Nematocera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José M C; Mans, Ben J; Arcà, Bruno

    2010-11-01

    Within the Diptera and outside the suborder Brachycera, the blood-feeding habit occurred at least twice, producing the present day sand flies, and the Culicomorpha, including the mosquitoes (Culicidae), black flies (Simulidae), biting midges (Ceratopogonidae) and frog feeding flies (Corethrellidae). Alternatives to this scenario are also discussed. Successful blood-feeding requires adaptations to antagonize the vertebrate's mechanisms of blood clotting, platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, pain and itching, which are triggered by tissue destruction and immune reactions to insect products. Saliva of these insects provides a complex pharmacological armamentarium to block these vertebrate reactions. With the advent of transcriptomics, the sialomes (from the Greek word sialo = saliva) of at least two species of each of these families have been studied (except for the frog feeders), allowing an insight into the diverse pathways leading to today's salivary composition within the Culicomorpha, having the sand flies as an outgroup. This review catalogs 1288 salivary proteins in 10 generic classes comprising over 150 different protein families, most of which we have no functional knowledge. These proteins and many sequence comparisons are displayed in a hyperlinked spreadsheet that hopefully will stimulate and facilitate the task of functional characterization of these proteins, and their possible use as novel pharmacological agents and epidemiological markers of insect vector exposure.

  4. Color synesthesia. Insight into perception, emotion, and consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Avinoam B.; Sanda, Nicolae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Synesthesia is an extraordinary perceptual phenomenon, in which individuals experience unusual percepts elicited by the activation of an unrelated sensory modality or by a cognitive process. Emotional reactions are commonly associated. The condition prompted philosophical debates on the nature of perception and impacted the course of art history. It recently generated a considerable interest among neuroscientists, but its clinical significance apparently remains underevaluated. This review focuses on the recent studies regarding variants of color synesthesia, the commonest form of the condition. Recent findings Synesthesia is commonly classified as developmental and acquired. Developmental forms predispose to changes in primary sensory processing and cognitive functions, usually with better performances in certain aspects and worse in others, and to heightened creativity. Acquired forms of synesthesia commonly arise from drug ingestion or neurological disorders, including thalamic lesions and sensory deprivation (e.g., blindness). Cerebral exploration using structural and functional imaging has demonstrated distinct patterns in cortical activation and brain connectivity for controls and synesthetes. Artworks of affected painters are most illustrative of the nature of synesthetic experiences. Summary Results of the recent investigations on synesthesia offered a remarkable insight into the mechanisms of perception, emotion and consciousness, and deserve attention both from neuroscientists and from clinicians. PMID:25545055

  5. Insights into kidney diseases from genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Matthias; Köttgen, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have considerably improved our understanding of the genetic basis of kidney function and disease. Population-based studies, used to investigate traits that define chronic kidney disease (CKD), have identified >50 genomic regions in which common genetic variants associate with estimated glomerular filtration rate or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Case-control studies, used to study specific CKD aetiologies, have yielded risk loci for specific kidney diseases such as IgA nephropathy and membranous nephropathy. In this Review, we summarize important findings from GWAS and clinical and experimental follow-up studies. We also compare risk allele frequency, effect sizes, and specificity in GWAS of CKD-defining traits and GWAS of specific CKD aetiologies and the implications for study design. Genomic regions identified in GWAS of CKD-defining traits can contain causal genes for monogenic kidney diseases. Population-based research on kidney function traits can therefore generate insights into more severe forms of kidney diseases. Experimental follow-up studies have begun to identify causal genes and variants, which are potential therapeutic targets, and suggest mechanisms underlying the high allele frequency of causal variants. GWAS are thus a useful approach to advance knowledge in nephrology.

  6. Delivering Insight The History of the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larzelere II, A R

    2007-01-03

    The history of the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) tells of the development of computational simulation into a third fundamental piece of the scientific method, on a par with theory and experiment. ASCI did not invent the idea, nor was it alone in bringing it to fruition. But ASCI provided the wherewithal - hardware, software, environment, funding, and, most of all, the urgency - that made it happen. On October 1, 2005, the Initiative completed its tenth year of funding. The advances made by ASCI over its first decade are truly incredible. Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, and Sandia National Laboratories, along with leadership provided by the Department of Energy's Defense Programs Headquarters, fundamentally changed computational simulation and how it is used to enable scientific insight. To do this, astounding advances were made in simulation applications, computing platforms, and user environments. ASCI dramatically changed existing - and forged new - relationships, both among the Laboratories and with outside partners. By its tenth anniversary, despite daunting challenges, ASCI had accomplished all of the major goals set at its beginning. The history of ASCI is about the vision, leadership, endurance, and partnerships that made these advances possible.

  7. Sex Change in Clownfish: Molecular Insights from Transcriptome Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Casas, Laura

    2016-10-17

    Sequential hermaphroditism is a unique reproductive strategy among teleosts that is displayed mainly in fish species living in the coral reef environment. The reproductive biology of hermaphrodites has long been intriguing; however, very little is known about the molecular pathways underlying their sex change. Here, we provide the first de novo transcriptome analyses of a hermaphrodite teleost´s undergoing sex change in its natural environment. Our study has examined relative gene expression across multiple groups—rather than just two contrasting conditions— and has allowed us to explore the differential expression patterns throughout the whole process. Our analysis has highlighted the rapid and complex genomic response of the brain associated with sex change, which is subsequently transmitted to the gonads, identifying a large number of candidate genes, some well-known and some novel, involved in the process. The present study provides strong evidence of the importance of the sex steroidogenic machinery during sex change in clownfish, with the aromatase gene playing a central role, both in the brain and the gonad. This work constitutes the first genome-wide study in a social sex-changing species and provides insights into the genetic mechanism governing social sex change and gonadal restructuring in protandrous hermaphrodites.

  8. Encouraging Vietnamese Household Recycling Behavior: Insights and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Ninh Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to provide new insights into various determinants affecting household recycling. By focusing on Vietnam, this research also extends knowledge about sustainable behavior in emerging markets, which are the major culprits in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. Hypotheses were developed as a result of the critical review of relevant studies in the fields of marketing, psychology, and economics, and then tested using a quantitative survey data. Structured questionnaires were administered to Vietnamese respondents which yielded 486 usable responses. Multivariate statistics reveal that all the determinants influenced their recycling behavior except for moral norms. Attitude towards the importance of recycling exerted the strongest influence, followed by subjective norms and warm glow respectively. On the other hand, attitude towards the inconvenience of recycling significantly reduced recycling behavior. The research findings have important implications for strategies aimed at promoting recycling behavior. Communication and education programs should emphasize how household recycling contributes to environmental protection, as well as stress intrinsic rewards when recycling. Public media campaigns should feature opinion leaders and attractive communicators, who can effectively apply social pressure to perform recycling behavior. Organizations should also make every effort to make recycling more convenient.

  9. Obesity and cancer: mechanistic insights from transdisciplinary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allott, Emma H; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is associated with a range of health outcomes that are of clinical and public health significance, including cancer. Herein, we summarize epidemiologic and preclinical evidence for an association between obesity and increased risk of breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Moreover, we describe data from observational studies of weight change in humans and from calorie-restriction studies in mouse models that support a potential role for weight loss in counteracting tumor-promoting properties of obesity in breast and prostate cancers. Given that weight loss is challenging to achieve and maintain, we also consider evidence linking treatments for obesity-associated co-morbidities, including metformin, statins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, with reduced breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Finally, we highlight several challenges that should be considered when conducting epidemiologic and preclinical research in the area of obesity and cancer, including the measurement of obesity in population-based studies, the timing of obesity and weight change in relation to tumor latency and cancer diagnosis, and the heterogeneous nature of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Given that obesity is a complex trait, comprised of behavioral, epidemiologic and molecular/metabolic factors, we argue that a transdisciplinary approach is the key to understanding the mechanisms linking obesity and cancer. As such, this review highlights the critical need to integrate evidence from both epidemiologic and preclinical studies to gain insight into both biologic and non-biologic mechanisms contributing to the obesity-cancer link.

  10. Novel insight into mechanisms of cholestatic liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin L Woolbright; Hartmut Jaeschke

    2012-01-01

    Cholestasis results in a buildup of bile acids in serum and in hepatocytes.Early studies into the mechanisms of cholestatic liver injury strongly implicated bile acidinduced apoptosis as the major cause of hepatocellular injury.Recent work has focused both on the role of bile acids in cell signaling as well as the role of sterile inflammation in the pathophysiology.Advances in modern analytical methodology have allowed for more accurate measuring of bile acid concentrations in serum,liver,and bile to very low levels of detection.Interestingly,toxic bile acid levels are seemingly far lower than previously hypothesized.The initial hypothesis has been based largely upon the exposure of μmol/L concentrations of toxic bile acids and bile salts to primary hepatocytes in cell culture,the possibility that in vivo bile acid concentrations may be far lower than the observed in vitro toxicity has far reaching implications in the mechanism of injury.This review will focus on both how different bile acids and different bile acid concentrations can affect hepatocytes during cholestasis,and additionally provide insight into how these data support recent hypotheses that cholestatic liver injury may not occur through direct bile acid-induced apoptosis,but may involve largely inflammatory cell-mediated liver cell necrosis.

  11. Disrupting Ovarian Cancer Metastatic Colonization: Insights from Metastasis Suppressor Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheena Khan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer affects approximately 25,000 women in the United States each year and remains one of the most lethal female malignancies. A standard approach to therapy is surgical cytoreduction, after which the remaining microscopic residual disease is treated with chemotherapy. The vast majority of patients have disease recurrence, underscoring the crucial need for approaches to control the regrowth, or colonization, of tissues after local treatment. Improved therapies require mechanistic information about the process of metastatic colonization, the final step in metastasis, in which cancer cells undergo progressive growth at secondary sites. Studies of metastasis suppressors are providing insights into events controlling metastatic colonization. This paper reviews our laboratory's approach to the identification, characterization, and functional testing of the JNKK1/MKK4 metastasis suppressor in ovarian cancer metastatic colonization. Specifically, we demonstrate that interaction of ovarian caner cells with the omental microenvironment activates JNKK1/MKK4 resulting in decreased proliferation without affecting apoptosis. The potential role of the omental microenvironment, specifically milky spot structures, is also described. It is our goal to provide this work as a usable paradigm that will enable others to study metastasis suppressors in clinical and experimental ovarian cancer metastases.

  12. Inflammation in takotsubo cardiomyopathy: insights from cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eitel, Ingo; Sareban, Mahdi; Schuler, Gerhard; Thiele, Holger [University of Leipzig - Heart Centre, Department of Internal Medicine/Cardiology, Leipzig (Germany); Luecke, Christian; Grothoff, Matthias; Gutberlet, Matthias [University of Leipzig - Heart Centre, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is an increasingly recognised acute cardiac syndrome, whose underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unknown. Inflammation might play a role as this has been shown in endomyocardial biopsies. The aim of this study was to assess inflammatory parameters in patients with TTC using a comprehensive cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) approach. Thirty-seven patients with the suspected diagnosis of TTC underwent CMR. T2-weighted imaging to calculate the oedema ratio, T1-weighted imaging before and after contrast agent administration to calculate the global relative enhancement (gRE), and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging were performed. In 11 patients CMR revealed the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (n = 7; 19%) or myocarditis (n = 4; 11%) with typical patterns of LGE. In all other patients (n = 26; 70%), no LGE was detected consistent with the diagnosis of TTC. Of these, in 16 patients (62%) both inflammatory markers (oedema ratio and gRE) were elevated with concomitant pericardial effusion, indicating acute inflammation. Follow-up CMR after 3 months showed complete normalisation of left ventricular function and inflammatory parameters in the absence of LGE and pericardial effusion. This CMR study provides further insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms in TTC, supporting the contribution of an inflammatory process in the acute setting. (orig.)

  13. An insight into the lignin peroxidase of Macrophomina phaseolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Mohammed Touaha; Habib, Abdul Musaweer; Chowdhury, Dil Umme Salma; Bhuiyan, Md Iqbal Kaiser; Mostafa, Kazi Md Golam; Mondol, Sobuj; Mosleh, Ivan Mhai

    2013-01-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina is one of the deadliest necrotrophic fungal pathogens that infect more than 500 plant species including major food, fiber, and oil crops all throughout the globe. It secretes a cocktail of ligninolytic enzymes along with other hydrolytic enzymes for degrading the woody lignocellulosic plant cell wall and penetrating into the host tissue. Among them, lignin peroxidase has been reported only in Phanerochaete chrysosporium so far. But interestingly, a recent study has revealed a second occurrence of lignin peroxidase in M. phaseolina. However, lignin peroxidases are of much significance biotechnologically because of their potential applications in bio-remedial waste treatment and in catalyzing difficult chemical transformations. Besides, this enzyme also possesses agricultural and environmental importance on account of their role in lignin biodegradation. In the present work, different properties of the lignin peroxidase of M. phaseolina along with predicting the 3-D structure and its active sites were investigated by the use of various computational tools. The data from this study will pave the way for more detailed exploration of this enzyme in wet lab and thereby facilitating the strategies to be designed against such deadly weapons of Macrophomina phaseolina. Furthermore, the insight of such a ligninolytic enzyme will contribute to the assessment of its potentiality as a bioremediation tool.

  14. Insight into Biological Apatite: Physiochemical Properties and Preparation Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological apatite is an inorganic calcium phosphate salt in apatite form and nano size with a biological derivation. It is also the main inorganic component of biological hard tissues such as bones and teeth of vertebrates. Consequently, biological apatite has a wide application in dentistry and orthopedics by using as dental fillers and bone substitutes for bone reconstruction and regeneration. Given this, it is of great significance to obtain a comprehensive understanding of its physiochemical and biological properties. However, upon the previous studies, inconsistent and inadequate data of such basic properties as the morphology, crystal size, chemical compositions, and solubility of biological apatite were reported. This may be ascribed to the differences in the source of raw materials that biological apatite are made from, as well as the effect of the preparation approaches. Hence, this paper is to provide some insights rather than a thorough review of the physiochemical properties as well as the advantages and drawbacks of various preparation methods of biological apatite.

  15. Insights into pre-reversal paleosecular variation from stochastic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peqini, Klaudio; Duka, Bejo; De Santis, Angelo

    2015-09-01

    To provide insights on the paleosecular variation of the geomagnetic field and the mechanism of reversals, long time series of the dipolar magnetic moment are generated by two different stochastic models, known as the “domino” model and the inhomogeneous Lebovitz disk dynamo model, with initial values taken from the from paleomagnetic data. The former model considers mutual interactions of N macrospins embedded in a uniformly rotating medium, where random forcing and dissipation act on each macrospin. With an appropriate set of the model’s parameters values, the series generated by this model have similar statistical behaviour to the time series of the SHA.DIF.14K model. The latter model is an extension of the classical two-disk Rikitake model, considering N dynamo elements with appropriate interactions between them. We varied the parameters set of both models aiming at generating suitable time series with behaviour similar to the long time series of recent secular variation (SV). Such series are then extended to the near future, obtaining reversals in both cases of models. The analysis of the time series generated by simulating the models show that the reversals appears after a persistent period of low intensity geomagnetic field, as it is occurring in the present times.

  16. Insights into the biology of Escherichia coli through structural proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Allan; Jia, Zongchao; Sunita, S; Sivaraman, J; Cygler, Miroslaw

    2007-09-01

    Escherichia coli has historically been an important organism for understanding a multitude of biological processes, and represents a model system as we attempt to simulate the workings of living cells. Many E. coli strains are also important human and animal pathogens for which new therapeutic strategies are required. For both reasons, a more complete and comprehensive understanding of the protein structure complement of E. coli is needed at the genome level. Here, we provide examples of insights into the mechanism and function of bacterial proteins that we have gained through the Bacterial Structural Genomics Initiative (BSGI), focused on medium-throughput structure determination of proteins from E. coli. We describe the structural characterization of several enzymes from the histidine biosynthetic pathway, the structures of three pseudouridine synthases, enzymes that synthesize one of the most abundant modified bases in RNA, as well as the combined use of protein structure and focused functional analysis to decipher functions for hypothetical proteins. Together, these results illustrate the power of structural genomics to contribute to a deeper biological understanding of bacterial processes.

  17. New insights into the mechanisms of the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boison, Detlev

    2017-04-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets have been used for almost a century for the treatment of epilepsy. Used traditionally for the treatment of refractory pediatric epilepsies, in recent years the use of ketogenic diets has experienced a revival to include the treatment of adulthood epilepsies as well as conditions ranging from autism to chronic pain and cancer. Despite the ability of ketogenic diet therapy to suppress seizures refractory to antiepileptic drugs and reports of lasting seizure freedom, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This review explores new insights into mechanisms mobilized by ketogenic diet therapies. Ketogenic diets act through a combination of mechanisms, which are linked to the effects of ketones and glucose restriction, and to interactions with receptors, channels, and metabolic enzymes. Decanoic acid, a component of medium-chain triclycerides, contributes to seizure control through direct α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor inhibition, whereas drugs targeting lactate dehydrogenase reduce seizures through inhibition of a metabolic pathway. Ketogenic diet therapy also affects DNA methylation, a novel epigenetic mechanism of the diet. Ketogenic diet therapy combines several beneficial mechanisms that provide broad benefits for the treatment of epilepsy with the potential to not only suppress seizures but also to modify the course of the epilepsy.

  18. [Functional imaging insights into the pathophysiology of apraxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss-Blankenhorn, P H; Fink, G R

    2008-07-01

    Apraxias are disorders of motor cognition that cannot be explained by basic sensorimotor deficits or aphasia. The relatively high frequency of apraxia (approximately half of all patients with left-hemispheric stroke suffer from apraxia during the acute phase) as well as its prognostic value for determining the outcome of rehabilitative therapy clearly convey the necessity of more comprehensive research into the pathophysiology of apraxia in order to develop new therapeutic strategies. In recent years, functional imaging (PET and fMRI) has helped to provide important new insights into the pathophysiology of ideomotor apraxia (defective movement plan) and ideational apraxia (defective action concept). In this review, the neural bases for the clinically observed dissociations between the imitation of abstract and symbolic movements (as in ideomotor apraxia) and for the object-trigger system (which is disturbed in ideational apraxia) will be exemplified. Furthermore, we will recapitulate recent studies that provide evidence for the complementary functions of the right and left parietal cortices in the spatial and temporal organization of complex, object-related actions. The particular importance of the left parietal cortex for motor cognition is further supported by studies examining the integration of spatial and temporal movement information during the generation of a movement plan as well as by the generation of such movement plans in the left parietal cortex independent from the hand that executes the movement.

  19. Molecular insights into the premature aging disease progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidak, Sandra; Foisner, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is an extremely rare premature aging disease presenting many features resembling the normal aging process. HGPS patients die before the age of 20 years due to cardiovascular problems and heart failure. HGPS is linked to mutations in the LMNA gene encoding the intermediate filament protein lamin A. Lamin A is a major component of the nuclear lamina, a scaffold structure at the nuclear envelope that defines mechanochemical properties of the nucleus and is involved in chromatin organization and epigenetic regulation. Lamin A is also present in the nuclear interior where it fulfills lamina-independent functions in cell signaling and gene regulation. The most common LMNA mutation linked to HGPS leads to mis-splicing of the LMNA mRNA and produces a mutant lamin A protein called progerin that tightly associates with the inner nuclear membrane and affects the dynamic properties of lamins. Progerin expression impairs many important cellular processes providing insight into potential disease mechanisms. These include changes in mechanosignaling, altered chromatin organization and impaired genome stability, and changes in signaling pathways, leading to impaired regulation of adult stem cells, defective extracellular matrix production and premature cell senescence. In this review, we discuss these pathways and their potential contribution to the disease pathologies as well as therapeutic approaches used in preclinical and clinical tests.

  20. New insights into the unfolded protein response in stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanzhou; Cheung, Hoi Hung; Tu, JiaJie; Miu, Kai Kei; Chan, Wai Yee

    2016-08-16

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an evolutionarily conserved adaptive mechanism to increase cell survival under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress conditions. The UPR is critical for maintaining cell homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions. The vital functions of the UPR in development, metabolism and immunity have been demonstrated in several cell types. UPR dysfunction activates a variety of pathologies, including cancer, inflammation, neurodegenerative disease, metabolic disease and immune disease. Stem cells with the special ability to self-renew and differentiate into various somatic cells have been demonstrated to be present in multiple tissues. These cells are involved in development, tissue renewal and certain disease processes. Although the role and regulation of the UPR in somatic cells has been widely reported, the function of the UPR in stem cells is not fully known, and the roles and functions of the UPR are dependent on the stem cell type. Therefore, in this article, the potential significances of the UPR in stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, tissue stem cells, cancer stem cells and induced pluripotent cells, are comprehensively reviewed. This review aims to provide novel insights regarding the mechanisms associated with stem cell differentiation and cancer pathology.

  1. Epigenetic mechanisms in atrial fibrillation: New insights and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hui; Shi, Kai-Hu; Yang, Jing-Jing; Li, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. AF is a complex disease that results from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. In recent years, numerous studies have shown that epigenetic mechanisms significantly participate in AF pathogenesis. Even though a poor understanding of the molecular and electrophysiologic mechanisms of AF, accumulated evidence has suggested that the relevance of epigenetic changes in the development of AF. The aim of this review is to describe the present knowledge about the epigenetic regulatory features significantly participates in AF, and look ahead on new perspectives of epigenetic mechanisms research. Epigenetic regulatory features such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA influence gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms and by directly binding to various factor response elements in the target gene promoters. Given the role of epigenetic alterations in regulating genes, there is potential for the integration of factors-induced epigenetic alterations as informative factors in the risk assessment process. In this review, new insight into the epigenetic mechanisms in AF pathogenesis is discussed, with special emphasis on DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA. Further studies are needed to reveal the potential targets of epigenetic mechanisms, and it can be developed as a therapeutic target for AF.

  2. Understanding resilience in industrial symbiosis networks: insights from network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Shauhrat S; Khanna, Vikas

    2014-08-01

    Industrial symbiotic networks are based on the principles of ecological systems where waste equals food, to develop synergistic networks. For example, industrial symbiosis (IS) at Kalundborg, Denmark, creates an exchange network of waste, water, and energy among companies based on contractual dependency. Since most of the industrial symbiotic networks are based on ad-hoc opportunities rather than strategic planning, gaining insight into disruptive scenarios is pivotal for understanding the balance of resilience and sustainability and developing heuristics for designing resilient IS networks. The present work focuses on understanding resilience as an emergent property of an IS network via a network-based approach with application to the Kalundborg Industrial Symbiosis (KIS). Results from network metrics and simulated disruptive scenarios reveal Asnaes power plant as the most critical node in the system. We also observe a decrease in the vulnerability of nodes and reduction in single points of failure in the system, suggesting an increase in the overall resilience of the KIS system from 1960 to 2010. Based on our findings, we recommend design strategies, such as increasing diversity, redundancy, and multi-functionality to ensure flexibility and plasticity, to develop resilient and sustainable industrial symbiotic networks.

  3. Insights to integrated river management from a geomorphological viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Liu, Da

    2016-04-01

    In the context of increasing magnitude and frequency of extreme hydrologic events, eco-hydraulic engineers have a dual role of providing novel designs that both help stabilise river systems, as well as help effectively route floodwater safely downstream, though the catchment. One of such soft and green measures commonly used in engineering to protect channel banks and floodplains, is riverbank vegetation. Riverbank vegetation can be of high importance both in preserving the form (morphology) and function (ecology) of our natural as well as engineered river systems. Here the results of an experimental flume study, investigating riverbank hydrodynamics are presented. The effect of different riverbank vegetation densities on flow hydrodynamics across the channel are reported and discussed. Flow diagnostics including mean and turbulent intensity flow profiles along the streamwise and lateral directions, are being assessed via acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV) both at the main channel and within the riverbank. The configuration of vegetation elements follows a linear or staggered arrangement as vegetation density is progressively increased. Implications for sediment transport are discussed by considering the change in near-bed shear stresses at the main channel (increasing) and riverbank (decreasing) as the riverbank density increases. As such processes have the potential to affect both the form and function of the river system, the insights from this study are of significant importance to geomorphologists and hydraulic engineers, as well as ecologists.

  4. Encapsulation of probiotics: insights into academic and industrial approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda B Haffner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract play a key role in the maintenance of human health. Over the last century, the changes on the behavior of our modern society have impacted the diversity of this gut microbiome. Among the strategies to restore gut microbial homeostasis, the use of probiotics has received a lot of attention. Probiotics are living microorganisms that promote the host health when administered in adequate amounts. Its popularity increase in the marketplace in the last decade draws the interest of scientists in finding suitable methods capable of delivering adequate amounts of viable cells into the gastrointestinal tract. Encapsulation comes into the scene as an approach to enhance the cells survival during processing, storage and consumption.This paper provides a comprehensive perspective of the probiotic field at present time focusing on the academia and industry scenarios in the past few years in terms of encapsulation technologies employed and research insights including patents. The analysis of the encapsulation technologies considering food processing costs and payload of viable bacteria reaching the gastrointestinal tract would result into successful market novelties. There is yet a necessity to bridge the gap between academia and industry.

  5. Insights into Quasar UV Spectra Using Unsupervised Clustering Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tammour, Aycha; Daley, Mark; Richards, Gordon T

    2016-01-01

    Machine learning can provide powerful tools to detect patterns in multi-dimensional parameter space. We use K-means -a simple yet powerful unsupervised clustering algorithm which picks out structure in unlabeled data- to study a sample of quasar UV spectra from the Quasar Catalog of the 10th Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey of Paris et al. (2014). Detecting patterns in large datasets helps us gain insights into the physical conditions and processes giving rise to the observed properties of quasars. We use K-means to find clusters in the parameter space of the equivalent width (EW), the blue- and red-half-width at half-maximum (HWHM) of the Mg II 2800 A line, the C IV 1549 A line, and the C III] 1908 A blend in samples of Broad Absorption-Line (BAL) and non-BAL quasars at redshift 1.6-2.1. Using this method, we successfully recover correlations well-known in the UV regime such as the anti-correlation between the EW and blueshift of the C IV emission line and the shape of the ionizing Spectra Energy...

  6. Cognitive Architecture with Evolutionary Dynamics Solves Insight Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Anna; Zachar, István; Szilágyi, András; Öllinger, Michael; de Vladar, Harold P.; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we show that a neurally implemented a cognitive architecture with evolutionary dynamics can solve the four-tree problem. Our model, called Darwinian Neurodynamics, assumes that the unconscious mechanism of problem solving during insight tasks is a Darwinian process. It is based on the evolution of patterns that represent candidate solutions to a problem, and are stored and reproduced by a population of attractor networks. In our first experiment, we used human data as a benchmark and showed that the model behaves comparably to humans: it shows an improvement in performance if it is pretrained and primed appropriately, just like human participants in Kershaw et al. (2013)'s experiment. In the second experiment, we further investigated the effects of pretraining and priming in a two-by-two design and found a beginner's luck type of effect: solution rate was highest in the condition that was primed, but not pretrained with patterns relevant for the task. In the third experiment, we showed that deficits in computational capacity and learning abilities decreased the performance of the model, as expected. We conclude that Darwinian Neurodynamics is a promising model of human problem solving that deserves further investigation. PMID:28405191

  7. Children's perspectives on cyberbullying: insights based on participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Niels; de Jong, Menno D T; Drossaert, Constance H C

    2013-04-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging problem among youngsters. Although the current body of knowledge about cyberbullying is expanding rapidly, it lacks a more in-depth research approach honoring adolescents' perspectives on the problem. Moreover, very few studies have focused on cyberbullying among elementary school children. The purpose of this study therefore, was to explore children's perspectives on the problem of cyberbullying. A participatory research design was used in which 28 children (aged 11-12 from four elementary schools) actively participated for 6 weeks in weekly scheduled group sessions. In these sessions, different aspects of cyberbullying were discussed using various enabling techniques. Between sessions, the children were given preparation assignments. The research revealed several ambiguities that should be addressed in interventions against cyberbullying. First, it appears difficult for all parties involved to distinguish cyberbullying from innocent pranks. Frequency and intention are key variables, but these are ambiguous in the context of cyberbullying. Second, cyberbullies may have very different motives, not all of which have to do with their relationship with the victim. Third, the expectations children have of the way their parents or teachers will react to incidents of cyberbullying are an obstacle for seeking help. Children are particularly afraid of overreaction and the subsequent loss of their Internet privileges. These results confirm earlier insights from research on cyberbullying, and examine the ambiguities in more detail. In addition, the research demonstrates the usefulness of participatory research to investigate cyberbullying among younger children and demonstrates that the research led to mutual learning.

  8. Color synesthesia. Insight into perception, emotion, and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Avinoam B; Sanda, Nicolae

    2015-02-01

    Synesthesia is an extraordinary perceptual phenomenon, in which individuals experience unusual percepts elicited by the activation of an unrelated sensory modality or by a cognitive process. Emotional reactions are commonly associated. The condition prompted philosophical debates on the nature of perception and impacted the course of art history. It recently generated a considerable interest among neuroscientists, but its clinical significance apparently remains underevaluated. This review focuses on the recent studies regarding variants of color synesthesia, the commonest form of the condition. Synesthesia is commonly classified as developmental and acquired. Developmental forms predispose to changes in primary sensory processing and cognitive functions, usually with better performances in certain aspects and worse in others, and to heightened creativity. Acquired forms of synesthesia commonly arise from drug ingestion or neurological disorders, including thalamic lesions and sensory deprivation (e.g., blindness). Cerebral exploration using structural and functional imaging has demonstrated distinct patterns in cortical activation and brain connectivity for controls and synesthetes. Artworks of affected painters are most illustrative of the nature of synesthetic experiences. Results of the recent investigations on synesthesia offered a remarkable insight into the mechanisms of perception, emotion and consciousness, and deserve attention both from neuroscientists and from clinicians.

  9. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes G. Wittig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  10. Laboratory Studies of Vibrational Relaxation: Important Insights for Mesospheric OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogerakis, Konstantinos S.; Matsiev, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The hydroxyl radical has a key role in the chemistry and energetics of the Earth's middle atmosphere. A detailed knowledge of the rate constants and relevant pathways for OH(high v) vibrational relaxation by atomic and molecular oxygen and their temperature dependence is absolutely critical for understanding mesospheric OH and extracting reliable chemical heating rates from atmospheric observations. We have developed laser-based experimental approaches to study the complex collisional energy transfer processes involving the OH radical and other relevant atmospheric species. Previous work in our laboratory indicated that the total removal rate constant for OH(v = 9) + O at room temperature is more than one order of magnitude larger than that for removal by O2. Thus, O atoms are expected to significantly influence the intensity and vibrational distribution extracted from the Meinel OH(v) emissions. We will report our most recent laboratory experiments that corroborate the aforementioned result for OH(v = 9) + O and provide important new insights on the mechanistic pathways involved. We will also highlight relevant atmospheric implications, including warranted revisions of current mesospheric OH models. Research supported by SRI International Internal R&D and NSF Aeronomy grant AGS-1441896. Previously supported by NASA Geospace Science grant NNX12AD09G.

  11. Selection of the InSight Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M.; Kipp, D.; Warner, N.; Daubar, I. J.; Fergason, R.; Kirk, R. L.; Beyer, R.; Huertas, A.; Piqueux, S.; Putzig, N. E.; Campbell, B. A.; Morgan, G. A.; Charalambous, C.; Pike, W. T.; Gwinner, K.; Calef, F.; Kass, D.; Mischna, M.; Ashley, J.; Bloom, C.; Wigton, N.; Hare, T.; Schwartz, C.; Gengl, H.; Redmond, L.; Trautman, M.; Sweeney, J.; Grima, C.; Smith, I. B.; Sklyanskiy, E.; Lisano, M.; Benardini, J.; Smrekar, S.; Lognonné, P.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2016-12-01

    The selection of the Discovery Program InSight landing site took over four years from initial identification of possible areas that met engineering constraints, to downselection via targeted data from orbiters (especially Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) and High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images), to selection and certification via sophisticated entry, descent and landing (EDL) simulations. Constraints on elevation ( {≤}{-}2.5 km for sufficient atmosphere to slow the lander), latitude (initially 15°S-5°N and later 3°N-5°N for solar power and thermal management of the spacecraft), ellipse size (130 km by 27 km from ballistic entry and descent), and a load bearing surface without thick deposits of dust, severely limited acceptable areas to western Elysium Planitia. Within this area, 16 prospective ellipses were identified, which lie ˜600 km north of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover. Mapping of terrains in rapidly acquired CTX images identified especially benign smooth terrain and led to the downselection to four northern ellipses. Acquisition of nearly continuous HiRISE, additional Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images, along with radar data confirmed that ellipse E9 met all landing site constraints: with slopes objectives did not directly influence landing site selection.

  12. New insights into the bioactivity of peptides from probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Santi M; Pati, Bikas R; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Franco, Octavio L

    2016-06-01

    Probiotics are unique bacteria that offer several therapeutic benefits to human beings when administered in optimum amounts. Probiotics are able to produce antimicrobial substances, which stimulate the body's immune responses. Here, we review in detail the anti-infective peptides derived from probiotics and their potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities, including a major role in cross-talk between probiotics and gut microbiota under adverse conditions. Insights from the engineered cell surface of probiotics may provide novel anti-infective therapy by heterologous expression of receptor peptides of bacterial toxins. It may be possible to use antigenic peptides from viral pathogens as live vaccines. Another possibility is to generate antiviral peptides that bind directly to virus particles, while some peptides exert anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. Some extracellular polymeric substances might serve as anti-infective peptides. These avenues of treatment have remained largely unexplored to date, despite their potential in generating powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-infective products.

  13. New insights into human nondisjunction of chromosome 21 in oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Renee Oliver

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Nondisjunction of chromosome 21 is the leading cause of Down syndrome. Two risk factors for maternal nondisjunction of chromosome 21 are increased maternal age and altered recombination. In order to provide further insight on mechanisms underlying nondisjunction, we examined the association between these two well established risk factors for chromosome 21 nondisjunction. In our approach, short tandem repeat markers along chromosome 21 were genotyped in DNA collected from individuals with free trisomy 21 and their parents. This information was used to determine the origin of the nondisjunction error and the maternal recombination profile. We analyzed 615 maternal meiosis I and 253 maternal meiosis II cases stratified by maternal age. The examination of meiosis II errors, the first of its type, suggests that the presence of a single exchange within the pericentromeric region of 21q interacts with maternal age-related risk factors. This observation could be explained in two general ways: 1 a pericentromeric exchange initiates or exacerbates the susceptibility to maternal age risk factors or 2 a pericentromeric exchange protects the bivalent against age-related risk factors allowing proper segregation of homologues at meiosis I, but not segregation of sisters at meiosis II. In contrast, analysis of maternal meiosis I errors indicates that a single telomeric exchange imposes the same risk for nondisjunction, irrespective of the age of the oocyte. Our results emphasize the fact that human nondisjunction is a multifactorial trait that must be dissected into its component parts to identify specific associated risk factors.

  14. Refining moral agency: Insights from moral psychology and moral philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, Aimee

    2017-08-11

    Research in moral psychology has recently raised questions about the impact of context and the environment on the way the human mind works. In a 2012 call to action, Paley wrote: "If some of the conclusions arrived at by moral psychologists are true, they are directly relevant to the way nurses think about moral problems, and present serious challenges to favoured concepts in nursing ethics, such as the ethics of care, virtue, and the unity of the person" (p. 80). He urges nurse ethicists and scholars to evaluate the impact these findings may have for moral theory. In this paper, I review some of Paley's (Nursing Philosophy, 13, 2012, 80) critique, focusing on the argument that theories of nursing ethics have failed to account for the role of context; both in terms of its impact on the way nurses make moral judgements and in terms of the environment's influence on the way the mind works. I then examine nursing literature on moral agency, and focus on the role of the environment and context play within existing theory. I argue that theories of moral agency have often accounted for the role of context on the way nurses make decisions; however, less attention has been paid to its impact on the mind. With this background, I use insights from the fields of moral philosophy and moral psychology to refine the conceptualization of nurse moral agency in a way that is reflective of current cognitive, philosophical and nursing practice-based science. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. How Galaxies Become Red: Insights from Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Cen, Renyue

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of more than 3000 galaxies resolved at better than 114pc/h at z=0.62 in a LAOZI cosmological adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamic simulation is performed and insights gained on quenching and color migration. The vast majority of red galaxies are found to be within three virial radii of a larger galaxy, at the onset of quenching. We shall thus call this mechanism ``environment quenching", which encompasses satellite quenching. Two physical processes are largely responsible: ram-pressure stripping first disconnects the galaxy from the cold gas supply on large scales, followed by a longer period of cold gas starvation taking place in high velocity dispersion environment, during the early part of which the existing dense cold gas in the central region (=<10kpc) is consumed by in situ star formation. Quenching is found to be more efficient but not faster, on average, in denser environment. Throughout quenching galaxies follow nearly vertical tracks in the color-stellar-mass diagram. In contrast, in...

  16. Insights from theory and simulation on the electrical double layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Douglas; Boda, Dezso

    2009-05-28

    Despite the fact that our conceptual understanding of the electrical double layer has advanced during the past few decades, the interpretation of experimental and applied work is still largely based on the venerable Poisson-Boltzmann theory of Gouy, Chapman and Stern. This is understandable since this theory is simple and analytic. However, it is not very accurate because the atomic/molecular nature of the ions/solvent and their correlations are ignored. Simulation and some theoretical studies by ourselves and others that have advanced our understanding are discussed. These studies show that the GCS theory predicts a narrow double layer with monotonic profiles. This is not correct. The double layer is wider, and there can be substantial layering that would be even more pronounced if explicit solvent molecules are considered. For many years, experimental studies of the double layer have been directed to the use of electrochemistry as an analytical tool. This is acceptable for analytic chemistry studies. However, the understanding of electrochemical reactions that typically occur at the electrode surface, where simulation and theory indicate that the GCS theory can have substantial errors, requires modern approaches. New, fundamental experimental studies that would lead to deeper insights using more novel systems would be desirable. Further, biophysics is an interesting field. Recent studies of the selectivity of ion channels and of the adsorption of ions in a binding sites of a protein have shown that the linearized GCS theory has substantial errors.

  17. Subduction to Continental Delamination: Insights From Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogus, O. H.; Corbi, F.; Faccenna, C.; Pysklywec, R. N.

    2009-05-01

    The evolution of the lithosphere through subduction-collision and delamination and its surface/crustal response (topography/deformation) is investigated in this work. We present a series of lithosphere scale two dimensional (2-D) and three dimensional (3-D) laboratory experiments to better understand such processes. In these experiments, an idealized viscously deforming crust-mantle lithosphere-mantle system is configured with silicone putty (representing lithospheric mantle and upper crust) and glucose syrup (representing the upper mantle and lower crust). The initial focus was to investigate the physical development of delamination versus continental subduction without plate convergence. Experiments show that the delamination or continental subduction is strongly dependent on the density of the crust (both crust and mantle lithosphere subducts when crust has a higher density, instead of delamination), while in the investigated range, the viscosity of the weak layer does not have much influence on the process. In all the experiments, the topography is asymmetric with subsidence above the delaminating hinge due to the dynamic vertical pulling driven by the delaminating slab, and uplift above the delaminated region due to the buoyancy of asthenosphere. Our investigation on the oceanic subduction with a convergence rate of ~ 3cm/year plate velocity suggests that subduction -collision - delamination is well defined and at the end, the delaminating crust from the lithosphere is overthrusted on top of the overriding plate. Our results provide integrated insights on the Alpine-Himalayan type orogenies, in particular the neotectonic evolution of Eastern Anatolian plateau.

  18. APP physiological and pathophysiological functions:insights from animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinxi Guo; Zilai Wang; Hongmei Li; Mary Wiese; Hui Zheng

    2012-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been under intensive study in recent years,mainly due to its critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD).β-Amyloid (Aβ) peptides generated from APP proteolytic cleavage can aggregate,leading to plaque formation in human AD brains.Point mutations of APP affecting Aβ production are found to be causal for hereditary early onset familial AD.It is very likely that elucidating the physiological properties of APP will greatly facilitate the understanding of its role in AD pathogenesis.A number of APP loss- and gainof-function models have been established in model organisms including Caenorhabditis elegans,Drosophila,zebrafish and mouse.These in vivo models provide us valuable insights into APP physiological functions.In addition,several knock-in mouse models expressing mutant APP at a physiological level are available to allow us to study AD pathogenesis without APP overexpression.This article will review the current physiological and pathophysiological animal models of APP.

  19. Insight into Structural Phase Transitions from Density Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzsinszky, Adrienn

    2014-03-01

    Structural phase transitions caused by high pressure or temperature are very relevant in materials science. The high pressure transitions are essential to understand the interior of planets. Pressure or temperature induced phase transitions can be relevant to understand other phase transitions in strongly correlated systems or molecular crystals.Phase transitions are important also from the aspect of method development. Lower level density functionals, LSDA and GGAs all fail to predict the lattice parameters of different polymorphs and the phase transition parameters at the same time. At this time only nonlocal density functionals like HSE and RPA have been proved to resolve the geometry-energy dilemma to some extent in structural phase transitions. In this talk I will report new results from the MGGA_MS family of meta-GGAs and give an insight why this type of meta-GGAs can give a systematic improvement of the geometry and phase transition parameters together. I will also present results from the RPA and show a possible way to improve beyond RPA.

  20. Insights into pre-reversal paleosecular variation from stochastic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudio ePeqini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To provide insights on the paleosecular variation of the geomagnetic field and the mechanism of reversals, long time series of the dipolar magnetic moment are generated by two different stochastic models, known as the domino model and the inhomogeneous Lebovitz disk dynamo model, with initial values taken from the from paleomagnetic data. The former model considers mutual interactions of N macrospins embedded in a uniformly rotating medium, where random forcing and dissipation act on each macrospin. With an appropriate set of the model’s parameters values, the series generated by this model have similar statistical behaviour to the time series of the SHA.DIF.14K model. The latter model is an extension of the classical two-disk Rikitake model, considering N dynamo elements with appropriate interactions between them.We varied the parameters set of both models aiming at generating suitable time series with behaviour similar to the long time series of recent secular variation (SV. Such series are then extended to the near future, obtaining reversals in both cases of models. The analysis of the time series generated by simulating the models show that the reversals appears after a persistent period of low intensity geomagnetic field, as it is occurring in the present times.

  1. Insights into distinct regulatory modes of nucleosome positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jihua

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nucleosome is the fundamental unit of eukaryotic genomes. Experimental evidence suggests that the genomic DNA sequence and a variety of protein factors contribute to nucleosome positioning in vivo. However, how nucleosome positioning is determined locally is still largely unknown. Results We found that transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs with particular nucleosomal contexts show a preference to reside on specific chromosomes. We identified four typical gene classes associated with distinct regulatory modes of nucleosome positioning, and further showed that they are distinguished by transcriptional regulation patterns. The first mode involves the cooperativity between chromatin remodeling and stable transcription factor (TF-DNA binding that is linked to high intrinsic DNA binding affinities, evicting nucleosomes from favorable DNA sequences. The second is the DNA-encoded low nucleosome occupancy that is associated with high gene activity. The third is through chromatin remodeling and histone acetylation, sliding nucleosomes along DNA. This mode is linked to more cryptic sites for TF binding. The last consists of the nucleosome-enriched organization driven by other factors that overrides nucleosome sequence preferences. In addition, we showed that high polymerase II (Pol II occupancy is associated with high nucleosome occupancy around the transcription start site (TSS. Conclusions We identified four different regulatory modes of nucleosome positioning and gave insights into mechanisms that specify promoter nucleosome location. We suggest two distinct modes of recruitment of Pol II, which are selectively employed by different genes.

  2. Pathogenesis of ligaments ossification in spondyloarthritis: insights and doubts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Anna; Maruotti, Nicola; Corrado, Addolorata; Cantatore, Francesco Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Despite intensive research in spondyloarthritis pathogenesis, some important questions still remain unanswered, particularly concerning enthesis new bone formation. Several evidences suggest that it prevalently occurs by endochondral ossification, however it remains to identify factors that can induce and influence its initiation and progression. Recent progress, achieved in animal models and in vitro and genetic association studies, has led us to hypothesize that several systemic factors (adipokines and gut hormones) and local factors (BMP and Wnt signaling) as well as angiogenesis and mechanical stress are involved. We critically review and summarize the available data and delineate the possible mechanisms involved in enthesis ossification, particularly at spinal ligament level. KEY MESSAGES Complete understanding of spondyloarthritis pathophysiology requires insights into inflammation, bone destruction and bone formation, which are all located in entheses and lead all together to ankylosis and functional disability. Several factors probably play a role in the pathogenesis of bone formation in entheses including not only cytokines but also several systemic factors such as adipokines and gut hormones, and local factors, such as BMP and Wnt signaling, as well as angiogenesis and mechanical stress. Data available about pathophysiology of new bone formation in spondyloarthritis are limited and often conflicting and future studies are needed to better delineate it and to develop new therapeutic approaches.

  3. Insights into neurologic localization by Rhazes, a medieval Islamic physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souayah, Nizar; Greenstein, Jeffrey I

    2005-07-12

    Rhazes was born at Ray near modern Teheran in 864 AD. He wrote over 200 scientific treatises, many of which had a major impact on European medicine. His best known manuscript is Liber Continens, a medical encyclopedia. Herein are described Rhazes's contributions to neurology, focusing on his description of cranial and spinal cord nerves and his clinical case reports, which illustrate his use of neuroanatomy to localize lesions. Relevant passages from facsimiles of the manuscripts Kitab al-Hawi (Liber Continens) and Al-Mansuri Fi At-Tibb (Liber Al Mansoori) were translated, reviewed, and used as references. In addition, Medline, Web, and manuscript searches on Rhazes and the history of medieval and Islamic medicine and neurology were conducted. Rhazes stated that nerves had motor or sensory functions, describing 7 cranial and 31 spinal cord nerves. He assigned a numerical order to the cranial nerves from the optic to the hypoglossal nerves. He classified the spinal nerves into 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 3 sacral, and 3 coccygeal nerves. Rhazes showed an outstanding clinical ability to localize lesions, prognosticate, and describe therapeutic options and reported clinical observations, emphasizing the link between the anatomic location of a lesion and the clinical signs. Rhazes was a pioneer in applied neuroanatomy. He combined a knowledge of cranial and spinal cord nerve anatomy with an insightful use of clinical information to localize lesions in the nervous system.

  4. UV damage of collagen: insights from model collagen peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariashvili, Ketevan; Madhan, Balaraman; Brodsky, Barbara; Kuchava, Ana; Namicheishvili, Louisa; Metreveli, Nunu

    2012-03-01

    Fibrils of Type I collagen in the skin are exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light and there have been claims that collagen photo-degradation leads to wrinkles and may contribute to skin cancers. To understand the effects of UV radiation on collagen, Type I collagen solutions were exposed to the UV-C wavelength of 254 nm for defined lengths of time at 4°C. Circular dichroism (CD) experiments show that irradiation of collagen leads to high loss of triple helical content with a new lower thermal stability peak and SDS-gel electrophoresis indicates breakdown of collagen chains. To better define the effects of UV radiation on the collagen triple-helix, the studies were extended to peptides which model the collagen sequence and conformation. CD studies showed irradiation for days led to lower magnitudes of the triple-helix maximum at 225 nm and lower thermal stabilities for two peptides containing multiple Gly-Pro-Hyp triplets. In contrast, the highest radiation exposure led to little change in the T(m) values of (Gly-Pro-Pro)(10) and (Ala-Hyp-Gly)(10) , although (Gly-Pro-Pro)(10) did show a significant decrease in triple helix intensity. Mass spectroscopy indicated preferential cleavage sites within the peptides, and identification of some of the most susceptible sites of cleavage. The effect of radiation on these well defined peptides gives insight into the sequence and conformational specificity of photo-degradation of collagen.

  5. Magnetic Navigation in Sea Turtles: Insights from Secular Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, N. F.; Lohmann, K.

    2011-12-01

    Sea turtles are iconic migrants that posses a sensitive magnetic-sense that guides their long-distance movements in a variety of contexts. In the first few hours after hatching turtles use the magnetic field to maintain an offshore compass heading to reach deeper water, out of the reach of nearshore predators. Young turtles engage in directed swimming in response to regional magnetic fields that exist along their transoceanic migratory path. Older turtles also use magnetic information to relocate foraging sites and islands used for nesting after displacement. Numerous hypotheses have been put forth to explain how magnetic information functions in these movements, however, there is little consensus among animal navigation researchers. A particular vexing issue is how magnetic navigation can function under the constraints of the constant, gradual shifting of the earth's magnetic field (secular variation). Here, I present a framework based on models of recent geomagnetic secular variation to explore several navigational mechanisms proposed for sea turtles. I show that while examination of secular variation likely falsifies some hypothetical navigational strategies, it provides key insights into the selective pressures that could maintain other navigational mechanisms. Moreover, examination of secular variation's influence on the navigational precision in reproductive migrations of sea turtles offers compelling explanations for the population structure along sea turtle nesting beaches as well as spatiotemporal variation in nesting turtle abundance.

  6. Osteoimmunological Insight in to Vertebral Fractures in Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Saghafi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among circulating levels of OPG, RANKL, cytokine profiles, bone mineral density (BMD and vertebral fractures in pre and postmenopausal women and comparing these find­ing in three groups including osteoporotic patients with and without fracture and healthy women."nMethods: In a cross-sectional study, 215 women who attended the BMD unit of Endocrinology & Metabolism Research Center (EMRC of Tehran University of medical sciences were recruited. Serum Osteoporotegerin and sRANKL were measured. In addition, cytokines profile evaluated. Lumbar radiographs in the antero-posterior and left lateral projections were acquired following a standardized protocol and bone mineral densitometry was performed."nResults: In X-ray study, 65.2% of postmenopausal women and 34.8% of pre menopausal women had at least one vertebral fracture (P= 0.04. Serum OPG and TNFα concentration significantly correlated with age (OPG: P= 0.001, r= 0.22, TNFα: P=0.04, r= 0.15. In logistic regression model, RANKL/OPG ratio independent of age and BMD was predicted vertebral fractures."nConclusion: Osteoimmunological insight in to vertebral fracture indicated that important role of proinflammatory cytokines and RANKL/OPG pathway in bone remodeling.

  7. New insights about host response to smallpox using microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Rodrigo A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smallpox is a lethal disease that was endemic in many parts of the world until eradicated by massive immunization. Due to its lethality, there are serious concerns about its use as a bioweapon. Here we analyze publicly available microarray data to further understand survival of smallpox infected macaques, using systems biology approaches. Our goal is to improve the knowledge about the progression of this disease. Results We used KEGG pathways annotations to define groups of genes (or modules, and subsequently compared them to macaque survival times. This technique provided additional insights about the host response to this disease, such as increased expression of the cytokines and ECM receptors in the individuals with higher survival times. These results could indicate that these gene groups could influence an effective response from the host to smallpox. Conclusion Macaques with higher survival times clearly express some specific pathways previously unidentified using regular gene-by-gene approaches. Our work also shows how third party analysis of public datasets can be important to support new hypotheses to relevant biological problems.

  8. Theoretical Insights from Facile Microsecond Simulation of the Glass Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Hsiang; Patra, Tarak; Simmons, David

    Despite more than half a century of research, the fundamental nature of the glass transition remains one of the major open questions in polymer science and condensed matter physics. Molecular dynamics simulations have provided key insights into this problem, but their ability to firmly establish the underlying nature of glass formation have been limited by the extreme computational difficulty of directly probing the deeply supercooled regime most relevant to this process. Here we describe a new protocol for simulation of the glass transition enabling facile access to in-equilibrium segmental relaxation times approaching and exceeding one microsecond - well into the deeply supercooled regime of most glass-forming liquids. Coupled with a well-validated strategy for extrapolation to experimental timescales, this approach provides vastly improved prediction of experimental glass transition temperatures. Here we combine data acquired through this protocol for the deeply supercooled regime of polymeric, inorganic, organic, and metallic glass formers to robustly test several theories of glass formation and identify microscopic phenomenological features shared across all classes of glass-forming liquid in the deeply supercooled regime. We acknowledge the W. M. Keck Foundation for financial support of this research.

  9. Neural circuit dysfunction in schizophrenia: Insights from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, T

    2016-05-03

    Despite decades of research, the neural circuit abnormalities underlying schizophrenia remain elusive. Although studies on schizophrenia patients have yielded important insights they have not been able to fully reveal the details of how neural circuits are disrupted in the disease, which is essential for understanding its pathophysiology and developing new treatment strategies. Animal models of schizophrenia are likely to play an important role in this effort. Such models allow neural circuit dysfunction to be investigated in detail and the role of risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms to be experimentally assessed. The goal of this review is to summarize what we have learned from electrophysiological studies that have examined neural circuit function in animal models of schizophrenia. Although these studies have revealed diverse manifestations of neural circuit dysfunction spanning multiple levels of analysis, common themes have nevertheless emerged across different studies and animal models, revealing a core set of neural circuit abnormalities. These include an imbalance between excitation and inhibition, deficits in synaptic plasticity, disruptions in local and long-range synchrony and abnormalities in dopaminergic signaling. The relevance of these findings to the pathophysiology of the disease is discussed, as well as outstanding questions for future research.

  10. Friends or foes? Emerging insights from fungal interactions with plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Susanne; Gupta, Vijai K; Dahms, Tanya E S; Silva, Roberto N; Singh, Harikesh B; Upadhyay, Ram S; Gomes, Eriston Vieira; Tsui, Clement Kin-Ming; Nayak S, Chandra

    2016-03-01

    Fungi interact with plants in various ways, with each interaction giving rise to different alterations in both partners. While fungal pathogens have detrimental effects on plant physiology, mutualistic fungi augment host defence responses to pathogens and/or improve plant nutrient uptake. Tropic growth towards plant roots or stomata, mediated by chemical and topographical signals, has been described for several fungi, with evidence of species-specific signals and sensing mechanisms. Fungal partners secrete bioactive molecules such as small peptide effectors, enzymes and secondary metabolites which facilitate colonization and contribute to both symbiotic and pathogenic relationships. There has been tremendous advancement in fungal molecular biology, omics sciences and microscopy in recent years, opening up new possibilities for the identification of key molecular mechanisms in plant-fungal interactions, the power of which is often borne out in their combination. Our fragmentary knowledge on the interactions between plants and fungi must be made whole to understand the potential of fungi in preventing plant diseases, improving plant productivity and understanding ecosystem stability. Here, we review innovative methods and the associated new insights into plant-fungal interactions.

  11. New Insights into the Sedimentary Dynamics along Carbonate Slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Marco; Betzler, Christian; Lindhorst, Sebastian; Lüdmann, Thomas; Eberli, Gregor

    2016-04-01

    Hydroacoustic, sedimentological and seismic data of the leeward slope of Great Bahama Bank and the windward slope of the adjacent Cay Sal Bank provide new insights into carbonate platform slope sedimentation. Our study focuses on the diversity and complexity of the slope morphologies and sedimentary patterns which characterize the youngest high-frequency sequence, forming since the Last Glacial Maximum. It is shown that both carbonate platform slopes are dissected by furrows, gullies and channels which are genetically not related. Along the windward slope of Cay Sal Bank, toe of slope erosion, in conjunction with the local tectonic regime is responsible for channel incisions. Our data show that these channels were active during the regression after the last interglacial highstand of sea level. During this regression, downwelling transported platform sediment downslope, which was redistributed along the slope by contour currents. It is also shown that large mass transport complexes at the leeward slope of Great Bahama Bank formed during the last sea level lowstand, probably triggered by the release of pore-water pressure. These MTC created a complex slope morphology of gullies and scarps. These gullies act as a point source by confining the exported platform sediments during the present day sea level highstand.

  12. Recent insights into the molecular genetics of the homocysteine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Födinger, M; Wagner, O F; Hörl, W H; Sunder-Plassmann, G

    2001-02-01

    The homocysteine plasma level is determined by non-genetic and genetic factors. In recent years evidence has accumulated that the total homocysteine plasma level of patients under different forms of renal replacement therapy is influenced by a common mutation at nucleotide position 677 of the gene coding for 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C-->T). Furthermore, compound heterozygosity for the 677T allele and a novel A-->C polymorphism at nucleotide position 1298 of MTHFR is suggested to correlate with a decrease of folate plasma concentrations. Because polymorphisms of genes coding for proteins involved in the metabolism of homocysteine may contribute to elevated total homocysteine plasma concentrations, molecular genetic analyses of the homocysteine pathways experienced a drift towards screening for candidate genes with a putative relationship to total homocysteine plasma levels. One example is the cloning of the FOLR1 gene coding for the folate-binding protein (Folbp1), which has recently been inactivated in mice, thus representing an elegant model to investigate the consequence on the homocysteine metabolism. Furthermore, the recent characterization of the CUBN gene encoding the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 receptor (cubilin) provides a basis to identify the causative mutations in patients suffering from a hereditary syndrome of hyperhomocysteinemia that presents with megaloblastic anemia and proteinuria. This review focuses on recent insights into the molecular genetics of MTHFR, FOLR1, and CUBN, and their relationships to the metabolism of the amino acid homocysteine.

  13. Insights into structural variations and genome rearrangements in prokaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periwal, Vinita; Scaria, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Structural variations (SVs) are genomic rearrangements that affect fairly large fragments of DNA. Most of the SVs such as inversions, deletions and translocations have been largely studied in context of genetic diseases in eukaryotes. However, recent studies demonstrate that genome rearrangements can also have profound impact on prokaryotic genomes, leading to altered cell phenotype. In contrast to single-nucleotide variations, SVs provide a much deeper insight into organization of bacterial genomes at a much better resolution. SVs can confer change in gene copy number, creation of new genes, altered gene expression and many other functional consequences. High-throughput technologies have now made it possible to explore SVs at a much refined resolution in bacterial genomes. Through this review, we aim to highlight the importance of the less explored field of SVs in prokaryotic genomes and their impact. We also discuss its potential applicability in the emerging fields of synthetic biology and genome engineering where targeted SVs could serve to create sophisticated and accurate genome editing.

  14. Insights into Antimicrobial Peptides from Spiders and Scorpions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuqing; Wang, Guangshun

    2016-01-01

    The venoms of spiders and scorpions contain a variety of chemical compounds. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from these organisms were first discovered in the 1990s. As of May 2015, there were 42 spider's and 63 scorpion's AMPs in the Antimicrobial Peptide Database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP). These peptides have demonstrated broad or narrow-spectrum activities against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. In addition, they can be toxic to cancer cells, insects and erythrocytes. To provide insight into such an activity spectrum, this article discusses the discovery, classification, structure and activity relationships, bioinformatics analysis, and potential applications of spider and scorpion AMPs. Our analysis reveals that, in the case of linear peptides, spiders use both glycine-rich and helical peptide models for defense, whereas scorpions use two distinct helical peptide models with different amino acid compositions to exert the observed antimicrobial activities and hemolytic toxicity. Our structural bioinformatics study improves the knowledge in the field and can be used to design more selective peptides to combat tumors, parasites, and viruses.

  15. Marsupial Genome Sequences: Providing Insight into Evolution and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine E. Deakin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marsupials (metatherians, with their position in vertebrate phylogeny and their unique biological features, have been studied for many years by a dedicated group of researchers, but it has only been since the sequencing of the first marsupial genome that their value has been more widely recognised. We now have genome sequences for three distantly related marsupial species (the grey short-tailed opossum, the tammar wallaby, and Tasmanian devil, with the promise of many more genomes to be sequenced in the near future, making this a particularly exciting time in marsupial genomics. The emergence of a transmissible cancer, which is obliterating the Tasmanian devil population, has increased the importance of obtaining and analysing marsupial genome sequence for understanding such diseases as well as for conservation efforts. In addition, these genome sequences have facilitated studies aimed at answering questions regarding gene and genome evolution and provided insight into the evolution of epigenetic mechanisms. Here I highlight the major advances in our understanding of evolution and disease, facilitated by marsupial genome projects, and speculate on the future contributions to be made by such sequences.

  16. Structural Insights into Bacillus thuringiensis Cry, Cyt and Parasporin Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengchen; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Yu, Ziniu; Sun, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Since the first X-ray structure of Cry3Aa was revealed in 1991, numerous structures of B. thuringiensis toxins have been determined and published. In recent years, functional studies on the mode of action and resistance mechanism have been proposed, which notably promoted the developments of biological insecticides and insect-resistant transgenic crops. With the exploration of known pore-forming toxins (PFTs) structures, similarities between PFTs and B. thuringiensis toxins have provided great insights into receptor binding interactions and conformational changes from water-soluble to membrane pore-forming state of B. thuringiensis toxins. This review mainly focuses on the latest discoveries of the toxin working mechanism, with the emphasis on structural related progress. Based on the structural features, B. thuringiensis Cry, Cyt and parasporin toxins could be divided into three categories: three-domain type α-PFTs, Cyt toxin type β-PFTs and aerolysin type β-PFTs. Structures from each group are elucidated and discussed in relation to the latest data, respectively. PMID:25229189

  17. Insights Gained From 4 Years of EOSDIS User Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, J.; Boquist, C. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Earth Observation System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a large, complex data system currently supporting over 18 operational NASA satellite missions including the flagship EOS missions: Terra, Aqua, and Aura. A critical underpinning for management of EOSDIS is developing a thorough knowledge of the EOSDIS user community and how they use the EOSDIS products in their research. It is important to know whether the system is meeting the users' needs and expectations. Thus, in 2004 NASA commissioned a comprehensive survey to determine user satisfaction using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) approach. NASA has continued to survey users yearly since. Users continue to rate EOSDIS systems and services highly as the EOSDIS ACSI score has outperformed both the averages for U.S. companies and for Federal Agencies. In addition, users' comments have provided valuable insight into the effect of data center processes on users' experiences. Although their satisfaction has remained high, their preferences have changed with the rapid advances in web-based services. We now have four years of data on user satisfaction from these surveys. The results of each survey highlight areas that, if improved, could lead to increased user satisfaction, including overall product quality, product documentation, and product selection and ordering processes. This paper will present the survey results and how they compare from year to year.

  18. When teams shift among processes: insights from simulation and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Deanna M; McComb, Sara A

    2014-09-01

    This article introduces process shifts to study the temporal interplay among transition and action processes espoused in the recurring phase model proposed by Marks, Mathieu, and Zacarro (2001). Process shifts are those points in time when teams complete a focal process and change to another process. By using team communication patterns to measure process shifts, this research explores (a) when teams shift among different transition processes and initiate action processes and (b) the potential of different interventions, such as communication directives, to manipulate process shift timing and order and, ultimately, team performance. Virtual experiments are employed to compare data from observed laboratory teams not receiving interventions, simulated teams receiving interventions, and optimal simulated teams generated using genetic algorithm procedures. Our results offer insights about the potential for different interventions to affect team performance. Moreover, certain interventions may promote discussions about key issues (e.g., tactical strategies) and facilitate shifting among transition processes in a manner that emulates optimal simulated teams' communication patterns. Thus, we contribute to theory regarding team processes in 2 important ways. First, we present process shifts as a way to explore the timing of when teams shift from transition to action processes. Second, we use virtual experimentation to identify those interventions with the greatest potential to affect performance by changing when teams shift among processes. Additionally, we employ computational methods including neural networks, simulation, and optimization, thereby demonstrating their applicability in conducting team research.

  19. The dynamics of development and evolution: insights from behavioral embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickliter, Robert

    2007-12-01

    The perspective that features of species-typical behavior could be traced to experience that occurred prenatally was raised by Zing-Yang Kuo [1921 Journal of Philosophy 18: 645-664] early in the last century and Gilbert Gottlieb subsequently elaborated on and provided empirical support for this idea over the course of more than four decades of innovative psychobiological research. Although we are still a long way from fully understanding the specific pathways and processes by which prenatal experience can influence postnatal development, Gottlieb's research with precocial birds provided significant insights into the conditions and experiences of prenatal development involved in the achievement of species-typical perception and behavior. In particular, his elegant series of studies on the development of species identification in ducklings documented how the features and patterns of recurring prenatal sensory experience (including self-stimulation) guide and constrain the young individual's selective attention, perception, learning, and memory during both prenatal and postnatal periods. I review how this body of research supports the view that the structure and functions of the developing organism and its developmental ecology together form a relationship of mutual influence on the emergence, maintenance, and transformation of species-typical behavior. I also explore how Gottlieb's empirical demonstrations of the prenatal roots of so-called "instinctive" behavior provided a foundation for his conceptual efforts to define the links between developmental and evolutionary change.

  20. "Caring for insiderness": phenomenologically informed insights that can guide practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todres, Les; Galvin, Kathleen T; Dahlberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the "insider" perspective has been a pivotal strength of qualitative research. Further than this, within the more applied fields in which the human activity of "caring" takes place, such understanding of "what it is like" for people from within their lifeworlds has also been acknowledged as the foundational starting point in order for "care" to be caring. But we believe that more attention needs to be paid to this foundational generic phenomenon: what it means to understand the "insiderness" of another, but more importantly, how to act on this in caring ways. We call this human phenomenon "caring for insiderness." Drawing on existing phenomenological studies of marginal caring situations at the limits of caring capability, and through a process of phenomenologically oriented reflection, we interrogated some existential themes implicit in these publications that could lead to deeper insights for both theoretical and applied purposes. The paper provides direction for practices of caring by highlighting some dangers as well as some remedies along this path.

  1. Entomopathogenic Fungi: New Insights into Host-Pathogen Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, T M; Coates, C J; Dubovskiy, I M; Ratcliffe, N A

    2016-01-01

    Although many insects successfully live in dangerous environments exposed to diverse communities of microbes, they are often exploited and killed by specialist pathogens. Studies of host-pathogen interactions (HPI) provide valuable insights into the dynamics of the highly aggressive coevolutionary arms race between entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) and their arthropod hosts. The host defenses are designed to exclude the pathogen or mitigate the damage inflicted while the pathogen responds with immune evasion and utilization of host resources. EPF neutralize their immediate surroundings on the insect integument and benefit from the physiochemical properties of the cuticle and its compounds that exclude competing microbes. EPF also exhibit adaptations aimed at minimizing trauma that can be deleterious to both host and pathogen (eg, melanization of hemolymph), form narrow penetration pegs that alleviate host dehydration and produce blastospores that lack immunogenic sugars/enzymes but facilitate rapid assimilation of hemolymph nutrients. In response, insects deploy an extensive armory of hemocytes and macromolecules, such as lectins and phenoloxidase, that repel, immobilize, and kill EPF. New evidence suggests that immune bioactives work synergistically (eg, lysozyme with antimicrobial peptides) to combat infections. Some proteins, including transferrin and apolipophorin III, also demonstrate multifunctional properties, participating in metabolism, homeostasis, and pathogen recognition. This review discusses the molecular intricacies of these HPI, highlighting the interplay between immunity, stress management, and metabolism. Increased knowledge in this area could enhance the efficacy of EPF, ensuring their future in integrated pest management programs.

  2. Genomic and Epigenomic Insights into Nutrition and Brain Disorders

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    Margaret Joy Dauncey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence links many neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders with multiple complex interactions between genetics and environmental factors such as nutrition. Mental health problems, autism, eating disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and brain tumours are related to individual variability in numerous protein-coding and non-coding regions of the genome. However, genotype does not necessarily determine neurological phenotype because the epigenome modulates gene expression in response to endogenous and exogenous regulators, throughout the life-cycle. Studies using both genome-wide analysis of multiple genes and comprehensive analysis of specific genes are providing new insights into genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying nutrition and neuroscience. This review provides a critical evaluation of the following related areas: (1 recent advances in genomic and epigenomic technologies, and their relevance to brain disorders; (2 the emerging role of non-coding RNAs as key regulators of transcription, epigenetic processes and gene silencing; (3 novel approaches to nutrition, epigenetics and neuroscience; (4 gene-environment interactions, especially in the serotonergic system, as a paradigm of the multiple signalling pathways affected in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. Current and future advances in these four areas should contribute significantly to the prevention, amelioration and treatment of multiple devastating brain disorders.

  3. Insights from the sea: structural biology of marine polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akey, David L; Gehret, Jennifer J; Khare, Dheeraj; Smith, Janet L

    2012-10-01

    The world's oceans are a rich source of natural products with extremely interesting chemistry. Biosynthetic pathways have been worked out for a few, and the story is being enriched with crystal structures of interesting pathway enzymes. By far, the greatest number of structural insights from marine biosynthetic pathways has originated with studies of curacin A, a poster child for interesting marine chemistry with its cyclopropane and thiazoline rings, internal cis double bond, and terminal alkene. Using the curacin A pathway as a model, structural details are now available for a novel loading enzyme with remarkable dual decarboxylase and acetyltransferase activities, an Fe(2+)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent halogenase that dictates substrate binding order through conformational changes, a decarboxylase that establishes regiochemistry for cyclopropane formation, and a thioesterase with specificity for β-sulfated substrates that lead to terminal alkene offloading. The four curacin A pathway dehydratases reveal an intrinsic flexibility that may accommodate bulky or stiff polyketide intermediates. In the salinosporamide A pathway, active site volume determines the halide specificity of a halogenase that catalyzes for the synthesis of a halogenated building block. Structures of a number of putative polyketide cyclases may help in understanding reaction mechanisms and substrate specificities although their substrates are presently unknown.

  4. Stents: Biomechanics, Biomaterials, and Insights from Computational Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanasiou, Georgia S; Papafaklis, Michail I; Conway, Claire; Michalis, Lampros K; Tzafriri, Rami; Edelman, Elazer R; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2017-04-01

    Coronary stents have revolutionized the treatment of coronary artery disease. Improvement in clinical outcomes requires detailed evaluation of the performance of stent biomechanics and the effectiveness as well as safety of biomaterials aiming at optimization of endovascular devices. Stents need to harmonize the hemodynamic environment and promote beneficial vessel healing processes with decreased thrombogenicity. Stent design variables and expansion properties are critical for vessel scaffolding. Drug-elution from stents, can help inhibit in-stent restenosis, but adds further complexity as drug release kinetics and coating formulations can dominate tissue responses. Biodegradable and bioabsorbable stents go one step further providing complete absorption over time governed by corrosion and erosion mechanisms. The advances in computing power and computational methods have enabled the application of numerical simulations and the in silico evaluation of the performance of stent devices made up of complex alloys and bioerodible materials in a range of dimensions and designs and with the capacity to retain and elute bioactive agents. This review presents the current knowledge on stent biomechanics, stent fatigue as well as drug release and mechanisms governing biodegradability focusing on the insights from computational modeling approaches.

  5. Thermodynamic insights into 2-thiouridine-enhanced RNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Aaron T; Fahrenbach, Albert C; Sheng, Jia; Pian, Julia; Szostak, Jack W

    2015-09-18

    Nucleobase modifications dramatically alter nucleic acid structure and thermodynamics. 2-thiouridine (s(2)U) is a modified nucleobase found in tRNAs and known to stabilize U:A base pairs and destabilize U:G wobble pairs. The recently reported crystal structures of s(2)U-containing RNA duplexes do not entirely explain the mechanisms responsible for the stabilizing effect of s(2)U or whether this effect is entropic or enthalpic in origin. We present here thermodynamic evaluations of duplex formation using ITC and UV thermal denaturation with RNA duplexes containing internal s(2)U:A and s(2)U:U pairs and their native counterparts. These results indicate that s(2)U stabilizes both duplexes. The stabilizing effect is entropic in origin and likely results from the s(2)U-induced preorganization of the single-stranded RNA prior to hybridization. The same preorganizing effect is likely responsible for structurally resolving the s(2)U:U pair-containing duplex into a single conformation with a well-defined H-bond geometry. We also evaluate the effect of s(2)U on single strand conformation using UV- and CD-monitored thermal denaturation and on nucleoside conformation using (1)H NMR spectroscopy, MD and umbrella sampling. These results provide insights into the effects that nucleobase modification has on RNA structure and thermodynamics and inform efforts toward improving both ribozyme-catalyzed and nonenzymatic RNA copying.

  6. Uncovering the etiology of conversion disorder: insights from functional neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejareh dar, Maryam; Kanaan, Richard AA

    2016-01-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a syndrome of neurological symptoms arising without organic cause, arguably in response to emotional stress, but the exact neural substrates of these symptoms and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood with the hunt for a biological basis afoot for centuries. In the past 15 years, novel insights have been gained with the advent of functional neuroimaging studies in patients suffering from CDs in both motor and nonmotor domains. This review summarizes recent functional neuroimaging studies including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) to see whether they bring us closer to understanding the etiology of CD. Convergent functional neuroimaging findings suggest alterations in brain circuits that could point to different mechanisms for manifesting functional neurological symptoms, in contrast with feigning or healthy controls. Abnormalities in emotion processing and in emotion-motor processing suggest a diathesis, while differential reactions to certain stressors implicate a specific response to trauma. No comprehensive theory emerges from these clues, and all results remain preliminary, but functional neuroimaging has at least given grounds for hope that a model for CD may soon be found. PMID:26834476

  7. Structural Insights into Bacillus thuringiensis Cry, Cyt and Parasporin Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengchen Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the first X-ray structure of Cry3Aa was revealed in 1991, numerous structures of B. thuringiensis toxins have been determined and published. In recent years, functional studies on the mode of action and resistance mechanism have been proposed, which notably promoted the developments of biological insecticides and insect-resistant transgenic crops. With the exploration of known pore-forming toxins (PFTs structures, similarities between PFTs and B. thuringiensis toxins have provided great insights into receptor binding interactions and conformational changes from water-soluble to membrane pore-forming state of B. thuringiensis toxins. This review mainly focuses on the latest discoveries of the toxin working mechanism, with the emphasis on structural related progress. Based on the structural features, B. thuringiensis Cry, Cyt and parasporin toxins could be divided into three categories: three-domain type α-PFTs, Cyt toxin type β-PFTs and aerolysin type β-PFTs. Structures from each group are elucidated and discussed in relation to the latest data, respectively.

  8. Structural insights into Bacillus thuringiensis Cry, Cyt and parasporin toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengchen; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Yu, Ziniu; Sun, Ming

    2014-09-16

    Since the first X-ray structure of Cry3Aa was revealed in 1991, numerous structures of B. thuringiensis toxins have been determined and published. In recent years, functional studies on the mode of action and resistance mechanism have been proposed, which notably promoted the developments of biological insecticides and insect-resistant transgenic crops. With the exploration of known pore-forming toxins (PFTs) structures, similarities between PFTs and B. thuringiensis toxins have provided great insights into receptor binding interactions and conformational changes from water-soluble to membrane pore-forming state of B. thuringiensis toxins. This review mainly focuses on the latest discoveries of the toxin working mechanism, with the emphasis on structural related progress. Based on the structural features, B. thuringiensis Cry, Cyt and parasporin toxins could be divided into three categories: three-domain type α-PFTs, Cyt toxin type β-PFTs and aerolysin type β-PFTs. Structures from each group are elucidated and discussed in relation to the latest data, respectively.

  9. Theoretical insights into catalytic mechanism of protein arginine methyltransferase 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihan Zhang

    Full Text Available Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1, the major arginine asymmetric dimethylation enzyme in mammals, is emerging as a potential drug target for cancer and cardiovascular disease. Understanding the catalytic mechanism of PRMT1 will facilitate inhibitor design. However, detailed mechanisms of the methyl transfer process and substrate deprotonation of PRMT1 remain unclear. In this study, we present a theoretical study on PRMT1 catalyzed arginine dimethylation by employing molecular dynamics (MD simulation and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM calculation. Ternary complex models, composed of PRMT1, peptide substrate, and S-adenosyl-methionine (AdoMet as cofactor, were constructed and verified by 30-ns MD simulation. The snapshots selected from the MD trajectory were applied for the QM/MM calculation. The typical SN2-favored transition states of the first and second methyl transfers were identified from the potential energy profile. Deprotonation of substrate arginine occurs immediately after methyl transfer, and the carboxylate group of E144 acts as proton acceptor. Furthermore, natural bond orbital analysis and electrostatic potential calculation showed that E144 facilitates the charge redistribution during the reaction and reduces the energy barrier. In this study, we propose the detailed mechanism of PRMT1-catalyzed asymmetric dimethylation, which increases insight on the small-molecule effectors design, and enables further investigations into the physiological function of this family.

  10. Energizing the light harvesting antenna: Insight from CP29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Nikolaos E; Papadatos, Sotiris; Daskalakis, Vangelis

    2016-10-01

    How do plants cope with excess light energy? Crop health and stress tolerance are governed by molecular photoprotective mechanisms. Protective exciton quenching in plants is activated by membrane energization, via unclear conformational changes in proteins called antennas. Here we show that pH and salt gradients stimulate the response of such an antenna under low and high energization by all-atom Molecular Dynamics Simulations. Novel insight establishes that helix-5 (H5) conformation in CP29 from spinach is regulated by chemiosmotic factors. This is selectively correlated with the chl-614 macrocycle deformation and interactions with nearby pigments, that could suggest a role in plant photoprotection. Adding to the significance of our findings, H5 domain is conserved among five antennas (LHCB1-5). These results suggest that light harvesting complexes of Photosystem II, one of the most abundant proteins on earth, can sense chemiosmotic gradients via their H5 domains in an upgraded role from a solar detector to also a chemiosmotic sensor.

  11. The complex jujube genome provides insights into fruit tree biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Jun; Zhao, Jin; Cai, Qing-Le; Liu, Guo-Cheng; Wang, Jiu-Rui; Zhao, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Ping; Dai, Li; Yan, Guijun; Wang, Wen-Jiang; Li, Xian-Song; Chen, Yan; Sun, Yu-Dong; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Lin, Min-Juan; Xiao, Jing; Chen, Ying-Ying; Li, Xiao-Feng; Wu, Bin; Ma, Yong; Jian, Jian-Bo; Yang, Wei; Yuan, Zan; Sun, Xue-Chao; Wei, Yan-Li; Yu, Li-Li; Zhang, Chi; Liao, Sheng-Guang; He, Rong-Jun; Guang, Xuan-Min; Wang, Zhuo; Zhang, Yue-Yang; Luo, Long-Hai

    2014-10-28

    The jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), a member of family Rhamnaceae, is a major dry fruit and a traditional herbal medicine for more than one billion people. Here we present a high-quality sequence for the complex jujube genome, the first genome sequence of Rhamnaceae, using an integrated strategy. The final assembly spans 437.65 Mb (98.6% of the estimated) with 321.45 Mb anchored to the 12 pseudo-chromosomes and contains 32,808 genes. The jujube genome has undergone frequent inter-chromosome fusions and segmental duplications, but no recent whole-genome duplication. Further analyses of the jujube-specific genes and transcriptome data from 15 tissues reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying some specific properties of the jujube. Its high vitamin C content can be attributed to a unique high level expression of genes involved in both biosynthesis and regeneration. Our study provides insights into jujube-specific biology and valuable genomic resources for the improvement of Rhamnaceae plants and other fruit trees.

  12. Extracellular potassium homeostasis: insights from hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Jen; Kuo, Elizabeth; Huang, Chou-Long

    2013-05-01

    Extracellular potassium makes up only about 2% of the total body's potassium store. The majority of the body potassium is distributed in the intracellular space, of which about 80% is in skeletal muscle. Movement of potassium in and out of skeletal muscle thus plays a pivotal role in extracellular potassium homeostasis. The exchange of potassium between the extracellular space and skeletal muscle is mediated by specific membrane transporters. These include potassium uptake by Na(+), K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase and release by inward-rectifier K(+) channels. These processes are regulated by circulating hormones, peptides, ions, and by physical activity of muscle as well as dietary potassium intake. Pharmaceutical agents, poisons, and disease conditions also affect the exchange and alter extracellular potassium concentration. Here, we review extracellular potassium homeostasis, focusing on factors and conditions that influence the balance of potassium movement in skeletal muscle. Recent findings that mutations of a skeletal muscle-specific inward-rectifier K(+) channel cause hypokalemic periodic paralysis provide interesting insights into the role of skeletal muscle in extracellular potassium homeostasis. These recent findings are reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Kohlberg's theory of moral development: insights into rights reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peens, B J; Louw, D A

    2000-01-01

    Kohlberg's theory of moral development was based on extensive research done on the reactions of people of all ages to specific moral situational dilemmas. Kohlberg was specifically interested in reasoning processes involved in decision-making. The way in which children perceive their rights is also based on reasoning processes that are inextricably linked to their level of development and more specifically to their level of moral development since the area of human rights can be considered essentially moral. Since Kohlberg's theory is primarily concerned with development, a great deal of insight can be gained into the developmental shift that occurs in children's reasoning about the rights to which they feel they should be entitled. This article focuses on Kohlberg's six-stage theory, specifically as it pertains to reasoning processes similar to those that would be used in rights reasoning. At each stage the authors propose a potential view of how children at each developmental stage might perceive their rights based on the description Kohlberg gives of the developmental trends associated with each stage. A critical assessment of Kohlberg's work is also given in order to highlight certain considerations about the limitations of this theory that need to be considered for future research.

  14. Molecular asymmetry in extraterrestrial chemistry: Insights from a pristine meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, Sandra; Huang, Yongsong; Alexandre, Marcelo R.

    2008-01-01

    The nonracemic amino acids of meteorites provide the only natural example of molecular asymmetry measured so far outside the biosphere. Because extant life depends on chiral homogeneity for the structure and function of biopolymers, the study of these meteoritic compounds may offer insights into the establishment of prebiotic attributes in chemical evolution as well as the origin of terrestrial homochirality. However, all efforts to understand the origin, distribution, and scope of these amino acids' enantiomeric excesses (ee) have been frustrated by the ready exposure of meteorites to terrestrial contaminants and the ubiquitous homochirality of such contamination. We have analyzed the soluble organic composition of a carbonaceous meteorite from Antarctica that was collected and stored under controlled conditions, largely escaped terrestrial contamination and offers an exceptionally pristine sample of prebiotic material. Analyses of the meteorite diastereomeric amino acids alloisoleucine and isoleucine allowed us to show that their likely precursor molecules, the aldehydes, also carried a sizable molecular asymmetry of up to 14% in the asteroidal parent body. Aldehydes are widespread and abundant interstellar molecules; that they came to be present, survived, and evolved in the solar system carrying ee gives support to the idea that biomolecular traits such as chiral asymmetry could have been seeded in abiotic chemistry ahead of life. PMID:18310323

  15. Small teleost fish provide new insights into human skeletal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, P E; Harris, M P; Huysseune, A; Winkler, C

    2017-01-01

    Small teleost fish such as zebrafish and medaka are increasingly studied as models for human skeletal diseases. Efficient new genome editing tools combined with advances in the analysis of skeletal phenotypes provide new insights into fundamental processes of skeletal development. The skeleton among vertebrates is a highly conserved organ system, but teleost fish and mammals have evolved unique traits or have lost particular skeletal elements in each lineage. Several unique features of the skeleton relate to the extremely small size of early fish embryos and the small size of adult fish used as models. A detailed analysis of the plethora of interesting skeletal phenotypes in zebrafish and medaka pushes available skeletal imaging techniques to their respective limits and promotes the development of new imaging techniques. Impressive numbers of zebrafish and medaka mutants with interesting skeletal phenotypes have been characterized, complemented by transgenic zebrafish and medaka lines. The advent of efficient genome editing tools, such as TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9, allows to introduce targeted deficiencies in genes of model teleosts to generate skeletal phenotypes that resemble human skeletal diseases. This review will also discuss other attractive aspects of the teleost skeleton. This includes the capacity for lifelong tooth replacement and for the regeneration of dermal skeletal elements, such as scales and fin rays, which further increases the value of zebrafish and medaka models for skeletal research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Emergence of Secular Insight Practice in Australia

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    David Bubna-Litic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years insight (vipassana practice in Australia has diversified in content and spawned new institutions that present a more secular face. These changes exemplify the development of global Buddhism elsewhere rather than some local, sui generis divergence from international trends. Nonetheless, the unusual prominence of Buddhist migrants in the Australian population has influenced the interaction between “traditional” and “western” Buddhists, and thus the emergence of the new trends. In interpreting the transformations in question, we make heuristic use both of Martin Baumann’s periodization of Buddhist history, with its characterization of the present stage as global, and Stephen Batchelor’s distinction between “religious Buddhism” and “dharma practice.” The Australian experience highlights the value of the earlier interaction between migrant and locally-born Buddhists, and the formative effect their later separation has on lay practice. This experience also points to the salience of forms of association when secular Buddhist practice melds with the Western values of inclusiveness and equality, not least in gender relations.

  17. From big data to deep insight in developmental science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The use of the term ‘big data’ has grown substantially over the past several decades and is now widespread. In this review, I ask what makes data ‘big’ and what implications the size, density, or complexity of datasets have for the science of human development. A survey of existing datasets illustrates how existing large, complex, multilevel, and multimeasure data can reveal the complexities of developmental processes. At the same time, significant technical, policy, ethics, transparency, cultural, and conceptual issues associated with the use of big data must be addressed. Most big developmental science data are currently hard to find and cumbersome to access, the field lacks a culture of data sharing, and there is no consensus about who owns or should control research data. But, these barriers are dissolving. Developmental researchers are finding new ways to collect, manage, store, share, and enable others to reuse data. This promises a future in which big data can lead to deeper insights about some of the most profound questions in behavioral science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:112–126. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1379 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26805777

  18. Theoretical Insights for Developing the Concept of Social Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skaržauskaitė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—Social technologies continue to grow in popularity in society. Even though the term “social technology” is most commonly used to refer to new social media such as Twitter and Facebook, a redefinition of this concept based on the original definition is needed. Nowadays the concept of “social technology” has several aspects, which destabilize the dominant image of technology. It emphasizes the social sciences and the humanities as shapers of society, reconsiders the strength of “soft technologies.” The aim of this paper is to provide rich insight into the concept of social technologies’ and to develop the meaning of social technologies in information and knowledge society by analysing new needs and application forms of social technologies.Findings—the research contributed to the understanding of the concept of social technologies. Based on the analysis and synthesis of the scientific literature, a theoretical framework for defining social technologies was developed.Research limitations/implications—the research is limited in a few aspects. For a deeper understanding of social technologies and for developing technological perspectives in social sciences a broader theoretical, as well as empirical, research is necessary. In order to generalise the research findings, further research should include different dimensions from the perspective of other sciences.

  19. Liver transplantation for cholangiocarcinoma:Current status and new insights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Sapisochín; Elena; Fernández; de; Sevilla; Juan; Echeverri; Ramón; Charco

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant tumor of the biliary system that can be classified into intrahepatic(i CCA),perihiliar(ph CCA) and distal. Initial experiences with orthotopic liver transplantation(OLT) for patientswith i CCA and ph CCA had very poor results and this treatment strategy was abandoned. In the last decade,thanks to a strict selection process and a neoadjuvant chemoradiation protocol,the results of OLT for patients with non-resectable phC CA have been shown to be excellent and this strategy has been extended worldwide in selected transplant centers. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is a growing disease in most countries and can be diagnosed both in cirrhotic and in non-cirrhotic livers. Even though OLT is contraindicated in most centers,recent investigations analyzing patients that were transplanted with a misdiagnosis of HCC and were found to have an iC CA have shown encouraging results. There is some information suggesting that patients with early stages of the disease could benefit from OLT. In this review we analyze the current stateof-the-art of OLT for cholangiocarcinoma as well as the new insights and future perspectives.

  20. New insights into the pathophysiology of post-stroke spasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng eLi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spasticity is one of many consequences after stroke. It is characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in resistance during passive stretch, resulting from hyperexcitability of the stretch reflex. The underlying mechanism of the hyperexcitable stretch reflex, however, remains poorly understood. Accumulated experimental evidence has supported supraspinal origins of spasticity, likely from an imbalance between descending inhibitory and facilitatory regulation of spinal stretch reflexes secondary to cortical disinhibition after stroke. The excitability of reticulospinal and vestibulospinal tracts has been assessed in stroke survivors with spasticity using non-invasive indirect measures. There are strong experimental findings that support the reticulospinal hyperexcitability as a prominent underlying mechanism of post-stroke spasticity. This mechanism can at least partly account for clinical features associated with spasticity and provide insightful guidance for clinical assessment and management of spasticity. However, the possible role of VST hyperexcitability can not be ruled out from indirect measures. In vivo measure of individual brainstem nuclei in stroke survivors with spasticity using advanced fMRI techniques in the future is probably able to provide direct evidence of pathogenesis of post-stroke spasticity.