WorldWideScience

Sample records for pickup trucks

  1. Naturalistic drive cycle synthesis for pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zifan; Ivanco, Andrej; Filipi, Zoran

    2015-09-01

    Future pick-up trucks are meeting much stricter fuel economy and exhaust emission standards. Design tradeoffs will have to be carefully evaluated to satisfy consumer expectations within the regulatory and cost constraints. Boundary conditions will obviously be critical for decision making: thus, the understanding of how customers are driving in naturalistic settings is indispensable. Federal driving schedules, while critical for certification, do not capture the richness of naturalistic cycles, particularly the aggressive maneuvers that often shape consumer perception of performance. While there are databases with large number of drive cycles, applying all of them directly in the design process is impractical. Therefore, representative drive cycles that capture the essence of the naturalistic driving should be synthesized from naturalistic driving data. Naturalistic drive cycles are firstly categorized by investigating their micro-trip components, defined as driving activities between successive stops. Micro-trips are expected to characterize underlying local traffic conditions, and separate different driving patterns. Next, the transitions from one vehicle state to another vehicle state in each cycle category are captured with Transition Probability Matrix (TPM). Candidate drive cycles can subsequently be synthesized using Markov Chain based on TPMs for each category. Finally, representative synthetic drive cycles are selected through assessment of significant cycle metrics to identify the ones with smallest errors. This paper provides a framework for synthesis of representative drive cycles from naturalistic driving data, which can subsequently be used for efficient optimization of design or control of pick-up truck powertrains. Manufacturers will benefit from representative drive cycles in several aspects, including quick assessments of vehicle performance and energy consumption in simulations, component sizing and design, optimization of control strategies, and

  2. Vehicle test report: Battronic pickup truck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Shain, T. W.; Freeman, R. J.; Pompa, M. F.

    1982-01-01

    An electric pickup truck was tested to characterize certain parameters and to provide baseline data that can be used for the comparison of improved batteries that may be incorporated into the vehicle at a later time. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive subsystem; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load and range evaluations for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle's performance was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with other vehicles.

  3. Assessing tether anchor labeling and usability in pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Malik, Laura A; Flannagan, Carol A; Jermakian, Jessica S

    2018-04-03

    The objective of this study was to investigate vehicle factors associated with child restraint tether use and misuse in pickup trucks and evaluate 4 labeling interventions designed to educate consumers on proper tether use. Volunteer testing was performed with 24 subjects and 4 different pickup trucks. Each subject performed 8 child restraint installations among the 4 pickups using 2 forward-facing restraints: a Britax Marathon G4.1 and an Evenflo Triumph. Vehicles were selected to represent 4 different implementations of tether anchors among pickups: plastic loop routers (Chevrolet Silverado), webbing routers (Ram), back wall anchors (Nissan Frontier), and webbing routers plus metal anchors (Toyota Tundra). Interventions included a diagram label, Quick Response (QR) Code linked to video instruction, coordinating text label, and contrasting text tag. Subjects used the child restraint tether in 93% of trials. However, tether use was completely correct in only 9% of trials. An installation was considered functional if the subject attached the tether to a tether anchor and had a tight installation (ignoring routing and head restraint position); 28% of subjects achieved a functional installation. The most common installation error was attaching the tether hook to the anchor/router directly behind the child restraint (near the top of the seatback) rather than placing the tether through the router and attaching it to the anchor in the adjacent seating position. The Nissan Frontier, with the anchor located on the back wall of the cab, had the highest rate of correct installations but also had the highest rate of attaching the tether to components other than the tether anchor (seat adjustor, child restraint storage hook, around head restraint). None of the labeling interventions had a significant effect on correct installation; not a single subject scanned the QR Code to access the video instruction. Subjects with the most successful installations spent extensive time

  4. Carbon monoxide poisoning in children riding in the back of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, N B; Norkool, D M

    OBJECTIVE - To describe the case characteristics of a series of children poisoned with carbon monoxide while traveling in the back of pickup trucks. DESIGN - Pediatric cases referred for treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen between 1986 and 1991 were reviewed. Those cases that occurred during travel in the back of pickup trucks were selected. Clinical follow-up by telephone interview ranged from 2 to 55 months. SETTING - A private, urban, tertiary care center in Seattle, Wash. PATIENTS - Twenty children ranging from 4 to 16 years of age. INTERVENTION - All patients were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - Characteristics of the poisoning incident and clinical patient outcome. RESULTS - Of 68 pediatric patients treated for accidental carbon monoxide poisoning, 20 cases occurred as children rode in the back of pickup trucks. In 17 of these, the children were riding under a rigid closed canopy on the rear of the truck, while three episodes occurred as children rode beneath a tarpaulin. Average carboxyhemoglobin level on emergency department presentation was 18.2% +/- 2.4% (mean +/- SEM; range, 1.6% to 37.0%). Loss of consciousness occurred in 15 of the 20 children. One child died of cerebral edema, one had permanent neurologic deficits, and 18 had no recognizable sequelae related to the episode. In all cases, the truck exhaust system had a previously known leak or a tail pipe that exited at the rear rather than at the side of the pickup truck. CONCLUSIONS - Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant hazard for children who ride in the back of pickup trucks. If possible, this practice should be avoided.

  5. Trusted Truck(R) II (phase A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Trusted Truck Program was initiated in 2003 as a joint effort by NTRCI, Volvo and UT. The vision of the Trusted Truck program is to develop a secure and "trusted" transport solution from pickup to delivery. The program's objective is to incre...

  6. Light trucks and highway fatalities : the role of network effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Light trucks, such as sport utility vehicles (SUVs) : and pickups, impose greater risks of injury and : death on other motorists than do cars, while at the : same time providing their occupants with increased : protection against these risks relative...

  7. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

  8. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TTL2, TT70). See also 8206063, where the electrode shapes are clearly visible.

  9. AA, stochastic precooling pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The freshly injected antiprotons were subjected to fast stochastic "precooling". In this picture of a precooling pickup, the injection orbit is to the left, the stack orbit to the far right. After several seconds of precooling with the system's kickers (in momentum and in the vertical plane), the precooled antiprotons were transferred, by means of RF, to the stack tail, where they were subjected to further stochastic cooling in momentum and in both transverse planes, until they ended up, deeply cooled, in the stack core. During precooling, a shutter near the central orbit shielded the pickups from the signals emanating from the stack-core, whilst the stack-core was shielded from the violent action of the precooling kickers by a shutter on these. All shutters were opened briefly during transfer of the precooled antiprotons to the stack tail. Here, the shutter is not yet mounted. Precooling pickups and kickers had the same design, except that the kickers had cooling circuits and the pickups had none. Peering th...

  10. AA precooling pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The freshly injected antiprotons, while circulating on the injection orbit, were subjected to fast stochastic "precooling" for several seconds (in momentum and in the vertical plane). This precooling pickup is being readied by Gerard Laurent for installation in its tank. Precooling PUs and kickers were of identical construction (except for the kickers having cooling circuits), with C-shaped ferrites sandwiched between C-shaped metal plates and couplers at the back of the C. For reasons explained in 8002234, they were also equipped with shutters which closed the open side of the C when there was beam on the injection orbit. For more on precooling see 8020234, 8004064.

  11. Dynamic devices - pickups and kickers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertson, G.

    1986-08-01

    A given configuration of electrodes may be used either as a pickup or as a kicker; that duality is addressed. Some general relations between longitudinal and transverse effects and between the respones as pickup and as kicker are derived. Dynamic effects are seen to be entirely determined by the longitudinal electric fields in the direction of the beam current when the electrode is excited as a kicker. Response functions that serve as figures of merit are defined. The responses of specific examples of pickups and kickers are analyzed. An approach to the calculation of the transverse variation of coupling over the electrode aperture is preented

  12. Luggage truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, E.J.; Luttekes, E.; Rijsenbrij, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The present invention relates to a luggage truck (2) comprising a loading space for luggage and provided with a conveyor belt (14) disposed in the loading space for the supply and removal of luggage, which conveyor belt is at the same time a storage unit for the luggage, wherein the conveyor belts

  13. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. See also 8001372, 8010042, 8010045

  14. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372, 8001383, 8010045

  15. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles, QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372,8001383, 8010042

  16. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. Werner Sax contemplates his achievement. See also 8001383, 8010042, 8010045.

  17. Lift truck safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter's Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given

  18. Lift truck safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  19. Five Characteristics of China Made Pickup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    <正> Compared with imported ones, the domestic-made pick-ups have the characteristics as follows: Technology: over the past several years, along with the fierce market competition, the technologies of over 30 pick-up makers in China seem to be mature. Some makers have possessed a production capacity of 30,000 units every

  20. Inner Source Pickup Ions Observed by Ulysses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckler, G.

    2016-12-01

    The existence of an inner source of pickup ions close to the Sun was proposed in order to explain the unexpected discovery of C+ in the high-speed polar solar wind. Here I report on detailed analyses of the composition and the radial and latitudinal variations of inner source pickup ions measured with the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer on Ulysses from 1991 to 1998, approaching and during solar minimum. We find that the C+ intensity drops off with radial distance R as R-1.53, peaks at mid latitudes and drops to its lowest value in the ecliptic. Not only was C+ observed, but also N+, O+, Ne+, Na+, Mg+, Ar+, S+, K+, CH+, NH+, OH+, H2O+, H3O+, MgH+, HCN+, C2H4+, SO+ and many other singly-charged heavy ions and molecular ions. The measured velocity distributions of inner source pickup C+ and O+ indicate that these inner source pickup ions are most likely produced by charge exchange, photoionization and electron impact ionization of neutrals close to the Sun (within 10 to 30 solar radii). Possible causes for the unexpected latitudinal variations and the neutral source(s) producing the inner source pickup ions as well as plausible production mechanisms for inner source pickup ions will be discussed.

  1. Will the light truck bumper height-matching standard reduce deaths in cars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiander, Eric M; Koepsell, Thomas D; McKnight, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    In a collision between a car and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) or pickup truck, car occupants are more likely to be killed than if they crashed with another car. Some of the excess risk may be due to the propensity of SUVs and pickups with high bumpers to override the lower bumpers in cars. To reduce this incompatibility, particularly in head-on collisions, in 2003 automobile manufacturers voluntarily established a bumper height-matching standard for pickups and SUVs. To assess whether height-matching bumpers in pickups and SUVs were associated with the risk of death in either car occupants or pickup and SUV occupants. Case-control study of collisions between one car and one SUV or pickup in the US during 2000-2008, in which the SUV or pickup was model year 2000-2006. Cases were all decedents in fatal crashes; one control was selected from each crash in a national probability sample of crashes. Occupants of cars that crashed with SUVs or pickups with height-matching bumpers may be at slightly reduced risk of death compared to those that crashed with other SUVs or pickups (adjusted odds ratio: 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.61-1.13)). There was no evidence of a reduction in risk in head-on crashes (1.09 (0.66-1.79)). In crashes in which the SUV or pickup struck the car on the side, height-matched bumpers were associated with a reduced risk of death (0.68 (0.48-0.97)). Occupants of SUVs and pickups with height-matching bumpers may also be at slightly reduced risk of death (0.91 (0.64-1.28)). Height-matching bumpers were associated with a reduced risk of death among car occupants in crashes in which SUVs or pickups struck cars in the side, but there was little evidence of an effect in head-on crashes. The new bumper height-matching standard may not achieve its primary goal of reducing deaths in head-on crashes, but may modestly reduce overall deaths in crashes between cars and SUVs or pickups because of unanticipated benefits to car occupants in side crashes, and a

  2. Kogi Truck Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Choy, Vivian

    2011-01-01

    Food trucks have become a large phenomenon in many parts of Southern California. In fact, the University of California, Los Angeles had begun permitting several food trucks to park on campus for hungry students, in response to the closure of the Bombshelter, a major campus food court. These trucks’ budding popularity has been spurred by the notable Kogi Trucks, which began its business serving those in Los Angeles. To explore the heart of this Kogi hype, I took two trips to the intersectio...

  3. Relationship Between Vehicle Size and Fatality Risk in Model Year 1985-93 Passenger Cars and Light Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Fatality rates per million exposure years are computed by make, model and model year, : based on the crash experience of model year 1985-93 passenger cars and light trucks (pickups) vans : and sport utility vehicles) in the United States during calen...

  4. Pick-up ion energization at the termination shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, S Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Winske, Dan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, Pin [BOSTON UNIV.; Schwadron, N A [BOSTON UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional hybrid simulations are used to investigate how pickup ions are energized at the perpendicular termination shock. Contrary to previous models based on pickup ion energy gain by repeated crossings of the shock front (shock surfing) or due to a reforming shock front, the present simulations show that pickup ion energy gain involves a gyro-phasedependent interaction with the inhomogeneous motional electric field at the shock. The process operates at all relative concentrations of pickup ion density.

  5. Development of 80- and 100- Mile Work Day Cycles Representative of Commercial Pickup and Delivery Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Adam W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kresse, John [Cummins; Li, Ke [Cummins

    2018-04-03

    When developing and designing new technology for integrated vehicle systems deployment, standard cycles have long existed for chassis dynamometer testing and tuning of the powertrain. However, to this day with recent developments and advancements in plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicle technology, no true 'work day' cycles exist with which to tune and measure energy storage control and thermal management systems. To address these issues and in support of development of a range-extended pickup and delivery Class 6 commercial vehicle, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in collaboration with Cummins analyzed 78,000 days of operational data captured from more than 260 vehicles operating across the United States to characterize the typical daily performance requirements associated with Class 6 commercial pickup and delivery operation. In total, over 2.5 million miles of real-world vehicle operation were condensed into a pair of duty cycles, an 80-mile cycle and a 100-mile cycle representative of the daily operation of U.S. class 3-6 commercial pickup and delivery trucks. Using novel machine learning clustering methods combined with mileage-based weighting, these composite representative cycles correspond to 90th and 95th percentiles for daily vehicle miles traveled by the vehicles observed. In addition to including vehicle speed vs time drive cycles, in an effort to better represent the environmental factors encountered by pickup and delivery vehicles operating across the United States, a nationally representative grade profile and key status information were also appended to the speed vs. time profiles to produce a 'work day' cycle that captures the effects of vehicle dynamics, geography, and driver behavior which can be used for future design, development, and validation of technology.

  6. The Myth - Food Truck

    OpenAIRE

    Otálora Salgado, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Food truck de comida típica colombiana fusión que espera solucionar la percepción que se tiene acerca de la comida callejera. Para ello, se ha realizado un estudio donde se identifica el problema y se plantea como solución la creación de un food truck que cumpla con todos los estándares de calidad y a su vez innove.

  7. Acoustic emission pickup essentially for waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asty, Michel; Saglio, Robert.

    1979-01-01

    Lambda wave length acoustic emission pickup comprising two juxtaposed piezoelectric capsules of equal lambda/2 thickness and with opposite polarization, separated by an electrically insulating foil, the two opposite sides of the capsules being earthed. The electric signal resulting from the acoustic emission is picked up on the two sides facing both sides of the insulating foil and the assembly of the two piezoelectric capsules is mounted on a base insulating it from the structure on which the acoustic emission is being listened to. Application of this pickup to the surveillance of defects in the steel vessels of nuclear reactors, characterized in that it is placed at the end of a metal ultrasonic wave guide the other end of which is welded directly to the vessel [fr

  8. Ford F250 Dedicated CNG Pickup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eudy, Leslie

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is encouraging the use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs. In this study, we tested a pair of 1998 Ford F-250 pickups: one dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) model and a gasoline model as closely matched as possible. Each vehicle was run through a series of tests to evaluate acceleration, fuel economy, braking, and cold-start capabilities, as well as more subjective performance indicators such as handling, climate control, and noise

  9. Position pickup of the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The beam position around the 4 rings of the PS Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV), is measured with electrostatic pickups (PU). They consist of a ceramic cylinder forming part of the vacuum chamber, and, in order to save space, they are located inside the multipole lenses. The inside of the ceramic is coated with a metallic layer, into which the form of the electrodes was cut by computer-controlled micro-sandblasting. Each PU has a pair of horizontal and a pair of vertical electrodes, as well as a separate intensity-sensing circular electrode.

  10. Truckstop - and Truck - Electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skip Yeakel

    2001-01-01

    The conclusions of this paper are: 0.5-1.5 G/H and/or BUSG/Y-how much time and money will it take to quantify and WHY BOTHER TO DO SO? No shortage of things to do re truckstop-+ truck - electrification; Better that government and industry should put many eggs in lots of baskets vs. all in one or few; Best concepts will surface as most viable; Economic appeal better than regulation or brute force; Launch Ground Freight Partnership and give it a chance to work; Demonstration is an effective means to educate, and learn from, customers-learning is a two way street; Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD 3) are all important but only deployment gets results; TSE can start small in numbers of spaces to accommodate economically inspired growth but upfront plans should be made for expansion if meaningful idle reduction is to follow via TE; 110VAC 15A service/ parking space is minimal-if infrastructure starts like this, upfront plans must be made to increase capacity; Increased electrification of truckstop and truck alike will result in much better life on the road; Improved sleep will improve driver alertness and safety; Reduced idling will significantly reduce fuel use and emissions; Universal appeal for DOD, DOE, DOT, EPA, OEMs, and users alike; Clean coal, gas, hydro, nuclear, or wind energy sources are all distinctly American means by which to generate electricity; Nothing can compete with diesel fuel to serve mobile truck needs; stationary trucks are like power plants-they don't move and should NOT be powered by petroleum products whenever possible; Use American fueled power plants-electricity-to serve truck idling needs wherever practical to do so; encourage economic aspect; Create and reward industry initiatives to reduce fuel use; Eliminate FET on new trucks, provide tax credits (non highway fuel use and investment), provide incentives based on results; Encourage newer/ cleaner truck use; solicit BAAs with mandatory OEM/ fleet participation/ lead

  11. Development of a Natural Gas-Powered APU for a Hybrid Electric S-10 Pickup Truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    the result is increased power and efficiency. The Kohler CH22 has a compression ratio of 8:1 in stock form. Natural aspirated spark ignition engines...a schematic layout of the acoustic intensity survey grid areas. B-8 N O c a 3 0» X © © © © © H H Z w S « S ( vap ) ids B-9...l _l _i li- u. LL cr LL ir 1- i Ü c CD 3 cr c m O OS © o OS o cu Q Z Ö o a H U o o OS NX SB H OS p o NX CO !■-- ( vaP

  12. ANFO truck burn trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen von, B.; Contestabile, E. [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-10-01

    This report describes the investigation of a tractor-trailer explosion. A truck loaded with 18,000 kg of commercial explosives, of which 13,000 kg was ammonium nitrate with fuel oil (ANFO), caught fire when it struck a rockcut near Walden, Ontario on August 5, 1998. The fire resulted in the detonation of the load. The Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory (CERL) conducted a test program to examine the suitability of existing explosive transportation regulations. Unconfined burns of ANFO were performed. The accident was recreated in two burn trials in an attempt to identify the mechanism that led from fire to detonation. Two full-scale tests were conducted using complete tractor-trailers, each in a jack-knifed position with most of the explosives placed on the ground in front of the trailer. ANFO was used in the first test to determine its response to thermal stimulus and the likelihood of detonation or explosion. The second test involved ANFO, a slurry and an emulsion. Thermocouples and video cameras were used to observe the burning characteristics of the explosives, the truck and its components. The explosives burned steadily for 80 minutes in each test. Many truck components, such as tires, spring brake chambers and the fuel tank ruptured violently due to the heat. Although no detonation occurred in the test trials, it was concluded that under favourable conditions, many truck components, might produce fragments with enough energy to initiate heat-sensitized explosives. It was suggested that a fragment impact caused the detonation at Walden. 4 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  13. Vehicle to vehicle communications for trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The trucking industry is a critical component of American commerce. The American : Trucking Association estimates that over 80 percent of U.S. communities depend : exclusively on trucking for delivery of their goods and commodities

  14. Slot-type pickup/kicker for AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" was used for both pickups and kickers of the stochastic cooling systems of the AA. They served for the cooling of the high-density antiproton stack, in momentum and both transverse planes. In the beginning, in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 2 bands, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. View down the centre of a pickup or kicker. See also 7906189, 7906190, 7906583.

  15. MAVEN Pickup Ion Constraints on Mars Neutral Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, A.; Larson, D. E.; Cravens, T.; Lillis, R. J.; Dunn, P.; Halekas, J. S.; McFadden, J. P.; Mitchell, D. L.; Thiemann, E.; Connerney, J. E. P.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Espley, J. R.; Eparvier, F. G.

    2017-12-01

    Mars is currently losing its atmosphere mainly due to the escape of neutral hydrogen and oxygen. Directly measuring the rate of escaping neutrals is difficult, because the neutral density in the Mars exosphere is dominated, up to several Martian radii, by atoms that are gravitationally bound to the planet. Neutral atoms in the Martian exosphere, however, can get ionized, picked up, and accelerated by the solar wind motional electric field and energized to energies high enough for particle detectors to measure them. The MAVEN SEP instrument detects O+ pickup ions that are created at altitudes where the escaping part of the exosphere is dominant. Fluxes of these ions reflect neutral densities in the distant exosphere of Mars, allowing us to constrain neutral oxygen escape rates. The MAVEN SWIA and STATIC instruments measure pickup H+ and O+ created closer to Mars; comparisons of these data with models can be used to constrain exospheric hot O and thermal H densities and escape rates. In this work, pickup ion measurements from SEP, SWIA, and STATIC, taken during the first 3 Earth years of the MAVEN mission, are compared to the outputs of a pickup ion model to constrain the variability of neutral escape at Mars. The model is based on data from six MAVEN instruments, namely, MAG providing magnetic field used in calculating pickup ion trajectories, SWIA providing solar wind velocity as well as 3D pickup H+ and O+ spectra, SWEA providing solar wind electron spectrum used in electron impact ionization rate calculations, SEP providing pickup O+ spectra, STATIC providing mass resolved 3D pickup H+ and O+ spectra, and EUVM providing solar EUV spectra used in photoionization rate calculations. A variability of less than a factor of two is observed in hot oxygen escape rates, whereas thermal escape of hydrogen varies by an order of magnitude with Mars season. This hydrogen escape variability challenges our understanding of the H cycle at Mars, but is consistent with other

  16. Mitigating Wind Induced Truck Crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-25

    Dangerous weather and high wind in particular, is a common contributing factor in truck crashes. High wind speeds have been documented as a perennial cause of truck crashes in Kansas and other Great Plains states. The possibility of reducing such cra...

  17. Truck shovel users group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J. [Surface Mining Association for Research and Technology, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The Truck Shovel Users Group (TSUG) was developed as part of the Surface Mining Association for Research and Technology (SMART), an association of companies that meet to coordinate technology developments for the mining industry. The TSUG meet regularly to discuss equipment upgrades, maintenance planning systems, and repair techniques. The group strives to maximize the value of its assets through increased safety, equipment performance and productivity. This presentation provided administrative details about the TSUG including contact details and admission costs. It was concluded that members of the group must be employed by companies that use heavy mining equipment, and must also be willing to host meetings, make presentations, and support the common goals of the group. tabs., figs.

  18. 49 CFR 399.207 - Truck and truck-tractor access requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Exception. If air and electrical connections necessary to couple or uncouple a truck-tractor from a trailer... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. 399... Vehicles § 399.207 Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. (a) General rule. Any person entering or...

  19. Effects of time-dependent photoionization on interstellar pickup atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isenberg, P.A.; Lee, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    We present an analytical model for the density variations of interstellar pickup ions in the solar wind due to a time-dependent variation in the photoionization rate, our model predicts a pickup ion density enhancement lasting for a time of the order of the duration of the increase plus the solar wind convection time to the observation point. If the photoionization rate returns to its initial value, this enhancement is followed by a decreased pickup ion density resulting from a depleted interstellar neutral particle density. In the absence of further variations in the photoionization rate, the pickup ion density recovers on a time which scales as the radial position of the observation point divided by the inflow speed of the neutral particles. Gradual variations in the photoionization rate result in a pickup ion density which tends to track the ionization rate, though the density variations are smoothed and delayed in time due to the solar wind convection of ions picked up at points closer to the Sun. 27 refs., 4 figs

  20. Implementation of exclusive truck facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekpe, E. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States). Transportation Market Sector

    2007-07-01

    This paper discussed the issue of highway congestion, safety, and efficiency in freight movement on highways, with particular reference to the challenge of supporting increasing capacity demand from truck traffic. Innovative and practical solutions are needed to address the growing need for more efficient freight movement while maintaining acceptable levels of safety on highways. The concept of exclusive truck facilities (ETFs) is becoming an attractive option as a feasible strategy to help stabilize traffic flow, reduce congestion, improve safety, enhance transportation system management, improve access to freight facilities, and improve efficiency in freight movement along corridors of national importance. ETFs can either be truck only lanes or truckways. Passenger cars may not use ETFs. However, the use of ETFs could involve high costs of construction, maintenance, and acquisition of additional right of way. A cost-benefit analysis was performed for alternative ETF configurations under different traffic and site characteristics. A set of criteria was then proposed for identifying suitable locations for exclusive truck lanes. It was proposed that ETFs are economically feasible at locations with traffic volume of 100,000 vehicles per day or more and with a truck volume of at least 25 per cent of the traffic. In addition, the rate of truck-involved fatal crashes and level of service should be used to prioritize preliminary candidate locations that satisfy the traffic criteria. Consideration should also be given to the existence of freight terminals, ports, processing centers or regional distribution centres that are close to highways. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  1. French intensive truck garden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  2. Charge-pickup of 238U at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubehn, T.; Bassini, R.; Blaich, T.; Imme, G.; Iori, I.; Kunze, W.D.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lynen, U.; Moehlenkamp, T.; Moretto, L.G.; Ocker, B.; Pochodzalla, J.; Raciti, G.; Schuettauf, A.; Serfling, V.; Trautmann, W.; Trzcinski, A.; Verde, G.; Woerner, A.; Zude, E.; Zwieglinski, B.

    1995-10-01

    Cross sections for the charge-pickup of 238 U projectiles were measured at E/A=600 and 1000 MeV for seven different targets (Be, C, Al, Cu, In, Au and U). Events with two fission fragments with a sum charge of 93 in the exit channel were selected. Due to the significant excitation energy, the dominant part of produced Np nuclei fission instead of decaying to the ground state by evaporation. The observed cross sections can be well reproduced by intranuclear-cascade-plus-evaporation calculations and, therefore, confirm recent results that no exotic processes are needed to explain charge-pickup processes. (orig.)

  3. Heavy Truck Engine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Christopher

    2009-01-08

    The Heavy Duty Truck Engine Program at Cummins embodied three significant development phases. All phases of work strove to demonstrate a high level of diesel engine efficiency in the face of increasingly stringent emission requirements. Concurrently, aftertreatment system development and refinement was pursued in support of these efficiency demonstrations. The program's first phase focused on the demonstration in-vehicle of a high level of heavy duty diesel engine efficiency (45% Brake Thermal Efficiency) at a typical cruise condition while achieving composite emissions results which met the 2004 U.S. EPA legislated standards. With a combination of engine combustion calibration tuning and the development and application of Urea-based SCR and particulate aftertreatment, these demonstrations were successfully performed by Q4 of 2002. The second phase of the program directed efforts towards an in-vehicle demonstration of an engine system capable of meeting 2007 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements while achieving 45% Brake Thermal Efficiency at cruise conditions. Through further combustion optimization, the refinement of Cummins Cooled EGR architecture, the application of a high pressure common rail fuel system and the incorporation of optimized engine parasitics, Cummins Inc. successfully demonstrated these deliverables in Q2 of 2004. The program's final phase set a stretch goal of demonstrating 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency from a heavy duty diesel engine system capable of meeting 2010 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements. Cummins chose to pursue this goal through further combustion development and refinement of the Cooled EGR system architecture and also applied a Rankine cycle Waste Heat Recovery technique to convert otherwise wasted thermal energy to useful power. The engine and heat recovery system was demonstrated to achieve 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency while operating at a torque peak condition in second quarter, 2006. The 50% efficient

  4. Slot-type pickup/kicker for AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" was used for both pickups and kickers of the stochastic cooling systems of the AA. They served for the cooling of the high-density antiproton stack, in momentum and both transverse planes. In the beginning in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 2 bands, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. See also 7906190, 7906193.

  5. Power, Space and Resistance: Foucauldian Reading of "The Pickup"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babapi, Nasrin; Parvaneh, Farid

    2015-01-01

    The present article is an attempt to read Nadin Gordimer's "The Pickup" from the lens of Foucault. It starts with Foucault's assumption that power is everything and any kind of relation in the world is defined through the discourses of power. It discusses the techniques through which the power dominates its authority over the subjects…

  6. Analysis of Pick-Up Development in Punching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2002-01-01

    The development of pick-up of work piece material on the punch surface with increasing number of strokes during punching of stainless steel sheet is investigated applying Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), 3D roughness mapping and measurements of the backstroke force. It is found that pick...

  7. Dynamic devices: A primer on pickups and kickers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, D.A.; Lambertson, G.R.

    1991-11-01

    A charged-particle beam generates electromagnetic fields which in turn interact with the beam's surroundings. These interactions can produce fields which act back on the beam itself, or, if the surroundings'' are of suitably designed form (e.g., sensing electrodes with electrical connection to the outside world''), can provide information on various properties of the beam; such electrodes are generally known as pickups. Similarly, charged- particle beams respond to the presence of externally imposed electromagnetic fields; devices used to generate such fields are generally known as kickers. As we shall show, the behavior of an electrode system when it functions as a pickup is intimately related to its behavior as a kicker. A number of papers on pickup behavior have appeared in recent years in most of which the primary emphasis has been on beam instrumentation; there have also been several workshops on the subject. There have been several papers which have treated both pickup and kicker behavior of a particular electrode system, but this has been done in the context of discussing a specialized application, such as a stochastic cooling system. The approach in the present paper is similar to that of earlier works by one of the authors, which is to provide a unified treatment of pickup and kicker behavior, and, it is hoped, to give the reader an understanding which is both general and fundamental enough to make the above references easily accessible to him. As implied by the revised title, we have done the re-writing with the non-expert in mind. We have made the introduction both lengthier and more detailed, and done the same with much of the explanatory material and discussion.

  8. Dynamic devices: A primer on pickups and kickers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, D.A.; Lambertson, G.R.

    1991-11-01

    A charged-particle beam generates electromagnetic fields which in turn interact with the beam`s surroundings. These interactions can produce fields which act back on the beam itself, or, if the ``surroundings`` are of suitably designed form (e.g., sensing electrodes with electrical connection to the ``outside world``), can provide information on various properties of the beam; such electrodes are generally known as pickups. Similarly, charged- particle beams respond to the presence of externally imposed electromagnetic fields; devices used to generate such fields are generally known as kickers. As we shall show, the behavior of an electrode system when it functions as a pickup is intimately related to its behavior as a kicker. A number of papers on pickup behavior have appeared in recent years in most of which the primary emphasis has been on beam instrumentation; there have also been several workshops on the subject. There have been several papers which have treated both pickup and kicker behavior of a particular electrode system, but this has been done in the context of discussing a specialized application, such as a stochastic cooling system. The approach in the present paper is similar to that of earlier works by one of the authors, which is to provide a unified treatment of pickup and kicker behavior, and, it is hoped, to give the reader an understanding which is both general and fundamental enough to make the above references easily accessible to him. As implied by the revised title, we have done the re-writing with the non-expert in mind. We have made the introduction both lengthier and more detailed, and done the same with much of the explanatory material and discussion.

  9. Dynamic devices: A primer on pickups and kickers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, D.A.; Lambertson, G.R.

    1991-11-01

    A charged-particle beam generates electromagnetic fields which in turn interact with the beam's surroundings. These interactions can produce fields which act back on the beam itself, or, if the ''surroundings'' are of suitably designed form (e.g., sensing electrodes with electrical connection to the ''outside world''), can provide information on various properties of the beam; such electrodes are generally known as pickups. Similarly, charged- particle beams respond to the presence of externally imposed electromagnetic fields; devices used to generate such fields are generally known as kickers. As we shall show, the behavior of an electrode system when it functions as a pickup is intimately related to its behavior as a kicker. A number of papers on pickup behavior have appeared in recent years in most of which the primary emphasis has been on beam instrumentation; there have also been several workshops on the subject. There have been several papers which have treated both pickup and kicker behavior of a particular electrode system, but this has been done in the context of discussing a specialized application, such as a stochastic cooling system. The approach in the present paper is similar to that of earlier works by one of the authors, which is to provide a unified treatment of pickup and kicker behavior, and, it is hoped, to give the reader an understanding which is both general and fundamental enough to make the above references easily accessible to him. As implied by the revised title, we have done the re-writing with the non-expert in mind. We have made the introduction both lengthier and more detailed, and done the same with much of the explanatory material and discussion

  10. Beam-phase monitoring with non-destructive pickup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    An intensity and phase-sensitive capacitive pickup was installed at the entrance to the PII linac. This device is based on an extension of the design of the Beam Current Monitor developed as part of the ATLAS radiation safety system. The purpose of the pickup is to allow the arrival phase of the beam from the ECR source at the entrance to the PII linac to be set to a standard which reproduces previous tune conditions and establishes a standard. The new pickups and associated electronics demonstrated sensitivity well below 1 electrical nanoamp but can handle beam currents of many electrical microamps as well. In addition to phase information, beam current is also measured by the units thus providing a continuous, non-intercepting current readout as well. From the very first use of PII, we established a few open-quotes reference tunesclose quotes for the linac and scaled those tunes for any other beam desired. For such scaling to work properly, the velocity and phase of the beam from the ion source must be fixed and reproducible. In last year's FWP the new ATLAS Master Oscillator System was described. The new system has the ability of easily adjusting the beam arrival phase at the entrance to each of the major sections of the facility - PII, Booster, ATLAS. Our present techniques for establishing the beam arrival phase at the entrance of each of the linac sections are cumbersome and, sometimes, intellectually challenging. The installation of these capacitative pickups at the entrance to each of the linac sections will make the determination and setting of the beam arrival phase direct, simple, and dynamic. This should dramatically shorten our setup time for open-quotes old-tuneclose quotes configurations and increase useful operating hours. Permanent electronics for the PII entrance pickup is under construction

  11. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2010. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  12. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2012. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  13. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2013. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  14. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2009. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  15. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2011. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  16. Naturalistic Study of Truck Following Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Volpe conducted the Naturalistic study of truck following behavior to gain a better understanding of how trucks follow other vehicles in the real world, with the ultimate goal of supporting the Federal Highway Administration in the development of aut...

  17. Commercial truck parking and other safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Commercial truck parking is a safety issue, since trucks are involved in approximately 10% of all fatal accidents on interstates and : parkways in Kentucky. Drivers experience schedule demands and long hours on the road, yet they cannot easily determ...

  18. Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final evaluation results.

  19. Papers on vehicle size : cars and trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    The four papers in this volume describe analyses of car size : trends and truck occupant injuries and fatalities. All four were : written between June 1985 and December 1987. The topics : addressed include where heavy truck accidents occur, injury an...

  20. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2008. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  1. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  2. Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

  3. Fuel Cell Hydroge Manifold for Lift Trucks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham

    . Battery driven lift trucks are being used more and more in different companies to reduce their emissions. However, battery driven lift trucks need long time to recharge and may be out of work for a long time. Fuel cell driven lift trucks diminish this problem and are therefore getting more attention...

  4. Weather delay costs to trucking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Estimates of the nations freight sector of transportation range to upwards of $600 billion of total gross domestic product with 70 percent of total value and 60 percent of total weight moving by truck. Weather-related delays can add significantly ...

  5. Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keolian, Robert

    2011-03-31

    This Final Report describes the accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement project DE-FC26-04NT42113 - Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller - whose goal is to design, fabricate and test a thermoacoustic piezoelectric generator and chiller system for use on over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel trucks, driven alternatively by the waste heat of the main diesel engine exhaust or by a burner integrated into the thermoacoustic system. The thermoacoustic system would utilize engine exhaust waste heat to generate electricity and cab air conditioning, and would also function as an auxiliary power unit (APU) for idle reduction. The unit was to be tested in Volvo engine performance and endurance test cells and then integrated onto a Class 8 over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel truck for further testing on the road. The project has been a collaboration of The Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Clean Power Resources Inc., and Volvo Powertrain (Mack Trucks Inc.). Cost share funding was provided by Applied Research Laboratory, and by Clean Power Resources Inc via its grant from Innovation Works - funding that was derived from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Los Alamos received its funding separately through DOE Field Work Proposal 04EE09.

  6. A tough truck for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    One of the mobile support structures that will be used to manoeuvre and assemble components of the ATLAS detector in its cavern was put through its paces at the end of July and passed its load tests with flying colours. The tests, which involved the surveyors taking measurements to detect any load-induced mechanical deformations, were carried out in Building 191. "The "truck" has been subjected to static tests with loads of up to 1250 tonnes and can carry and transport on air cushions a nominal load of up to 1000 tonnes at a top speed of 30 cm per minute," explains project leader Tommi Nyman. "It took two weeks to assemble the truck's components, the last of which arrived at CERN on 24 June. It then took a further 20 days to load the truck up for the test." The 8.5 metre-high truck will be used for final assembly of some of the ATLAS components, including the calorimeters, in cavern UX15. This powerful device is the result of a collaboration between CERN and the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear ...

  7. Hydrogen pickup and redistribution in alpha-annealed Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammenzind, B.F.; Franklin, D.G.; Duffin, W.J.; Peters, H.R.

    1996-01-01

    Zircaloy-4, which is widely used as a core structural material in Pressurized-Water Reactors (PWR), picks up hydrogen during service. Hydrogen solubility in Zircaloy-4 is low and hydrides precipitate after the Zircaloy-4 matrix becomes supersaturated with hydrogen. These hydrides embrittle the Zircaloy-4. To study hydrogen pickup and concentration, a postirradiation nondestructive radiographic technique for measuring hydrogen concentration was developed and qualified. Experiments on hydrogen pickup were conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Ex-reactor tests were conducted to determine the conditions for which hydrogen would dissolve, migrate, and precipitate. Finally, a phenomenological model for hydrogen diffusion was indexed to the data. This presentation describes the equipment and the model, presents the results of experiments, and compares the model predictions to experimental results

  8. Slot-type pickup/kicker for AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" was used for both pickups and kickers of the cooling systems of the AA. They served for the cooling of the high-density antiproton stack, in momentum and both transverse planes. In the beginning in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 2 bands, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. Here we see the slotted electrodes partly pulled out of the outer casing. See also 7906189, 7906581X, 7896193.

  9. A model for hydrogen pickup for BWR cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hede, G.; Kaiser, U.

    2001-01-01

    It has been observed that rod elongation is driven by the hydrogen pickup but not by corrosion as such. Based on this a non-destructive method to determine clad hydrogen concentration has been developed. The method is based on the observation that there are three different mechanisms behind the rod growth: the effect of neutron irradiation on the Zircaloy microstructure, the volume increase of the cladding as an effect of hydride precipitation and axial pellet-cladding-mechanical-interaction (PCMI). The derived correlation is based on the experience of older cladding materials, inspected at hot-cell laboratories, that obtained high hydrogen levels (above 500 ppm) at lower burnup (assembly burnup below 50 MWd/kgU). Now this experience can be applied, by interpolation, on more modern cladding materials with a burnup beyond 50 MWd/kgU by analysis of the rod growth database of the respective cladding materials. Hence, the method enables an interpolation rather than an extrapolation of present day hydrogen pickup database, which improves the reliability and accuracy. Further, one can get a good estimate of the hydrogen pickup during an ongoing outage based on a non-destructive method. Finally, rod growth measurements are normally performed for a large population of rods, hence giving a good statistics compared to examination of a few rods at a hot cell. (author)

  10. Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasato, Matt [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Kosowski, Mark [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation Program was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) funding. The purpose of the program is to develop a path to migrate plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology to medium-duty vehicles by demonstrating and evaluating vehicles in diverse applications. The program also provided three production-ready PHEV systems—Odyne Systems, Inc. (Odyne) Class 6 to 8 trucks, VIA Motors, Inc. (VIA) half-ton pickup trucks, and VIA three-quarter-ton vans. The vehicles were designed, developed, validated, produced, and deployed. Data were gathered and tests were run to understand the performance improvements, allow cost reductions, and provide future design changes. A smart charging system was developed and produced during the program. The partnerships for funding included the DOE; the California Energy Commission (CEC); the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD); the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Odyne; VIA; Southern California Edison; and utility and municipal industry participants. The reference project numbers are DOE FOA-28 award number EE0002549 and SCAQMD contract number 10659.

  11. Computations for Truck Sliding with TRUCK 3.1 Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    16 REFERENCES 1. L u. \\Villiam N.. Hobbs. Norman P. and Atkinson, Michael. TRUCK 3.1-An Improrcd Digital (’oiputtr Program for Calculating the Response...for Operations and Plans ATIN: Technical Libary Director of Chemical & Nuear Operations Dpartnt of the AIW Waskbington, DC 20310 1 Cocaeder US Ay...Lawrenoe Livermore Lab. ATIN: Code 2124, Tedhnical ATTN: Tech Info Dept L-3 Reports Libary P.O. Be 808 Monterey, CA 93940 Livermore, CA 94550 AFSC

  12. Powershift transmission for dump trucks; Neues Lastschaltgetriebe fuer Dump Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebholz, Wolfgang; Geis, Joerg; Riedhammer, Michael [ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Articulated dumpers (also called dump trucks) are used in many locations where large quantities of earth, spoil, gravel or other materials have to be moved on construction sites or in quarries. ZF has developed a new transmission with eight forward and four reverse gears up to production standard specifically for use in these vehicles. The integrated primary retarder is continuously controllable and provides maximum braking torque of up to 1800 Nm. (orig.)

  13. Truck transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, M.M.; Wilmot, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical models in RADTRAN II are used to calculate risks to population subgroups such as people along transport routes, people at stops, and crewman. The stops model, which calculates the dose to persons adjacent to the transport vehicle while it is stopped, frequently provides the largest contribution to incident-free radiological impacts. Components such as distances from the vehicle containing radioactive material to nearby people at stops, stop duration, and number of crew members are required for the stops model as well as other incident-free models. To provide supporting data for RADTRAN II based on operational experience, selected truck shipments of radioactive material were observed from origin to destination. Other important aspects of this program were to correlate package size to effective shipment transport index (TI) using radiological surveys and to characterize population distributions and proximities of people to the shipment at a generic truck stop

  14. Solar hydrogen for urban trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.: Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R. [Clean Air Now, Northridge, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project, located at Xerox Corp., El Segundo, California, includes solar photovoltaic powered hydrogen generation, compression, storage and end use. Three modified Ford Ranger trucks use the hydrogen fuel. The stand-alone electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system are solely powered by a photovoltaic array. A variable frequency DC-AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 horsepower compressor motor. On site storage is available for up to 14,000 standard cubic feet (SCF) of solar hydrogen, and up to 80,000 SCF of commercial hydrogen. The project is 3 miles from Los Angeles International airport. The engine conversions are bored to 2.9 liter displacement and are supercharged. Performance is similar to that of the Ranger gasoline powered truck. Fuel is stored in carbon composite tanks (just behind the driver`s cab) at pressures up to 3600 psi. Truck range is 144 miles, given 3600 psi of hydrogen. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil CO and HC emissions. NO{sub x} emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two trucks have been converted for the Xerox fleet, and one for the City of West Hollywood. A public outreach program, done in conjunction with the local public schools and the Department of Energy, introduces the local public to the advantages of hydrogen fuel technologies. The Clean Air Now program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate, safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality, energy security and avoidance of global warming impact. Continued technology development and cost reduction promises to make such implementation market competitive.

  15. Sexual behavior among truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Joshi, Hari Shankar

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, 289 (97.6%) drivers had heard about HIV/AIDS. Only 242 (81.8%) were aware of HIV transmission by heterosexual route. Misconceptions such as HIV transmission by mosquito bites, living in same room, shaking hands, and sharing food were found. Out of 174 (58.8%) who visited Commercial Sex Workers (CSW), 146 (83.9%) used a condom. 38 (12.8%) visited more than 5 CSW in the last 3 months. Time away from home on the road, marital status, alcohol use, and income class were associated with visiting CSW. High-risk behavior was established in the study population. Safe sex and use of condoms need to be promoted among the truck drivers and better condom availability needs to be assured on highways.

  16. High-performance pickups for beam diagnostics. Design, analysis, characterization and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelovski, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    This work introduces the design, analysis, characterization and implementation of high-performance pickups for two beam diagnostic instruments, a Bunch Arrival-time Monitor (BAM) and an Energy Beam Position Monitor (EBPM) at the European XFEL. As a part of the BAM the cone-shaped pickups are proposed along with the corresponding RF-frontend. The designed pickups deliver a beam induced signal with a slope steepness of around 400 mV/ps and a bandwidth of 40 GHz. These signal characteristics are well inside the design requirements, i.e., a slope steepness of 300 mV/ps and more than ten times better compared to the signal from the state-of-the-art pickups. The pickups are installed and commissioned at three accelerator facilities, FLASH at DESY, the quasi-CW SRF accelerator ELBE at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and the SwissFEL injector test facility at Paul Scherrer Institute. The obtained measurement results from the installed pickups are in good agreement with the simulations. A comparison between the signal measurements with the cone-shaped pickup and the state-of-the-art is performed at ELBE showing an improvement by a factor of ten. The potential of the pickups for sub-10 fs arrival-time measurements for bunch charges of 20 pC is demonstrated at ELBE and at SwissFEL injector test facility. The introduced coneshaped pickups are the first commercially available pickups with a bandwidth of up to 40 GHz. For the EBPM, a modular pickup structure with two types of planar pickups, microstrip transmission line and grounded coplanar waveguide with perpendicular connectors is investigated. The transition region between the connector and the line is optimized for two substrate materials, alumina and glass with a reflection coefficient better than -20 dB up to 6 GHz.

  17. High frequency permeameter with semi-rigid pick-up coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sung-Yong; Shin, Kwang-Ho . E-mail : khshin@star.ks.ac.kr; Kim, Jong-sung; Kim, Young-Hak; Lim, Sang-Ho; Sa-gong, Geon

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we propose the application of semi-rigid cable loop as a single turn shielded loop pick-up coil for the high frequency permeameter. Since the semi-rigid cable pick-up coil has simple structure, it is very easy to make the pick-up coil with bending and conventional soldering. The permeability of cobalt base amorphous ribbon was investigated using the developed permeameter for demonstrating its performance. The permeability of the amorphous ribbon was driven from the S-parameters measured using a network analyzer and permameter having the semi-rigid pick-up coil

  18. The pickup and delivery problem with cross-docking opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Røpke, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    delivery by one truck, or by being picked up and transported to the cross-dock by one vehicle, and subsequently delivered at its final destination by another vehicle. Handling times at customers sites and terminal are given. A typical daily instance includes 500-1,000 requests. We solve the problem using...

  19. Determinants of fuel consumption in mining trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dindarloo, Saeid R.; Siami-Irdemoosa, Elnaz

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of fuel consumption in a large surface mine, during more than 5000 cycles of material transportation, revealed considerable variability in the data. Truck fuel estimation based on the mining truck manufacturers' manuals/estimates is not capable of capturing this variability in the fuel consumption data. Partial least squares regression and autoregressive integrated moving average methods were employed to examine the effect of cyclic activities on fuel consumption, and to recommend relevant remedies for consumption reduction. Proper modifications of the operation can result in improved cycle times. Consequently, minimizing some cyclic activities would enhance energy efficiency. The truck “empty idle time” was a major contributor to unnecessary fuel consumption. Since the truck queues at shovels are a major component of the “empty idle time”, decisions should be reviewed to reduce the truck queues at loading points. Improved dispatching strategies, optimal muck pile shape and size distribution, and improved shovel/loader operator skills are effective preventive measures to minimize truck flow bottlenecks at loading points, and thus to improve energy efficiency at mines. - Highlights: • A large fleet of mining trucks consumes considerable amounts of energy. • Current energy models do not consider the effect of site-specific mining conditions. • A new methodology based on material handling cyclic activities is proposed. • Fuel consumption rates in different truck operating modes are determined. • The new model is compared with the truck manufacturer's energy consumption guideline.

  20. Benefit of energy absorption by the truck in a frontal car-to-truck collision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coo, P.J.A. de; Adalian, C.

    2000-01-01

    EEVC Working Group 14 is investigating the effect of fixing energy absorbing front underrun protection systems (eaFUPS) to trucks instead of rigid devices in order to reduce the injury severity to car occupants in car-to-truck frontal collisions. Three car-to-truck crash tests with cars from

  1. The pick-up mechanism in composite particle emission processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingshang; Yan Shiwei; Wang Cuilan

    1992-01-01

    The pick-up mechanism has been included in the exciton model for the light composite particle emissions. Based on the cluster phase space integration method the formation probabilities of α,d,t, 3 He are obtained. The calculation results of (n,t) cross sections indicate that this theoretical method can reproduce the experimental data nicely. For triton emissions in pre-equilibrium reaction processes, the semi-direct reactions are the dominant terms which are just omitted in the previous model calculation

  2. Cometary pick-up ions observed near Giacobini-Zinner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckler, G.; Hovestadt, D.; Ipavich, F. M.; Scholer, M.; Klecker, B.

    1986-01-01

    The number and energy density of cometary water-group ions observed near Comet Giacobini-Zinner are derived using the rest-frame distribution functions. The data reveal that density profiles of inbound and outbound passes and their shape correlate with pick-up ion production model predictions. The lose rate and production rate of water-group cometary molecules calculated from predicted and measured density profiles are 2 x 10 to the -6th/sec and 2.6 x 10 to the 28th/sec respectively. The shapes of the distribution functions are examined to study the solar wind/cometary ions interaction process.

  3. Laparoscopic ovum pick-up in spotted paca ( Cuniculus pacas )

    OpenAIRE

    Barros,F.F.P.C.; Teixeira,P.P.M.; Uscategui,R.A.R.; Coutinho,L.N.; Brito,M.B.S.; Kawanami,A.E.; Almeida,V.T.; Mariano,R.S.G.; Nociti,R.P.; Machado,M.R.F.; Vicente,W.R.R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this work is study the laparoscopic ovum pick-up (LapOPU) technique in spotted paca, describing surgery details, complications and oocyte recovery rate. Nine healthy adult non-pregnant captive females were used, in a total of 39 procedures. When the surgical plane of anaesthesia was achieved, the females were positioned at 20º Trendelenburg. Three 6mm trocars were placed on right and left inguinal and hypogastric regions. Abdomen was inflated with CO2 and the intra-abdomin...

  4. Developing a GPS-based truck freight performance measure platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Although trucks move the largest volume and value of goods in urban areas, relatively little is known about their travel : patterns and how the roadway network performs for trucks. Global positioning systems (GPS) used by trucking : companies to mana...

  5. Crash fatality and vehicle incompatibility in collisions between cars and light trucks or vans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiander, Eric M; Koepsell, Thomas D; McKnight, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    In crashes between a car and a light truck or van (LTV), car occupants are more likely to be killed than LTV occupants. The extent this is due to the greater harm imposed by LTVs on cars or the greater protection they offer their own occupants is not known. We conducted a case-control study of collisions between two passenger vehicles in the USA during 1990-2008. Cases were all decedents in fatal crashes (N=157,684); one control was selected from each crash in a national probability sample of crashes (N=379,458). Adjusted for the type of vehicle they were riding in and other confounders, occupants of vehicles colliding with any type of LTVs (categorised as compact sport utility vehicles (SUV), full-size SUVs, minivans, full-size vans, compact pickups and full-size pickups) were at higher risk of death compared with occupants colliding with cars. Adjusted for the type of vehicle they crashed with and other confounders, occupants of LTVs in a collision with any vehicle were at lower risk of death compared with car occupants. Compared with a crash between two cars, the overall RR of death in a crash between any of the other 27 different combinations of vehicle types was 1.0 or greater, except for crashes between two full-size pickups, where the RR of death was 0.9. Although LTVs protect their own occupants better than cars do, LTVs are associated with an excess total risk of death in crashes with cars or other LTVs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Ischaemic heart disease mortality and years of work in trucking industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jaime E; Garshick, Eric; Smith, Thomas J; Davis, Mary E; Laden, Francine

    2013-08-01

    Evidence from general population-based studies and occupational cohorts has identified air pollution from mobile sources as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In a cohort of US trucking industry workers, with regular exposure to vehicle exhaust, the authors previously observed elevated standardised mortality ratios for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) compared with members of the general US population. Therefore, the authors examined the association of increasing years of work in jobs with vehicle exhaust exposure and IHD mortality within the cohort. The authors calculated years of work in eight job groups for 30,758 workers using work records from four nationwide companies. Proportional hazard regression was used to examine relationships between IHD mortality, 1985-2000, and employment duration in each job group. HRs for at least 1 year of work in each job were elevated for dockworkers, long haul drivers, pick-up and delivery drivers, combination workers, hostlers, and shop workers. There was a suggestion of an increased risk of IHD mortality with increasing years of work as a long haul driver, pick-up and delivery driver, combination worker, and dockworker. These results suggest an elevated risk of IHD mortality in workers with a previous history of regular exposure to vehicle exhaust.

  7. The ATLAS beam pick-up based timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohm, C.; Pauly, T.

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS BPTX stations are composed of electrostatic button pick-up detectors, located 175 m away along the beam pipe on both sides of ATLAS. The pick-ups are installed as a part of the LHC beam instrumentation and used by ATLAS for timing purposes. The usage of the BPTX signals in ATLAS is twofold: they are used both in the trigger system and for LHC beam monitoring. The BPTX signals are discriminated with a constant-fraction discriminator to provide a Level-1 trigger when a bunch passes through ATLAS. Furthermore, the BPTX detectors are used by a stand-alone monitoring system for the LHC bunches and timing signals. The BPTX monitoring system measures the phase between collisions and clock with a precision better than 100 ps in order to guarantee a stable phase relationship for optimal signal sampling in the sub-detector front-end electronics. In addition to monitoring this phase, the properties of the individual bunches are measured and the structure of the beams is determined. On September 10, 2008, the first LHC beams reached the ATLAS experiment. During this period with beam, the ATLAS BPTX system was used extensively to time in the read-out of the sub-detectors. In this paper, we present the performance of the BPTX system and its measurements of the first LHC beams.

  8. Cassini CAPS Identification of Pickup Ion Compositions at Rhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, R. T.; Taylor, S. A.; Regoli, L. H.; Coates, A. J.; Nordheim, T. A.; Cordiner, M. A.; Teolis, B. D.; Thomsen, M. F.; Johnson, R. E.; Jones, G. H.; Cowee, M. M.; Waite, J. H.

    2018-02-01

    Saturn's largest icy moon, Rhea, hosts a tenuous surface-sputtered exosphere composed primarily of molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide. In this Letter, we examine Cassini Plasma Spectrometer velocity space distributions near Rhea and confirm that Cassini detected nongyrotropic fluxes of outflowing CO2+ during both the R1 and R1.5 encounters. Accounting for this nongyrotropy, we show that these possess comparable along-track densities of ˜2 × 10-3 cm-3. Negatively charged pickup ions, also detected during R1, are surprisingly shown as consistent with mass 26 ± 3 u which we suggest are carbon-based compounds, such as CN-, C2H-, C2-, or HCO-, sputtered from carbonaceous material on the moon's surface. The negative ions are calculated to possess along-track densities of ˜5 × 10-4 cm-3 and are suggested to derive from exogenic compounds, a finding consistent with the existence of Rhea's dynamic CO2 exosphere and surprisingly low O2 sputtering yields. These pickup ions provide important context for understanding the exospheric and surface ice composition of Rhea and of other icy moons which exhibit similar characteristics.

  9. ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOMS: AN ADDITIONAL SOURCE FOR HELIOSPHERIC PICKUP IONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochsler, Peter; Moebius, Eberhard

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Schwadron and McComas discussed the possibility of inner source pickup particles originating from the ionization of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs), based on new data from the IBEX mission. This proposition has some interesting features, namely, it might be able to explain why inner source pickup ions (PUIs) have a composition resembling solar abundances and show no indication of overabundance of refractory elements, although this should be expected, if the conventional explanation of solar wind-dust interaction for the origin of this heliospheric component were correct. In this Letter, we explore further consequences for ENA-related PUIs and investigate their velocity distributions. We conclude that this model will not reproduce the observed velocity distributions of inner source PUIs and point out a substantial deviation in their composition. However, it seems likely that the ionization of ENAs as observed with IBEX could contribute a significant amount of heliospheric suprathermal tail ions. Some possible consequences of our investigation for heliospheric particle populations are briefly discussed.

  10. Trucks involved in fatal accidents codebook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents : (TIFA), 2008, including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2008 : TIFA file is a census of all medium and heavy trucks invo...

  11. Truck drivers as stakeholders in cooperative driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, F.; Terken, J.M.B.; Aarts, E.; de Ruyter, B.; Markopoulos, P.; van Loenen, E.; Wichert, R.; Schouten, B.; Terken, J.M.B.; van Kranenburg, R.; Den Ouden, E.; O'Hare, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative driving for trucks has been claimed to bring substantial benefits for society and fleet owners because of better throughput and reduced fuel consumption, but benefits for truck drivers are questionable. While most work on cooperative driving focuses on the technology, the current paper

  12. Heavy truck rollover characterization (phase B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The Heavy Truck Rollover Characterization Study - Phase-B builds on the results of prior phases of research. Phases 1 and 2 (Funded by Federal Highway Administration) involved heavy truck rollover characterization for a tractor and box-trailer; and P...

  13. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  14. Optimization of shovel-truck system for surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercelebi, S.G.; Bascetin, A. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2009-07-15

    In surface mining operations, truck haulage is the largest item in the operating costs, constituting 50 to 60% of the total. In order to reduce this cost, it is necessary to allocate and dispatch the trucks efficiently. This paper describes shovel and truck operation models and optimization approaches for the allocation and dispatching of trucks under various operating conditions. Closed queuing network theory is employed for the allocation of trucks and linear programming for the purpose of truck dispatching to shovels. A case study was applied for the Orhaneli open Pit Coal Mine in Turkey. This approach would provide the capability of estimating system performance measures (mine throughput, mean number of trucks, mean waiting time, etc.) for planning purposes when the truck fleet is composed of identical trucks. A computational study is presented to show how choosing the optimum number of trucks and optimum dispatching policy affect the cost of moving material in a truck-shovel system.

  15. Hi-Vision telecine system using pickup tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Goro

    1992-08-01

    Hi-Vision broadcasting, offering far more lifelike pictures than those produced by existing television broadcasting systems, has enormous potential in both industrial and commercial fields. The dissemination of the Hi-Vision system will enable vivid, movie theater quality pictures to be readily enjoyed in homes in the near future. To convert motion film pictures into Hi-Vision signals, a telecine system is needed. The Hi-Vision telecine systems currently under development are the "laser telecine," "flying-spot telecine," and "Saticon telecine" systems. This paper provides an overview of the pickup tube type Hi-Vision telecine system (referred to herein as the Saticon telecine system) developed and marketed by Ikegami Tsushinki Co., Ltd.

  16. Beam position pickup for antiprotons to the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    The Antiproton Project, launched for proton-antiproton collisions in the SPS (SPS collider), had a side-line for p-pbar collisions in the ISR. A new transfer line, TT6, was constructed to transport antiprotons from the 26 GeV PS to the injection line TT1 of ISR ring 2. Antiprotons were a scarce commodity. For setting up the lines, beam diagnostic devices in the antiproton path had to work reliably and precisely with just a few low-intensity pilot pules: single bunches of about 2x10**9 antiprotons every few hours. Electrostatic pickup electrodes were used to measure beam position. They could be mounted for measurement in the horizontal plane, as in this picture, or at 90 deg, for the vertical plane.

  17. Toy Trucks in Video Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Nakamura, Nanami; Larsen, Rainer Rye

    2015-01-01

    discovered that using scale-models like toy trucks has a strongly encouraging effect on developers/designers to collaboratively make sense of field videos. In our analysis of such scale-model sessions, we found some quite fundamental patterns of how participants utilise objects; the participants build shared......Video fieldstudies of people who could be potential users is widespread in design projects. How to analyse such video is, however, often challenging, as it is time consuming and requires a trained eye to unlock experiential knowledge in people’s practices. In our work with industrialists, we have...... narratives by moving the objects around, they name them to handle the complexity, they experience what happens in the video through their hands, and they use the video together with objects to create alternative narratives, and thus alternative solutions to the problems they observe. In this paper we claim...

  18. Receivers for processing electron beam pick-up electrode signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    There are several methods of determining the transverse position of the electron beam, based upon sensing either the electric field, the magnetic field, or both. At the NSLS the transverse beam position monitors each consist of a set of four circular electrodes. There are 48 sets of pick-up electrodes in the X-ray ring and 24 in the VUV storage ring for determining the electron orbit, and a few extra sets installed for specialized purposes. When the beam passes between the four electrodes, charge is induced on each electrode, the amount depending upon the distance of the beam from that electrode. If V a , V b , V c and V d given by a difference between pairs of electrodes normalized for variations in beam current by dividing by the sum of electrode voltages. The method of processing these signals depends upon their time structure. The electrons circulating around the vacuum chamber are concentrated in short bunches within stability buckets produced by the accelerating voltage in the RF cavities. The charges induced on the pickup electrodes then are narrow pulses, a fraction of a nanosecond long, and would result in a monopolar voltage pulses if it were not for the impedance of the cable connecting the electrode to the processing apparatus. The capacitance between each electrode and the chamber wall is only a few picofarads and is effectively in parallel with the cable impedance (50 ohms). Thus an appreciable amount of the charge flows off the electrode while the bunch is between the electrodes, resulting in potential of opposite sign as the bunch is leaving the vicinity of the electrode. The resulting signal consists of a series of bipolar pulses, each of less than one nanosecond duration

  19. South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Testing | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Evaluation South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Evaluation Photo of heavy-duty truck cab. Electric drayage truck Cargo Transportation project, conducted in partnership with the South Coast Air Quality Management

  20. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section... OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments transiting Canada. (a) Manifest required. Trucks with merchandise...

  1. Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Large Truck* Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) is based on a three-year data collection project conducted by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA)...

  2. Acceptance test procedure for core sample trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure is to provide instruction and documentation for acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks, HO-68K-4600 and HO-68K-4647. The rotary mode core sample trucks were based upon the design of the second core sample truck (HO-68K-4345) which was constructed to implement rotary mode sampling of the waste tanks at Hanford. Acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks will verify that the design requirements have been met. All testing will be non-radioactive and stand-in materials shall be used to simulate waste tank conditions. Compressed air will be substituted for nitrogen during the majority of testing, with nitrogen being used only for flow characterization

  3. Truck side guard specifications : recommended standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document is intended to be used by (1) public or private medium/heavy-duty truck fleets considering adding side guards; (2) jurisdictions or customers that require side guards through policy or procurement; (3) manufacturers of side guards; and ...

  4. Slow speed object detection for haul trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    Caterpillar integrates radar technology with its current camera based system. Caterpillar has developed the Integrated Object Detection System, a slow speed object detection system for mining haul trucks. Object detection is a system that aids the truck operator's awareness of their surroundings. The system consists of a color touch screen display along with medium- and short-range radar as well as cameras, harnesses and mounting hardware. It is integrated into the truck's Work Area Vision System (WAVS). After field testing in 2007, system commercialization began in 2008. Prototype systems are in operation in Australia, Utah and Arizona and the Integrated Object Detection System will be available in the fourth quarter of 2009 and on production trucks 785C, 789C, 793D and 797B. The article is adapted from a presentation by Mark Richards of Caterpillar to the Haulage & Loading 2009 conference, May, held in Phoenix, AZ. 1 fig., 5 photos.

  5. Pick-Up Ion Instabilities at Planetary Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangeway, Robert J.; Sharber, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This effort involved the analysis of low frequency waves as observed by the Galileo spacecraft near the Galilean moon, Io. Io is a significant source of material, especially SO2, and various products of dissociation, and further these atoms and molecules are readily ionized. The initial velocity of the ions is essentially that of the neutral species, i.e., the Keplerian velocity. The plasma, on the other hand is co-rotating, and there is a differential flow of the order 57 km/s between the plasma and the neutral particles. Thus pick-up ion instabilities are Rely to occur within the Jovian magnetosphere. Indeed, magnetometer observations from the Galileo spacecraft clearly show ion cyclotron waves that have been identified with a large variety of plasma species, such as O+, S++ (which has the same gyro-frequency as O+), S+, and SO2+. Typically, however, the dominant frequency is near the SO2+ gyro-frequency. The research effort was originally planned to be a team effort between Robert J. Strangeway as the Principal Investigator, and Debbie Huddleston, who was an Assistant Research Geophysicist at UCLA. Unfortunately, Dr. Huddleston took a position within Industry. The effort was therefore descoped, and Dr. Strangeway instead pursued a collaboration with Dr. Xochitl Blanco-Cano, of the Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. This has proved to be a productive collaboration, with several papers and publications arising out of the effort. The magnetic field oscillations near lo generally fall into two types: ion cyclotron waves, with frequencies near an ion gyro-frequency, and lower frequency mirror-mode waves. The ion cyclotron waves are mainly transverse, and frequently propagate along the ambient magnetic field. The mirror-mode waves are compressional waves, and they have essentially zero frequency in the plasma rest frame. One of the purposes of our investigation is to understand what controls the types of wave modes that occur, since both

  6. Development and Implementation of a Battery-Electric Light-Duty Class 2a Truck including Hybrid Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeyer, Phillip J.

    This dissertation addresses two major related research topics: 1) the design, fabrication, modeling, and experimental testing of a battery-electric light-duty Class 2a truck; and 2) the design and evaluation of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for this and other vehicles. The work begins with the determination of the truck's peak power and wheel torque requirements (135kW/4900Nm). An electric traction system is then designed that consists of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine, two-speed gearbox, three-phase motor drive, and LiFePO4 battery pack. The battery pack capacity is selected to achieve a driving range similar to the 2011 Nissan Leaf electric vehicle (73 miles). Next, the demonstrator electric traction system is built and installed in the vehicle, a Ford F150 pickup truck, and an extensive set of sensors and data acquisition equipment is installed. Detailed loss models of the battery pack, electric traction machine, and motor drive are developed and experimentally verified using the driving data. Many aspects of the truck's performance are investigated, including efficiency differences between the two-gear configuration and the optimal gear selection. The remainder focuses on the application of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) to electric vehicles. First, the electric truck is modeled with the addition of an ultracapacitor pack and a dc/dc converter. Rule-based and optimal battery/ultracapacitor power-split control algorithms are then developed, and the performance improvements achieved for both algorithms are evaluated for operation at 25°C. The HESS modeling is then extended to low temperatures, where battery resistance increases substantially. To verify the accuracy of the model-predicted results, a scaled hybrid energy storage system is built and the system is tested for several drive cycles and for two temperatures. The HESS performance is then modeled for three variants of the vehicle design, including the

  7. Active Suspension of Truck Seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Kawana

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The driver’s seat of a heavy duty truck is usually mounted on a spring–damper assembly anchored to the cab floor. To improve riding comfort, this study investigated the effects of mounting a computer-controlled actuator in parallel with the traditional spring–damper assembly. A dynamic model of the seat is represented by a two degree-of-freedom system, including a cushion. In this paper, a control system is designed, using optimal control theory, which minimizes rms vertical acceleration at a point representing the driver’s hip point. In this system, accelerations of the hip point, the seat frame and the cab floor are picked up and integrated to obtain the state variables to be fed back and fed forward to the actuator through a digital computer. The actuator is constructed with electric servo-motor and ball-screw mechanism. The experimental study was carried out on a shaker, which simulates the vibrations of the cab floor in actual service. Results were obtained for both a dummy and a real human body. The vibration test produced rms accelerations of the seat and the hip point of about 1.0 m/s2 without the actuator, while the rms accelerations were suppressed to about 0.5 m/s2 at a rms input voltage to the servo-motor of 1.0 V.

  8. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  9. PAL-XFEL cavity beam position monitor pick-up design and beam test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sojeong, E-mail: sojung8681@postech.ac.kr; Park, Young Jung; Kim, Changbum; Kim, Seung Hwan; Shin, Dong Cheol; Han, Jang-Hui; Ko, In Soo

    2016-08-11

    As an X-ray Free Electron Laser, PAL-XFEL is about to start beam commissioning. X-band cavity beam position monitor (BPM) is used in the PAL-XFEL undulator beam line. Prototypes of cavity BPM pick-up were designed and fabricated to test the RF characteristics. Also, the beam test of a cavity BPM pick-up was done in the Injector Test Facility (ITF). In the beam test, the raw signal properties of the cavity BPM pick-up were measured at a 200 pC bunch charge. According to the RF test and beam test results, the prototype cavity BPM pick-up design was confirmed to meet the requirements of the PAL-XFEL cavity BPM system.

  10. Determination of interstellar pickup ion distributions in the solar wind with SOHO and Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Möbius

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 10 years, the experimental basis for the study of the local interstellar medium has been substantially enhanced by the direct detection of interstellar pickup ions and of interstellar neutral helium within the heliosphere. Pickup ions can be studied for a wide range of interstellar species. However, currently the accuracy of the method to determine the parameters of the interstellar medium, namely neutral density, temperature and relative velocity, is hampered by two problems: (1 In most cases the crucial ionization rates are not available from simultaneous measurements and (2 the transport of the pickup ions in the interplanetary medium substantially modifies the measured spatial distribution of the ions. In this study we will discuss how the enhanced capabilities of the instrumentation on SOHO and Cluster in combination with ongoing efforts to model the pickup ion distributions will lead to a significant improvement over the coming years.

  11. Potential air toxics hot spots in truck terminals and cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J; Davis, Mary E; Hart, Jaime E; Blicharz, Andrew; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric

    2012-12-01

    loading dock and mechanic shop. Finally, we conducted a detailed descriptive analysis of the real-time data collected in the yard and in truck cabs during the six repeat site visits, which included more than 50 12-hour sessions at each sampling location. The real-time yard monitoring results suggested that under some conditions there was a clear upwind-to-downwind trend indicating a terminal contribution, which was not apparent in the integrated sampling data alone. They also suggested a nonlinear relationship with wind speed: calm conditions (wind speed 10 mph) favored dilution and dispersal (more so for VOCs than for PM). Finally, an analysis of the real-time data for driver exposures in trucks with a global positioning system (GPS) matched with geographic information system (GIS) data suggested a clear influence of traffic and industrial sources along a given route with peaks in driver exposures. These peaks were largely associated with traffic, major intersections, idling at the terminals, and pickup and delivery (P&D) periods. However, VOCs and PM2.5 had different exposure patterns: VOCs exposures increased when the vehicle was stopped, and PM2.5 exposures increased during travel in traffic. All three types of testing sites--upwind and downwind fence-line locations and inside truck cabs while in heavy traffic--met the established definition for a hot spot by having periods with concentrations of pollutants that exceeded the EPA's screening values. Most frequently, the pollutants with concentrations exceeding the screening values were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and EC (which serves as a marker for diesel particulate); less frequently they were 1,3-butadiene and benzene. In the case of the downwind location of a single truck terminal without an aggregation of other sources, high concentrations of VOCs and PM were infrequent. Using structural equation modeling, a model was developed that could identify combinations of conditions and factors likely to produce hot spots

  12. Gas fuelled heavy-duty trucks for municipal services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, A. (City of Helsinki Construction Services (Finland)); Hietanen, L. (Lassila and Tikanoja, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Nylund, N.-O. (TEC TransEnergy Consulting, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Helsinki City Public Works Department (HKR) and the environmental management company Lassila and Tikanoja joined forces to demonstrate the suitability of heavy-duty gas fuelled trucks for municipal services. HKR acquired two and Lassila and Tikanoja five Mercedes-Benz Econic trucks. HKR's trucks are equipped with interchangeable platforms, Lassila an Tikanoja's trucks with refuse collection equipment. The trucks are subjected to a two-year follow-up study to establish reliability, operational costs and exhaust emissions. Diesel trucks representing up-to-date technology are used as reference. If the gas fuelled trucks perform well, this can lead to increased numbers of natural gas trucks in municipal services, and in the long run to the introduction of biogas fuelled trucks. (orig.)

  13. In-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements of zirconium alloy oxide conductivity: Relationship to hydrogen pickup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couet, Adrien; Motta, Arthur T.; Ambard, Antoine; Livigni, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • In-situ electrochemistry on zirconium alloys in 360 °C pure water show oxide layer resistivity changes during corrosion. • A linear relationship is observed between oxide resistivity and instantaneous hydrogen pickup fraction. • The resistivity of the oxide layer formed on Zircaloy-4 (and thus its hydrogen pickup fraction) is higher than on Zr-2.5Nb. - Abstract: Hydrogen pickup during nuclear fuel cladding corrosion is a critical life-limiting degradation mechanism for nuclear fuel. Following a program dedicated to zirconium alloys, corrosion, it has been hypothesized that oxide electronic resistivity determines hydrogen pickup. In-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments were performed on Zircaloy-4 and Zr-2.5Nb alloys in 360 °C water. The oxide resistivity was measured as function of time. The results show that as the oxide resistivity increases so does the hydrogen pickup fraction. The resistivity of the oxide layer formed on Zircaloy-4 is higher than on Zr-2.5Nb, resulting in a higher hydrogen pickup fraction of Zircaloy-4, compared to Zr-2.5Nb.

  14. Development of a doorframe-typed swinging seedling pick-up device for automatic field transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, H.; Mao, H.; Hu, J.; Tian, K.

    2015-07-01

    A doorframe-typed swing seedling pick-up device for automatic field transplanters was developed and evaluated in a laboratory. The device, consisting of a path manipulator and two grippers, can move the pins slowly to extract seedlings from the tray cells and return quickly to the pick-up point for the next extraction. The path manipulator was constructed with the creative design of type-Ⅱ mechanism combination in series. It consists of an oscillating guide linkage mechanism and a grooved globoidal cam mechanism. The gripper is a pincette-type mechanism using the pick-up pins to penetrate into the root mass for seedling extraction. The dynamic analysis of the designed seedling pick-up device was simulated with ADAMS software. Being the first prototype, various performance tests under local production conditions were conducted to find out the optimal machine operation parameters and transplant production conditions. As the gripper with multiple fine pins was moved by the swing pick-up device, it can effectively complete the transplanting work cycle of extracting, transferring, and discharging a seedling. The laboratory evaluation showed that the pick-up device equipped with two grippers can extract 80 seedlings/min with a 90% success and a 3% failure in discharging seedlings, using 42-day-old tomato plantlets. The quality of extracting seedlings was satisfactory. (Author)

  15. Single neutron pick-up on {sup 104}Pd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Andre, J.P.A.M. de; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J.L.M.; Rodrigues, C.L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Ukita, G.M. [Universidade de Santo Amaro, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Psicologia

    2006-12-15

    Low-lying levels of {sup 103}Pd have been investigated through the (d,t) reaction on {sup 104}Pd, at an incident deuteron energy of 15.0 MeV. Outgoing particles were momentum analyzed by an Enge magnetic spectrograph and detected in nuclear emulsion plates, with an energy resolution of 8 keV. Previous (d,t) work suffered from a much worse resolution than that here achieved. A partial analysis of the data obtained is reported, referring to six out of the fourteen scattering angles for which data were obtained. Angular distributions associated with eight of the thirteen levels seen up to 1.1 MeV of excitation have been compared to DWBA one-neutron pick-up predictions. Both, the attributed excitation energy values and the transferred angular momenta are in excellent agreement with the results of other kind of experiments, as tabulated by the Nuclear Data Sheets. Some peculiar structure characteristics, associated with the yrast 5/2{sup +}, 3/2{sup +} and 7/2{sup +} states found in the Ru chain could be recognized also in {sup 103}Pd, pointing to the possibility of a more global understanding of this transitional mass region. (author)

  16. One-nucleon pickup reactions and compound-nuclear decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, J. E.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Hughes, R. O.; Scielzo, N. D.

    2018-05-01

    One-nucleon transfer reactions, long used as a tool to study the structure of nuclei, are potentially valuable for determining reaction cross sections indirectly. This is significant, as many reactions of interest to astrophysics and other applications involve short-lived isotopes and cannot be measured directly. We describe a procedure for obtaining constraints for calculations of neutron capture cross sections using observables from experiments with transfer reactions. As a first step toward demonstrating the method, we outline the theory developments used to properly describe the production of the compound nucleus 88Y* via the one-nucleon pickup reaction 89Y(p,d)88Y* and test the description with data from a recent experiment. We indicate how this development can be used to extract the unknown 87Y(n,γ) cross section from 89Y(p,dγ) data. The example illustrates a more generally applicable method for determining unknown cross sections via a combination of theory and transfer (or inelastic scattering) experiments.

  17. Laparoscopic ovarian biopsy pick-up method for goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Fabiana A S; Alves, Benner G; Alves, Kele A; Souza, Samara S; Silva, Yago P; Freitas, Vicente J F; Teixeira, Dárcio I A; Gastal, Eduardo L

    2018-02-01

    Biopsy pick-up (BPU) has been considered a safe method to harvest ovarian fragments from live animals. However, no studies have been reported on the use of BPU to collect in vivo ovarian tissue in goats. The goals of this study were: (i) to test different biopsy needle sizes to collect ovarian tissue in situ using the BPU method (Experiment 1), and (ii) to study ovarian tissue features such as preantral follicle density, morphology, class distribution, and stromal cell density in ovarian fragments obtained in vivo through a laparoscopic BPU method (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, goat ovaries (n = 20) were collected in a slaughterhouse and subjected to in situ BPU. Three needles (16, 18, and 20G) were tested. In Experiment 2, the most efficient biopsy needle from Experiment 1 was used to perform laparoscopic BPU in goats (n = 8). In Experiment 1, the recovery rate was greater (P rate). Overall, 2054 preantral follicles were recorded in 5882 histological sections analyzed. Mean preantral follicular density was 28.4 ± 1.3 follicles per cm 2 . The follicular density differed (P rate in goats. Furthermore, this study described for the first time that goat ovarian biopsy fragments have a high heterogeneity in follicular density, morphology, class distribution, and stromal cell density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. INTERSTELLAR PICKUP ION PRODUCTION IN THE GLOBAL HELIOSPHERE AND HELIOSHEATH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.; Florinski, V.; Guo, X., E-mail: yw0009@uah.edu [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Interstellar pickup ions (PUIs) play a significant part in mediating the solar wind (SW) interaction with the interstellar medium. In this paper, we examine the details of spatial variation of the PUI velocity distribution function (VDF) in the SW by solving the PUI transport equation. We assume the PUI distribution is isotropic resulting from strong pitch-angle scattering by wave–particle interaction. A three-dimensional model combining the MHD treatment of the background SW and neutrals with a kinetic treatment of PUIs throughout the heliosphere and the surrounding local interstellar medium has been developed. The model generates PUI power-law tails via second-order Fermi process. We analyze how PUIs transform across the heliospheric termination shock and obtain the PUI phase space distribution in the inner heliosheath including continuing velocity diffusion. Our simulated PUI spectra are compared with observations made by New Horizons , Ulysses , Voyager 1, 2 , and Cassini , and a satisfactory agreement is demonstrated. Some specific features in the observations, for example, a cutoff of PUI VDF at v = V {sub SW} and a f ∝ v {sup -5} tail in the reference frame of the SW, are well represented by the model.

  19. Single neutron pick-up on 104Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Andre, J.P.A.M. de; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J.L.M.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Ukita, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Low-lying levels of 103 Pd have been investigated through the (d,t) reaction on 104 Pd, at an incident deuteron energy of 15.0 MeV. Outgoing particles were momentum analyzed by an Enge magnetic spectrograph and detected in nuclear emulsion plates, with an energy resolution of 8 keV. Previous (d,t) work suffered from a much worse resolution than that here achieved. A partial analysis of the data obtained is reported, referring to six out of the fourteen scattering angles for which data were obtained. Angular distributions associated with eight of the thirteen levels seen up to 1.1 MeV of excitation have been compared to DWBA one-neutron pick-up predictions. Both, the attributed excitation energy values and the transferred angular momenta are in excellent agreement with the results of other kind of experiments, as tabulated by the Nuclear Data Sheets. Some peculiar structure characteristics, associated with the yrast 5/2 + , 3/2 + and 7/2 + states found in the Ru chain could be recognized also in 103 Pd, pointing to the possibility of a more global understanding of this transitional mass region. (author)

  20. Pick-up and impact of flexible bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H.; Hanna, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Picking up, laying down, colliding, rolling, and peeling are partial-contact interactions involving moving discontinuities. We examine the balances of momentum and energy across a moving discontinuity in a string, with allowance for injection or dissipation by singular supplies. We split the energy dissipation according to its invariance properties, discuss analogies with systems of particles and connections with the literature on shocks and phase transition fronts in various bodies, and derive a compatibility relation between supplies of momentum and translation-invariant energy. For a moving contact discontinuity between a string and a smooth rigid plane in the presence of gravity, we find a surprising asymmetry between the processes of picking up and laying down, such that steady-state kinks in geometry and associated jumps in tension are not admissible during pick-up. This prediction is consistent with experimental observations. We briefly discuss related problems including the falling folded chain, peeling of an adhesive tape, and the "chain fountain". Our approach is applicable to the study of impact and locomotion, and to systems such as moored floating structures and some musical instruments that feature vibrating string and cable elements interacting with a surface.

  1. Business plan for Gourmet Food Truck in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Mulmi, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    This thesis work is about food truck and food truck industry in Finland. In Finland, Culinary scenes are booming and growing but, the food truck concept is new to Finland. Food truck industry is very young and currently, there is a hype for food truck and people are admiring new cuisines. Author himself is working as a cook. And he is passionate about food and restaurant industry. The main purpose of the thesis was to explore more about food truck industry in Finland and create the busine...

  2. Probing the Martian Exosphere and Neutral Escape Using Pickup Ions Measured by MAVEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, A.; Larson, D. E.; Cravens, T.; Halekas, J. S.; Lillis, R. J.; McFadden, J. P.; Mitchell, D. L.; Thiemann, E.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Dunn, P.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Espley, J. R.; Eparvier, F. G.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2016-12-01

    Soon after the MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN) spacecraft started orbiting Mars in September 2014, the SEP (Solar Energetic Particle), SWIA (Solar Wind Ion Analyzer), and STATIC (Supra-Thermal and Thermal Ion Composition) instruments onboard the spacecraft started detecting planetary pickup ions. SEP can measure energetic (>50 keV) oxygen pickup ions, the source of which is the extended hot oxygen exosphere of Mars. Model results show that these pickup ions originate from tens of Martian radii upstream of Mars and are energized by the solar wind motional electric field as they gyrate back towards Mars. SEP is blind to pickup hydrogen, as the low energy threshold for detection of hydrogen in SEP is 20 keV; well above the maximum pickup hydrogen energy, which is four times the solar wind proton energy. SWIA and STATIC, on the other hand, can detect both pickup oxygen and pickup hydrogen with energies below 30 keV and created closer to Mars. During the times when MAVEN is outside the Martian bow shock and in the upstream undisturbed solar wind, the solar wind velocity measured by SWIA and the solar wind (or interplanetary) magnetic field measured by the MAG (magnetometer) instrument can be used to model pickup oxygen and hydrogen fluxes near Mars. Solar wind flux measurements of the SWIA instrument are used in calculating charge-exchange frequencies, and data from the EUVM (Extreme Ultraviolet Monitor) and SWEA (Solar Wind Electron Analyzer) instruments are also used in calculating photo-ionization and electron impact frequencies of neutral species in the Martian exosphere. By comparing SEP, SWIA, and STATIC measured pickup ion fluxes with model results, the Martian thermal hydrogen and hot oxygen neutral densities can be probed outside the bow shock, which would place constraints on estimates of oxygen and hydrogen neutral escape rates. We will present model-data comparisons of pickup ions measured outside the Martian bow shock. Our analysis reveals an

  3. Impact of left lane truck restriction strategies on multilane highways in Louisiana : a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Truck lane restriction strategies (TLRS) are a means of managing truck traffic on highways by prohibiting trucks from using certain lanes to minimize interaction between trucks and other vehicles. The purpose of this study is to review the literature...

  4. The open-pit truck dispatching method based on the completion of production target and the truck flow saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, J.; Sun, X. [Northeastern University, Shenyang (China)

    2007-05-15

    To address current problems in the 'modular dispatch' dynamic programming system widely used in open-pit truck real-time dispatching, two concepts for meeting production targets and truck flow saturation were proposed. Using truck flow programming and taking into account stochastic factors and transportation distance, truck real-time dispatching was optimised. The method is applicable to both shovel-truck match and mismatching and also to empty and heavy truck dispatching. In an open-pit mine the production efficiency could be increased by between 8% and 18%. 6 refs.

  5. Development of Auto-Stacking Warehouse Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsien Hsia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Warehouse automation is a very important issue for the promotion of traditional industries. For the production of larger and stackable products, it is usually necessary to operate a fork-lifter for the stacking and storage of the products by a skilled person. The general autonomous warehouse-truck does not have the ability of stacking objects. In this paper, we develop a prototype of auto-stacking warehouse-truck that can work without direct operation by a skill person. With command made by an RFID card, the stacker truck can take the packaged product to the warehouse on the prior-planned route and store it in a stacking way in the designated storage area, or deliver the product to the shipping area or into the container from the storage area. It can significantly reduce the manpower requirements of the skilled-person of forklift technician and improve the safety of the warehousing area.

  6. Laparoscopic ovum pick-up in spotted paca ( Cuniculus pacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F.P.C. Barros

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work is study the laparoscopic ovum pick-up (LapOPU technique in spotted paca, describing surgery details, complications and oocyte recovery rate. Nine healthy adult non-pregnant captive females were used, in a total of 39 procedures. When the surgical plane of anaesthesia was achieved, the females were positioned at 20º Trendelenburg. Three 6mm trocars were placed on right and left inguinal and hypogastric regions. Abdomen was inflated with CO2 and the intra-abdominal pressure was stablished in 10mmHg. Follicular punctures were performed moving the ovaries with atraumatic forceps. For punctures, an 18-gauge 3.5 inch long needle attached to a vacuum system with pressure not exceeding 65mmHg was used. Oocytes were recovered into 50mL centrifuge tubes with media composed of PBS supplemented with 10 IU/mL of heparin and kept at 36°C. R Software was used for statistical analysis. Data normality distribution (Shapiro test and variances homoscedasticity (Bartlett test were tested and descriptive statistics (mean±SD was used to present the results. It was only possible to perform LapOPU in 30 of 39 laparoscopies (76.92%. The surgical total time was 37.34 ± 18.53 minutes. The total number of visualized follicles, aspirated follicles, and retrieved oocytes were 502, 415, and 155, respectively. And the same parameters per animal were: 14.34 ± 12.23, 11.86 ± 10.03, and 4.43 ± 4.69 respectively. Oocyte recovery rate was 32.56 ± 27.32%. In conclusion, caudal positioning of portals with slight triangulation allows good viewing of the abdominal cavity and eases the manipulation of the ovaries. Thus this described LapOPU technique is feasible in spotted paca and easy to perform.

  7. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2008. 

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2008. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Truck Transports Capitol Christmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree Biodiesel Truck Transports Capitol Christmas Tree to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Truck Transports Capitol Christmas Tree on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Truck Transports Capitol Christmas Tree on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  9. Solenoid pick-up problem in the CREN-K Triga Mark 2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malu wa Kalenga; Kobakozete Itono; Diazengwa Mpaka; Mampaka Mana Mouiny; Itio Momba

    1981-01-01

    During a lazy susan forty irradiation tube inspection with the specimen lifting device, the solenoid-operated specimen pick-up tool happened to be locked in the number fourteen position loading tube. The present paper describes the successful experiment which was carried out to solve a potential damaging situation for the safe and useful operation of the reactor. The first step in the investigation process was to ascertain what has indeed occurred in the reactor core to avoid any ill advised step which will worsen the situation. The alternatives were the following: a) The specimen tube was not lined with the loading tube; b) The lazy susan was not working properly due example to the fact that a roll pin in a drive shaft coupling inside the drive shaft tube has been broken; c) The pick-up tool has produced through the cleanout hole in the bottom of the specimen tube and engage the hole; d) The pick-up tool might have slided most of the way between the lazy susan and its housing. By moving up and down the pick-up tool and rotating back and forth the lazy susan it was possible to come to the conclusion that alternative c) was the most likely. It was not possible to release the pick-up tool because its engaging arms could not be activated as was often the case when lifting aluminium container

  10. Solenoid pick-up problem in the CREN-K Triga Mark 2 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malu wa Kalenga; Kobakozete Itono; Diazengwa Mpaka; Mampaka Mana Mouiny; Itio Momba (Commissariat des Sciences Nucleaires, Kinshasa (Zaire). Centre Regional d' Etudes Nucleaires)

    1981-01-01

    During a lazy susan forty irradiation tube inspection with the specimen lifting device, the solenoid-operated specimen pick-up tool happened to be locked in the number fourteen position loading tube. The present paper describes the successful experiment which was carried out to solve a potential damaging situation for the safe and useful operation of the reactor. The first step in the investigation process was to ascertain what has indeed occurred in the reactor core to avoid any ill advised step which will worsen the situation. The alternatives were the following: a) The specimen tube was not lined with the loading tube; b) The lazy susan was not working properly due example to the fact that a roll pin in a drive shaft coupling inside the drive shaft tube has been broken; c) The pick-up tool has produced through the cleanout hole in the bottom of the specimen tube and engage the hole; d) The pick-up tool might have slided most of the way between the lazy susan and its housing. By moving up and down the pick-up tool and rotating back and forth the lazy susan it was possible to come to the conclusion that alternative c) was the most likely. It was not possible to release the pick-up tool because its engaging arms could not be activated as was often the case when lifting aluminium container.

  11. Three-dimensional magnetic nanoparticle imaging using small field gradient and multiple pickup coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasayama, Teruyoshi, E-mail: sasayama@sc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Tsujita, Yuya; Morishita, Manabu; Muta, Masahiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Enpuku, Keiji

    2017-04-01

    We propose a magnetic particle imaging (MPI) method based on third harmonic signal detection using a small field gradient and multiple pickup coils. First, we developed a system using two pickup coils and performed three-dimensional detection of two magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) samples, which were spaced 15 mm apart. In the experiments, an excitation field strength of 1.6 mT was used at an operating frequency of 3 kHz. A DC gradient field with a typical value of 0.2 T/m was also used to produce the so-called field-free line. A third harmonic signal generated by the MNP samples was detected using the two pickup coils, and the samples were then mechanically scanned to obtain field maps. The field maps were subsequently analyzed using the nonnegative least squares method to obtain three-dimensional position information for the MNP samples. The results show that the positions of the two MNP samples were estimated with good accuracy, despite the small field gradient used. Further improvement in MPI performance will be achieved by increasing the number of pickup coils used. - Highlights: • 3D magnetic particle imaging system combining field-free line and two pickup coils. • Imaging method based on third harmonic signal detection and small field gradient. • Nonnegative least squares method for 3D magnetic nanoparticle image reconstruction. • High spatial resolution despite use of small field gradient.

  12. Case Study: Natural Gas Regional Transport Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M.; Burnham, A.

    2016-08-01

    Learn about Ryder System, Inc.'s experience in deploying nearly 200 CNG and LNG heavy-duty trucks and construction and operation of L/CNG stations using ARRA funds. Using natural gas in its fleet, Ryder mitigated the effects of volatile fuel pricing and reduced lifecycle GHGs by 20% and petroleum by 99%.

  13. Light Duty Truck Characteristics, Historical Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    The report is a collection of data concerning physical, operating, performance, and market characteristics of light duty trucks for the model years 1972 and 1975 thru 1977. The data is stored on tape in DOT/TSC DEC System 10 computer system. Informat...

  14. Light Truck Characteristics, Historical Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    The report is a description of the data about the physical, operating performance, and market characteristics of light trucks for the model years 1955 through 1977, which is stored on tape in DOT/TSC DEC System 10 computer system. Vehicles are report...

  15. INTRALOG, intelligent autonomous truck applications in Logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MSc Berry Gerrits; Dr. Frans Tillema; MMC A.F. Spruijt; MSc Leo Buning

    2016-01-01

    INTRALOG is a project, to better use of materials, there by leading to improvements for People (better safety, lower physical work load), Planet (lower emissions and energy/ fuel con started September 2015, in which Automated Guided Truck Applications will be developed. Automated systems typically

  16. Single-Commodity Vehicle Routing Problem with Pickup and Delivery Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Martinovic

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel variation of the vehicle routing problem (VRP. Single commodity cargo with pickup and delivery service is considered. Customers are labeled as either cargo sink or cargo source, depending on their pickup or delivery demand. This problem is called a single commodity vehicle routing problem with pickup and delivery service (1-VRPPD. 1-VRPPD deals with multiple vehicles and is the same as the single-commodity traveling salesman problem (1-PDTSP when the number of vehicles is equal to 1. Since 1-VRPPD specializes VRP, it is hard in the strong sense. Iterative modified simulated annealing (IMSA is presented along with greedy random-based initial solution algorithm. IMSA provides a good approximation to the global optimum in a large search space. Experiment is done for the instances with different number of customers and their demands. With respect to average values of IMSA execution times, proposed method is appropriate for practical applications.

  17. Revisiting the theory of the evolution of pick-up ion distributions: magnetic or adiabatic cooling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Fahr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the phasespace behaviour of heliospheric pick-up ions after the time of their injection as newly created ions into the solar wind bulk flow from either charge exchange or photoionization of interplanetary neutral atoms. As interaction with the ambient MHD wave fields we allow for rapid pitch angle diffusion, but for the beginning of this paper we shall neglect the effect of quasilinear or nonlinear energy diffusion (Fermi-2 acceleration induced by counterflowing ambient waves. In the up-to-now literature connected with the convection of pick-up ions by the solar wind only adiabatic cooling of these ions is considered which in the solar wind frame takes care of filling the gap between the injection energy and energies of the thermal bulk of solar wind ions. Here we reinvestigate the basics of the theory behind this assumption of adiabatic pick-up ion reactions and correlated predictions derived from it. We then compare it with the new assumption of a pure magnetic cooling of pick-up ions simply resulting from their being convected in an interplanetary magnetic field which decreases in magnitude with increase of solar distance. We compare the results for pick-up ion distribution functions derived along both ways and can point out essential differences of observational and diagnostic relevance. Furthermore we then include stochastic acceleration processes by wave-particle interactions. As we can show, magnetic cooling in conjunction with diffusive acceleration by wave-particle interaction allows for an unbroken power law with the unique power index γ=−5 beginning from lowest velocities up to highest energy particles of about 100 KeV which just marginally can be in resonance with magnetoacoustic turbulences. Consequences for the resulting pick-up ion pressures are also analysed.

  18. Uptake of methanol on mixed HNO3/H2O clusters: An absolute pickup cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pysanenko, A.; Lengyel, J.; Fárník, M.

    2018-04-01

    The uptake of atmospheric oxidized organics on acid clusters is relevant for atmospheric new particle formation. We investigate the pickup of methanol (CH3OH) on mixed nitric acid-water clusters (HNO3)M(H2O)N by a combination of mass spectrometry and cluster velocity measurements in a molecular beam. The mass spectra of the mixed clusters exhibit (HNO3)m(H2O)nH+ series with m = 0-3 and n = 0-12. In addition, CH3OH.(HNO3)m(H2O)nH+ series with very similar patterns appear in the spectra after the methanol pickup. The velocity measurements prove that the undoped (HNO3)m(H2O)nH+ mass peaks in the pickup spectra originate from the neutral (HNO3)M(H2O)N clusters which have not picked up any CH3OH molecule, i.e., methanol has not evaporated upon the ionization. Thus the fraction of the doped clusters can be determined and the mean pickup cross section can be estimated, yielding σs ¯ ≈ 20 Å2. This is compared to the lower estimate of the mean geometrical cross section σg ¯ ≈ 60 Å2 obtained from the theoretical cluster geometries. Thus the "size" of the cluster corresponding to the methanol pickup is at least 3-times smaller than its geometrical size. We have introduced a method which can yield the absolute pickup cross sections relevant to the generation and growth of atmospheric aerosols, as illustrated in the example of methanol and nitric acid clusters.

  19. Capacitively coupled pickup in MCP-based photodetectors using a conductive metallic anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelico, E.; Seiss, T. [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 S Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Adams, B. [Incom, Inc., 294 SouthBridge Rd, Charlton, Massachusetts 01507 (United States); Elagin, A.; Frisch, H.; Spieglan, E. [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 S Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-02-21

    We have designed and tested a robust 20×20 cm{sup 2} thin metal film internal anode capacitively coupled to an external array of signal pads or micro-strips for use in fast microchannel plate photodetectors. The internal anode, in this case a 10 nm-thick NiCr film deposited on a 96% pure Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} 3 mm-thick ceramic plate and connected to HV ground, provides the return path for the electron cascade charge. The multi-channel pickup array consists of a printed-circuit card or glass plate with metal signal pickups on one side and the signal ground plane on the other. The pickup can be put in close proximity to the bottom outer surface of the sealed photodetector, with no electrical connections through the photodetector hermetic vacuum package other than a single ground connection to the internal anode. Two pickup patterns were tested using a small commercial MCP-PMT as the signal source: 1) parallel 50 Ω 25-cm-long micro-strips with an analog bandwidth of 1.5 GHz, and 2) a 20×20 cm{sup 2} array of 2-dimensional square ‘pads’ with sides of 1.27 cm or 2.54 cm. The rise-time of the fast input pulse is maintained for both pickup patterns. For the pad pattern, we observe 80% of the directly coupled amplitude. For the strip pattern we measure 34% of the directly coupled amplitude on the central strip of a broadened signal. The physical decoupling of the photodetector from the pickup pattern allows easy customization for different applications while maintaining high analog bandwidth.

  20. Oxygen Pickup Ions Measured by MAVEN Outside the Martian Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, A.; Cravens, T.; Larson, D. E.; Lillis, R. J.; Dunn, P.; Halekas, J. S.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Eparvier, F. G.; Thiemann, E.; Mitchell, D. L.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    The MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN) spacecraft entered orbit around Mars on September 21, 2014 and has since been detecting energetic oxygen pickup ions by its SEP (Solar Energetic Particles) and SWIA (Solar Wind Ion Analyzer) instruments. The oxygen pickup ions detected outside the Martian bowshock and in the upstream solar wind are associated with the extended hot oxygen exosphere of Mars, which is created mainly by the dissociative recombination of molecular oxygen ions with electrons in the ionosphere. We use analytic solutions to the equations of motion of pickup ions moving in the undisturbed upstream solar wind magnetic and motional electric fields and calculate the flux of oxygen pickup ions at the location of MAVEN. Our model calculates the ionization rate of oxygen atoms in the exosphere based on the hot oxygen densities predicted by Rahmati et al. (2014), and the sources of ionization include photo-ionization, charge exchange, and electron impact ionization. The photo-ionization frequency is calculated using the FISM (Flare Irradiance Spectral Model) solar flux model, based on MAVEN EUVM (Extreme Ultra-Violet Monitor) measurements. The frequency of charge exchange between a solar wind proton and an oxygen atom is calculated using MAVEN SWIA solar wind proton flux measurements, and the electron impact ionization frequency is calculated based on MAVEN SWEA (Solar Wind Electron Analyzer) solar wind electron flux measurements. The solar wind magnetic field used in the model is from the measurements taken by MAVEN MAG (magnetometer) in the upstream solar wind. The good agreement between our predicted pickup oxygen fluxes and the MAVEN SEP and SWIA measured ones confirms detection of oxygen pickup ions and these model-data comparisons can be used to constrain models of hot oxygen densities and photochemical escape flux.

  1. Revisiting the theory of the evolution of pick-up ion distributions: magnetic or adiabatic cooling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Fahr

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the phasespace behaviour of heliospheric pick-up ions after the time of their injection as newly created ions into the solar wind bulk flow from either charge exchange or photoionization of interplanetary neutral atoms. As interaction with the ambient MHD wave fields we allow for rapid pitch angle diffusion, but for the beginning of this paper we shall neglect the effect of quasilinear or nonlinear energy diffusion (Fermi-2 acceleration induced by counterflowing ambient waves. In the up-to-now literature connected with the convection of pick-up ions by the solar wind only adiabatic cooling of these ions is considered which in the solar wind frame takes care of filling the gap between the injection energy and energies of the thermal bulk of solar wind ions. Here we reinvestigate the basics of the theory behind this assumption of adiabatic pick-up ion reactions and correlated predictions derived from it. We then compare it with the new assumption of a pure magnetic cooling of pick-up ions simply resulting from their being convected in an interplanetary magnetic field which decreases in magnitude with increase of solar distance. We compare the results for pick-up ion distribution functions derived along both ways and can point out essential differences of observational and diagnostic relevance. Furthermore we then include stochastic acceleration processes by wave-particle interactions. As we can show, magnetic cooling in conjunction with diffusive acceleration by wave-particle interaction allows for an unbroken power law with the unique power index γ=−5 beginning from lowest velocities up to highest energy particles of about 100 KeV which just marginally can be in resonance with magnetoacoustic turbulences. Consequences for the resulting pick-up ion pressures are also analysed.

  2. Detection of interstellar pick-up hydrogen in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckler, G.; Geiss, J.; Balsiger, H.; Fisk, L. A.; Galvin, A. B.; Ipavich, F. M.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Von Steiger, R.; Wilken, B.

    1993-01-01

    Interstellar hydrogen ionized primarily by the solar wind has been detected by the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer instrument on the Ulysses spacecraft at a distance of 4.8 AUs from the sun. This 'pick-up' hydrogen is identified by its distinct velocity distribution function, which drops abruptly at twice the local solar wind speed. From the measured fluxes of pick-up protons and singly charged helium, the number densities of neutral hydrogen and helium in the distant regions of the solar system are estimated to be 0.077 +/- 0.015 and 0.013 +/- 0.003 per cu cm, respectively.

  3. Musical instrument pickup based on a laser locked to an optical fiber resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avino, Saverio; Barnes, Jack A; Gagliardi, Gianluca; Gu, Xijia; Gutstein, David; Mester, James R; Nicholaou, Costa; Loock, Hans-Peter

    2011-12-05

    A low-noise transducer based on a fiber Fabry-Perot (FFP) cavity was used as a pickup for an acoustic guitar. A distributed feedback (DFB) laser was locked to a 25 MHz-wide resonance of the FFP cavity using the Pound-Drever-Hall method. The correction signal was used as the audio output and was preamplified and sampled at up to 96 kHz. The pickup system is largely immune against optical noise sources, exhibits a flat frequency response from the infrasound region to about 25 kHz, and has a distortion-free audio output range of about 50 dB.

  4. Branch-and-Cut-and-Price for the Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan; Cordeau, Jean-Francois

    2009-01-01

    In the pickup and delivery problem with time windows (PDPTW), vehicle routes must be designed to satisfy a set of transportation requests, each involving a pickup and a delivery location, under capacity, time window, and precedence constraints. This paper introduces a new branch......-and-cut-and-price algorithm in which lower bounds are computed by solving through column generation the linear programming relaxation of a set partitioning formulation. Two pricing subproblems are considered in the column generation algorithm: an elementary and a non-elementary shortest path problem. Valid inequalities...

  5. 2015 E-Truck Task Force: Key Barriers Affecting E-Truck Adoption, Industry and Policy Implications, and Recommendations to Move the Market Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Brotherton, Tom; Gilde, Alycia; Tomic, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    CALSTART’s E-Truck Task Force (ETTF) produced a report outlining the markets for electric drive trucks (E-Trucks), the prime barriers facing their success and provided key findings and recommendations to support expanding E-Truck adoption. Four key findings have been identified by the E-Truck Task Force as barriers currently affecting the growth and viability of E-Truck sales

  6. Dump truck-related deaths in construction, 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Michael; Cheng, Mei-Tai

    2012-05-01

    Dump trucks are universally used in construction and other industries to haul materials to the location and to remove waste materials. The source for dump truck-related fatality data was the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) Research File. From 1992 to 2007, 829 construction workers were killed in dump truck-related incidents nationwide. Of those, 336 were dump truck operators with 215 deaths occurring in street and highway incidents. Another 343 deaths involved workers on foot, three-quarters struck by dump trucks. Sixty-four of the construction workers killed were maintaining dump trucks, 22 when caught between the truck frame and a falling dump truck bed. Of the 86 other deaths, 55 involved streets and highways. Recommendations include: (i) improving the reporting of seat belt usage in fatality reports; (ii) requiring use of seat belts; (iii) requiring the use of backup alarms, spotters, or other methods to alert dump truck operators to workers in their blind spots; (iv) prohibiting direct dumping at river banks and embankments; (v) using cameras or radar to enforce stopping at railway crossings; and (xi) enforcing worker safety practices (e.g., lockout/tagout procedures on elevated dump truck beds). Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Prospects of development of land driverless trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmutov, S.; Saykin, A.; Endachev, D.; Evgrafov, V.; Shagurin, A.; Kulikov, I.; Fedoseev, K.

    2018-02-01

    The paper is dedicated to the problem of creation and efficient use of driverless trucks. It also contains general analysis of foreign experience and development trends. The concept of FSUE “NAMI” for development of a platoon of driverless trucks for cargo transportation between specialized terminals on public roads is provided. A road train with virtual couplings where the lead vehicle has a driver and the rest are driverless is proposed as a base for the driverless platoon. The platoon is formed by such road trains, which ensures extended functional features, including the possibility to form platoons of road trains from different logistics centers and with different destinations, quick reforming of the platoon in the logistics centers, possibility to split the platoon when driving on public roads, higher precision of control over the platoon during driving, etc. It is also shown that in order to improve the efficiency of cargo transportation, driverless cargo platforms (trucks) shall be designed without a cabin. The paper also considers the ways to reduce the price of driverless trucks by creating a special road infrastructure, which will allow transfer of the most expensive subsystems of driverless vehicles to such infrastructure. Upon that, the following subsystems will remain within the driverless chassis: navigation, communication, chassis control and ADAS. It is noted that creation of such infrastructure will require high investments, therefore, gradual implementation of such systems is seen as rational. It is shown that the most appropriate area for these purposes is transregional cargo transportation. It is noted that the economic reasons for implementation of the proposed concept are as follows: significant reduction of the number of drivers; significant simplification of the driverless platform control system and reduction of the price of subsystems; no need for the driver’s cabin within the driverless platform; fuel economy when driving within a

  8. Final version of the pick-up wheels in the Pelletron tandem accelerator at Lund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakansson, K.; Hellborg, R.

    1993-01-01

    A new type of pick-up wheel has been designed and constructed for the charge transport system of the Lund 3UDH Pelletron tandem accelerator. The major improvements compared with older types are a slender design with only one ball bearing and more robust contact pins with a rubber ring between the pinhead and the wheel nave. (orig.)

  9. (p, α) reactions: knock-on(out) or pick-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadioli, E.

    1983-01-01

    Nothwithstanding the great lot of data collected starting from the beginning of fifties, it cannot be said that a good degree of knowledge about the (p, α) reaction mechanism has been reached. Experimental data are usually interpreted or on the basis of a pure pick-up or knock-on(out) mechanism, though many results suggest the importance of both mechanism

  10. MgB2 magnetometer with directly coupled pick-up loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portesi, C.; Mijatovic, D.; Veldhuis, Dick; Brinkman, Alexander; Monticone, E.; Gonnelli, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    magnetometer with a directly coupled pick-up loop. We used an all in situ technique for fabricating magnesium diboride films, which consists of the co-evaporation of B and Mg by means of an e-gun and a resistive heater respectively. Consequently, we realized the superconducting device, which

  11. Comparison of magnetic and electrostatic Schottky pick-up in the CERN AD

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S

    2013-01-01

    The present note is intended to exploit the possibility of using a dedicated electrostatic beam pick-up for Schottky diagnostics in the future ELENA ring. A test setup is described allowing the evaluation of its performance compared to the extra low-noise beam current transformer used successfully in the AD. The results of this experiment are summarized and discussed.

  12. Sodium Pick-Up Ion Observations in the Solar Wind Upstream of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, J. M.; Raines, J. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Regoli, L. R.; Murphy, N.

    2018-05-01

    We present the first observations of sodium pick-up ions upstream of Mercury’s magnetosphere. From these observations we infer properties of Mercury’s sodium exosphere and implications for the solar wind interaction with Mercury’s magnetosphere.

  13. 47 CFR 74.431 - Special rules applicable to remote pickup stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... occur outside the studio back to studio or production center. The transmitted material shall be intended... system. (b) Remote pickup mobile or base stations may be used for communications related to production..., Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands may be used for any purpose related to the programming or...

  14. Analytical model of tilted driver–pickup coils for eddy current nondestructive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bing-Hua; Li, Chao; Fan, Meng-Bao; Ye, Bo; Tian, Gui-Yun

    2018-03-01

    A driver-pickup probe possesses better sensitivity and flexibility due to individual optimization of a coil. It is frequently observed in an eddy current (EC) array probe. In this work, a tilted non-coaxial driver-pickup probe above a multilayered conducting plate is analytically modeled with spatial transformation for eddy current nondestructive evaluation. Basically, the core of the formulation is to obtain the projection of magnetic vector potential (MVP) from the driver coil onto the vector along the tilted pickup coil, which is divided into two key steps. The first step is to make a projection of MVP along the pickup coil onto a horizontal plane, and the second one is to build the relationship between the projected MVP and the MVP along the driver coil. Afterwards, an analytical model for the case of a layered plate is established with the reflection and transmission theory of electromagnetic fields. The calculated values from the resulting model indicate good agreement with those from the finite element model (FEM) and experiments, which validates the developed analytical model. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61701500, 51677187, and 51465024).

  15. What Skills and Tactics Are Needed to Play Adult Pick-Up Basketball Games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao; Moffit, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine skill levels and performance patterns of regular players of pick-up basketball games. By a survey, 65 participants were identified as regular players and participated in the study. An observational instrument used to analyze game performance of the participants was developed and both content and construct…

  16. Reducing truck emissions at container terminals in a low carbon economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; GOVINDAN, Kannan; Golias, Mihalis M.

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a methodology to optimize truck arrival patterns to reduce emissions from idling truck engines at marine container terminals. A bi-objective model is developed minimizing both truck waiting times and truck arrival pattern change. The truck waiting time is estimated via...... a queueing network. Based on the waiting time, truck idling emissions are estimated. The proposed methodology is evaluated with a case study, where truck arrival rates vary over time. We propose a Genetic Algorithm based heuristic to solve the resulting problem. Result shows that, a small shift of truck...... arrivals can significantly reduce truck emissions, especially at the gate....

  17. Adaptive Virtual Tow Bar and Transition of Control : A truck driving simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, E.S.; Willemsen, D.M.C.; Hogema, J.H.; Martens, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Background : Truck platooning, with trucks being virtually connected, is getting more and more attention. Truck platooning offers the potential for substantial fuel savings while allowing the truck driver in the platoon to take a rest. However, at the current state of technology, truck drivers are

  18. A study of charge-pickup interactions by (158A GeV) Pb nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, G.; Shahzad, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Study of the relativistic heavy-ion collision is important to focus on probing phase transitions between hadrons and quark-gluon phases in the extreme conditions of temperature and density of nuclear matter formed in the collisions. These states of nuclear matter are expected to be created in relativistic nuclear collisions with large overlap of interacting nuclei, the Lorentz-boosted Coulomb potential Vc proportional to alpha gamma Z/b of a partner with charge Z is very strong, where b is impact parameter and is the fine structure constant. Either one or both nuclei may be disintegrated by the electromagnetic forces in ultra-peripheral collisions at b = R1 + R2, where R1 and R2 are the nuclear radii. This distinct feature of electromagnetic dissociation makes it possible to study the behavior of nuclear matter under electromagnetic fields. The nuclear charge-pickup ( delta Z = +1) by Pb projectiles at energy 158A GeV interacting with targets Bi, Pb, Cu and Al was investigated using CR39 nuclear track detectors. The target-detector stacks were exposed at CERN SPS beam facility. The projectile and fragments charge states have been identified using the etch-cone lengths for charge-pickup at Z = 83 of residual nuclei. Our measured charge-pickup cross sections (delta Z = +1) are shown. It was observed that for the heavy targets the increase in the cross section is anticipated by substantial contribution of electromagnetic dissociation process of production by virtual photons which is almost negligible at 10.6A GeV. In the light target region, our measured cross sections and charge-pickup cross sections reported at energy 10.6A GeV show dominant nuclear contribution and very small contribution of electromagnetic dissociation term. A strong dependence of charge-pickup cross sections on the target mass number was observed particularly in the heavy targets. (orig./A.B.)

  19. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS IN TRUCK COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Kaselyova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Design of experiment (DOE represent very powerful tool for process improvement vastly supported by six sigma methodology. This approach is mostly used by large and manufacturing orientated companies. Presented research is focused on use of DOE in truck company, which is medium size and service orientated. Such study has several purposes. Firstly, detailed description of improvement effort based on DOE can be used as a methodological framework for companies similar to researched one. Secondly, it provides example of successfully implemented low cost design of experiment practise. Moreover, performed experiment identifies key factors, which influence the lifetime of truck tyres.Design/methodology: The research in this paper is based on experiment conducted in Slovakian Truck Company. It provides detailed case study of whole improvement effort, together with problem formulation, design creation and analysis, as well as the results interpretation. The company wants to improve lifetime of the truck tyres. Next to fuel consumption, consumption of tyres and their replacement represent according to them, one of most costly processes in company. Improvement effort was made through the use of PDCA cycle. It start with analysis of current state of tyres consumption. The variability of tyres consumption based on years and types was investigated. Then the causes of tyres replacement were identified and screening DOE was conducted. After a screening design, the full factorial design of experiment was used to identify main drivers of tyres deterioration and breakdowns. Based on result of DOE, the corrective action were propose and implement.Findings: Based on performed experiment our research describes process of tyres use and replacement. It defines main reasons for tyre breakdown and identify main drivers which influence truck tyres lifetime. Moreover it formulates corrective action to prolong tyres lifetime.Originality: The study represents full

  20. Raley's LNG Truck Site Final Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battelle

    1999-07-01

    Raley's is a 120-store grocery chain with headquarters in Sacramento, California, that has been operating eight heavy-duty LNG trucks (Kenworth T800 trucks with Cummins L10-300G engines) and two LNG yard tractors (Ottawa trucks with Cummins B5.9G engines) since April 1997. This report describes the results of data collection and evaluation of the eight heavy-duty LNG trucks compared to similar heavy-duty diesel trucks operating at Raley's. The data collection and evaluation are a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project.

  1. System for selection of radiation source transfer trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Yoshinori; Ito, Kojiro.

    1970-01-01

    A device for selection of trucks each of which load and transfer a radiation source to an irradiation room above a water pool is installed at the end of a pair of rails fixed to the bottom of the pool. This device is equipped with a number of laterally shiftable rail pairs which may be brought into successive alignment with the fixed rails and is adapted to receive, carry and fix a truck on each rail pair. If one of said trucks is selected for irradiation in a desired irradiation room, the rail pair carrying this truck is shifted to align and couple with the fixed rail pair whereupon the truck is driven and transferred to a position on the fixed rails below the desired room and elevated thereinto. Accordingly, a plurality of trucks can optionally be shunted on a line of fixed rails without unloading the respective radiation sources. (Ohno, Y.)

  2. Improving truck safety: Potential of weigh-in-motion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Jacob

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Trucks exceeding the legal mass limits increase the risk of traffic accidents and damage to the infrastructure. They also result in unfair competition between transport modes and companies. It is therefore important to ensure truck compliance to weight regulation. New technologies are being developed for more efficient overload screening and enforcement. Weigh-in-Motion (WIM technologies allow trucks to be weighed in the traffic flow, without any disruption to operations. Much progress has been made recently to improve and implement WIM systems, which can contribute to safer and more efficient operation of trucks.

  3. UPS CNG Truck Fleet Start Up Experience: Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2001-01-01

    UPS operates 140 Freightliner Custom Chassis compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles with Cummins B5.9G engines. Fifteen are participating in the Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project being funded by DOE's Office of Transportation Technologies and the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies

  4. Modernization of dump truck onboard system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, M. A.; Bolshunova, O. M.; Korzhev, A. A.; Kamyshyan, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The review of the only automated dispatch system for the career dump trucks, which is presented in the domestic market, was made. A method for upgrading the loading control system and technological weighing process of the career dump was proposed. The cargo weight during loading is determined by the gas pressure in the suspension cylinders at the time of the oscillation ending and at the start of the vibration smoothing process; the smoothing speed correction is performed. The error of the cargo weighting is 2.5-3%, and of the technological weighing process during driving - 1%, which corresponds to the error level of the steady-state weighting means.

  5. Cummins Light Truck Diesel Engine Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John H. Stang

    2000-01-01

    The Automotive Market in the United States is moving in the direction of more Light Trucks and fewer Small Cars. The customers for these vehicles have not changed, only their purchase decisions. Cummins has studied the requirements of this emerging market. Design and development of an engine system that will meet these customer needs has started. The engine system is a difficult one, since the combined requirements of a very fuel-efficient commercial diesel, and the performance and sociability requirements of a gasoline engine are needed. Results of early testing are presented which show that the diesel is possibly a good solution

  6. Truck Roll Stability Data Collection and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, SS

    2001-07-02

    The principal objective of this project was to collect and analyze vehicle and highway data that are relevant to the problem of truck rollover crashes, and in particular to the subset of rollover crashes that are caused by the driver error of entering a curve at a speed too great to allow safe completion of the turn. The data are of two sorts--vehicle dynamic performance data, and highway geometry data as revealed by vehicle behavior in normal driving. Vehicle dynamic performance data are relevant because the roll stability of a tractor trailer depends both on inherent physical characteristics of the vehicle and on the weight and distribution of the particular cargo that is being carried. Highway geometric data are relevant because the set of crashes of primary interest to this study are caused by lateral acceleration demand in a curve that exceeds the instantaneous roll stability of the vehicle. An analysis of data quality requires an evaluation of the equipment used to collect the data because the reliability and accuracy of both the equipment and the data could profoundly affect the safety of the driver and other highway users. Therefore, a concomitant objective was an evaluation of the performance of the set of data-collection equipment on the truck and trailer. The objective concerning evaluation of the equipment was accomplished, but the results were not entirely positive. Significant engineering apparently remains to be done before a reliable system can be fielded. Problems were identified with the trailer to tractor fiber optic connector used for this test. In an over-the-road environment, the communication between the trailer instrumentation and the tractor must be dependable. In addition, the computer in the truck must be able to withstand the rigors of the road. The major objective--data collection and analysis--was also accomplished. Using data collected by instruments on the truck, a ''bad-curve'' database can be generated. Using

  7. Evaluation of strip-line pick-up system for the SPS wideband transverse feedback system

    CERN Document Server

    Kotzian, G; Steinhagen, R J; Valuch, D; Wehrle, U

    2017-01-01

    The proposed SPS Wideband Transverse Feedback sys- tem requires a wide-band pick-up system to be able to de- tect intra-bunch motion within the SPS proton bunches, captured and accelerated in a 200 MHz bucket. We present the electro-magnetic design of transverse beam position pick-up options optimised for installation in the SPS and evaluate their performance reach with respect to direct time domain sampling of the intra-bunch motion. The analy- sis also discusses the achieved subsystem responses of the associated cabling with new low dispersion smooth wall coaxial cables, wide-band generation of intensity and posi- tion signals by means of 180 degree RF hybrids as well as passive techniques to electronically suppress the beam off- set signal, needed to optimise the dynamic range and posi- tion resolution of the planned digital intra-bunch feedback system.

  8. Characterization of BPM pickup designs for the HESR rate at FAIR using simulations and numerical calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halama, Arthur; Kamerdzhiev, Vsevolod; Boehme, Christian; Srinivasan, Sudharsan [Forschungszentrum Juelich, IKP-4 (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The institute of Nuclear Physics 4(IKP-4) of the Research Center Juelich (FZJ) is in charge of building and commissioning the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR) within the international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt. Simulations and numerical calculations were performed to characterize the initial beam position pickup design. Capacitive couplings of the electrodes and the behavior of the electrical equivalent circuit were investigated. This made room for changes to the design and performance increase. A prototype of the BPM pickup was constructed and tested on a dedicated test bench. Preliminary results will be presented. In order to gain higher signal levels and higher sensitivity, another suggested design was characterized as well and put into comparison.

  9. Spin polarization of 34Al fragments produced by nucleon pickup at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turzo, K.; Himpe, P.; Borremans, D.; Mallion, S.; Neyens, G.; Vermeulen, N.; Yordanov, D.; Balabanski, D.L.; Belier, G.; Daugas, J.M.; Georgiev, G.; Oliveira de Santos, F.; Matea, I.; Stodel, Ch.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2006-01-01

    The polarization of 34 Al fragments, produced by single neutron pickup from a 9 Be target by a 36 S projectile at 77.5 MeV/nucleon, have been observed at GANIL via the detection of resonantly destroyed β-asymmetry. The reaction-induced polarization is deduced using a tentative spin/parity assignment for the 34 Al ground state. A positive polarization was measured near the peak of the 34 Al yield curve. A kinematical model based on the spectator-participant model for projectile fragmentation reactions has been extended in order to take into account the features of pickup reactions, i.e., the picked-up nucleon having an average momentum equal to the Fermi momentum and aligned along the incident beam direction. The trend-line in the observed spin-orientation is very well reproduced by this model

  10. GRASP with path-relinking for the selective pickup and delivery problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Sin C.; Szeto, W. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Bike sharing systems are very popular nowadays. One of the characteristics is that bikes are picked up from some surplus bike stations and transported to all deficit bike stations by a repositioning vehicle with limited capacity to satisfy the demand of deficit bike stations. Motivated by this real...... world bicycle repositioning problem, we study the selective pickup and delivery problem, where demand at every delivery node has to be satisfied by the supply collected from a subset of pickup nodes. The objective is to minimize the total travel cost incurred from visiting the nodes. We present a GRASP...... with path-relinking for solving the described problem. Experimental results show that this simple heuristic improves the existing results in the literature with an average improvement of 5.72% using small computing times. The proposed heuristic can contribute to the development of effective and efficient...

  11. Pickup design for high bandwidth bunch arrival-time monitors in free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelovski, Aleksandar; Penirschke, Andreas; Jakoby, Rolf [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Mikrowellentechnik und Photonik; Kuhl, Alexander; Schnepp, Sascha [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Graduate School of Computational Engineering; Bock, Marie Kristin; Bousonville, Michael; Schlarb, Holger [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Weiland, Thomas [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder

    2012-07-01

    The increased demands for low bunch charge operation mode in the free-electron lasers (FELs) require an upgrade of the existing synchronization equipment. As a part of the laser-based synchronization system, the bunch arrival-time monitors (BAMs) should have a sub-10 femtosecond precision for high and low bunch charge operation. In order to fulfill the resolution demands for both modes of operation, the bandwidth of such a BAM should be increased up to a cutoff frequency of 40 GHz. In this talk, we present the design and the realization of high bandwidth cone-shaped pickup electrodes as a part of the BAM for the FEL in Hamburg (FLASH) and the European X-ray free-electron laser (European XFEL). The proposed pickup was simulated with CST STUDIO SUITE, and a non-hermetic model was built up for radio frequency (rf) measurements.

  12. Truck Route Choice Modeling using Large Streams of GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-31

    The primary goal of this research was to use large streams of truck-GPS data to analyze travel routes (or paths) chosen by freight trucks to travel between different origin and destination (OD) location pairs in metropolitan regions of Florida. Two s...

  13. Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K. [Battelle (US); Norton, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Clark, N. [West Virginia University (US)

    2001-01-25

    Waste Management, Inc., began operating a fleet of heavy-duty LNG refuse trucks at its Washington, Pennsylvania, facility. The objective of the project was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

  14. Optimising Shovel-Truck Fuel Consumption using Stochastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimising the fuel consumption and truck waiting time can result in significant fuel savings. The paper demonstrates that stochastic simulation is an effective tool for optimising the utilisation of fossil-based fuels in mining and related industries. Keywords: Stochastic, Simulation Modelling, Mining, Optimisation, Shovel-Truck ...

  15. 76 FR 56868 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ...-0097] Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... that have applied to participate in the Agency's long- haul pilot program to test and demonstrate the... proceed with the initiation of a U.S.-Mexico cross-border long-haul trucking pilot program to test and...

  16. 77 FR 12356 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ...-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... that applied to participate in the Agency's long-haul pilot program to test and demonstrate the ability... cross-border long-haul trucking pilot program to test and demonstrate the ability of Mexico-domiciled...

  17. 78 FR 25525 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration..., which applied to participate in the Agency's long-haul pilot program to test and demonstrate the ability... long-haul trucking pilot program to test and demonstrate the ability of Mexico-domiciled motor carriers...

  18. 77 FR 40938 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ...-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... Morales Guevara (DBA Fletes Morales) which applied to participate in the Agency's long-haul pilot program...] its intent to proceed with the initiation of a U.S.-Mexico cross-border long-haul trucking pilot...

  19. 77 FR 27837 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ...-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... carriers that applied to participate in the Agency's long- haul pilot program to test and demonstrate the... intent to proceed with the initiation of a U.S.-Mexico cross-border long-haul trucking pilot program to...

  20. 78 FR 24293 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ...-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... in the Agency's long-haul pilot program to test and demonstrate the ability of Mexico- domiciled... cross-border long-haul trucking pilot program to test and demonstrate the ability of Mexico-domiciled...

  1. 76 FR 56272 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ...-0097] Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... that have applied to participate in the Agency's long- haul pilot program to test and demonstrate the... cross-border long-haul trucking pilot program to test and demonstrate the ability of Mexico-domiciled...

  2. 76 FR 73765 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ...-0097] Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... that have applied to participate in the Agency's long- haul pilot program to test and demonstrate the... proceed with the initiation of a U.S.-Mexico cross-border long-haul trucking pilot program to test and...

  3. design and fabrication of a multipurpose railroad hand truck

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the guide rail was constructed using 50mm by 50mm mild steel angle bar. The hand truck is ... material handling management, a company's operational performance may ... pose a health risk especially where the hand truck has to be used ...

  4. A Cognitive Analysis of Truck Drivers’ Right-hand Turns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieker, Tobias Grønborg; G. Skulason, Thorgeir; Sletting, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of truck drivers’ performance during right-hand turns performed in intersections with traffic lights in order to elicit the truck drivers’ domain, decision-making processes, and the strategies used while executing the turn. To gain knowledge about this, a truc...

  5. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a...

  6. Optimising Shovel-Truck Fuel Consumption using Stochastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2017-12-02

    Dec 2, 2017 ... J. Bansah. 1University of Mines and Technology, P. O. Box 237, Tarkwa, Ghana. 2Missouri S&T .... of dump trucks which could be mixed fleets or same fleets. .... another portraying the reality of trucks moving from a shovel to a ...

  7. Activity Recognition and Localization on a Truck Parking Lot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, M.; Patino, L.; Burghouts, G.J.; Flizikowski, A.; Evans, M.; Gustafsson, D.; Petersson, H.; Schutte, K.; Ferryman, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a set of activity recognition and localization algorithms that together assemble a large amount of information about activities on a parking lot. The aim is to detect and recognize events that may pose a threat to truck drivers and trucks. The algorithms perform zone-based

  8. Pickup Protons: Comparisons using the Three-Dimensional MHD HHMS-PI model and Ulysses SWICS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intriligator, Devrie S.; Detman, Thomas; Gloecker, George; Gloeckler, Christine; Dryer, Murray; Sun, Wei; Intriligator, James; Deehr, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We report the first comparisons of pickup proton simulation results with in situ measurements of pickup protons obtained by the SWICS instrument on Ulysses. Simulations were run using the three dimensional (3D) time-dependent Hybrid Heliospheric Modeling System with Pickup Protons (HHMS-PI). HHMS-PI is an MHD solar wind model, expanded to include the basic physics of pickup protons from neutral hydrogen that drifts into the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium. We use the same model and input data developed by Detman et al. (2011) to now investigate the pickup protons. The simulated interval of 82 days in 2003 2004, includes both quiet solar wind (SW) and also the October November 2003 solar events (the Halloween 2003 solar storms). The HHMS-PI pickup proton simulations generally agree with the SWICS measurements and the HHMS-PI simulated solar wind generally agrees with SWOOPS (also on Ulysses) measurements. Many specific features in the observations are well represented by the model. We simulated twenty specific solar events associated with the Halloween 2003 storm. We give the specific values of the solar input parameters for the HHMS-PI simulations that provide the best combined agreement in the times of arrival of the solar-generated shocks at both ACE and Ulysses. We show graphical comparisons of simulated and observed parameters, and we give quantitative measures of the agreement of simulated with observed parameters. We suggest that some of the variations in the pickup proton density during the Halloween 2003 solar events may be attributed to depletion of the inflowing local interstellar medium (LISM) neutral hydrogen (H) caused by its increased conversion to pickup protons in the immediately preceding shock.

  9. Pickup protons at quasi-perpendicular shocks: full particle electrodynamic simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matsukiyo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We have performed 3 one-dimensional full particle electromagnetic simulations of a quasi-perpendicular shock with the same Alfvén Mach number MA~5, shock normal-magnetic field angle ΘBn=87° and ion and electron beta (particle to magnetic field pressure of 0.1. In the first run we used an ion to electron mass ratio close to the physical one (mi/me=1024. As expected from previous high mass ratio simulations the Modified Two-Stream instability develops in the foot of the shock, and the shock periodically reforms itself. We have then self-consistently included in the simulation 10% pickup protons distributed on a shell in velocity space as a third component. In a run with an unrealistically low mass ratios of 200 the shock still reforms itself; reformation is due to accumulation of specularly reflected particles at the upstream edge of the foot. In a third run including pickup protons we used a mass ratio of 1024. The shock reforms periodically as in the low mass ratio run with a somewhat smaller time constant. The specular reflection of pickup protons results in an increase of the shock potential some distance ahead of the shock foot and ramp. The minimum scale of the cross shock potential during reformation is about 7 electron inertial length λe. We do not find any pickup proton acceleration in the ramp or downstream of the shock beyond the energy which specularly reflected ions gain by the motional electric field of the solar wind during their upstream gyration.

  10. Pickup protons at quasi-perpendicular shocks: full particle electrodynamic simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matsukiyo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We have performed 3 one-dimensional full particle electromagnetic simulations of a quasi-perpendicular shock with the same Alfvén Mach number MA~5, shock normal-magnetic field angle ΘBn=87° and ion and electron beta (particle to magnetic field pressure of 0.1. In the first run we used an ion to electron mass ratio close to the physical one (mi/me=1024. As expected from previous high mass ratio simulations the Modified Two-Stream instability develops in the foot of the shock, and the shock periodically reforms itself. We have then self-consistently included in the simulation 10% pickup protons distributed on a shell in velocity space as a third component. In a run with an unrealistically low mass ratios of 200 the shock still reforms itself; reformation is due to accumulation of specularly reflected particles at the upstream edge of the foot. In a third run including pickup protons we used a mass ratio of 1024. The shock reforms periodically as in the low mass ratio run with a somewhat smaller time constant. The specular reflection of pickup protons results in an increase of the shock potential some distance ahead of the shock foot and ramp. The minimum scale of the cross shock potential during reformation is about 7 electron inertial length λe. We do not find any pickup proton acceleration in the ramp or downstream of the shock beyond the energy which specularly reflected ions gain by the motional electric field of the solar wind during their upstream gyration.

  11. Imprints from the solar cycle on the helium atom and helium pickup ion distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rucinski

    Full Text Available Neutral interstellar helium atoms penetrate into the solar system almost unaffected by gas–plasma interactions in the heliospheric interface region, and thus can be considered as carriers of original information on the basic parameters (like density, temperature, bulk velocity of the Very Local Interstellar Medium (VLISM. Such information can nowadays be derived from analysis of data obtained from different experimental methods: in situ measurements of He atoms (Ulysses, observations of the solar backscattered He 584 A radiation (EUVE, in situ measurements of He + pickup ions (AMPTE, Ulysses, Wind, SOHO, ACE. In view of the current coordinated international ISSI campaign devoted to the study of the helium focusing cone structure and its evolution, we analyze expected variations of neutral He density, of He + pickup fluxes and of their phase space distributions at various phases of the solar activity cycle based on a realistic time-dependent modelling of the neutral helium and He + pickup ion distributions, which reflect solar cycle-induced variations of the photoionization rate. We show that the neutral helium density values are generally anticorrelated with the solar activity phase and in extreme cases (near the downwind axis the maximum-to-minimum density ratio may even exceed factors of ~ 3 at 1 AU. We also demonstrate that in the upwind hemisphere (at 1 AU and beyond the He + fluxes are correlated with the solar cycle activity, whereas on the downwind side the maximum of the expected flux up to distances of ~ 3 AU occurs around solar minimum epoch, and only further away does the correlation with solar activity become positive. Finally, we present the response of the phase space distribution spectra of He + pickup ions (in the solar wind frame for different epochs of the solar cycle and heliocentric distances from 1 to 5 AU covering the range of Ulysses, Wind and ACE observations.

    Key words. Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy

  12. Imprints from the solar cycle on the helium atom and helium pickup ion distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rucinski

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutral interstellar helium atoms penetrate into the solar system almost unaffected by gas–plasma interactions in the heliospheric interface region, and thus can be considered as carriers of original information on the basic parameters (like density, temperature, bulk velocity of the Very Local Interstellar Medium (VLISM. Such information can nowadays be derived from analysis of data obtained from different experimental methods: in situ measurements of He atoms (Ulysses, observations of the solar backscattered He 584 A radiation (EUVE, in situ measurements of He + pickup ions (AMPTE, Ulysses, Wind, SOHO, ACE. In view of the current coordinated international ISSI campaign devoted to the study of the helium focusing cone structure and its evolution, we analyze expected variations of neutral He density, of He + pickup fluxes and of their phase space distributions at various phases of the solar activity cycle based on a realistic time-dependent modelling of the neutral helium and He + pickup ion distributions, which reflect solar cycle-induced variations of the photoionization rate. We show that the neutral helium density values are generally anticorrelated with the solar activity phase and in extreme cases (near the downwind axis the maximum-to-minimum density ratio may even exceed factors of ~ 3 at 1 AU. We also demonstrate that in the upwind hemisphere (at 1 AU and beyond the He + fluxes are correlated with the solar cycle activity, whereas on the downwind side the maximum of the expected flux up to distances of ~ 3 AU occurs around solar minimum epoch, and only further away does the correlation with solar activity become positive. Finally, we present the response of the phase space distribution spectra of He + pickup ions (in the solar wind frame for different epochs of the solar cycle and heliocentric distances from 1 to 5 AU covering the range of Ulysses, Wind and ACE observations.Key words. Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy

  13. VOYAGER OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC WAVES DUE TO NEWBORN INTERSTELLAR PICKUP IONS: 2–6 au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Poornima; Taylor, David K.; Smith, Charles W.; Joyce, Colin J.; Fisher, Meghan K.; Isenberg, Philip A.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Cannon, Bradford E.; Richardson, John D.

    2016-01-01

    We report observations by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft of low-frequency magnetic waves excited by newborn interstellar pickup ions H + and He + during 1978–1979 when the spacecraft were in the range from 2 to 6.3 au. The waves have the expected association with the cyclotron frequency of the source ions, are left-hand polarized in the spacecraft frame, and have minimum variance directions that are quasi-parallel to the local mean magnetic field. There is one exception to this in that one wave event that is excited by pickup H + is right-hand polarized in the spacecraft frame, but similar exceptions have been reported by Cannon et al. and remain unexplained. We apply the theory of Lee and Ip that predicts the energy spectrum of the waves and then compare growth rates with turbulent cascade rates under the assumption that turbulence acts to destroy the enhanced wave activity and transport the associated energy to smaller scales where dissipation heats the background plasma. As with Cannon et al., we find that the ability to observe the waves depends on the ambient turbulence being weak when compared with growth rates, thereby allowing sustained wave growth. This analysis implies that the coupled processes of pitch-angle scattering and wave generation are continuously associated with newly ionized pickup ions, despite the fact that the waves themselves may not be directly observable. When waves are not observed, but wave excitation can be argued to be present, the wave energy is simply absorbed by the turbulence at a rate that prevents significant accumulation. In this way, the kinetic process of wave excitation by scattering of newborn ions continues to heat the plasma without producing observable wave energy. These findings support theoretical models that invoke efficient scattering of new pickup ions, leading to turbulent driving in the outer solar wind and in the IBEX ribbon beyond the heliopause.

  14. The Velocity Distribution Of Pickup He+ Measured at 0.3 AU by MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Daniel J.; Fisk, Lennard A.; Gloeckler, George; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2014-06-01

    During its interplanetary trajectory in 2007-2009, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvrionment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft passed through the gravitational focusing cone for interstellar helium multiple times at a heliocentric distance R ≈ 0.3 AU. Observations of He+ interstellar pickup ions made by the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer sensor on MESSENGER during these transits provide a glimpse into the structure of newly formed inner heliospheric pickup-ion distributions. This close to the Sun, these ions are picked up in a nearly radial interplanetary magnetic field. Compared with the near-Earth environment, pickup ions observed near 0.3 AU will not have had sufficient time to be energized substantially. Such an environment results in a nearly pristine velocity distribution function that should depend only on pickup-ion injection velocities (related to the interstellar gas), pitch-angle scattering, and cooling processes. From measured energy-per-charge spectra obtained during multiple spacecraft observational geometries, we have deduced the phase-space density of He+ as a function of magnetic pitch angle. Our measurements are most consistent with a distribution that decreases nearly monotonically with increasing pitch angle, rather than the more commonly modeled isotropic or hemispherically symmetric forms. These results imply that pitch-angle scattering of He+ may not be instantaneous, as is often assumed, and instead may reflect the velocity distribution of initially injected particles. In a slow solar wind stream, we find a parallel-scattering mean free path of λ || ~ 0.1 AU and a He+ production rate of ~0.05 m-3 s-1 within 0.3 AU.

  15. Comparative pick-up ion distributions at Mars and Venus: Consequences for atmospheric deposition and escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Shannon M.; Luhmann, Janet; Ma, Yingjuan; Liemohn, Michael; Dong, Chuanfei; Hara, Takuya

    2015-09-01

    Without the shielding of a substantial intrinsic dipole magnetic field, the atmospheres of Mars and Venus are particularly susceptible to similar atmospheric ion energization and scavenging processes. However, each planet has different attributes and external conditions controlling its high altitude planetary ion spatial and energy distributions. This paper describes analogous test particle simulations in background MHD fields that allow us to compare the properties and fates, precipitation or escape, of the mainly O+ atmospheric pick-up ions at Mars and Venus. The goal is to illustrate how atmospheric and planetary scales affect the upper atmospheres and space environments of our terrestrial planet neighbors. The results show the expected convection electric field-related hemispheric asymmetries in both precipitation and escape, where the degree of asymmetry at each planet is determined by the planetary scale and local interplanetary field strength. At Venus, the kinetic treatment of O+ reveals a strong nightside source of precipitation while Mars' crustal fields complicate the simple asymmetry in ion precipitation and drive a dayside source of precipitation. The pickup O+ escape pattern at both Venus and Mars exhibits low energy tailward escape, but Mars exhibits a prominent, high energy 'polar plume' feature in the hemisphere of the upward convection electric field while the Venus ion wake shows only a modest poleward concentration. The overall escape is larger at Venus than Mars (2.1 ×1025 and 4.3 ×1024 at solar maximum, respectively), but the efficiency (likelihood) of O+ escaping is 2-3 times higher at Mars. The consequences of these comparisons for pickup ion related atmospheric energy deposition, loss rates, and detection on spacecraft including PVO, VEX, MEX and MAVEN are considered. In particular, both O+ precipitation and escape show electric field controlled asymmetries that grow with energy, while the O+ fluxes and energy spectra at selected spatial

  16. Experimental cross sections for the pickup of electrons by relativistic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisbeck, G.M.; Crawford, H.J.; Lindstroem, P.J.; Greiner, D.E.; Beiser, F.S.; Heckman, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    Cross sections for the pickup of electrons in a variety of targets have been measured with beams of 12 C (150, 250, 400 MeV/n), 20 Ne (250, 400, 1050, 2100 MeV/n) and 40 Ar (400, 1050 MeV/n) from the Bevalac accelerator. The interpretation of the results in terms of radiative and non-radiative capture, and the implications for cosmic ray propagation studies are discussed. (author)

  17. VOYAGER OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC WAVES DUE TO NEWBORN INTERSTELLAR PICKUP IONS: 2–6 au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, Poornima [Electrical Engineering Department, Cooper Union, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Taylor, David K. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NH 12180 (United States); Smith, Charles W.; Joyce, Colin J.; Fisher, Meghan K.; Isenberg, Philip A.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Schwadron, Nathan A. [Physics Department and Space Science Center, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Cannon, Bradford E. [Physics Department, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Richardson, John D., E-mail: neema2000@gmail.com, E-mail: daves@orol.org, E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu, E-mail: cjl46@wildcats.unh.edu, E-mail: mkl54@wildcats.unh.edu, E-mail: Phil.Isenberg@unh.edu, E-mail: Bernie.Vasquez@unh.edu, E-mail: N.Schwadron@unh.edu, E-mail: bc13h@my.fsu.edu, E-mail: jdr@space.mit.edu [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 37-655, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-05-10

    We report observations by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft of low-frequency magnetic waves excited by newborn interstellar pickup ions H{sup +} and He{sup +} during 1978–1979 when the spacecraft were in the range from 2 to 6.3 au. The waves have the expected association with the cyclotron frequency of the source ions, are left-hand polarized in the spacecraft frame, and have minimum variance directions that are quasi-parallel to the local mean magnetic field. There is one exception to this in that one wave event that is excited by pickup H{sup +} is right-hand polarized in the spacecraft frame, but similar exceptions have been reported by Cannon et al. and remain unexplained. We apply the theory of Lee and Ip that predicts the energy spectrum of the waves and then compare growth rates with turbulent cascade rates under the assumption that turbulence acts to destroy the enhanced wave activity and transport the associated energy to smaller scales where dissipation heats the background plasma. As with Cannon et al., we find that the ability to observe the waves depends on the ambient turbulence being weak when compared with growth rates, thereby allowing sustained wave growth. This analysis implies that the coupled processes of pitch-angle scattering and wave generation are continuously associated with newly ionized pickup ions, despite the fact that the waves themselves may not be directly observable. When waves are not observed, but wave excitation can be argued to be present, the wave energy is simply absorbed by the turbulence at a rate that prevents significant accumulation. In this way, the kinetic process of wave excitation by scattering of newborn ions continues to heat the plasma without producing observable wave energy. These findings support theoretical models that invoke efficient scattering of new pickup ions, leading to turbulent driving in the outer solar wind and in the IBEX ribbon beyond the heliopause.

  18. Electromagnetically-induced nuclear-charge pickup observed in ultra-relativistic Pb collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidenberger, C.; Aumann, T.; Pshenichnov, I.A.; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

    2002-01-01

    A strong increase of inclusive nuclear-charge pickup cross sections, forming 83 Bi from 158 A GeV 82 Pb ions, is observed in comparison to similar measurements at 10.6 A GeV. From the dependence of these cross sections on target atomic number, this increase is attributed to the electromagnetic process of pion production by equivalent photons. The observed cross sections can be reproduced quantitatively using the recently developed RELDIS code. (orig.)

  19. First-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Galactic Signal Contamination from Sidelobe Pickup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C.; Hill, R. S.; Hinshaw, G.; Page, L.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

    2003-09-01

    Since the Galactic center is ~1000 times brighter than fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), CMB experiments must carefully account for stray Galactic pickup. We present the level of contamination due to sidelobes for the first-year CMB maps produced by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observatory. For each radiometer, full 4π sr antenna gain patterns are determined from a combination of numerical prediction and ground-based and space-based measurements. These patterns are convolved with the WMAP first-year sky maps and observatory scan pattern to generate the expected sidelobe signal contamination, for both intensity and polarized microwave sky maps. When the main beams are outside of the Galactic plane, we find rms values for the expected sidelobe pickup of 15, 2.1, 2.0, 0.3, and 0.5 μK for the K, Ka, Q, V, and W bands, respectively. Except for at the K band, the rms polarized contamination is the Galactic pickup are presented. WMAP is the result of a partnership between Princeton University and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific guidance is provided by the WMAP Science Team.

  20. Ac-loss measurement of coated conductors: The influence of the pick-up coil position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Curt

    2008-01-01

    The ac-loss measurement by the magnetization method requires calibration for obtaining absolute values. A convenient way of calibration is the calorimetric measurement which yields, within the measuring accuracy, absolute loss values. In the magnetization measurement the hysteresis loop of sample magnetization which determines the losses is measured via the integration of magnetic flux penetrating a pick-up coil. The ratio of flux integral to magnetization integral and hence the calibration factor is however, for a given pick-up coil geometry, not exactly a constant, but depends on the magnetization current pattern within the sample. Especially for thin tapes in perpendicular external field this effect has to be taken into consideration in order to avoid miss measurements. The relation between measured flux and sample magnetization was calculated for special cases of magnetization current distribution in the sample as a function of the pick-up coil position. Furthermore calibration factors were measured as a function of the ac-field amplitude and the result compared with available theoretical models. A good agreement was found between experiment and theory

  1. Survey of pickup ion signatures in the vicinity of Titan using CAPS/IMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoli, L. H.; Coates, A. J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Jones, G. H.; Roussos, E.; Waite, J. H.; Krupp, N.; Cox, G.

    2016-09-01

    Pickup ion detection at Titan is challenging because ion cyclotron waves are rarely detected in the vicinity of the moon. In this work, signatures left by freshly produced pickup heavy ions (m/q ˜ 16 to m/q ˜ 28) as detected in the plasma data by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer/Ion Mass Spectrometer (CAPS/IMS) instrument on board Cassini are analyzed. In order to discern whether these correspond to ions of exospheric origin, one of the flybys during which the reported signatures were observed is investigated in detail. For this purpose, ion composition data from time-of-flight measurements and test particle simulations to constrain the ions' origin are used. After being validated, the detection method is applied to all the flybys for which the CAPS/IMS instrument gathered valid data, constraining the region around the moon where the signatures are observed. The results reveal an escape region located in the anti-Saturn direction as expected from the nominal corotation electric field direction. These findings provide new constraints for the area of freshly produced pickup ion escape, giving an approximate escape rate of 3.3-2+3×1023 ions· s-1.

  2. Tracked "Pick-Up" Ultrasound for Robot-Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Caitlin; Nguan, Christopher; Rohling, Robert; Salcudean, Septimiu

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel "pick-up" ultrasound transducer for intraabdominal robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. Such a "pick-up" ultrasound transducer is inserted through an abdominal incision at the beginning of the procedure and remains in the abdominal cavity throughout, eliminating the need for a dedicated port or a patient bedside surgical assistant. The transducer has a handle that can be grasped in a repeatable manner using a da Vinci Prograsp tool, allowing the transducer to be accurately manipulated by the surgeon using the da Vinci Robot. This is one way to enable 3-D tracking of the transducer, and, thus, mapping of the vasculature. The 3-D vascular images can be used to register preoperative CT to intraoperative camera images. To demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, we use an ultrasound vessel phantom to register a CT surface model to extracted ultrasound vessel models. The 3-D vascular phantom images are generated by segmenting B-mode images and tracking the pick-up ultrasound transducer with the da Vinci kinematics, internal electromagnetic sensor, or visible fiducials suitable for camera tracking. Reconstruction results using da Vinci kinematics for tracking give a target registration error of 5.4 ± 1.7 mm.

  3. High-lying neutron hole strengths observed in pick-up reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gales, S.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron-hole states in orbits well below the Fermi surface have been observed in a number of medium-heavy nuclei from A=90 to 209 using one nucleon pick-up reactions. The excitation energies, angular distributions of such broad and enhanced structures will be discussed. The fragmentation of the neutron-hole strengths as well as the spreading of such simple mode of excitations into more complex states are compared to recent calculations within the quasiparticle-phonon or the single particle-vibration coupling nuclear models. We report on recent measurements of J for inner-hole states in 89 Zr and 115 Sn 119 Sn using the analyzing power of the (p,d) and (d,t) reactions. Large enhancement of cross-sections are observed at high excitation energy in the study of the (p,t) reactions on Zr, Cd, Sn, Te and Sm isotopes. The systematic features of such high-lying excitation are related to the ones observed in one neutron pick-up experiments. The origin of such concentration of two neutron-hole strengths in Cd and Sn isotopes will be discussed. Preliminary results obtained in the study of the (α, 6 He) reaction at 218 MeV incident energy on 90 Zr, 118 Sn and 208 Pb targets are presented and compared to the (p,t) results. Finally the properties of hole-analog states populated in neutron pick-up reactions (from 90 Zr to 208 Pb) will be presented

  4. A MEASUREMENT OF THE ADIABATIC COOLING INDEX FOR INTERSTELLAR HELIUM PICKUP IONS IN THE INNER HELIOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saul, Lukas; Wurz, Peter; Kallenbach, Reinald

    2009-01-01

    Interstellar neutral gas enters the inner heliosphere where it is ionized and becomes the pickup ion population of the solar wind. It is often assumed that this population will subsequently cool adiabatically, like an expanding ideal gas due, to the divergent flow of the solar wind. Here, we report the first independent measure of the effective adiabatic cooling index in the inner heliosphere from SOHO CELIAS measurements of singly charged helium taken during times of perpendicular interplanetary magnetic field. We use a simple adiabatic transport model of interstellar pickup helium ions, valid for the upwind region of the inner heliosphere. The time averaged velocity spectrum of helium pickup ions measured by CELIAS/CTOF is fit to this model with a single free parameter which indicates an effective cooling rate with a power-law index of γ = 1.35 ± 0.2. While this average is consistent with the 'ideal-gas' assumption of γ = 1.5, the analysis indicates that such an assumption will not apply in general, and that due to observational constraints further measurements are necessary to constrain the cooling process. Implications are discussed for understanding the transport processes in the inner heliosphere and improving this measurement technique.

  5. Interaction of intersteller pick-up ions with the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobius, E.; Klecker, B.; Hovestadt, D.; Scholer, M.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of interstellar pick-up ions with the solar wind is studied by comparing a model for the velocity distribution function of pick-up ions with actual measurements of He + ions in the solar wind. The model includes the effects of pitch-angle diffusion due to interplanetary Alfven waves, adiabatic deceleration in the expanding solar wind and the radial variation of the source function. It is demonstrated that the scattering mean free path is in the range ≤0.1 AU and that energy diffusion can be neglected as compared with adiabatic deceleration. The effects of adiabatic focusing, of the radial variation of the neutral density and of an variation of the solar wind velocity with distance from the Sun are investigated. With the correct choice of these parameters the authors can model the measured energy spectra of the pick-up ions does not vary with the solar wind velocity and the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field for a given local neutral gas density and ionization rate. Therefore, the comparison of the model distributions with the measurements leads to a quantitative determination of the local interstellar gas density

  6. Development of offroad unmanned dump truck navigation system. Dump truck mujin soko system no kaihatsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horii, Z [Nittetsu Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-08-25

    A large offroad unmanned dump truck navigation system has been developed, and is in practical operation mounted on dump trucks at Torigatayama Limestone Quarry of Nittetsu Mining Company. The system functions in a manual dump truck navigation mode, wireless navigation mode, and unmanned control mode. The unmanned control mode further includes a mode to navigate the truck on a predetermined course with its data having been input in a computer and a mode that when the truck was moved on a course under a wireless control, the computer learns the course and drives the truck autonomously thereafter. The safety measures are divided into the hardware safety function to detect abnormalities in brakes and other vehicle parts, and the software safety functions of data communications, sensor action check, and prevention of collision of trucks with each other. The system has resulted in a productivity of average one-way travel distance of 345 m, and average unmanned navigation cycle time of 9 minutes and 26 seconds for a transportation efficiency of 541 t/hour/truck, having reached at least the manned operation level. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. 75 FR 76518 - Volvo Trucks North America and Mack Trucks, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... manufactured from March 1, 2007 through December 11, 2009. A total of 1,916 affected Volvo trucks were... trucks were manufactured from March 1, 2007, through December 11, 2009. A total 1,287 affected Mack... that their petition, to exempt them from providing recall notification of noncompliance as required by...

  8. Truck Drivers' Use of the Internet: A Mobile Health Lifeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Karen; Combs, Bryan; Griffin, Russell

    2017-06-01

    Because of their social isolation, irregular and unpredictable schedules, limited access to health care, and long periods of travel, long-haul truckers may benefit from the use of mobile health applications on Internet-capable devices. The purpose of this study was to determine Internet access and usage among a sample of long-haul truck drivers. In this cross-sectional study, truck drivers completed a pencil and paper survey with questions on demographics, work and health histories, and Internet access and usage for both personal and job reasons. A total of 106 truck drivers were recruited from trucking industry trade shows, by word of mouth, and directly from trucking companies. Overall, the truck drivers' use of the Internet was limited. Their usage for personal and job-related reasons differed. Social connectivity and access to health and wellness information were important during personal usage time. Job-related Internet use was highly practical, and applied to seeking information for directions and maps, fuel stops and pricing, and communicating with employers or transmitting documents. Age and experience were associated with Internet use. Younger, less-experienced drivers used the Internet more than older, experienced drivers. Targeted mobile health messaging may be a useful tool to inform truck drivers of health conditions and plans, and may provide links to primary care providers needing to monitor or notify drivers of diagnostic results or treatment plans.

  9. Factors Affecting Accidents Risks among Truck Drivers In Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshamly Ahmed Fathalla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is ranked among the countries with the highest rates of road accidents. According to the American Chamber of Commerce more than 96% of Egypt's goods are transported by trucks and due to their large volume and excessive weight, the severity and number of truck accident fatalities are much higher than other vehicles in Egypt. The present study aims at identifying truck driver's behavior and its influence on crash involvement. Due to the shortage in recording accident data and the inaccurate road accident audit, data was collected from several governorates in Egypt through questionnaire. Questionnaire forms were filled out through personal interviews with truck drivers. The total number of respondents was 643. The final analysis was made on the 615 questionnaires with complete answers. The data was analyzed and logistic regression was applied to accident related data to examine the contributing factors affecting accident occurrence of truck drivers. Results showed that fatigue in terms of driving hours (continuous and total and lack of sleep, drug use during driving, and driver obesity are the most influencing factors on the occurrence of truck accidents in Egypt. The findings of this research highlight the important role human factors have on the risk of crash involvement amongst Egypt's truck drivers and the need to improve their work conditions.

  10. CETA truck and EVA restraint system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, David C.; Merson, Wayne R.

    1991-01-01

    The Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment is an extravehicular activity (EVA) Space Transportation System (STS) based flight experiment which will explore various modes of transporting astronauts and light equipment for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The basic elements of CETA are: (1) two 25 foot long sections of monorail, which will be EVA assembled in the STS cargo bay to become a single 50 ft. rail called the track; (2) a wheeled baseplate called the truck which rolls along the track and can accept three cart concepts; and (3) the three carts which are designated manual, electric, and mechanical. The three carts serve as the astronaut restraint and locomotive interfaces with the track. The manual cart is powered by the astronaut grasping the track's handrail and pulling himself along. The electric cart is operated by an astronaut turning a generator which powers the electric motor and drives the cart. The mechanical cart is driven by a Bendix type transmission and is similar in concept to a man-propelled railroad cart. During launch and landing, the truck is attached to the deployable track by means of EVA removable restraint bolts and held in position by a system of retractable shims. These shims are positioned on the exterior of the rail for launch and landing and rotate out of the way for the duration of the experiment. The shims are held in position by strips of Velcro nap, which rub against the sides of the shim and exert a tailored force. The amount of force required to rotate the shims was a major EVA concern, along with operational repeatability and extreme temperature effects. The restraint system was tested in a thermal-vac and vibration environment and was shown to meet all of the initial design requirements. Using design inputs from the astronauts who will perform the EVA, CETA evolved through an iterative design process and represented a cooperative effort.

  11. CUSTOMER'S PERCEPTION TOWARDS FOOD TRUCK PRODUCTS IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Ramakrishna Bandaru*, Prof. H. Venkateshwarlu

    2017-01-01

    Food Truck business is a very famous and a growing business in today’s time. Over the decade, every country in the world has been following the trend of the mobile food business. The silent feature of the food truck business is ‘customer reach and satisfaction’. Along with the increase in people living standards, ‘food on wheel’ business made a popular. According to IBIS World report, the food truck industry in the world has grown an average of 9.3% per year over the last five years. Slowly,...

  12. Projection of light-truck population to year 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The recent growth in the number of light trucks is a matter of considerable interest in that it may have far-reaching implications for gasoline consumption. This paper forecasts the number of light trucks in the years to 2025. The forecast is based on economic scenarios developed by SRI International. Except for the case of the most-dismal economic forecast, the number of light trucks is predicted to increase monotonically and to show the greatest rate of increase between 1973 and 1980.

  13. Modeling and Observation of Interstellar He+ Pickup Ions in the Inner Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhong

    Interstellar pickup ions constitute a charged particle population that originates from interstellar neutrals inside the heliosphere. They are produced by photoionization, charge exchange with solar wind ions, and electron impact ionization (EI). Once ionized, they are picked up by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and rapidly swept outward with the solar wind. Typically, pickup ion distributions have been described in terms of a velocity distribution function that evolves through fast pitch angle scattering followed by adiabatic cooling during radial transport in the reference frame of the solar wind [e.g., Vasyliunas & Siscoe, 1976, VS76 hereafter]. In the VS76 model, the slope of the isotropic velocity distributions is controlled by the combination of the ionization rate and the cooling process. Thus far, for the cooling index that relates the slope of the velocity distribution to the radial transport and expansion of the pickup ions a constant value of 3/2 has been widely used. The implicit assumptions to arrive at this value are immediate PUI isotropization due to pitch angle scattering and solar wind expansion with the square of the distance from the Sun. Any experimental determination of the cooling index depends on the knowledge of the ionization rate and its spatial variation, as well as solar wind and interplanetary conditions. In this thesis, we study their influences on the PUI cooling index and separate them by making use of the two complementary helium PUI data sets from SWICS instrument on the ACE spacecraft, and PLASTIC instrument on STEREO spacecraft. We use the pickup ion observations from ACE SIWCS in the last solar cycle to determine the cooling index, and the possible effects of the electron impact ionization on the determination of the cooling index. With pickup ion observations from STEREO PLASTIC, we determine how solar wind expansion patterns affect the cooling index. We find that the cooling index varies substantially with solar

  14. Pickup Ions in the Plasma Environments of Mars, Comets, and Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravens, T.; Rahmati, A.; Sakai, S.; Madanian, H.; Larson, D. E.; Lillis, R. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Goldstein, R.; Burch, J. L.; Clark, G. B.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ions created within a flowing plasma by ionization of neutrals respond to the electric and magnetic fields associated with the flow becoming what are called pick-up ions (PUI). PUI play an important role in many solar system plasma environments and affect the energy and momentum balance of the plasma flow. PUI have been observed during several recent space missions and PUI data will be compared and interpreted using models. Pick-up oxygen ions were observed in the solar wind upstream of Mars by the Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) and Solar Wind Ion Analyzer (SWIA) instruments on NASA's MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN) spacecraft. The pick-up oxygen ions are created when atoms in the hot corona are ionized by solar radiation and charge exchange with solar wind protons. The ion fluxes measured by SEP can constrain the oxygen escape rate from Mars. PUI were also been detected at distances of 10 - 100 km from the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko (67P/CG) by plasma instruments (IES and ICA) onboard the Rosetta Orbiter when the comet was at 3 AU. The newly-born cometary ions are accelerated by the solar wind motional electric field but remain un-magnetized, as suggested by pre-encounter models (Rubin et al., 2014). The inner magnetosphere of Saturn and the water plume of the icy satellite Enceladus provide a third example of PUI. H2O+ ions created by ionization of neutral water producing ions that are picked-up by the co-rotating magnetospheric plasma flow. These ions then undergo a complex interaction with the plume gas including collisions that convert most H2O+ ions to H3O+, as measured by the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft.

  15. An assessment of the waterside corrosion and hydrogen pick-up in the zircaloy-2 pressure tubes of PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the deleterious effect of hydriding on the operating life of zircaloy-2 pressure tubes in PHWRs there is an urgent need for the assessment of the status of the pressure tubes with respect to corrosion and hydrogen pick-up in the operating PHWRs. A model has been developed for analysing the waterside corrosion and hydrogen pick-up in the zircaloy-2 pressure tubes under reactor operating conditions. This model predicts the axial profiles of oxide layer thickness and hydrogen pick-up in the pressure tubes as a function of the operating time of the reactor. The prediction of hydrogen pick-up by the model in the F-10 pressure tube of RAPS-I have been found to be in good agreement with the measured value of hydrogen content. This report gives a brief description of the model and its predictions on the present status of hydrogen pick-up in the pressure tubes of lead reactor RAPS-II. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Commercial truck platooning demonstration in Texas – level 2 automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Through this project, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) funded the creation of a comprehensive truck platooning demonstration in Texas, serving as a proactive effort in assessing innovative operational strategies to position TxDOT as a l...

  17. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III : Trucks, Buses and Trains

    CERN Document Server

    Orellano, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International conference “The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III: Trucks, Buses and Trains” held in Potsdam, Germany, September 12-17, 2010 by Engineering Conferences International (ECI). Leading scientists and engineers from industry, universities and research laboratories, including truck and high-speed train manufacturers and operators were brought together to discuss computer simulation and experimental techniques to be applied for the design of more efficient trucks, buses and high-speed trains in the future.   This conference was the third in the series after Monterey-Pacific Groove in 2002 and Lake Tahoe in 2007.  The presentations address different aspects of train aerodynamics (cross wind effects, underbody flow, tunnel aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, experimental techniques), truck aerodynamics (drag reduction, flow control, experimental and computational techniques) as well as computational fluid dynamics and bluff body, wake and jet flows.

  18. Market capitalization of the trucking industry sector, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    This report focuses on the market valuation of the overall trucking industry sector and each segment within it. In the past, while the focus has been on stock price appreciation or depreciation, this report emphasizes market capitalization returns. S...

  19. On measuring the UNK SC-dipole bending strength with rotating pick-up coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, N.L.; Tikhov, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    The experience in measuring the SC-dipole bending strength with the spotting method shown this measurement to be the most complicated and expensive. A convenient and simple method of rotating pick-up coil, which can not provide the required accuracy, may be used for this measurement combined with NMR measurements in the dipole central part. The physical ground and description of the method are given in the paper. The analysis of the errors and measurement results of the SPDMI SC-dipoles are presented. 9 refs..; 7 figs

  20. An experimental study of odd mass promethium isotopes using proton stripping and pickup reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, O.

    1979-11-01

    Odd Pm isotopes have been studied by one proton pick-up and stripping reactions. Spin assignment and spectroscopic factors have been obtained for a number of energy levels. In the stripping reactions, the relative cross-sections have been measured with an unusually high precision by the use of a target of natural neodymium. The spectroscopic strengths have been extracted using standard distorted wave methods. The nuclear structures of these promethium isotopes fall into three categories. The spherical approach seems valid for 143 Pm and 145 Pm and the deformed regime covers 151 Pm and 153 Pm, while 147 Pm and 149 Pm remain as transitional nuclei. (Auth.)

  1. Musical instrument recordings made with a fiber Fabry-Perot cavity: photonic guitar pickup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Nicholas; Paz-Soldan, Daniel; Kung, Peter; Loock, Hans-Peter

    2010-04-10

    A 1 cm long, low-finesse fiber-optic cavity was used as a transducer for the vibrations of the soundboard of an acoustic guitar and of a violin. The reflected light is detected and then amplified and recorded using conventional audio instrumentation. The fiber-optic pickup is found to have a high response range in both amplitude (up to 100 microm displacement) and audio frequency (DC to 20 kHz) and good linearity up to a displacement of 225 microm. The audio noise is found to arise from the fiber-optic cables and, to a lesser extent, from the laser and laser driver.

  2. Crash risk factors for interstate large trucks in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Carter, Daniel L; Smith, Sarah; McCartt, Anne T

    2017-09-01

    Provide an updated examination of risk factors for large truck involvements in crashes resulting in injury or death. A matched case-control study was conducted in North Carolina of large trucks operated by interstate carriers. Cases were defined as trucks involved in crashes resulting in fatal or non-fatal injury, and one control truck was matched on the basis of location, weekday, time of day, and truck type. The matched-pair odds ratio provided an estimate of the effect of various driver, vehicle, or carrier factors. Out-of-service (OOS) brake violations tripled the risk of crashing; any OOS vehicle defect increased crash risk by 362%. Higher historical crash rates (fatal, injury, or all crashes) of the carrier were associated with increased risk of crashing. Operating on a short-haul exemption increased crash risk by 383%. Antilock braking systems reduced crash risk by 65%. All of these results were statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. Other safety technologies also showed estimated benefits, although not statistically significant. With the exception of the finding that short-haul exemption is associated with increased crash risk, results largely bolster what is currently known about large truck crash risk and reinforce current enforcement practices. Results also suggest vehicle safety technologies can be important in lowering crash risk. This means that as safety technology continues to penetrate the fleet, whether from voluntary usage or government mandates, reductions in large truck crashes may be achieved. Practical application: Results imply that increased enforcement and use of crash avoidance technologies can improve the large truck crash problem. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Aggregate Planning For Trucking Operation in Cikarang Dry Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Puspita Sari Utami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Cikarang Dry Port currently is the only dry port in Indonesia. This Dry Port has a role to connect or extend the Sea Port to the industrial areas located far from Sea Port. Thus, it creates a value added and also reduce costs. One of the operations done in Cikarang Dry Port is trucking operation. This research aims to examine the planning of 2014 trucking activity in Cikarang Dry Port to determine the right number of the truck that will be best occupied to manage all demands. The analysis begins with demand forecasting by using a moving average method of 12 months or one year period in 2013 which will be used as main information to develop the plans. There are three plans developed in this research. Based on the three plans, Plan A with minimum trucking plan with subcontracting is the most profitable which gives the highest profitability of Rp. 374,984,625. Recommendation for this research is using the current minimum number of 39 trucks rent with additional subcontracting when the demand is exceeding the capacity, thus, Cikarang Dry Port can occupy all demands and gain more profits. Keywords: Aggregate Planning; Scheduling; Trucking Operation; Moving Average; Cikarang Dry Port

  4. The Aggregate Planning For Trucking Operation in Cikarang Dry Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Puspita Sari Utami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Cikarang Dry Port currently is the only dry port in Indonesia. This Dry Port has a role to connect or extend the Sea Port to the industrial areas located far from Sea Port. Thus, it creates a value added and also reduce costs. One of the operations done in Cikarang Dry Port is trucking operation. This research aims to examine the planning of 2014 trucking activity in Cikarang Dry Port to determine the right number of the truck that will be best occupied to manage all demands. The analysis begins with demand forecasting by using a moving average method of 12 months or one year period in 2013 which will be used as main information to develop the plans. There are three plans developed in this research. Based on the three plans, Plan A with minimum trucking plan with subcontracting is the most profitable which gives the highest profitability of Rp. 374,984,625. Recommendation for this research is using the current minimum number of 39 trucks rent with additional subcontracting when the demand is exceeding the capacity, thus, Cikarang Dry Port can occupy all demands and gain more profits.Keywords: Aggregate Planning; Scheduling; Trucking Operation; Moving Average; Cikarang Dry Port

  5. Application of Chaos Theory in Trucks' Overloading Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mahmoudabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trucks' overloading is considered as one of the most substantial concerns in road transport due to a possible road surface damage, as well as, are less reliable performance of trucks' braking system. Sufficient human resource and adequate time scheduling are to be planned for surveying trucks' overloading; hence, it seems required to prepare an all-around model to be able to predict the number of overloaded vehicles. In the present research work, the concept of chaos theory has been utilized to predict the ratio of trucks which might be guessed overloaded. The largest Lyapunov exponent is utilized to determine the presence of chaos using experimental data and concluded that the ratio of overloaded trucks reflects chaotic behavior. The prediction based on chaos theory is compared with the results of simple smoothing and moving average methods according to the well-known criterion of mean square errors. The results have also revealed that the chaotic prediction model would act more capably comparing the analogous methods including simple smoothing and moving average to predict the ratio of passing trucks to be possibly overloaded.

  6. MCDA APPLIED TO PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL OF SHORT-HAUL TRUCK DRIVERS: A CASE STUDY IN A PORTUGUESE TRUCKING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Morte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance appraisal increasingly assumes a more important role in any organizational environment. In the trucking industry, drivers are the company's image and for this reason it is important to develop and increase their performance and commitment to the company's goals. This paper aims to create a performance appraisal model for trucking drivers, based on a multi-criteria decision aid methodology. The PROMETHEE and MMASSI methodologies were adapted using the criteria used for performance appraisal by the trucking company studied. The appraisal involved all the truck drivers, their supervisors and the company's Managing Director. The final output is a ranking of the drivers, based on their performance, for each one of the scenarios used. The results are to be used as a decision-making tool to allocate drivers to the domestic haul service.

  7. INTERSTELLAR PICKUP ION ACCELERATION IN THE TURBULENT MAGNETIC FIELD AT THE SOLAR WIND TERMINATION SHOCK USING A FOCUSED TRANSPORT APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Junye; Roux, Jakobus A. le; Arthur, Aaron D. [Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We study the physics of locally born interstellar pickup proton acceleration at the nearly perpendicular solar wind termination shock (SWTS) in the presence of a random magnetic field spiral angle using a focused transport model. Guided by Voyager 2 observations, the spiral angle is modeled with a q -Gaussian distribution. The spiral angle fluctuations, which are used to generate the perpendicular diffusion of pickup protons across the SWTS, play a key role in enabling efficient injection and rapid diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) when these particles follow field lines. Our simulations suggest that variation of both the shape ( q -value) and the standard deviation ( σ -value) of the q -Gaussian distribution significantly affect the injection speed, pitch-angle anisotropy, radial distribution, and the efficiency of the DSA of pickup protons at the SWTS. For example, increasing q and especially reducing σ enhances the DSA rate.

  8. Adaptation of topology optimization on truck-structure; Kinshitsukaho ni yoru iso saitekika shuho no truck kozo eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, H; Kojima, A; Chiba, S [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An optimization using the homogenization method has been applied to a truck-structure on the concept design stage. A truck-structure is grouped into 3 classes (thin plate structure , thick plate structure and solid structure), then example, effectiveness and method for the application for the purpose of weight reduction , high rigidity and high eigen-frequency are introduced. 3 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Liquefied Natural Gas for Trucks and Buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James Wegrzyn; Michael Gurevich

    2000-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a heavy vehicle fuel. The reason for developing LNG is to reduce our dependency on imported oil by eliminating technical and costs barriers associated with its usage. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a program, currently in its third year, to develop and advance cost-effective technologies for operating and refueling natural gas-fueled heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks). The objectives of the DOE Natural Gas Vehicle Systems Program are to achieve market penetration by reducing vehicle conversion and fuel costs, to increase consumer acceptance by improving the reliability and efficiency, and to improve air quality by reducing tailpipe emissions. One way to reduce fuel costs is to develop new supplies of cheap natural gas. Significant progress is being made towards developing more energy-efficient, low-cost, small-scale natural gas liquefiers for exploiting alternative sources of natural gas such as from landfill and remote gas sites. In particular, the DOE program provides funds for research and development in the areas of; natural gas clean up, LNG production, advanced vehicle onboard storage tanks, improved fuel delivery systems and LNG market strategies. In general, the program seeks to integrate the individual components being developed into complete systems, and then demonstrate the technology to establish technical and economic feasibility. The paper also reviews the importance of cryogenics in designing LNG fuel delivery systems

  10. Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1992-07-01

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate 1-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the.tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1300 degrees F and 1800 degrees F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk

  11. Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate I-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and assesses the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1,300 F and 1,800 F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk

  12. Health promotion in the trucking setting: Understanding Dutch truck drivers' road to healthy lifestyle changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeijinga, Anniek; Hoeken, Hans; Sanders, José

    2016-10-17

    The working environment, the nature of the work, and the characteristics of truck drivers as a social group typically pose great challenges for the truck drivers' health and health promotion activities aiming to improve it. The purpose was to obtain a better understanding of (a) Dutch truck drivers' perceptions of health and lifestyle themes, and (b) the challenges they experience in their pursuit of a more healthy lifestyle, as a guiding framework for the development of health interventions targeting this occupational group. In this qualitative study, we conducted and analyzed 20 semi-structured interviews and seven cases of participant observations with Dutch truck drivers. Grounded theory was used to analyze the data. Our findings illustrate that Dutch truck drivers wish to improve their lifestyle but have unproductive associations with concepts of healthy living as well as a tendency to downplay their health risks. In addition, they experience barriers within their work and personal environment that prevent them from translating their intentions into actual lifestyle changes. Based on the insights derived from the interviews, we discuss recommendations for the development of more effective health promotion interventions for truck drivers.

  13. Testbeam Studies on Pick-Up in Sensors with Embedded Pitch Adapters

    CERN Document Server

    Rehnisch, Laura; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Embedded pitch adapters are an alternative solution to external pitch adapters widely used to facilitate the wire-bonding step when connecting silicon strip sensors and readout electronics of different pitch. The pad-pitch adaption can be moved into the sensor fabrication step by implementing a second layer of metal tracks, connected by vias to the primary metal layer of sensor strips. Such a solution, however, might bear the risk of performance losses introduced by various phenomena. One of these effects, the undesired capacitive coupling between the silicon bulk and this second metal layer (pick-up) has been investigated in photon testbeam measurements. For a worst-case embedded pitch adapter design, expected to be maximally susceptible to pick-up, a qualitative analysis has visualized the effect as a function of the location on the second metal layer structure. It was further found that the unwanted effect decreases towards expected values for operating thresholds of the binary readout used. Suggestions fo...

  14. Seasonal variation of Martian pick-up ions: Evidence of breathing exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, M.; Hara, T.; Lundin, R.; Dubinin, E.; Fedorov, A.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Frahm, R. A.; Ramstad, R.; Futaana, Y.; Holmstrom, M.; Barabash, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars Express (MEX) Ion Mass Analyser (IMA) found that the detection rate of the ring-like distribution of protons in the solar wind outside of the bow shock to be quite different between Mars orbital summer (around perihelion) and orbital winter (around aphelion) for four Martian years, while the north-south asymmetry is much smaller than the perihelion-aphelion difference. Further analyses using eight years of MEX/IMA solar wind data between 2005 and 2012 has revealed that the detection frequency of the pick-up ions originating from newly ionized exospheric hydrogen with certain flux strongly correlates with the Sun-Mars distance, which changes approximately every two years. Variation due to the solar cycle phase is not distinguishable partly because this effect is masked by the seasonal variation under the MEX capability of plasma measurements. This finding indicates that the variation in solar UV has a major effect on the formation of the pick-up ions, but this is not the only controlling factor.

  15. New formulation and branch-and-cut algorithm for the pickup and delivery traveling salesman problem with multiple stacks: new formulation and branch-and-cut algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampaio Oliveira, A.H.; Urrutia, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the pickup and delivery traveling salesman problem with multiple stacks in which a single vehicle must serve a set of customer requests defined by a pair of pickup and delivery destinations of an item. The vehicle contains a fixed number of stacks, where each item is

  16. Demonstration of fleet trucks fueled with PV hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, J.; Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project has been installed at the Xerox Corporation, El Segundo, California site. Three Ford Ranger trucks have been converted to use hydrogen fuel. The ''stand- alone'' electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system is powered by a photovoltaic array with no connection to the power grid. A variable frequency DC/AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 hp motor for the hydrogen compressor. Up to 400 standard cubic meters (SCM) of solar hydrogen is stored, and storage of up to 2300 SCM of commercial hydrogen is collocated. As the hydrogen storage is within 5km of Los Angeles International Airport, pilot operation of a hydrogen fuel cell bus for airport shuttle service has been demonstrated with fueling at the CAN facility. The truck engine conversions are bored to 2.91 displacement, use a Roots type supercharger and CVI (constant volume injection) fuel induction to allow performance similar to that of the gasoline powered truck. Truck fuel storage is done with carbon composite tanks at pressures up to 24.8 MPa (3600 psi). Two tanks are located just behind the driver's cab, and take up nearly half of the truck bed space. The truck highway range is approximately 140 miles. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil emissions of CO and HC. NO x emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two Xerox fleet trucks have been converted, and one for the City of West Hollywood. The Clean Air Now Program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality. It further demonstrates that continued technological development and cost reduction will make such implementation competitive. (Author)

  17. Isotopic and velocity distributions of {sub 83}Bi produced in charge-pickup reactions of {sup 208}{sub 82}PB at 1 A GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelic, A.; Schmidt, K.H.; Enqvist, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (DE)] [and others

    2004-07-01

    Isotopically resolved cross sections and velocity distributions have been measured in charge-pickup reactions of 1 A GeV {sup 208}Pb with proton, deuterium and titanium target. The total and partial charge-pickup cross sections in the reactions {sup 208}Pb + {sup 1}H and {sup 208}Pb + {sup 2}H are measured to be the same in the limits of the error bars. A weak increase in the total charge-pickup cross section is seen in the reaction of {sup 208}Pb with the titanium target. The measured velocity distributions show different contributions - quasi-elastic scattering and {delta}-resonance excitation - to the charge-pickup production. Data on total and partial charge-pickup cross sections from these three reactions are compared with other existing data and also with model calculations based on the coupling of different intra-nuclear cascade codes and an evaporation code. (orig.)

  18. Experimental Measurement of the Flow Field of Heavy Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Browand; Charles Radovich

    2005-05-31

    Flat flaps that enclose the trailer base on the sides and top are known to reduce truck drag and reduce fuel consumption. Such flapped-truck geometries have been studied in laboratory wind tunnels and in field tests. A recent review of wind tunnel data for a variety of truck geometries and flow Reynolds numbers show roughly similar values of peak drag reduction, but differ in the determination of the optimum flap angle. Optimum angles lie in the range 12 degrees-20 degrees, and may be sensitive to Reynolds number and truck geometry. The present field test is undertaken to provide additional estimates of the magnitude of the savings to be expected on a typical truck for five flap angles 10, 13, 16, 19, and 22 degrees. The flaps are constructed from a fiberglass-epoxy-matrix material and are one-quarter of the base width in length (about 61 cm, or 2 feet). They are attached along the rear door hinge lines on either side of the trailer, so that no gap appears at the joint between the flap and the side of the trailer The flap angle is adjusted by means of two aluminum supports. The present test is performed on the NASA Crows Landing Flight Facility at the northern end of the San Joaquin valley in California. The main runway is approximately 2400 meters in length, and is aligned approximately in a north-south direction The test procedure is to make a series of runs starting at either end of the runway. All runs are initiated under computer control to accelerate the truck to a target speed of 60 mph (96 6 km/hr), to proceed at the target speed for a fixed distance, and to decelerate at the far end of the runway. During a run, the broadcast fuel rate, the engine rpm, forward speed, elapsed time--as well as several other parameters (10 in all)--are digitized at a rate of 100 digitizations per second. Various flapped-conditions are interspersed with the ''no flaps'' control, and are sequenced in a different order on different days. Approximately 310 runs

  19. Measuring Timber Truck Loads With Image Processing In Paper Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M. Santos; Carvalho, Fernando D.; Rodrigues, F. Carvalho; Goncalves, Ana N. R.

    1989-04-01

    The raw material for the paper industry is wood. To have an exact account of the stock of piled sawn tree trunks every truck load entering the plant's stockyard must be measured as to the amount of wood being brought in. Weighting down the trucks has its own problems, mainly, due to the high capacity of the tree trunks to absorb water. This problem is further enhanced when calculations must be made to arrive at the mass of sawn tree trunks which must go into the process of producing a certain quantity of paper pulp. The method presented here is based on two fixed cameras which take the image of the truck load. One takes a view of the trunks in order to get information on the average length of the tree trunks. The other obtains a side view which is digitised and by just discriminating against a grey level the area covered by the tree trunk cross section is measured. A simple arithmetic operation gives the volume of wood in the trunk. The same computer, a PC, will register the trucks particulars is almost independent of weather the wood is wet or dry and it serves trucks of any size.

  20. Acceptance test report for core sample trucks 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Report is to provide documentation for the acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4, designated as HO-68K-4600 and HO-68K-4647, respectively. This report conforms to the guidelines established in WHC-IP-1026, ''Engineering Practice Guidelines,'' Appendix M, ''Acceptance Test Procedures and Reports.'' Rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4 were based upon the design of the second core sample truck (HO-68K-4345) which was constructed to implement rotary mode sampling of the waste tanks at Hanford. Successful completion of acceptance testing on June 30, 1995 verified that all design requirements were met. This report is divided into four sections, beginning with general information. Acceptance testing was performed on trucks 3 and 4 during the months of March through June, 1995. All testing was performed at the ''Rock Slinger'' test site in the 200 West area. The sequence of testing was determined by equipment availability, and the initial revision of the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) was used for both trucks. Testing was directed by ICF-KH, with the support of WHC Characterization Equipment Engineering and Characterization Project Operations. Testing was completed per the ATP without discrepancies or deviations, except as noted

  1. Heliospheric pick-up ions influencing thermodynamics and dynamics of the distant solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Fahr

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutral interstellar H-atoms penetrate into the inner heliosphere and upon the event of ionization are converted into pick-up ions (PUIs. The magnetized solar wind flow incorporates these ions into the plasma bulk and enforces their co-motion. By nonlinear interactions with wind-entrained Alfvén waves, these ions are then processed in the comoving velocity space. The complete pick-up process is connected with forces acting back to the original solar wind ion flow, thereby decelerating and heating the solar wind plasma. As we show here, the resulting deceleration cannot be treated as a pure loading effect, but requires adequate consideration of the action of the pressure of PUI-scattered waves operating by the PUI pressure gradient. Hereby, it is important to take into proper account the stochastic acceleration which PUIs suffer from at their convection out of the inner heliosphere by quasi-linear interactions with MHD turbulences. Only then can the presently reported VOYAGER observations of solar wind decelerations and heatings in the outer heliosphere be understood in view of the most likely values of interstellar gas parameters, such as an H-atom density of 0.12 cm-3 . Solar wind protons (SWPs appear to be globally heated in their motion to larger solar distances. Ascribing the needed heat transfer to the action of suprathermal PUIs, which drive MHD waves that are partly absorbed by SWPs, in order to establish the observed SWP polytropy, we can obtain a quantitative expression for the solar wind proton pressure as a function of solar distance. This expression clearly shows the change from an adiabatic to a quasi-polytropic SWP behaviour with a decreasing polytropic index at increasing distances. This also allows one to calculate the average percentage of initial pick-up energy fed into the thermal proton energy. In a first order evaluation of this expression, we can estimate that about 10% of the initial PUI injection energy is eventually

  2. The role of charge-exchange cross-section for pickup protons and neutrals in the inner heliosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalov, S. V.

    2018-06-01

    The process of deceleration of the solar wind downstream of the termination shock is studied on the basis of a one-dimensional multi-component model. It is assumed that the solar wind consists of thermal protons, electrons and interstellar pickup protons. The protons interact with interstellar hydrogen atoms by charge-exchange. Two cases are considered. In the first one, the charge-exchange cross-section for thermal protons and hydrogen atoms is the same as for pickup protons and atoms. Under this condition, there is a strong dependence of the solar wind velocity on the downstream temperature of pickup protons. When the proton temperature is close to 10 keV, the change in the velocity with the distance from the termination shock is similar to that measured on the Voyager 1 spacecraft: linear velocity decrease is accompanied by an extended transition region with near-zero velocity. However, with a more careful approach to the choice of the charge-exchange cross-section, the situation changes dramatically. The strong dependence of the solar wind speed on the pickup proton temperature disappears and the transition region in the heliosheath disappears as well, at least at reasonable distances from the TS.

  3. An adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for the pickup and delivery problem with time Windows and scheduled lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghilas, V.; Demir, E.; van Woensel, T.

    2016-01-01

    The Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows and Scheduled Lines (PDPTW-SL) concerns scheduling a set of vehicles to serve freight requests such that a part of the journey can be carried out on a scheduled public transportation line. Due to the complexity of the problem, which is NP-hard, we

  4. 49 CFR 1242.76 - Administration; pickup and delivery, marine line haul, and rail substitute service; loading...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... haul, and rail substitute service; loading, unloading and local marine; protective services; freight... SEPARATION OF COMMON OPERATING EXPENSES BETWEEN FREIGHT SERVICE AND PASSENGER SERVICE FOR RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.76 Administration; pickup and delivery, marine line haul, and rail...

  5. An Inventory-Routing Problem with Pickups and Deliveries Arising in the Replenishment of Automated Teller Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Anholt, Roel G.; Coelho, Leandro C.; Laporte, Gilbert; Vis, Iris F. A.

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce, model, and solve a rich multiperiod inventory-routing problem with pickups and deliveries motivated by the replenishment of automated teller machines in the Netherlands. Commodities can be brought to and from the depot, as well as being exchanged among

  6. An inventory-routing problem with pickups and deliveries arising in the replenishment of automated teller machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Anholt, Roel G.; Coelho, Leandro C.; Laporte, Gilbert; Vis, Iris F.A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce, model, and solve a rich multiperiod inventory-routing problem with pickups and deliveries motivated by the replenishment of automated teller machines in the Netherlands. Commodities can be brought to and from the depot, as well as being exchanged among

  7. Supplying of Assembly Lines Using Train of Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čujan, Zdeněk; Fedorko, Gabriel

    2016-11-01

    The typical supply system conceptions, i.e. the concepts "Just-in-time" (JIT) and "Just-in-sequence" (JIS) are very important factors with regard to a fluent operation of the assembly lines. Therefore the contemporary intra plant transport systems are being replaced by a new kind of the transportation technology, namely by means of the trains of trucks. The trains of trucks are used in two possible operational modes: either with a driver or without driver (fully automated). The trucks of the logistic trains are also cheaper and they are able to carry a larger volume and mass of the material at once. There are reduced in this way not only the investment costs, but also the operational expenses.

  8. Safety climate and the distracted driving experiences of truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Pollack, Keshia M; Agnew, Jacqueline

    2015-07-01

    For truck drivers, distracted driving is a workplace behavior that increases occupational injury risk. We propose safety climate as an appropriate lens through which researchers can examine occupational distracted driving. Using a mixed methods study design, we surveyed truck drivers using the Safety Climate Questionnaire (SCQ) complemented by semi-structured interviews of experts on distracted driving and truck safety. Safety climate was assessed by using the entire SCQ as an overall climate score, followed by factor analysis that identified the following safety climate factors: Communications and Procedures; Management Commitment; and Work Pressure. In multivariate regression, the overall safety climate scale was associated with having ever experienced a crash and/or distraction-involved swerving. Interview participants described how these SCQ constructs could affect occupational distracted driving. To reduce distraction-related crashes in their organizations, management can adhere to safe policies and procedures, invest in engineering controls, and develop safer communication procedures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Review of theoretical conceptions on regimes of oxidation and hydrogen pickup in Zr-alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhanskii, V.; Evdokimov, I.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the following issues are presented: 1) Experimental observations published in the journals on corrosion regimes of zirconium alloys of various compositions both for ex-pile oxidation experiments and for in-pile operating conditions of the materials. Factors experimentally stated on the effect of alloying composition, microstructure and texture on the rate of uniform corrosion and susceptibility of alloys to nodular corrosion. 2) Phenomenological models existing in publications, which describe conditions of uniform and nodular corrosion for Zr-alloys of various composition and microstructures, effect of irradiation and oxidizing medium; 3) Experimental data and phenomenological models describing regimes of hydrogen absorption in zirconium alloys; 4) Examples of application of physical models in explaining regimes, peculiarities of oxidation and hydrogen pickup for zirconium claddings of various alloying composition and microstructure

  10. Automatic pickup of arrival time of channel wave based on multi-channel constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Li

    2018-03-01

    Accurately detecting the arrival time of a channel wave in a coal seam is very important for in-seam seismic data processing. The arrival time greatly affects the accuracy of the channel wave inversion and the computed tomography (CT) result. However, because the signal-to-noise ratio of in-seam seismic data is reduced by the long wavelength and strong frequency dispersion, accurately timing the arrival of channel waves is extremely difficult. For this purpose, we propose a method that automatically picks up the arrival time of channel waves based on multi-channel constraints. We first estimate the Jaccard similarity coefficient of two ray paths, then apply it as a weight coefficient for stacking the multichannel dispersion spectra. The reasonableness and effectiveness of the proposed method is verified in an actual data application. Most importantly, the method increases the degree of automation and the pickup precision of the channel-wave arrival time.

  11. Ship Routing with Pickup and Delivery for a Maritime Oil Transportation System: MIP Modeland Heuristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Vinicius Picanco; Morabito, Reinaldo; Yamashita, Denise

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines a ship routing problem with pickup and delivery and time windowsfor maritime oil transportation, motivated by the production and logistics activities of an oil companyoperating in the Brazilian coast. The transportation costs from offshore platforms to coastal terminalsare...... application of two tailor-made MIP heuristics, based on relax-and-fix and timedecomposition procedures. The model minimizes fuel costs of a heterogeneous fleet of oil tankersand costs related to freighting contracts. The model also considers company-specific constraints foroffshore oil transportation....... Computational experiments based on the mathematical models and therelated MIP heuristics are presented for a set of real data provided by the company, which confirmthe potential of optimization-based methods to find good solutions for problems of moderate sizes....

  12. Simulated annealing with restart strategy for the blood pickup routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, V. F.; Iswari, T.; Normasari, N. M. E.; Asih, A. M. S.; Ting, H.

    2018-04-01

    This study develops a simulated annealing heuristic with restart strategy (SA_RS) for solving the blood pickup routing problem (BPRP). BPRP minimizes the total length of the routes for blood bag collection between a blood bank and a set of donation sites, each associated with a time window constraint that must be observed. The proposed SA_RS is implemented in C++ and tested on benchmark instances of the vehicle routing problem with time windows to verify its performance. The algorithm is then tested on some newly generated BPRP instances and the results are compared with those obtained by CPLEX. Experimental results show that the proposed SA_RS heuristic effectively solves BPRP.

  13. Determining the Interstellar Wind Longitudinal Inflow Evolution Using Pickup Ions in the Helium Focusing Cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, S. A.; Gilbert, J. A.; Lepri, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    We propose to determine the longitudinal inflow direction of the local interstellar medium through the Heliosphere. This longitudinal inflow direction directly correlates to the longitudinal direction of the helium focusing cone with respect to the Sun. We can calculate this direction by finding the He+ pickup ion density peak as mass spectrometers such as ACE/SWICS, Wind/STICS, and Helios/Micrometeoroid Detector and Analyzer pass through the focusing cone. Mapping from the location of this density peak to the Sun, around which the helium is focused, will directly yield the desired longitudinal direction. We will find this direction for each year since the first measurements in the 1970s through the present and thereby analyze its evolution over time. This poster outlines our proposed method and initial results.

  14. Comet 73P Measurements of Solar Wind Interactions, Cometary Ion Pickup, and Spatial Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, J. A.; Lepri, S. T.; Rubin, M.; Combi, M. R.; Zurbuchen, T.

    2015-12-01

    Several fragments of Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 passed near the Earth following a 2006 disintegration episode. Unique measurements regarding the charge state composition and the elemental abundances of both cometary and heliospheric plasma were made during this time by both the ACE/SWICS and Wind/STICS sensors. As the solar wind passed through the neutral cometary coma, it experienced charge exchange that was observed as an increase in the ratio of He+/He++. In addition, particles originating from fragments trailing the major cometary objects were ionized and picked up by the solar wind. The cometary material can be identified by the concentrations of water-group pickup ions having a mass-per-charge ratio of 16-18 amu/e, indicating that these are actively sublimating fragments. Here we present an analysis of cometary composition, spatial distribution, directionality, and heliospheric interactions with a focus on Helium, Carbon (C/O), and water-group ions.

  15. A Mutualism Quantum Genetic Algorithm to Optimize the Flow Shop Scheduling with Pickup and Delivery Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mutualism quantum genetic algorithm (MQGA is proposed for an integrated supply chain scheduling with the materials pickup, flow shop scheduling, and the finished products delivery. The objective is to minimize the makespan, that is, the arrival time of the last finished product to the customer. In MQGA, a new symbiosis strategy named mutualism is proposed to adjust the size of each population dynamically by regarding the mutual influence relation of the two subpopulations. A hybrid Q-bit coding method and a local speeding-up method are designed to increase the diversity of genes, and a checking routine is carried out to ensure the feasibility of each solution; that is, the total physical space of each delivery batch could not exceed the capacity of the vehicle. Compared with the modified genetic algorithm (MGA and the quantum-inspired genetic algorithm (QGA, the effectiveness and efficiency of the MQGA are validated by numerical experiments.

  16. Challenges in the determination of the interstellar flow longitude from the pickup ion cutoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taut, A.; Berger, L.; Möbius, E.; Drews, C.; Heidrich-Meisner, V.; Keilbach, D.; Lee, M. A.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2018-03-01

    Context. The interstellar flow longitude corresponds to the Sun's direction of movement relative to the local interstellar medium. Thus, it constitutes a fundamental parameter for our understanding of the heliosphere and, in particular, its interaction with its surroundings, which is currently investigated by the Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX). One possibility to derive this parameter is based on pickup ions (PUIs) that are former neutral ions that have been ionized in the inner heliosphere. The neutrals enter the heliosphere as an interstellar wind from the direction of the Sun's movement against the partially ionized interstellar medium. PUIs carry information about the spatial variation of their neutral parent population (density and flow vector field) in their velocity distribution function. From the symmetry of the longitudinal flow velocity distribution, the interstellar flow longitude can be derived. Aim. The aim of this paper is to identify and eliminate systematic errors that are connected to this approach of measuring the interstellar flow longitude; we want to minimize any systematic influences on the result of this analysis and give a reasonable estimate for the uncertainty. Methods: We use He+ data measured by the PLAsma and SupraThermal Ion Composition (PLASTIC) sensor on the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory Ahead (STEREO A) spacecraft. We analyze a recent approach, identify sources of systematic errors, and propose solutions to eliminate them. Furthermore, a method is introduced to estimate the error associated with this approach. Additionally, we investigate how the selection of interplanetary magnetic field angles, which is closely connected to the pickup ion velocity distribution function, affects the result for the interstellar flow longitude. Results: We find that the revised analysis used to address part of the expected systematic effects obtains significantly different results than presented in the previous study. In particular

  17. On the Stability of Pick-up Ion Ring Distributions in the Outer Heliosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerlin, Errol J.; Viñas, Adolfo F.; Moore, Thomas E.; Christian, Eric R.; Cooper, John F.

    2014-10-01

    The "secondary energetic neutral atom (ENA)" hypothesis for the ribbon feature observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) posits that the neutral component of the solar wind continues beyond the heliopause and charge exchanges with interstellar ions in the Outer Heliosheath (OHS). This creates pick-up ions that gyrate about the draped interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) lines at pitch angles near 90° on the locus where the ISMF lies tangential to the heliopause and perpendicular to the heliocentric radial direction. This location closely coincides with the location of the ribbon feature according to the prevailing inferences of the ISMF orientation and draping. The locally gyrating ions undergo additional charge exchange and escape as free-flying neutral atoms, many of which travel back toward the inner solar system and are imaged by IBEX as a ribbon tracing out the locus described above. For this mechanism to succeed, the pick-up ions must diffuse in pitch angle slowly enough to permit secondary charge exchange before their pitch angle distribution substantially broadens away from 90°. Previous work using linear Vlasov dispersion analysis of parallel propagating waves has suggested that the ring distribution in the OHS is highly unstable, which, if true, would make the secondary ENA hypothesis incapable of rendering the observed ribbon. In this paper, we extend this earlier work to more realistic ring distribution functions. We find that, at the low densities necessary to produce the observed IBEX ribbon via the secondary ENA hypothesis, growth rates are highly sensitive to the temperature of the beam and that even very modest temperatures of the ring beam corresponding to beam widths of distributions necessary to produce the observed IBEX ENA flux via the secondary ENA hypothesis will be unstable to their own self-generated turbulence.

  18. Modelling of interplanetary pickup ion fluxes and relevance for LISM parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahr, H.J.; Rucinski, D.

    1989-01-01

    It has been known for many years that neutral interstellar atoms enter the solar system from the upwind side and penetrate deep into the inner heliosphere. Helium atoms, in particular, advance towards very small solar distances before they are ionized and then again convected as He - pickup ions outwards with the solar wind. Since these ions were recently detected in space, we concentrate here on calculations of He + production rates and He + fluxes. It is shown that inside 1 a.u., the He - production is essentially determined both by solar e.u.v. photoionization and by electron impact ionization. We calculate He + production rates as a function of space coordinates, taking into account the core-halo structure of the energy distribution of solar wind electrons and their temperature distribution with distance according to relevant solar wind models. For this purpose, a newly developed program to compute He densities was used. In contrast to the production of H + , the He - production rates are found to be higher on the downwind axis than on the upwind axis by a factor of 5. We also determine partial and total He + ion fluxes as a function of solar distance and longitude. It is interesting to note that only the values for total fluxes agree well with the integrated He + fluxes measured by the SULEICA experiment aboard the AMPTE satellite. This indicates that pickup ions under the influence of the intrinsic MHD wave turbulence in the solar wind change their primary seed distribution function by rapid pitch-angle scattering and subsequent adiabatic cooling. To interpret the He + intensity profile along the orbit of the Earth in terms of LISM helium parameters, we point to the need to take into account carefully electron impact ionization in order to prevent misinterpretations. (author)

  19. Could Expanded Freight Rail Reduce Air Pollution from Trucks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, E. E.; Holloway, T.; Johnston, M.

    2010-12-01

    Cars, trucks and trains are a significant source of emissions that impact both climate and air quality on regional to global scales. Diesel vehicles, most used for freight transport, account for 42% of on-road nitrogen oxide emissions, 58% of on-road fine particulate emissions, and 21% of on-road carbon dioxide emissions. With freight tonnage projected to increase 28% by 2018, and freight trucks the fastest growing source of transportation emissions, we evaluate the potential for increased rail capacity to reduce the environmental impacts of trucks. Most widely available mobile source emissions inventories contain insufficient spatial detail to quantify realistic emission scenario options, and none to date have been linked with commodity flow information in a manner appropriate to consider the true potential of rail substitution. To support a truck-to-rail analysis, and other policy assessments requiring roadway-by-roadway analysis, we have developed a freight emissions inventory for the Upper Midwest based on the Federal Highway Administration’s Freight Analysis Framework version 2.2 and the Environmental Protection Agency’s on-road emissions model, Mobile6.2. Using a Geographical Information System (GIS), we developed emissions scenarios for truck-to-rail modal shifts where 95% of freight tonnage on trips longer than 400 miles is shifted off of trucks and onto railways. Scenarios will be analyzed with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) regional model to assess air quality impacts of associated changes. By using well-respected transportation data and realistic assumptions, results from this study have the potential to inform decisions on transportation sustainability, carbon management, public health, and air quality.

  20. Heavy truck modeling for fuel consumption. Simulations and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, T.

    2001-12-01

    Fuel consumption for heavy trucks depends on many factors like roads, weather, and driver behavior that are hard for a manufacturer to influence. However, one design possibility is the power train configuration. Here a new simulation program for heavy trucks is created to find the configuration of the power train that gives the lowest fuel consumption for each transport task. For efficient simulations the model uses production code for speed and gear control, and it uses exchangeable data sets to allow simulation of the whole production range of engine types, on recorded road profiles from all over the world. Combined with a graphical user interface this application is called STARS (Scania Truck And Road Simulation). The forces of rolling resistance and air resistance in the model are validated through an experiment where the propeller shaft torque of a heavy truck is measured. It is found that the coefficient of rolling resistance is strongly dependent on tire temperature, not only on vehicle speed as expected. This led to the development of a new model for rolling resistance. The model includes the dynamic behavior of the tires and relates rolling resistance to tire temperature and vehicle speed. In another experiment the fuel consumption of a test truck in highway driving is measured. The altitude of the road is recorded with a barometer and used in the corresponding simulations. Despite of the limited accuracy of this equipment the simulation program manage to predict a level of fuel consumption only 2% lower than the real measurements. It is concluded that STARS is a good tool for predicting fuel consumption for trucks in highway driving and for comparing different power train configurations.

  1. Roadmap and technical white papers for the 21st century truck partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-12-01

    21st Century Truck Partnership will support the development and implementation of technologies that will cut fuel use and emissions and enhance safety, affordability, and performance of trucks and buses.

  2. Contributions of Diesel Truck Emissions to Indoor Elemental Carbon Concentrations in Home Proximate to Ambassador Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambassador Bridge, connecting Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, is the busiest international commercial vehicle crossing in North America, with a large percentage of heavy duty diesel trucks. This study seeks to examine the contribution of diesel truck traffic across Ambass...

  3. 27 CFR 24.229 - Tank car and tank truck requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.229 Tank car and tank truck requirements. Railroad tank cars and tank trucks used to transport spirits for use in wine production will be constructed...

  4. Estimation and analysis of multifactor productivity in truck transportation : 1987 - 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The analysis has three objectives: 1) to estimate multifactor : productivity (MFP) in truck transportation during : 1987-2003; 2) to examine changes in multifactor productivity : in U.S. truck transportation, over time, and : to compare these changes...

  5. Managing truck arrivals with time windows to alleviate gate congestion at container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, G.; Govindan, Kannan; Yang, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries into gro......Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries...... into groups and assigning different time windows to the groups. The proposed VDTWs method includes three steps: (1) predicting truck arrivals based on the time window assignment, (2) estimating the queue length of trucks, and (3) optimizing the arrangement of time windows to minimize the total cost...

  6. Factors affecting driver alertness during the operation of haul trucks in the South African mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the seriousness of haul trucks accidents, SIMRAC initiated research to identify factors affecting haul truck driver alertness during mining operations. The information obtained during the risk analysis was used to identify possible...

  7. 76 FR 59166 - Navistar Truck Development and Technology Center, a Subsidiary of Navistar International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Development and Technology Center, a Subsidiary of Navistar International Corporation Truck Division, Fort... International Corporation, Truck Division, Fort Wayne, Indiana (subject firm). The negative determination was... is a headcount reduction across the nation, made possible by the Global Outsourcing. * * * '' The...

  8. Optimization of Front Axle Suspension System of Articulated Dump Truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Christensen, Brian B.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2010-01-01

    that has been subjected to comfort improvement is a two axle articulated dump truck. The comfort has been in terms of whole body vibration exposure and the overall improvement has been made possible by adding front axle suspension. However, a hydraulic stabilizing system between the tractor and trailer...... to evaluate the whole body vibrations. By use of a multibody simulation model of the dump truck the whole body vibration exposure has been computed using the predefined work cycle as model input. The design parameters comprise the components of the hydraulic subsystem of the suspension, i.e., the size...

  9. Customer expectations and current offers from food trucks in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, An

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to determine whether there is a gap between what customers expect and what the food trucks in Helsinki offers in term of diversity of products, price, time and location of service. Do the current offers match with what customers would like to have? The food truck concept has a long history and since 2008 became an international phenomenon. However, it is still relatively young in Helsinki. There are concerted efforts from different parties included the city’s au...

  10. Disruption management for truck appointment system at a container terminal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, N.; Chen, Gang; Jin, Z.

    2016-01-01

    -appointed arrivals at a container terminal that is running an appointment system. Second, we propose some response strategies to cope with different levels of disruptions, and evaluate their resilience ability with two Key Performance Indicators (KPIs): total waiting time of on-time trucks and total idling emissions...... of all trucks, in order to balance the service quality to punctual arrivals and green performance of the whole system. Third, we conduct a sensitivity analysis using a discrete event simulation to understand the performance of the proposed strategies. Considering both KPIs, the best strategy in most......-crane moving distance, especially when the first KPI is given lower weight than the second one....

  11. Impact of Platon ETC system on intercity trucking cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogotovkina Natalya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 Platon ETC System, a system of charging trucks with gross vehicle weight exceeding 12 tons, was implemented in Russia. The payment is collected as a compensation fo0 the damage caused to the federal public roads. Platon system is an additional source of financing for the road sector. However, its implementation made the carriers face the increasing costs. This paper presents the first results of the system functioning and the problems, associated with it. We consider the foreign systems of truck charging. The results of calculations, which show the effect of the toll collection on the prime cost of road freight transportation, are also presented.

  12. Real-time pedestrian detection in a Truck's blind spot camera

    OpenAIRE

    Van Beeck, Kristof; Goedemé, Toon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a multi-pedestrian detection and tracking framework targeting a specific application: detecting vulnerable road users in a truck's blind spot zone. Research indicates that existing non-vision based safety solutions are not able to handle this problem completely. Therefore we aim to develop an active safety system which warns the truck driver if pedestrians are present in the truck's blind spot zone. Our system solely uses the vision input from the truck's blind spot c...

  13. Planning of Truck Platoons: a Literature Review and Directions for Future Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kishore Bhoopalam (Anirudh); N.A.H. Agatz (Niels); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractA truck platoon is a set of virtually linked trucks that drive closely behind one another using automated driving technology. Benefits of truck platooning include cost savings, reduced emissions, and more efficient utilization of road capacity. To fully reap these benefits in the initial

  14. Effects of Variation in Truck Factor on Pavement Performance in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Chaudry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation coupled with heavy axle loading is the key factor in rapid road deterioration in Pakistan. The serviceability loss is further accelerated by the fact that truck drivers and owners consider overloading as a profitable practice unaware of the adverse effects of this practice. Weigh-in-motion data from two stations located between two major cities of Pakistan (Peshawar and Rawalpindi on Grand Trunk Road (N-5 were collected and analyzed. Analysis of variance and comparison of actual and designed truck factor were performed to identify the most damaging axle truck type. It was found that axle truck type 3 (single/tandem axle is most damaging among all truck types. The actual truck factor for axle truck type 3 is 6.4 times greater than design truck factor. Regression expressions of different forms were also investigated to determine the relationship between truck factor and gross vehicular weight for the specified truck types. An optimum generalization strategy was used to prevent over-generalization and ensure accuracy. For data analysis, 75% of data was used to develop regression models and remaining 25% was to validate those models. The results show that the polynomial expressions performed best and provide a robust relationship that can be employed by the highway authorities to estimate truck factor from gross vehicular weight with a high degree of confidence. It was also observed that damaging effect of various types of trucks was very severe and quite high.

  15. 75 FR 56651 - ITS Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ITS Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology... Transportation. ACTION: Notice. The Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition (TIMTC) Annual [[Page 56652...: Beating Gridlock with a Smart Grid; U.S. DOT Truck Technology Initiatives; and State and Federal...

  16. Scheduling Trucks in a Cross-Dock with Mixed Service Mode Dock Doors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodnar, Peter; Azadeh, Kaveh; Koster, René de

    2017-01-01

    The problem considered in this paper is how to schedule inbound and outbound trucks subject to time windows at a multidoor cross-dock. Dock doors can either be dedicated to inbound or outbound trucks or be capable of handling both truck types. In addition, loads are allowed to be temporarily...

  17. 49 CFR 230.100 - Defects in tender truck axles and journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defects in tender truck axles and journals. 230... Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.100 Defects in tender truck axles and journals. (a... wheel seats that is more than 1/8 of an inch in depth. (b) Tender truck journal condemning defects...

  18. Lubricant Film Breakdown and Material Pick-Up in Sheet Forming of Advanced High Strength Steels and Stainless Steels when Using Environmental Friendly Lubricants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno; Olsson, M.; Bay, Niels

    2014-01-01

    chemically with the tool and workpiece material forming thin films, which adhere strongly to the surfaces and reduce the tendency to metal-metal contact and material pick-up. Production tests of new, environmentally benign tribo-systems are, however, costly and laboratory tests are preferred as a preliminary...... the tribological performance, i.e. tendency to material pick-up and galling, of the evaluated tribo-systems. Moreover the SEM analysis shows that different workpiece materials result in different types of material pick-up....

  19. Design and Validation Testing of TruckScan to Assay Large Sacks of Fukushima Radioactive Debris on a Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuo [Canberra-Japan (Japan); Bronson, Frazier [Canberra Industries Inc. (United States)

    2015-07-01

    As a result of the March 2011 earthquake and resulting tsunami in Japan, there was a serious accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. This accident has contaminated soil and vegetation in a wide area around the plant. Decontamination projects over the last 4 years have resulted in large numbers of 1 cubic meter canvas bags of debris, commonly called Super Sacks [SS]. These are currently stored nearby where they were generated, but starting in 2015, they will be moved to various Interim Storage Facilities [ISF]. Trucks will typically carry 8-20 of these SSs. When the trucks arrive at the ISF they need to be rapidly sorted into groups according to radioactivity level, for efficient subsequent processing. Canberra Industries, Inc. [CI] has designed a new truck monitoring system 'TruckScan' for use at these ISFs. The TruckScan system must measure the entire truck loaded with multiple closely packed SSs, and generate a nuclide specific assay report showing the radioactivity in each individual SS. The Canberra-Japan office, along with Obayashi Corporation have performed validation testing to demonstrate to the regulatory authorities that the proposed technique was sufficiently accurate. These validation tests were conducted at a temporary storage area in Fukushima prefecture. Decontaminated waste of various representative types and of various levels of radioactivity was gathered and mixed to create homogeneous volumes. These volumes were sampled multiple times and assayed with laboratory HPGe detectors to determine the reference concentration of each pile. Multiple SSs were loaded from each pile. Some of the SSs were filled 50% full, others 75% full, and others 100% full, to represent the typical loading configuration of the existing SSs in the field. The content of the SSs are either sand, soil, or vegetation with densities ranging from 0.3 g/cc - 1.6 g/cc. These SSs with known concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 were then loaded onto trucks in

  20. Design and Validation Testing of TruckScan to Assay Large Sacks of Fukushima Radioactive Debris on a Truck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuo; Bronson, Frazier

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the March 2011 earthquake and resulting tsunami in Japan, there was a serious accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. This accident has contaminated soil and vegetation in a wide area around the plant. Decontamination projects over the last 4 years have resulted in large numbers of 1 cubic meter canvas bags of debris, commonly called Super Sacks [SS]. These are currently stored nearby where they were generated, but starting in 2015, they will be moved to various Interim Storage Facilities [ISF]. Trucks will typically carry 8-20 of these SSs. When the trucks arrive at the ISF they need to be rapidly sorted into groups according to radioactivity level, for efficient subsequent processing. Canberra Industries, Inc. [CI] has designed a new truck monitoring system 'TruckScan' for use at these ISFs. The TruckScan system must measure the entire truck loaded with multiple closely packed SSs, and generate a nuclide specific assay report showing the radioactivity in each individual SS. The Canberra-Japan office, along with Obayashi Corporation have performed validation testing to demonstrate to the regulatory authorities that the proposed technique was sufficiently accurate. These validation tests were conducted at a temporary storage area in Fukushima prefecture. Decontaminated waste of various representative types and of various levels of radioactivity was gathered and mixed to create homogeneous volumes. These volumes were sampled multiple times and assayed with laboratory HPGe detectors to determine the reference concentration of each pile. Multiple SSs were loaded from each pile. Some of the SSs were filled 50% full, others 75% full, and others 100% full, to represent the typical loading configuration of the existing SSs in the field. The content of the SSs are either sand, soil, or vegetation with densities ranging from 0.3 g/cc - 1.6 g/cc. These SSs with known concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 were then loaded onto trucks in

  1. Analysis of frame structure of medium and small truck crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fuyi; Li, Jinlong; Cui, Mengkai

    2018-03-01

    Truck crane is an important part of hoisting machinery. Frame, as the support component of the quality of truck crane, determines the safety of crane jib load and the rationality of structural design. In this paper, the truck crane frame is a box structure, the three-dimensional model is established in CATIA software, and imported into Hyperworks software for finite element analysis. On the base of doing constraints and loads for the finite element model of the frame, the finite element static analysis is carried out. And the static stress test verifies whether the finite element model and the frame structure design are reasonable; then the free modal analysis of the frame and the analysis of the first 8 - order modal vibration deformation are carried out. The analysis results show that the maximum stress value of the frame is greater than the yield limit value of the material, and the low-order modal value is close to the excitation frequency value, which needs to be improved to provide theoretical reference for the structural design of the truck crane frame.

  2. Development of the New Light-Duty Hybrid Truck

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Koichi

    2008-01-01

    Hino Motors, Ltd., developed the new light-duty hybrid truck whose traction motor, inverter, and traction battery were completely redesigned for maximizing output and efficiency. It also succeeds in balancing low fuel economy and low exhaust emissions by utilizing a combination of a new hybrid system control with a specially developed diesel engine.

  3. SVOC emissions from diesel trucks operating on biodiesel fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in particle matter (PM) emitted from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern after-treatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted as described by the George et al. VOC study also presented as part of this se...

  4. TITAN Legal Weight Truck cask preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Preliminary Design of the TITAN Legal Weight Truck (LWT) Cask System and Ancillary Equipment is presented in this document. The scope of the document includes the LWT cask with fuel baskets; impact limiters, and lifting and tiedown features; the cask support system for transportation; intermodal transfer skid; personnel barrier; and cask lifting yoke assembly. 75 figs., 48 tabs

  5. Haulage Truck Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for haulage truck operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  6. 78 FR 26106 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No FMCSA-2011-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The FMCSA published a document in the Federal Register of...

  7. Model development for air conditioning system in heavy duty trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; van den Bosch, P.P.J.; Zhang, Quansheng; Li, Shengbo Eben; Deng, Kun

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents a modelling approach for the air conditioning (AC) system in heavy duty trucks. The presented model entails two major elements: a mechanical compressor model and a thermal AC model. The compressor model describes the massflow of the refrigerant as well as the mechanical power

  8. Presenting a conceptual pattern of HSE performance of oil trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleh, Sahar; Omidvari, Manouchehr; Nassiri, Parvin; Momeni, Mansour; Lavasani, Seyed Mohammadreza Miri

    2018-01-25

    Accidents are among the main problems in the oil product supply chain. The most important effective factors in these events are the kind of trucks used and their health, safety, and environment (HSE) condition. The aim of this study was to present a conceptual pattern of the HSE performance of oil trucks in oil industries. In this study, 20 truck models (with fixed tanks), in use over different periods of time, were investigated. In this regard, the criteria and sub-criteria were first determined in two parts-carrier and tank-and weighted by fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The results showed that the most important sub-criteria regarding the HSE factors of the carrier were resistance and strength of the front and rear shields, the brake system, and the ventilation system. The most important sub-criteria regarding the HSE factors of the tank were tank shell thickness and a good tank design shape with respect to portable material. It should be noted that the weight of the criteria with each other and sub-criteria with each other are not equal. This issue is important for decision-making. The main reason for the use of trucks with the lowest score in developing countries is the lack of attention by managers to safety issues and international standards and agreements such as the ADR.

  9. U10 : Trusted Truck(R) II (phase B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Phase B of the Trusted Truck II project built on the system developed in Phase A (or Year 1). For the implementation portion of the project, systems were added to the trailer to provide additional diagnostic trailer data that can be sent to the TTM...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.180 - Crawler locomotive and truck cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the shaft or spindle with which or about which a wheel rotates. On truck- and wheel-mounted cranes it... and ropes. Cranes designed for railway and automobile wreck clearances are excepted. The requirements..., 1971, shall meet the design specifications of the American National Standard Safety Code for Crawler...

  11. ISAF'S Afghan Truck Drivers: The Overlooked Counterinsurgency Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myron Varouhakis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A yearlong U.S. Army field study in Afghanistan examined the demographics and threat perceptions of one of the most-at-risk populations, that of Afghan truck drivers working for NATO’s International Security Assistance Force Afghanistan (ISAF. The study collected data from 766 Afghan truck drivers at the U.S.-operated Kandahar Airfield in ISAF’s Regional Command South. The findings show a wide diversity in age of the Afghan drivers as well as in terms of their home province. The findings also show that although all Afghan truck drivers had acute awareness and understanding of the high risks and dangers of the job, they all noted that the attractive salary and scarcity of jobs were dominant reasons for staying on the job. Findings also reveal a strong resentment among the Afghan truck drivers about their treatment by ISAF soldiers, as for the lack of protection for them and their families after the 2014 departure of NATO forces. The findings can provide significant insights and enhance the understanding of scholars, counterinsurgency strategists, policymakers, and military planners about “Host Country Nationals” as an important population of the human terrain.

  12. The effect of minor alloying elements on oxidation and hydrogen pickup in Zr-2.5Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    In CANDU reactors, fuel and coolant are contained in horizontal pressure tubes made of Zr-2.5 wt% Nb alloy. In the past decade, the effect of more than 20 impurity elements, in various concentrations, on oxidation and deuterium pickup (at 300 o C, pD = 10.5, Li 2 O) have been investigated in over 70 Zr-2.5Nb alloys. The studies were performed using non-consumable arc-melted alloy logs that were rolled and made into corrosion coupons and corroded in autoclaves. This study represents one of the largest collections of previously unpublished data on the effect of impurity elements on oxide film growth and deuterium pickup in a zirconium alloy. Elements such as Al, Ti, Mn, and Pt, to name but a few, were found to significantly accelerate the corrosion process. Some elements, such as tin, had a positive effect on oxidation (lowers the rate of oxide film development) and a negative effect on hydrogen pickup (increases pickup). Three parameters were important to the corrosion process, namely, microstructure, surface finish, and synergistic interactions between the impurity elements. The above studies culminated in two response surface analyses (RSA). The first was conducted on the effect of C and Fe on oxygen and deuterium pickup in Zr-2.5Nb drop castings corroded at 325 o C in CANDU conditions. The second study was performed in autoclaves at 300 o C on the affect of four impurity elements, C, Fe, Cr, and Si, in Zr-2.5Nb micro-tubes, which possess the same microstructure as full-size pressure tubes. The first RSA revealed a quadratic dependence of corrosion on C and Fe concentrations, with an optimum resistance at about 30 ppm (wt) C and 1100 ppm (wt) Fe. This has been partially confirmed by out-reactor corrosion of Zr-2.5Nb-Fe micro-pressure tubes. Trends in- and out-reactor were similar for oxidation but different in magnitude for deuterium pickup. There is no linear dependence on the Fe concentration in-reactor, implying that Fe and C form a complex. The second RSA

  13. The effect of minor alloying elements on oxidation and hydrogen pickup in Zr-2.5Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    In CANDU reactors, fuel and coolant are contained in horizontal pressure tubes made of Zr-2.5 wt% Nb alloy. In the past decade, the effect of more than 20 impurity elements, in various concentrations, on oxidation and deuterium pickup (at 300 deg C, pD = 10.5, Li 2 O) have been investigated in over 70 Zr-2.5Nb alloys. The studies were performed using non-consumable arc-melted alloy logs that were rolled and made into corrosion coupons and corroded in autoclaves. This study represents one of the largest collections of previously unpublished data on the effect of impurity elements on oxide film growth and deuterium pickup in a zirconium alloy. Elements such as Al, Ti, Mn, and Pt, to name but a few, were found to significantly accelerate the corrosion process. Some elements, such as tin, had a positive effect on oxidation (lowers the rate of oxide film development) and a negative effect on hydrogen pickup (increases pickup). Three parameters were important to the corrosion process, namely, microstructure, surface finish, and synergistic interactions between the impurity elements. The above studies culminated in two response surface analyses (RSA). The first was conducted on the effect of C and Fe on oxygen and deuterium pickup in Zr-2.5Nb drop castings corroded at 325 deg C in CANDU conditions. The second study was performed in autoclaves at 300 deg C on the affect of four impurity elements, C, Fe, Cr, and Si, in Zr-2.5Nb micro-tubes, which possess the same microstructure as full-size pressure tubes. The first RSA revealed a quadratic dependence of corrosion on C and Fe concentrations, with an optimum resistance at about 30 ppm (wt) C and 1100 ppm (wt) Fe. This has been partially confirmed by out-reactor corrosion of Zr-2.5Nb-Fe micro-pressure tubes. Trends in- and out-reactor were similar for oxidation but different in magnitude for deuterium pickup. There is no linear dependence on the Fe concentration in-reactor, implying that Fe and C form a complex. The second

  14. Dynamics of dump truck entrance onto the hoist platform of a mine inclined elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosyrev, B.A.; Popov, Yu.V.; Mukhutdinov, Sh.D. (Sverdlovskii Gornyi Institut (USSR))

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the feasibility of transporting heavy-duty dump trucks along slopes on special platforms in coal surface mines. The platforms are hoisted by winches. Theoretical problems associated with hoisting a loaded platform upwards are analyzed. Problems associated with truck travel in the platform area, its exact positioning and mechanical vibrations of the platform caused by truck movement are discussed. Vibrations of the platform with a loaded truck and vibration amplitudes are analyzed. Five states of the system are evaluated. Methods for prevention of excessive vibrations by optimization of platform design and use of flexible elements are evaluated. Optimum speed of truck movement for platform entering is recommended.

  15. Evaluating sustainability of truck weight regulations: A system dynamics view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Targeting the problem of overload trucking in Highway Transportation of iron ore from Caofeidian to Tangshan (HTCT, this paper aims to assess long-term effects of alternative Truck Weight Regulation (TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT. Design/methodology/approach: A system dynamics model was established for policy evaluation. The model, composed of six interrelating modules, is able to simulate policies effects on trucking issues such as freight flow, truck traffic flow, pavement performance, highway transport capacity and trucking time, and further on the Cumulative Economic Cost (CEC including transport cost and time cost of freight owners and the Cumulative Social Cost (CSC including pavement maintenance cost, green house gas emission cost, air pollutants emission cost and traffic accidents cost, so the effects of TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT could be evaluated. Findings: According to different values of overload ratio which a TWR policy allows, alternative TWR policies are classified into three types, which are The Rigid Policy (TRP, The Moderate Policy (TMP and The Tolerant Policy (TTP. Results show that the best policy for sustainability of HTCT depends on the importance of CSC which is expected by the local government. To be specific, (1 if CSC is considered much less important than CEC, the local government should continue implementing the current TTP with the maximum overload ratio; (2 if CSC is considered much more important than CEC, then TRP is recommended; and (3 if CSC is considered slightly more important than CES, TMP with overload ratio of 80% is the best. Practical implications: Conclusions of this paper may help the local government design appropriate TWR policies to achieve sustainability of HTCT. Originality/value: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort to evaluate TWR policies on sustainability of regional freight transportation based on system dynamics modeling.

  16. 77 FR 20480 - Volvo Trucks North America and Mack Trucks, Inc., Grant of Petition for Decision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... GU model trucks that were built with certain Meritor WABCO Vehicle Control Systems (Meritor WABCO... equipment requirements for motor vehicles equipped with air brake systems. Paragraph S5.3.4.1(a) of FMVSS No... vehicle's braking performance. The tests and analyses were performed by an independent test lab, Link...

  17. Idle emissions from medium heavy-duty diesel and gasoline trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A B M S; Clark, Nigel N; Gautam, Mridul; Wayne, W Scott; Thompson, Gregory J; Lyons, Donald W

    2009-03-01

    Idle emissions data from 19 medium heavy-duty diesel and gasoline trucks are presented in this paper. Emissions from these trucks were characterized using full-flow exhaust dilution as part of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Project E-55/59. Idle emissions data were not available from dedicated measurements, but were extracted from the continuous emissions data on the low-speed transient mode of the medium heavy-duty truck (MHDTLO) cycle. The four gasoline trucks produced very low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and negligible particulate matter (PM) during idle. However, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HCs) from these four trucks were approximately 285 and 153 g/hr on average, respectively. The gasoline trucks consumed substantially more fuel at an hourly rate (0.84 gal/hr) than their diesel counterparts (0.44 gal/hr) during idling. The diesel trucks, on the other hand, emitted higher NOx (79 g/hr) and comparatively higher PM (4.1 g/hr), on average, than the gasoline trucks (3.8 g/hr of NOx and 0.9 g/hr of PM, on average). Idle NOx emissions from diesel trucks were high for post-1992 model year engines, but no trends were observed for fuel consumption. Idle emissions and fuel consumption from the medium heavy-duty diesel trucks (MHDDTs) were marginally lower than those from the heavy heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDTs), previously reported in the literature.

  18. On the stability of pick-up ion ring distributions in the outer heliosheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summerlin, Errol J.; Viñas, Adolfo F.; Moore, Thomas E.; Christian, Eric R.; Cooper, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The 'secondary energetic neutral atom (ENA)' hypothesis for the ribbon feature observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) posits that the neutral component of the solar wind continues beyond the heliopause and charge exchanges with interstellar ions in the Outer Heliosheath (OHS). This creates pick-up ions that gyrate about the draped interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) lines at pitch angles near 90° on the locus where the ISMF lies tangential to the heliopause and perpendicular to the heliocentric radial direction. This location closely coincides with the location of the ribbon feature according to the prevailing inferences of the ISMF orientation and draping. The locally gyrating ions undergo additional charge exchange and escape as free-flying neutral atoms, many of which travel back toward the inner solar system and are imaged by IBEX as a ribbon tracing out the locus described above. For this mechanism to succeed, the pick-up ions must diffuse in pitch angle slowly enough to permit secondary charge exchange before their pitch angle distribution substantially broadens away from 90°. Previous work using linear Vlasov dispersion analysis of parallel propagating waves has suggested that the ring distribution in the OHS is highly unstable, which, if true, would make the secondary ENA hypothesis incapable of rendering the observed ribbon. In this paper, we extend this earlier work to more realistic ring distribution functions. We find that, at the low densities necessary to produce the observed IBEX ribbon via the secondary ENA hypothesis, growth rates are highly sensitive to the temperature of the beam and that even very modest temperatures of the ring beam corresponding to beam widths of <1° are sufficient to damp the self-generated waves associated with the ring beam. Thus, at least from the perspective of linear Vlasov dispersion analysis of parallel propagating waves, there is no reason to expect that the ring distributions necessary to

  19. Advanced vehicle dynamics of heavy trucks with the perspective of road safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigell, Annika Stensson; Rothhämel, Malte; Pauwelussen, Joop; Kural, Karel

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents state-of-the art within advanced vehicle dynamics of heavy trucks with the perspective of road safety. The most common accidents with heavy trucks involved are truck against passenger cars. Safety critical situations are for example loss of control (such as rollover and lateral stability) and a majority of these occur during speed when cornering. Other critical situations are avoidance manoeuvre and road edge recovery. The dynamic behaviour of heavy trucks have significant differences compared to passenger cars and as a consequence, successful application of vehicle dynamic functions for enhanced safety of trucks might differ from the functions in passenger cars. Here, the differences between vehicle dynamics of heavy trucks and passenger cars are clarified. Advanced vehicle dynamics solutions with the perspective of road safety of trucks are presented, beginning with the topic vehicle stability, followed by the steering system, the braking system and driver assistance systems that differ in some way from that of passenger cars as well.

  20. Observation of Magnetic Waves Excited by Newborn Interstellar Pickup He+ Observed by the Voyager 2 Spacecraft at 30 au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argall, Matthew R.; Hollick, Sophia J.; Pine, Zackary B., E-mail: Matthew.Argall@unh.edu, E-mail: sjhollick@hotmail.com, E-mail: zbpine@gmail.com [Physics Department and Space Science Center, Morse Hall, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire (United States); and others

    2017-11-01

    We report two observations of magnetic waves due to He{sup +} pickup ions observed by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in mid-1989 to demonstrate that such waves occur as far out as ∼30 au from the Sun. The observations are sufficiently far from planets, interplanetary shocks, and other possible sources of energetic particles to make newborn interstellar He{sup +} the only likely explanation for the source of the waves. Additionally, the low-frequency waves that might be expected for a variety of cometary pickup species are not seen. The events studied here were picked from a preliminary list of ∼300 events that were discovered based on polarization signatures in daily spectrograms of the magnetic field between 1977 and 1990. Analysis of those observations is ongoing. We present an analysis of these two observations using the same techniques we have employed for recently reported observations closer to the Sun.

  1. Exact Solutions to the Symmetric and Asymmetric Vehicle Routing Problem with Simultaneous Delivery and Pick-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Rieck

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In reverse logistics networks, products (e.g., bottles or containers have to be transported from a depot to customer locations and, after use, from customer locations back to the depot. In order to operate economically beneficial, companies prefer a simultaneous delivery and pick-up service. The resulting Vehicle Routing Problem with Simultaneous Delivery and Pick-up (VRPSDP is an operational problem, which has to be solved daily by many companies. We present two mixed-integer linear model formulations for the VRPSDP, namely a vehicle-flow and a commodity-flow model. In order to strengthen the models, domain-reducing preprocessing techniques, and effective cutting planes are outlined. Symmetric benchmark instances known from the literature as well as new asymmetric instances derived from real-world problems are solved to optimality using CPLEX 12.1.

  2. The Multi-commodity One-to-one Pickup-and-delivery Traveling Salesman Problem with Path Duration Limits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José

    2012-01-01

    The design of container shipping networks is an important real world problem, with assets and operational costs in billions of dollars. To guide the optimal deployment of the ships, a single vessel roundtrip is considered by minimizing operational costs and flowing the best paying cargo under...... commercial constraints. Inspiration for formulation and solution method is taken from the rich research done within pickup and delivery problems. The problem, the multicommodity one-toone pickup and delivery traveling salesman problem with path duration limits is, to the best of out knowledge, considered...... for the first time. An arc flow and a path flow model are presented. A Branch and Cut and Price solution method is proposed and implemented....

  3. The effect of Fe and C in modifying deuterium pickup in Zr-2.5Nb: a response surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, R.A.

    2001-03-01

    A Response Surface Analysis of the effect of iron and carbon in Zr-2.5Nb-Fe/C drop-castings has shown that iron and carbon have at least a quadratic, synergistic relationship on oxidation and deuterium pickup. Tests were performed in the Halden test reactor and associated autoclave for 208 days at 598 K (325 o C). The synergism explains why pressure tube data have limited value when attempting to deduce the effect of impurity elements on pick up. Out- and in-reactor pick up were similar in trend and magnitude except for the in-reactor deuterium pickup, which was about one-quarter of that out-reactor. Minimum in-reactor deuterium ingress is predicted for 30 ppm (wt) carbon and approximately 1,100 ppm (wt) of iron. Out-reactor optimal values are similar but with slightly higher iron values. (author)

  4. Plug-In Hybrid Urban Delivery Truck Technology Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasato, Matt [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Impllitti, Joseph [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Pascal, Amar [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The I-710 and CA-60 highways are key transportation corridors in the Southern California region that are heavily used on a daily basis by heavy duty drayage trucks that transport the cargo from the ports to the inland transportation terminals. These terminals, which include store/warehouses, inland-railways, are anywhere from 5 to 50 miles in distance from the ports. The concentrated operation of these drayage vehicles in these corridors has had and will continue to have a significant impact on the air quality in this region whereby significantly impacting the quality of life in the communities surrounding these corridors. To reduce these negative impacts it is critical that zero and near-zero emission technologies be developed and deployed in the region. A potential local market size of up to 46,000 trucks exists in the South Coast Air Basin, based on near- dock drayage trucks and trucks operating on the I-710 freeway. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), California Air Resources Board (CARB) and Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) — the agencies responsible for preparing the State Implementation Plan required under the federal Clean Air Act — have stated that to attain federal air quality standards the region will need to transition to broad use of zero and near zero emission energy sources in cars, trucks and other equipment (Southern California Association of Governments et al, 2011). SCAQMD partnered with Volvo Trucks to develop, build and demonstrate a prototype Class 8 heavy-duty plug-in hybrid drayage truck with significantly reduced emissions and fuel use. Volvo’s approach leveraged the group’s global knowledge and experience in designing and deploying electromobility products. The proprietary hybrid driveline selected for this proof of concept was integrated with multiple enhancements to the complete vehicle in order to maximize the emission and energy impact of electrification. A detailed review of all

  5. A Data-driven Model of the Solar Wind, Interstellar Pickup Ions, and Turbulence Throughout the Interplanetary Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. K.; Kryukov, I.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Elliott, H. A.; Zank, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    The outer heliosphere is an interesting region characterized by the interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar neutral atoms. Having accomplished the mission to Pluto in 2015 and currently on the way to the Kuiper Belt, the New Horizons spacecraft is following the footsteps of the two Voyager spacecraft that previously explored this region lying roughly beyond 30 AU from the Sun. We model the three-dimensional, time-dependent solar wind plasma flow to the outer heliosphere using our own software Multi-Scale Fluid-Kinetic Simulation Suite (MS-FLUKSS), which, in addition to the thermal solar wind plasma, takes into account charge exchange of the solar wind protons with interstellar neutral atoms and treats nonthermal ions (i.e., pickup ions) born during this process as a separate fluid. Additionally, MS-FLUKSS allows us to model turbulence generated by pickup ions. We use MS-FLUKSS to investigate the evolution of plasma and turbulent fluctuations along the trajectory of the New Horizons spacecraft using plasma and turbulence parameters from OMNI data as time-dependent boundary conditions at 1 AU for the Reynolds-averaged MHD equations. We compare the model with in situ plasma observations by New Horizons, Voyager 2, and Ulysses. We also compare the model pickup proton parameters with those derived from the Ulysses-SWICS data.

  6. High-performance integrated pick-up circuit for SPAD arrays in time-correlated single photon counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acconcia, Giulia; Cominelli, Alessandro; Peronio, Pietro; Rech, Ivan; Ghioni, Massimo

    2017-05-01

    The analysis of optical signals by means of Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) has been subject to a widespread interest in recent years. The development of multichannel high-performance Time Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) acquisition systems has undergone a fast trend. Concerning the detector performance, best in class results have been obtained resorting to custom technologies leading also to a strong dependence of the detector timing jitter from the threshold used to determine the onset of the photogenerated current flow. In this scenario, the avalanche current pick-up circuit plays a key role in determining the timing performance of the TCSPC acquisition system, especially with a large array of SPAD detectors because of electrical crosstalk issues. We developed a new current pick-up circuit based on a transimpedance amplifier structure able to extract the timing information from a 50-μm-diameter custom technology SPAD with a state-of-art timing jitter as low as 32ps and suitable to be exploited with SPAD arrays. In this paper we discuss the key features of this structure and we present a new version of the pick-up circuit that also provides quenching capabilities in order to minimize the number of interconnections required, an aspect that becomes more and more crucial in densely integrated systems.

  7. A Combination of Meta-heuristic and Heuristic Algorithms for the VRP, OVRP and VRP with Simultaneous Pickup and Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ashouri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle routing problem (VRP is a Nondeterministic Polynomial Hard combinatorial optimization problem to serve the consumers from central depots and returned back to the originated depots with given vehicles. Furthermore, two of the most important extensions of the VRPs are the open vehicle routing problem (OVRP and VRP with simultaneous pickup and delivery (VRPSPD. In OVRP, the vehicles have not return to the depot after last visit and in VRPSPD, customers require simultaneous delivery and pick-up service. The aim of this paper is to present a combined effective ant colony optimization (CEACO which includes sweep and several local search algorithms which is different with common ant colony optimization (ACO. An extensive numerical experiment is performed on benchmark problem instances addressed in the literature. The computational result shows that suggested CEACO approach not only presented a very satisfying scalability, but also was competitive with other meta-heuristic algorithms in the literature for solving VRP, OVRP and VRPSPD problems. Keywords: Meta-heuristic algorithms, Vehicle Routing Problem, Open Vehicle Routing Problem, Simultaneously Pickup and Delivery, Ant Colony Optimization.

  8. Preliminary Specifications for the PS Pick-ups Amplifier to be used in the Transverse Damping System

    CERN Document Server

    Belleman, J; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    The pick-up amplification stage to be used for the CODD in the PS is presently under redesign. It appears that the constraints for the circuit are very similar to those of the transverse feedback project. The AB/BDI group and in particular its PI section has kindly agreed to fulfil the RF group constraints so as to obtain a common design with a common control interface. The reliability aspect is not treated here. Nevertheless radiation has been considered. At the locations foreseen for the pick-ups (SS 2, 94, 98), the annual dose measured on the vacuum chamber (ref: CERN-TIS-2002-06-TE) is about 1000 Gray per year. This value is to be compared to the 100 Gy considered as the critical dose for electronic circuits. The radiation problem has been solved for the CODD pick-ups using distance and shield (active circuits 2 meters below the floor composed of concrete slabs). The same lay out will be applied for the dampers with the drawback of the capacitive plates being loaded with a low impedance -5 meters long- ca...

  9. Normative values and the effects of age, gender, and handedness on the Moberg Pick-Up Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirjani, Nasim; Ashworth, Nigel L; Gordon, Tessa; Edwards, David C; Chan, K Ming

    2007-06-01

    The Moberg Pick-Up Test is a standardized test for assessing hand dexterity. Although reduction of sensation in the hand occurs with aging, the effect of age on a subject's performance of the Moberg Pick-Up Test has not been examined. The primary goal of this study was to examine the impact of aging and, secondarily, the impact of gender and handedness, on performance of the Moberg Pick-Up Test in 116 healthy subjects. The average time to complete each of the four subsets of the test was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. The results show that hand dexterity of the subjects was significantly affected by age, with young subjects being the fastest and elderly subjects the slowest. Women accomplished the test faster than men, and task performance with the dominant hand was faster than with the non-dominant hand. Use of normative values established based on age and gender is a valuable objective tool to gauge hand function in patients with different neurologic disorders.

  10. Dayside pickup oxygen ion precipitation at Venus and Mars: Spatial distributions, energy deposition and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhmann, J.G.; Kozyra, J.U.

    1991-01-01

    The fluxes and energy spectra of picked-up planetary O + ions incident on the dayside atmospheres of Venus and Mars are calculated using the neutral exposure models of Nagy and Cravens (1988) and the Spreiter and Stahara (1980) gasdynamic model of the magnetosheath electric and magnetic field. Cold (∼10 eV) O + ions are launched from hemispherical grids of starting points covering the daysides of the planets and their trajectories are followed until they either impact the dayside obstacle or cross the terminator plane. The impacting, or precipitating, ion fluxes are weighted according to the altitude of the hemispherical starting point grid in a manner consistent with the exosphere density models and the local photoion production rate. Maps of precipitating ion number flux and energy flux show the asymmetrical distribution of dayside energy deposition expected from this source which is unique to the weakly magnetized planets. Although the associated heating of the atmosphere and ionsphere is found to be negligible compared to that from the usual sources, backscattered or sputtered neutral oxygen atoms are produced at energies exceeding that needed for escape from the gravitational fields of both planets. These neutral winds, driven by pickup ion precipitation, represent a possibly significant loss of atmospheric constituents over the age of the solar system

  11. Model based optimization of driver-pickup separation for eddy current measurement of gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, G.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2018-04-01

    The fuel channels in CANDU® (CANada Deuterium Uranium) nuclear reactors consist of a pressure tube (PT) contained within a larger diameter calandria tube (CT). The separation between the tubes, known as the PT-CT gap, ensures PT hydride blisters, which could lead to potential cracking of the PT, do not develop. Therefore, accurate measurements are required to confirm that contact between PT and CT is not imminent. Gap measurement uses an eddy current probe. However this probe is sensitive to lift-off variations, which can adversely affect estimated gap. A validated analytical flat plate model of eddy current response to gap was used to examine the effect of driver-pickup spacing on lift-off and response to gap at a frequency of 4 kHz, which is used for in-reactor measurements. This model was compared against, and shown to have good agreement with, a COMSOL® finite element method (FEM) model. The optimum coil separation, which included the constraint of coil size, was found to be 11 mm, resulting in a phase response between lift-off and response to change in gap of 66°. This work demonstrates the advantages of using analytical models for optimizing coil designs for measurement of parameters that may negatively influence the outcome of an inspection measurement.

  12. Critically safe volume vacuum pickup for use in wet or dry cleanup of radioactive enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeren, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    A physical compact vacuum pickup device of critically safe volume and geometric shape is provided for use in radioactive enclosures, such as a small glove box, to facilitate manual cleanup of either wet or dry radioactive material. The device is constructed and arranged so as to remain safe when filled to capacity with plutonium-239 oxide. Two fine mesh filter bags are supported on the exterior of a rigid fine mesh stainless steel cup. This assembly is sealed within, and spaced from, the interior walls of a stainless steel canister. An air inlet communicates with the interior of the canister. A modified conventional vacuum head is physically connected to, and associated with, the interior of the mesh cup. The volume of the canister, as defined by the space between the mesh cup and the interior walls of the canister, forms a critically safe volume and geometric shape for dry radioactive particles that are gathered within the canister. A critically safe liquid volume is maintained by operation of a suction terminating float valve, and/or by operation of redundant vacuum check/liquid drain valves and placement of the air inlet. 5 figures

  13. MgB{sub 2} magnetometer with a directly coupled pick-up loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portesi, C [Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Strada delle Cacce 91, I-10135 Turin (Italy); Mijatovic, D [Low Temperature Division and Mesa Research Institute, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Veldhuis, D [Low Temperature Division and Mesa Research Institute, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Brinkman, A [Low Temperature Division and Mesa Research Institute, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Monticone, E [Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Strada delle Cacce 91, I-10135 Turin (Italy); Gonnelli, R S [INFM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    In this work, we show the results obtained in the fabrication and characterization of an MgB{sub 2} magnetometer with a directly coupled pick-up loop. We used an all in situ technique for fabricating magnesium diboride films, which consists of the co-evaporation of B and Mg by means of an e-gun and a resistive heater respectively. Consequently, we realized the superconducting device, which incorporates two nanobridges as weak links in a superconducting loop. The nanobridges were realized by focused ion beam milling; they were 240 nm wide and had a critical current density of 10{sup 7} A cm{sup -2}. The magnetometer was characterized at different temperatures and also measurements of the noise levels have been performed. The device shows Josephson quantum interference up to 20 K and the calculated effective area at low temperatures was 0.24 mm{sup 2}. The transport properties of the magnetometer allow determining fundamental materials properties of the MgB{sub 2} thin films, such as the penetration depth.

  14. MgB2 magnetometer with a directly coupled pick-up loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portesi, C.; Mijatovic, D.; Veldhuis, D.; Brinkman, A.; Monticone, E.; Gonnelli, R. S.

    2006-05-01

    In this work, we show the results obtained in the fabrication and characterization of an MgB2 magnetometer with a directly coupled pick-up loop. We used an all in situ technique for fabricating magnesium diboride films, which consists of the co-evaporation of B and Mg by means of an e-gun and a resistive heater respectively. Consequently, we realized the superconducting device, which incorporates two nanobridges as weak links in a superconducting loop. The nanobridges were realized by focused ion beam milling; they were 240 nm wide and had a critical current density of 107 A cm-2. The magnetometer was characterized at different temperatures and also measurements of the noise levels have been performed. The device shows Josephson quantum interference up to 20 K and the calculated effective area at low temperatures was 0.24 mm2. The transport properties of the magnetometer allow determining fundamental materials properties of the MgB2 thin films, such as the penetration depth.

  15. Testbeam Studies on Pick-Up in Sensors with Embedded Pitch Adapters

    CERN Document Server

    Rehnisch, Laura; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    For silicon strip sensors, the tracking information specifications can lead to challenging requirements for wire bonding. A common strategy is to use external pitch adapters to facilitate this step in the production of detector modules. A novel approach previously discussed in [1], is to implement the pitch adapters in the sensor, by embedding a second layer of metal tracks. The use of these embedded pitch adapters (EPAs) decouples the bond pad layout of the sensor from its implant layout by moving the adaption to the sensor production step. This solution, however, can yield the risk of performance losses due to the increase of inter-strip capacitance, or unwanted capacitive coupling between the metal layers (cross-talk) or the silicon bulk and the second metal layer (pick-up). In the prototyping stage of the ATLAS tracker end-cap upgrade, where different bond-pad layouts on sensor and readout chip lead to extremely challenging wire-bonding conditions, sensors with different geometries of EPA implementations ...

  16. Electron Cloud Buildup Characterization Using Shielded Pickup Measurements and Custom Modeling Code at CESRTA

    CERN Document Server

    Crittenden, James A

    2013-01-01

    The Cornell Electron Storage Ring Test Accelerator experimental program includes investigations into electron cloud buildup, applying various mitigation techniques in custom vacuum chambers. Among these are two 1.1-m-long sections located symmetrically in the east and west arc regions. These chambers are equipped with pickup detectors shielded against the direct beam-induced signal. They detect cloud electrons migrating through an 18-mm-diameter pattern of small holes in the top of the chamber. A digitizing oscilloscope is used to record the signals, providing time-resolved information on cloud development. Carbon-coated, TiN-coated and uncoated aluminum chambers have been tested. Electron and positron beams of 2.1, 4.0 and 5.3 GeV with a variety of bunch populations and spacings in steps of 4 and 14 ns have been used. Here we report on results from the ECLOUD modeling code which highlight the sensitivity of these measurements to the physical phenomena determining cloud buildup such as the photoelectron produ...

  17. Ship Routing with Pickup and Delivery for a Maritime Oil Transportation System: MIP Model and Heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius P. Rodrigues

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a ship routing problem with pickup and delivery and time windows for maritime oil transportation, motivated by the production and logistics activities of an oil company operating in the Brazilian coast. The transportation costs from offshore platforms to coastal terminals are an important issue in the search for operational excellence in the oil industry, involving operations that demand agile and effective decision support systems. This paper presents an optimization approach to address this problem, based on a mixed integer programming (MIP model and a novel and exploratory application of two tailor-made MIP heuristics, based on relax-and-fix and time decomposition procedures. The model minimizes fuel costs of a heterogeneous fleet of oil tankers and costs related to freighting contracts. The model also considers company-specific constraints for offshore oil transportation. Computational experiments based on the mathematical models and the related MIP heuristics are presented for a set of real data provided by the company, which confirm the potential of optimization-based methods to find good solutions for problems of moderate sizes.

  18. Longitudinal beam diagnostic from a distributed electrostatic pick-up in CERN's ELENA ring

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E; Federmann, S; Molendijk, J; Sanchez-Quesada, J; Secouet, P J; Søby, L; Pedersen, F; Timmins, M

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Extra Low ENergy Antiproton (ELENA) Ring is a new synchrotron that will be commissioned in 2016 to further decelerate the antiprotons coming from CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator (AD). Required longitudinal diagnostics include the intensity measurement for bunched and debunched beam and the measurement of Dp/p to assess the electron cooling performance. A novel method for the calculation of these parameters is proposed for ELENA, where signals from the twenty electrostatic Pick-Ups (PU) used for orbit measurements will be combined to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. This requires that the signals be digitally down-converted, rotated and summed so that the many electrostatic PUs will function as a single, distributed PU from the processing system viewpoint. This method includes some challenges and will not be used as the baseline longitudinal diagnostics for the initial ELENA operation. This paper gives an overview of the hardware and digital signal processing involved, as well as of the challenges t...

  19. Cation distribution in spinels and its effect on activity pick-up and passivation behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, H.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    Spinels are found to be the major corrosion products in the primary heat transport system or nuclear reactors. These corrosion products are activated in the core and are picked up on the deposited corrosion product oxides, which lead to the radiation field buildup on out of core surfaces. In order to mitigate this phenomenon, it is extremely important to understand the structural changes that take place in a spinel in the primary heat transport system. Most of the spinels found in reactor systems are mixed spinels. Cation distribution in tetrahedral and octahedral sites of these spinels, which is temperature dependent, will affect the pickup of active metal ions from solution into these spinels. Distribution of cations in simple spinels was estimated by minimising the Gibbs energy change for the migration of ions between tetrahedral and octahedral sites, based on the assumption that it is the configurational entropy change for the process that dominates the distribution. Cation distribution for mixed spinels was also calculated using the same method. Energy demand for the exchange of an aqueous ion with these spinels has been estimated. (author)

  20. INTERSTELLAR PICK-UP IONS OBSERVED BETWEEN 11 AND 22 AU BY NEW HORIZONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randol, B. M.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    We report new observations by the Solar Wind Around Pluto instrument on the New Horizons spacecraft, which measures energy per charge (E/q) spectra of solar wind and interstellar pick-up ions (PUIs) between 11 AU and 22 AU from the Sun. The data provide an unprecedented look at PUIs as there have been very few measurements of PUIs beyond 10 AU. We analyzed the PUI part of the spectra by comparing them to the classic Vasyliunas and Siscoe PUI model. Our analysis indicates that PUIs are usually well-described by this distribution. We derive parameters relevant to PUI studies, such as the ionization rate normalized to 1 AU. Our result for the average ionization rate between 11 and 12 AU agrees with an independently derived average value found during the same time. Later, we find a general increase in the ionization rate, which is consistent with the increase in solar activity. We also calculate the PUI thermal pressure, which appears to be roughly consistent with previous results. Through fitting of the solar wind proton peaks in our spectra, we derive solar wind thermal pressures. Based on our analysis, we predict a ratio of PUI thermal pressure to solar wind thermal pressure just inside the termination shock to be between 100 and >1000.

  1. Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Fleet Deployment Projects Final Technical Report May 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingler, James J [GENCO Infrastructure Solutions, Inc.

    2014-05-06

    The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance, operability and safety of fork lift trucks powered by fuel cells in large distribution centers. This was accomplished by replacing the batteries in over 350 lift trucks with fuel cells at five distribution centers operated by GENCO. The annual cost savings of lift trucks powered by fuel cell power units was between $2,400 and $5,300 per truck compared to battery powered lift trucks, excluding DOE contributions. The greatest savings were in fueling labor costs where a fuel cell powered lift truck could be fueled in a few minutes per day compared to over an hour for battery powered lift trucks which required removal and replacement of batteries. Lift truck operators where generally very satisfied with the performance of the fuel cell power units, primarily because there was no reduction in power over the duration of a shift as experienced with battery powered lift trucks. The operators also appreciated the fast and easy fueling compared to the effort and potential risk of injury associated with switching heavy batteries in and out of lift trucks. There were no safety issues with the fueling or operation of the fuel cells. Although maintenance costs for the fuel cells were higher than for batteries, these costs are expected to decrease significantly in the next generation of fuel cells, making them even more cost effective.

  2. Operations experience with the NAC-1 legal weight truck cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viebrock, J.M.; Hoffman, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    The first three years of operation of Nuclear Assurance Corporation's (NAC) four (4) NAC-1 Casks have demonstrated that shipments of spent fuel, fuel rods and other highly irradiated reactor components can be moved routinely by legal weight truck transport. Shipments of these materials have involved some 800,000 miles of highway travel and cask handling at some fifteen different nuclear facilities. This paper presents details on NAC's operations experience with these casks including cask description, cask handling (loading and unloading), pre-shipment testing, facility turnaround and transit times, operator exposure, transport vehicles and shipper/carrier/cask owner responsibilities, actual experience with regard to facility interfacing requirements and operational procedures. Cask and equipment utilization is discussed together with the methods used to control operation costs and to improve the economics of truck transport

  3. Cummins L10G in Kenworth truck 'viable today'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    As the culmination of five years of developmental work by Cummins Engines, BC Research Inc., and BC Gas Utility Ltd., a T800 Kenworth truck was outfitted with a new Cummins L10G natural gas engine, and two lightweight fully -wrapped Dynetek cylinders; it was pronounced to be 'a viable clean truck today'. The L10G spark-ignited engine operates at a relatively high peak efficiency of 37 per cent and is commercially available to meet the current California Air Resources Board heavy duty vehicle emission standards without the use of a catalytic converter. The L10G engine produces no particulate emissions, a very significant advantage, in view of the fact that particulate emissions have been identified as major contributors to respiratory ailments

  4. Antecedents of Truck Drivers’ Job Satisfaction and Retention Proneness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prockl, Günter; Teller, Christoph; Kotzab, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    is statistically significant. Financial and nonfinancial job properties affect satisfaction with one's employer whereas the former shows a lower impact compared to the latter. Satisfaction with the job and one's employer impacts retention proneness. The contribution of this study was to (1) add...... to the understanding of the factors that predict retention of truck drivers in relationship to job satisfaction and (2) highlight the different roles of financial and nonfinancial job properties in this specific work context.......The aim of this study was to (1) explore the antecedents of truck drivers’ job satisfaction, (2) identify the impact of financial and nonfinancial job properties on satisfaction with the job and with one's employer, and (3) the drivers’ proneness to retaining their jobs. Based on the extant...

  5. Real-Time Dispatch of Petroleum Tank Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald G. Brown; Glenn W. Graves

    1981-01-01

    A highly automated, real-time dispatch system is described which uses embedded optimization routines to replace extensive manual operations and to reduce substantially operating costs for a nation-wide fleet of petroleum tank trucks. The system is currently used in daily operations by the Order Entry and Dispatch segment of the Chevron U.S.A. Marketing System. Refined petroleum products valued at several billion dollars per year are dispatched from more than 80 bulk terminals on a fleet excee...

  6. Real-Time Dispatch of Petroleum Tank Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Gerald G.; Graves, Glenn W.

    1981-01-01

    Management Science, 27, 1, pp. 19-32. (1982 International Management Science Achievement Award Finalist). A highly automated, real-time dispatch system is described which uses embedded optimization routines to replace extensive manual operations and to reduce substantially operating costs for a nation-wide fleet of petroleum tank trucks. The system is currently used in daily operations by the Order Entry and Dispatch segment of the Chevron U.S.A. Marketing System. Refined petroleum produ...

  7. The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

  8. Business plan of a food truck in Saint Petersburg

    OpenAIRE

    Zavyalova, Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to investigate how to write a proper business plan and then implement gained knowledge in creating a business plan of a food truck in Saint Petersburg. A business plan serves as a guide for an entrepreneur in the process of company establishment and enables to gain funding from potential investors. The primary objective was to study essential components of a business plan. The theoretical framework comprises of core issues on company establishment and desc...

  9. TITAN Legal Weight Truck cask preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Preliminary Design of the TITAN Legal Weight Truck (LWT) Cask System and Ancillary Equipment is presented in this document. The scope of this document includes the LWT cask with fuel baskets, impact limiters, and lifting and tiedown features; the cask support system for transportation; intermodal transfer skid; personnel barrier; and cask lifting yoke assembly. The results of the tradeoff studies and evaluations that were performed during the preliminary design are presented in Appendix A to this report. 51 figs., 17 tabs

  10. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste [Calstart Incorporated, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-03-07

    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the

  11. Definition and Evaluation of Bus and Truck Automation Operations Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, H.-S. Jacob; Botha, Jan L.

    2002-01-01

    Traffic congestion will continue to worsen and likely worsen at a faster rate than ever. People throughput and freight throughput have become critical issues for California and the rest of the nation. PATH has been funding a one-year research project entitled "Definition and Evaluation of Bus and Truck Automation Operations Concepts," proposed by the authors. This report summarizes the results of the research project achieved during the first six months. During those six months, we reviewed l...

  12. Keep on Trucking: An Entrepreneurial Approach to Intratheater Airlift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    yet they must all remain effective in order to stay in business.50 Figure 3. Commercial Distribution Example: Walmart 10 As one of the...world’s largest corporations, Walmart provides a good example of an entrepreneurial logistics system (Figure 3). Like the deployed Air Force component, it...is a fleet owner, a distributor, and a retail location operator.51 While Walmart uses trucks, the AMD schedules aircraft as the primary delivery

  13. Coordinating decentralized optimization of truck and shovel mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, R.; Fraser Forbes, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; San Yip, W. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Canada's oil sands contain the largest known reserve of oil in the world. Oil sands mining uses 3 functional processes, ore hauling, overburden removal and mechanical maintenance. The industry relies mainly on truck-and-shovel technology in its open-pit mining operations which contributes greatly to the overall mining operation cost. Coordination between operating units is crucial for achieving an enterprise-wide optimal operation level. Some of the challenges facing the industry include multiple or conflicting objectives such as minimizing the use of raw materials and energy while maximizing production. The large sets of constraints that define the feasible domain pose as challenge, as does the uncertainty in system parameters. One solution lies in assigning truck resources to various activities. This fully decentralized approach would treat the optimization of ore production, waste removal and equipment maintenance independently. It was emphasized that mine-wide optimal operation can only be achieved by coordinating ore hauling and overburden removal processes. For that reason, this presentation proposed a coordination approach for a decentralized optimization system. The approach is based on the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and auction-based methods that have been previously used to decompose large-scale optimization problems. The treatment of discrete variables and coordinator design was described and the method was illustrated with a simple truck and shovel mining simulation study. The approach can be applied to a wide range of applications such as coordinating decentralized optimal control systems and scheduling. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Image processing system for the measurement of timber truck loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando D.; Correia, Bento A. B.; Davies, Roger; Rodrigues, Fernando C.; Freitas, Jose C. A.

    1993-01-01

    The paper industry uses wood as its raw material. To know the quantity of wood in the pile of sawn tree trunks, every truck load entering the plant is measured to determine its volume. The objective of this procedure is to know the solid volume of wood stocked in the plant. Weighing the tree trunks has its own problems, due to their high capacity for absorbing water. Image processing techniques were used to evaluate the volume of a truck load of logs of wood. The system is based on a PC equipped with an image processing board using data flow processors. Three cameras allow image acquisition of the sides and rear of the truck. The lateral images contain information about the sectional area of the logs, and the rear image contains information about the length of the logs. The machine vision system and the implemented algorithms are described. The results being obtained with the industrial prototype that is now installed in a paper mill are also presented.

  15. Upgrades for truck transportation of SNM in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, B.H.; Kornilovich, E.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this project is the rapid reduction of risk to truck transportation of SNM in Russia. Enhanced protection is being accomplished by cooperation between the US Department of Energy, MINATOM of Russia, the Russian Ministry of Defense, and various Russian Institutes. This program provides an integrated program of specialized trucks that are equipped with hardened overpack (SNM vault) containers, alarm and communications systems, and armored cabs. Armored escort vehicles are also provided to increase the survivability of the guards escorting convoys. Only indigenous Russian equipment, modified and/or manufactured by Designing Bureau for Motor Vehicle Transport Equipment (KBATO), is provided under this program. The US will not provide assistance in the truck transportation arena without a commitment from the Russian facility to provide heavily armed escorts for SNM movement. Each site conducts a detailed transportation needs assessment study that is used as the basis for prioritizing assistance. The Siberian Chemical Combine (Tomsk-7) was the initial site of cooperation. The designs used at Tomsk-7 are serving as the baseline for all future vehicles modified under this program. In FY98, many vehicles systems have been ordered for various institutes. Many additional systems will be ordered in FY99

  16. Truck bomb and insider threats to nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, D.

    1987-01-01

    In the nuclear field, two the these weak links in the security chain are the truck bomb threat and the insider threat. The risks associated with terrorist use of vehicular bombs against nuclear targets surfaced (actually, resurfaced) followed the terrorist attacks on the US Embassy annex and the Marine compound in Leb Concern was expressed that similar attacks against nuclear facilities could result in substantial damage and release of radioactivity. Since the current regulations of the NRC require licensees to protect only against attacks on foot (and even then, only against very small attacking forces), shortly after the Lebanon bombings, that agency commenced an urgent rulemaking to require its licensees to protect against truck bombs. Inexplicably, that rulemaking was called off after research results indicated that the truck bomb threat to nuclear facilities was even more serious than previously thought. Even were nuclear facilities adequately protected against external attack, be the aim theft or sabotage, the greatest security risk to these sites - the threat of action by insiders - would remain. The traditional methods of protecting against the insider threat - such as the two-person rule, strict compartmentalization of vital areas, and design features that make damage to two or more redundant systems by one individual difficult - are generally expensive and have encountered substantial resistance from the nuclear industry, which has restrained the NRC from requiring them

  17. Scheduling trucks in cross docking systems with temporary storage and dock repeat truck holding pattern using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ghobadian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross docking is one of the most important issues in management of supply chains. In cross docking, different items delivered to a warehouse by inbound trucks are directly arranged and reorganized based on customer demands, routed and loaded into outbound trucks for delivery purposes to customers without virtually keeping them at the warehouse. If any item is kept in storage, it is normally for a short amount of time, say less than 24 hours. In this paper, we consider a special case of cross docking where there is temporary storage and implements genetic algorithm to solve the resulted problem for some realistic test problems. In our method, we first use some heuristics as initial solutions and then improve the final solution using genetic algorithm. The performance of the proposed model is compared with alternative solution strategy, the GRASP method.

  18. Gamma irradiation testing of prototype ITER in-vessel magnetic pick-up coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeeren, Ludo; Leysen, Willem

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We tested five prototype ITER in-vessel coils up to a gamma dose of 72 MGy. ► Before and after irradiation thermal tests were also performed from 30 °C till 130 °C. ► The continuity resistances and the insulation resistances were continuously monitored. ► The observed behavior of all coils was satisfactory in all conditions. ► For the further design the mechanical robustness should be taken into account. -- Abstract: To fulfill the requirements for ITER in-vessel magnetic diagnostics, several coil prototypes have been developed, aiming at minimizing the disturbing effects of temperature gradients and radiation induced phenomena. As a first step in the radiation resistance testing of these prototypes, an in-situ high dose rate gamma radiation test on a selection of prototypes was performed. The aim of this test was to get a first experimental feedback regarding the behavior of the pick-up coil prototypes under radiation. Five prototypes (a coil wound with glass-insulated copper wire, two LTCC coils and two HTCC coils) were irradiated at a dose rate of 46 kGy/h up to a total dose of 72 MGy and at a temperature of 50 °C. During the irradiation, the continuity resistances and the insulation resistances were continuously measured. Before and after irradiation reference data were recorded as a function of temperature (from 30 °C to 130 °C). This paper includes the results of the temperature and irradiation tests and a discussion of the behavior of the prototype coils in terms of electrical and mechanical properties

  19. Investigating Systematic Errors of the Interstellar Flow Longitude Derived from the Pickup Ion Cutoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taut, A.; Berger, L.; Drews, C.; Bower, J.; Keilbach, D.; Lee, M. A.; Moebius, E.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2017-12-01

    Complementary to the direct neutral particle measurements performed by e.g. IBEX, the measurement of PickUp Ions (PUIs) constitutes a diagnostic tool to investigate the local interstellar medium. PUIs are former neutral particles that have been ionized in the inner heliosphere. Subsequently, they are picked up by the solar wind and its frozen-in magnetic field. Due to this process, a characteristic Velocity Distribution Function (VDF) with a sharp cutoff evolves, which carries information about the PUI's injection speed and thus the former neutral particle velocity. The symmetry of the injection speed about the interstellar flow vector is used to derive the interstellar flow longitude from PUI measurements. Using He PUI data obtained by the PLASTIC sensor on STEREO A, we investigate how this concept may be affected by systematic errors. The PUI VDF strongly depends on the orientation of the local interplanetary magnetic field. Recently injected PUIs with speeds just below the cutoff speed typically form a highly anisotropic torus distribution in velocity space, which leads to a longitudinal transport for certain magnetic field orientation. Therefore, we investigate how the selection of magnetic field configurations in the data affects the result for the interstellar flow longitude that we derive from the PUI cutoff. Indeed, we find that the results follow a systematic trend with the filtered magnetic field angles that can lead to a shift of the result up to 5°. In turn, this means that every value for the interstellar flow longitude derived from the PUI cutoff is affected by a systematic error depending on the utilized magnetic field orientations. Here, we present our observations, discuss possible reasons for the systematic trend we discovered, and indicate selections that may minimize the systematic errors.

  20. Minimum pickup velocity (U{sub pu}) of nanoparticles in gas–solid pneumatic conveying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anantharaman, Aditya [Nanyang Technological University, School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); Ommen, J. Ruud van [Delft University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (Netherlands); Chew, Jia Wei, E-mail: JChew@ntu.edu.sg [Nanyang Technological University, School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (Singapore)

    2015-12-15

    This paper is the first systematic study of the pneumatic conveying of nanoparticles. The minimum pickup velocity, U{sub pu}, of six nanoparticle species of different materials [i.e., silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}), aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2})] and surfaces (i.e., apolar and polar) was determined by the weight loss method. Results show that (1) due to relative lack of hydrogen bonding, apolar nanoparticles had higher mass loss values at the same velocities, mass loss curves with accentuated S-shaped profiles, and lower U{sub pu} values, (2) among the three species, SiO{sub 2}, which has the lowest Hamaker coefficient, exhibited the greatest discrepancy between apolar and polar surfaces with respect to both mass loss curves and U{sub pu} values, (3) U{sub mf,polar}/U{sub mf,apolar} was between 1 and 3.5 times that of U{sub pu,polar}/U{sub pu,apolar} due to greater extents of hydrogen bonding associated with U{sub mf}, (4) U{sub pu} values were at least an order-of-magnitude lower than that expected from the well-acknowledged U{sub pu} correlation (Kalman et al., Powder Technol 160:103–113, 2005) due to agglomeration, (5) although nanoparticles should be categorized as Zone III (Kalman et al. 2005) (or Geldart group C, Powder Technol 7:285–292, 1973), the nanoparticles, and primary and complex agglomerates agreed more with the Zone I (or Geldart group B) correlation.

  1. IMPROVING THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SHOVEL-TRUCK SYSTEMS IN OPEN-PIT COAL MINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark KORYAGIN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to reduce idle times of mining trucks and shovels in an open-pit coal mine. A heuristic algorithm for making dispatching decisions in conditions of dynamic allocation of trucks is developed. Priority parameters for choosing the shovel after the end-of-truck unloading are introduced. Also, an algorithm for searching for the optimal priority parameters to satisfy the required efficiency criterion is developed. This algorithm is based on a simulation model of a shovel-truck system. The proposed approach is applicable in terms of the group of shovels with a common dump point in various open-pit coal mines. The importance of this work lies in the fact that the proposed model takes into account the random factors related with the duration of loading and dumping, truck movement, repair of shovels and haul trucks, as well as the duration of periods between repairs.

  2. Modelling Truck Weigh Stations’ Locations based on Truck Traffic Flow and Overweight Violation: A Case Study in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsad Kulović

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of registered commercial freight vehicles is constantly increasing, increasing therefore as well the traffic load on the roads in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A significant part of freight vehicles moving along the main and regional roads are overloaded and cause significant damage to road infrastructure, affect road safety and result in an increase of emissions of harmful gases for people and the environment. The overloading rate is extremely high, in particular with 5-axle trucks representing 58.7%. The research showed that the increased overload level ranges from 10-20% of the maximum permissible weight. The importance of load limits was recognized early in the history of road development. This interrelation led directly to limitations on vehicle loads, and laws were enacted in many countries to establish the maximum allowable motor vehicle sizes and weights. Strict enforcement of motor vehicle size and weight laws is a step toward reducing motor vehicle size and weight violations, heavy truck accidents, and, even more, improving road maintenance, rehabilitation expenditures and road safety. Thus, based on the applied model the objective of this paper is to evaluate and optimize the locations of truck weigh stations on the road network of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  3. Planning of Truck Platoons: a Literature Review and Directions for Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kishore Bhoopalam, Anirudh; Agatz, Niels; Zuidwijk, Rob

    2017-01-01

    textabstractA truck platoon is a set of virtually linked trucks that drive closely behind one another using automated driving technology. Benefits of truck platooning include cost savings, reduced emissions, and more efficient utilization of road capacity. To fully reap these benefits in the initial phases requires careful planning of platoons based on trucks’ itineraries and time schedules. This paper provides a framework to classify various new transportation planning problems that arise in...

  4. Assessing crash risk considering vehicle interactions with trucks using point detector data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Kyung Kate; Jeong, Kyungsoo; Tok, Andre; Ritchie, Stephen G

    2018-03-12

    Trucks have distinct driving characteristics in general traffic streams such as lower speeds and limitations in acceleration and deceleration. As a consequence, vehicles keep longer headways or frequently change lane when they follow a truck, which is expected to increase crash risk. This study introduces several traffic measures at the individual vehicle level to capture vehicle interactions between trucks and non-trucks and analyzed how the measures affect crash risk under different traffic conditions. The traffic measures were developed using headways obtained from Inductive Loop Detectors (ILDs). In addition, a truck detection algorithm using a Gaussian Mixture (GM) model was developed to identify trucks and to estimate truck exposure from ILD data. Using the identified vehicle types from the GM model, vehicle interaction metrics were categorized into three groups based on the combination of leading and following vehicle types. The effects of the proposed traffic measures on crash risk were modeled in two different cases of prior- and non-crash using a case-control approach utilizing a conditional logistic regression. Results showed that the vehicle interactions between the leading and following vehicle types were highly associated with crash risk, and further showed different impacts on crash risk by traffic conditions. Specifically, crashes were more likely to occur when a truck following a non-truck had shorter average headway but greater headway variance in heavy traffic while a non-truck following a truck had greater headway variance in light traffic. This study obtained meaningful conclusions that vehicle interactions involved with trucks were significantly related to the crash likelihood rather than the measures that estimate average traffic condition such as total volume or average headway of the traffic stream. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An innovative food truck chain, strategic planning inspired from the lean start up methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Peñate, Paul Tavares

    2015-01-01

    Mestardo em Marketing Suportada pela abordagem Lean , o Projecto apresenta um modelo de negócios de uma nova marca de Food Truck, inicialmente a ser lançada na Bélgca. Foodies’TruckZ é a marca sugerida para um novo modelo de negócio de Food Truck que procura inovar alavancando economias de escala, sobretudo em Marketing, e através de uma frota co-propriedade das carinhas food truck. Neste modelo de negócio a partilha no investimento do camião, na comunicação e outros aspectos de marketing ...

  6. Electric urban delivery trucks: energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeon; Thomas, Valerie M; Brown, Marilyn A

    2013-07-16

    We compare electric and diesel urban delivery trucks in terms of life-cycle energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and total cost of ownership (TCO). The relative benefits of electric trucks depend heavily on vehicle efficiency associated with drive cycle, diesel fuel price, travel demand, electric drive battery replacement and price, electricity generation and transmission efficiency, electric truck recharging infrastructure, and purchase price. For a drive cycle with frequent stops and low average speed such as the New York City Cycle (NYCC), electric trucks emit 42-61% less GHGs and consume 32-54% less energy than diesel trucks, depending upon vehicle efficiency cases. Over an array of possible conditions, the median TCO of electric trucks is 22% less than that of diesel trucks on the NYCC. For a drive cycle with less frequent stops and high average speed such as the City-Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), electric trucks emit 19-43% less GHGs and consume 5-34% less energy, but cost 1% more than diesel counterparts. Considering current and projected U.S. regional electricity generation mixes, for the baseline case, the energy use and GHG emissions ratios of electric to diesel trucks range from 48 to 82% and 25 to 89%, respectively.

  7. Was It Really Worth Pain? Refurbishment of Mercedes-Benz Trucks by Botswana Defence Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rangobana, Samuel A; Alkebaisi, Hussain K

    2005-01-01

    .... Logistics statistics, for refurbished trucks returned to user units, are also gathered from the asset management software database, Mincom Ellipse, in use by the Botswana Defence Force Mechanical...

  8. Logistics of in-wood chipping and trucking of chips; Palstahaketuksen logistinen ketju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuuja, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Asikainen, A. [Metsaeosaamiskeskus, Joensuu (Finland). Joensuu Science Park

    1996-12-31

    In this study a in wood chipper and truck transport of chips were modelled and studied by discrete-event simulation. The input data, which included stand characteristics and information about transport distances was compiled by GRASS-program. This data based on the inventory done by Forestry Center TAPIO. With the model various transport alternatives were compared and the effect of work condition factors were studied. It was find out, that a long distance transport with interchangeable container truck gives better productivity than a truck with a trailer. This results from shorter loading time for the interchangeable container truck

  9. Logistics of in-wood chipping and trucking of chips; Palstahaketuksen logistinen ketju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuuja, J [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Asikainen, A [Metsaeosaamiskeskus, Joensuu (Finland). Joensuu Science Park

    1997-12-31

    In this study a in wood chipper and truck transport of chips were modelled and studied by discrete-event simulation. The input data, which included stand characteristics and information about transport distances was compiled by GRASS-program. This data based on the inventory done by Forestry Center TAPIO. With the model various transport alternatives were compared and the effect of work condition factors were studied. It was find out, that a long distance transport with interchangeable container truck gives better productivity than a truck with a trailer. This results from shorter loading time for the interchangeable container truck

  10. Listing of 502 Times When the Ulysses Magnetic Fields Instrument Observed Waves Due to Newborn Interstellar Pickup Protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, Bradford E.; Smith, Charles W.; Isenberg, Philip A.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Joyce, Colin J.; Murphy, Neil; Nuno, Raquel G.

    2017-01-01

    In two earlier publications we analyzed 502 intervals of magnetic waves excited by newborn interstellar pickup protons that were observed by the Ulysses spacecraft. Due to the considerable effort required in identifying these events, we provide a list of the times for the 502 wave event intervals previously identified. In the process, we provide a brief description of how the waves were found and what their properties are. We also remind the reader of the conditions that permit the waves to reach observable levels and explain why the waves are not seen more often.

  11. Micromanipulation and pick-up system for X-Ray diffraction characterization of micrometer-sized single particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Y; Inami, N; Saito, K; Otori, H; Sagayama, R; Kumai, R; Ono, K; Ueno, T

    2014-01-01

    We describe a micromanipulation and pick-up system for preparing a micrometer-sized single particle for X-ray diffraction characterization. Combining a microgripper based on microelectromechanical systems, piezo-motor-driven linear stages, and a gamepad, the system provides precise and intuitive handling of the object. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements of Sm-Fe-N permanent magnet were performed using this system. We also describe a method to distinguish crystallographically homogeneous particles found in powder-form samples.

  12. Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Simultaneous Delivery and Pick-Up Service Based on MCPSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Gan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers two additional factors of the widely researched vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW. The two factors, which are very common characteristics in realworld, are uncertain number of vehicles and simultaneous delivery and pick-up service. Using minimization of the total transport costs as the objective of the extension VRPTW, a mathematic model is constructed. To solve the problem, an efficient multiswarm cooperative particle swarm optimization (MCPSO algorithm is applied. And a new encoding method is proposed for the extension VRPTW. Finally, comparing with genetic algorithm (GA and particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm, the MCPSO algorithm performs best for solving this problem.

  13. The Hydrogen Pickup Behavior for Zirconium-based Alloys in Various Out-of-pile Corrosion Test Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aomi, M.; Etoh, Y.; Ishimoto, S.; Une, K. [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development, Co., Ltd., 2163 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki-ken, 311-1313 (Japan); Ito, K. [Global Nuclear Fuel Japan Co., Ltd., 3-1 Uchikawa 2-chome, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa-ken, 239-0836 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    An acceleration of hydrogen absorption in zirconium alloy claddings at high burnups is one of the most important issues limiting the fuel performance from the viewpoint of cladding integrity. In this context, advanced cladding materials with higher corrosion resistant and lower hydrogen absorption properties have been widely searched in various organizations. In this study, four kinds of zirconium-based alloys, whose in-pile data had been acquired [1,2] were subjected to comprehensive out-of-pile corrosion tests with various temperature and atmosphere conditions in order to investigate the correlation between in-pile and out-of-pile corrosion and hydrogen pick-up behavior, i.e. Zry-2, GNF-Ziron (Zry-2-based alloy with {approx}0.25 wt % of Fe), Hi-FeNi Zircaloy (Zry-2-based alloy with {approx}0.25 wt % of Fe and {approx}0.1 wt% Ni), and VB (Zr-based alloy containing Sn, Cr, and {approx}0.5 wt % of Fe). All the alloys were annealed in RXA condition. The out-of-pile corrosion tests were carried out in three different conditions of 400 deg. C steam, 475 deg. C supercritical water, and 290 deg. C LiOH aqueous solution. In addition to these alloys, several Zry-2-based alloys with various iron contents were tested in 290 deg. C LiOH aqueous solution. Among the four corrosion conditions, the 290 deg. C LiOH aqueous solution test well screened the hydrogen pick-up behavior of the alloys. The hydrogen absorption decreased with higher iron contents in the alloys in both the out-of-pile and in-pile conditions. Especially, the distinct suppression of hydrogen absorption was observed for VB with the highest iron content. The similar dependence of iron content on the hydrogen pick-up fraction was also obtained for the Zry-2-based alloys with different iron contents, which were corroded in the 290 deg. C LiOH aqueous solution condition. As for the corrosion behavior in the 290 deg. C LiOH aqueous solution condition, the weight gains of Zry-2, GNF-Ziron and VB followed the 1

  14. Listing of 502 Times When the Ulysses Magnetic Fields Instrument Observed Waves Due to Newborn Interstellar Pickup Protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Bradford E. [Physics Department, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida (United States); Smith, Charles W.; Isenberg, Philip A.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Joyce, Colin J. [Physics Department and Space Science Center, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire (United States); Murphy, Neil [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Mail Stop 180-600, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California (United States); Nuno, Raquel G., E-mail: bc13h@my.fsu.edu, E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu, E-mail: Phil.Isenberg@unh.edu, E-mail: Bernie.Vasquez@unh.edu, E-mail: Colin.Joyce@unh.edu, E-mail: Neil.Murphy@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: rgnuno@ucla.edu [Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    In two earlier publications we analyzed 502 intervals of magnetic waves excited by newborn interstellar pickup protons that were observed by the Ulysses spacecraft. Due to the considerable effort required in identifying these events, we provide a list of the times for the 502 wave event intervals previously identified. In the process, we provide a brief description of how the waves were found and what their properties are. We also remind the reader of the conditions that permit the waves to reach observable levels and explain why the waves are not seen more often.

  15. THE ROLE OF PICKUP IONS ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE VENUSIAN BOW SHOCK AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TERMINATION SHOCK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Quanming; Shan Lican; Zhang Tielong; Wu Mingyu; Wang Shui; Zank, Gary P.; Yang Zhongwei; Du Aimin

    2013-01-01

    The recent crossing of the termination shock by Voyager 2 has demonstrated the important role of pickup ions (PUIs) in the physics of collisionless shocks. The Venus Express (VEX) spacecraft orbits Venus in a 24 hr elliptical orbit that crosses the bow shock twice a day. VEX provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of PUIs on the structure of collisionless shocks more generally. Using VEX observations, we find that the strength of the Venusian bow shock is weaker when solar activity is strong. We demonstrate that this surprising anti-correlation is due to PUIs mediating the Venusian bow shock

  16. Solar cycle variation of interstellar neutral He, Ne, O density and pick-up ions along the Earth's orbit

    OpenAIRE

    Sokół, Justyna M.; Bzowski, Maciej; Kubiak, Marzena A.; Möbius, Eberhard

    2016-01-01

    We simulated the modulation of the interstellar neutral (ISN) He, Ne, and O density and pick-up ion (PUI) production rate and count rate along the Earth's orbit over the solar cycle from 2002 to 2013 to verify if solar cycle-related effects may modify the inferred ecliptic longitude of the ISN inflow direction. We adopted the classical PUI model with isotropic distribution function and adiabatic cooling, modified by time- and heliolatitude-dependent ionization rates and non-zero injection spe...

  17. Aberrant Behaviors and Road Accidents among Iranian Truck Drivers, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available structural dimensions of which as well as technologic failures such as road quality, and tech-nical faults of automobiles, need to be assessed in detail. Iran has the first order in the world for deadly road accidents. This study was designed to assess the association between aberrant behaviors of truck drivers and the incidence of road accidents in Yazd, center of Iran, in 2010.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 truck drivers in Yazd. We used 3 questionnaires, including one for demographic data, Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ, and one for drivers' self-evaluation of the of their driving.Results: Five types of the behavior had the highest frequency: Misjudge speed of oncoming vehicle when overtaking.; Deliberately disregard the speed limits late at night or very early in the morning.; Ignore 'give way' signs, and narrowly avoid colliding with traffic having right of way.; Stuck behind a slow-moving vehicle on a two-lane highway, you are driven by frustration to try to overtake in risky circumstances.; Drive with only 'half-an-eye' on the road while looking at a map, changing a cassette or radio channel, etc. The more the driver's driv-ing was influenced by emotional and mental states the more deliberate violations and slips.Conclusion: Among truck drivers, safety has not developed sufficiently, and because of the dangers of road accidents both for the drivers and other people and its economic losses, the importance of the presenting some solutions is completely obvious.

  18. Recovery Act--Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trucks, Daimler [Daimler Trucks North America Llc, Portland, OR (United States)

    2015-07-26

    Daimler Trucks North America completed a five year, $79.6M project to develop and demonstrate a concept vehicle with at least 50% freight efficiency improvement over a weighted average of several drive cycles relative to a 2009 best-in-class baseline vehicle. DTNA chose a very fuel efficient baseline vehicle, the 2009 Freightliner Cascadia with a DD15 engine, yet successfully demonstrated a 115% freight efficiency improvement. DTNA learned a great deal about the various technologies that were incorporated into Super Truck and those that, through down-selection, were discarded. Some of the technologies competed with each other for efficiency, and notably some of the technologies complemented each other. For example, we found that Super Truck’s improved aerodynamic drag resulted in improved fuel savings from eCoast, relative to a similar vehicle with worse aerodynamic drag. However, some technologies were in direct competition with each other, namely the predictive technologies which use GPS and 3D digital maps to efficiently manage the vehicles kinetic energy through controls and software, versus hybrid which is a much costlier technology that essentially targets the same inefficiency. Furthermore, the benefits of a comprehensive, integrated powertrain/vehicle approach was proven, in which vast improvements in vehicle efficiency (e.g. lower aero drag and driveline losses) enabled engine strategies such as downrating and downspeeding. The joint engine and vehicle developments proved to be a multiplier-effect which resulted in large freight efficiency improvements. Although a large number of technologies made the selection process and were used on the Super Truck demonstrator vehicle, some of the technologies proved not feasible for series production.

  19. Psychoactive substance use by truck drivers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Birolim, Marcela Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarise the scientific evidence on the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and on the factors associated with their intake among truck drivers. A systematic review was performed in the databases PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, and Cochrane and 36 cross-sectional studies were identified with quantitative results about the use of psychoactive substances by truck drivers. Out of these, 28 were carried out in countries with large land areas and 23 obtained their information through self-reporting. The most frequently studied substances were alcohol (n=25), amphetamines (n=17), marijuana (n=16) and cocaine (n=13). The prevalence of the use of these substances greatly varied: alcohol (0.1-91.0%); amphetamines (0.2-82.5%), marijuana (0.2-29.9%), cocaine (0.1-8.3%). The frequency of substance use was lower in studies that investigated the presence of these substances in biological samples than in those based on self-reported use. In 12 studies that evaluated factors associated with the intake of psychoactive substances, the following stood out: younger age, higher income, longer trips, alcohol consumption, driving in the night shift, travelling interstate routes, long or short sleep, fewer hours of rest, little experience of the driver, connection with small and medium sized companies, income below levels determined by labour agreements, productivity-based earnings and prior involvement in accidents. The frequency of psychoactive substance use by truck drivers seems to be high, although that greatly varies according to the type of substance and the method of collecting the information. The use of these substances was mainly associated with indicators of poor working conditions.

  20. Solar wind heating by an embedded quasi-isothermal pick-up ion fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Fahr

    Full Text Available It is well known that the solar wind plasma consists of primary ions of solar coronal origin and secondary ions of interstellar origin. Interstellar H-atoms penetrate into the inner heliosphere and when ionized there are converted into secondary ions. These are implanted into the magnetized solar wind flow and are essentially enforced to co-move with this flow. By nonlinear interactions with wind-entrained Alfvén waves the latter are processed in the co-moving velocity space. This pick-up process, however, also causes actions back upon the original solar wind flow, leading to a deceleration, as well as a heating of the solar wind plasma. The resulting deceleration is not only due to the loading effect, but also due to the action of the pressure gradient. To calculate the latter, it is important to take into account the stochastic acceleration that suffers at their convection out of the inner heliosphere by the quasi-linear interactions with MHD turbulences. Only then can the presently reported VOYAGER observations of solar wind decelerations and heatings in the outer heliosphere be understood in terms of the current, most likely values of interstellar gas parameters. In a consistent view of the thermodynamics of the solar wind plasma, which is composed of secondary ions and solar wind protons, we also derive that the latter are globally heated at their motion to larger solar distances. The arising heat transfer is due to the action of suprathermal ions which drive MHD waves that are partially absorbed by solar wind protons and thereby establish their observed quasi-polytropy. We obtain a quantitative expression for the solar wind proton pressure as a function of solar distance. This expression clearly shows the change from an adiabatic to a quasi-polytropic behaviour with a decreasing polytropic index at increasing distances, as has been observed by the VOYAGERS. This also allows one to calculate the average percentage of the intitial energy

  1. Two-proton pickup studies with the (6Li,8B) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisenmiller, R.B.

    1976-12-03

    The (/sup 6/Li,/sup 8/B) reaction has been investigated on targets of /sup 26/Mg, /sup 24/Mg, /sup 16/O, /sup 13/C, /sup 12/C, /sup 11/B, /sup 10/B, and /sup 9/Be at a bombarding energy of 80.0 MeV, and on targets of /sup 16/O, /sup 12/C, /sup 9/Be, /sup 7/Li, and /sup 6/Li at a bombarding energy of 93.3 MeV. Only levels consistent with direct, single-step two-proton pickup reaction mechanisms were observed to be strongly populated. On T/sub z/ = 0 targets, the spectroscopic selectivity of this reaction resembles that of the analogous (p,t) reaction. Additionally, these data demonstrate the dominance of spatially symmetric transfer of the two protons. On T/sub z/ greater than 0 targets the (/sup 6/Li,/sup 8/B) reaction was employed to locate two previously unreported levels (at 7.47 +- 0.05 MeV and 8.86 +- 0.07 MeV) in the T/sub z/ = 2 nuclide /sup 24/Ne and to establish the low-lying 1p-shell states in the T/sub z/ = /sup 3///sub 2/ nuclei /sup 11/Be, /sup 9/Li, and /sup 7/He. However, no evidence was seen for any narrow levels in the T/sub z/ = /sup 3///sub 2/ nuclide /sup 5/H nor for any narrow excited states in /sup 7/He. The angular distributions reported here are rather featureless and decrease monotonically with increasing angle. This behavior can be shown by a semi-classical reaction theory to be a consequence of the reaction kinematics. A semi-classical approach also suggests that the kinematic term in the transition matrix element is only weakly dependent upon the angular momentum transfer (which is consistent with simple Distorted Wave Born Approximation calculations). However, only qualitative agreement was obtained between the observed relative transition yields and semi-classical predictions, using the two-nucleon coefficients of fractional parentage of Cohen and Kurath, probably due to the limitations of the semi-classical reaction theory.

  2. Two-proton pickup studies with the (6Li,8B) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisenmiller, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    The ( 6 Li, 8 B) reaction has been investigated on targets of 26 Mg, 24 Mg, 16 O, 13 C, 12 C, 11 B, 10 B, and 9 Be at a bombarding energy of 80.0 MeV, and on targets of 16 O, 12 C, 9 Be, 7 Li, and 6 Li at a bombarding energy of 93.3 MeV. Only levels consistent with direct, single-step two-proton pickup reaction mechanisms were observed to be strongly populated. On T/sub z/ = 0 targets, the spectroscopic selectivity of this reaction resembles that of the analogous (p,t) reaction. Additionally, these data demonstrate the dominance of spatially symmetric transfer of the two protons. On T/sub z/ greater than 0 targets the ( 6 Li, 8 B) reaction was employed to locate two previously unreported levels (at 7.47 +- 0.05 MeV and 8.86 +- 0.07 MeV) in the T/sub z/ = 2 nuclide 24 Ne and to establish the low-lying 1p-shell states in the T/sub z/ = 3 / 2 nuclei 11 Be, 9 Li, and 7 He. However, no evidence was seen for any narrow levels in the T/sub z/ = 3 / 2 nuclide 5 H nor for any narrow excited states in 7 He. The angular distributions reported here are rather featureless and decrease monotonically with increasing angle. This behavior can be shown by a semi-classical reaction theory to be a consequence of the reaction kinematics. A semi-classical approach also suggests that the kinematic term in the transition matrix element is only weakly dependent upon the angular momentum transfer (which is consistent with simple Distorted Wave Born Approximation calculations). However, only qualitative agreement was obtained between the observed relative transition yields and semi-classical predictions, using the two-nucleon coefficients of fractional parentage of Cohen and Kurath, probably due to the limitations of the semi-classical reaction theory

  3. Solar wind heating by an embedded quasi-isothermal pick-up ion fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Fahr

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the solar wind plasma consists of primary ions of solar coronal origin and secondary ions of interstellar origin. Interstellar H-atoms penetrate into the inner heliosphere and when ionized there are converted into secondary ions. These are implanted into the magnetized solar wind flow and are essentially enforced to co-move with this flow. By nonlinear interactions with wind-entrained Alfvén waves the latter are processed in the co-moving velocity space. This pick-up process, however, also causes actions back upon the original solar wind flow, leading to a deceleration, as well as a heating of the solar wind plasma. The resulting deceleration is not only due to the loading effect, but also due to the action of the pressure gradient. To calculate the latter, it is important to take into account the stochastic acceleration that suffers at their convection out of the inner heliosphere by the quasi-linear interactions with MHD turbulences. Only then can the presently reported VOYAGER observations of solar wind decelerations and heatings in the outer heliosphere be understood in terms of the current, most likely values of interstellar gas parameters. In a consistent view of the thermodynamics of the solar wind plasma, which is composed of secondary ions and solar wind protons, we also derive that the latter are globally heated at their motion to larger solar distances. The arising heat transfer is due to the action of suprathermal ions which drive MHD waves that are partially absorbed by solar wind protons and thereby establish their observed quasi-polytropy. We obtain a quantitative expression for the solar wind proton pressure as a function of solar distance. This expression clearly shows the change from an adiabatic to a quasi-polytropic behaviour with a decreasing polytropic index at increasing distances, as has been observed by the VOYAGERS. This also allows one to calculate the average percentage of the intitial energy

  4. On the Effects of Pickup Ion-driven Waves on the Diffusion Tensor of Low-energy Electrons in the Heliosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, N. Eugene, E-mail: n.eugene.engelbrecht@gmail.com [Center for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom, 2522 (South Africa)

    2017-11-01

    The effects of Alfvén cyclotron waves generated due to the formation in the outer heliosphere of pickup ions on the transport coefficients of low-energy electrons is investigated here. To this end, parallel mean free path (MFP) expressions are derived from quasilinear theory, employing the damping model of dynamical turbulence. These are then used as inputs for existing expressions for the perpendicular MFP and turbulence-reduced drift coefficient. Using outputs generated by a two-component turbulence transport model, the resulting diffusion coefficients are compared with those derived using a more typically assumed turbulence spectral form, which neglects the effects of pickup ion-generated waves. It is found that the inclusion of pickup ion effects greatly leads to considerable reductions in the parallel and perpendicular MFPs of 1–10 MeV electrons beyond ∼10 au, which are argued to have significant consequences for studies of the transport of these particles.

  5. Evaluating the effects of heavy sugar cane truck operations on repair cost of low volume highways : technical summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Current Louisiana state laws allow truck operators hauling certain agricultural commodities to purchase : overweight permits and haul at gross vehicle weights (GVW) in excess of the legislated GVW limit of : 80,000 lb. For instance, sugar cane trucke...

  6. The application of smart phone, weight-mile truck data to support freight-modeling, performance measures and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Oregon is one of the few states that currently charge a commercial truck weight-mile tax (WMT). The Oregon Department of : Transportation (ODOT) has developed a data-collection system Truck Road Use Electronics (TRUE) to simplify WMT : collec...

  7. Automatic detection of lift-off and touch-down of a pick-up walker using 3D kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootveld, L; Thies, S B; Ogden, D; Howard, D; Kenney, L P J

    2014-02-01

    Walking aids have been associated with falls and it is believed that incorrect use limits their usefulness. Measures are therefore needed that characterize their stable use and the classification of key events in walking aid movement is the first step in their development. This study presents an automated algorithm for detection of lift-off (LO) and touch-down (TD) events of a pick-up walker. For algorithm design and initial testing, a single user performed trials for which the four individual walker feet lifted off the ground and touched down again in various sequences, and for different amounts of frame loading (Dataset_1). For further validation, ten healthy young subjects walked with the pick-up walker on flat ground (Dataset_2a) and on a narrow beam (Dataset_2b), to challenge balance. One 88-year-old walking frame user was also assessed. Kinematic data were collected with a 3D optoelectronic camera system. The algorithm detected over 93% of events (Dataset_1), and 95% and 92% in Dataset_2a and b, respectively. Of the various LO/TD sequences, those associated with natural progression resulted in up to 100% correctly identified events. For the 88-year-old walking frame user, 96% of LO events and 93% of TD events were detected, demonstrating the potential of the approach. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Resonant pickups for non-destructive single-particle detection in heavy-ion storage rings and first experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjari, Mohammad Shahab

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics studies on highly charged radionuclides benefit from accelerator facilities with storage rings, where exotic nuclides produced with small yields can be efficiently investigated. Currently there are two accelerator facilities capable of storing highly charged heavy ions, GSI in Darmstadt and IMP in Lanzhou. Non-destructive detection methods are often used for in-flight measurements based on frequency analysis. The sensitivity of such detection systems are of primary importance specially when number of stored ions is small. Furthermore, since the exotic nuclides of interest are as a rule short-lived, the detectors must be fast. One common form of such detectors are parallel plate SCHOTTKY monitors, on which particles induce a mirror charge at each passage. This method has been successfully used at ESR experimental storage ring of GSI since 1991. In this work we describe a new resonant SCHOTTKY pickup operating as a high sensitive cavity current monitor which was mounted and commissioned in the ESR early 2010. It was successfully used in several storage ring experiments. A very similar pickup was mounted in CSRe at IMP Lanzhou in 2011. First in-ring tests have been performed and new experimental results are pending. The spectral analysis of acquired signals by the new detector has enabled a broad range of new physics experiments. The theory of operation and first experimental results and future perspectives are presented in this thesis.

  9. Resonant pickups for non-destructive single-particle detection in heavy-ion storage rings and first experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjari, Mohammad Shahab

    2013-04-26

    Nuclear astrophysics studies on highly charged radionuclides benefit from accelerator facilities with storage rings, where exotic nuclides produced with small yields can be efficiently investigated. Currently there are two accelerator facilities capable of storing highly charged heavy ions, GSI in Darmstadt and IMP in Lanzhou. Non-destructive detection methods are often used for in-flight measurements based on frequency analysis. The sensitivity of such detection systems are of primary importance specially when number of stored ions is small. Furthermore, since the exotic nuclides of interest are as a rule short-lived, the detectors must be fast. One common form of such detectors are parallel plate SCHOTTKY monitors, on which particles induce a mirror charge at each passage. This method has been successfully used at ESR experimental storage ring of GSI since 1991. In this work we describe a new resonant SCHOTTKY pickup operating as a high sensitive cavity current monitor which was mounted and commissioned in the ESR early 2010. It was successfully used in several storage ring experiments. A very similar pickup was mounted in CSRe at IMP Lanzhou in 2011. First in-ring tests have been performed and new experimental results are pending. The spectral analysis of acquired signals by the new detector has enabled a broad range of new physics experiments. The theory of operation and first experimental results and future perspectives are presented in this thesis.

  10. 76 FR 22154 - Powered Industrial Trucks Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... manufacturer, paragraph (a)(5) mandates that employers provide a marker on the trucks that identifies the... markers required by paragraphs (a)(3) through (a)(5) remain affixed to trucks and are legible. Paragraphs... . Therefore, OSHA cautions commenters about submitting personal information such as social security numbers...

  11. Analytical solution to energy management guaranteeing battery life for hybrid trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, H.T.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; van den Bosch, P.P.J.; Huisman, R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers a parallel hybrid electric truck where the tractive force delivered to the wheels can be provided by a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) and/or a motor generator (MG). This hybrid truck is equipped with a clutch system that is capable of decoupling the ICE and the MG

  12. Research on tractive power of KZC-5 rear dump truck in underground mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Zeyong

    2003-01-01

    The tractive power of KZC-5 rear dump truck in underground mine is studied in this paper. The principles and ways of defining the power are discussed. It is proved that the power of KZC-5 rear dump truck in underground mine is reasonable in the industrial scale test

  13. 27 CFR 24.230 - Examination of tank car or tank truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.230 Examination of tank car or tank truck. Upon arrival of a tank car or tank truck at the bonded wine premises, the proprietor shall... calibration chart is available at the bonded wine premises, the spirits may be gauged by volume in the tank...

  14. Risk of commercial truck fires in the United States : an exploratory data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    Large trucks are involved in only 8 percent of fatal crashes per year, but 17 percent of fatal fires. The scope of the current body of research is limited. Studies have treated truck fires generally as a subset of vehicle fires or in their own right ...

  15. 76 FR 63988 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions; Pre-Authorization Safety Audits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ...-0097] Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions; Pre-Authorization Safety Audits AGENCY: Federal Motor... motor carriers that applied to participate in the Agency's long-haul pilot program to test and... intent to proceed with the initiation of a United States- Mexico cross-border long-haul trucking pilot...

  16. 49 CFR 230.108 - Steam locomotive leading and trailing trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive leading and trailing trucks. 230... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.108 Steam locomotive leading...

  17. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    -249) and for other truck drivers (SHR: 130, 95% CI: 108-156) compared to bus drivers (SHR: 110, 95% CI: 79-149). All drivers had high SHR for lesions of the ulnar nerve (SHR: 159, 95% CI: 119-207), especially bus drivers (SHR: 197, 95% CI: 116-311). Long-haul truck drivers had high SHRs for synovitis and bursitis...

  18. A Comparative Study of Back Pain among Taxi and Truck Drivers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data was analyzed using SSPSS version 20. Descriptive and analytical statistics to analyze and present data. The prevalence of back pain in Port Harcourt for taxi drivers was 70.4% and 71.4% for truck drivers. The prevalence among truck drivers was due to age ,sitting position and shock absorbers. However variables like ...

  19. Trucks involved in fatal accidents codebook 2010 (Version October 22, 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents : (TIFA), 2010, including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2010 : TIFA file is a census of all medium and heavy trucks invo...

  20. The Impact of Wireless Technology on Loading Trucks at an Auto Parts Distribution Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomas, David T.

    2012-01-01

    An intervention was introduced for truck loaders that used wireless vehicle mount computers that included auditory, visual feedback, and immediate data delivery. The implementation reliably reduced pallets from being loaded out of sequence for all outbound trucks in multistop routes. The role of the organizational behavior management (OBM)…

  1. Impact of trucking network flow on preferred biorefinery locations in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy M. Young; Lee D. Han; James H. Perdue; Stephanie R. Hargrove; Frank M. Guess; Xia Huang; Chung-Hao Chen

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the trucking transportation network flow was modeled for the southern United States. The study addresses a gap in existing research by applying a Bayesian logistic regression and Geographic Information System (GIS) geospatial analysis to predict biorefinery site locations. A one-way trucking cost assuming a 128.8 km (80-mile) haul distance was estimated...

  2. Structural evaluation for the core sampling trucks, RMCS operations, 200 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates the structural adequacy and the integrity of the existing core sampling trucks to withstand impact should the trucks drop off the ramp, either onto the soft ground or onto a non-yielding surface due to operational error, wind, or earthquake. The report also addresses if the allowable tank dome load will be exceeded by the addition of the impact load

  3. 76 FR 68220 - Navistar Truck Development and Technology Center; a Subsidiary of Navistar International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-75,151; TA-W-75,151A] Navistar... Renaissance and Alpha Personnel, Inc. Fort Wayne, IN; Navistar Truck Reliability Center, a Subsidiary of... Reliability Center, a Subsidiary of Navistar International Corporation, Truck Division, 3033 Wayne Trace, Fort...

  4. Investigation of RADTRAN Stop Model input parameters for truck stops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griego, N.R.; Smith, J.D.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    RADTRAN is a computer code for estimating the risks and consequences as transport of radioactive materials (RAM). RADTRAN was developed and is maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy (DOE). For incident-free transportation, the dose to persons exposed while the shipment is stopped is frequently a major percentage of the overall dose. This dose is referred to as Stop Dose and is calculated by the Stop Model. Because stop dose is a significant portion of the overall dose associated with RAM transport, the values used as input for the Stop Model are important. Therefore, an investigation of typical values for RADTRAN Stop Parameters for truck stops was performed. The resulting data from these investigations were analyzed to provide mean values, standard deviations, and histograms. Hence, the mean values can be used when an analyst does not have a basis for selecting other input values for the Stop Model. In addition, the histograms and their characteristics can be used to guide statistical sampling techniques to measure sensitivity of the RADTRAN calculated Stop Dose to the uncertainties in the stop model input parameters. This paper discusses the details and presents the results of the investigation of stop model input parameters at truck stops

  5. Conformity checking of LPG Transportation Trucks by Modelling and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallab Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available LPG Loading /unloading site is considered as a dangerous environment of significant risk, especially during LPG transfer operations. These risks may cause catastrophic dangers such as BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion, UVCE (Unconfined Vapour Cloud Explosion, etc. The site consists of a tank (RST containing LPG and threetransfer posts. Two posts allow loading of small carrier tankers 6 tons. The other one transfer post transfer LPG contained injumbo tankers 20 tons inside the tank. The industrial site at risks chooses to demonstrate the need for a modelling-simulation approach. The aim is to check first compliance and authorization of the truck when it enters the site for loading /unloading, to verify the authorization to make the transfer, and then, to identify the driver and his training to ensure that the transfer operations are going to take place without incident. Sometimes, it may happen that Consignment Operator (CO is busy orabsent and thus the driver operates alone without being authorized, in this case the site risks a loss of control due to a lack of resources. The modelling-simulation will be done using multi-agent systems that will present the drivers, trucks, PO and loading unloading posts as agents in order to have a model facilitating this checking.

  6. Study of trends in the trucking market in modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Popovych

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the features of the transport services market in accordance with its segmentation from the position of statistics on the field of automotive freight. The tendencies of development dynamics and road trucking transport market structure, and particularly the impact of transportation logistics market, including foreign trade cargo traffic of road transport, on the basic trends and the impact of logistics infrastructure development for aggregate indicators of development of transport communications, the size and dynamics of development, market compatibility on investment attractiveness. Balance of consumer, wholesale and logistics market in Ukraine, having similar development trends are established. Market logistics of trucking transport services have a steady trend of development in an objective decline in growth. The necessity of modernization policies in the transport sector at the state level as a software-oriented transport sector investment resources of the economy, taking into account that the share of road transport in the transport system of the country demonstrates the dynamic development with a positive trend in demand for transportation of goods.

  7. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzabi, R Vaghar; Nobes, D S; Lipsett, M G

    2012-01-01

    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  8. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghar Anzabi, R.; Nobes, D. S.; Lipsett, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  9. Urban risks of truck transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    Truck transport of radioactive material (RAM), e.g., spent nuclear fuel (SNF), normally maximizes use of Interstate highways, which are safer and more efficient for truck transport in general. In the estimation of transportation risks, population bordering a route is a direct factor in determining consequences and an indirect factor in determining exposure times, accident probabilities and severities, and other parameters. Proposals to transport RAM may draw intense resistance from stakeholders based on concern for population concentrations along urban segments but the length of a route segment is also a determinative factor in estimating the transport risks. To quantify the relative importance of these two factors, a potential route for transport of SNF (strict use of Interstate highways) was selected and compared with a modified version that bypassed urban areas. The RADTRAN 4 code for transportation risk assessment, which was developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was used in the present study to assess the relative risks of SNF transportation for alternative routes. The results suggest that emphasis on Interstate highways minimizes total route and urban segment risks

  10. Work-related musculoskeletal discomfort among heavy truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazerian, Ramtin; Korhan, Orhan; Shakeri, Ehsan

    2018-03-13

    Heavy truck drivers are exposed to various psychological, psychosocial and physiological factors, some of which can cause musculoskeletal discomfort in different body regions. This study aims to investigate the correlation between different factors of musculoskeletal discomfort in heavy truck drivers. A cross-sectional study design was applied. A total of 384 participants were interviewed using an updated version of the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. While hypothesis testing was used to assess the association of different factors in musculoskeletal discomfort, logistic regression was applied to explore different correlations among questions of the survey. The results demonstrate that hours of exposure to vibration were associated with discomfort in the neck and shoulders (p  0.05. Fifty-seven percent of the drivers were suffering from discomfort in their lower back region. Moreover, seat comfort was found to be highly correlated with discomfort in the neck, shoulder and upper back areas. Additionally, with aging the likelihood of experiencing discomfort in the neck, upper back and knees is increased.

  11. Exploring Telematics Big Data for Truck Platooning Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, Michael P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bugbee, Bruce [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hou, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holden, Jacob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duran, Adam W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mack, Andrea [Montana State University; Swaney, Eric [Volvo Group

    2018-04-03

    NREL completed a temporal and geospatial analysis of telematics data to estimate the fraction of platoonable miles traveled by class 8 tractor trailers currently in operation. This paper discusses the value and limitations of very large but low time-resolution data sets, and the fuel consumption reduction opportunities from large scale adoption of platooning technology for class 8 highway vehicles in the US based on telematics data. The telematics data set consist of about 57,000 unique vehicles traveling over 210 million miles combined during a two-week period. 75% of the total fuel consumption result from vehicles operating in top gear, suggesting heavy highway utilization. The data is at a one-hour resolution, resulting in a significant fraction of data be uncategorizable, yet significant value can still be extracted from the remaining data. Multiple analysis methods to estimate platoonable miles are discussed. Results indicate that 63% of total miles driven at known hourly-average speeds happens at speeds amenable to platooning. When also considering availability of nearby partner vehicles, results indicate 55.7% of all classifiable miles driven were platoonable. Analysis also address the availability of numerous partners enabling platoons greater than 2 trucks and the percentage of trucks that would be required to be equipped with platooning equipment to realize more than 50% of the possible savings.

  12. Truck Drivers And Risk Of STDs Including HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal R.K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Whether long distance truck drivers are at a higher risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV? Objectives: i To study the degree of knowledge of HIV and AIDS among long- distance truck drivers. ii Assess their sexual behaviour including condom use. iii Explore their prevailing social influences and substance abuse patterns. iv Explore their treatment seeking bahaviour as regards STDs. v Deduce their risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV. Study Design: Cross- sectional interview. Setting: Transport Nagar, Indore (M.P Participants: 210 senior drivers (First drivers and 210 junior drivers (Second drivers. Study Variables: Extra-Marital sexual intercourse, condom usage, past and present history of STDs, treatment and counseling, substance abuse, social â€" cultural milieu. Outcome Variables: Risk of contraction of STDs. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: 94% of the drivers were totally ignorant about AIDS. 82.9% and 43.8 % of the senior and junior drivers had a history of extra- marital sex and of these only 2 regularly used condoms. 13.8% and 3.3 % of the senior and junior drivers had a past or present history suggestive of STD infection. Alcohol and Opium were regularly used by them. Conclusion: The studied drivers are at a high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV.

  13. Scrotal neoplasia: would truck drivers be at greater risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Seabra

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze how scrotal neoplasias have been managed during the past decade and to question possible factors or professions associated to its presence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated every case reported from 1995 to 2005 at our hospital. We described the clinical scenario, complementary exams, treatments and outcomes. We also tried to verify if there was any risk, predisposing factors or professions that would explain the cancer origin. RESULTS: Six cases were reviewed. Out of these, three patients were truck drivers. Five of them showed restricted lesions without inguinal lymph nodes enlargement. Histologically, six patients presented squamous carcinoma, with two of them having the verrucous type. The median age of patients was 52 years old (31 to 89. The five patients who are still alive had their lesions completely removed with safety margin and primary closure. CONCLUSIONS: We have noticed that the scrotal carcinoma behavior is similar to that of the penis, where removal of the lesion and study of the regional lymph nodes help to increase the patient survival rate. The outstanding fact was that three out of six patients were truck drivers, raising the hypothesis that such profession, maybe due to the contact or attrition with the diesel exhaust expelled by the engine or to sexual promiscuity, would imply in a larger risk of developing this rare neoplasia.

  14. The Production Measurement Model of Open Pit Mine Based on Truck Operation Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiao-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional production measurement of truck dispatching system in open pit mine has not been effectively expressed by a mathematical model, which brings a negative effect on the subsequent data mining and a compatibility issue to apply the production measurement with fixed assignment of truck. In this study, based on the proposed concept that truck is not only the carrier of transport material, but also act as the bridges and linkages between the loading sites and the unloading sites, a new truck operation diagram was established, which was further developed to a basic data matrix and a production measurement model. The new model allowed to calculatethe production measurement of the transport, loading, unloading, material and etc, respectively, as well as with any calculation in combination of more than one factor as needed.It solved the compatibility issue between conventional production measurement and the production measurement of fixed assignment of truck with good practical results.

  15. Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

  16. Modeling and Design of Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Lift Trucks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham

    driven lift trucks are being used more and more in different companies to reduce their emissions. However, battery driven lift trucks need a long time to recharge and thus may be out of work for a long time. Fuel cell driven lift trucks diminish this problem and are therefore getting more attention...... in a fork-lift truck. In order for the ejector to operate in the largest possible range of load, different approaches (with fixed nozzle and variable nozzle ejectors) have been investigated. Different geometries have been studied in order to optimize the ejector. The optimization is carried out not only...... a virtual fork-lift system. This investigation examines important performance metrics, such as hydrogen consumption and battery SOC as a function of the fuel cell and battery size, control strategy, drive cycle, and load variation for a fork-lift truck system. This study can be used as a benchmark...

  17. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2015-08-21

    Exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes corrosive chemical burns and potentially fatal systemic toxicity. Car and truck wash cleaning products, rust removers, and aluminum brighteners often contain HF because it is efficient in breaking down roadway matter. The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report. Among seven hospitalized workers, two required surgery, and all but one worker returned to the job. Among 48 injured workers, job titles were primarily auto detailer, car wash worker, truck wash worker, and truck driver. Because HF exposure can result in potentially severe health outcomes, efforts to identify less hazardous alternatives to HF-based industrial wash products are warranted.

  18. Vehicle to Grid regulation services of electric delivery trucks: Economic and environmental benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yang; Noori, Mehdi; Tatari, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential net present revenues of electric truck based V2G regulation services are investigated. • GHG emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks are quantified. • The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed. • V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable revenues and GHG emission savings. - Abstract: Concerns regarding the fuel costs and climate change impacts associated with petroleum combustion are among the main driving factors for the adoption of electric vehicles. Future commercial delivery truck fleets may include Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs); in addition to savings on fuel and maintenance costs, the introduction of these grid accessible electric vehicles will also provide fleet owners with possible Vehicle to Grid (V2G) opportunities. This study investigates the potential net present revenues and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks in a typical fleet. The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed and compared to those of traditional diesel trucks. To account for uncertainties, possible ranges for key parameters are considered instead of only considering fixed single data values for each parameter. The results of this research indicate that providing V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable additional revenues ($20,000–50,000) and significant GHG emission savings (approximately 300 ton CO_2) compared to conventional diesel trucks.

  19. Analysis of major trends in U.S. commercial trucking, 1977-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K. M.; Santini, D .J.; Vyas, A. D.

    2009-06-10

    This report focuses on various major long-range (1977-2002) and intermediate-range (1982-2002) U.S. commercial trucking trends. The primary sources of data for this period were the U.S. Bureau of the Census Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey and Truck Inventory and Use Survey. In addition, selected 1977-2002 data from the U.S. Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration and from the U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway Administration's Highway Statistics were used. The report analyzes (1) overall gasoline and diesel fuel consumption patterns by passenger vehicles and trucks and (2) the population changes and fuels used by all commercial truck classes by selected truck type (single unit or combination), during specified time periods, with cargo-hauling commercial trucks given special emphasis. It also assesses trends in selected vehicle miles traveled, gallons per vehicle miles traveled, and gallons per cargo ton-mile traveled, as well as the effect of cargo tons per truck on fuel consumption. In addition, the report examines long-range trends for related factors (e.g., long-haul mileages driven by heavy trucks) and their impacts on reducing fuel consumption per cargo-ton-mile and the relative shares of total commercial fuel use among truck classes. It identifies the effects of these trends on U.S. petroleum consumption. The report also discusses basic engineering design and performance, national legislation on interstate highway construction, national demographic trends (e.g., suburbanization), and changes in U.S. corporate operations requirements, and it highlights their impacts on both the long-distance hauling and shorter-distance urban and suburban delivery markets of the commercial trucking industry.

  20. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  1. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TRUCKS TIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Godzhaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Now improvement of technological design specification of trucks tires develops very much. In modern mechanical engineering polyamide and kapron cords for tires of line-haul trucks and buses are replaced with all-metal ones (AMC even more often. It was defined that at increase in AMC tires production their technical characteristics were investigated insufficiently. In this regard there were carried out bench tests to compare the main operational indicators of domestic (JSC Nizhnekamskshina production and foreign tires with an all-metal cord: 315/60R22.5 the NF-201 model with 315/60r22.5 the XZA2 ENERGY Michelin model (steering; 315/60R22.5 the NR-201 model with 315/60R22.5 the XDA2+ ENERGY Michelin model (drive; 315/80R22.5 the NF-201 model with 315/80R22.5 the 3D Michelin XZE X MultiWay model (steering; 315/80R22.5 the NR-201 model with 315/80R22.5 the 3D XDE X MultiWay model (drive. The laboratory researches were carried out for the purpose of an assessment of the universal, load, damping (hysteresis and other characteristics of tires with use of the universal functional SIB-1M test-bench. It was established that Michelin AMC tires of steering low-profile 315/60R22.5 XZA2 ENERGY models have the best indicators on power heterogeneity - 0.47-0.89 percent. The high-profile AMC tires of drive wheels 315/80R22.5 of the NR-201 model of JSC Nizhnekamskshina have the worst indicators. However, all the tested tires correspond to GOST 5513-97on this indicator. It was noted that Nizhnekamsk AMC tires of the size 315/60R22.5 are flush with AMC tires Michelin on set of operational indicators, except power heterogeneity, and last one of Michelin tires is lower than Nizhnekamsk ones by 2-3 times. It was suggested to conduct further researches on definition of optimum operational tires indicators because of an intensive use of KAMAZ trucks in agricultural production

  2. Stress analysis of jacks, frame and bearing connections, and drill rod for core sampler truck No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziada, H.H.

    1995-01-01

    This analysis evaluates the structural design adequacy of several components and connections for the rotary mode core sampler truck (RMCST) No. 2. This analysis was requested by the Characterization Equipment Group (WHC 1994a). The components addressed in this report are listed below: front jack assembly and connection to the truck chassis; rear jack assembly and connection to the truck chassis; center outrigger jacks and connection to the truck chassis; lower frame assembly and connection to the truck chassis; bolt connections for bearing plate assembly (for path of maximum load); traverse slide brackets and mounting of the traverse jack cylinders; and drill rod (failure loads)

  3. Integration of agglutination assay for protein detection in microfluidic disc using Blu-ray optical pickup unit and optical fluid scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Rokon; Burger, Robert; Donolato, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel strategy for thrombin detection by combining a magnetic bead based agglutination assay and low-cost microfluidic disc. The detection method is based on an optomagnetic readout system implemented using a Blu-ray optical pickup unit (OPU) as main optoelectronic component. The ass...

  4. Background and Pickup Ion Velocity Distribution Dynamics in Titan's Plasma Environment: 3D Hybrid Simulation and Comparison with CAPS T9 Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Simpson, D. G.

    2011-01-01

    In this report we discuss the ion velocity distribution dynamics from the 3D hybrid simulation. In our model the background, pickup, and ionospheric ions are considered as a particles, whereas the electrons are described as a fluid. Inhomogeneous photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our model. We also take into account the collisions between the ions and neutrals. The current simulation shows that mass loading by pickup ions H(+); H2(+), CH4(+) and N2(+) is stronger than in the previous simulations when O+ ions are introduced into the background plasma. In our hybrid simulations we use Chamberlain profiles for the atmospheric components. We also include a simple ionosphere model with average mass M = 28 amu ions that were generated inside the ionosphere. The moon is considered as a weakly conducting body. Special attention will be paid to comparing the simulated pickup ion velocity distribution with CAPS T9 observations. Our simulation shows an asymmetry of the ion density distribution and the magnetic field, including the formation of the Alfve n wing-like structures. The simulation also shows that the ring-like velocity distribution for pickup ions relaxes to a Maxwellian core and a shell-like halo.

  5. Truck acceleration behavior study and acceleration lane length recommendations for metered on-ramps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangchuan Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the actual truck acceleration capability at metered on-ramps. Truck acceleration performance data were collected through a video-based data collection method. A piecewise constant acceleration model was employed to capture truck acceleration characteristics. It was found that the existing acceleration length will affect truck drivers’ acceleration behavior. At the taper type ramp that has limited acceleration distance, acceleration profile indicated a decreasing trend with distance. While for the ramp with an auxiliary lane that has sufficient acceleration distance, it was found that the acceleration behavior is to have a high acceleration rate in the beginning, then acceleration rate decrease with speed increase, and high acceleration rate again as drivers approach the merging area. Field data show that the truck acceleration performance data documented in the ITE’s (Institute of Transportation Engineers “Traffic Engineering Handbook” are much lower than the field collected data. Also, based on the regression analysis of speed versus distance profiles, it was found that the AASHTO’s (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Green Book acceleration length design guidance is insufficient to accommodate trucks at metered on-ramps. The required acceleration lengths for medium and heavy trucks are approximately 1.3 and 1.6 times of the Green Book design guideline, respectively.

  6. Design and analysis of truck body for increasing the payload capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamshi Krishna, K.; Yugandhar Reddy, K.; Venugopal, K.; Ravi, K.

    2017-11-01

    Truck industry is a major source of transportation in India. With an average truck travelling about 300 kilometers per day [1], every kilogram of truck weight is of concern to the industry in order to get the best out of the truck. The main objective of this project is to increase the payload capacity of automotive truck body. Every kilogram of increased vehicle weight will decrease the vehicle payload capacity in turn increasing the manufacturing cost and reducing the fuel economy by increase the fuel consumption. With the intension of weight reduction, standard truck body has been designed and analyzed in ANSYS software. C-cross section beams were used instead of conventional rectangular box sections to reduce the weight of the body. Light-weight Aluminum alloy Al 6061 T6 is used to increase the payload capacity. The strength of the Truck platform is monitored in terms of deformation and stress concentration. These parameters will be obtained in structural analysis test condition environment. For reducing the stress concentration the concept of beams of uniform strength is used. Accordingly necessary modifications are done so that the optimized model has a better stress distribution and much lesser weight compared to the conventional model. The results obtained by analyzing the modified model are compared with the standard model.

  7. Development of Diesel Engine Operated Forklift Truck for Explosive Gas Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Rajendra Kumar; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Ahirwal, Bhagirath; Sinha, Amalendu

    2018-02-01

    For the present study, a prototype diesel engine operated Forklift truck of 2 t capacity is developed for explosive gas atmosphere. The parts of the Forklift truck are assessed against risk of ignition of the explosive gases, vapors or mist grouped in Gr. IIA and having ignition temperature more than 200°C. Identification of possible sources of ignition and their control or prevention is the main objective of this work. The design transformation of a standard Forklift truck into a special Forklift truck is made on prototype basis. The safety parameters of the improved Forklift truck are discussed in this paper. The specially designed Forklift truck is useful in industries where explosive atmospheres may present during normal working conditions and risk of explosion is a concern during handling or transportation of materials. This indigenous diesel engine based Forklift truck for explosive gas atmosphere classified as Zone 1 and Zone 2 area and gas group IIA is developed first time in India in association with the Industry.

  8. The effect of the descent technique and truck cabin layout on the landing impact forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patenaude, S; Marchand, D; Samperi, S; Bélanger, M

    2001-12-01

    The majority of injuries to truckers are caused by falls during the descent from the cab of the truck. Several studies have shown that the techniques used to descend from the truck and the layout of the truck's cabin are the principal cause of injury. The goal of the present study was to measure the effects of the descent techniques used by the trucker and the layout of the truck's cabin on the impact forces absorbed by the lower limbs and the back. Kinematic data, obtained with the aid of a video camera, were combined with the force platform data to allow for calculation of the lower limb and L5-S1 torques as well as L5-S1 compressive forces. The trucker descended from two different conventional tractor cabin layouts. Each trucker descended from cabin using either "facing the truck" (FT) or "back to the truck" (BT) techniques. The results demonstrate that the BT technique produces greater ground impact forces than the FT technique, particularly when the truck does not have a handrail. The BT technique also causes an increase in the compressive forces exerted on the back. In conclusion, the use of the FT technique along with the aids (i.e., handrails and all the steps) help lower the landing impact forces as well as the lumbosacral compressive forces.

  9. Combined Aero and Underhood Thermal Analysis for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vegendla, Prasad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sofu, Tanju [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Saha, Rohit [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Madurai Kumar, Mahesh [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Hwang, L. K [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Aerodynamic analysis of the medium-duty delivery truck was performed to achieve vehicle design optimization. Three dimensional CFD simulations were carried out for several improved designs, with a detailed external component analysis of wheel covers, side skirts, roof fairings, and rounded trailer corners. The overall averaged aerodynamics drag reduction through the design modifications were shown up to 22.3% through aerodynamic considerations alone, which is equivalent to 11.16% fuel savings. The main identified fuel efficiencies were based on second generation devices, including wheel covers, side skirts, roof fairings, and rounded trailer corners. The important findings of this work were; (i) the optimum curvature radius of the rounded trailer edges found to be 125 mm, with an arc length of 196.3 mm, (ii) aerodynamic drag reduction increases with dropping clearance of side skirts between wheels and ground, and (iii) aerodynamic drag reduction increases with an extension of front bumper towards the ground.

  10. Legal weight truck cask model impact limiter response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinert, N.M.; Shappert, L.B.

    1989-01-01

    Dynamic and quasi-static quarter-scale model testing was performed to supplement the analytical case presented in the Nuclear Assurance Corporation Legal Weight Truck (NAC LWT) cask transport licensing application. Four successive drop tests from 9.0 meters (30 feet) onto an unyielding surface and one 1.0-meter (40-inch) drop onto a scale mild steel pin 3.8 centimeters (1.5 inches) in diameter, corroborated the impact limiter design and structural analyses presented in the licensing application. Quantitative measurements, made during drop testing, support the impact limiter analyses. High-speed photography of the tests confirm that only a small amount of energy is elastically stored in the aluminum honeycomb and that oblique drop slapdown is not significant. The qualitative conclusion is that the limiter protected LWT cask will not sustain permanent structural damage and containment will be maintained, subsequent to a hypothetical accident, as shown by structural analyses

  11. Hood of the truck statistics for food animal practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenning, Barrett D

    2006-03-01

    This article offers some tips on working with statistics and develops four relatively simple procedures to deal with most kinds of data with which veterinarians work. The criterion for a procedure to be a "Hood of the Truck Statistics" (HOT Stats) technique is that it must be simple enough to be done with pencil, paper, and a calculator. The goal of HOT Stats is to have the tools available to run quick analyses in only a few minutes so that decisions can be made in a timely fashion. The discipline allows us to move away from the all-too-common guess work about effects and differences we perceive following a change in treatment or management. The techniques allow us to move toward making more defensible, credible, and more quantifiably "risk-aware" real-time recommendations to our clients.

  12. Burnup credit applications in a high-capacity truck cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshoven, J.K.

    1992-09-01

    General Atomics (GA) has designed two legal weight truck (LWT) casks, the GA-4 and GA-9, to carry four pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) and nine boiling-water-reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies, respectively. GA plans to submit applications for certification to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the two casks in mid-1993. GA will include burnup credit analysis in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for the GA-4 Cask. By including burnup credit in the criticality safety analysis for PWR fuels with initial enrichments above 3% U-235, public and occupation risks are reduced and cost savings are realized. The GA approach to burnup credit analysis incorporates the information produced in the US Department of Energy Burnup Credit Program. This paper describes the application of burnup credit to the criticality control design of the GA-4 Cask

  13. Waste management (Truck and rail shipments to Hanford)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, J.P.; Culbertson, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the physical decommissioning of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, Shippingport, PA, a large volume of Low Specific Activity (LSA) radioactive waste was accumulated. The waste, which consisted primarily of radioactive reactor plant components, piping, contaminated asbestos, tanks, building rubble, sludge and ion exchange resins was packaged and prepared for shipment. The waste was transported by truck and rail from Shippingport, PA, to the Department of Energy burial ground at Hanford, Washington, a journey of 2,329 miles. This presentation will discuss the successful management of over 2,600 packages weighing in excess of 3,600 tons of radioactive waste from the cradle-to-the-grave, that is from the time it was generated during the decommissioning process until its final burial at the Hanford, Washington burial site. 1 tab

  14. Noise Pollution Aspects of Barge, Railroad, and Truck Transportation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    dBA Trolley 88 dBA 82 dBA 78 dBA 72 dBA Truck 87 dBA 81 dBA 76 dBA 74 dBA Bus 81 dBA 76 dBA 72 dBA 68 dBA Automobile 78 dBA 74 dBA 65 dBA 63 dBA I NO...Environmlent~al Prot~ect~ion Agency, Background Document/linvironment~al Explanat~ion f~or Proposed Int~erstate Rail Carriler Noise Emission Regulat~ions (1974...2). By way of comparison only 0.1 percent automobiles produced this noise level at 70 miles per hour (Figure E-1). Bus and motorcycle noise levels (at

  15. The dynamics of the three-piece-freight truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Fujie

    2002-01-01

    and dynamical contact relations between wheels and rails, the nonlinear suspensions and the nonlinear dry friction damping. For low speeds of the truck the kinematic and dynamical nonlinearities might be linearized, but the very strongly nonlinear suspensions and the dry friction damping can not be linearized...... be numerically simulated. Its applications are illustrated in two simple systems. One is an oscillator with a Coulomb dry friction damper in chapter 2 and the other one is the wedge damper in chapter 3. In the mechanical system it is possible that the degrees of freedom will vary with the different friction...... are derived. Chapter 8 provides the numerical methods for the simulation of the system, the discussion focuses on the differential algebraic equations(DAEs) with discontinuous characteristics caused by the two-dimensional friction. In chapter 9 the numerical investigation is provided. The four general...

  16. A Clinical Trial on Weight Loss among Truck Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Thiese

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence of obesity among commercial truck drivers may be related to sedentary nature of the job, lack of healthy eating choices, and lack of exercise. There may be a link between obesity and crash risk, therefore an intervention to reduce obesity in this population is needed. Objective: To assess feasibility of a 12-week weight loss intervention for truck drivers with a weight loss goal of 10% of initial body weight. Methods: Drivers were selected based on age (≥21 years and body mass index (≥30 kg/m2. The drivers participated in a before-after clinical trial. The intervention included a 12-week program that provided information on healthy diet and increasing exercise, and telephone-based coaching using SMART goals. Outcomes included change from baseline in reported energy intake, measured weight, waist, hip, and neck circumference, blood pressure, and point of care capillary blood lipids and hemoglobin A1c. Exit interviews were conducted to gain insight into driver opinions on the program features and usefulness. This study was registered with the NIH Clinical Trials Registry, number NCT02348983. Results: 12 of 13 drivers completed the study. Weight loss was statistically significant (p=0.03. Reported energy (p=0.005, total fat consumption (p=0.04, and saturated fat consumption (p=0.02 intake were also lower after the 12-week intervention. Drivers attributed their weight loss to health coaching and suggested a longer intervention so that they could reach their goal and become accustomed to the changes. Conclusion: This weight loss intervention is feasible for this difficult population. Additional research is needed to compare this intervention with a control group.

  17. Development of a lightweight electric urban delivery truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, G.; Martin, R.; Vader, S. [Unicell Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-15

    A study was conducted to develop a lightweight urban parcel delivery vehicle that features a composite material, monocoque low-floor body and a zero-emission electric drive system. The long-term goal of project was to produce a vehicle with an energy efficiency that was nearly 90 per cent better than a conventional delivery vehicle. The objectives of the development phase were to complete the structural design of the composite, monocoque low-floor body. Electric drive options were explored to confirm the feasibility in terms of vehicle range, zero emissions and energy efficiency. This involved characterization of the vehicle duty cycle, development of a computer model of the electric powertrain, and simulations to confirm the vehicle's power and energy requirements. The design of the prototype was validated through testing in accordance with recognized vehicle performance tests and an in-service trial by Purolator Courier Ltd., a major Canadian courier service. Testing of the QuickSider delivery truck included vehicle dynamics, energy consumption, safety compliance, and in-service evaluation. No unacceptable stresses, deflections or resonances were identified in the structure. The vehicle's performance was found to be consistent with design expectations. Dynamometer tests have indicated that the ZEV range of the prototype is greater than the targeted 120 km. The overall energy efficiency of the vehicle was 50 per cent, as compared 11 per cent for a conventional diesel delivery truck. It was concluded that an overall energy efficiency of 75 per cent is achievable in production vehicles if improvements are made to the battery system, drive train, regenerative braking and auxiliary systems. 29 figs., 2 appendices.

  18. COMPETITIVE PRESSURE SYSTEMS MAPPING IN THE BRAZILIAN TRUCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Costa da Cruz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The automotive business in Brazil achieved 10% of the industry revenue and 6% of the formal employment by 2008. The commercial vehicle segment concentrated so far eight truck makers that experienced their best market figures in 2008, the economy crisis in 2009, and an extraordinary recovery in 2010. Government tax reduction programs as well as special financing incentives were undoubtedly decisive to re-stimulate the business during the crisis. Positive Brazilian perspectives with the boom in the agricultural, oil and gas, mining and infrastructure activities plus the coming sports events call the attention of new players that are quickly implementing different business strategies to become part of the game. New emission regulations starting from 2012 also bring uncertainties, challenges and opportunities. With the growing globalization and market concentration it's critical for any industry understand and minimize the forces of competitive pressures. The main goal of this paper, therefore, is to contribute to the academy with an alternative approach of strategic and behavioral analysis of rivalry and competition different than the five forces model of Porter. Ford, Iveco, MAN, Mercedes-Benz, Scania and Volvo were assessed from 2008 to 2010 within three main performance indicators – unit sales, gross revenues and operating profits – supporting the elaboration of the competitive pressure systems mapping model of D'aveni, including a hypothetical future scenario with a new entrant and the potential impacts in the system. Main findings and results portray the asymmetrical strategic behavior of competitors and the temporary dynamic stability in the Brazilian truck industry.

  19. The design and implementation of a garbage truck fleet management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen, C. H.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the improvement of cloud computing and mobile computing techniques has led to the availability of a variety of mobile applications (‘apps’ in the app store. For instance, a garbage truck app that can provide the immediate location of a garbage truck, the location of collection points, and forecasted arrival times of garbage trucks would be useful for mobile users. Since the power consumption of apps on mobile devices if of concern to mobile users, an optimised power-saving mechanism for updating messages, which is based on location information, for a proposed garbage truck fleet management system (GTFMS is proposed and implemented in this paper. The GTFMS is a three- component system that includes the on-board units on garbage trucks, a fleet management system, and a garbage truck app. In this study, an arrival time forecasting method is designed and implemented in the fleet management system, so that the garbage truck app can retrieve the forecasted arrival time via web services. A message updating event is then triggered that reports the location of garbage truck and the forecasted arrival time. In experiments conducted on case studies, the results showed that the mean accuracy of predicted arrival time by the proposed method is about 81.45 per cent. As for power consumption, the cost of traditional mobile apps is 2,880 times that of the mechanism proposed in this study. Consequently, the GTFMS can provide the precise forecasted arrival time of garbage trucks to mobile users, while consuming less power.

  20. Proton pickup from /sup 27/Al via the (n,d) reaction at 56. 3 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, F P; Shepard, J R; King, N S.P.; McNaughton, M W; Wang, J C [California Univ., Davis (USA)

    1977-09-26

    Energy spectra of deuterons from the /sup 27/Al(n,d)/sup 26/Mg reaction due to 56.3 MeV neutrons incident have been measured for 10/sup 0/ <= thetasub(c.m.) <= 55 /sup 0/. The angular distributions for the excitations observed at 0.0, 1.81, and 4.33 MeV are quite well described by DWBA calculations and yield spectroscopic factors in agreement with shell model calculations; but with calculations based on the rotational model, the agreement is less satisfactory particularly for the 4.33 MeV level. For the states at 7.86 and 9.16 MeV the fits, assuming p-shell pick-up, are only fair. Comparison with /sup 27/Al(d,/sup 3/He)/sup 26/Mg measurements shows that the deduced spectroscopic factors for the two reactions agree quite well.

  1. Design of a PC Based Pressure Indicator Using Inductive Pick-up Type Transducer and Bourdon Tube Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. BERA

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Bourdon tube is a mechanical type pressure sensor and the bourdon gauge measures gauge pressure of a process pipe line or a process tank. But it is a local indicator and special costlier techniques are required to transmit the reading of bourdon gauge to a remote distance. In the present paper, a very simple inductive pick-up type technique has been developed to transmit the reading of bourdon gauge to a remote distance in the form of 1-5 Volt D.C. signal. This signal has been optically isolated to design a PC based pressure indicator using Labtech Note Book Pro software. The theoretical analysis of the whole technique has been presented in the paper. The instrument developed using this technique has been experimentally tested and the experimental results are reported in the paper. A good linearity and repeatability of the instrument has been observed.

  2. Observations of Low-Frequency Magnetic Waves due to Newborn Interstellar Pickup Ions Using ACE, Ulysses, and Voyager Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles W.; Aggarwal, Poornima; Argall, Matthew R.; Burlaga, Leonard F.; Bzowski, Maciej; Cannon, Bradford E.; Gary, S. Peter; Fisher, Meghan K.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Hollick, Sophia J.; Isenberg, Philip A.; Joyce, Colin J.; Murphy, Neil; Nuno, Raquel G.; Pine, Zackary B.; Richardson, John D.; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Sokół, Justyna M.; Taylor, David K.; Vasquez, Bernard J.

    2017-09-01

    Wave excitation by newborn interstellar pickup ions (PUIs) plays a significant role in theories that attempt to describe IBEX and Voyager observations in the solar wind and heliosheath. The same dynamic processes can be far-reaching and extend into the inner heliosphere to at least 1AU and likely to smaller heliocentric distances. While the high-resolution magnetic field measurements required to study these waves are not yet available in the heliosheath, we have studied a range of available observations and found evidence of waves due to interstellar PUIs using ACE (1998-2015 at 1 AU), Ulysses (1996-2006 at 2 to 5 AU, high and low latitudes) and Voyager (1978-1979 and 2 to 6 AU) observations. Efforts to extend the Voyager observations to 35 AU are ongoing. We have examined these data sets and report on observations of low-frequency waves that result from newborn interstellar pickup H+ and He+ ions. Although not as common as theory originally predicted, we presently have identified 524 independent occurrences. Our conclusion from studying these waves is that they are seen only when the ambient turbulence is sufficiently weak. The instability that generates these waves requires a slow accumulation of wave energy over several to tens of hours to achieve observable wave amplitudes. In regions where the turbulence is moderate to strong, the turbulence absorbs the wave energy before it can reach observable levels and transports the energy to the dissipation scales where it heats the background thermal particles. Only intervals with the weakest turbulence will permit energy accumulation over this time scale. These conditions are most often, but not exclusively, achieved in solar wind rarefaction regions.

  3. Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

  4. Multistage Mechanical Transmissions with Automatic Control for Advanced Trucks and Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blokhin Aleksandr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study considers the basic trends of development of modern mechanical transmissions of trucks and buses. It provides the developed various series of multispeed transmissions with automatic control and a number of transmissions from 6 to 16 for trucks and buses. The paper shows the basic parameters of the standard series of new transmissions received on the basis of innovative technical solutions. It provides the results of experimental studies of 16-speed transmissions on a special test stand and on the road as part of a truck transmission. Theoretical and experimental data on the gear change time are compared.

  5. HTS planar gradiometer consisting of SQUID with multi-turn input coil and large pickup coil made of GdBCO coated conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Akira; Adachi, Seiji; Oshikubo, Yasuo; Hato, Tsunehiro; Enpuku, Keiji; Sugisaki, Masaki; Arai, Eiichi; Tanabe, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We fabricated a large HTS gradiometer with 350-mm-long baseline. ► A 6-turn gradiometric planar pickup was made of a HTS coated conductor. ► A 26-turn HTS input coil chip was stacked on a HTS thin film gradiometer chip. ► A mechanical balancing structure was also implemented. ► The fabricated gradiometer showed a gradient field noise of 0.8 fT/cm Hz 1/2 . -- Abstract: We have investigated the fabrication of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) gradiometer with long baseline for geophysical applications. The proof-of-concept gradiometer using a 1-turn pickup coil made of a GdBa 2 Cu 3 O y coated conductor (GCC) and 5.5-turn input coil integrated on a SQUID was fabricated in our previous work. In this study, we have optimized the device structure to improve the frequency response, gradient field sensitivity and gradiometer balance. The fabricated flux transformer consists of a 6-turn planar gradiometric pickup coil and a 26-turn input coil made of an HTS thin film. A low-melting-point alloy was used to connect polished Ag surfaces of the CGG pickup coil and Au pads of the input coil. An HTS SQUID was formed on another substrate and stacked on the input coil. A mechanical balancing structure using three pieces of GCC as a superconducting shield was also implemented. The fabricated gradiometer showed a gradient field noise of 0.8 fT/cm Hz 1/2 in the white noise regions, a gradiometer balance of 1/142, and a cutoff frequency of 9 Hz corresponding to a 2 mΩ contact resistance between the pickup coil and the input coil

  6. Embodied intersubjective engagement in mother-infant tactile communication: a cross-cultural study of Japanese and Scottish mother-infant behaviors during infant pick-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negayama, Koichi; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T; Momose, Keiko; Ishijima, Konomi; Kawahara, Noriko; Lux, Erin J; Murphy, Andrew; Kaliarntas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the early development of cultural differences in a simple, embodied, and intersubjective engagement between mothers putting down, picking up, and carrying their infants between Japan and Scotland. Eleven Japanese and ten Scottish mothers with their 6- and then 9-month-old infants participated. Video and motion analyses were employed to measure motor patterns of the mothers' approach to their infants, as well as their infants' collaborative responses during put-down, pick-up, and carry phases. Japanese and Scottish mothers approached their infants with different styles and their infants responded differently to the short duration of separation during the trial. A greeting-like behavior of the arms and hands was prevalent in the Scottish mothers' approach, but not in the Japanese mothers' approach. Japanese mothers typically kneeled before making the final reach to pick-up their children, giving a closer, apparently gentler final approach of the torso than Scottish mothers, who bent at the waist with larger movements of the torso. Measures of the gap closure between the mothers' hands to their infants' heads revealed variably longer duration and distance gap closures with greater velocity by the Scottish mothers than by the Japanese mothers. Further, the sequence of Japanese mothers' body actions on approach, contact, pick-up, and hold was more coordinated at 6 months than at 9 months. Scottish mothers were generally more variable on approach. Measures of infant participation and expressivity indicate more active participation in the negotiation during the separation and pick-up phases by Scottish infants. Thus, this paper demonstrates a culturally different onset of development of joint attention in pick-up. These differences reflect cultures of everyday interaction.

  7. Embodied intersubjective engagement in mother–infant tactile communication: a cross-cultural study of Japanese and Scottish mother–infant behaviors during infant pick-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negayama, Koichi; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T.; Momose, Keiko; Ishijima, Konomi; Kawahara, Noriko; Lux, Erin J.; Murphy, Andrew; Kaliarntas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the early development of cultural differences in a simple, embodied, and intersubjective engagement between mothers putting down, picking up, and carrying their infants between Japan and Scotland. Eleven Japanese and ten Scottish mothers with their 6- and then 9-month-old infants participated. Video and motion analyses were employed to measure motor patterns of the mothers’ approach to their infants, as well as their infants’ collaborative responses during put-down, pick-up, and carry phases. Japanese and Scottish mothers approached their infants with different styles and their infants responded differently to the short duration of separation during the trial. A greeting-like behavior of the arms and hands was prevalent in the Scottish mothers’ approach, but not in the Japanese mothers’ approach. Japanese mothers typically kneeled before making the final reach to pick-up their children, giving a closer, apparently gentler final approach of the torso than Scottish mothers, who bent at the waist with larger movements of the torso. Measures of the gap closure between the mothers’ hands to their infants’ heads revealed variably longer duration and distance gap closures with greater velocity by the Scottish mothers than by the Japanese mothers. Further, the sequence of Japanese mothers’ body actions on approach, contact, pick-up, and hold was more coordinated at 6 months than at 9 months. Scottish mothers were generally more variable on approach. Measures of infant participation and expressivity indicate more active participation in the negotiation during the separation and pick-up phases by Scottish infants. Thus, this paper demonstrates a culturally different onset of development of joint attention in pick-up. These differences reflect cultures of everyday interaction. PMID:25774139

  8. The association between adolescent entry into the trucking industry and risk of HIV among long-distance truck drivers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ram Manohar; Dube, Madhulika; Saggurti, Niranjan; Pandey, Arvind; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Ramesh, Sowmya

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between entry into the trucking industry during adolescence and both sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among long-distance truck drivers in India. Data were sourced from a cross-sectional survey (sample size: 2066) undertaken in 2007 among long-distance truck drivers. The survey spread across major transshipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes. Participants were interviewed about sexual behaviors and were tested for HIV and STIs. The present authors constructed two synthetic cohorts based on the participants' duration of employment in the trucking industry: (1) low (duration ≤ 6 years) and (2) high experience (duration ≥ 7 years). Based on age at entry into the trucking industry, participants were termed as either adolescent (age at entry 4.0%, respectively; adjusted OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-3.1) and syphilis (5.7% versus 3.5%, respectively; adjusted OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-3.1). These results suggest the need for focused behavioral change programs in HIV prevention interventions for adolescent truckers in India and elsewhere.

  9. Model based development of cruise control for Mercedes-Benz trucks; Modellbasierte Entwicklung eines Tempomat fuer Mercedes-Benz Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuensche, M. [VDI, Berlin (Germany); Elser, J.; Dorner, J. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Wahner, U.; Kanamueller, B. [MathWorks GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    It was necessary to reengineer the cruise control of Mercedes-Benz Trucks for its world wide use in commercial vehicles of the DaimlerChrysler AG. For this extensive task a new software development process of model based function development and automatic serial code generation was installed and exemplary used. Key aspects of this process are the involvement of software-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop simulation technologies to ensure a high software quality through the whole cycle. The simulation and modeling tool chain consists of Matlab, Simulink and Embedded Coder, therefore the project was realized under assistance of the consulting department of The MathWorks Inc. (orig.)

  10. Using 3D Multi-Body Simulation to Evaluate Future Truck Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gunter, Dave; Bylsma, Wes; Letherwood, Mike; Dennis, Stacey; Argeropoulos, Kris; Teschendorf, Dan; Gorsich, Dave

    2004-01-01

    ... steering, and in-hub electric drive motors. Fully three-dimensional Future Truck models were created using a commercially available modeling and simulation methodology and limited validation studies were performed by comparing model...

  11. Engineering Task Plan for Water Supply for Spray Washers on the Support Trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) defines the task and deliverables associated with the design, fabrication and testing of an improved spray wash system for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) System Support Trucks

  12. Commercial Truck Driver Health and Safety: Exploring Distracted Driving Performance and Self-Reported Driving Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Heaton, Karen; Welburn, Sharon C; McManus, Benjamin; Griffin, Russell; Fine, Philip R

    2016-08-01

    Reducing distracters detrimental to commercial truck driving is a critical component of improving the safety performance of commercial drivers, and makes the highways safer for all drivers. This study used a driving simulator to examine effects of cell phone, texting, and email distractions as well as self-reported driver optimism bias on the driving performance of commercial truck drivers. Results revealed that more visually demanding tasks were related to poorer driving performance. However, the cell phone task resulted in less off-the-road eye glances. Drivers reporting being "very skilled" displayed poorer driving performance than those reporting being "skilled." Onboard communication devices provide a practical, yet visually and manually demanding, solution for connecting drivers and dispatchers. Trucking company policies should minimize interaction between dispatchers and drivers when the truck is in motion. Training facilities should integrate driving simulators into the instruction of commercial drivers, targeting over-confident drivers. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Co-simulation of heavy truck tire dynamics and electronic stability control systems (phase A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Electronic stability control (ESC) systems have been proven to be an effective means of preventing instability and loss of control on both passenger vehicles and heavy trucks. In addition, roll stability algorithms are an effective means of reducing ...

  14. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems (IVBSS) : heavy truck platform field operational test data analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-23

    This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to perform : analysis of data collected from the heavy truck platform field operational test of the Integrated Vehicle- : Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progra...

  15. Tracking truck flows with programmable mobile devices for drayage efficiency analysis : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Inefficient use of drayage trucks results in negative externalities in the form of pollution and congestion. A clear : awareness of the current state of drayage efficiency is especially important in Southern California since the cargo : volume at the...

  16. Truck Rates For Selected North, South, And Northeastern Brazilian Soybean Export Transportation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Compares monthly truck rates from north Mato Grosso and East Tocantins to the ports Itaituba, Porto Velho, Santarém, São Luís, Santos, and Paranaguá. This is figure...

  17. Improved Harmony Search Algorithm for Truck Scheduling Problem in Multiple-Door Cross-Docking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanzhong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The key of realizing the cross docking is to design the joint of inbound trucks and outbound trucks, so a proper sequence of trucks will make the cross-docking system much more efficient and need less makespan. A cross-docking system is proposed with multiple receiving and shipping dock doors. The objective is to find the best door assignments and the sequences of trucks in the principle of products distribution to minimize the total makespan of cross docking. To solve the problem that is regarded as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP model, three metaheuristics, namely, harmony search (HS, improved harmony search (IHS, and genetic algorithm (GA, are proposed. Furthermore, the fixed parameters are optimized by Taguchi experiments to improve the accuracy of solutions further. Finally, several numerical examples are put forward to evaluate the performances of proposed algorithms.

  18. Surrogate Plant Data Base : Volume 4. Appendix E : Medium and Heavy Truck Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    This four volume report consists of a data base describing "surrogate" automobile and truck manufacturing plants developed as part of a methodology for evaluating capital investment requirements in new manufacturing facilities to build new fleets of ...

  19. Improving the system of warranty service of trucks in foreign markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina MAKAROVA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the practical methods development of improving one of the ways to ensure the health of trucks in the system warranty. Methodology is aimed at optimizing the processes of formation of warranty spare parts kits during the implementation of KAMAZ trucks in foreign markets. The example is given to demonstrate the importance of different factors in the formation of the warranty set for different regions. The algorithm was developed to assess the qualitative composition formed warranty package that will optimize the planning and organization of activity centers to improve operational reliability of commercial trucks. A basis for acceptance of the scientifically-proved decisions is the statistical data analysis of requests monitoring that allows organizing duly replacement of parts with expired service life, and also promotes customer servicing quality improvement and reliability of trucks by prevention of its failures.

  20. Evaluation of the ticketing aggressive cars and trucks (TACT) program in Pennsylvania (071408).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-14

    The Pennsylvania State Police and Pennsylvania Department of Transportation implemented the "Ticketing Aggressive Cars and Trucks (TACT)" media and enforcement initiative on a portion of Interstate 81 in southern Pennsylvania, in late 2008. This repo...

  1. Process for evaluating overweight truck corridors serving coastal port regions and border ports of entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Coastal and inland ports, regional mobility authorities, cities, and counties located near or along the Texas Gulf Coast, and along the border with Mexico, have been granted authority by the state legislature to establish permitted overweight truck c...

  2. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effects on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  3. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effect on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  4. Strategic Design for Delivery with Linked Transportation Assets : Trucks and Drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Home delivery by drones as an alternative or complement to traditional delivery by trucks is attracting considerable attention from major retailers and services, as well as startups. While drone delivery may offer considerable economic savings, the f...

  5. Modelling and control of a light-duty hybrid electric truck

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jong-Kyu

    2006-01-01

    This study is concentrated on modelling and developing the controller for the light-duty hybrid electric truck. The hybrid electric vehicle has advantages in fuel economy. However, there have been relatively few studies on commercial HEVs, whilst a considerable number of studies on the hybrid electric system have been conducted in the field of passenger cars. So the current status and the methodologies to develop the LD hybrid electric truck model have been studied through the ...

  6. GA-4 and GA-9 legal weight truck shipping cask development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, R.M.; Meyer, R.J.; Jensen, M.F.

    1989-02-01

    We are developing two new legal weight truck spent fuel shipping casks that will carry four PWR or nine BWR spent fuel assemblies. They are being developed to meet requirements to dispose of nuclear wastes at a permanent disposal site. Our primary goal is to maximize the number of fuel elements of each fuel type that a legal weight truck (LWT) cask can carry, while ensuring that the design meets all NRC licensing requirements. 1 ref., 4 figs

  7. Field Measurement of Dynamic Compressive Stress Response of Pavement-Subgrade Induced by Moving Heavy-Duty Trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingshi An

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the dynamic compressive stress response of pavement-subgrade induced by moving heavy-duty trucks. In order to study the distribution characteristic of dynamic pressure of pavement-subgrade in more detail, truck loadings, truck speeds, and dynamic pressure distributions at different depths were monitored under twenty-five working conditions on the section of Qiqihar-Nenjiang Highway in Heilongjiang Province, China. The effects of truck loading, truck speed, and depth on dynamic compressive stress response can be concluded as follows: (1 increasing truck loading will increase the dynamic pressure amplitude of subgrade-pavement and dominant frequencies are close to the characteristic frequencies caused by heavy-duty trucks at the speed of 70 km/h; (2 as truck speed increases, the dynamic pressure amplitudes of measuring points have an increasing tendency; the dynamic pressure spectrums are also significantly influenced by truck speed: the higher the truck speed, the wider the spectrum and the higher the dominant frequencies; (3 as depth increases, the dynamic pressure amplitudes of measuring points decrease rapidly. The influence of the front axle decreases gradually until disappearing and the compressive stress superposition phenomenon caused by rear double axles can be found with increasing depth.

  8. Study on heavy duty truck stability control by braking force control; Seidoryoku seigyo ni yoru truck no sharyo kyodo anteika ni taisuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, K; Shinjo, H; Harada, M; Ohata, K; Sakata, K [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Now a days we are discussing about the vehicle stability control system which freely controls the braking force of each wheel to apply the yaw t and decelerate the vehicle. The system drastically improve the vehicle cornering performance and stabilize the vehicle behavior in its critical area. This paper discusses a point to notice in case of applying this technique for heavy duty trucks, and describes the possibility of the stabilization for vehicle cornering behavior about heavy duty truck. 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. An empirical study of DSRC V2V performance in truck platooning scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Gao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Among many safety applications enabled by Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC, truck platooning provides many incentives to commercial companies. This paper studies DSRC Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V performance in truck platooning scenarios through real-world experiments. Commercial DSRC equipments and semi-trailer trucks are used in this study. We mount one DSRC antenna on each side of the truck. One set of dynamic tests and a few sets of static tests are conducted to explore DSRC behaviors under different situations. From the test results, we verified some of our speculations. For example, hilly roads can affect delivery ratio and antennas mounted on opposite sides of a truck can suffer from low delivery ratio at curved roads. In addition, we also found that antennas can sometimes suffer from low delivery ratio even when the trucks are on straight roads, possibly due to reflections from the nearby terrain. Fortunately, the delivery ratio can be greatly improved by using the two side antennas alternately.

  10. The analysis of loading losses from tank trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Ana P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantity of loading losses, which are the primary source of evaporative emissions from tank cars and trucks was analyzed in this paper. Loading losses occur as organic vapors in "empty" cargo tanks are displaced to the atmosphere by the liquid being loaded into the tanks. Emissions from loading petroleum liquid were estimated using three methods: the API (American Petroleum Institute method, the VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure -Association of German Engineers method and the Yugoslav Standard JUS B.HO.531 method. The mass of evaporative losses from loading operations is a function of the following parameters: the method of loading the cargo, the physical and chemical characteristics of the cargo and the ambient temperature during loading. Evaporation losses from the loading of motor gasoline (MB-95, BMB-95, MB-98 and MB-86 and diesel fuels (D-2, Euro D-2 were calculated. Losses on a monthly and annual basis were presented for an assumed amount of loaded cargo. It was estimated that the highest loading losses occur in the summer period because of high ambient daily temperatures and in the period of higher transporting levels. It should be pointed out that the loading losses of diesel fuel calculated using an empirical coefficient according to JUS B.HO.531 are significantly higher in comparison with the loading losses calculated using emission factors from the EPA and the VDI method. The gasoline loading losses calculated using emission factors derived from the three methods are similar.

  11. Workplace violence in long haul trucking: occupational health nursing update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Debra Gay

    2004-01-01

    Almost 2 million workdays and millions of dollars are lost annually because of non-fatal assaults suffered at the workplace (NIOSH, 1996). Twenty workers, on average, are murdered each week in the United States and an estimated 18,000 workers per week are victims of non-fatal assault (NIOSH, 2001). Violence and stress are two interrelated issues that affect the work force. In-depth studies of these issues have not been conducted with long haul truckers in general, or with women in non-traditional, male dominated fields such as the long haul trucking industry. Epidemiological data related to violence and stress experienced by these under-studied populations are needed to plan effective interventions to reduce occupational risks. Studies employing both qualitative and quantitative methods are needed to articulate risk and protective factors related to violence against workers (Runyan, 2001). Occupational health nurses are qualified to participate in the development and implementation of research and intervention studies to improve worker safety related to violence at the workplace for men and women in both traditional and non-traditional occupational roles.

  12. Design developments for the ITER in-Vessel equilibrium pick-up Coils and Halo current Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitarin, G; Grando, L.; Pomaro, N.; Peruzzo, S.; Taccon, C.

    2006-01-01

    The ITER magnetic diagnostics must provide essential information to be used both for plasma diagnostic purposes, and as feedback signals for the machine control loops. Some of the sensors have to be installed in a hostile environment characterized by severe neutron irradiation and plasma heat loads, which can reduce the sensor lifetime (due to mechanical and electrical damage) and also generate undesired DC signals, which might compromise the accuracy of the measurements obtained by time-integration. The paper is focused on the design development and optimization of a typical in-vessel tangential pick-up Coil. The work is aimed to achieve the required measurement precision in spite of Radiation Induced Electromotive Force (RIEMF) and Radiation Induced Thermo-Electric Sensitivity (RITES), which have recently been documented to take place in Mineral Insulated Cables (MIC). To this purpose, a substantial reduction of the thermal gradient and the maximum temperature due to nuclear heating in the pick-up coils is considered necessary. Within the limits of several heavy engineering constraints, a new concept of magnetic pick up coil has been developed. A winding made of a ceramic-coated conductor (instead of a MIC) and '' impregnated '' with ceramic filler is proposed. Different material choices for the coil support structure have been investigated. Similar issues are related to the Halo Sensor design. The possibility of replacing the circular tubes used as support of the Rogowski coils with a ceramic support in order to avoid the non-linear effect of the magnetic material has also been studied. The replacement of the MIC of the winding with a ceramic-coated wire is also investigated in order to increase of the effective area of the sensor. The paper includes also a critical review of each stage of the measurement chain (probes, cabling, conditioning electronics and data acquisition) in order to assess the compliance with the overall system precision that is required for

  13. Develop and pilot test smart phone/tablet app for paratransit demand-response passenger pick-up alerts to assist passengers with disabilities and reduce no-shows and dwell times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This research produced an arrival notification system for paratransit passengers with disabilities. Almost all existing curb-to-curb paratransit services have significantly large pick-up time window ranging from 20 to 40 minutes from the scheduled ti...

  14. Carbon and energy footprints of electric delivery trucks:a hybrid multi-regional input-output life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yang; Onat, Nuri Cihat; Küçükvar, Murat; Tatari, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    Due to frequent stop-and-go operation and long idling periods when driving in congested urban areas, the electrification of commercial delivery trucks has become an interesting topic nationwide. In this study, environmental impacts of various alternative delivery trucks including battery electric, diesel, diesel-electric hybrid, and compressed natural gas trucks are analyzed. A novel life cycle assessment method, an environmentally-extended multi-region input-output analysis, is utilized to c...

  15. An analysis of the lifestyle risk factors for long-distance truck drivers / Barend Koortzen von Wielligh

    OpenAIRE

    Von Wielligh, Barend Koortzen

    2014-01-01

    The Road Freight Industry accounts for 1 to 5 percent of most countries GDP (AECOM International Development, 2011). According to e-Natis there was 321 056 Trucks (Heavy load Vehicle GVM > 3500 kg) in South Africa by November 2009 (Arrive Alive, 2009). This relative big industry, according to the statistics, influences most other industries value chains. Vehicles are driven by trucks drivers, making driving trucks their living. These drivers have their own lifestyles and ways that they go abo...

  16. Optimization of a truck-drone in tandem delivery network using K-means and genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mourelo Ferrandez, Sergio; Harbison, Timothy; Webwer, Troy; Sturges, Robert; Rich, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of implementing unmanned aerial delivery vehicles in delivery networks. We investigate the notion of the reduced overall delivery time and energy for a truck-drone network by comparing the in-tandem system with a stand-alone delivery effort. The objectives are (1) to investigate the time and energy associated to a truck-drone delivery network compared to standalone truck or drone, (2) to propose an optimizat...

  17. Particulate matters from diesel heavy duty trucks exhaust versus cigarettes emissions: a new educational antismoking instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Cinzia; Ruprecht, Ario Alberto; Pozzi, Paolo; Munarini, Elena; Ogliari, Anna Chiara; Mazza, Roberto; Boffi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Indoor smoking in public places and workplaces is forbidden in Italy since 2003, but some health concerns are arising from outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure for non-smokers. One of the biggest Italian Steel Manufacturer, with several factories in Italy and abroad, the Marcegaglia Group, recently introduced the outdoor smoking ban within the perimeter of all their factories. In order to encourage their smoker employees to quit, the Marcegaglia management decided to set up an educational framework by measuring the PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 emissions from heavy duty trucks and to compare them with the emissions of cigarettes in an indoor controlled environment under the same conditions. The exhaust pipe of two trucks powered by a diesel engine of about 13.000/14.000 cc(3) were connected with a flexible hose to a hole in the window of a container of 36 m(3) volume used as field office. The trucks operated idling for 8 min and then, after adequate office ventilation, a smoker smoked a cigarette. Particulate matter emission was thereafter analyzed. Cigarette pollution was much higher than the heavy duty truck one. Mean of the two tests was: PM1 truck 125.0(47.0), cigarettes 231.7(90.9) p = 0.002; PM2.5 truck 250.8(98.7), cigarettes 591.8(306.1) p = 0.006; PM10 truck 255.8(52.4), cigarettes 624.0(321.6) p = 0.002. Our findings may be important for policies that aim reducing outdoor SHS exposure. They may also help smokers to quit tobacco dependence by giving them an educational perspective that rebuts the common alibi that traffic pollution is more dangerous than cigarettes pollution.

  18. Truck drivers’ perceptions on wearable devices and health promotion: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Greenfield

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professional truck drivers, as other shift workers, have been identified as a high-risk group for various health conditions including cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, sleep apnoea and stress. Mobile health technologies can potentially improve the health and wellbeing of people with a sedentary lifestyle such as truck drivers. Yet, only a few studies on health promotion interventions related to mobile health technologies for truck drivers have been conducted. We aimed to explore professional truck drivers’ views on health promotion delivered via mobile health technologies such as wearable devices. Methods We conducted a phenomenological qualitative study, consisting of four semi-structured focus groups with 34 full-time professional truck drivers in the UK. The focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic content analysis. We discussed drivers’ perceptions of their health, lifestyle and work environment, and their past experience and expectations from mobile health technologies. Results The participants viewed their lifestyle as unhealthy and were aware of possible consequences. They expressed the need and wish to change their lifestyle, yet perceived it as an inherent, unavoidable outcome of their occupation. Current health improvement initiatives were not always aligned with their working conditions. The participants were generally willing to use mobile health technologies such as wearable devices, as a preventive measure to avoid prospect morbidity, particularly cardiovascular diseases. They were ambivalent about privacy and the risk of their employer’s monitoring their clinical data. Conclusions Wearable devices may offer new possibilities for improving the health and wellbeing of truck drivers. Drivers were aware of their unhealthy lifestyle. They were interested in changing their lifestyle and health. Drivers raised concerns regarding being continuously monitored by

  19. Ticketing aggressive cars and trucks (TACT): How does it work on city streets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Russell; Cook, Lawrence J; Olson, Lenora M

    2018-02-17

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of modifying the Ticking Aggressive Cars and Trucks (TACT) program, originally designed to work on state highways, within a metropolitan area to reduce unsafe interactions and their related crashes between drivers of large trucks and passenger vehicles. Using crash data, the driving behaviors most commonly associated with large truck and passenger vehicle crashes were identified. A public awareness campaign using media messaging and increased law enforcement was created targeting these associated behaviors. The frequency of these behaviors both before and after the public awareness campaign was determined through observation of traffic at 3 specific locations within the city. Each location had a sufficient volume of large truck and passenger traffic to observe frequent interactions. Pre- and postintervention data were compared using negative binomial regression with generalized estimating equations to evaluate whether the campaign was associated with a reduction in the identified driving behaviors. A comparison between crash data from before, during, and after the campaign and crashes during the same time periods in previous years did not show a significant difference (P =.081). The number of large trucks observed in traffic remained the same during pre- and postintervention periods (P =.625). The rates of negative interactions per 100 large trucks decreased for both large trucks and passenger vehicles after the intervention, with calculated rate ratios of 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48, 0.70) and 0.31 (95% CI, 0.20, 0.47). The greatest reduction was seen in passenger vehicles following too close, with a rate ratio of 0.21 (95% CI, 0.15, 0.30). Although designed for reducing crashes on highways, the TACT program can be an effective approach for improving driver behaviors on city streets.

  20. Demonstration Project 111, ITS/CVO Technology Truck, Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambrell, KP

    2002-01-11

    In 1995, the planning and building processes began to design and develop a mobile demonstration unit that could travel across the nation and be used as an effective outreach tool. In 1997, the unit was completed; and from June 1997 until December 2000, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)/Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) mobilized the Technology Truck, also known as Demonstration Project No. 111, ''Advanced Motor Carrier Operations and Safety Technologies.'' The project featured the latest available state-of-the-practice intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies designed to improve both the efficiency and safety of commercial vehicle operations (CVO). The Technology Truck was designed to inform and educate the motor carrier community and other stakeholders regarding ITS technologies, thus gaining support and buy-in for participation in the ITS program. The primary objective of the project was to demonstrate new and emerging ITS/CVO technologies and programs, showing their impact on motor carrier safety and productivity. In order to meet the objectives of the Technology Truck project, the FHWA/FMCSA formed public/private partnerships with industry and with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to demonstrate and display available ITS/CVO technologies in a cooperative effort. The mobile demonstration unit was showcased at national and regional conferences, symposiums, universities, truck shows and other venues, in an effort to reach as many potential users and decision makers as possible. By the end of the touring phase, the ITS/CVO Technology Truck had been demonstrated in 38 states, 4 Canadian provinces, 88 cities, and 114 events; been toured by 18,099 people; and traveled 115,233 miles. The market penetration for the Technology Truck exceeded 4,000,000, and the website received more than 25,000 hits. In addition to the Truck's visits, the portable ITS/CVO kiosk was demonstrated at 31 events in 23 cites in 15

  1. Modeling mechanical restriction differences between car and heavy truck in two-lane cellular automata traffic flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Xingang; Xiao, Yao; Jia, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Real traffic is heterogeneous with car and truck. Due to mechanical restrictions, the car and the truck have different limited deceleration capabilities, which are important factors in safety driving. This paper extends the single lane safety driving (SD) model with limited deceleration capability to two-lane SD model, in which car-truck heterogeneous traffic is considered. A car has a larger limited deceleration capability while a heavy truck has a smaller limited deceleration capability as a result of loaded goods. Then the safety driving conditions are different as the types of the following and the leading vehicles vary. In order to eliminate the well-known plug in heterogeneous two-lane traffic, it is assumed that heavy truck has active deceleration behavior when the heavy truck perceives the forming plug. The lane-changing decisions are also determined by the safety driving conditions. The fundamental diagram, spatiotemporal diagram, and lane-changing frequency were investigated to show the effect of mechanical restriction on heterogeneous traffic flow. It was shown that there would be still three traffic phases in heterogeneous traffic condition; the active deceleration of the heavy truck could well eliminate the plug; the lane-changing frequency was low in synchronized flow; the flow and velocity would decrease as the proportion of heavy truck grows or the limited deceleration capability of heavy truck drops; and the flow could be improved with lane control measures.

  2. Potential Safety Benefit of the Blind Spot Detection System for Large Trucks on the Vulnerable Road Users in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ming-Hang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering motorcyclists, pedestrians and bicyclists as vulnerable road users (VRUs, more than 75 percent of the victims of fatal crashes involving large trucks in Taiwan are VRUs. Most crashes occurred at or were due to the blind spots of large trucks because of the size and traveling locations of the VRUs. This study applies typology and statistical methods to estimate the potential safety benefit of blind spot detection (BSD systems for large trucks on VRUs. The pre-crash scenarios associated with the blind spots of large trucks were derived by counting the maneuvers of large trucks and VRUs, prior to crashes, the truck drivers’ improper behaviors (cause of crashes, and the crash types. The number of crashes and fatalities were counted for the pre-crash scenario relevant to the BSD systems. A value of 0.8 of human machine interface factor (HMIF based on a previous study was applied to estimate the potential safety benefits of the BSD system. The results show that the implementation of BSD systems on all large trucks could help avoid about 24, 10, and 11 percent of large truck-involved crashes with pedestrians, bicycles, and motorcycles, respectively. The BSD systems could also save 5 pedestrians, 3 bicyclists, and 15 motorcyclists per year from crashes involving large trucks.

  3. Near Earth Inner-Source and Interstellar Pickup Ions Observed with the Hot Plasma Composition Analyzer of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission Mms-Hpca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, R. G.; Fuselier, S. A.; Mukherjee, J.; Gonzalez, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Pickup ions found near the earth are generally picked up in the rest frame of the solar wind, and propagate radially outward from their point of origin. While propagating, they simultaneously gyrate about the magnetic field. Pickup ions come in two general populations; interstellar and inner source ions. Interstellar ions originate in the interstellar medium, enter the solar system in a neutral charge state, are gravitationally focused on the side of the sun opposite their arrival direction and, are ionized when they travel near the sun. Inner-source ions originate at a location within the solar system and between the sun and the observation point. Both pickup ion populations share similarities in composition and charge states, so measuring of their dynamics, using their velocity distribution functions, f(v)'s, is absolutely essential to distinguishing them, and to determining their spatial and temporal origins. Presented here will be the results of studies conducted with the four Hot Plasma Composition Analyzers of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS-HPCA). These instruments measure the full sky (4π steradians) distribution functions of near earth plasmas at a 10 second cadence in an energy-to-charge range 0.001-40 keV/e. The instruments are also capable of parsing this combined energy-solid angle phase space with 22.5° resolution polar angle, and 11.25° in azimuthal angle, allowing for clear measurement of the pitch angle scattering of the ions.

  4. Investigation of human body vibration exposures on haul trucks operating at U.S. surface mines/quarries relative to haul truck activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayton, Alan G.; Porter, William L.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Weston, Eric B.; Rubenstein, Elaine N.

    2018-01-01

    Workers who operate mine haul trucks are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) on a routine basis. Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Pittsburgh Mining Research Division (PMRD) investigated WBV and hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposures for mine/quarry haul truck drivers in relation to the haul truck activities of dumping, loading, and traveling with and without a load. The findings show that WBV measures in weighted root-mean-square accelerations (aw) and vibration dose value (VDV), when compared to the ISO/ANSI and European Directive 2002/44/EC standards, were mostly below the Exposure Action Value (EAV) identified by the health guidance caution zone (HGCZ). Nevertheless, instances were recorded where the Exposure Limit Value (ELV) was exceeded by more than 500 to 600 percent for VDVx and awx, respectively. Researchers determined that these excessive levels occurred during the traveling empty activity, when the haul truck descended down grade into the pit loading area, sliding at times, on a wet and slippery road surface caused by rain and overwatering. WBV levels (not normalized to an 8-h shift) for the four haul truck activities showed mean awz levels for five of the seven drivers exceeding the ISO/ANSI EAV by 9–53 percent for the traveling empty activity. Mean awx and awz levels were generally higher for traveling empty and traveling loaded and lower for loading/dumping activities. HAV for measures taken on the steering wheel and shifter were all below the HGCZ which indicates that HAV is not an issue for these drivers/operators when handling steering and shifting control devices. PMID:29725145

  5. Ulysses observations of magnetic waves due to newborn interstellar pickup ions. I. New observations and linear analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Bradford E. [Physics Department, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Smith, Charles W.; Isenberg, Philip A.; Vasquez, Bernard J. [Physics Department and Space Science Center, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Murphy, Neil [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Mail Stop 180-600, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA (United States); Nuno, Raquel G., E-mail: bc13h@my.fsu.edu, E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu, E-mail: Phil.Isenberg@unh.edu, E-mail: Bernie.Vasquez@unh.edu, E-mail: Neil.Murphy@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: raquel.nuno@asu.edu [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We have examined Ulysses magnetic field data using dynamic spectrogram techniques that compute wave amplitude, polarization, and direction of propagation over a broad range of frequencies and time. Events were identified that showed a strong polarization signature and an enhancement of power above the local proton gyrofrequency. We perform a statistical study of 502 wave events in an effort to determine when, where, and why they are observed. Most notably, we find that waves arising from newborn interstellar pickup ions are relatively rare and difficult to find. The quantities normally employed in theories of wave growth are neutral atom density and quantities related to their ionization and the subsequent dynamics such as wind speed, solar wind flux, and magnetic field orientation. We find the observations of waves to be largely uncorrelated to these quantities except for mean field direction where quasi-radial magnetic fields are favored and solar wind proton flux where wave observations appear to be favored by low flux conditions which runs contrary to theoretical expectations of wave generation. It would appear that an explanation based on source physics and instability growth rates alone is not adequate to account for the times when these waves are seen.

  6. Pickup Ion Dynamics in the Outer Heliosheath Associated with the Growth of Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability at the Heliopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, K.

    2017-12-01

    A discovery of "IBEX ribbon", localized bright emission of energetic neutral atoms, has brought new insights into the plasma environment of its source region beyond the heliosphere. It has been basically established that its geometrical property is associated with the local interstellar magnetic field draped on the heliopause, and pickup ions (PUIs) in the outer heliosheath (OHS) must be its primary source particles. Understanding the PUI dynamics in OHS more in detail is our motivation for this study. We performed two-dimensional hybrid simulations to evaluate the response of PUIs to the structural variation in the heliosheath. We assumed the simulation system such that the background plasma is hot solar wind in the inner heliosheath and cold interstellar plasma in OHS, and the directions of these flows are tangential to the heliopause. Such a situation leads to the growth of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI), where the plasma mixing and turbulence excitation takes place. We identified that non-stationarity and non-uniformity emerges in the PUI density structure in a specific energy range as KHI process advances. Relevance of these results to the expected observation like IBEX ribbon will be discussed.

  7. Solar cycle variation of interstellar neutral He, Ne, O density and pick-up ions along the Earth's orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokół, Justyna M.; Bzowski, Maciej; Kubiak, Marzena A.; Möbius, Eberhard

    2016-06-01

    We simulated the modulation of the interstellar neutral (ISN) He, Ne, and O density and pick-up ion (PUI) production rate and count rate along the Earth's orbit over the solar cycle (SC) from 2002 to 2013 to verify if SC-related effects may modify the inferred ecliptic longitude of the ISN inflow direction. We adopted the classical PUI model with isotropic distribution function and adiabatic cooling, modified by time- and heliolatitude-dependent ionization rates and non-zero injection speed of PUIs. We found that the ionization losses have a noticeable effect on the derivation of the ISN inflow longitude based on the Gaussian fit to the crescent and cone peak locations. We conclude that the non-zero radial velocity of the ISN flow and the energy range of the PUI distribution function that is accumulated are of importance for a precise reproduction of the PUI count rate along the Earth orbit. However, the temporal and latitudinal variations of the ionization in the heliosphere, and particularly their variation on the SC time-scale, may significantly modify the shape of PUI cone and crescent and also their peak positions from year to year and thus bias by a few degrees the derived longitude of the ISN gas inflow direction.

  8. Phenotypic correlations between ovum pick-up in vitro production traits and pregnancy rates in Zebu cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, W H O; Quirino, C R; Serapião, R V; Oliveira, C S; Pacheco, A

    2015-07-03

    The growth of the Gyr breed in Brazil in terms of genetic gain for milk, along with conditions for market, has led to the use of ovum pick-up in vitro production (OPU-IVP) as a leader in biotechnology for the multiplication of genetic material. The aim of this study was to investigate phenotypic correlations between OPU-IVP-linked characteristics and pregnancy rates registered in an embryo transfer program using Gyr cows as oocyte donors. Data collected from 211 OPU sessions and 298 embryo transfers during the years 2012 and 2013 were analyzed and statistical analysis was performed. Estimates of simple Pearson correlations were calculated for NVcoc and PVcoc (number and proportion of viable cumulus-oocyte complexes, respectively); NcleavD4 and PcleavD4 (number and proportion of cleaved embryos on day 4 of culture, respectively); NTembD7 and PTembD7 (number and proportion of transferable embryos on day 7 of culture, respectively); NPrD30 and PPrD30 (number and proportion of pregnancies 30 days after transfer, respectively); and NPrD60 and PPrD60 (number and proportion of pregnancies 60 days after transfer, respectively). Moderate to moderately high correlations were found for all numerical characteristics, suggesting these as the most suitable parameters for selection of oocyte donors in Gyr programs. NVcoc is proposed as a selection trait due to positive correlations with percentage traits and pregnancy rates 30 and 60 days after transfer.

  9. Location-Routing Problem with Simultaneous Home Delivery and Customer’s Pickup for City Distribution of Online Shopping Purchases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing interest in online shopping, the Last Mile delivery is regarded as one of the most expensive and pollutive—and yet the least efficient—stages of the e-commerce supply chain. To address this challenge, a novel location-routing problem with simultaneous home delivery and customer’s pickup is proposed. This problem aims to build a more effective Last Mile distribution system by providing two kinds of service options when delivering packages to customers. To solve this specific problem, a hybrid evolution search algorithm by combining genetic algorithm (GA and local search (LS is presented. In this approach, a diverse population generation algorithm along with a two-phase solution initialization heuristic is first proposed to give high quality initial population. Then, advantaged solution representation, individual evaluation, crossover and mutation operations are designed to enhance the evolution and search efficiency. Computational experiments based on a large family of instances are conducted, and the results obtained indicate the validity of the proposed model and method.

  10. A comparison of pipeline versus truck transport of bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pootakham, Thanyakarn; Kumar, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Biomass-based energy and fuels are receiving attention because they are considered carbon neutral; i.e. the amount of CO(2) released during combustion of this biomass is nearly the same as that taken up by the plants during their growth. Bio-oil is a dark viscous liquid consisting of hydrocarbons. These are produced by fast pyrolysis of biomass. "As-is" biomass material has a low energy density (MJ m(-3)), hence, the cost of transporting this energy is high. Bio-oil has a high energy density as compared to "as-is" biomass material, consequently it helps in reducing the cost of energy transport. This study compares the life cycle assessment of transportation of bio-oil by pipeline with that by truck. The scope of the work includes the transportation of bio-oil by truck or pipeline from a centralized plant (supplied with forest biomass) to an end-user. Two cases are studied for pipeline transport of bio-oil: the first case considers a coal-based electricity supply for pumping the bio-oil through a pipeline; the second case considers an electricity supply from a renewable resource. The two cases of pipeline transport are compared to two cases of truck transport (truck trailer and super B-train truck). The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the pipeline transport of bio-oil for the two cases of electricity supply are 345 and 17 g of CO(2) m(-3) km(-1), respectively. Similar values for transport by trailer (capacity - 30 m(3)) and super B-train truck (capacity - 60 m(3)) are 89 and 60 g of CO(2) m(-3) km(-1), respectively. Energy input for bio-oil transport is 3.95 MJ m(-3) km(-1) by pipeline, 2.59 MJ m(-3) km(-1) by truck and 1.66 MJ m(-3) km(-1) by super B-train truck. The results show that GHG emissions in pipeline transport are largely dependent on the source of electricity (higher for coal-based electricity). Substituting 250 m(3) day(-1) of pipeline-transported bio-oil for coal-based electricity can mitigate about 5.1 million tonnes of CO(2) per year

  11. Toxoplasma gondii infection in interstate truck drivers: a case-control seroprevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Pacheco-Vega, Sandy Janet; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Salcedo-Jáquez, Misael; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Berumen-Segovia, Luis Omar; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2015-02-05

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii can be acquired via the ingestion of undercooked or raw meat containing tissue cysts, or via ingestion of water contaminated with oocysts. Professional long distance truck driving may have epidemiological importance for food-borne infections since drivers eat out of home and in places where hygiene and cooking practices are uncertain. We aimed to determine whether interstate truck drivers in Durango, Mexico have an increased risk of infection with T. gondii as indicated by seropositivity; and to determine the socio-demographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics associated with T. gondii seropositivity in interstate truck drivers. Through a case-control study design, 192 truck drivers and 192 controls from the general population of the same region matched by gender and age were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics from the truck drivers were obtained. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 23 (12.0%) of 192 truck drivers and in 13 (6.8%) of 192 controls (OR = 21.0; 95% CI: 1.23-358.38; P = 0.002). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 7 (3.6%) cases and in 7 (3.6%) controls (P = 1.00). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was higher in drivers with reflex impairment than in those without this impairment (4/13, 30.8% vs 19/179, 10.6%, respectively; P = 0.05), and in drivers with hearing impairment than in those without this impairment (3/7, 42.9% vs 20/185, 10.8%, respectively; P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis of work and behavioral characteristics of truck drives showed positive associations of T. gondii exposure with trips to the south of Mexico (OR = 3.11; 95% CI: 1.02-9.44; P = 0.04) and consumption of horse meat (OR = 5.18; 95% CI: 1.62-16.55; P = 0.005). Results suggest that interstate truck drivers may have an increased risk for T

  12. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  13. Prediction of fuel consumption of mining dump trucks: A neural networks approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siami-Irdemoosa, Elnaz; Dindarloo, Saeid R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A neural network model of fuel consumption in mining haul trucks was constructed and tested. • Using the cyclic activities, the model was able to predict unseen (testing) data. • Trucks idle times were identified as the most important unnecessary energy consuming portion of the network. • Practical remedies, based on the nature of mining operations, were proposed to reduce the energy consumption. - Abstract: Fuel consumption of mining dump trucks accounts for about 30% of total energy use in surface mines. Moreover, a fleet of large dump trucks is the main source of greenhouse gas (GHG) generation. Modeling and prediction of fuel consumption per cycle is a valuable tool in assessing both energy costs and the resulting GHG generation. However, only a few studies have been published on fuel prediction in mining operations. In this paper, fuel consumption per cycle of operation was predicted using artificial neural networks (ANN) technique. Explanatory variables were: pay load, loading time, idled while loaded, loaded travel time, empty travel time, and idled while empty. The output variable was the amount of fuel consumed in one cycle. Mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 10% demonstrated applicability of ANN in prediction of the fuel consumption. The results demonstrated the considerable effect of mining trucks idle times in fuel consumption. A large portion of the unnecessary energy consumption and GHG generation, in this study, was solely due to avoidable idle times. This necessitates implementation of proper actions/remedies in form of both preventive and corrective actions

  14. An exploratory study of long-haul truck drivers' secondary tasks and reasons for performing them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseland, Tobias; Johansson, Emma; Skoog, Siri; Dåderman, Anna M

    2018-08-01

    Research on drivers has shown how certain visual-manual secondary tasks, unrelated to driving, increase the risk of being involved in crashes. The purpose of the study was to investigate (1) if long-haul truck drivers in Sweden engage in secondary tasks while driving, what tasks are performed and how frequently, (2) the drivers' self-perceived reason/s for performing them, and (3) if psychological factors might reveal reasons for their engaging in secondary tasks. The study comprised 13 long-haul truck drivers and was conducted through observations, interviews, and questionnaires. The drivers performed secondary tasks, such as work environment related "necessities" (e.g., getting food and/or beverages from the refrigerator/bag, eating, drinking, removing a jacket, face rubbing, and adjusting the seat), interacting with a mobile phone/in-truck technology, and doing administrative tasks. The long-haul truck drivers feel bored and use secondary tasks as a coping strategy to alleviate boredom/drowsiness, and for social interaction. The higher number of performed secondary tasks could be explained by lower age, shorter driver experience, less openness to experience, lower honesty-humility, lower perceived stress, lower workload, and by higher health-related quality of life. These explanatory results may serve as a starting point for further studies on large samples to develop a safer and healthier environment for long-haul truck drivers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and communication technologies for solid waste bin and truck monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M A; Arebey, Maher; Begum, R A; Basri, Hassan

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with a system of integration of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and communication technologies for solid waste bin and truck monitoring system. RFID, GPS, GPRS and GIS along with camera technologies have been integrated and developed the bin and truck intelligent monitoring system. A new kind of integrated theoretical framework, hardware architecture and interface algorithm has been introduced between the technologies for the successful implementation of the proposed system. In this system, bin and truck database have been developed such a way that the information of bin and truck ID, date and time of waste collection, bin status, amount of waste and bin and truck GPS coordinates etc. are complied and stored for monitoring and management activities. The results showed that the real-time image processing, histogram analysis, waste estimation and other bin information have been displayed in the GUI of the monitoring system. The real-time test and experimental results showed that the performance of the developed system was stable and satisfied the monitoring system with high practicability and validity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Six Reasons why hours of service regulations for truck drivers are violated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Sisse

    2008-01-01

      ABSTRACT Two decades of research has established a correlation between tiredness and fatigue, and traffic accident involving truck drivers.  Regulations limiting the driving hours of truck drivers thus are necessary precautions. But compliance is a problem. The answer from authorities tend to b...... independency ideal among truck drivers. The last reason is that the drivers and their employers share an interest in long work hours.......  ABSTRACT Two decades of research has established a correlation between tiredness and fatigue, and traffic accident involving truck drivers.  Regulations limiting the driving hours of truck drivers thus are necessary precautions. But compliance is a problem. The answer from authorities tend...... is that the regulation seems to be designed to long distance driving, and has some short-comings when applied to short distance drivers. The third reason is that the regulation deprives the drivers of means to control their tiredness. The fourth reason is that the regulation limits room for planning ahead generally...

  17. Experimental study on transportation safety of package in side collision of heavy duty truck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, M.; Sasaki, T.

    1989-01-01

    The accidents in road transportation of package may be collision, fall and fire. It is necessary to examine all cases very carefully because collision might be caused by other vehicle. Collisions are classified into head-on collision, rear-end collision, side collision. A lot of experiments and analyses are reported on head-on collision, so the behavior of vehicle and package may be predicted without difficulty. Rear-end collisions bring about less impact and may be applied corresponding to the head-on collisions. About side collisions, few experiments or analyses are reported, and most of them are about passenger cars not about trucks. So it becomes important to study the transportation safety of package carried on a heavy duty truck when hit on the side by another truck similar in size

  18. STRESS LOADING SIMULATION OF HYDRO-MECHANICAL TRANSMISSION OF DUMP TRUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sidorov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Transmission model and software package to investigate stress loading of a hydromechanical transmission of a dump truck have been developed. The given software package allows to model stress loading of transmission gears in taking-off and acceleration modes at various road resistance, positions of an engine control pedal and initial revolutions of an engine crankshaft, various laws of friction clutch switching and some other parameters that permit to reveal a rate of various operational mode influence on stress loading of a dump truck transmission. An equivalence of the developed software is proved by the comparison of the experimentally obtained stress loading process of the hydro-mechanical transmission of a BelAZ- 7555 dump truck with the results of the simulation 

  19. Health Promotion at the Construction Work Site: The Lunch Truck Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Moore, Kevin J; Clarke, Tainya C; Davila, Evelyn P; Clark, John D; Lee, David J; Fleming, Lora E

    2018-04-01

    The transient nature of construction work makes it difficult to conduct longitudinal worksite-based health promotion activities. As part of a workplace health assessment pilot study, we worked with a commercial lunch truck company to disseminate four types of health education materials including cancer screening, workplace injury prevention, fruit and vegetable consumption, and smoking cessation to construction workers purchasing food items from the truck during their job breaks. Two weeks following the worksite assessment, we followed up with these workers to ascertain their use of the health promotion materials. Of the 54 workers surveyed, 83% reported reviewing and sharing the cancer screening materials with their families, whereas 44% discussed the cancer screening materials with coworkers. Similar proportions of workers reviewed, shared, and discussed the other health promotion materials with their family. Lunch trucks may be an effective strategy and delivery method for educating construction workers on healthy behaviors and injury prevention practices.

  20. Air-cushion vehicles as an alternative to conventional industrial trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marr, E.

    2003-01-01

    Protective shieldings must be used for the transportation of radioactive materials, such as drums and containers within the control area, in order to observe the activity classes of the rooms. As a result of the change in the radiation protection ordinance, the operating areas of the floor conveyors have to be protected even more, i.e. transportation weights are becoming even bigger. When using pallet lift trucks without drive, weights over 2 tons are virtually unable to be operated. A fork-lift truck must be used for higher loads. If the transportation weight (transportation load and net weight of the lift truck) is doubled, usage within buildings is very restricted through the ceiling net load. This is the range of application of air cushion vehicles, in particular if positioning accuracy and remote-controlled driving become necessary. (orig.)

  1. Electro-deposition painting process improvement of cab truck by Six Sigma concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawitu, Kitiya; Chutima, Parames

    2017-06-01

    The case study company is a manufacturer of trucks and currently facing a high rework cost due to the thickness of the electro-deposited paint (EDP) of the truck cab is lower than standard. In addition, the process capability is very low. The Six Sigma concept consisting of 5 phases (DMAIC) is applied to determine new parameter settings for each significant controllable factor. After the improvement, EDP thickness of the truck cab increases from 17.88μ to 20μ (i.e. standard = 20 ± 3μ). Moreover, the process capability indexes (Cp and Cpk) are increased from 0.9 to 1.43, and from 0.27 to 1.43, respectively. This improvement could save the rework cost about 1.6M THB per year.

  2. Measurement of stress distributions in truck tyre contact patch in real rolling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelache, Gabriel; Moisescu, Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Stress distributions on three orthogonal directions have been measured across the contact patch of truck tyres using the complex measuring system that contains a transducer assembly with 30 sensing elements placed in the road surface. The measurements have been performed in straight line, in real rolling conditions. Software applications for calibration, data acquisition, and data processing were developed. The influence of changes in inflation pressure and rolling speed on the shapes and sizes of truck tyre contact patch has been shown. The shapes and magnitudes of normal, longitudinal, and lateral stress distributions, measured at low speed, have been presented and commented. The effect of wheel toe-in and camber on the stress distribution results was observed. The paper highlights the impact of the longitudinal tread ribs on the shear stress distributions. The ratios of stress distributions in the truck tyre contact patch have been computed and discussed.

  3. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  4. An exploration study to find important factors in market entrance: A case study of truck industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoheir Khodamoradi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing market penetration in truck industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 51 questions, distributes it among 300 people who worked for different truck industry related units and collects 262 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.89. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.845 and 3067.443, respectively. The study has implemented principal component analysis and the results have indicated that there were eight factors influencing entering truck making industry including adaptation strategies, new ideas, cost competitiveness, product capabilities, market characteristics, competition threats from external market environment and export accelerators.

  5. Improvement of the mining technology with the ring movement scheme of the haul trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodyanyuk R.V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the designed technology that allows to expand the use of the haul truck ring movement scheme and to reduce the share of an empty run time in the transportation cycle. A preliminary calculation of the efficiency of its usage has allowed to confirm the main advantages of this scheme over the existing one as follows: reducing the required number of transport for the needs of open-pit mine operation by increasing the productivity of mining trucks; decreasing the transport operating costs (some part of an empty truck movement occurs when the engine is switched off; dropping the probability of accidents (reduced a number of the counter transport maneuvers. The calculation showed the regularity of changes in the efficiency using the alternative scheme in relation to the basic one, which reflecting significantly higher effectiveness in situations with a smaller distance between the empty run sites of the ring scheme.

  6. Social Cognitive Antecedents of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Truck Drivers: A Sequential Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Vayro, Caitlin; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    To examine a mechanism by which social cognitive factors may predict fruit and vegetable consumption in long-haul truck drivers. Dietary self-efficacy, positive outcome expectancies, and intentions were assessed in 148 Australian truck drivers, and 1 week later they reported their fruit and vegetable consumption. A theory-guided sequential mediation model was specified that postulated self-efficacy and intention as mediators between outcome expectancies and behavior. The hypothesized model was confirmed. A direct effect of outcome expectancies was no longer present when mediators were included, and all indirect effects were significant, including the 2-mediator chain (β = .15; P role of outcome expectancies and self-efficacy are important to consider for understanding and predicting healthy eating intentions in truck drivers. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The determinants of fuel use in the trucking industry – volume, size and the rebound effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the determinants of trucking firm fuel use. We develop a simple model to show that trucking firm fuel use depends, in addition to the fuel price and the traffic volume, also on the output of the trucking firm’s production process (the movement of cargo) measured in tonkilometres...... these elasticities using a simultaneous-equation model based on aggregate time-series data for Denmark for 1980-2007. Our best estimates of the short run and the long run rebound effects for road freight transportation are 19% and 28%, respectively. We also find that an increase in the fuel price surprisingly has...... a small but significant negative effect on the fuel efficiency (measured here as vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT) per litre of consumed fuel), i.e. a 1% increase in the fuel price decreases the fuel efficiency by 0.13% in the long run. However, less distance has to be driven for the same payload. An 1...

  8. On the road again: concurrency and condom use among Uganda truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costenbader, Elizabeth C; Lancaster, Kathryn; Bufumbo, Leonard; Akol, Angela; Guest, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Long-distance truck drivers have been shown to be a critical population in the spread of HIV in Africa. In 2009, surveys with 385 Ugandan long-distance truck drivers measured concurrency point prevalence with two methods; it ranged from 37.4% (calendar-method) to 50.1% (direct question). The majority (84%) of relationships reported were long-term resulting in a long duration of overlap (average of 58 months) across concurrent partnerships. Only 7% of these men reported using any condoms with their spouses during the past month. Among all non-spousal relationships, duration of relationship was the factor most strongly associated with engaging in unprotected sex in the past month in a multivariable analyses controlling for partner and relationship characteristics. Innovative intervention programs for these men and their partners are needed that address the realities of truck drivers' lifestyles.

  9. Risk of transporting plutonium dioxide and liquid plutonium nitrate by truck and rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.D.; Hall, R.J.

    1976-07-01

    Results are summarized of the risk assessments of shipping PuO 2 powder and liquid Pu nitrate by truck and rail in the U.S. In the analysis method used, the system is described, potential release sequences are identified and evaluated (fault tree used), and the system risk is assessed. It is concluded that: there is little difference in risk in shipping PuO 2 by rail and by truck; there also is little change in risk in shipping PuO 2 by rail and by truck; there also is little change in risk for liquid shipment; the vermiculite loss is somewhat less important in rail shipment; and the response of the L-10 container to crush is more important in rail transport

  10. Understanding commercial truck drivers' decision-makin process concerning distracted driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C

    2015-05-01

    A concurrent mixed methods design was used to explore personal and workplace factors, informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, that affect truck drivers' decision-making about distracted driving on the job. Qualitative data were collected via semi-structured interviews with experts in truck safety and distracted driving, and quantitative data were collected via online survey of truck drivers in the United States. Findings from the interviews illustrated how drivers perceived distractions and the importance of supervisors enforcing organizational distracted driving policies. Survey results found that behavioral intentions were most important in regards to texting and crash and near-crash outcomes, while perceived norms from management best described the correlation between dispatch device use and negative crash-related outcomes. By using a mixed methods design, rather than two separate studies, these findings revealed nuanced differences into the influence of supervisors on distracted driving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A comprehensive analysis of factors influencing the injury severity of large-truck crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyu; Srinivasan, Sivaramakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of trucking to the economic well being of a country and the safety concerns posed by the trucks, a study of large-truck crashes is critical. This paper contributes by undertaking an extensive analysis of the empirical factors affecting injury severity of large-truck crashes. Data from a recent, nationally representative sample of large-truck crashes are examined to determine the factors affecting the overall injury severity of these crashes. The explanatory factors include the characteristics of the crash, vehicle(s), and the driver(s). The injury severity was modeled using two measures. Several similarities and some differences were observed across the two models which underscore the need for improved accuracy in the assessment of injury severity of crashes. The estimated models capture the marginal effects of a variety of explanatory factors simultaneously. In particular, the models indicate the impacts of several driver behavior variables on the severity of the crashes, after controlling for a variety of other factors. For example, driver distraction (truck drivers), alcohol use (car drivers), and emotional factors (car drivers) are found to be associated with higher severity crashes. A further interesting finding is the strong statistical significance of several dummy variables that indicate missing data - these reflect how the nature of the crash itself could affect the completeness of the data. Future efforts should seek to collect such data more comprehensively so that the true effects of these aspects on the crash severity can be determined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Feasibility of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel source for refuse trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsman, Josias; Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Rand, Aaron J; Gokhale, Bhushan; Lord, Dominique; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to evaluate the feasibility of using landfill gas (LFG) as a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel source for heavy-duty refuse trucks operating on landfills. Using LFG as a vehicle fuel can make the landfills more self-sustaining, reduce their dependence on fossil fuels, and reduce emissions and greenhouse gases. Acrion Technologies Inc. in association with Mack Trucks Inc. developed a technology to generate LNG from LFG using the CO2 WASH process. A successful application of this process was performed at the Eco Complex in Burlington County, PA. During this application two LNG refuse trucks were operated for 600 hr each using LNG produced from gases from the landfill. The methodology developed in this paper can evaluate the feasibility of three LFG options: doing nothing, electricity generation, and producing LNG to fuel refuse trucks. The methodology involved the modeling of several components: LFG generation, energy recovery processes, fleet operations, economic feasibility, and decision-making. The economic feasibility considers factors such as capital, maintenance, operational, and fuel costs, emissions and tax benefits, and the sale of products such as surplus LNG and food-grade carbon dioxide (CO2). Texas was used as a case study. The 96 landfills in Texas were prioritized and 17 landfills were identified that showed potential for converting LFG to LNG for use as a refuse truck fuel. The methodology was applied to a pilot landfill in El Paso, TX. The analysis showed that converting LFG to LNG to fuel refuse trucks proved to be the most feasible option and that the methodology can be applied for any landfill that considers this option.

  13. The impacts of multiple rest-break periods on commercial truck driver's crash risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Xie, Yuanchang

    2014-02-01

    Driver fatigue has been a major contributing factor to fatal commercial truck crashes, which accounted for about 10% of all fatal motor vehicle crashes that happened between 2009 and 2011. Commercial truck drivers' safety performance can deteriorate easily due to fatigue caused by long driving hours and irregular working schedules. To ensure safety, truck drivers often use off-duty time and short rest breaks during a trip to recover from fatigue. This study thoroughly investigates the impacts of off-duty time prior to a trip and short rest breaks on commercial truck safety by using Cox proportional hazards model and Andersen-Gill model. It is found that increasing total rest-break duration can consistently reduce fatigue-related crash risk. Similarly, taking more rest breaks can help to reduce crash risk. The results suggest that two rest breaks are generally considered enough for a 10-hour trip, as three or more rest breaks may not further reduce crash risk substantially. Also, the length of each rest break does not need to be very long and 30min is usually adequate. In addition, this study investigates the safety impacts of when to take rest breaks. It is found that taking rest breaks too soon after a trip starts will cause the rest breaks to be less effective. The findings of this research can help policy makers and trucking companies better understand the impacts of multiple rest-break periods and develop more effective rules to improve the safety of truck drivers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  14. Influences on Energy Savings of Heavy Trucks Using Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, Michael P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McAuliffe, Brian [National Research Council Canada; Lu, Xiao-Yun [University of California-Berkeley; Shladover, Steven [University of California-Berkeley; Surcel, Marius-Dorin [FPInnovations; Kailas, Aravind [Volvo Group

    2018-04-03

    An integrated adaptive cruise control (ACC) and cooperative ACC (CACC) was implemented and tested on three heavy-duty tractor-trailer trucks on a closed test track. The first truck was always in ACC mode, and the followers were in CACC mode using wireless vehicle-vehicle communication to augment their radar sensor data to enable safe and accurate vehicle following at short gaps. The fuel consumption for each truck in the CACC string was measured using the SAE J1321 procedure while travelling at 65 mph and loaded to a gross weight of 65,000 lb, demonstrating the effects of: inter-vehicle gaps (ranging from 3.0 s or 87 m to 0.14 s or 4 m, covering a much wider range than previously reported tests), cut-in and cut-out maneuvers by other vehicles, speed variations, the use of mismatched vehicles (standard trailers mixed with aerodynamic trailers with boat tails and side skirts), and the presence of a passenger vehicle ahead of the platoon. The results showed that energy savings generally increased in a non-linear fashion as the gap was reduced. The middle truck saved the most fuel at gaps shorter than 12 m and the trailing truck saved the most at longer gaps, while lead truck saved the least at all gaps. The cut-in and cut-out maneuvers had only a marginal effect on fuel consumption even when repeated every two miles. The presence of passenger-vehicle traffic had a measurable impact. The fuel-consumption savings on the curves was less than on the straight sections.

  15. TruckWeight wireless onboard scale helps oilfield services fleet find profit, compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2007-05-15

    This article presented a wireless scale that measures temperature and pressure changes in a vehicle's air suspension. The instrument is being used by Alberta-based Rusch Inc., an operator of tank trucks and pup trailers which haul potassium chloride solution, methanol, frac oil, crude oil and other fluids. Made by TruckWeight Inc., the Smart Scale relays data to a handheld receiver using a low-powered safe radio transmitter. It is designed so its power output is not high enough to ignite gases in the atmosphere near wellheads. The information from the Smart Scale is interpreted by a small computer in a handheld receiver. The axle weight and gross vehicle weight measurement is accurate to within 150 pounds. Rusch trucks operate on steep grades all year, encountering soft ground in the summer, and frozen terrain in the winter. When loading is done in the bush, it is impossible to reliably weigh the trucks, whose licensed gross combination weight is 51,300 kilograms. In Alberta, an overweight fine can trigger an audit of a company's safety record and operating practices. Running overweight also places stress on axles, suspensions, wheel-end components tires and brakes. Therefore, adhering to the rated weight is essential. In 2006, Rusch Inc. installed the Smart Scale wireless on-board scale for trucks, tractors and trailers with air suspension. The scale includes a sensor with an integrated antenna and DOT fittings for the vehicle's airline. While the truck is being loaded, the scale produces readings every 3 seconds. This maintenance-free instrument is accurate in temperature extremes ranging from -40 F to 158 F and uses common AA batteries. It is waterproof, weatherproof, shock resistant and non-corrosive. The cost to equip a tractor and trailer with a Smart Scale is $1,590 US, half the cost of a hard-wired scale. 5 figs.

  16. Commercial truck crash injury severity analysis using gradient boosting data mining model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zijian; Lu, Pan; Lantz, Brenda

    2018-06-01

    Truck crashes contribute to a large number of injuries and fatalities. This study seeks to identify the contributing factors affecting truck crash severity using 2010 to 2016 North Dakota and Colorado crash data provided by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. To fulfill a gap of previous studies, broad considerations of company and driver characteristics, such as company size and driver's license class, along with vehicle types and crash characteristics are researched. Gradient boosting, a data mining technique, is applied to comprehensively analyze the relationship between crash severities and a set of heterogeneous risk factors. Twenty five variables were tested and 22 of them are identified as significant variables contributing to injury severities, however, top 11 variables account for more than 80% of injury forecasting. The relative variable importance analysis is conducted and furthermore marginal effects of all contributing factors are also illustrated in this research. Several factors such as trucking company attributes (e.g., company size), safety inspection values, trucking company commerce status (e.g., interstate or intrastate), time of day, driver's age, first harmful events, and registration condition are found to be significantly associated with crash injury severity. Even though most of the identified contributing factors are significant for all four levels of crash severity, their relative importance and marginal effect are all different. For the first time, trucking company and driver characteristics are proved to have significant impact on truck crash injury severity. Some of the results in this study reinforce previous studies' conclusions. Findings in this study can be helpful for transportation agencies to reduce injury severity, and develop efficient strategies to improve safety. Copyright © 2018 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 78 FR 33860 - Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck Cranes Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...] Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck Cranes Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB... collection requirements contained in the General Industry Standard on Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck cranes... workers from using unsafe cranes and ropes, thereby reducing their risk of death or serious injury caused...

  18. 75 FR 20005 - Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck Cranes Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ...] Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck Cranes Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB... Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck Cranes Standard (29 CFR 1910.180). DATES: Comments must be submitted... of each of these requirements is to prevent workers from using unsafe cranes and ropes, thereby...

  19. 78 FR 15714 - Welch Motel, Inc., Welch Oil, Inc., Boondocks USA Truck Stop, Bob Welch v. Midland Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ..., Inc., Welch Oil, Inc., Boondocks USA Truck Stop, Bob Welch v. Midland Power Cooperative, Corn Belt..., Welch Motel, Inc., Welch Oil, Inc., Boondocks USA Truck Stop, and Bob Welch (collectively, Complainants... into a contract to consume all of the electric energy and capacity generated by [[Page 15715...

  20. 9 CFR 325.17 - Loading or unloading products in sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route prohibited; exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route prohibited; exception. 325.17 Section 325.17 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND... TRANSPORTATION § 325.17 Loading or unloading products in sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route prohibited...