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Sample records for pickling

  1. Light-Emitting Pickles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.; Mollmann, K-P.

    2015-01-01

    We present experiments giving new insights into the classical light-emitting pickle experiment. In particular, measurements of the spectra and temperatures, as well as high-speed recordings, reveal that light emission is connected to the polarity of the electrodes and the presence of hydrogen.

  2. Light-Emitting Pickles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.; Mollmann, K-P.

    2015-01-01

    We present experiments giving new insights into the classical light-emitting pickle experiment. In particular, measurements of the spectra and temperatures, as well as high-speed recordings, reveal that light emission is connected to the polarity of the electrodes and the presence of hydrogen.

  3. Relishes: The new pickled vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepić Aleksandra N.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been an increasing interest of consumers for a ide variety of pickled vegetable products worldwide. Regarding the regional vegetable supplies and relatively poor assortment of ready-to-use products, the need to broaden the offer of domestic pickled vegetables at the market came out. In this work recipes for different vegetables, spices and condiments were developed. The best graded samples were analyzed for their main chemical composition (dry matter, proteins, oils and fats, total acidity, total sugars, sucrose, starch, cellulose, pH and energy- values.

  4. Characterization of the Optical Properties of Normal and Defective Pickling Cucumbers and Whole Pickles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internal defect in pickling cucumbers can cause bloater damage during brining, which lowers the quality of final pickled products and results in economic loss for the pickle industry. Hence it is important to have an effective optical inspection system for detection and segregation of defective pick...

  5. National and International Factors in Pickle Markets

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This report presents global and domestic information regarding production, trade and market developments for pickled cucumbers. U.S. cucumber production and trade are commonly divided into two categories: fresh and pickling. Michigan is the largest producer of pickling cucumbers in the country, accounting for 18 percent of total U.S. production. Like many agri-food industries, this processed product sector has gone through numerous changes in the past decade which have influenced production a...

  6. The Story of Clara Pickle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    问号

    2005-01-01

    Everyone in town knew Clara Pickle.She was asdear and sw eet as anyone could be.In fact,it wasClara Pickle's good nature that gother in trouble.O ne day a grey cat w andered into Clara’skitchen.Clara,who lived alone,took the cat in.Shewas glad for the com pany.The nextm orning she letthecat out for a breath of fresh air.W hen the cat cam eback that afternoon,he was no longer alone.H e hadbrought his entire fam ily and m ost ofhis friends.Therewere thirty-four cats in all。Clare,sweet soul that she was,adopte...

  7. Detection of defect in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to damage due to adverse growth condition, improper harvest timing, and inappropriate harvesting and postharvest handling operations. There are typically five to 10 percentages of harvested pickling cucumbers that are not suitable for pickling and hence should be r...

  8. Listeria monocytogenes survival in refrigerator dill pickles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kyung; D'Sa, Elaine M; Harrison, Mark A; Harrison, Judy A; Andress, Elizabeth L

    2005-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can survive and grow in refrigerated foods with pH values of approximately 4.0 to 5.0 and salt concentrations of 3 to 4%. Home-fermented refrigerator dill pickles fit this description. Contamination of this product with L. monocytogenes could cause serious problems because these items are not heated prior to consumption. L. monocytogenes survival and growth patterns were investigated in refrigerator dill pickles at 1.3, 3.8, and 7.6% salt concentrations. Pickling cucumbers were dipped into an inoculum of L. monocytogenes, brine mixtures were added, and cucumbers were held at room temperature for 1 week and then refrigerated for up to 3 months. The pH, NaCl percentage, titratable acidity percentage, and total populations of Listeria and aerobic, psychrotrophic, and lactic acid bacteria were measured at the addition of brine, after 2, 4, and 7 days of storage at room temperature, and then weekly during refrigerated storage. The initial Listeria population was 5.4 to 5.6 log CFU/cm2 on cucumber surfaces and 3.9 to 4.6 log CFU/g internally. There was an approximate 0.3- to 1-log increase during room temperature fermentation followed by a population decline during refrigerator storage, with a greater decrease in the brines with the highest NaCl concentration. Up to 49 days, the internal tissue of pickles with 1.3, 3.8, or 7.6% salt concentrations were presumptively positive for L. monocytogenes by the enrichment method, and at 91 days the surfaces of such pickles were still positive for L. monocytogenes. Populations of total aerobes and lactic acid bacteria increased during room temperature storage and decreased gradually during refrigerated storage.

  9. Behaviour of tetramine inhibitors during pickling of hot rolled steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornu, Marie-José, E-mail: marie-jose.cornu@arcelormittal.com [ArcelorMittal Maizières Research, Voie Romaine, 57280 Maizières-lès-Metz (France); Koltsov, Alexey, E-mail: alexey.koltsov@arcelormittal.com [ArcelorMittal Maizières Research, Voie Romaine, 57280 Maizières-lès-Metz (France); Nicolas, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina_nicolas@live.fr [ArcelorMittal Maizières Research, Voie Romaine, 57280 Maizières-lès-Metz (France); Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l’Environnement (LCPME) – UMR 7564 CNRS – Université de Lorraine, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54602 Villers-lès-Nancy (France); Colom, Lydia, E-mail: Lydia.colom@sfr.fr [ArcelorMittal Maizières Research, Voie Romaine, 57280 Maizières-lès-Metz (France); Dossot, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.dossot@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l’Environnement (LCPME) – UMR 7564 CNRS – Université de Lorraine, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54602 Villers-lès-Nancy (France)

    2014-02-28

    To avoid the dissolution of steel in industrial pickling process, tetramine inhibitors are added to the pickling bath. This study is devoted to the understanding of the action mechanism of these inhibitors in hydrochloric and sulphuric baths on non-alloyed and alloyed steels. Pickling experiments and characterization with XPS, Raman and infrared spectroscopies have shown that inhibitors work only in acid media and leached out from the steel surfaces during the rinsing operation just after pickling. The effectiveness of inhibitors depends on the acid media and the temperature. Experimental data are consistent with a surface mechanism, i.e., the so-called “outer-sphere” adsorption.

  10. Recovery of zirconium from pickling solution, regeneration and its reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, D. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad 500062 (India); Mandal, D., E-mail: dmandal10@gmail.com [Alkali Material & Metal Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Visweswara Rao, R.V.R.L.; Sairam, S.; Thakur, S. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad 500062 (India)

    2017-05-15

    Graphical abstract: The following compares the performance of fresh pickling solution (PS) and regenerated and used pickling solution (UPS). - Highlights: • Pickling of zircaloy tubes and appendages is carried out to remove oxide layer. • The pickling solution become saturated with zirconium due to reuse. • As NaNO{sub 3} concentration increases, conc. of Zr in pickling solution decreases. • Experimental results shows that, used pickling solution can be regenerated. • Regenerated solution may be reused by adding makeup quantities of HF-HNO{sub 3}. - Abstract: The pressurized heavy water reactors use natural uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) as fuel and uses cladding material made up of zircaloy, an alloy of zirconium. Pickling of zircaloy tubes and appendages viz., spacer and bearing pads is carried out to remove the oxide layer and surface contaminants, if present. Pickling solution, after use for many cycles i.e., used pickling solution (UPS) is sold out to vendors, basically for its zirconium value. UPS, containing a relatively small concentration of hydrofluoric acid. After repeated use, pickling solution become saturated with zirconium fluoride complex and is treated by adding sodium nitrate to precipitate sodium hexafluro-zirconate. The remaining solution can be recycled after suitable makeup for further pickling use. The revenue lost by selling UPS is very high compared to its zirconium value, which causes monetary loss to the processing unit. Experiments were conducted to regenerate and reuse UPS which will save a good amount of revenue and also protect the environment. Experimental details and results are discussed in this paper.

  11. Hyperspectral Imaging for Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter reviews the recent progress on hyperspectral imaging technology for defect inspection of pickling cucumbers. The chapter first describes near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for the detection of bruises on pickling cucumbers. The technique showed good detection...

  12. One-step pickling-activation before magnesium alloy plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-juan; YU Gang; OUYANG Yue-jun; HE Xiao-mei; ZHANG Jun; YE Li-yuan

    2009-01-01

    A one-step pickling-activation process was proposed as an environmental friendly pretreatment method in phosphate-permanganate solution before electroplating on magnesium alloys. The effects of pickling-activation on qualities of coating were assessed by adhesion and porosity testing of copper plating. The interfacial reactions between specimen and solution were analyzed with SEM, EDX and XRD. The results show that the developed process of pickling-activation can equalize the potentials on substrate surface. The compacted zinc film can be obtained by zinc immersion after treating magnesium alloy in the pH 4-6 phosphate-permanganate solution for 3-5 min. The adhesion and corrosion resistance of copper plating are enhanced. The one-step pickling-activation can replace the existing two-step process of acid pickling and activation which contains a great deal of chromium and fluorine. The procedure of surface pretreatment is simplified and the production environment is improved.

  13. The Glowing Pickle and Other Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Burns

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon known as the glowing pickle was investigated. Voltages ranging from 80-140 Volts AC were placed across a variety of vegetable specimens, both fresh and soaked in several salt solutions. The glowing was caused by electric arcing across a steam-filled cavity in the specimen. The emission spectra showed lines indicating the presence of potassium and sodium ions in the fresh specimens. In the specimens soaked in salt solutions, emission spectra matching the salt ions were observed.

  14. U.S. Fresh and Pickling Cucumber Markets

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    As part of an effort to estimate the potential impact of downy mildew to U.S. growers of cucumbers, this report reviews historical trends in production and markets for cucumbers including slicing and pickling cucumbers.

  15. A Novel Spice: Pickled Pepper Powder and Some Quality Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cankaya Harika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An alternative pepper powder with better sensory quality was produced from some pickled pepper species. The peppers pickled via traditional and quick methods were dried at 65±1°C, ground and physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of the samples were compared to those of commonly consumed pepper powders (control. Capsicum species grown in Turkey including Chili, Kapia, Jordan, Biberiye, Frenk and etc. were used. The results are expected to contribute to the development of new products, to provide more alternatives for consumers in the market and to satisfy consumer expectations. Along with typical pickled aroma, hotness and colour, pickled pepper powders may be a valuable food additive especially for ready-to-eat and fast foods.

  16. THE EVOLUTION OF SOME CHEMICAL PARAMETERS DURING CUCUMBERS PICKLING

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of some chemical indices (salt content, pH and ascorbic acid content) during cucumbers pickling was the purpose of this paper. The experience materials used in this work were: cucumbers cornichon, iodized and non-iodized salt and tap water. The samples containing cucumbers in iodized and in non-iodized brine were left to ferment, and at 3-4 days were made determinations of above mentioned indices. During pickling process, non-iodized salt has accumulated in cucumber ...

  17. Determination of Benzoate Level in Canned Pickles and Pickled Cucumbers in Food Producing Factories in Markazi Province and those that their Products were Sold in Arak City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Delavar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anecdotal information has suggested that sodium benzoate is used with more than permissible doses during production steps of food products especially pickles and pickled cucumbers in food producing factories in Markazi province and other food producing factories . The present study was done to evaluate factual concentration of sodium benzoate in these products. Methods: In this study, 8 samples from canned pickled cucumbers and 10 samples from canned pickles were randomly gathered from food production factories in Markazi province between March and September 2010. Also, 25 samples from canned pickled cucumbers and 15 samples from canned pickles and 7 samples of bulk cargo pickled cucumbers were collected from the other provinces in Arak city. Sodium benzoate level was determined in the samples using UV-VIS spectrophotometry method. The determined values were analyzed by N-par test using SPSS software version 16.0. Results: Sodium benzoate level was near zero in the samples of canned pickles and pickled cucumbers from producing factories. This was 200-400 PPM in 7 samples from bulk cargo pickled cucumbers which was higher than permissible dose. There was not a statistically significant difference between mean benzoate level of canned pickles and pickled cucumbers produced in Markazi providence factories and other food factories. Benzoate level was significantly higher than permissible dose in bulk cargo pickled cucumbers. Conclusion: Food products from production factories do not have higher than permissible level of sodium benzoate; however, this is higher in bulk cargo pickled cucumbers. Hence, stricter control on bulk cargo pickled cucumber products is recommended.

  18. Optical Absorption and Scattering Properties of Normal and Defective Pickling Cucumbers for 700-1000 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internal defect in pickling cucumbers can cause bloater damage during brining, which lowers the quality of final pickled products and results in economic loss for the pickle industry. Hence it is important to have an effective optical inspection system for detection and segregation of defective pick...

  19. Development of automated inspection technology for quality grading of pickling cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to external and internal damage during growth, harvest, transport, and postharvest handling. It is estimated that approximately 5-10% of harvested pickling cucumbers fall into the defect category. Pickling cucumber quality defect can occur in the form of soft or wa...

  20. The pickling technology of Shaoxing folk pickles%绍兴民间腌渍菜制作技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴光忠; 郑国江

    2011-01-01

    In order to inherit and promote traditional pickling technology,the choice of raw materials,technological process,and operating methods of Shaoxing folk pickles are introduced.The eating methods of short-term pickled vegetables,pickled potherb mustard,pterocladia tenuis okam and Chinese mustard green are especially explained in detail.The mechanism of flavor components in pickles is also discussed as well.%为了继承传统老法腌渍菜的制作方法,介绍了绍兴民间制作腌渍菜的原料、工艺流程和操作方法,同时介绍了暴腌菜、佩红菜、鸡毛菜和倒纛菜(冬芥菜)等的制作方法,并说明了绍兴民间腌渍菜的食用方法,论述了腌渍菜中呈味物质的形成机理。

  1. New Development of Acid Regeneration in Steel Pickling Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W F Kladnig

    2008-01-01

    For acid pickling heat treated mild steel and steel products,up to the middle of the last century,sulfuric acid was primarily in use,which has been replaced stepwise by hydrochloric acid since the sixties.During this time,the pickling of high alloyed steel with hydrofluoric acid or mixtures for hydrofluoric acid together with nitric acid has also been applied on industrial scale.The technologies used by several plant contractors hereby show considerable differences in their engineering.The study provides a survey of the progress in the state of art of regeneration technology as well as the use of different pickling media in the form of a review on existing technologies as well as improvements done within the recent years in the area.

  2. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of red-color spoilage in cucumber pickle products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; Kelling, R E; Hale, S; Breidt, F; McFeeters, R F

    2007-09-01

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in pickled cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the fruits. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from 2 outbreaks of this spoilage that occurred about 15 y apart during the last 3 decades. Both organisms were shown to produce this spoilage when inoculated into pickled cucumbers while concomitantly degrading the azo dye tartrazine (FD&C yellow nr 5). This food dye is used as a yellow coloring in the brine cover solutions of commercial pickled cucumber products. The red color does not occur in the absence of tartrazine, nor when turmeric is used as a yellow coloring in the pickles. Addition of sodium benzoate to the brine cover solutions of a pickled cucumber product, more specifically hamburger dill pickles, prevented growth of these lactic acid bacteria and the development of the red spoilage.

  3. Imaging technique for detection of internal defects of pickling cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to damage during harvest and postharvest handling and processing. While it is easier to detect external defects, it is difficult to detect internal defects such as bruises and hollow or split cucumbers. Hyperspectral imaging technique under transmittance mode was i...

  4. Effects of chemical blanching and salt content on quality of pickled chilli

    OpenAIRE

    Prachaiyo, P.; Kongbangkerd, T.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of blanching agents (citric acid and alum) and the salt concentrations (10%, 15% and 20% (w/w)) on the quality of pickled chilli was studied. The results showed that both citric acid and alum hadno effect on pH, titratable acidity and moisture content of pickled chilli. However, the pickled chilli blanched in alum solution had lower counts of total microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria than those of pickled chilli blanched in citric acid solution indicating that alum had greater ...

  5. Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculated Fermentation on Pickled Cucumbers

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) fermentation on the texture and organic acid of pickled cucumbers. Texture and sensory evaluation as well as a microscopic observation were performed to study the textural differences among fresh cucumber, Spontaneous fermentation (SF) cucumber and LAB Inoculating Fermentation (LABIF) cucumber. Accumulation of seven organic acids i.e., oxalic, tartaric, malic, lactic, acetic, citric and succinic acid during cucum...

  6. A new acid pickling process for copper alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The cleaning process of removing oxides on the surface of copper alloy sheets was investigated systematically. Through optimizing, a perfect process was selected that is fit for removing oxides on the surface. By acid pickling, all kinds of copper oxides are removed completely, furthermore, no poisonous gases are given out and a smooth and clean surface of copper alloys is obtained. At present, the process is applied successfully in the copper-processing industry.

  7. Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculated Fermentation on Pickled Cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Ji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB fermentation on the texture and organic acid of pickled cucumbers. Texture and sensory evaluation as well as a microscopic observation were performed to study the textural differences among fresh cucumber, Spontaneous fermentation (SF cucumber and LAB Inoculating Fermentation (LABIF cucumber. Accumulation of seven organic acids i.e., oxalic, tartaric, malic, lactic, acetic, citric and succinic acid during cucumber pickling were also studied. The disruption extent of the middle lamella in SF cucumber displayed more obviously than that in LABIF cucumber, implying that LABIF contributed to keep the cucumber original structure intact. Based on the organic acid accumulation pattern, in SF LAB and Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB fermented simultaneously, while in LABIF LAB fermented beforehand thus being in dominant position, then AAB fermented vigorously in a acidic condition created by LAB. The acetic acid accumulaton pattern could be regarded as the distinctive feature between SF and LABIF. The orgnic acids produced in LABIF were higher than that in SF. The final score of sensory evaluation combining texture analysis demonstrated that LABIF overmatched SF. It was concluded that LABIF could obviously enhance the quality of pickled cucumber and overwhelming SF, due to LABIF more beneficial to keep the cucumber original structure intact and organic acids accumulation.

  8. The Comparison of Chinese Pickle, Japanese Pickle and Kimchi Processing Technology%中、日、韩三国泡菜加工工艺的对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢沿钢; 董全

    2011-01-01

    This paper researched comparatively on the sort, the processing technology, the operation points, the production feature of Chinese pickle, kimchi and Japanese pickle. According to comparison, this paper also made some suggestions for the development of Chinese pickle.%对目前中、日、韩三国泡菜的加工工艺、操作要点和产品特色进行了对比研究,并由此对中国泡菜的发展提出了一些建议.

  9. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  10. Effects of chemical blanching and salt content on quality of pickled chilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachaiyo, P.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of blanching agents (citric acid and alum and the salt concentrations (10%, 15% and 20% (w/w on the quality of pickled chilli was studied. The results showed that both citric acid and alum hadno effect on pH, titratable acidity and moisture content of pickled chilli. However, the pickled chilli blanched in alum solution had lower counts of total microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria than those of pickled chilli blanched in citric acid solution indicating that alum had greater inhibitory effect on microbial growth than citric acid. On the other hand, the salt concentration affected the moisture content of pickled chilli.The moisture content of the pickled chilli increased as the salt concentration increased. In addition, the salt concentration also affected the microbial growth in pickled chilli. The data indicated that the growth oftotal microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria decreased as the salt concentration increased. This study showed that the combination of using alum solution as blanching agent and 20% salt exhibited greatest inhibitory effect on microbial growth.

  11. Fate of Pathogenic Bacteria Associated with Production of Pickled Sausage by Using a Cold Fill Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Nelson J; Cutter, Catherine N; Campbell, Jonathan A

    2016-10-01

    Preservation by pickling has been used for many years to extend the shelf life of various types of food products. By storing meat products in a brine solution containing an organic acid, salt, spices, as well as other preservatives, the pH of the product is reduced, thus increasing the safety and shelf life of the product. Pickling may involve the use of heated brines to further add to the safety of the food product. When precooked, ready-to-eat (RTE) sausages are pickled with a heated brine solution, the process is referred to as hot filling. However, hot filling has been shown to affect the clarity of the brine, making the product cloudy and unappealing to consumers. Because of the potential quality defects caused by higher temperatures associated with hot fill pickling, cold fill pickling, which uses room temperature brine, is preferred by some pickled sausage manufacturers. Because little information exists on the safety of cold fill, pickled sausages, a challenge study was designed using a brine solution (5% acetic acid and 5% salt at 25°C) to pickle precooked, RTE sausages inoculated with a pathogen cocktail consisting of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Senftenberg, Salmonella Montevideo, Listeria monocytogenes , and Staphylococcus aureus . All pathogens were reduced ~6.80 log CFU/g in 72 h when enumerated on nonselective media. On selective media, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes decreased 6.33 and 6.35 log CFU/g in 12 h, respectively whereas S. aureus was reduced 6.80 log CFU/g in 24 h. Sausages experienced significant (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in pH over the 28 days of storage, whereas no significant differences were observed in water activity (P =0.1291) or salt concentration of the sausages (P =0.1445) or brine (P =0.3180). The results of this experiment demonstrate that cold fill pickling can effectively reduce and inhibit bacterial pathogens.

  12. SENSORY ANALYSIS OF CUCUMBER VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT HARVEST TIMES II. PICKLING CUCUMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina PEVICHAROVA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2001-2002 sensory analysis of Bulgarian pickling cucumber varieties Toni, Iren and Pobeda was carried out. The varieties had identical parent female breeding line G-3. Fresh and canned fruits were evaluated at three harvest times. It was established that sensory properties of canned fruits cannot be entirely prognosticated from panel test data of the fresh ones. For breeding purposes sensory analysis of pickling cucumbers for processing should be performed using sterilized pickling cucumbers but not only fresh ones. More precise information about visual and gustatory properties of new created lines and hybrids will be obtained by performing of sensory analysis at different harvest times.

  13. A hyperspectral imaging prototype for online quality evaluation of pickling cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hyperspectral imaging prototype was developed for online evaluation of external and internal quality of pickling cucumbers. The prototype had several new, unique features including simultaneous reflectance and transmittance imaging and inline, real time calibration of hyperspectral images of each ...

  14. Surface integrity after pickling and anodization of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermesse, Eric; Mabru, Catherine; Arurault, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    The surface integrity of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy was studied at different stages of surface treatments, especially pickling and compact anodization, through surface characteristics potentially worsening fatigue resistance.

  15. Improving the Surface Roughness of Pickled Steel Strip by Control of Rolling Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Nan; Lin, Szu-Ning; Liou, Horng-Yih; Chang, Chu-Wei; Wu, Chia-Chan; Wang, Ying-Chun

    2013-01-01

    This investigation is to analyze the surface roughness problem of low carbon pickled steel strips from the view points of prior hot rolling conditions and the hot-rolled scales. The results showed that, compared with other parameters, the most important factor in hot rolling to affect the surface roughness was the rolling temperature. As the temperature was increased, the amount of the outer brittle α-Fe2O3 increased, leading to rough scale/substrate interface and rough surface after pickling. However, the effect of coiling temperature was almost negligible because no further rolling existed after that stage. Quantitative estimation showed that decrease in rolling temperature in this investigation reduced the surface roughness, Ra, from 1.06-1.78 μm to 0.88-1.10 μm after pickling in laboratory. Similar degree of improvement in roughness was also observed after pickling in mill.

  16. SENSORY ANALYSIS OF CUCUMBER VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT HARVEST TIMES II. PICKLING CUCUMBERS

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    During the period 2001-2002 sensory analysis of Bulgarian pickling cucumber varieties Toni, Iren and Pobeda was carried out. The varieties had identical parent female breeding line G-3. Fresh and canned fruits were evaluated at three harvest times. It was established that sensory properties of canned fruits cannot be entirely prognosticated from panel test data of the fresh ones. For breeding purposes sensory analysis of pickling cucumbers for processing should be performed using sterilized p...

  17. Surface integrity after pickling and anodization of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Vermesse, Eric; Mabru, Catherine; Arurault, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The surface integrity of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy was studied at different stages of surface treatments, especially pickling and compact anodization, through surface characteristics potentially worsening fatigue resistance. No significant changes of the equiaxe microstructure were detected between sample core and surface, or after the pickling and anodization steps. Surface hydrogen and oxygen superficial contents were found to remain unchanged. Roughness characteristi...

  18. Analysis of Potato Pickles Pickling Process and the Main Physicochemical Index%土豆咸菜的腌制工艺及主要理化指标分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于宗玄; 董艳; 杨庆丽

    2015-01-01

    本文介绍了土豆腌制的工艺程序,提出在土豆腌制过程中对龙葵素的控制方法,并对土豆腌制成品的理化质量指标进行了分析。%This paper introduces the potatoes pickled process, put forward to potatoes pickled and control methods of solanine and of potatoes pickled physiochemical quality index were analyzed.

  19. Antioxidant Compounds in Traditional Indian Pickles May Prevent the Process-Induced Formation of Benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, Mahesh M; Adiani, Vanshika; Variyar, Prasad; Sharma, Arun; Singhal, Rekha S

    2016-01-01

    Pickles in the Indian market contain ascorbic acid from the raw material used and benzoate as an added preservative that are involved in the formation of benzene in soft drinks. In this work, 24 market pickle samples were surveyed for benzene content, as well as its precursors and other constituents that influence its formation. The analysis showed that pickle samples were high in acid content (low pH) and showed significant amount of ascorbic acid, minerals (Cu and Fe), and benzoic acid present in them. Also, most samples exhibited high antioxidant activity that might be attributed to the ingredients used, such as fruits and spices. The solid-phase microextraction headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed in-house for benzene analysis. Eleven of 24 samples had benzene, with the highest concentration of 4.36 ± 0.82 μg of benzene per kg of pickle for a lime pickle that was also reported to have highest benzoic acid and considerably less hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) scavenging activity. However, benzene levels for all 11 samples were considerably below the World Health Organization regulatory limit of 10 μg/kg for benzene in mineral water. Studies on model systems revealed that the high antioxidant activity of Indian pickles may have had a strong inhibitory effect on benzene formation.

  20. Pickle Vulnerability Exploitation and Defense%Pickle漏洞利用与防御

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺琪茗; 周安民; 方勇; 刘亮

    2012-01-01

    Pickle vulnerabilities are resulted from unsafe use of pickle---a python module. Due to the crossplatform ability of python and simplicity of shellcode writing, pickle vulnerabilities are even more harmful. This paper principally describes the utilization environment and mode of pickle vulnerabilities, including the process of shellcode writing, and sums up a variety of effective defense strategies for pickle vulnerabilitiesFinally through the survey of software, this paper tells of the universality of these vulnerabilities and the necessity for safe use of pickle module.%Pickle漏洞是由于没有安全使用Python模块Pickle漏洞而产生的。由于Python语言的跨平台性,shcllcode制作的简易性,使得漏洞的危害性很大。整篇文章细致阐述了Pickle漏洞的利用环境、利用方式以及shellcode的编写过程,向读者剖析了漏洞的产生原因,然后总结了各种有效针对Pickle漏洞的防御策略。最后通过软件调查结果,表明了该漏洞的广泛性和安全使用Pickle模块的必要性。

  1. Effects of Different Oxidants on HCl-based Pickling Process of 430 Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong XIE; Pei-yang SHI; Cheng-jun LIU; Mao-fa JIANG

    2016-01-01

    To shorten the time required for the pickling process and to enhance the quality of ferritic stainless steel plates,the effects of oxidants including hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ),potassium permanganate (KMnO4 ),and potas-sium chlorate (KClO3 )on the pickling behavior in HCl-based electrolyte as well as the surface quality of hot-rolled and blasted 430 stainless steel (430-SS)were studied.Experiments were conducted using mass-loss tests,micro-structure analyses,potentiodynamic polarization curves,and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The results showed that the addition of oxidants substantially accelerated the pickling process of 430-SS by enhancing the cathodic reaction rate and reducing the charge transfer resistance.In electrolytes comprising 5-8 mass% HCl at a temperature of 40-60 ℃ and at the same concentration within the range from 0 to 2 mass%,H2 O2 was demon-strated to be superior to KMnO4 and KClO3 in accelerating the pickling process.The surface quality of 430-SS pick-led in the presence of H2 O2 was better than those of specimens pickled in the presence of KMnO4 and KClO3 when the removal of the oxide layer,intergranular corrosion,and surface roughness were collectively considered. When 1 mass% H2 O2 was added,the mass loss rate of 430-SS was increased by 629% and no residual oxide layer or intergranular corrosion was observed on the surface of the steel;in addition,the roughness was only 1.7μm.H2 O2 was determined to be a better oxidant than KMnO4 and KClO3 when the pickling process,surface quality,solution recycling,and environment protection were considered as a whole.

  2. Application of Pickling Auxiliary%浸酸助剂的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易杰; 陈慧; 单志华

    2011-01-01

    Mixed aromatic sulfoacid was made as pickling auxiliary, which was used as low salt pickling for cattle. The condition of pickled pelt and the pelt tanned by Cr2O3 was tested.The results show that, the pelt condition pickled by 3% salt and 2% pickling auxiliary or SELLATAN P is the same as the pelt pickled by conventional processes. All of the pickled pelt are tanned by 5% chromium powder(about 1.05% Cr2O3), the pickled pelt made by pickling auxiliary could absorb 90.97% Cr2O3, and the distribution of Cr2O3 in leather is similiar to that of leather made in conventional processes. The Ts of the leather is 114.34℃, the tendencies of drying and conditioning are the same.%将混和芳香族磺酸作为浸酸助剂,用于黄牛软化裸皮低盐浸酸,考察酸皮状态及其铬鞣后的基本特征。结果表明:浸酸过程(液比为0.8)中加3%的盐、2%自制浸酸助剂;或者浸酸过程(液比为0.8)中加3%的盐、2%浸酸助剂塞拉坦P,浸酸后的皮坯与常规工艺浸酸皮坯状态相似;使用5%的铬粉(约为1.05%Cr2O3)将浸酸皮坯鞣制,测得由自制浸酸助剂制备的皮坯对Cr2O3吸收率为90.97%;坯革中Cr2O3分布与常规工艺制备的坯革相似;无过鞣、色花现象;坯革收缩温度为114.34℃;坯革的干燥及回湿趋势与常规工艺制备的坯革相似。

  3. 锆管酸洗工艺研究%Study on Pickling Process of Zirconium Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗登超; 南莉; 杨亚社; 杨永福

    2011-01-01

    In the matter of pickling the oxide - skin of zirconium tubes, it is complex to operate and easy to excessive pickling.According to this situation, the contrast tests were devised by selecting different acid proportions and adjusting different pickling time.The results show that when the temperature is 32 ℃, the mass ratio of HF : HNO3 : H2O is 3:45:52, pickling time is 120 s, the clean and bright surfaces can be obtained and can avoid excessive pickling effectively.%针对锆管的去氧化皮酸洗中操作困难、易出现过酸洗的现象,进行了酸液配比和酸洗时间对锆管酸洗效果影响的对比试验.研究结果表明,酸洗液以氢氟酸、硝酸和水按质量比3∶45∶52配制,在温度32℃下酸洗锆管,酸洗时间为120 s时,能够获得干净光洁的酸洗表面,而且能较好的避免过酸洗.

  4. Effect of Inoculating Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter in Low-Salt Pickle Process of Zhacai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyang Gao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The traditional pickle process of Zhacai was thought unsafely and unstable, because of the high salt and nitrite contents. The study has shown a method to solve these problems. One Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB strain, Lactobacillus plantarum was used as starter in the low salt pickle process of Chinese Zhacai. The LAB inoculation amounts were 2, 5, 8%, respectively and the group without LAB inoculation was set as the control. The inoculation groups were added with 8% salt, while the control group 10%. The dynamic changes of physical and chemical parameters of two groups were detected during the pickle process. The results showed that: pH value of the inoculated groups declined rapidly, the lowest pH value was 3.61; the LAB became the predominant bacteria strains during the pickle and the colony amounts of the inoculated groups could be up to 6.32 log10 cfu/mL; the nitrite content of each group kept rising and the nitrite peaks of the inoculated groups appeared 3 days in advance, but the peak values were nearly half of the control group; amino nitrogen contents were lower but finally higher than control group and the highest value could reach 0.46 g/100 mL finally. Therefore, the inoculated groups with the lower salt could be more safety and better flavor. This study provided important reference to optimize the pickle fermentation process of Chinese Zhacai.

  5. PICKLE acts during germination to repress expression of embryonic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Chun; Chuang, King; Henderson, James T.; Rider, Stanley Dean; Bai, Yinglin; Zhang, Heng; Fountain, Matthew; Gerber, Jacob; Ogas, Joe

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY PICKLE (PKL) codes for a CHD3 chromatin remodeling factor that plays multiple roles in Arabidopsis growth and development. Previous analysis of the expression of genes that exhibit PKL-dependent regulation suggested that PKL acts during germination to repress expression of embryonic traits. In this study, we examined the expression of PKL protein to investigate when and where PKL acts to regulate development. A PKL:eGFP translational fusion is preferentially localized in the nucleus of cells, consistent with the proposed role for PKL as a chromatin remodeling factor. A steroid-inducible version of PKL - a fusion of PKL to the glucocorticoid receptor (PKL:GR) - was used to examine when PKL acts to repress expression of embryonic traits. We found that activation of PKL:GR during germination was sufficient to repress expression of embryonic traits in the primary roots of pkl seedlings whereas activation of PKL:GR after germination had little effect. In contrast, we observed that PKL is required continuously after germination to repress expression of PHERES1, a type I MADS box gene that is normally expressed during early embryogenesis in wild-type plants. Thus PKL acts at multiple points during development to regulate patterns of gene expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:16359393

  6. The Feminist Thoughts of Vera in A Dill Pickle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xi; Ma Wen-ying

    2014-01-01

    Katherine Mansfield, the most famous writer in New Zealand, was closely associated with D. H. Lawrence and something of a rival of Virginia Woolf. Like the Russian writer Anton Chekhov, Mansfield depicted trivial events and subtle changes in human behavior. A Dill Pickle, one of her short stories, describes the reunion between the former lovers in a caf6 after six-year separation. Mansfield introduced suspense into the story while knitting the plot and adopted stream of consciousness as the narrative device to reveal the inner feelings and thoughts of the heroine--Vera. The present paper, first of all, gives a brief introduction of the story. Then, it explores Vera's feminist thoughts from three aspects: (a) causes to bring about her thought of feminism; (b) manifestation of her feminist thoughts in what she behaved; and (c) the influence of her thought to other women of her time and inspiration to other female writers. The paper concludes that Vera well presented the image of a woman full of feminist thoughts which were really ahead of her time.

  7. Preparation of Potassium Ferrate from Spent Steel Pickling Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ling Wei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Potassium ferrate (K2FeO4 is a multi-functional green reagent for water treatment with considerable combined effectiveness in oxidization, disinfection, coagulation, sterilization, adsorption, and deodorization, producing environment friendly Fe(III end-products during the reactions. This study uses a simple method to lower Fe(VI preparation cost by recycling iron from a spent steel pickling liquid as an iron source for preparing potassium ferrate with a wet oxidation method. The recycled iron is in powder form of ferrous (93% and ferric chlorides (7%, as determined by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectrum (XANES simulation. The synthesis method involves three steps, namely, oxidation of ferrous/ferric ions to form ferrate with NaOCl under alkaline conditions, substitution of sodium with potassium to form potassium ferrate, and continuously washing impurities with various organic solvents off the in-house ferrate. Characterization of the in-house product with various instruments, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS, proves that product quality and purity are comparative to a commercialized one. Methylene blue (MB de-colorization tests with in-house potassium ferrate shows that, within 30 min, almost all MB molecules are de-colorized at a Fe/carbon mole ratio of 2/1.

  8. Lactobacillus heilongjiangensis sp. nov., isolated from Chinese pickle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chun Tao; Li, Chun Yan; Yang, Li Jie; Huo, Gui Cheng

    2013-11-01

    A Gram-stain-positive bacterial strain, S4-3(T), was isolated from traditional pickle in Heilongjiang Province, China. The bacterium was characterized by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, pheS gene sequence analysis, rpoA gene sequence analysis, dnaK gene sequence analysis, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis, determination of DNA G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization and an analysis of phenotypic features. Strain S4-3(T) showed 97.9-98.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, 84.4-94.1 % pheS gene sequence similarities and 94.4-96.9 % rpoA gene sequence similarities to the type strains of Lactobacillus nantensis, Lactobacillus mindensis, Lactobacillus crustorum, Lactobacillus futsaii, Lactobacillus farciminis and Lactobacillus kimchiensis. dnaK gene sequence similarities between S4-3(T) and Lactobacillus nantensis LMG 23510(T), Lactobacillus mindensis LMG 21932(T), Lactobacillus crustorum LMG 23699(T), Lactobacillus futsaii JCM 17355(T) and Lactobacillus farciminis LMG 9200(T) were 95.4, 91.5, 90.4, 91.7 and 93.1 %, respectively. Based upon the data obtained in the present study, a novel species, Lactobacillus heilongjiangensis sp. nov., is proposed and the type strain is S4-3(T) ( = LMG 26166(T) = NCIMB 14701(T)).

  9. Technological aspects of keeping and pickling qualities of cucumbers as influenced by fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, A A; Gawish, R A

    1993-07-01

    The effect of the interactions between K (potassium) and Ca (calcium) applications (preharvest treatment), packaging method and storage conditions on the keeping and pickling qualities of cucumber were investigated. Spraying with 100 ppm K and 5000 ppm Ca prolonged the shelf-life of cucumber, especially when packaged in perforated polyethylene and stored at refrigeration conditions. Packaging and refrigeration both reduced weight loss and decay percentages. Decay was greater in packaged fruits stored at high temperature. Packaging had only a slight effect on chemical composition. Packaged fruits from plants sprayed with 100 ppm K maintained their fresh appearance and firmness > or = 3 times longer than a control sample at ambient conditions and over 20 days under refrigeration. Sensory evaluation of pickled cucumbers revealed that both K and Ca applications on plants during growth improved substantially the pickling quality of cucumber.

  10. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.

    2011-06-01

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labor intensive and also prone to error due to human fatigue and the difficulty of visually detecting infestation that is hidden inside the fruit. In this research, a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system was used to detect fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers. Hyperspectral reflectance (450-740 nm) and transmittance (740-1,000 nm) images were acquired simultaneously for 329 normal (infestation free) and fruit flyinfested pickling cucumbers of three size classes with the mean diameters of 16.8, 22.1, and 27.6 mm, respectively. Mean spectra were extracted from the hyperspectral image of each cucumber, and they were then corrected for the fruit size effect using a diameter correction equation. Partial least squares discriminant analyses for the reflectance, transmittance and their combined data were performed for differentiating normal and infested pickling cucumbers. With reflectance mode, the overall classification accuracies for the three size classes and mixed class were between 82% and 88%, whereas transmittance achieved better classification results with the overall accuracies of 88%-93%. Integration of reflectance and transmittance did not result in noticeable improvements, compared to transmittance mode. Overall, the hyperspectral imaging system performed better than manual inspection, which had an overall accuracy of 75% and decreased significantly for smaller size cucumbers. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is potentially useful for detecting fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers.

  11. Phosphorus, Potassium and Nitrate Contents in Fruit of Pickling Cucumbers Grown in a High Tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Pickling cucumbers are highly important both for fresh consumption and for canning industry. This study aimed to compare differences in yield and quality of eight pickling cucumber cultivars, including ‘Cor 12004’, ‘IGG 2010’, ‘IGG 2020’, ‘SM 5322’, ‘SM 5323’, ‘Zayin 201’, ‘Zayin 175201’ and ‘Trilogy’. The cucumber cultivars were laid out in a high tunnel crop and evaluated for vegetative traits (i.e. vine length, nodes per vine and branches per vine), yield attributes (i.e. fruits per main s...

  12. Studies on the diversity and growth of moulds in the cucumber pickle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATNA SETYANINGSIH

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to study about the growth and diversity of moulds in the cucumber pickle and the influences of acetic acid concentration and long storage as well as additional of onion on the growth of moulds. Cucumber pickle was treated in different acetic acid concentrations (0,8%, 1,4%, 2,0%, long storage and with or without additional of onion. The used method to isolate of mould was dilution planting. For enumerating moulds, 0,1 ml samples were blended and diluted after that inoculated on to potato sucrose agar (PSA medium and then incubated at 270C for 7 days. To identify the moulds, the colony was transferred on to CDA and PSA media, and then incubated at 270C for 7 days. The moulds were identified according to their macroscopic and microscopic characters. To know the degrees of taste, the cucumber pickle was tested to 25 people with hedonic scale method. The results showed that, there was 12 different kinds of moulds can be found in cucumber pickle without additional of onion. There were Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, A. tamarii Kita, Cochliobolus sp, Botrytis, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. expansum, P. citrinum, Rhizopus oligosporus, Trichoderma sp, and Monilia. On the other hand, experiment with onion, P. expansum and A. niger could not be observed. The highest varieties of moulds can be found in cucumber pickle with acetic acid concentration 1,4%. In experiment without onion, on nil (0 day, with acetic acid concentration of 1,4%, the amount of moulds is lower than in the pickle with acetic acid concentration 0,8%. The diversity of moulds in the cucumber pickle with additional of onion is lower than that of without onion. The additional of onion showed decreasing the diversity and growth of moulds in cucumber pickle with acetic acid concentration of 0,8% on nil (0 day. In experiment with acetic acid concentration 2,0% in 10-1 dilution on nil (0 day until 6th day, the moulds could not be observed.

  13. Development of a Hyperspectral Imaging System for Online Quality Inspection of Pickling Cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reports on the development of a hyperspectral imaging prototype for evaluation of external and internal quality of pickling cucumbers. The prototype consisted of a two-lane round belt conveyor, two illumination sources (one for reflectance and one for transmittance), and a hyperspectral i...

  14. Hyperspectral imaging-based classification and wavebands selection for internal defect detection of pickling cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting internal defect of pickling cucumbers. The technique, however, is not yet suitable for high-speed online implementation due to the challenges for analyzing large-scale hyperspectral images. This research was aimed to select the optimal wavebands from the...

  15. On-Line Hyperspectral Transmittance Imaging for Internal Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral imaging technique under transmittance mode was investigated for detection of internal defect in pickling cucumbers such as carpel suture separation or hollow cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A prototype of on-line hyperspectral transmittance imaging system was developed for real...

  16. Engineering Research on Quality Detection of Pickling Cucumbers: 2009 Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report briefly summarizes the three studies performed in 2009 on cucumber defect detection. Hyperspectral imaging transmittance mode has demonstrated great potential for online sorting and grading of cucumbers and pickles. However, the technique is still limited by its speed in acquiring and pr...

  17. A new speed optimization algorithm with application in pickling and rolling line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Zhu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce equipment wear and operator pressure, as well as to improve the production efficiency of combined continuous pickling line and tandem cold rolling mill units, four sections’ speeds should be automatically optimized to control the three loopers’ abundance, which include the entry loopers’ entry speed, pickling speed, trimming speed, and tandem cold rolling mill entry speed. According to the optimal speed principle, a new optimization algorithm was proposed based on objective function. In this work, Nelder–Mead simplex method is applied to find the optimal solution by minimizing the objective function. In addition, the calculation of four initial speeds is specified, especially the initial tandem cold rolling mill entry speed. The proposed speed optimization algorithm was successfully applied to a 1450 mm continuous pickling line and tandem cold rolling mill. The acceleration and deceleration are smooth and steady when welding, trimming, or roll changing takes place in practice, the three loopers’ abundance are controlled in suitable range. Results show that the continuous pickling line unit could provide the material in maximum capacity to ensure that the tandem cold rolling mill unit’s production is efficient, and the rolling yield is greatly improved due to the decrease in the number of stops.

  18. Studies on certain quality attributes of meat pickle prepared from spent chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Ranjan Nath

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An attempt was made to develop a desirable meat pickle from the less tender and low demand spent chicken meat with the prime objective of its better marketability and wider acceptability amongst the non-vegetarian masses. Materials and Methods: Lean of culled spent meat was marinated for overnight and then pressure cooked and fried with spices and condiments to prepare a shelf stable meat pickle. Proximate composition, pH, TBA Values, Total viable plate count, Counts for yeast and moulds and sensory quality of the pickles were studied as per standard procedure. Results: The mean per cent moisture, crude protein, ether extract and total ash contents were 61.89±0.12, 17.28±0.56, 14.65±0.16 and 3.35±0.17 respectively. The product pH and the yeast and mould counts though did not differ significantly amongst the storage periods, yet there were significant differences (p<0.01 in TBA and total viable plate count amongst the storage periods. Organoleptic studies with score card method recorded a progressive decrease in the mean panel scores along with the increased storage periods. Conclusion: The spent chicken meat pickle was found to be acceptable for consumption up-to 90 days of storage at room temperature. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 156-158

  19. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of a red colored spoilage in cucumber pickle products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in fermented cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the cucumbers. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from two outbreaks of this spoilage which occurred a...

  20. Elongation distribution between tension leveler and temper mill for pickling line 2030 in Baosteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiancui; SU Lanhai; LI Zhongfu; FU Zhilin; ZHANG Qingdong; HE Chun

    2007-01-01

    Research into plate elongation distribution between the tension leveler and temper mill for pickling line 2030 at Baosteel is conducted.The study,which involved performance testing of mechanics,is designed at different elongation distributions and analyzed from many aspects.Finally,the optimal elongation of the tension leveler and temper mill is given.

  1. Characterization of Iron Oxide Generated in Ruthner Plant of Pickling Unit in Mobarakeh Steel Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.C.Amiri

    2003-01-01

    Reducing the chloride content in regenerated iron oxides (RIO) from steel-pickling acid waste economically treated by Ruthner process is the most critical issue for the development of RIO as a useful raw material resource. In this paper, the results of a new method for characterization and modification of RIO produced in Mobarakeh Steel Complex were reported.

  2. Detection of mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariana, D.; Lu, R.; Guyer, D.

    2005-11-01

    Automated detection of defects on freshly harvested pickling cucumbers will help the pickle industry provide higher quality pickle products and reduce potential economic losses. Research was conducted on using a hyperspectral imaging system for detecting defects on pickling cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture both spatial and spectral information from cucumbers in the spectral region of 900 - 1700 nm. The system consisted of an imaging spectrograph attached to an InGaAs camera with line-light fiber bundles as an illumination source. Cucumber samples were subjected to two forms of mechanical loading, dropping and rolling, to simulate stress caused by mechanical harvesting. Hyperspectral images were acquired from the cucumbers over time periods of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 6 days after mechanical stress. Hyperspectral image processing methods, including principal component analysis and wavelength selection, were developed to separate normal and mechanically injured cucumbers. Results showed that reflectance from normal or non-bruised cucumbers was consistently higher than that from bruised cucumbers. The spectral region between 950 and 1350 nm was found to be most effective for bruise detection. The hyperspectral imaging system detected all mechanically injured cucumbers immediately after they were bruised. The overall detection accuracy was 97% within two hours of bruising and it was lower as time progressed. Lower detection accuracies for the prolonged times after bruising were attributed to the self- healing of the bruised tissue after mechanical injury. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers.

  3. Maternal periconceptional consumption of pickled vegetables and risk of neural tube defects in offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-wen; ZHANG Le; YE Rong-wei; LIU Jian-meng; PEI Li-jun; ZHENG Xiao-ying; REN Ai-guo

    2011-01-01

    Background Maternal exposure to nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso compounds from drinking water or diet has been associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in some studies. Pickled vegetables contain relatively large amounts of nitrite and N-nitroso compounds. We examined the association between maternal periconceptional consumption of pickled vegetables and NTDs in Shanxi Province of northern China.Methods Data were derived from a population based case-control study of major external birth defects in four counties of Shanxi Province. Participants included 519 NTDs cases identified between 2003 and 2007 and 694 healthy controls.Exposure information was collected within 1 week after delivery. Multivariable non-conditioanal Logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) controlling for potentialconfounding variables.Results The risk of NTDs was positively associated with the frequency of the consumptionof pickled vegetables by the mother. Compared with pickled vegetables consumption at <1 meal/week, the adjusted Off for consumption at 1-3, 4-6,and >6 meals/week were 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 1.8), 1.9 (1.1, 3.2), and 3.6 (1.9, 6.9), respectively. A protective effect was found for maternal meat consumption at ≥1 meal/week (adjusted OR: 0.6, 95% Cl: 0.4, 0.7) and egg or milk consumption at ≥1 meal/week (adjusted OR: 0.6, 95% Cl: 0.4, 0.8).Conclusion Maternal periconceptional consumption of pickled vegetables may increase the risk for NTDs in Shanxi Province.

  4. Study on Breeding of Pickled Pepper in Henan Province%河南省泡椒育种研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申爱民; 赵香梅; 梁新安

    2013-01-01

    This article summarized the research process of pickled pepper breeding in Henan in the past twenty years, and analyzed the breeding method of pickled pepper. In addition, the paper discussed the five problems existing in pickled pepper breeding, and looked forward the prospects of pickled pepper breeding in Henan.%通过概述河南省20多a泡椒育种研究进程,分析了泡椒育种方法,提出了河南省泡椒育种工作中存在的5个方面的问题及解决措施,展望了今后河南省泡椒育种前景。

  5. Study on Pickled Sour Plants in Guangxi%广西酸食植物的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶玉华; 曹书阁; 隆卫革

    2016-01-01

    Pickled sour food is a common catering culture in Guangxi.Various edible fruits and vegetables can be taken as raw materials for making pickled sour food.Plant resources of pickled sour food are studied in Guangxi through field investigation, key informant interviews, specimen identification and literature analysis.The results show that there are 72 species of main plants, belonging to 29 families and 55 genera in Guangxi.The edible value and efficacy of pickled sour plants,the geographical and climatic factors of pickled sour food and the problems of nitrite production in pickled sour food are analyzed in this study.The development prospects of pickled sour food industry are discussed,which has provided the reference for the development and utilization of pickled sour food.%酸食指腌制的酸的食物,食酸食是广西人普遍的一种饮食文化,各种蔬菜水果均可成为腌制酸食的原料。本研究通过实地调查、关键人物访谈、标本鉴定和文献研究,共记录了腌制酸食的主要植物72种,隶属于29科55属。对酸食植物的食用价值与功效、酸食形成的地理和气候因素、酸食中产生的亚硝酸盐问题等进行了分析,探讨了酸食产业发展中出现的问题并提出建议,为酸食植物的开发利用提供参考。

  6. Influence of inorganic acid pickling on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Blawert, C.; Scharnagl, N.

    2009-01-01

    was investigated. Sulphuric, nitric and phosphoric acids of different concentrations were used to clean the alloy for various pickling times. The surface morphology, composition and phases were elucidated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, spark discharge-optical emission spectroscopy...... the corrosion resistance of the alloy. The cleaning efficiency of the three acids used and the corrosion protection mechanisms were found to be remarkably different. Best corrosion results were obtained with nitric acid, followed closely by phosphoric acid. Only the sulphuric acid failed more or less when...... of micro-galvanic couples and can therefore increase corrosion attack on these alloys. Due to this influence they should be removed to obtain good corrosion resistance. In this study, the effect of inorganic acid pickling on the corrosion behaviour of a commercial AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet...

  7. Surface integrity after pickling and anodization of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermesse, Eric [Institut Clément Ader (ICA), Université de Toulouse, ISAE, Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse, Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS-UPS-INP 5085, Université Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Mabru, Catherine [Institut Clément Ader (ICA), Université de Toulouse, ISAE, Toulouse (France); Arurault, Laurent, E-mail: arurault@chimie.ups-tlse.fr [Université de Toulouse, Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS-UPS-INP 5085, Université Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France)

    2013-11-15

    The surface integrity of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy was studied at different stages of surface treatments, especially pickling and compact anodization, through surface characteristics potentially worsening fatigue resistance. No significant changes of the equiaxe microstructure were detected between sample core and surface, or after the pickling and anodization steps. Surface hydrogen and oxygen superficial contents were found to remain unchanged. Roughness characteristics (i.e. R{sub a}, R{sub z} but also local K{sub t} factor) similarly showed only slight modifications, although SPM and SEM revealed certain random local surface defaults, i.e. pits about 400 nm in depth. Finally internal stresses, evaluated using X-ray diffraction, highlighted a significant decrease of the compressive internal stresses, potentially detrimental for fatigue resistance.

  8. Value Addition to Sulfate Waste Pickle Liquor of Steel Industry Using Hydrometallurgical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Archana; Sahu, K. K.

    2009-12-01

    The solvent extraction of concentrated acid was investigated from sulfate waste pickle liquors using Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO); manufactured by Cytec Industries Inc., Woodland Park, NJ; provided by Cyanamid Canada Inc. (Markham, Canada)) as an extractant. The effect of various parameters was studied such as extractant concentration, organic-to-aqueous phase ratio, temperature. and retention time on acid extraction from the waste pickle liquor to the organic phase, After the saturation of the organic phase with sulfuric acid, stripping studies were performed to back-extract the pure acid into the aqueous phase. The raffinate of the solvent extraction process that contains both ferrous and ferric iron as well as trace impurities was subjected to oxidation and hydrothermal treatment to precipitate iron with a well-defined pseudo-cubic morphology and a high coercivity value that renders it suitable for high-grade ferrite production.

  9. Study on the Effect of Pickled Cabbage using Freeze-drying Protective Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Long

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of pickled cabbage using biological material was researched in the study. Firstly, the research determined the centrifugal condition of bacterial sludge and then detected the influence of various protective agents on the survival rate of lactobacillus. The final test result can show the influence degree of various protective agents on the survival rate of the freeze-drying lactobacillus was sodium glutamate>skim milk>mannitol>sucrose>glycerol>maltose. The best formula of the protective agent was: the skim milk, sucrose, glycerol, maltose and sodium glutamate shall be 6% and the mannitol shall be 4%. The survival rate of the lactobacillus after using the sodium glutamate with the best protection effect can reach 65.5%. The experience proved that these protective agents and ratio can guarantee the nutrients in the pickled cabbage not destroyed.

  10. Enrichment of By-Product Materials from Steel Pickling Acid Regeneration Plants (TRP 9942)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Swan, Delta Ferrites LLC

    2009-09-30

    A new process for manufacturing an enriched, iron-based product (strontium hexaferrite) in existing steel pickling acid regeneration facilities was evaluated. Process enhancements and equipment additions were made to an existing acid regeneration plant to develop and demonstrate (via pilot scale testing and partial-capacity production trials) the viability of a patented method to produce strontium-based compounds that, when mixed with steel pickling acid and roasted, would result in a strontium hexaferrite powder precursor which could then be subjected to further heat treatment in an atmosphere that promotes rapid, relatively low-temperature formation of discrete strontium hexaferrite magnetic domains yielding an enriched iron-based product, strontium hexaferrite, that can be used in manufacturing hard ferrite magnets.

  11. Risk of field cultivation of pickling cucumber caused by unfavorable sunshine duration conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy, accessible to plants during sunshine from the sunrise to the sunset is of key importance in productivity of agrocenoses. The aim of the work was to determine risk of pickling cucumber cultivation caused by an unfavorable course of sunshine duration in Poland on the basis of a 40-year research period 1966-2005. The research into the subject was undertaken due to frequent occurrence of sunshine deficiency in Poland and its high temporal and spatial variability. Effect of solar con...

  12. Effect of seed pickling without pesticides on the growth of Penicillium expansum and patulin biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Florianowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of seed pickling without pesticides recommended by the Research Institute of Vegetable Crops in Skierniewice in the method of intensive environment-friendly cultivation on the growth and patulin biosynthesis of patulinogenous microfungus Penicillim expansum, was investigated. A complete inhibition of patulin biosynthesis at 6% and no growth at 8% concentration of the dressing in in vitro conditions was revealed.

  13. Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal.

  14. Contribution of electrochemical dissolution during pickling of low carbon steel in acidic solutions

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    International audience; An electrochemical cell coupled with ICP-OES chemical analysis was used to explore the role of chemical and electrochemical reactions in pickling of low carbon steel in acidic media. Impedance spectroscopy was used to highlight scale properties. Dissolution of hematite is shown to be mainly of chemical nature, whereas the dissolution of magnetite and wüstite is both chemical and electrochemical. Initially, chemical dissolution of the scale dominated. The electrochemica...

  15. Effect of pesticide mixture on value of fresh, fermented and pickles cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna WElkner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In years 1998-1999 effects of fungicides (azoxystrobin and copper hydroxide, insecticides (etafenproks and pirimicarb and their mixtures on chemical composition and organoleptic quality of fresh, fermented and pickled cucumbers were studied_ To analyses fruits were taken after 7 and 12 days from treatment. Fresh cucumber fruits after 7 days from treatment with investigated pesticides contained less carbohydrates and ascorbic acids and higher level of nitrates in compare to untreated fruits (control. After 12 days from treatment the differences between treated and untreated fruits dissapeared. Cucumber fruits harvested 7 and 12 days after treatment were processed separately. Quality evaluation of fermented and pickled cucumbers was carried out 4 months after processing. In most of cucumber fruits (7 days after treatment with pesticides treated with pesticides empty cavities were found, and not in control (untreated. Number of cavities was highest in fresh and pickled cucumbers treated with mixture of fungicide and insecticide. In case of fermented cucumbers highest number of empty cavities occurred in fruits treated with fungicide azoxystrobin. Cucumber fruits taken to fermentation process 7 days after day of treatment had darker green colour, lowered haIdness, and larger empty cavities than untreated fruits. In fruits harvested 12 days after pesticides application such differencess were not observed.

  16. Production of conjugated linoleic acids by Lactobacillusplantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented Chinese pickles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei LIU; Sheng-rong SHEN; Hui RUAN; Qian ZHOU; Liu-liu MA; Guo-qing HE

    2011-01-01

    Naturally fermented pickles harbour many lactic acid bacteria (LAB).Forty-three LAB strains with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-producing ability were isolated from three naturally fermented pickle brines.Of these isolates,Ip15 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by API 50 CHL system and full-length 16S rDNA sequence analysis exhibited the highest CLA-producing ability (26.1% conversion) at 48 h in de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth in the presence of 100 μg/ml of linoleic acid (LA).Compared to other strains,L.plantarum strain Ip15 showed the highest tolerance upon increased levels of LA in the medium,I.e.,up to 600 pg/ml.This strain converted about 25% of LA into CLA isomers [predominantly cis-9,trans-11 CLA (9-CLA) and trans-10,cis-12 CLA (10-CLA)],of which 75% was 9-CLA.Interestingly,though the conversion rate of LA into CLA by Ip15 remained stable between 100 to 600 μg/ml LA levels in the medium,it dropped sharply at 1000 μg/ml.Taken together,the Ip15 strain displayed relatively high LA tolerance with higher conversion rate,which implies that this strain is a valuable candidate for enhancing the CLA content in food-sources like pickles.

  17. Research on Inhibition Effect of Multi-function Pickling Corrosion Inhibitor%多功能酸洗缓蚀剂缓蚀效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓冬; 喻果; 徐飞

    2016-01-01

    Hydrochloric acid pickling, sulfuric acid pickling, nitric acid pickling corrosion experiments of multifunctional pickling corrosion inhibitor developed by our company were carried out. The experimental results show that the multifunctional pickling corrosion inhibitor in hydrochloric acid pickling, sulfuric acid, nitric acid pickling process has very good inhibition effect for carbon steel and16 mn steel; different drug concentration has different corrosion inhibition effect. Multifunctional pickling corrosion inhibitor concentration commonly is 3‰~5‰, 10% hydrochloric acid pickling corrosion inhibition rate can reach 98.8%, 10% sulfuric acid pickling corrosion inhibition rate can reach 99.8%, 10% nitric acid pickling corrosion inhibition rate can reach 77%.%对威海翔宇环保科技股份有限公司研发的多功能酸洗缓蚀剂进行了盐酸酸洗、H2SO4 酸洗、硝酸酸洗缓蚀实验,实验结果表明,多功能酸洗缓蚀剂在盐酸酸洗、H2SO4酸洗、硝酸酸洗过程中对碳钢、16mn 钢都有很好的缓蚀效果,加药浓度不同,缓蚀效果不同.多功能酸洗缓蚀剂的加药浓度一般在 3‰~5‰,10%的盐酸酸洗的缓蚀率可达到 98.8%、10%的 H2SO4酸洗的缓蚀率可达到 99.8%、10%的硝酸酸洗的缓蚀率可达到 77%以上.

  18. Macroscopic, thermodynamic, kinetic and microscopic study of nitric acid pickling of Elektron 21 (EV31A magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mouls

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of pickling of the EL21T6 substrate in a nitric acid bath firstly provided knowledge of the influence of the different experimental parameters (concentration of acid, temperature and stirring of the solution in relation to the etching rate. This experimental part led to the choice of standard pickling (Tbath = 25 °C, moderate stirring (250 rpm, [HNO3] = 1.20 mol/L, duration of 2 min so as to obtain constant removal of material, even after several uses of the pickling bath. SEM observations also confirmed that in these operating conditions, pickling concerns both the grains of the matrix and the precipitates of type Mg3(Nd, Gd, leading to uniform removal of material from the surface. Working from a number of assumptions, thermodynamic and chemical kinetic studies then allowed a pickling mechanism to be proposed and led to obtaining values for the corresponding kinetic parameters (order of reaction, constant of mean rate, activation energy to be obtained.

  19. Cellular differentiation regulated by gibberellin in the Arabidopsis thaliana pickle mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogas, J.; Somerville, C. [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA (United States); Cheng, Jin-Chen; Sung, R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-07-04

    The plant growth regulator gibberellin (GA) has a profound effect on shoot development and promotes developmental transitions such as flowering. Little is known about any analogous effect GA might have on root development. In a screen for mutants, Arabi-dopsis plants carrying a mutation designated pickle (pkl) were isolated in which the primary root meristem retained characteristics of embryonic tissue. Expression of this aberrant differentiation state was suppressed by GA. Root tissue from plants carrying the pkl mutation spontaneously regenerated new embryos and plants. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Phosphorus, Potassium and Nitrate Contents in Fruit of Pickling Cucumbers Grown in a High Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela NEAȚĂ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pickling cucumbers are highly important both for fresh consumption and for canning industry. This study aimed to compare differences in yield and quality of eight pickling cucumber cultivars, including ‘Cor 12004’, ‘IGG 2010’, ‘IGG 2020’, ‘SM 5322’, ‘SM 5323’, ‘Zayin 201’, ‘Zayin 175201’ and ‘Trilogy’. The cucumber cultivars were laid out in a high tunnel crop and evaluated for vegetative traits (i.e. vine length, nodes per vine and branches per vine, yield attributes (i.e. fruits per main stem, average weight of fruit and fruits weight per plant and fruits quality components (nitrate, phosphate and potassium mg kg-1. The results showed significant differences (P12 cm, revealed a declining value with increase in the cucumber length. The study findings suggest that irrespective of the cultivar, the amount of nitrate was higher in shorter cucumbers (6-9 cm length although all recorded values (between 192.7 and 364.3 mg kg-1 fresh matter being under maximum accepted limit concentrations. The amount of phosphate was higher in medium to long cucumbers, while the amount of potassium was higher in shorter cucumbers.

  1. GENOTYPING OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS FROM FRESH WATER FISH AND FISH PICKLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarsh Jain

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the genotypes of Clostridium perfringens in fish and fish based products from Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of India. A total of 301 samples consisting intestinal contents of freshwater fish (234 from various dams, freshwater lakes, ponds, retail shops and markets and fish pickles (67 obtained from randomly selected retail shops and supermarkets were investigated. Bacterial isolations, identifications and phenotypic characterization of virulence factors were carried out as per standard microbiological procedures. Genotyping of the C. perfringens isolates were done by amplifying four major lethal toxin genes namely- alpha toxin gene (cpa, beta toxin gene (cpb, epsilon toxin gene (etx, iota toxin gene (iA in a Thermal Cycler. Isolates were also screened for the presence of enterotoxin gene (cpe and beta2 toxin gene (cpb2 by single step PCR. Biochemical tests and phenotypic determination of virulence factors tentatively identified 82 (27.24% isolates of C. perfringens. In PCR assay, all 82 (100% isolates harbored cpa toxin genes of C. perfringens, however, 65 (79.26% isolates also carried additional cpb2 toxin genes. None of the isolates were found positive for beta, epsilon, iota and enterotoxin genes. Genotyping of the 82 isolates by PCR revealed that all the isolated bacteria were belonged to C. perfringens type A and both cpa and cpb2 toxin genes were prevalent among the isolates of C. perfringens type A, impending the risk of pathogenicity to human via freshwater fish and fish pickles.

  2. Quality evaluation of pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance imaging – Part 1. Development of a prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reports on the development of a hyperspectral imaging prototype for real-time evaluation of external and internal quality of pickling cucumbers. The prototype consisted of a two-lane round belt conveyor, two illumination sources (one for reflectance and one for transmittance), and a line-...

  3. Quality evaluation of pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance imaging – Part 2. Performance of a prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reports on the development and evaluation of methods and algorithms for detecting both external and internal quality of pickling cucumbers using the hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance images acquired by an online prototype described in a previous paper. Experiments were performed...

  4. On Technique of Expressing the Consciousness and the Detail Description in Katherine Mansfield’s A Dill Pickle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>This paper analyzes A Dill Pickle writing style especially from the perspective of the technique of expressing the consciousness and the detail description to discuss Mansfield’s artistic characteristics. It focused on the theme of the sense of loneliness and disillusion of women,and distinctive Modernist tendency.

  5. 我国糟渍食品浅谈∗%A Discussion on Zao-pickled foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周超; 李臣; 周珠法

    2014-01-01

    Zao-pickled foods have a long history and rich cultural heritage in China. It got started in Zhou Dynasty, began to flourish in the Song Dynasty, became popular in Qing Dynasty. With the unique flavor, Zao-pickled foods are preferred by people in Southern Yangtze. Today, Zao-pickled foods have been declining for a long time. The development of Zao-pickled foods faces many difficulties. This paper will elaborate on three aspects of history, current situation and expectation, analyze the reasons for the de-cline, and put forward suggestions for their future development.%我国糟渍食品历史悠久,文化底蕴深厚。糟渍食品始于周,兴于宋,盛于清。其独特的风味,深受老百姓喜爱,特别是江南地区的人们对其更是青睐有加。然而,时至今日,糟渍食品却早已没落,发展面临桎梏。本文对糟渍食品的发展历史、现状进行阐述,分析其衰败的原因,并对其未来发展进行展望。

  6. Design Points of Push-pull Pickling Process Section%推拉式酸洗机组工艺段的设计要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程化; 郭振英

    2012-01-01

    介绍了推拉式酸洗机组的特点、相关参数,以及酸洗循环系统、清洗循环系统、废气处理系统的设计要点.%The characteristics and related parameters of push-pull pickling process were introduced . The design key points about pickling circulation system, washing circulation system and waste gas treating system were described in detail. At last, the suggestion of pickling line designing was conclusively given.

  7. Study on Coloring Process of Pickled Pork%腌制猪肉发色工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺明伟

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the optimization of coloring process of pickled pork. [ Methods] Using double factors no repetition test and single test, the optimized coloring process of pickled pork was obtained. [ Result ] The optimized test process parameters for pickled pork test were; when refrigeration temperature (0 - 4 ℃) , added 1% lactose, thereby, the additions of sodium nitrite and sodium erythor-bate were 0.010% and 0. 300% , respectively, after preserving for 48 h, the color and texture of products were better, and their craft quality were also better. [Conclusion ] In the process of pickled pork, nitrate was added appropriately, all those can made the cooked meat products maintain the bright red, which would help to improve the quality of pickled pork.%[目的]腌制猪肉的发色工艺优化研究.[方法]应用双因素无重复试验和单因素试验得到优化腌制猪肉发色工艺.[结果]腌制试验的优化工艺参数为:冷藏温度(0 ~4℃)时,添加1%的乳糖,亚硝酸钠和异抗坏血酸钠的添加量分别为0.010%、0.300%时,腌制48h后所得的产品色泽和质地为佳,其工艺品质较好.[结论]在腌制猪肉加工过程中,适当加入亚硝酸盐,可使熟肉制品保持鲜艳的红色,有利于提高腌制猪肉的质量.

  8. Pickling process of capers (Capparis spp. flower buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan, Musa

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Middle sized (8 < x < 13 mm buds of Capparis spinosa var. spinosa and C. ovata var. canescens from June in brines containing 5,10,15 and 20% salt and from August in brines of 15% salt, and three different size (x < 8 mm, 8 < x < 13 mm, x > 13 mm buds of C. . ovata var. canescens from June in brines of 15% salt were pickled for two months fermentation. Some chemical and microbiological analyses were done in brines during fermentation. Most suitable salt concentration for lactic acid bacteria (LAB activity were 5% and partly 10%. Acidity, LAB activity, sedimentation and hardness were reduced by increasing bud size in C. ovata. Small buds of C. ovata for pickling product had advantage for colour and flavour, however, more sediment and partly softening showed disadvantage. For both species, pickling time was determined as 40 to 50 days in regard of end-product flavour and odour, brine acidity and pH, and LAB activity.

    Se encurtieron durante dos meses botones florales de tamaño medio (8 < x < 13 mm de Capparis spinosa var. spinosa y C. ovata var. canescens, los recolectados en Junio en salmueras conteniendo 5, 10, 15 y 20% de sal, y los de Agosto en salmueras de 15% de sal; y tres tamaños diferentes (x < 8 mm, 8 < x < 13 mm, X > 13 mm de C. ovata var. canescens de Junio en salmueras de 15% de sal. Se realizaron algunos análisis químicos y microbiológicos durante la fermentación. Las concentraciones de sal más adecuadas para la actividad de las bacterias del ácido láctico (LAB fueron 5% y parcialmente 10%. Acidez, actividad de LAB, sedimentación y firmeza (hardness se redujeron al incrementar el tamaño de las alcaparras de C. ovata. Los tamaños pequeños de C. ovata presentaron en el producto encurtido ventajas en color y sabor, pero desventajas por más sedimento y ablandamiento parcial. El tiempo de encurtido para ambas

  9. Discuss of the flavor chemistry and flavor generation mechanism of pickle%泡菜的风味化学及呈味机理的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏扬; 陈云川

    2001-01-01

    本文论述了制作泡菜的各种原料的化学成分,对泡菜风味形成的原理、泡制过程中蔬菜化学成分的变化、泡菜盐水能长期保存的原因以及影响泡菜风味的主要因素进行了重点探讨。%In this paper we discussed the chemical ingredient of the raw materials of pickle.We focus on the mechanism of pickle flavor,the chemical change of vegetables during pickle producing,the reason that brine can be preserved for a long time,and the main factors which can influence the flavor of pickle.

  10. Novel process to recover by-products from the pickling baths of stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frias, C.; Negro, C.; Formoso, A.; Van Erkel, J.; Maas, W.; Kemppainen, J.; Mancia, F. [Tecnicas Reunidas, S.A., Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Development of an integrated process (the PIBARE process) which is able to recover and recycle free and complex acids back to the pickling tank is described. The recovery of these by-products proceeds while the metals are recovered in the form of electrodeposited metal alloy and are internally recycled to the stainless steel manufacturing process. Virtually no solid residue or liquid is produced in the process. Results after three years of investigation are very promising, having achieved all stated objectives at least on the laboratory scale. The new technology promises significant economic and environmental benefits over other existing technologies for the treatment of spent baths. However, since the benefits have not been confirmed at the pilot scale, commercial application would require additional research, including finding more efficient and more selective anionic membranes. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  11. Improvement Measures of Continuous Pickling Quality of Stainless Steel Strip%不锈带钢连续酸洗质量的改进措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李缠民; 陈昌龙; 武文斌

    2014-01-01

    不锈钢冷带在冷轧加工过程中要经过坯料酸洗和多次中间退火后酸洗。酸洗的质量直接决定着冷带产品的表面质量。通过对连续酸洗过程中的酸液配方、酸液温度、带钢运行速度及酸洗设备等方面进行优化、改进,解决了不锈带钢酸洗过程中存在的质量问题,为冷轧生产的正常进行提供了基础条件。%Stainless steel cold strip will go through the blank pickling and repeatedly pickling after intermediate annealing in the cold rolling process. Pickling quality directly determines the surface quality of cold strip products. Through the optimization, improvement of acidizing fluid formula, acid temperature, strip operating speed and pickling equipment during the continuous pickling process, the quality problems existed in the pickling process of stainless steel strip were solved so as to provide fundamental condition for normal operation of cold rolling.

  12. Design of Cycling System for Strip Pickling Line%带钢酸洗循环系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿庆斌; 卢鹏

    2013-01-01

    Strip pickling circulation system is the core of the acid abrasion workshop,directly affecting the quality of strip steel.Pickling system is the craft process to use chemical method to remove the surface oxide of the strip.The design concept and process flow of strip pickling line hove been introduced.lnfluent factors of pickling time have been discussed,and also the effect of scale,turbulent strength,temperature.Concentration on pickling time has been analyzea.The heating power,hydrochloric acid consumption,hydrochloric acid mist and fan have been calculated.The design method has been used in pickling lines,and the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection have achieved.%带钢酸洗循环系统是冷轧厂酸洗车间的核心,直接影响带钢的品质.酸洗系统是用化学方法去除带钢表面氧化物的工艺过程.介绍带钢酸洗系统组成、设计理念及工艺流程.阐述了带钢酸洗时间选择时需要考虑的因素,分析了氧化铁皮、紊流强度、酸液温度及浓度对酸洗时间的影响规律.提出带钢加热功率计算方法,分析了带钢厚度及速度对温度计算的影响.以节能环保为出发点,讨论了新酸消耗量和风机设计时需要考虑的因素,并提出相应计算方法.设计理念及方法用于国内多条酸洗机组,应用效果良好.

  13. DNN-Based ADNMPC of an Industrial Pickling Cold-Rolled Titanium Process via Field Enhancement Heat Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic neural network based adaptive direct nonlinear model predictive control is designed to control an industrial microwave heating pickling cold-rolled titanium process. The identifier of the direct adaptive nonlinear model identification and the controller of the adaptive nonlinear model predictive control are designed based on series-parallel dynamic neural network training by RLS algorithm with variable incremental factor, gain, and forgetting factor. These identifier and controller are used to constitute intelligent controller for adjusting the temperature of microwave heating acid. The correctness of the controller structure, the convergence, and feasibility of the control algorithms is tested by system simulation. For a given point tracking, model mismatch simulation results show that the controller can be implemented on the system to track and overcome the mismatch system model. The control model can be achieved to track on pickling solution concentration and temperature of a given reference and overcome the disturbance.

  14. DNN-Based ADNMPC of an Industrial Pickling Cold-Rolled Titanium Process via Field Enhancement Heat Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Biao Yang; Jinhui Peng; Wei Li; Youling Li; Huilong Luo; Zhuming Zhang; Shenghui Guo; Shimin Zhang; Hezhou Su; Yaming Shi

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic neural network based adaptive direct nonlinear model predictive control is designed to control an industrial microwave heating pickling cold-rolled titanium process. The identifier of the direct adaptive nonlinear model identification and the controller of the adaptive nonlinear model predictive control are designed based on series-parallel dynamic neural network training by RLS algorithm with variable incremental factor, gain, and forgetting factor. These identifier and controlle...

  15. Preliminary Preparation of Nutritious- strengthened Pickle%泡菜营养强化食品的研制初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林燕文; 黄君红; 等

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,the influence of vitamin or amino acid on pickle with high- concentrated lactic acid bacteria has been studied.The results indicated that the proper amount of vitamin or amino acid could increase the amount of lactic acid bacteria and keep it unchanged for more time.It is possible to make nutritious- strengthened pickle and other lactic acid fermented food using pickle liquid.%在含高浓度乳酸菌的泡菜中添加维生素或氨基酸,检测其中乳酸菌含量的变化。结果表明,添加适量的维生素或氨基酸比用单一物料芥菜制作的泡菜汁中的乳酸菌含量高,维持高含菌量的时间也较长,因此,可根据人体需要利用泡菜制成营养强化食品。此外,文中还对利用泡菜汁生产高质量的其它乳酸发酵食品进行了讨论。

  16. Technique Characteristics of Pickling Line for Steel Wire%线材酸洗机组的技术特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施永仁

    2011-01-01

    介绍了宝钢南通线材制品有限公司迁建过程中新建的环形隧道式全自动线材酸洗处理线的工艺、设备和技术特点,该生产线所有的处理槽均实行整体封闭、统一抽风,各个酸洗槽呈串级逆流布置,采用强紊流酸洗技术和串级漂洗技术,实现了低能耗、低污染、高品质、高效率的目的,达到了该领域的国内先进水平.%The technique characteristics of process and equipment of a new built circular tunnel automatic pickling line for steel wire were introduced, which was in Baosteel Nantong Wire Production Co. , Ltd. All of the treatment slots are closed and uniform ventilated, each pickling tank was countercurrent cascade arranged. Meanwhile, the strong turbulence pickling technology and cascade rinsing techniques were applied. Therefore, low power consumption,high quality,high efficiency were realized in this line .

  17. Present Situation and Prospect of Treatment of Stainless Steel Pickling%不锈钢酸洗污泥的处理现状及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房金乐; 杨文涛

    2014-01-01

    不锈钢酸洗过程会产生大量的酸洗污泥,干燥后主要含CaF2,Fe2O3,CaO,Cr2O3,NiO等,并含一定量的CaSO4,SiO2,MgO等组分。主要以堆放和填埋的方式处置,目前已开展了制砖、回收金属、生产水泥等研究。总结了不锈钢酸洗污泥资源化利用中存在的问题,并着重就不锈钢酸洗污泥的资源化利用提出见解。%Pickling sludge was generated in stainless steel pickling process. The major compositions in pickling sludge were CaF2, Fe2O3, CaO, Cr2O3, NiO, CaSO4, SiO2 and MgO after dried. Pickling sludge was treated by solidified landfill. The resource utilization of pickling sludge has been studied on brickmaking, recycling metal and cement production.These treatment processes involves many problems such as pollution transfer,environmental safety of by-product, high processing cost and so on. The paper summarizes the problems existing in the stainless steel pickling sludge recycling and proposes new suggestions on stainless steel pickling sludge recycling.

  18. Analysis of Orthogonal Experiments of Pickling Process Parameters before Cold Drawn 45 Steel%冷拔45钢前酸洗工艺参数的正交试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈欣; 欧阳八生

    2013-01-01

    酸洗是冷拔前一道重要的预处理工艺,影响酸洗效果的主要因素有酸液浓度、酸洗温度和酸洗时间等.本文以传动轴常用的冷拔材料45钢为例,利用正交试验法对酸液浓度、酸洗温度和酸洗时间等工艺参数进行优化,并对酸洗后的表面质量、材料塑性性能指标等进行评价分析.试验结果表明,当酸洗工艺参数为硫酸浓度17%、酸洗温度50℃、酸洗时间5 min时,45钢酸洗后的综合效果较佳.%Pickling is an important pretreatment process before the cold drawing, and the factors which influence the effects of pickling include acid concentration, temperature, pickling time, and so on. The cold drawn 45 steel materials which are commonly used in the drive shaft were taken as an example in this paper, it used the orthogonal experiment method to optimize the pickling process parameters such as acid concentration, pickling temperature, pickling time, and so on, then evaluated and analyzed the surface quality and the plasticity performance index of the materials after the pickling experiment. The experiment results showed that the combined effects of pickling 45 steel are better when the pickling process parameters are 17% the sulphuric acid concentration, 50 ℃ the pickling temperature, 5 min the pickling time.

  19. Storage quality in different brines of pickled capers (Capparis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan, Musa

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Middle sized buds of Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss. Heywood collected from wild plants were pickled for two months. The buds after the fermentation were processed in 10% and 20% brines. Storage stability of the fermented capers was determined by physical, chemical and microbiological analysis at certain interval in 10 and 20% old or fresh brines 180 days. Storaged in 10% and 20% old or fresh brines for 180 days of pickled buds of both species maintained the product quality in all samples. Acidity was higher in old brine during storage. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB growth was observed only in 10% fresh brine, it decreased from initial and 30 days at C. ovata and C. spinosa, respectively. C. spinosa, compared with C. ovata was desirable due to low sediment and more firm texture. During storage of buds in fresh brines, sediment and off-flavour were not observed for both species. Pickled products can be stored in fresh brine long-term containing at least 10% salt concentration.

    Se encurtieron durante dos meses botones florales de tamaño intermedio de Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa y Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss recogidos de plantas silvestres. Las alcaparras después de la fermentación se conservaron en salmueras del 10% y 20%. Las alcaparras fermentadas fueron mantenidas durante 180 días en salmueras usadas o recién preparadas (frescas del 10 y 20%, determinándose a intervalos la estabilidad durante la conservación por análisis físicos, químicos y microbiológicos. La calidad del producto se mantuvo en todas las muestras de alcaparras fermentadas durante los 180 días, tanto en 10% como en 20% y en salmueras usadas o frescas. La acidez durante la conservación fue mayor en salmueras usadas. El crecimiento de bacterias del ácido láctico se observó sólo en salmueras frescas del 10

  20. Analysis on quality of pickles produced by inoculated fermentation%接菌发酵泡菜品质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽平; 任国平; 张学兵; 王亚峰

    2012-01-01

    Lactic acid bacterial strains ( Mao24.1, Mao5. 1 and Tang3. 2) were isolated from homemade pickles with high nitrite degradation ability. The count of lactic acid bacteria, lactic acid content, pH. nitrite content and sensory characteristics m pickles produced by inoculated fermentation and natural fermentation were compared. The results; After the pickles were fermented for one day, the number of lactic acid bacteria reached the largest, and were 5. 5 × 106 CKU/mL 1.4 × 107 CFU/mL and 2. 8 × 107 CFU/mL respectively; for the pickle incubated with Mao 5. 1 and Tang 3. 2, the contents of lactic acid were 0. 41% and 0. 53 % respectively, and the pH were 3. 23 and 3. 22 respectively. The content of the nilrite was below 0. 40 μg/ml- for the inoculated fermentation. The pickles inoculated with Mao 5. 1 and Tang 3. 2 showed good color and crispness. The aroma was rich of the pickle inoculated with Mao21. 1. The a-bove indexes of inoculated products were excellent over natural product. Antagonistic test results showed that the 3 strains of bacteria had no antagonism and can symbiotic ferment pickle.%乳酸菌菌株Mao24.1,Mao5.1和Tang3.2分离自传统发酵蔬菜中,具有强降解亚硝酸盐的作用,分别接种该3株菌发酵制作泡菜,与自然发酵泡菜比较分析乳酸菌数量、乳酸含量、pH、亚硝酸盐和感官评价.结果表明,接种发酵泡菜1d时乳酸菌数量最多,分别为5.5×106,1.4×107,2.8×107 CFU/mL;接入Mao5.1和Tang3.2的发酵泡菜在发酵2d时乳酸含量分别为0.41%和0.53%,pH为3.23和3.22;接菌发酵的泡菜亚硝酸盐含量一直在0.40 μg/mL以下;Mao5.1和Tang3.2发酵泡菜产品色泽和脆度好,Mao24.1发酵泡菜产品香气浓郁,各指标均优于自然发酵泡菜.拮抗试验结果表明该3株菌间无拮抗作用可共生发酵泡菜.

  1. 温度对锆合金酸洗反应动力学行为影响%Effect of Temperature on Pickling Reaction Kinetics of Zirconium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云明; 李传锋; 陈建刚; 刘利剑; 杜沛南; 钱芳; 王录全

    2016-01-01

    采用浸泡酸洗法研究温度对锆合金酸洗速率影响,并分析锆合金酸洗释热系数.结果表明:温度对酸洗速率具有指数影响关系;在20~60℃温度范围内,每增加10℃,酸洗速率提高2.0 ~ 2.5倍,锆合金酸洗频率因子和反应活化能约为1.18×1012和70 kJ/mol.锆合金酸洗为放热反应,酸洗中伴随温度升高,其释热系数约为760 kJ/mol.%The effect of temperature on pickling rate of zirconium alloy and the heat release constant was studied in this paper by soaked method.The results show that temperature has exponential effect on pickling rate of zirconium alloy,the rate increases 2.0 ~ 2.5 times 10℃ at 20 ~ 60℃.The pickling frequency factor is about 1.18 × 1012 and the activation energy is about 70kJ/mol.The pickling reaction of zirconium alloy is exothermic.The reaction temperature increases with the pickling process in which the heat release constant is 760 kJ/mol.

  2. The Research Progress on Low Evapo-salinization of Pickled Vegetables%低盐化在腌渍菜中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王聘; 郜海燕; 毛金林; 周拥军; 沈国华

    2011-01-01

    Low salinization is the general trend of world food development. This paper analyzed the research status, the existence question and the technical ways of low salinization of pickled vegetables, and the relationship between them and the quality of pickled vegetables. It summarized the key technologies of low salinization of pickled vegetables, discussed the necessity of the application of comprehensive technical measures (hurdle technology) in the processing of protosalt pickled vegetables, and looked forward to the developing direction of low salinization of pickled vegetables.%低盐化是世界食品发展的总趋势.分析了我国腌渍菜低盐化的研究现状、存在的问题、技术途径及与腌渍菜品质的关系,综述了腌渍菜低盐化的核心技术,阐述低盐化腌渍菜生产中实施综合技术措施(栅栏技术)的必要性,展望我国腌渍菜低盐化的发展方向.

  3. Response of wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) to surrounding land cover in Wisconsin pickling cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, D M; Huseth, A S; Groves, R L

    2012-06-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is among the plants highly dependent on insect-mediated pollination, but little is known about its unmanaged pollinators. Both domestic and wild bee populations in central Wisconsin pickling cucumber fields were assessed using a combination of pan trapping and floral observations before and during bloom. Together with land cover analyses extending 2,000 m from field centers, the relationship of land cover components and bee abundance and diversity were examined. Over a 2-yr sample interval distributed among 18 experimental sites, 3,185 wild bees were collected representing >60 species. A positive association was found between both noncrop and herbaceous areas with bee abundance and diversity only during bloom. Response of bee abundance and diversity to land cover was strongest at larger buffers presumably because of the heterogeneous nature of the landscape and connectivity between crop and noncrop areas. These results are consistent with previous research that has found a weak response of wild bees to surrounding vegetation in moderately fragmented areas. A diverse community of wild bees is present within the fields of a commercial cucumber system, and there is evidence of floral visitation by unmanaged bees. This evidence emphasizes the importance of wild pollinators in fragmented landscapes and the need for additional research to investigate the effectiveness of individual species in pollen deposition.

  4. Adsorption of Pb(2+) from aqueous solution using spinel ferrite prepared from steel pickling sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Binbin; Yan, Yubo; Yang, Yang; Wang, Fenglian; Chu, Zhen; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Wang, Lianjun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, spinel ferrite with high crystallinity and high saturation magnetization was successfully prepared from steel pickling sludge by adding iron source and precipitator in the hydrothermal condition. The obtained spinel ferrite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and Zeta potential methods and investigated as an adsorbent for removal of Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed by varying the pH values, contact time, temperature and initial metal concentration. The result of pH impact showed that the adsorption of Pb(2+) was a pH dependent process, and the pH 5.8 ± 0.2 was found to be the optimum condition. The achieved experimental data were analyzed with various kinetic and isotherm models. The kinetic studies revealed that Pb(2+) adsorption onto spinel ferrite followed a pseudo-second order model, and the Langmuir isotherm model provided the perfect fit to the equilibrium experimental data. At different temperatures, the maximum Pb(2+) adsorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir equation were in the range of 126.5-175.4 mg/g, which can be in competition with other adsorbents. The thermodynamic results showed that the spinel ferrite could spontaneously and endothermically adsorb Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. The regeneration studies showed that spinel ferrite could be used five times (removal efficiency (%) >90%) by desorption with HNO3 reagent.

  5. Lactobacillus furfuricola sp. nov., isolated from Nukadoko, rice bran paste for Japanese pickles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisawa, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Naoto; Kitahara, Maki; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Okada, Sanae

    2014-08-01

    Two strains of lactic acid bacteria, Nu27(T) and Nu29, were isolated from Nukadoko, rice bran paste for Japanese pickles. The isolates were Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, catalase-negative, non-motile and facultatively anaerobic lactic acid bacteria. The isolates showed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. The closest relatives to strain Nu27(T) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were Lactobacillus versmoldensis KU-3(T) (98.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Lactobacillus nodensis iz4b(T) (96.3%) and Lactobacillus tucceti CECT 5290(T) (97.2%). DNA-DNA relatedness values revealed genotype separation of the two isolates from the above three species. Based on the physiological, biochemical and genotypic characteristics provided, the isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which name is Lactobacillus furfuricola proposed. The type strain is Nu 27(T) ( = JCM 18764(T) = NRIC 0900(T) = DSM 27174(T)).

  6. Chemical and structural changes in preserved white egg during pickled by vacuum technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ling; Liu, Huiping; Cao, Chunling; Liu, Pingwei; Wang, Hao; Wang, Hongni

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical and structural changes in preserved white egg during pickled by vacuum technology. In order to evaluate the changes of preserved egg white during its salted period, sulfhydryl group, disulfide bond contents, and surface hydrophobicity were measured. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism analysis were performed by considering changes of the secondary structural elements, the protein components of egg white was also studied in more detail by electrophoresis. Results showed that the sulfhydryl group and surface hydrophobicity were increased with increasing salting time, whereas a decrease in the disulfide bond contents was observed. Regarding the secondary structure analysis, a decrease in α-helices and β-turns were accompanied by increases in β-sheets and random coils, which indicating a decrease in non-random structure while ever increasing of unordered structure. Electrophoresis shows no significant differences in protein patterns among fresh egg white and samples salting for up to 4 days. Disappearance of most protein was at the 5th day. Single band of ovalbumin can be readily observed from the 6th day to the ripening period finished. Our findings reveal that high pH could induce duck egg white protein aggregation when salting eggs in strong alkaline solution for a long time.

  7. Eclipta Alba as Corrosion Pickling Inhibitor on Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Shyamala; A. Arulanantham

    2009-01-01

    Due to ease of application, cost effectiveness and environmentally safe, in this study, the corrosion inhibition effect of aqueous extract of Eclipta alba in 1 N hydrochloric acid has been investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance methods and the extracts of Eclipta alba were found to be effective corrosion pickling inhibitor. The effect of immersion time and temperature revealed that the extracts of Eclipta alba with an optimum concentration of 8.0% v/v showed maximum inhibition efficiency of 99.6% at 3 h immersion time and 30℃. Arrhenius plots for mild steel immersed in 1 N HCI solution in the absence and presence of optimum concentration (8.0% in v/v) of Eclipta alba extract showed the effect of temperature. Polarization studies indicate that this plant extract acts as a mixed type inhibitor. The adsorption of Eclipta alba follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The inhibition action may be due to the presence of the Wedelactone and also the alkaloid Ecliptine present in the leaves of Eclipta alba.

  8. Pickled essence of Englishman: Thomas Lovell Beddoes--time to unearth a neglected poet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamforth, I

    2004-06-01

    Thomas Lovell Beddoes (1803-1849) was a doctor and intermittently brilliant poet whose explorations of "the florid Gothic in poetry" (his words) offer some of the most haunting, claustrophobic, and grotesque verse in the English language. Son of the pioneering Bristol scientist Thomas Beddoes and nephew of Maria Edgeworth the novelist, he stemmed, like Mary Shelley, author of the celebrated novel Frankenstein, from a line of influential freethinkers. This article situates Beddoes's work in the transition from the confident empiricism of the eighteenth century to the nineteenth century's imaginative reaction to social and intellectual life after the Napoleonic wars. Having spent most of his adult life in Germany (where he studied anatomy with the famous biologist Blumenbach) and latterly Switzerland, Beddoes engaged in radical politics, dabbled in the occult, and may even have encountered the German doctor/playwright Georg Büchner, whose career parallels his own. Beddoes hoped that by reading the body literally, in terms of its material structure, he would be able to bring about a revival of English theatre. Inevitable defeat led him to develop his signature form of abject irony. In view of the current interest in semiotics (a development of medical semiology), and the subterranean analogies in Beddoes's writing between the corpus and the corpse, his reputation ought to be rescued from the "critical pickle".

  9. Are we in a pickle? Rethinking the world of research and user interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Patricia J

    2011-01-01

    The lion's tail and knowledge boundaries are two analogies referred to in the lead essay by Lindstrom, MacLeod and Levy. These may be helpful but require slight readjustment. Grabbing onto the lion's tail implies one reality and one intersection point, whereas the old analogy of the blind men and the elephant shows that various perspectives are required. Integrated knowledge translation refers to user involvement throughout the research process. Participatory models are one form of integrated knowledge translation, but caution is required to help maintain the knowledge boundaries. There is the real danger of one group becoming "pickled," or having unbalanced osmotic pressure from another group, resulting in destroyed "cell wall" boundaries. Neither researchers nor users should morph into each other but should, rather, fulfill unique roles within a respectful, trusted research relationship. Lessons learned at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy teach us that collaborative health services research takes time, money, mutual understanding and respect (including respect from academic institutions for this paradigm of research). This requires a dedicated centre of core group scientists willing to devote the necessary time. Diffused networks may not be stable enough to maintain the long-term relationship building required for the intersection of researchers and decision-makers.

  10. 影响酱腌菜质量的因素及防腐应注意的问题探讨%Investigation on factors affecting the quality of pickles and the main issues for corrosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宝忠

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a variety of pickled vegetables production technology was introduced, some of the major factors that affect the quality of pickles, clear links should be noted in the production process, proposed method to stablity the quality of pickles, the insights for pickle product's antiseps.All these has some significance on pickles production processing, storage and antisepsis.%文中对酱腌菜生产的多种工艺作了介绍,提出了影响酱腌菜质量的一些主要因素,明确了生产过程中应注意的环节,提出了稳定酱腌菜质量的方法,对酱腌菜产品的防腐问题提出了见解.对酱腌菜的生产加工、储存、防腐有一定的指导意义.

  11. Analysis of Several Main Nitrate and Nitrite Content in Pickles%泡菜中硝酸盐与亚硝酸盐的含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓慧; 马超; 彭莉

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, the author investigated the main kinds of pickles in Guiyang market investigation, and analysed the content of nitrate and nitrite in several main pickles, revealed the difference of nitrate and nitrite content in pickles, and aiming to guide the choice.%通过对贵阳市场中主要泡菜种类的调查,及对几种泡菜中硝酸盐与亚硝酸盐含量的分析,揭示了不同泡菜中硝酸盐与亚硝酸盐的含量和分布不同,从而指导人们正确选择泡菜的种类。

  12. Determination of sulfur dioxide residue in pickled meat products%泡椒肉制品中二氧化硫残留量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周石洋; 陈玲

    2012-01-01

    GB distillation method was generally used for the determination of sulfur dioxide residue in pickled meat products. Reflux method was adopted in this paper, and sodium thiosulfate was used for back titration of sulfur dioxide residue in pickled meat products. This method was suitable for determination of sulfur dioxide residue in pickled meat products with simple operation process, high recovery rate.%一般采用国标蒸馏法测定泡椒肉制品中二氧化硫残留量。采用回流法,用硫代硫酸钠反滴定来测定泡椒肉制品中二氧化硫残留量。其操作步骤简单,回收率高,适用于泡椒肉制品中二氧化硫残留量的测定。

  13. Discussion of Pickling and Rinsing Process for Hydraulic Pipeline Construction%液压管道施工酸洗及冲洗工艺探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师志民

    2015-01-01

    The acid wash construction and construction technology of hydraulic pipe summarize, this article construction unit testing hydraulic pipes pickling,rinse construction quality and construction unit of the hydraulic pipes pickling,rinse construction has a certain reference value.%对施工中液压管道的酸洗及冲洗施工工艺进行总结,此文对建设单位检验液压管道酸洗、冲洗施工质量及施工单位对液压管道酸洗、冲洗施工有一定参考价值。

  14. Effect of acid and salt concentration in fresh-pack pickles on the growth of Clostridium botulinum spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K A; Chen, J K; Lerke, P A; Seeger, M L; Unverferth, J A

    1976-01-01

    The addition of various amounts of acetic acid to pureed cucumbers inoculated with Clostridium botulinum spores has shown that outgrowth is inhibited at pH 4.8 but not at pH 5.0. Inoculation experiments with whole cucumbers showed that as little as 0.9% acetic acid in the brine was sufficient to prevent outgrowth from spore inocula as high as 10(6)/cucumber. It was further shown that the rapid rate of acetic acid penetration into fresh-pack pickles prevents the growth of any C. botulinum spores that may be present. PMID:9898

  15. 热轧退火钛带酸洗工艺研究%Study on the Pickling Process for Hot Rolled Annealed Titanium Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘自莲; 彭金辉; 郭胜惠; 常军; 曹占元; 史亚鸣; 陈楠

    2013-01-01

    Pickling is one of the important processes before titanium strip coil cold rolling .Pickling conditions for hot rolled annealed titanium strip coil were first studied in laboratory , including the concentration of acid , pickling time , pickling temperature and so on .The results show that the rate of weight loss will decrease while the pickling time will increase with the decreasing of the ratio of HF∶HNO3 .The best condition for pickling is that the concentration of HF acid is 3%and HNO3 acid is 27%, the pickling temperature is 40 ℃and the pickling time is 240 s.And under this treat condition, the rate of weight loss will only be 1.12%.Besides, the pickling temperature of 25 ℃and 55 ℃are both not benefit for the pickling of titanium strip coil .The industrialized experiment results show that the pickling effect is obvious based on the best treat condition , and the surface oxide layer can be removed thoroughly .%酸洗是钛带冷轧前的重要工序之一,首先从酸的浓度及配比、酸洗时间、酸洗温度等方面对热轧退火后钛带卷的酸洗条件进行了实验室探究。结果表明,随着氢氟酸与硝酸体积比的降低,钛带的酸洗失重率逐渐降低,而酸洗所需时间逐渐增加。综合考虑酸洗的效果、速度及成本认为最佳酸洗工艺条件是:酸洗温度为40℃,酸洗液中氢氟酸体积分数为3%、硝酸体积分数为27%,酸洗时间为240 s时,酸洗效果最佳,此时,钛带试样失重率为1.12%。此外,研究发现,酸洗温度为25℃和55℃皆不利于钛带酸洗。之后,工业化试验表明,按照最佳的酸洗工艺条件对工业纯钛带进行酸洗,酸洗效果较好,表面氧化皮可被彻底洗尽。

  16. Processing technique of duck tongue with pickled pepper%泡椒鸭舌加工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李群和; 胡霞; 徐扬

    2012-01-01

    The processing technique of duck tongue pickled with pepper solution was introduced in this paper. The results revealed that after the process of pre -cooked at 90 -95℃ for 10 minutes, pickled at 0-5℃ for 24h, packed under vacuum, and sterilized for 20 rain at 100℃ , the finished product pos- sessed the best flavor, and its shelf life could be up to 6 months at room temperature.%介绍了采用预调制的泡椒浸渍液泡制鸭舌的加工工艺。试验结果表明,鸭舌在90~95℃水中预煮lOmin,并于0~5℃浸渍液中腌制24h,无菌真空包装,IO&C杀菌20min。所得产品品质最佳,常温下保质期可达6个月。

  17. Pengaruh sumber dan konsentrasi garam (Na Cl pada proses pengasaman (pickling terhadap mutu kulit domba untuk sarung tangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the effects of source and concentration of salt (NaCl during the pickling process on the leather quality of sheep skin for glove. The kind of salt and concentration developed during pickling process of sheep skin the purified salt, Australian salt, Wedung Demak salt, Madura salt and control salt, was utilized the various concentration was 4%, 6% and 8%, respectively. The test parameter are chemist, physical and visual test. The sheep leather was products like wet blue leather and crust leather, and then they were subsequently tested for their quality such as water content, ash content and Cr2O3 content for wet blue leather and visual test for crust leather such as condition of leather, color, tear strength and resilient. The wet blue leather was water 44,98%, dust 6,90%, and Cr2O3 3,7%, performed with SNI 06-3538-1994, Standard sheep/goat wet blue leathers. Crust of that leather was bright leather condition about soft, non deflated, flexible, color was average, the tear strength moderately was powerful, the spring was elastic, tensile strength was 156,62 kg/cm2 and elongation at break 42% these quality parameter were comply with regulation standard was SNI 06-4035-1996, Standard the glove leather from sheep/goat leather.

  18. The influence of long term use of inhibitors in hydrochloric acid pickling baths on hydrogen induced stress corrosion cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feser, R.; Friedrich, A.; Scheide, F. [Fachhochschule Suedwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Frauenstuhlweg 31, D-58644 Iserlohn (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    The influence of commercially available inhibitors on the absorption of hydrogen by steel (St 52, StE 460, StE 690, 42CrMo4) in 15% hydrochloric acid was studied. The pickling bath aged continuously due to the chemical reaction with oxidized steel sheets. The H{sup +}- and inhibitor concentration decreased with time. The influence of this ageing process on hydrogen-induced stress corrosion cracking was tested by in-situ tensile tests in the bath solution. With increasing ageing of the bath, the reduction in fracture area was reduced and approached the values measured for non-inhibited acid baths. Furthermore hydrogen permeation was investigated. Permeation current densities rose with increasing ageing of the pickling solution. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Der Einfluss von kommerziell erhaeltlichen Inhibitoren auf die Wasserstoffabsorption von Stahl (St 52, StE 460, StE 690, 42CrMo4) wurde in Salzsaeure untersucht. Die Beizbaeder wurden kontinuierlich durch die chemische Reaktion mit oxidierten Stahlblechen gealtert. Die H{sup +}- und Inhibitorkonzentration nahm mit der Zeit ab. Der Einfluss dieses Alterungsprozesses auf die wasserstoffinduzierte Spannungsrisskorrosion wurde durch in-situ Zugversuche mit Badloesung untersucht. Mit zunehmender Alterung des Bades nahm die Brucheinschnuerung ab und erreichte Werte wie sie auch in der nicht inhibierten Saeure erreicht werden. Weiterhin wurde die Wasserstoff-Permeation untersucht. Die Permeationsstromdichte steigt mit zunehmender Alterung der Beizloesung. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Growth Stage and Drying Methods Affect Essential Oil Content and Composition of Pickling Herb (Echinophora tenuifolia subsp. sibthorpiana Tutin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif ŞANLI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted during 2012 in order to determine the essential oil content and composition of Echinophora tenuifolia subsp. sibthorpiana Tutin. Plants were collected during rosette, vegetative growth, full flowering and fruit-ripening stages. Oil was extracted using Clavenger hydro-distillation apparatus from either fresh, shade dried or sun dried samples. Oil composition was determined with a GC/MS. Oil content of samples showed significant variation during the vegetative stages of development. Oil contents of fresh samples were found to be 0.76% at seedling stage whereas oil content has risen to 1.06% at seed set. The shade-dried samples had higher oil contents than the fresh and sun dried samples. The oil composition of pickling herb changed with drying method and growth stage. Throughout the growth stage of the plant, the oil was composed of 21 components and the main components were found to be α- phellandrene (47.43 - 66.39% and methyl eugenol (21.29 – 38.72%. While methyl eugenol content decreased during vegetation period for both fresh and dried samples, α-phellandrene level increased. Attention should be given to the collection time and drying method of pickling herb for different uses since vegetative stage and drying method influence oil content and composition.

  20. Mitogenic response and probiotic characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated from indigenously pickled vegetables and fermented beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Ghosh, Moushumi; Ganguli, Abhijit

    2012-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria from indigenous pickled vegetables and fermented beverages (fermented rice and Madhuca longifolia flowers) were isolated and investigated for their functional characteristics in vitro as potential new probiotic strains. Four isolates (all Lactobacillus spp.) selected on the basis of high tolerance to bile (0.2%) were identified by standard and molecular methods (16S rDNA) as L. helveticus, L. casei, L. delbrueckii and L. bulgaricus from pickled vegetables and fermented beverages respectively. These selected strains had antibiotic resistance, tolerance to artificial gastric juice and phenol (0.4%), enzymatic profile, and antagonistic activity against enteric pathogens (Enterobacter sakazakii, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri 2a, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica and Aeromonas hydrophila). All strains survived well in artificial gastric juice at low pH (3.0) values for 4 h, possessed bile salt hydrolase activity and were susceptible to most antibiotics including vancomycin. Additionally, the isolates exhibited high tolerance to phenol, high cell surface hydrophobicity (>60%) and induced proliferation of murine splenocytes. All the four strains of present study suppressed the Con A-stimulated proliferation of the mouse spleen cells, although L. casei had the strongest suppressive effect. The results of this study suggest a potential application of the strains (following human clinical trials), for developing probiotic foods.

  1. Persistence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in surface soil following application of liquid hog manure for production of pickling cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Caroline; Quessy, Sylvain

    2005-05-01

    Liquid hog manure is routinely applied to farm land as a crop fertilizer. However, this practice raises food safety concerns, especially when manure is used on fruit and vegetable crops. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the persistence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in surface soil after application of liquid hog manure to fields where pickling cucumbers were grown and to verify the microbiological quality of harvested cucumbers. Mineral fertilizers were replaced by liquid hog manure at various ratios in the production of pickling cucumbers in a 3-year field study. The experimental design was a randomized complete block comprising four replicates in sandy loam (years 1, 2, and 3) and loamy sand (year 3). Soil samples were taken at a depth of 20 cm every 2 weeks after June application of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Vegetable samples were also taken at harvest time. Liquid hog manure, soil, and vegetable (washed and unwashed) samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella and E. coli. An exponential decrease of E. coli populations was observed in surface soil after the application of manure. The estimated average time required to reach undetectable concentrations of E. coli in sandy loam varied from 56 to 70 days, whereas the absence of E. coli was estimated at 77 days in loamy sand. The maximal Salmonella persistence in soil was 54 days. E. coli and Salmonella were not detected in any vegetable samples.

  2. Analysis and Comparison of Nitrite Content in Three Pickled Vegetables%三种腌制泡菜中亚硝酸盐含量的分析比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐建红

    2013-01-01

    通过对西安市市售三种散装腌制泡菜中亚硝酸盐含量的测定分析,结果表明:三种腌制泡菜中亚硝酸盐含量存在一定的差异,其平均含量依次为西安市小型市场散装白菜泡菜>西安市小型市场散装萝卜泡菜>西安市某大型超市散装白菜泡菜>西安市某大型超市散装萝卜泡菜>西安市小型市场散装酸豆角泡菜>西安市某大型超市散装酸豆角泡菜,但这三种腌制泡菜中亚硝酸盐含量均符合我国的GB 2714-2003中规定的限量标准.%The nitrite content of three kinds of bulk packed pickled vegetables in Xi'an City is determined and analyzed.The results show that the nitrite content of these three pickled vegetables has some differences,the order of average nitrite content is bulk packed Chinese pickled cabbage in small market>bulk packed pickled radish in small market>bulk packed Chinese pickled cabbage in large supermarket>bulk packed pickled radish in large supermarket> bulk packed pickled sour beans in small market>bulk packed pickled sour beans in large supermarket.But the nitrite content of three kinds of pickled vegetables is in accordance with our country's limit standard (GB 2714-2003).

  3. Exploration of Relation between the Nitrate and Vitamin C Content and Time in Pickled Green Pepper%腌制青椒中亚硝酸盐和维生素C含量随时间变化的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋崇富; 田志美; 张标; 徐华杰; 盛良全

    2014-01-01

    为了解腌制青椒中亚硝酸盐和维生素C含量随时间的变化关系,指导人们合理膳食,用分光光度法分别测定了腌制青椒中亚硝酸盐和维生素C含量随腌制时间的变化规律。腌制青椒中亚硝酸盐含量随腌制时间的增长先升高后下降,第3天出现最大值,而腌制青椒中维生素C含量随腌制时间的增长逐渐降低。要充分利用青椒中维生素C,人们应该尽量食用新鲜辣椒,减少食用腌制辣椒。食用腌制辣椒,要放置3天以上进入安全食用期再食用。%To quantitatively understand nitrate and vitamin C content in pickled green pepper and to guide people to have a rational diet, the spectrophotometric method is used to measure the change pattern of nitrate and vitamin C content in pickled green pepper as the pickled time.The nitrate content in pickled green pepper first increases as the pickled time and then decreases, the nitrite peak emerges at the third day.The content of vitamin C decreases as the pickled time gradually.In order to make full use of vitamin C, we should be better to eat fresh green pepper and reduce the intake of pickled green pepper.We should eat pickled green pepper after they are pickled at least three days when they are in food safety period .

  4. 蔬菜腌制及其乳酸菌技术的研究进展%Pickling Process of Vegetables and its Lactic Acid Bacteria Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴祖芳; 赵永威; 翁佩芳

    2012-01-01

    Pickled vegetables processing is an important part of the vegetable processing industry. With the gradual deepening developing of lactic acid bacteria research and new technologies of agricultural products processing, one of the great research interests-was focused on the study of pickled vegetables process. In this paper, the microbial diversity, metabolite of lactic bacteria and flavor compound formation, the functional properties evaluations as well as the ferment starter application of pickled vegetables were elucidated among the domestic and foreign research progress. This can provide the references for technology development and research of pickled vegetables processing.%蔬菜腌制加工是蔬菜加工产业中的重要组成部分,随着农产品加工新技术及乳酸菌研究的逐步深入和发展,腌制蔬菜也成为一个新的研究热点.作者分析了国内外有关蔬菜腌制过程中微生态、乳酸菌的代谢及其蔬菜腌制风味发生机制、腌制蔬菜功能特性评价以及发酵剂开发等方面的研究进展,为蔬菜腌制技术的发展等提供参考.

  5. Evaluación sensorial de huevos de codorniz en conserva y composición nutricional (Sensory evaluation of pickled quail eggs and nutritional composition)

    OpenAIRE

    González Sánchez José Fernando; Hernández Unzón Aideé

    2011-01-01

    ResumenEl objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la aceptabilidad de los huevos de codorniz en escabeche y determinar la composición nutricional de huevo de codorniz.SummaryThe aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability of pickled quail eggs and determine the nutritional composition of quail egg

  6. Evaluación sensorial de huevos de codorniz en conserva y composición nutricional (Sensory evaluation of pickled quail eggs and nutritional composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Sánchez José Fernando

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la aceptabilidad de los huevos de codorniz en escabeche y determinar la composición nutricional de huevo de codorniz.SummaryThe aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability of pickled quail eggs and determine the nutritional composition of quail egg

  7. 带钢镀锡生产中的电解酸洗%Study on Electrolytic Pickling Process for Strip Steel in Tin Plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪波; 吴健

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of electrolytic pickling for strip steel in tin plating was analyzed, the factors of electro- lytic pickling such as electrolysis plate and electrolytic pickling process parameters were studied. The results indicated that increase of protection measures by Pb-Ca-Sn positive electrode, electrolyte temperature 40℃, sulfuric acid concentration70 g/l, and current density 10 c/dm2 conditions could gain better effects for electrolytic pickling.%在分析低碳冷轧带钢酸洗机理的基础上,研究了低碳带钢电解酸洗的影响因素(电解极板及电解工艺参数),研究表明:对Pb—Ca-Sn酸洗阳极增加保护措施及采用酸洗温度40℃、酸液浓度70g/L、电流密度10c/dm^2的电解工艺参数可得到较好的酸洗效果。

  8. PICKLE acts throughout the plant to repress expression of embryonic traits and may play a role in Giberellin-Dependent responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, J.; Li, H.C.; Mordhorst, A.P.; Romero-Severson, J.; Cheng, J.C.; Robey, J.; Sung, Z.R.; Vries, de S.C.; Ogas, J.

    2004-01-01

    A seed marks the transition between two developmental states; a plant is an embryo during seed formation, whereas it is a seedling after emergence from the seed. Two factors have been identified in Arabidopsis that play a role in establishment of repression of the embryonic state: PKL (PICKLE), whic

  9. 泡菜制作中亚硝酸盐的产生规律研究%Study on Nitrite Production of Pickling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩秋霞; 邹玉红

    2013-01-01

    Orthogonal experiments were performed to study nitrite production and the quality of laboratory-made pickles fermented under different temperatures , with different concentrations of pickled salt and inoculum amounts. Results showed that the maximum nitrite concentration was the lowest and the fermentation rate highest when pickled at 37℃;while the maximum nitrite concentration of pickles brined at 30℃was the highest. For pickles made at 28 ℃ and 33 ℃, nitrite concentrations were in the middle. In terms of quality ,the pickles soused at 33℃and 37℃were less crisp, more acidic and smelled heavier compared with the ones at 28℃, which were brittle, closer to neutral level (pH) and smelled better. Different concentrations of pickled salt were added to the materials in order to investigate the effect of salt percentage on pickle fermentation. With 4 %pickled salt, maximum nitrite concentration was the lowest and fermentation rate highest;the maximum nitrite concentration of pickles was the lowest and fermentation rate was in the middle with 6%pickled salt;the ones with 8%pickled salt fermented at the lowest speed and did not taste good. We also conducted experiments to determine the impact of inoculum amount. The maximum nitrite concentration of pickles with 4%inocula was the lowest, fermentation speed the highest and fermentation period shortest; while the ones without adding Lactobacillus were the opposite and the ones with 2%inocula in the middle, indicating that the inoculation of Lactobacillus can accelerate fermentation speed of pickles and help decrease nitrite concentration. According to the results above, the optimum condition for pickling in a lab-based environment was 28℃, with 6%pickled salt and 4%inocula.%  实验室自制泡菜,检测了不同温度、盐浓度、不同人工接种量等条件下,泡菜发酵过程中亚硝酸盐的产生规律,以及相应的产品品质。结果表明:37℃腌制的泡

  10. Advances of the Preservation Technologies of Low-salt Pickled Vegetables%低盐腌菜保藏技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹰; 白卫东; 刘晓艳; 刘巧瑜

    2013-01-01

    The salt content of traditional pickles is too high, which is harmful to human health and has caused sharp increase in demand for low-salt pickles around domestic and overseas markets in recent years. Since the long-term preservation of traditional pickles are mainly based on high osmotic pressure by high content of salt, the low-salt pickles was generally difficult to meet the preservation requirements .The preservation technologies of low-salt pickled vegetables were summarized in this paper. Physical preservation technologies include pasteurized method, high hydrostatic pressure technology, microwave sterilization methods and vacuum heat resistant packing method. For chemical preservative method, there were natural preservative method, hurdles technology of food preservation, strengthening the lactic acid fermentation method and so on. Physical preservation technology was suggested for pickles producers. By the scientific use of preservatives and the hurdle technology, the shelf life and safety of low salt pickles may be comprehensively improved.%传统腌菜含盐量太高,不利于人体健康.因此近年来国内外市场对低盐腌菜的需求急剧增加.由于腌菜主要是依据食盐的高渗透压得以长期保存.故低盐腌菜难以满足保存要求的矛盾便显得尤为突出.本文对低盐腌菜保藏技术的研究概况进行了综述.包括物理方法如巴氏杀菌法、超高压杀菌法、微波杀菌法、真空耐热包装法;化学防腐剂法;天然防腐剂法、棚栏技术、加强乳酸发酵法等.建议腌菜生产企业拓展低盐腌菜的物理保藏技术,科学使用防腐剂,利用栅栏技术等综合提高低盐腌菜的保质期和食用安全性.

  11. Metal impurities removal of industrial silicon by pickling%酸洗法去除工业硅中金属杂质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张济祥; 许金泉; 周京明; 朱勇

    2015-01-01

    Pickling is the most effective means for removing metal impurities during the preparation of solar⁃grade polysilicon by metallurgical process. Metal impurities removal of industrial silicon by pickling was studied,and the pickling process focused on the influences of crushing way,particle size,acid type,concentration,liquid⁃solid ratio and temperature etc. The results show that the optimized process for pickling is as follows:jet milling,grain size of 38 to 160μm,w(HCl)=10%of HF+HCl,picking temperature of 50℃,liquid⁃solid ratio of 4∶1,pickling time of 5 h. The removal rate of metal impurities reaches 96.2%under above process. The effect is significant.%酸洗是冶金法制备太阳能级多晶硅过程中去除金属杂质的最有效手段,针对酸洗法去除工业硅中金属杂质的行为进行研究,重点考察破碎方式、粒度、酸种类、浓度、液固比和温度等因素的影响。结果表明:酸洗的优化工艺为采用气流粉碎方式,粒径为38~160μm,用w(HCl)=10%的HF+HCl,酸洗温度为50℃,液固比为4∶1,酸洗时间为5 h;优化工艺后,工业硅中金属杂质的去除率达到96.2%,效果显著。

  12. A large outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157, caused by low-salt pickled Napa cabbage in nursing homes, Japan, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Tabuchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In August 2012, an outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC O157 infection was investigated by the City of Sapporo and Hokkaido Prefectural Government. The initial notification reported an illness affecting 94 residents of 10 private nursing homes distributed across multiple areas of Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan; at this time three cases were confirmed as EHEC O157 infection. The objectives of the investigation were to identify the source of infection and recommend control measures to prevent further illness. Methods: A suspected case was defined as a resident of one of the private nursing homes in Hokkaido who had at least one of the following gastrointestinal symptoms: diarrhoea, bloody stool, abdominal pain or vomiting between 10 July and 10 September 2012. Cases were confirmed by the presence of Shiga toxin 1- and 2-producing EHEC O157 in stool samples of suspected cases. We conducted an epidemiological analysis and an environmental investigation. Results: We identified 54 confirmed and 53 suspected cases in 12 private nursing homes including five fatalities. Of the 107 cases, 102 (95% had consumed pickles, all of which had been manufactured at the same facility. EHEC O157 isolates from two pickle samples, 11 cases and two staff members of the processing company were indistinguishable. The company that produced the pickles used inadequate techniques to wash and sanitize the vegetables. Discussion: Contaminated pickles were the likely source of this outbreak. We recommended that the processing company improve their methods of washing and sanitizing raw vegetables. As a result of this outbreak, the sanitation requirements for processing pickles were revised.

  13. 冬瓜腌制生产工艺与品质特性变化研究%Processing Technique of Pickled Wax Gourd and Quality Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛燕燕; 吴祖芳; 翁佩芳

    2014-01-01

    The physical and chemical indicators (pH, salinity, total acid, nitrite and amino nitrogen) as well as microbiological influences (total population of bacteria and lactic acid bacteria) are investigated, and the sensory evaluation of its product is conducted during fermentation using a variety of ways such as pickling, varying ingredients and inoculated pickling using the wax gourd as raw material. The results show that the pickling period of cooked pickles requires 20 days, but needs only 90 days for raw pickles with good quality. The pH of the wax gourd added with red pepper is found to be reduced by 0.25, and nitrite concentration is reduced by 8.60×10-7 in the raw pickles processing but the total acids increases and salinity changes insignificantly. The pH with inoculation pickling of wax gourd is reduced by 0.26, and nitrite concentration is reduced by 1.38×10-5. The amino nitrogen is increased by 1.70×10-4, and the total population of bacteria is increased by 3.3×107 cfu·mL-1 and lactic acid bacteria is increased by 1.0×107 cfu·mL-1. Using the sensory evaluation for four different processing techniques, it concludes that the quality of products by raw pickling with inoculation or by addition of red pepper is found to be improved, the best quality of pickling wax gourd is obtained by inoculating the Pediococcus pertosaceus.%以冬瓜为原料,比较了腌制方式、配料及接种腌制对冬瓜腌制过程中理化指标(pH、盐度、总酸、亚硝酸盐和氨基酸态氮)和微生物指标(细菌、乳酸菌总数)的影响,并对成品进行了感官分析.结果表明:熟腌成熟时间为20 d,生腌成熟时间较长为90 d,但品质较好;在生腌中加辣椒腌制比对照组pH降低了0.25,亚硝酸盐质量分数降低了8.60×10-7,而盐度和总酸的质量分数提高,盐度变化不显著;在生腌中接种腌制冬瓜比对照组 pH 降低了0.26,亚硝峰阶段亚硝酸盐质量分数降低了1.38×10-5,而氨基

  14. RESEARCH ON THE PROCESS OF THE PUSH-PULL PICKLING LINE WITH HIGH PRODUCTIVITY%高产能推拉式酸洗机组工艺路线研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军生

    2012-01-01

    从与传统推拉式酸洗机组的区别入手,介绍了推拉式酸洗机组实现高产能的工艺路线和主要设备配置。%This article introduced the process route and main equipments of push-pull pickling line with high productivity, comparing with the traditional push-pull pickling line.

  15. Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Croatian Fresh Soft Cheese and Serbian White Pickled Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Uroić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to gain insight into the probiotic potential of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from artisanal fresh soft and white pickled cheeses. Eleven out of 86 LAB isolates from traditionally produced artisanal fresh soft and white pickled cheeses which survived the most rigorous simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions and did not show resistance to antibiotics were subjected to further evaluation for functional probiotic properties. The ability of the examined strains to assimilate cholesterol in the presence of bile salts was strain dependent, with the highest percentage of cholesterol assimilated by strain Lactobacillus brevis BGGO7-28 possessing S-layer proteins on its cell surface. The growth of strains with mannitol or lactulose as the only carbon source was better than with fructooligosaccharides (FOS and inulin as prebiotic substrates, which should be considered in the production of synbiotics. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the strains were highly adhesive to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells and to a lesser extent to HT29-MTX cells, with the exception of strain Lb. brevis BGGO7-28, which showed similar percentage of adhesion to both cell lines. This strain was the only one with the acidic cell surface, while other examined strains have the cell surfaces with electron donor and basic properties. In addition, all selected strains decreased the proliferation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT cells, suggesting possible immunomodulatory potential of the isolates. Finally, the number of viable cells in dry active preparations after lyophilisation depended on the lyoprotectant used (inulin, FOS or skimmed milk, as well as on the strain subjected to lyophilisation. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study demonstrate that particular dairy LAB isolates exhibit strain-specific probiotic properties. Thus, they could be further examined as part of mixed autochthonous starter cultures for

  16. 不同发酵方式下泡青菜的品质分析%Quality analysis of mustard pickles in different fermentation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾秋思; 何芝菲; 罗佩文; 何利; 周康; 胡欣洁; 韩新锋; 颜正财; 刘书亮

    2015-01-01

    以卷心芥笋壳青菜Q123为原料,分别采用自然发酵、直投式乳酸菌发酵、老盐水发酵制作泡青菜,分析其感官、理化、微生物指标和风味物质的品质差异.结果表明,3种不同发酵方式下,泡青菜的各项指标变化趋势基本一致,直投式乳酸菌发酵泡青菜成熟后酸度适宜,色泽金黄,咀嚼脆性好,且亚硝酸盐含量低,Vc含量相对较高,风味物质成分较多,优于自然发酵和老盐水发酵泡青菜,并能缩短发酵周期,乳酸菌含量较高,能有效抑制杂菌生长.%Mustard Q123 (Brassica juncea) was used as raw material to make pickles by natural,direct vat set and aged brine fermentation.The quality differences on sensory,chemical,microbiological indicators and volatile flavor compounds among the three kinds of pickles were analyzed.Results showed that the change tendency of these indicators in the three kinds of pickles during fermentation process always kept consistent.The ripe pickle produced with direct vat set fermentation possessed suitable acidity,golden yellow color,crisp taste,low nitrite content,relatively high content of vitamin C,abundant volatile flavor compounds and short fermentation period,so its quality was better than that of the other two pickles produced with natural and aged brine fermentation.Furthermore,the content of lactic acid bacteria of the pickle with direct vat set fermentation was high,which could restrain growth of other organisms.

  17. Investigation on Lactobacillus Germplasm Resources of Chinese Pickle%中国泡菜乳杆菌种质资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代富英; 戴雨珂; 王海娟; 苏森森; 杜昕; 潘渠

    2016-01-01

    For investigation on Lactobacillus germplasm resources of Chinese pickle, 81 samples of Chinese pickle from 14 provinces were collected , and Lactobacillus strains from these samples were isolated using 16 s RNA gene sequencing and rapid-detection PCR technology for Lactobacillus which was designed by our selves. The isolating rate of Lactobacillus strains was 45.7 %, which showed there had rich Lactobacillus germplasm resources in Chinese pickle. 7 Lactobacillus sp. and 44 Lactobacillus strains were detected. 79.5%of isolated Lactobacillus strains were Lactobacillus plantarum strains which indicated the dominance Lactobacil-lus sp. in Chinese pickle was Lactobacillus plantarum.3 Lactobacillus futsaii strains were isolated in Chongqing, which was first found at Taiwan in 2012. There are regional differences in the germplasm resources of Lactobacil-lus in Chinese pickle. The isolation rate of Lactobacillus strains is more prominent in Yunnan (200 %), Chongqing(125 %), Jiangsu (133 %) and Northeast region (100 %). Hunan pickles may be lack of Lactobacillus germplasm resources.%为了进一步探索中国泡菜中乳杆菌种质资源,使用自主研发的乳杆菌快速检出方法和16s RNA基因测序鉴定技术,对采自14个省级行政区的81份泡菜样品进行了检测。乳杆菌分离率为45.7%,证明中国泡菜中有丰富的乳杆菌种质资源。共分离到7种44株乳杆菌。其中植物乳杆菌菌株占分离乳杆菌菌株总数的79.5%,表明泡菜中乳杆菌的种类以植物乳杆菌为主。在重庆分离到了2012年在台湾发现的福菜乳杆菌,再次证明了该菌种在自然界中的存在。中国泡菜中的乳杆菌种质资源存在地区差异,乳杆菌分离率较突出的地区分别是云南(200%),重庆(125%),江苏(133%)和东北(100%)。湖南泡菜中可能较为缺乏乳杆菌种质资源。

  18. 钢铁材料表面酸洗清洁生产展望%Prospect of the Cleaner Production of Steel Surface Pickling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁杰伟; 汤兵

    2016-01-01

    With the development of modern industry, the demand of steel products is increasing. Due to the active nature of steel surface, the formation of rust layers is inevitable during surface treatment, transportation and storage. However, the cor-rosion of steel had negative effects on the performance and service lifetime for the steel materials, and caused huge waste of re-sources. In order to enhance the performance of steel products and prolong their service lifetime, surface treatment and protec-tion should be considered. However, before surface treatment and protection, the rust layer should be cleaned out. Industrial pickling is one of the common methods for rust removing. Due to the corrosive characteristic of the used pickling liquors, the phenomenon of over-pickling is inevitable, which may cause the waste of metallic matrix and generate pollutants, including acid mist and pickling waste liquor. In this paper, based on the analysis of the origin of pollution, the methods to enhance cleaner pickling level in industry were discussed and summarized, from three aspects of addition of corrosion inhibitors, selection of the suitable technological parameters and improvement of pickling facilities. Additionally, the factors influencing the above three aspects were also discussed. Aiming at enhancing the effect of whole process of pickling industry, the concept of cleaner pick-ling was proposed, furthermore, the problems which needed to be considered in the future were indicated.%随着现代工业的发展,钢铁构件的需求日益增大。钢铁构件由于自身表面性质活跃,在加工、运输及储存过程中不可避免地形成锈蚀层。钢铁材料的锈蚀既对材料的使用性能及寿命造成不良影响,又导致材料的巨大浪费。为了提高钢铁构件的使用性能及寿命,需要进行表面处理及防护,但处理之前必须清除表面锈蚀层。工业酸洗是清除锈蚀层的重要方法之

  19. ISO22000 Application on Chinese Tradital Pickle Sausage Production%ISO22000在传统腌渍腊肠生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红梅; 张滨

    2009-01-01

    利用ISO22000质量安全管理体系中的HACCP基本原理,通过对其加工流程中可能产生的危害(HA)进行分析,找出控制的关键点(CCP),并制定相应的解决措施,从而确保腌渍腊肠品质的安全性.%Chinese traditional pickle sausage Hazard (HA) were analyzed and Critical Control Point (CCP) were found out during processing in order to improve the sausage product quality by way of application of the rationale of ISO22000 quality safety manage system in this paper. Then establishes relevant measure to resolve the likely hazard, thereby Chinese traditional pickle sausage quality security were insured.

  20. 管道工程酸洗方法及应用范围研究%Research on Acid Pickling Method of Pipeline Engineering and Its Application Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纯静

    2015-01-01

    管道的清扫环节对整个工程非常重要,主要是酸洗的过程要做好。以实际工程为背景,对酸洗的方法、适用范围做了详细的论述,为设计和施工提供了参考。%Pipeline cleaning is very important for the whole project, acid pickling process should be done well in the pipeline cleaning. In this paper, according to a practical project, the acid pickling method of pipeline and its applicable scope were introduced, which could provide reference for the design and construction of pipeline engineering in further.

  1. Two-step process of regeneration of acid(s) from ZrF4 containing spent pickle liquor and recovery of zirconium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersisyan, Hayk; Han, Seul Ki; Choi, Jeong Hun; Lee, Young-Jun; Yoo, Bung Uk; Ri, Vladislav E.; Lee, Jong Hyeon

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we describe a progressive two-step process that allows zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) contained in spent baths for etched zirconium alloys to be effectively recycled on a pilot scale and produce a high purity regenerated pickling acid. In the first step, a spent pickling liquor is treated by a BaF2 suspension to produce water insoluble Ba2ZrF8. After filtration of Ba2ZrF8 more than 99.9 wt % purity pickling acid is regenerated. The precipitation mechanism of Ba2ZrF8 is discussed and the role of BaF2 particles size on the precipitation process is demonstrated. In the second step the as-precipitated Ba2ZrF8 is mixed with Mg and Cu metal powders and heat-treated at 1200 °C (or above) to produce CuZr alloy ingot. The characteristics of the ingot are discussed in regard to Cu concentration and the heating temperature.

  2. Research and Development of Chinese Traditional Pickles Lactic Acid Bacteria Resources%我国传统泡菜乳酸菌资源研究与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓娟; 夏珊

    2016-01-01

    分析了中国传统泡菜乳酸菌的开发与应用现状,总结了泡菜乳酸菌资源的种类、乳酸菌分离的技术与方法,对分离筛选的乳酸菌资源进行梳理,并将菌剂生产的工艺做以总结,提出目前在泡菜乳酸菌资源研究过程中存在的问题并做以展望。%Analyze the current situations of the development and application of Chinese traditional pickles lactic acid bacteria.Summarize the types of pickles lactobacillus resources,the techniques and methods of lactic acid bacteria separation,and sum up the focus resources and the production process of lactic acid bacteria.At the same time,point out the problems currently exist in pickles lactobacillus resources and prospect their development.

  3. Reclamation of acid pickling waste: A facile route for preparation of single-phase Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenxue; Lu, Bin; Tang, Huihui; Zhao, Jingxiang; Cai, Qinghai, E-mail: caiqinghai@yahoo.com

    2015-05-01

    Using an alternative method of dropwise addition of iron salt in NaOH aqueous solution, nanocrystalline Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} materials were prepared from acid pickling waste as a starting material with ultrasonic enhancement and polyethylene glycol as a dispersant, as proved by XRD, TEM, TG–DSC and ICP-MS. The results showed that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} material was a well-crystallized magnetite with an average size of about 25 nm and purity 99.15%. Magnetic measurement revealed the nanocrystals were stronger superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization of 82.1 emu/g. - Graphical abstract: A facile method for the preparation of single-phase Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle from acid pickling waste by chemical precipitation was explored. The results characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM, TG–DSC, ICP-MS and magnetic measurement showed that the obtained Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanomaterial was well-crystallized magnetite and stronger superparamagnetic with single phase. - Highlights: • Reclamation of acid pickling waste. • An alternative route for preparation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • Nanocrystals with single phase. • Stronger superparamagnetic nature.

  4. Analysis on Oxide Defect at Surface of Hot-rolled and Pickled Plate%热轧酸洗板表面氧化缺陷分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程广萍; 陈宇杰

    2013-01-01

    采用体视显微镜、扫描电镜和能谱仪等分析研究了热轧酸洗板表面的氧化物缺陷。结果表明,缺陷区为酸洗后暴露出的基体铁和沿轧向分布的在高温下形成的破碎氧化铁皮。由于氧化铁皮被压入钢板中,在后续除鳞和酸洗中均难以去除,最终成为表面缺陷。%An oxide defect at surface of hot-rolled and pickled plate was investigated by using stereo-microscope , SEM and EDS .The results show that the defective regions are iron substrate exposed owing to pickling and longitudinally distributed broken iron scale formed at high temperature .The iron oxide scale is hard to be removed by subsequently descaling and pickling because of being pressed into the plate , thus becoming a surface defect .

  5. About stainless steel pickling waste water treatment technical analysis%关于不锈钢酸洗废水处理的技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶艳玲

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of social economy , stainless steel pickling waste water treatment technology as the current one of the most important technical parameters .This paper aims at the analysis of the current stainless steel pickling waste water related processing technology, the application of comprehensive from a variety of technology , based on the current industrial development around the actual need, multi-angle analysis stainless steel pickling waste water technology , to realize the overall technology comprehensive use .%  随着社会经济的快速发展,不锈钢酸洗废水处理技术成为了当前的一项重要技术参数。本文旨在分析当前不锈钢酸洗废水的相关处理技术,从多种技术综合的应用出发,围绕当前工业发展的实际需要,多角度的分析不锈钢酸洗废水的技术,实现整体技术的全面运用。

  6. Process Optimization for Production of Nutritional Seasoning Juice from Leftover Pickle Juice from Making Low Salt Pickled Mustard Tuber%榨菜低盐腌制卤汁生产营养调味汁的工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷兰兰; 吴祖芳; 翁佩芳

    2012-01-01

    为了解决榨菜腌制产生的含盐废水对环境的污染,采用低盐腌制榨菜新工艺,并将其中的卤汁通过膜分离、真空浓缩及巴氏杀菌等工艺优化过程,将榨菜废水卤汁制成了一种新型的营养调味汁。结果表明:优化的处理条件为采用0.22μm超滤膜进行膜分离,真空浓缩条件为65℃/0.090MPa,水浴杀菌条件90℃/10min;最后制成一种榨菜低盐腌制营养调味汁产品,其体态澄清、鲜亮,咸甜适口,滋味醇厚,具有浓郁的榨菜香味及少许的酱香味,是凉拌菜、面条等的良好调味品。%In order to avoid the problem of environmental pollution caused by the salty wastewater left over from the production of pickled mustard tuber, a novel nutritional seasoning juice was developed based on its membrane separation, vacuum concentration and pasteurization. The results showed that the optimum operating conditions were determined as follows: ultrafiltration separation using a 0.22 μm membrane, vacuum concenlration at 65 ℃ and 0.090 MPa and water-bath sterilization at 90 ℃ for 10 min. The nutritional seasoning juice obtained was clear and bright in color and had a strong aroma of pickled mustard tuber with a light sauce fragrance and a good sweet/salty balance of flavor, thus providing an excellent seasoning for cold dishes and noodles.

  7. Application of PRO-pHx Acid Active Agent in Pickling of Electroplating Parts%PRO-pHx酸活剂在电镀零件酸洗中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦兰; 向可友; 王建华; 徐良

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究PRO-pHx 酸活剂对酸洗过程及酸洗质量的影响,达到节酸、减排、降低成本的目标.方法 通过添加PRO-pHx 酸活剂,对比分析酸洗溶液更换周期,以及不同的使用酸周期的成本. 结果PRO-pHx酸活剂体积分数在1%以下,即可长期保持钢铁零件酸洗液的活性以及零件的表面酸洗质量和电镀层质量,同时减少酸液废弃量. 其中,1200 L的硫酸酸洗槽加入体积分数为1%的PRO-pHx酸活剂,到第30个使用周期成本节约了33 . 6%,且随周期延长酸洗成本会进一步降低. 结论 PRO-pHx 酸活剂添加到酸洗溶液中,在保证钢铁零件表面酸洗质量和电镀层质量的前提下,实现了节酸、减排、降低成本.%Objective In order to study the effect of PRO-pHx acid active agent on the pickling process and pickling quality, and to reach the goals of saving acid, reducing emission and decreasing cost. Methods The PRO-pHx live agent was added, and the replacement cycle of acid pickling solutions was comparatively analyzed, as well as the costs of different acid usage cycles. Results A concentration of 1% or less of PRO-pHx acid activating agent could maintain the activity of galvanized parts pickling so-lution for a long time, as well as the surface pickling quality of steel parts and electroplating quality, meanwhile, the amount of waste acid was reduced. Adding 1% PRO-pHx acid active agent in a 1200 L sulfuric acid pickling tank could reduce the cost by 33. 6% at the 30th cycle, and the costs would be further reduced with the extension of the pickling cycle. Conclusion Adding PRO-pHx acid active agent in acid pickling solution realized acid conservation, emissions reduction and cost reduction on the prem-ise of the good quality of surface pickling of steel parts and electroplating coating.

  8. A Brief Analysis of Continuous Spray Pickling Process in Austenitic Stainless Medium and Heavy Plate Production%奥氏体不锈钢中厚板连续喷淋酸洗工艺浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈继刚; 闫君

    2015-01-01

    论述了奥氏体不锈钢中厚板连续喷淋酸洗工艺的技术特征,并对典型的卧式、立式连续喷淋酸洗机组设备组成和生产工艺加以分析和对比。介绍了连续喷淋酸洗技术在国内不锈钢中厚板生产厂的实际应用情况。%The paper introduces the technical features of continuous spray pickling process,makes analysis and comparison on equipment configuration and production process of horizontal and vertical type continuous spray pickling lines,describes the actual applications of the pickling technique in domestic steel works of stainless steel medium and heavy plate.

  9. 304 Cu抗菌不锈钢盐酸基酸洗工艺的研究%Research on hydrochloric acid-based pickling process of 304Cu antibacterial stainless steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬; 邹德宁; 韩英; 薛清连

    2016-01-01

    为了明确盐酸基酸洗液对含Cu抗菌不锈钢表面氧化层的酸洗行为,采用正交试验法研究以盐酸为基础,Fe3+、H2 O2和HNO3为氧化剂的304Cu抗菌不锈钢酸洗工艺.并运用扫描电镜、透射电镜及电化学等手段分析经最佳配方酸洗后试样的表面形貌、成分及酸洗机理.结果表明:最佳酸洗工艺配方为HCl (36%~38%)120 ml/L、H2O2(30%)80 ml/L、FeCl3·6H2 O 20g/L、HNO310 ml/L,酸洗温度30℃,酸洗时间15 min.经该配方酸洗后材料表面平整度和光亮度较好,具有抗菌性能的点状ε-Cu相在基体上弥散分布.材料经酸洗去除氧化层后,仍具有足够含量的抗菌元素Cu存在.酸洗脱除氧化层过程由电荷传递过程控制,该酸洗液对不锈钢具有孔蚀诱导性,酸洗时间不宜过长.%In order to clarify pickling process of hydrochloric acid lotion against Cu⁃contained surface oxide layer of antibacterial stainless steel, the pickling process of 304Cu antibacterial stainless steel by using Fe3+, H2 O2 and HNO3 as the oxidants and taking hydrochloric acid as basis was studied by orthogonal experiment. And the surface morphology, composition and pickling mechanism of samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical after the best recipe pickling. The results show that the best pickling recipe is HCl (36%~38%) 120 ml/L, H2O2(30%) 80 ml/L, FeCl3· 6H2 O 20 g/L , HNO3 10 ml/L, pickling temperature is 30 ℃ and pickling for 15 min. The flatness and brightness of material surface are better after pickling, and antimicrobial properties of dot ε-Cu phase is dispersed on the substrate. After pickling to remove oxide layer of material, it still has enough content of antibacterial element Cu. Pickling process of removing oxide layer is controlled by the charge transfer process, the pickling solution of stainless steel with pitting corrosion

  10. Pickling Process and Treatment of Black Film on Surface of E110 Alloy Tube%E11O合金管材酸洗工艺与表面黑膜的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓维; 王增民; 薛祥义; 袁改焕; 刘蕾; 王建国

    2011-01-01

    通过对E110合金管材酸洗过程中表面黑膜的产生与酸洗液中氢氟酸含量关系的对比实验及试样表面Fˉ残留的检测,探讨了适应于该合金材料酸洗的酸洗液配比.同时,通过酸洗后管材表面黑膜的不同处理方案,确定了去除黑膜的有效方法.实验最终确定的酸洗液配比为25%硝酸+1.5%~2%氢氟酸+73%~73.5%水(体积分数),酸洗工艺为水浸→酸洗→NH4 HC03洗涤→80~90℃热水洗→高压水洗→冷水洗→海绵吹擦.%The relationship between the surface black film and the content ratio of HF acid in acid pickling, and the F" residues on the sample surface of the El 10 alloy tube after acid pickling were analyzed. The suitable acid pickling ratio for this alloy material was also discussed. Meanwhile, the method of dealing with the black film on surface with the different processes was obtained, to provide experimental basis for the alloy pickling process of industrial production. The confirmed acid pickling ratio is 25%HNO3 + 1.5% -2% HF +73% -73.5% water, and the pickling process is water immersion→pickling→NH4HCO3 washing→80-90℃ hot water washing→high pressure water washing → cold water washing →wipe with sponge according to experiments.

  11. 雪里蕻腌菜的质构与果胶组分含量的关系%Relationship between Pectic Substance Fractions and Texture of Pickled Potherb Mustards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵大云; 丁霄霖

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between the composition of pectic substancefractions and the texture of pickled potherb mustards during pickling under normal and spoiled conditions was investigated. The results obtained were as follows: (1)Under the normal pickling condition, the total amount of pectic substance in crude cell wall prepared from fresh potherb mustard and pickles was hardly changed during brining, though the ratio of hexametaphosphate soluble pectin (HXSP) in the total pectin was decreased to stable and the ratio of total water soluble pectin(Water Soluble Pectin, WSP; Hot Water Soluble Pectin, HWSP) was increased to stable.(2) During spoiling, the total amount of pectic substance was decreased significantly,while the ratio of HXSP in the total pectin was markedly decreased and the ratios of WSP and HWSP were markedly increased. Consequently, it was presumed that the assay of pectin in pickled potherb mustad might stand for the determination of the pickle's texture.%对雪里蕻腌菜中果胶组分的含量与质构变化进行了检测分析,雪里蕻腌菜在正常腌渍过程中总果胶含量趋于稳定,而水溶性果胶增加至一稳定值,六偏磷酸钠溶解性果胶下降至一稳定值.在腐烂过程中,总果胶含量显著下降,同时水溶性果胶组分增加和六偏磷酸钠溶解性果胶下降明显.研究结果表明,可用检测雪里蕻腌菜醇不溶物中果胶组分含量的变化来监测腌菜质构变化.

  12. 榨菜腌制过程中有机酸变化%Variations in Organic Acids in Mustard during Pickling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨君; 贺云川; 何家林; 蒋和体

    2012-01-01

    In this study, raw mustard and pickled mustards at different pickling stages as well as pickle juice were analyzed by RP-HPLC for their variations in organic acid contents. In the RP-HPLC analysis, the chromatographic column used was an Agilent TC type C18 column. The separation of organic acids was performed by using a mobile phase made up of 3% methanol and 0.5% KHEPO4 which adjusted to pH 2.8 with H3PO4 at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The detection wavelength was set as 215 nm, and the column temperature was controlled at 17 ℃. Eight organic acids were separated effectively under these conditions. The organic acids exhibited a recovery rate varying between 95.73% and 100.55% and a relative standard deviation ranging from 2.04% to 3.12%. The RP-HPLC method had a good linear correlation and was accurate. Sonication was found to be better for extraction of organic acids than water bath heating and ethanol extraction. The contents of organic acids in pickled mustards and pickle juice increased as the pickling number increased from 1 to 3. The most predominant acid was lactic acid, which accounted for 29.94% and 38.55% of total organic acids in once pickled and twice pickled samples, respectively. The relative content of lactic acid was 73.50% during the late part of the third pickling cycle. Among all processing stages of mustard, rinsing had the largest impact on organic acids followed by manual acidity adjustment.%以青菜头、各腌制时期盐菜块以及榨菜腌制水为研究对象,采用反相高效液相色谱法对其有机酸的变化进行分析和研究。色谱柱:AgilentTC-C18(4.6mm×250mm,5μm),色谱条件:将体积分数3%甲醇-0.5%KH2P04,并用H3PO4调NpH2.8的溶液作为流动相,流速0.8mL/min;检测波长215nm;柱温17℃。结果表明:8种有机酸能有效地分离,回收率均在95.73%100.55%,相对标准偏差2.04%-3.12%,呈现出良好的线性相关性和较高的准确度

  13. Synthesis of α-Fe2O3 Superfine Powders with Steel Pickling Waste Water and Dust Water in the Production of Bleaching Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple method of resource processing was developed by applying the material preparation technology to hazardous waste utilization. The iron oxide was synthesized by this method with steel pickling waste water and dust water in the production of bleaching powder. The effect of temperature on the synthesis was studied. X-Ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscope (TEM showed that the iron oxide samples are bright red and spherical α-Fe2O3 powders, and the particle size analysis exhibited that the size of samples prepared at 70 °C and 80 °C were between 250-300nm.

  14. Study on the Processing Technology of Pickled Cucumber%糟黄瓜加工工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长贵; 曾文强; 张伟; 王兴华

    2013-01-01

    The study provided the quality standard,the best formula of basic flavoring and the processing technology which could maintain the color,fragrance and taste of pickled cucumber.The result shows that calcium chloride of 0.06 % as brittleness agent can obtain good effect; the best formula of basic flavoring is:umami substances of 0.9%,spices of 8%,sweeteners of 0.05%,sesame oil of 0.4%.Adding sodium benzoate of 0.3‰ or potassium sorbate of 0.3‰ in summer and autumn or without adding preservatives in spring and winter,sterilizing at 95 ℃ for 15 minutes,after these,the product could be well preserved for more than 10 months.%研究提供了一种生产色、香、味俱佳的糟黄瓜的加工工艺、产品质量标准和基本调味料的最佳配方.研究结果表明,添加0.06%氯化钙,保脆效果好;基本调味料配方为鲜味剂添加量为0.9%,香辛料添加量为8%,甜味剂添加量为0.05%,香油添加量为0.4%;春、冬季节不添加防腐剂,夏、秋季节添加0.3‰的苯甲酸钠或山梨酸钾的基础上,采用95℃杀菌15 rmin的杀菌条件,可使产品的保质期达10个月以上.

  15. Effect of pickling processes on the microstructure and properties of electroless Ni–P coating on Mg–7.5Li–2Zn–1Y alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjie Xu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The electroless plating Ni–P is prepared on the surface of Mg–7.5Li–2Zn–1Y alloys with different pickling processes. The microstructure and properties of Ni–P coating are investigated. The results show that the Ni–P coatings deposited using the different pickling processes have a different high phosphorus content amorphous Ni–P solid solution structure, and the Ni–P coatings exhibit higher hardness. There is higher phosphorus content of Ni–P amorphous coating using 125 g/L CrO3 and 110 ml/L HNO3 (w=68% than using 180 g/L CrO3 and 1 g/L KF during pre-treatment, and the coating structure is more compact, and the Ni–P coatings exhibit more excellent adhesion with substrate (Fc up to 22 N. The corrosion potential of Ni–P coating is improved and exhibits good corrosion resistance. As a result, Mg-7.5Li-2Zn-1Y alloy is remarkably protected by the Ni–P coating.

  16. Comprehensive Utilization of the Metals in Waste Stainless Steel Pickling Liquor%不锈钢酸洗废液中金属的综合利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢明森; 高远飞; 张晓丽

    2015-01-01

    In order to utilizate the metals in waste stainless steel pickling liquor comprehensively. The method of fractional precipitation was used. On the basis of the different pH value that fractional precipitation required, and the different acidity of ferric hydroxide, chromium hydroxide and nickel hydroxide, reasonable separation process was designed. The influences of pH for separation efficiency of different metal ions were studied. The results showed that the metals in waste stainless steel pickling liquor could be separated well if the pH and the addition were selected correctly.%为了综合利用不锈钢酸洗废液中的金属,采用分步沉淀的方法分离不锈钢酸洗废液中的铁、铬、镍.根据它们沉淀所需要的pH值不同,以及氢氧化铁、氢氧化铬、氢氧化镍的酸碱性不同等因素,设计了合理的分离工艺.研究了pH值等因素对金属离子分离效果的影响.结果表明,选择合适的pH值和辅助添加剂可以很好地分离不锈钢酸洗废液中的不同金属离子.

  17. Urban mining. Copper extraction by cementation of composite packaging with used pickling acids; Urban mining. Kupfergewinnung durch Zementation von Composite-Verpackungen und Altbeizsaeuren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egenolf, Baerbel; Mrotzek, Asja; Deerberg, Goerge [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany); Erich, Egon; Gruening, Frank [Institut fuer Energie- und Umwelttechnik e.V. (IUTA), Duisburg (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The process design for resource recovery is presented, in which a waste stream of used pickling acid and of composite packaging is combined. Subsequent processing of secondary raw copper as cementation product conserves resources and saves energy. Packaging for liquid food (TetraPak etc.) and for powder is often built up of composites of paper, polyethylene and aluminium. For wet chemical treatment reject material (mostly paper fibre free, rough shredded) was used, which was examined according to its shredding behaviour. Used pickling acids are known in different compositions. The optimal conditions for the process have been identified within the wet chemical experiments. It was demonstrated that the aluminium oxide layer of the reject material could be depassivated by addition of chlorides. Regarding the reductive chemical reaction of the aluminium oxide layer it could be managed to carry out the wet chemical treatment with preservation of the valuable non-ferrous metals. For the wet chemical treatment, a newly developed combined screening stirred reactor proved particularly effective. The process happens in the reactor itself so that the product of the cementation settles and passes the sieve plate. Copper has been determined in fraction between 474 and 860 g/kg in the cementation product. From other Al-containing packaging (blisters etc.) copper has been obtained success fully in the cementation product, too. (orig.)

  18. Effect of pickling processes on the microstructure and properties of electroless Ni-P coating on Mg-7.5Li-2Zn-1Y alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunjie Xu; Liping Chen; Ling Yu; Jinxiao Zhang; Zhongming Zhang; Jincheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    The electroless plating Ni–P is prepared on the surface of Mg–7.5Li–2Zn–1Y alloys with different pickling processes. The microstructure and properties of Ni–P coating are investigated. The results show that the Ni–P coatings deposited using the different pickling processes have a different high phosphorus content amorphous Ni–P solid solution structure, and the Ni–P coatings exhibit higher hardness. There is higher phosphorus content of Ni–P amorphous coating using 125 g/L CrO3 and 110 ml/L HNO3 (w=68%) than using 180 g/L CrO3 and 1 g/L KF during pre-treatment, and the coating structure is more compact, and the Ni–P coatings exhibit more excellent adhesion with substrate (Fc up to 22 N). The corrosion potential of Ni–P coating is improved and exhibits good corrosion resistance. As a result, Mg-7.5Li-2Zn-1Y alloy is remarkably protected by the Ni–P coating.

  19. Taenia solium metacestode viability in infected pork after preparation with salt pickling or cooking methods common in Yucatán, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Canul, R; Argaez-Rodriguez, F; de, la Gala D Pacheco; Villegas-Perez, S; Fraser, A; Craig, P S; Cob-Galera, L; Dominguez-Alpizar, J L

    2002-04-01

    The cestode parasite Taenia solium is an important cause of foodborne infection throughout tropical and subtropical regions. Ingestion of pork meat infected with T. solium larvae can lead to taeniasis infection in humans. With tourism and the consumption of native food increasing, it is important to investigate potential risks of transmission associated with food preparation methods. In this study, traditional Mexican salt pickling and two methods of pork preparation (as roast pork [cochinita pibil] and in pork and beans [frijol con puerco]) were evaluated in order to determine their effects on T. solium cyst viability in infected tissue. In the control groups, all metacestodes isolated were 100% viable, and only small changes in pH (from 6.0 to 5.9) and temperature (29 to 30 degrees C) were recorded. No viable cysts were detected after 12 and 24 h of salt pickling. The pH of the meat during salting dropped from 6.0 to 5.3. Osmotic changes and dehydration from the salting, rather than a change in pH, could be considered the main cause of cyst death. Temperatures of >65 degrees C damaged T. solium metacestodes in roast pork and in pork and beans. The results of this study indicate that if traditional pork dishes are prepared properly, T. solium cysts are destroyed. The criteria used in this study to evaluate the viability of tissue cysts are discussed.

  20. The Determination of Nitrite from 13 Kinds of Pickled Vegetables in the Sale of Wulanchabu City%市售13种腌制蔬菜中亚硝酸盐含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚丽; 金宏; 李强; 李莹; 刘艳霞

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite is a kind of food additive, but it is a toxic substance, high content would endanger human health, we want to know about the content of nitrite from pickled vegetables in the sale of Wulanchabu city.The contents of nitrite in 13 kinds of preserved szechuan pickles were determined by spectrophotometric method.The results showed that the content level of nitrite were all below the Chinese National Food Standard in the preserved szechuan pickles, but the contents of nitrite in pickled was more than that in needle mushroom.%亚硝酸盐是食品添加剂中的一种,但它是一种有毒物质,含量高会危害人的身体健康,为了解乌兰察布市售腌制蔬菜中亚硝酸盐的含量。利用722型分光光度计测定了不同厂家的4种金针菇与同一厂家的9种酱腌菜中亚硝酸盐的含量,实验结果表明:酱腌菜中亚硝酸盐的含量>金针菇中亚硝酸盐的含量,但所测定的13种腌制蔬菜中亚硝酸盐含量均未超标。

  1. Study on Optimal Attack Position of Anti-Submarine Helicopter in Flight Pickle%反潜直升机飞行投雷最佳阵位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹏飞; 王光源; 赵轩坤

    2014-01-01

    为了获得反潜直升机飞行投雷最佳阵位,在分析直升机飞行投雷攻击过程的基础上,建立了投放参数解算模型和鱼雷捕获潜艇概率模型,利用蒙特卡罗法仿真分析了目标舷角和初始距离对鱼雷捕获概率的影响。仿真结果给出了直升机飞行投雷的最佳阵位,对直升机飞行投雷攻潜具有参考意义。%To obtain the optimal attack position of anti-helicopter in flight pickle,the attacking course of flight pickle is analysed in this paper,and a model to calculate airdrop parameters of flight pickle is built,following the model to calculate the capture probability of aerial torpedo. Then it simulated the effect of hull angle and initial distance on the capture probability of aerial torpedo. The results determine the optimal attack position,which has reference significance for flight pickle.

  2. Analysis on the production managerial mode of pickled sheet in the situation of limiting production in hot rolling%热轧限产情况下酸洗板的生产组织模式浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚筱春

    2011-01-01

    在热轧限产期间,酸洗板的生产组织模式发生变化,供料能力与热轧计划编制以及酸洗板钢种规格分布紧密相关.针对热轧酸洗板计划进行优化与拓展,同时对酸洗板订货合同的薄料比进行推荐,在热轧限产情况下确保了酸洗板机组的稳定生产.%During the period of limited the production of hot rolling, the production managerial mode of pickled sheet changed.Supply ability had a closed relationship with the rolling plan and steel grade and specification.The hot rolling plan of pickled sheet was optimized and expanded, at the same time, the thin sheet ratio of pickled sheet contract was commended, which ensured the stable production of pickled sheet in the situation of limiting production in hot rolling.

  3. 成都泡菜正成为调味品行业新的经济增长点%Chengdu pickled vegetable become the new economic growing point in the field of condiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李幼筠

    2000-01-01

    The pickled vegetable is a vegetable product, which has a long history and local characteristics and is loved very much by domestic. The pickled vegetable is mainly produced in Sichuan, especially in Chengdu. Chengdu pickled vegetable is famous in the world for its gross production,various kinds,special select and new craft. Chengdu pickled vegetable promotes the food products, such as vegetable plant, product package, etc. to develop greatly, and become the new economic growing point in the field of condiment.%泡菜是一种具有悠久历史和地方特色的乳酸发酵蔬菜制品,深受国人喜爱。泡菜主要产于四川,而以成都为最。成都泡菜以其产量大、品种多、选料精、酿造工艺新而著称于世。成都泡菜的新崛起,带动了种植、陶瓷、包装、餐饮等行业的发展,成为调味品行业新的经济增长点。

  4. 循环酸洗法在换热器清洗中的应用及推广%Application and Popularization of Circulation Pickling Method in Rinsing of Heat Exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      由于氮压机级间冷却器严重结垢,氮压机压缩气体的能力大大减小而且喘振现象频繁发生。通过对氮压机水路进行加装反冲洗阀的改造,并采用改进后的循环酸洗法对氮压机进行酸洗,从根本上解决了问题。阐述了氮压机的运行状况、改进后的循环酸洗方法及具体实施过程,介绍了氮压机级间冷却器清洗后的效果及循环酸洗阀的推广应用。%The compressed gas capacity of nitrogen compressor greatly reduces owing to serious scale of nitrogen compressor interstage cooler, and surge frequently occurs. A back-flushing valve is installed in water circuit of the nitrogen compressor and the improved cycle pickling method is used to pickle the nitrogen compressor. The above reconstruction ba-sically eliminates the serious scale. The operation status of the nitrogen compressor, the im-proved cycle pickling method and practical implementation process are presented. The effect of the nitrogen compressor interstage cooler and popularization and application of cycle pickling method are introduced.

  5. Processing of health mixed pickle%什锦养颜泡菜的加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晏昆; 李海; 赵凤; 杨振生

    2011-01-01

    随着人们生活水平日益提高,人们对各类保健食品的需求越来越大,因此研发具有时代特征的新型药膳保健食品顺应世界食品新潮流。研究把中医理论和现代食品发酵学理论结合起来,以白萝卜、胡萝卜、莴笋和红辣椒为原料,并以适当的比例混合,添加具有养颜功效的中药材枸杞、党参、桂圆、甘草和黄芪,采用正交优化试验。得出最佳的加工工艺条件为:药材量8%、盐浓度4%、糖浓度3%、发酵温度30℃、发酵时间7d。根据此条件可开发出具有养颜抗衰老功效的新型保健食品。%As the people’s living standards and increasing awareness of the various types of health food growing demand. Therefore research and development with the characteristics of the era of new medicinal health food to the world’s food trends. This study Chinese medicine theory and modern fermentation of food combining theory. This experiment take the turnip, the carrot, the asparagus lettuce and the red chilli mixed by a proper ratio as the raw material, and puts some traditional Chinese medicine materials which can make beauty effect such as the Fructus Lyeii, longans, padix codonopsis pilosulae, astragalus membranaceus into the raw materials test. The results as follow: Chinese medicinal materials 8%, salt 4%, sugar 1%, fermentation time was 7 days. According to these conditions, a new type health food of pickle with beautified and preventing senescence effects were produced.

  6. 栅栏技术在泡椒凤爪保藏中的应用%Application of Hurdle Technology in Pickled Chicken Feet Preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨欢; 李思宁; 闫志农; 卢晓黎

    2012-01-01

    应用栅栏技术,对泡椒凤爪的脂肪含量、水分活度、pH值及复合防腐剂的复配比例4个栅栏因子进行了研究,以感官评分和保藏时间为指标,确定泡椒风爪保藏的最佳栅栏条件。通过四因素三水平正交试验结果得到泡椒凤爪的最佳栅栏因子组合为:脂肪含量13.2g/100mL,水分活度0.809,pH4.0,复合防腐剂(乳酸链球菌素:双乙酸钠)添加量0.1g/100mL、复配比1:3。通过验证实验可知,在此条件下,泡椒凤爪于温度37℃、相对湿度80%、光照33%条件下可贮藏50d。%Hurdle technology was used to determine optimal conditions for preserving pickled chicken feet. Fat content, water activity, pH and nisin-to-sodium diacetate ratio were identified as hurdle factors. A four-factor, three-level orthogonal array design was used to optimize these hurdle factors based on sensory score and shelf life. The optimal hurdle conditions for preserving pickled chicken feet were established as follows: fat content 13.2 g/100 mL, water activity 0.809, pH 4.0 and a mixture of nisin of sodium diacetate at a ratio of 1:3 as a preservative. Under these conditions, the shelf life of pickled chicken feet in an environment of 37 ℃, 80% humidity and 33% light exposure was 50 day.

  7. 雪里蕻腌菜特征风味物质的分离和鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Typical Flavor Componentsof Potherb Mustard Pickles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵大云; 汤坚; 丁霄霖

    2001-01-01

    运用色-质(GC/MS)联用技术对雪里蕻腌菜的风味物质进行了研究,以期发现能显著影响其风味特性的关键性成分.首先,对雪里蕻腌菜卤汁的乙醚萃取浓缩液组分进行了鉴定,结果发现有机酸组分8个,醇类组分4个,腈类组分2个,酯类组分1个,芳香烃2个.经动态顶空吸附雪里蕻腌菜挥发性组分并进行组分离,在GC-MS图谱上进行组分的分离鉴定,其特征风味在碱性组分中嗅感强烈.雪里蕻腌菜挥发性成分经GC-MS检测解析为烃类、醇类、酯类、腈及杂环化合物,其中丁烯腈及苯并噻唑与雪里蕻腌菜特征风味形成密切相关.%The spectra patterns of volatile flavor components in potherb mustard pickles detected by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectometry(GC/MS) were investigated in order to identify key compounds in the pickles. The constituents from pickle brine extracted with ethyl ether and identified by GC-MS. In the result, 8 acids, 4 alcohol, 2 nitriles, 2benzines and 1 ester were identified. The application of dynamic headspace trapping using a glass column trap contained HayeSep Q as absorbent combined with GC-MS technique for the volatile flavor analyses and identification was studied. The volatile components from the trapping were collected and presented into acidic, weak acidic, neutral and basic fraction, the basic fraction contained character-impact compounds by means of olfactory evaluation. Two key compounds, butenenitrile and benzothiazole, were found.

  8. Competition for in vitro (/sup 3/H)gibberellin A/sub 4/ binding in cucumber by gibberellins and their derivatives. [Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalpani, N.; Srivastava, L.M.

    1985-12-01

    The gibberellin (GA) binding properties of a cytosol fraction from hypocotyls of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling) were examined using a DEAE filter paper assay, (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 4/, and over 20 GAs, GA derivatives and other growth regulators. The results demonstrate structural specificity of the binding protein for ..gamma..-lactonic C-19 GAs with a 3 ..beta..-hydroxyl and a C-6 carboxyl group. Additional hydroxylations of the A, C, or D ring of the ent-gibberellane skeleton and methylation of the C-6 carboxyl impede or abolish binding affinity. Bioassay data are generally supported by the in vitro results but significantly GA/sub 9/ and GA/sub 36/, both considered to be precursors of GA/sub 4/ in cucumber, show no affinity for the binding protein. The results are discussed in relation to the active site of the putative GA/sub 4/ receptor in cucumber.

  9. Study on restraining pickling pelts swelling used by several sulfoacid%几种磺酸抑制酸皮膨胀性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兴幸; 张辉; 强西怀; 许伟; 王亚辉; 同晨博

    2016-01-01

    利用5‐磺基水杨酸、对甲基苯磺酸、牛磺酸、十二烷基磺酸、氨基磺酸、苯胺‐2,5‐双磺酸分别单独用作少盐浸酸助剂.研究发现:在磺酸用量为灰皮重3%的情况下,5‐磺基水杨酸与苯胺‐2,5‐双磺酸的抑制膨胀性能较为显著,膨胀度分别为3.1%和6.5%;当5‐磺基水杨酸与苯胺‐2,5‐双磺酸用量为3.5%左右时,皮块膨胀均可以被完全抑制.当2%苯胺‐2,5‐双磺酸与2.5%合成鞣剂复配用于浸酸,发现皮块不膨胀.与常规浸酸铬鞣相比,单纯利用3.5%苯胺‐2,5‐双磺酸或2%苯胺‐2,5‐双磺酸与2.5%合成鞣剂复配进行浸酸鞣制完全免去了食盐的使用,蓝湿革断面纤维分散状态及成革力学性能变化不大.%5‐sulfosalicylic acid ,methyl benzene sulfonic acid ,taurine ,dodecyl sulfonic acid ,a‐mino sulfonic acid ,aniline‐2 ,5‐double sulfonic acid were used as low‐salt pickling agent re‐spectively .Results showed that :restraining swelling performance of 5‐sulfosalicylic acid and aniline‐2 ,5‐double sulfonic acid is significant on the dosage of sulfonic acid is 3% based on limed weight and the swelling degree were 3 .1% and 6 .5% ,respectively ;swelling of pickling pelts can be completely restrained on the both dosage of 5‐sulfosalicylic acid and aniline‐2 ,5‐double sulfonic acid is 3 .5 .When 2% aniline‐2 ,5‐double sulfonic acid was compound with 2 . 5% synthetic tanning agent used for pickling process ,the pelts was not swelling .Compared with the conventional pickle‐chrome tanning ,only 3 .5% aniline‐2 ,5‐double sulfonic acid or 2% aniline‐2 ,5‐double sulfonic acid compound with 2 .5% synthetic tanning agent were used to pickling tanning process ,this process completely removes the use of salt ,fiber dispersion state of wet‐blue leather cross‐section and mechanical properties of had little changed .

  10. Study on Prevention and Control Technique of Pickled Radish Soft Rot%泡菜萝卜软腐病防治技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉茂林; 彭化贤; 刘独臣; 雍晓平; 陈琳

    2012-01-01

    Through influencing factors screening of disease resistance, different varieties, chemistry agents, planting ways and soil disinfection ways prevention and control technique of pickle radish soft rot was put forward. The ways were disease resistance/tolerance variety of pickled radish selecton, such as Luluo 5, long-white Japanese radish, C9292; ridge culture adopton, and rotaton different types of same species and rotating different crop plant. Soft rot could be effectively reduced by this method: soil disinfect with lime 2.25 t/hm2 before sowing seeds, "kejia" 2 000 mg/kg or thiazole copper 1 500 mg/kg to sprinkle radish root at the early infection once a week for 3 times.%通过不同萝卜品种抗病性筛选,不同化学药剂、种植方式及土壤消毒方式对萝卜软腐病的影响研究,提出泡菜萝卜软腐病防治技术.结果表明,选用抗(耐)病萝卜品种如泸萝5号、日本长白萝卜、C9292,采用垄作,同种不同类型萝卜品种轮作或不同作物轮茬,播种前每公顷土壤用石灰2.25 t撒施消毒,发病初期用科佳2000 mL/L或噻唑铜1500 mL/L淋根,每隔7d淋灌一次,连续3次,可有效减轻萝卜软腐病的发生.

  11. 钢管酸洗液制作聚氯化铁的方法与应用%Study on Poly Ferric Chloride from Steel Pickling Acid Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛胜

    2012-01-01

    利用钢管酸洗液制备了一种高效无机絮凝剂一聚合氯化铁,对制作工艺进行了研究并对实际效果进行了验证。研究结果表明:根据盐酸洗管废液中游离酸与铁的含量,采用铁屑等含铁原料调整铁的含量,加入聚合稳定剂与原料充分反应后,加入聚合氧化剂进行氧化聚合,最后用盐酸来调整盐基度。制备的高浓度聚合氯化铁具有比聚合硫酸铁更好的混凝除浊的能力,并便于贮存,适用于给水及污水处理。%The preparing method and effect of inorganic polymer flocculant poly - ferric chloride was explored from steel pickling acid waste. The results showed that the mass proportion of Fe^2 + could be controlled according to the free acidity and Fe^2+ in steel pickling acid waste. After addition of poly - stabilizer and raw materials with oxidants, the average basicity was adjusted by HCI. The product could be applied in treating low turbidity water, the waste water of synthetic detergent.

  12. 产细菌素植物乳杆菌纯种半固态发酵对泡菜品质的影响%Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum producing bacteriocine on pickle quality in semi-solid-state fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩新锋; 刘书亮; 张艾青; 杜晓华

    2012-01-01

    以产细菌素植物乳杆菌纯种半固态发酵制作什锦泡菜,同时以其纯种液态发酵泡菜和传统自然发酵泡菜为对照,比较三种泡菜在发酵过程和贮藏期间感官、理化指标与微生物菌相变化规律,评价半固态发酵对泡菜品质的影响.结果表明,该菌株纯种发酵制作的泡菜感官品质优于自然发酵泡菜,细菌、酵母菌、霉菌、大肠菌群数量均显著低于自然发酵泡菜;其中,纯种半固态发酵泡菜发酵过程pH值下降最迅速、泡菜中乳酸菌活菌数量高(108cfu/g)、亚硝酸盐含量低且无明显“亚硝峰”出现;说明产细菌素植物乳杆菌纯种半固态发酵制作什锦泡菜品质优于纯种液态发酵和自然发酵泡菜.%Mixed pickles were prepared by Lactobacillus plantarum producing bacteriocine with semi-solid fermentation; meanwhile pickles prepared by pure liquid fermentation and traditional natural fermentation were set as controls. Oranoleptic indicator, physical and chemical indicator, microorganism changes were compared during fermentation and storage to evaluate the effect of semi-solid fermentation. The results showed that the oranoleptic indicator of the pickles with pure semi-solid fermentation was superior to those with natural fermentation; the numbers of total plate counts, yeasts, moulds, coliform group were significantly lower than those of natural fermentation, respectively. The pH value of the pickles prepared by semi-solid fermentation decreased quickly, the numbers of viable lactic acid bacteria in the pickles with semi-solid fermentation were 108cfu/g, and the nitrites contents were low which had no obvious nitrites peak. The results indicated that the mixed pickles prepared by L. plantarum producing bacteriocine with pure semi-solid fermentation had a high quality among three kinds of fermentation.

  13. Pickles, pectin, and penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, Arnold L

    2004-01-01

    My professional life has been devoted to the study of microbial products and their biosynthesis, regulation, and overproduction. These have included primary metabolites (glutamic acid, tryptophan, inosinic acid, guanylic acid, vitamin B(12), riboflavin, pantothenic acid, ethanol, and lactic acid) and secondary metabolites (penicillin, cephalosporins, streptomycin, fosfomycin, gramicidin S, rapamycin, indolmycin, microcin B17, fumagillin, mycotoxins, Monascus pigments, and tetramethylpyrazine). Other areas included microbial nutrition, strain improvement, bioconversions of statins and beta-lactams, sporulation and germination, plasmid stability, gel microdroplets, and the production of double-stranded RNA, the polymer xanthan, and enzymes (polygalacturonase, protease, cellulase). Most of the studies were carried out with me by devoted and hardworking industrial scientists for 15 years at Merck & Co. and by similarly characterized students, postdoctorals, and visiting scientists during my 32 years at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. I owe much of my success to my mentors from academia and industry. My recent research activities with undergraduate students at the Charles A. Dana Research Institute for Scientists Emeriti (R.I.S.E.) at Drew University have been very rewarding and are allowing me to continue my career.

  14. Test of Different Flavors Blending for the Pickled Tea Food%不同风味泡制型酸茶产品调配方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪; 张文杰; 黄友谊

    2016-01-01

    With fermented pickled tea as raw material for deep processing, five pickled tea food with different flavors, namely original, sweet spice powder, pungent and lobster sauce, were produced preliminary, which created a new way of developing and utilizing fresh summer and autumn tea leaves and, enriched the category of deep processed tea products.%以发酵成熟的泡制型酸茶为原料进行深加工,初步开发出了原味、甜味、五香味、酱香味、辣味5种不同风味的腌制类茶食品,为夏秋茶树鲜叶的开发利用提供新途径,同时丰富了茶叶深加工产品的种类。

  15. The Influence of Functional Ol igosaccharide and Active Peptide on Nitrite Content in Fermented Pickles%功能性低聚糖、活性肽对泡菜发酵亚硝酸盐含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍玲玲; 郑琳

    2014-01-01

    以白菜、萝卜、甘蓝为原料,研究自然发酵过程中分别添加半乳甘露聚糖和酪蛋白磷酸肽对泡菜中亚硝酸盐含量的影响。结果表明:半乳甘露聚糖和酪蛋白磷酸肽对亚硝酸盐有清除作用,降低了亚硝酸盐对泡菜制品的安全性威胁。%Take Chinese cabbage,radish and cabbage as materials,study the effects of adding GMOS and CPP on nitrite content in fermented pickles during natural fermentation process.The results show that GMOS and CPP have scavenging effects on nitrite,and they could reduce the security threats of nitrite content to fermented pickles products.

  16. Impact of the Ferric Ion and Ferrous Ion Changes on Industrial Boilers Acid Pickling%铁离子、亚铁离子变化对工业锅炉酸洗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢桂杰

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the source of ferric ion in industrial boiler acid pickling, and proposes to strengthen the chemical monitoring of ferric ion and ferrous ion(Fe3+、Fe2+)by examples, to ensure the safety of acid pickling of boiler and the judgment of end.%介绍工业锅炉酸洗中铁离子的来源,并以实例说明酸洗中应强化对铁离子、亚铁离子(Fe3+、Fe2+)的化学监测,使锅炉酸洗安全进行,及终点的判断。

  17. 马钢酸洗线活套的控制原理与应用%The Control Principle and Application of Loop in the Continuous Pickling Line of MaSteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴霄

    2015-01-01

    The basic structure and control principle of loop in the continuous pickling line of MaSteel was introduced. Loop control was discussed in detail and a method to treat loop tension fluctuation was put forward combining with the actual field condition. This pro-cess control system was successfully applied in the pickling line of MaSteel.%主要介绍马钢连续酸洗生产线活套的基本结构与控制原理。重点对活套控制进行了详细的阐述,并结合现场实际情况给出了处理活套张力波动的一种方法,此过程控制系统已在马钢酸洗生产线取得了成功的应用。

  18. Research of texture of artificial inoculation and natural fermentation of pickled cowpea%人工接种与自然发酵泡豇豆的质地研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪; 车振明; 陈坤; 朱胜华

    2012-01-01

    比较人工接种和自然发酵泡豇豆质地,采用TA-XT2i质构分析仪对泡豇豆的质地进行测定,优选出测试泡豇豆质地的参数。应用最优参数对人工接种与自然发酵泡豇豆的硬度、弹性、粘聚性、胶着性、咀嚼度、回复性等质地进行测定。并结合感官评定根据测出的数据和相关曲线进行纵向、横向的对比分析。实验结果袁明,泡豇豆质地测定较优参数:测试速率为2.0mm/s、力的大小为5.0g和压缩量为30%。泡豇豆各个质地指标呈显著相关,感官评价与质地数据变化趋势基本一致,人工接种比自然发酵泡豇豆的质地变化快,成熟周期缩短,保持了与自然接种泡豇豆一致的风味.该研究为泡菜质地的变化提供一定的科学数据。%The texture of pickled cowpea between artificial inoculation and natural fermentation was compared and measured by using TA-XT2i Texture Analyzer,and optimized the test-parameters of the quality of a material of pickled cowpea. Then measured texture of the artificial inoculation and the natural fermentation of pickled cowpea from hardness,springiness,sohesiveness,gumminess, chewiness, resilience etc. According to the measured data and related regression model for longitudinal and transverse comparative analysis,combined with comprehensive analysis of sensory evaluation of pickled cowpea. The results showed that the more optimized test-parameters of pickled cowpea were:at a rate of 2.0mm/s,the force was 5.0g and compression value was 30%. The textures of pickled cowpea had significant correlation,basically sensual evaluation and texture data had same trend. The artificial inoculation changed faster and shorter than natural fermentation pickled cowpea at fermentation period,meanwhile maintained the consistent flavor with the natural pickled cowpea,this study provided some scientific data for the changes textures of kimchi.

  19. Research of the Quality and Sterilizing Effect of the Pickles by Ultrahigh Pressure Treatment%超高压处理泡菜的品质及杀菌效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文连奎; 路鑫; 管文荻; 董昕

    2014-01-01

    以甘蓝为原料加工泡菜。在单因素试验的基础上,选取超高压的压力、保压时间、食盐含量3个变量,进行Box-Behnken响应面设计,从而对泡菜的感官品质及杀菌效果进行优化。结果表明超高压处理泡菜的最佳工艺参数为压力350 MPa、保压时间15 min、食盐含量3.5%,泡菜的综合评分达到5.993。在保证泡菜品质的前提下,可有效杀死微生物,且大肠菌群检测均为阴性。%This experiment processed the pickles with cabbages as raw materials. Process variables such as pressure、pressure-holding time、salinity were optimized using response surface methodology on the basis of one-factor-at-a-time experiments, thus sensory quality and Sterilization process of pickles were optimized as well. The results indicated that the optimum technological parameters were pressure of 350 MPa、pressure-holding time of 15 min and salinity of 3.5 %. Under these conditions, synthetic mark of pickled vegetables by using the ultrahigh pressure was 5.993. Under the premise of ensuring quality of pickled vegetables, the ultrahigh pressure can effectively kill microorganisms,In the experiment Coliform-group bacteria detection were totally negative.

  20. AZ31变形镁合金化学镀前无铬酸洗工艺研究%An Investigation of Chromium-Free Pickling Process for Electroless Nickel Plating on AZ 31 Wrought Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦铁男; 马立群; 贺忠臣; 姚妍; 丁毅

    2011-01-01

    主要研究了AZ 31变形镁合金化学镀前的磷酸-硝酸-氢氟酸混合酸洗工艺及各组分对镁合金基体的腐蚀失重表面形貌、镀层与基体的截面形貌和结合力的影响.结果表明:氢氟酸的加入可以有效降低酸洗反应速率并防止新鲜的镁合金基体表面的再次氧化;硝酸的体积分数对镁合金表面形貌的改变有较大影响;当磷酸-硝酸-氢氟酸的体积分数分别为300 mL/L,60 mL/L和100 mL/L时,镀层与基体的结合力最好.%A phosphoric acid-nitric acid-hydrofuoric acid mixed acid pickling process was studied for electroless nickel plating on AZ 31 wrought magnesium alloy sheet. The effects of pickle components on corrosion weight loss, surface morphology, cross section morphology and adhesion strength between the substrate and coating were investigated. The results show that addition of hydrofluoric acid can effectively reduce the rate of pickling reaction and protect the fresh substrate from being Oxidized again. The volume fraction of nitric acid has a great impact on changes of the surface morphology of magnesium substrate. The best adhesion strength between the substrate and the coating is achieved when the pickle solution contains 300 mL/L phosphoric acid, 60 mL/L nitric acid and 100 mL/L hydrofluoric acid.

  1. 接种乳酸菌对发酵萝卜品质及亚硝酸盐含量的影响%Effects of Different Lactobacillus Strains Inoculation on Nitrite Content and Sensory Quality of Pickled Radish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清; 王英; 刘小莉; 周剑忠; 董明盛

    2015-01-01

    Three different lactobacillus strains including Lactobacillus plantarum SD-7, Lactobacillus plantarum 9sh, and Lac-tobacillus casei L3 were singly or mixedly inoculated into the pickled radish .The hardness , sensory quality , nitrite content , and pH-value of the pickled radish in the fermentation process were analyzed .The results showed that lactobacillus inoculation could ef-fectively reduce the content of nitrite in the pickled radish , and shorten the fermentation period .Among various lactobacillus inocu-lation treatments, the mixed SD-7 +L3 (1∶1) inoculation had the best fermentation effects , and the prepared pickled radish pos-sessed the lowest nitrite content , the best sensory quality , and better hardness .%单一或混合接种植物乳杆菌SD-7(Lactobacillus plantarum SD-7)、植物乳杆菌9sh(Lactobacillus plantarum 9sh)和干酪乳杆菌L3(Lactobacillus casei L3)来发酵萝卜,对发酵过程中萝卜泡菜的硬度、感官品质、亚硝酸盐含量及pH值进行了分析。结果表明:接种乳酸菌发酵萝卜能明显降低萝卜中亚硝酸盐的含量,缩短发酵周期,其中混合接种SD-7+L3(1∶1)发酵萝卜所得泡菜的亚硝酸盐含量最低,感官品质最佳,硬度较好。

  2. Study on the Production of Cucumber Pickle Fermented with DVS Lactic Acid Bacteria%直投式乳酸菌发酵黄瓜泡菜工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏举; 孙月娥; 马莉; 郑义

    2014-01-01

    The processing technology of cucumber pickle fermented with DVS lactic acid bacteria is investigated through single factor test and the orthogonal test.The results show that the optimum fermentation parameters of artificial fermented pickles are:1‰ DVS lactic acid bacteria,4% sucrose, 8% NaCl,4% ginger,4% garlic,0.3% CaCl2 ,the fermentation temperature of 30 ℃,and the fermentation period of 5 days.Under the optimal fermentation conditions,the cucumber pickle is with normal color,gentle aroma,crisp and delicate taste.%采用单因素实验和正交试验设计对直投式乳酸菌制剂生产黄瓜泡菜的加工工艺进行研究。结果表明:人工发酵生产泡菜的最佳工艺参数为直投式乳酸菌制剂添加量1‰、蔗糖4%、食盐8%、姜4%、蒜4%、氯化钙0.3%、最适发酵温度30℃、发酵周期5天。在此条件下制备的泡菜色泽正常、香气柔和、口感清脆、滋味可口。

  3. Effect of lactic acid bacteria inoculated on sensory quality and nitrite concentration of pickles%人工接种乳酸菌对泡菜感官品质和亚硝酸盐含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁亚; 池金颖; 黄丹丹; 赵山山; 张秋香; 陈卫

    2012-01-01

    研究了不同的乳酸菌菌种、添加比例、添加量和加糖量对泡菜pH和亚硝酸盐含量的动态变化。通过单因素研究和优化实验,确定了乳酸菌菌种、添加比例、添加总量和加糖量。结果表明,植物乳杆菌和干酪乳杆菌混合发酵泡菜,添加比例为2∶1时,泡菜的发酵时间明显缩短,泡菜的色、香、味较好,亚硝酸盐含量显著降低。%The study aimed to analyze the change of pH and nitrite concentration during the fermentation of pickles with different strains,proportion and amount of Lactobacillus and different amount of sugar.Through single factor and optimal experiments,type,proportion and amount of strains was determined.The results showed that the proportion of L.plantarum and L.casei was 2∶1,the fermentation cycle of pickles was shortened,pickle had better sensory state,nitrite concentration was obviously degraded.

  4. 菊芋对四川泡菜储藏期间品质变化影响的研究%Study on the Effects of Jerusalem Artichoke on the Quality Changes in the Natural Fermentation of Pickle during Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓莉

    2012-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke was rich in amino acid, sugar and vitamin, and used for curing pickles or pickled made. Merchant artichoke, Chinese cabbage, radish as raw materials in the salt concentration was 6% , under natural fer-mentation conditions, the comparison experiment of pickle contend Jerusalem artichoke and without was carried out. The results showed that adding the Jerusalem artichoke had little effects on the pH value and total acidity, but increased the ni-trite and ammonia nitrogen content significantly.%菊芋富含氨基酸、糖分和维生素,多用来腌制咸菜或制成泡菜。以市售菊芋、白菜、萝b为原料在食盐浓度为6%、自然发酵条件下的含菊芋的泡菜和不含菊芋的泡菜进行比较实验,实验结果表明:添加菊芋对泡菜pH值、总酸度影响不大,明显增加了亚硝酸盐和氨态氮含量。

  5. Studies on the flavor substances of pickled Brassicajuncea, Coss. ( Ⅰ )%雪里蕻腌菜风味物质的研究(Ⅰ)雪里蕻腌菜氨基酸及有机酸成分检测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵大云; 丁霄霖

    2000-01-01

    The determination and analysis of organic acid and mnino acid components in two kinds of pickled Brassia juncea, Coss. was described. The results showed that the mainorganic acids in pickle brine was lactic, acetic, citric, succinic and malic acid. The total content of amino acids in pickle brine was about 1%. It was observed that the strong tasty amino acids Asp and Glu changed significantly during pickling. The longer was pickling time, the higher was the content of total Asp and Glu. The correlation coefficient with model composition of amino acids in two kinds of pickles showed that the proteins in pickled Brassica juncea, Coss. were healthful for consumers.%借助于离子色谱(IC)和氨基酸分析仪对两种市场销售的成雪菜中的有机酸和氨基酸成分进行了检测。检测结果为,成雪菜卤汁中的有机酸主要为乳酸、醋酸、柠檬酸、丁二酸和苹果酸。咸雪菜卤汁中的氨基酸含量高达1%左右,卤汁和菜体中呈鲜味的主要氨基酸Glu和Asp的总含量随着腌渍时间的延长,增加的幅度很大。咸雪菜中的蛋白质是一种符合人体需要的良好蛋白质。

  6. Produtividade de pepino para processamento no Vale do São Francisco Productivity of pickling cucumber in the São Francisco Valley, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Milanez de Resende

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar as cultivares mais produtivas de pepino para processamento, instalaram-se dois experimentos de maio a agosto de 1997, em Petrolina, PE. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, com 18 tratamentos e três repetições. A parcela foi composta de quatro linhas de 3,0 m de comprimento, com espaçamento de 1,0x0,30 m. Os frutos comerciais foram classificados na categoria conserva com 6 a 12 cm, e categoria cornichon, com 4,0 a 5,5 cm de comprimento. Na categoria conserva, as cultivares Eureka (34,54 t/ha e Francipak (33,72 t/ha destacaram-se em termos de produtividade. As cultivares Pioneiro, Vlaspik e Wisconsin SMR 18 apresentaram os menores desempenhos (21,43 a 23,45 t/ha. Verificou-se uma variação de 30,74 a 37,79 g/fruto e 9,01 a 14,81 frutos/planta. Na categoria cornichon, destacaram-se as cultivares Vlasset e Supremo, seguidas de Vlasstar e Prêmio, com produtividades acima de 10,0 t/ha. O pior desempenho foi da cultivar Wisconsin SMR 18, cuja produção de frutos foi 5,61 t/ha. Foram obtidas variações de 6,09 a 7,27 g/fruto e 11,48 a 24,15 frutos/planta.With the objective of indicating pickling cucumber cultivars of high productivity, two field experiments were carried out in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil, from May to August of 1997. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 18 treatments and three replications. Experimental plots consisted of four rows of 3 m long, and the plants were on a 1.00x0.30 m spacing grid. The commercial fruits were classified as pickling (fruits length from 6 to 12 cm and cornichon (from 4.0 to 5.5 cm. The cultivars Eureka (34.54 t/ha and Francipak (33.72 t/ha presented the highest yield for pickling. The cultivars Pioneiro, Vlaspik and Wisconsin SMR 18 showed the lowest yield varying from 21.43 to 23.45 t/ha. There was a variation from 30.74 to 37.79 g/fruit and from 9.01 to 14.81 fruit/plant. For cornichon stood out the cultivars

  7. 提高青菜头泡菜品质初探%Initial Studies on Improving Quality of Mustard Tube Pickle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾凡坤; 侯东军

    2011-01-01

    The multiplication of Bifidobacterium Longum in artificial inoculate pickles fermented by Lactobacillus plantamm was mainly studied in the paper. A few of growth factors were compared. The medium fermented solution formula and the best conditions were determined. The Bifidobacterium Longum number of pickle in different packages were compared finally. The results showed that: three different extraction liquid of Jerusalem artichoke, potatoes, soybean had proliferation faction to Bifidobacterium Longumr and Jerusalem artichoke was the best. 20% tomato juice and 2% extractions from Jerusalem artichoke in skim milk could accelerate to produce acid and attain higher Bifidobacterium Longum number. The best formula of fermenting liquid was 1.0% salt, 20% tomato juice, 1.0% glucose, 2.0% soybean milk and 2% Jerusalem artichoke extraction. The best mixed fermentation conditions were bacteria ratio of 2:1, pH6.8 inoculum concentration of 6% at 36 °C. Pickle had a good taste with ratio of mixed at 1:2 of Bifidobacterium Longum and lactobacillus, cultured for 18~24h and 16h individually. The vacuum-packed could be good to keep higher Bifidobacterium Longum number.%本文研究了长双歧杆菌在人工接种植物乳杆菌发酵泡菜中的增殖情况,比较了几种双歧增殖因子,确定了种子培养基、发酵液配方、最佳发酵条件及单一发酵后产品混合配比,并研究了泡菜在不同包装条件下长双歧杆菌活菌数变化情况.结果表明:菊芋、马铃薯、大豆三种抽提液均对长双歧杆菌有增殖作用,菊芋抽提液效果更好.脱脂乳+20%番茄汁+2%菊芋抽提液作为种子培养基产酸速度快,双歧杆菌活菌数高;发酵液最佳配方:1.0%食盐、20%番茄汁、1.0%葡萄糖、2.0%豆浆、2.0%菊芋抽提液;混菌发酵条件∶接种比例为2∶1、接种量为6%、发酵温度36℃、初始pH值为6.8;长双歧杆菌和植物乳杆菌分别单一培养18h~24h和16h后,按1∶2混

  8. Effect of different pickling salt concentration on taste, texture and volatile flavor compounds of mustard root%盐分腌制对大头菜滋味、质构和挥发性成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭秀兰; 唐仁勇; 刘达玉; 邹强; 张坤琼; 袁婷

    2015-01-01

    为寻找适当的腌制大头菜食盐浓度,采用不同浓度食盐腌制并发酵大头菜,考察对大头菜成品的食盐含量、感官、理化、质构和挥发性物质的影响.结果发现,6%和8%低盐腌制大头菜的感官得分较高,其氨基酸态氮含量较高,pH值更低,乙醇含量也较少,芳香物质更加丰富,其中8%组的亚硝酸盐含量最低,质地感官评分最好,且TPA测试的硬度和咀嚼性较好.实验结果表明,6%~8%的食盐腌制大头菜增加乳酸菌的活力和同型发酵,提升了产品的滋味、香味和质构品质.%This study aimed to look for a proper sodium chloride concentration to pickle mustard root.The mustard root was pickled and fermented with different salt concentration.The effects on the salt concentration,sense score,chemical index,texture quality and volatile flavor compounds of pickled food were investigated.The results indicated that mustard root pickled with 6% and 8% salt concentration had better sense score,more amino acids nitrogen content,lower pH,less ethanol content,and more flavor compounds.The 8% treatment had lowest nitrite content,better texture sense score,TPA hardness and chewiness.These results suggested that using 6% ~ 8% salt concentration to pickle mustard root could not only increase lactic acid bacteria activity and homotype fermentation,but also improve taste,flavor and texture quality of the product.

  9. 非直接接触式金属热还原制备金属钛的酸洗分离%Effects of Pickling on Purification of Titanium Prepared by Metallothermic Reduction with an Indirect Contact Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑海燕; 谷健; 王治卿; 沈峰满

    2012-01-01

    主要探讨酸洗条件对非直接接触式金属热还原后产物中杂质的洗除效果.研究表明,采用醋酸盐酸联合酸洗方案可去除金属热还原产物中的杂质(CaO,Ca,CaTiO3),达到提纯金属Ti的目的;Ti不与醋酸反应,但能溶于浓盐酸,故盐酸酸洗时间不能过长,否则金属Ti溶解,造成Ti损失,影响Ti收得率;酸洗过程中酸体积浓度越大,酸洗时间越长,金属Ti的纯度越高.综合考虑酸耗、酸洗效率和Ti的溶损等因素,采用体积浓度50%醋酸酸洗6 h和体积浓度20%盐酸酸洗0.5 h的联合酸洗方案效果最好.%The influences of pickling conditions on the purification effect of the titanium product from indirect-contact metallothermic reduction were investigated.The experiment results show that it is feasible to remove oxides and impurity elements from metallothermic reduction product by acid pickling for producing high-purity titanium.Titanium doesn't react with acetic acid,but dissolves in hydrochloric acid slowly,and thus the pickling time should not be too long.Otherwise the titanium loss due to dissolution will lead to decrease of its yield.With the increase of acid concentration and pickling time,the purity of metallic titanium increases.Considering the purity and the yield of titanium,the optimum pickling conditions are determined as the combination of 50% volume concentration acetic acid for 6 h and 20% volume concentration hydrochloric acid for 0.5 h.

  10. 浸酸去除SiC微粉中Fe2O3的工艺技术研究%Research on acid pickling to remove Fe2O3 from SiC micropowder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮; 王军

    2012-01-01

    The SiC micropowder prepared by a jet mill was used as starting material to remove Fe2O3 by acid pickling. According to condition experiment, the suitable experimental conditions are: HCI (about 35 mass%) as pickling acid,mass ratio of HCI: SiC micropowder about 4:1,pickling temperature about 70 ℃ and pickling time 4 h. Based on the above results, orthogonal tests were conducted, the final optimal technological parameters are: pickling temperature 60 ℃,mass ratio of HCI: SiC micropowder about 4:1, HCI 35 mass%. Stable experiment shows that the extraction ratio of Fe2O3 is over 80%, and the Fe2O3 removing effect is obvious.%为了去除SiC微粉制备过程中引入的含铁杂质(主要以Fe2O3的形式存在),以气流磨加工所得的SiC微粉为原料,采用浸酸法去除其中的Fe2O3.首先通过条件试验得出大致的浸出试验条件为:浸出酸选择盐酸,其HCl质量分数选择35%左右,浸出酸与微粉质量比选择4∶1左右,浸出温度选择70℃左右,浸出时间选择4h.然后通过正交试验得出用盐酸从SiC微粉中浸出Fe2O3的最佳工艺参数为:浸出温度60℃,浸出酸与微粉质量比4∶1,盐酸的w(HCl) =35%.稳定试验表明:在此工艺下的Fe2O3浸出率达80%以上,除Fe2O3效果较明显.

  11. Effect of ultra-high pressure sterilization on shelf life of chicken feet with pickled peppers%超高压灭菌对泡椒凤爪保质期的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建设; 李楠; 黄训文

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ultra-high pressures on sensory quality and microorganism of chicken feet with pickled peppers was studied. The effect of treating pressure 400MPa, 500MPa and 600MPa and holding time 5 min and 10 min on sensory quality and microorganism of chicken feet with pickled peppers was analyzed. The results showed that colony count and coliform group of chicken feet with pickled pep⁃pers which were treated by ultra-high pressure treatment were obviously reduced during cold storage. The shelf life of chicken feet with pickled peppers added with preservatives or not could be prolonged to 90 days and 30 days respectively. The optimum treatment parameter was 400MPa for 5min which could prolong the shelf life of chicken feet with pickled peppers to 90 days with the addition of preservatives.%研究了超高压杀菌对泡椒凤爪感官品质和微生物的影响,分析了400MPa、500MPa、600MPa处理压力,保压时间分别为5min、10min对泡椒凤爪冷藏过程中感官品质及微生物的影响。结果表明:超高压处理显著降低冷藏过程中泡椒凤爪的菌落总数和大肠菌群,添加防腐剂可延长泡椒凤爪的货架期至90d,不添加防腐剂可延长泡椒凤爪的货架期至30d。综上本研究的最佳处理参数为:在添加防腐剂的情况下,超高压400MPa下处理5min,可延长泡椒凤爪货架期至90d。

  12. 自然发酵酸菜汁中乳杆菌的分离鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Lactobacillus Strains from Naturally Fermented Pickle Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武俊瑞; 李欣; 张苗; 李晓忱; 杨臣辰; 岳喜庆

    2012-01-01

    通过选择性培养和形态学观察,从分别采自辽宁省阜新、葫芦岛、兴城、营口、锦州的5份传统发酵酸菜汁中,分离纯化和筛选出4株具有耐酸特性的乳杆菌疑似菌株(HLD1-3、YK1-2、JZ6-3、XC4-4),并对其进行运动性、过氧化氢酶、石蕊牛乳、明胶液化、不同温度生长、不同NaCl质量浓度生长、糖发酵实验等传统生理生化鉴定和16S rDNA序列分析,进一步鉴定其属种。二者结果均表明:4株耐酸乳酸菌均属于乳杆菌属,其中,HLD1-3和YK1-2属于乳杆菌属的清酒乳杆菌种,而JZ6-3和XC4-4属于乳杆菌属的植物乳杆菌种。由此可以推断,东北自然发酵酸菜可作为潜在益生乳酸菌分离筛选的资源库。%Four acid-tolerant suspected Lactobacillus strains(HLD1-3,YK1-2,JZ6-3 and XC4-4) were isolated from five traditional pickle juices respectively collected from five regions of Liaoning province by selective cultivation and morphological observation.The four strains were identified based on physicochemical properties such as motility,catalase activity,litmus milk test,gelatin liquefaction test,growth under varying conditions of temperature NaCl concentration and carbohydrate fermentation tests and 16 S rDNA sequence analysis.The results indicated that all the strains belonged to the Lactobacillus genus.HLD1-3 and YK1-2 strains were identified as Lactobacillus sakei,while JZ6-3 and XC4-4 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum.From these results,it can be speculated that naturally fermented pickle from Northeast China is a potential source of probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

  13. 冬瓜生腌过程细菌种群变化及其品质相关性%Bacteria Community Changes and Its Quality Related in Raw Process of Pickled Wax Gourd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈锡权; 赵永威; 吴祖芳; 翁佩芳; 卓鸿雁

    2012-01-01

    采用16S rDNA基因克隆文库的方法,对生腌冬瓜腌制体系的微生物多样性、优势种群及其相关品质变化过程进行分析.结果表明;冬瓜生腌开始时优势细菌为肠杆菌属、乳球菌属和魏斯氏茵属;早期阶段优势菌为戊糖片球菌;腌制30 d时优势茵属变成了肠杆菌属和片球菌属;在腌制中后期微生物组成基本稳定,其中片球菌属、魏斯氏茵属和枝芽孢杆菌属为优势菌属.冬瓜生腌制过程中pH值和亚硝酸盐质量分数下降,最低值分别为3.7和0.5 mg/kg,盐度稳定在7.0左右,细菌总数和乳酸茵总数由下降至最后稳定的过程,腌制中后期乳酸菌总数稳定在1.0×107 cfu/mL左右.冬瓜生腌过程检测到的乳球菌、片球菌和枝芽孢杆菌等菌属对维持腌冬瓜质量具有重要意义.%The microbial community diversity, predominant species and its related characters of the product were investigated during the fermentation process of pickled wax gourd using the 16S rDNA clone library. The results showed that in the pickling system Enterobacter, Lacto-coccus and Weissella are the predominant microbial community at earlier phase. After 15 days of fermentation, the dominant population has changed to be Pediococcus pentosaceus, on day 30 Enterobacter and Pediococcus become to be the predominant species. In the later stage of pickling, the community system is stable, and Pediococcus, Weissella and Virgibacillus are the major microbial species. At the same time, the pH value and nitrite concentration of pickled wax gourd samples had been decreasing, its minimum values reached 3. 7 and 0. 5 mg/kg, respectively. The salinity value was finally stable in 7. 0%. The total population of bacteria and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) changed from the high level to stable, the population of LAB was 1. O×07cfu/mL at the later phase of pickled. Some species including Lactococcus, Pediococcus and Virgibacillus detected in the pickled wax gourd

  14. Stainless steel pickling using ecologies friendly mixtures composed of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} - H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} - F{sup -} ions; Decapado de un acero inoxidable austenitico mediante mezclas ecologicas basadas en H{sub 2}O{sub 2} - H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} - iones F{sup -}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, L.; Miranda, J. M.; Ronquillo, A.

    2013-06-01

    This study reports the pickling of 316L stainless steel using mixtures of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), sulphuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and fluoride ions as hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium fluoride (NaF) and potassium fluoride (KF). The decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the mixtures was assessed at different temperatures 25 degree centigrade to 60 degree centigrade, with ferric ion contents from 0 to 40 g/l. According to the results obtained, were established the optimal condition pickling at 20 g/l of ferric ions, 25 degree centigrade and p-toluen sulphonic acid as stabilizer of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The HF pickling mixture was the only capable to remove totally the oxide layer from the 316L stainless steel after 300 s. The fluoride salts pickling mixtures only remove partially the oxide layer (20 to 40 % aprox.) after 300 s. When the pickling time was increased until 1200 s, the removal percentages were around to 80 %. (Author)

  15. Antimutagenic; differentiation-inducing; and antioxidative effects of fragrant ingredients in Katsura-uri (Japanese pickling melon; Cucumis melo var. conomon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Watanabe, Shinpei; Kageyama, Minami; Shirota, Keiko; Shirota, Koji; Amano, Hisashi; Kashimoto, Tadahiro; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Okamoto, Shigehisa; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji

    2010-12-21

    Six fragrant ingredients were identified in fully-ripened Katsura-uri (Japanese pickling melon; Cucumis melo var. conomon). Four of them were sulfur-containing compounds [methylthioacetic acid ethyl ester (MTAE), acetic acid 2-methylthio ethyl ester (AMTE), 3-methylthiopropionic acid ethyl ester (MTPE), and acetic acid 3-methylthio propyl ester (AMTP)]; and the others were benzyl acetate and eugenol. The newly identified MTAE and AMTP possessed antimutagenic activity as determined by their ability to inhibit the UV-induced mutation in repair-proficient E. coli B/r WP2. MTAE and MTPE (esters with thiocarbonic acid and alkyl alcohol) induced the differentiation of human colon cancer cells (RCM-1 cells), but AMTE and AMTP (esters with carbonic acid and thioalkyl alcohol) did not. A specific thioester motif containing a thiocarbonic acid and alkyl alcohol correlated with these compounds ability to induce differentiation. AMTE, MTPE, AMTP, and eugenol had higher oxygen radical absorbing capacity than the antioxidative vitamin, ascorbic acid. The quantity of MTPE, AMTP and eugenol increased 49-fold, >1175-fold and 11-fold, respectively, in the fully-ripened fruit as compared to the mid-ripened fruit.

  16. Separation of a Bacteriocin-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Strain from Pickles%泡菜中产细菌素的乳酸茵分离研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡杨; 项松涛; 杨宇清; 郑一敏; 王琳琳; 胥秀英; 曾品涛; 李杰

    2012-01-01

    实验从泡菜中分离出一株有抑制革兰氏阳性细菌、革兰氏阴性细菌作用的菌株,经鉴定为乳酸菌中的肠膜明串殊菌,该抗菌物质对蛋白水解酶敏感,耐热并在较宽的pH值范围内保持活性。在排除是有机酸和过氧化氢后,初步认为该菌产生的抗菌物质为抗菌肽,即细菌素。%A lactic acid bacteria strain was isolated from traditional food pickles. It was identified to be Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The strain was found to produce an extracellular antimicrobial substance that was peptide in nature (bacteriocin) and effective against Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteri- a. The antimicrobial peptide was assayed as non-organic acid and non-hydrogen peroxide and sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, resistant to heat and active over a wide range of pH.

  17. Selection of refractory materials for acid tanks at the CSN continuous pickling line; Selecao de materiais refratarios para tanques de acido das linhas de decapagem continua da CSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sidiney Nascimento; Marques, Oscar Rosa; Bueno, Mauricio Chaves [Companhia Siderurgica Nacional, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Longo, Elson; Silva Pinheiro, Adriano da [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    1997-12-31

    Aiming at the revamping of the CSN continuous pickling line 4 acid tanks, a Post Mortem study of the refractory lining was carried out. The collected samples were characterized through techniques such as chemical analysis, mercury porosimetry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy. Trying to reproduce the operational conditions closely, laboratorial simulations were carried out. Such simulations lead to the addition of some alterations on the test method proposed by ABNT. Primarily, the sulfuric acid was substituted by hydrochloric acid (30%), containing iron in solution (130g/l). As result, it was concluded that acid resistant refractories containing a smaller alumina and /or corundum and mullite concentrations, presenting a smaller open porosity and average pore diameter, have a better performance face to corrosion due to hydrochloric acid solution. In addition, abrasion wear resistance tests, according to the ASTM-G65-85 standard were carried out in order to select different materials to the acid tanks cells. (author) 3 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Investigation of the effect of additives on the basis of pickling solutions containing iron salts on the structure and strength of fine concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukuttsova Natal’ya Petrovna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern tendencies of construction industry development are connected with the use of new high-efficient materials with the application of resource- and energy-saving technologies of their generation. The use of industrial man-made products as the components improving the characteristics of construction products is now a promising field of research. The article presents the results of the use of waste pickling solutions of steel rolling factories, containing salts of iron as nanomodified additives for the products based on cement binder. The effectiveness of the influence of the considered additives on the structure and strength of fine-grained concrete is shown. If using this additive in the amount of 0.32 % from the mass of cement for 28 days of natural hardening, the fine concrete strength is growing by 1.8 times due to additional formation of hydrosilicates, densification of structure and reduction of the total porosity of the cement system by 2 times.

  19. STUDY ON FRESH AND COLOUR PRESERVATION FOR PICKLED LEAF MUSTARD%植酸对腌芥菜的护色保鲜研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉生

    2001-01-01

    本文探讨了在不同条件下,异抗坏血酸、植酸保鲜液及其混合液的抗褐变和防霉能力。实验结果表明,异抗坏血酸在空气中几乎没有抑霉效果,真空状态下虽有较好的抑霉作用,但未能阻止腌芥菜明显褐变,而0.2%的植酸保鲜液在有氧或无氧的情况下,均表现出比较理想的抗褐变和防霉特性.%The inhibiting effects of isoascorbic acid solution,phytic acid solution and their mixture on oxidative browning and mould for pickled leaf mustard in different conditions were investigated in this paper.Results show that in vacuum condition 2% isoascorbic solution could inhibit the growth of mould,but the oxidative browning was accelerated and in the presence of air it has no inhibitory effect on mould.However,phytic acid in both cases suggested the results for antioxidant and mould inhibitor.

  20. 腌制温度和食盐用量对咸鸭蛋蛋黄脂质的影响%Effect of pickling temperature and concentration of salt solution on lipid of duck egg yolk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙门; 宋野; 杜庆飞; 周頔; 蔡华珍; 詹歌

    2015-01-01

    为进一步提高咸鸭蛋品质,以鸭蛋为原料,分析不同腌制条件对蛋黄中脂质存在形式、脂质氧化速率的影响。结果表明,在腌制过程中,随着腌制温度的升高、腌制时间的延长,蛋黄指数、脂质含量、蛋黄皂化值均显著增加(P<0.05);腌制用盐量对蛋黄中脂质的皂化值有显著的促进作用(P<0.05)。在腌制液食盐质量分数为20%~30%时,升高腌制温度对蛋黄中脂质二次氧化(硫代巴比妥酸值thiobarbituric acid, TBARS)有显著促进作用(P<0.05),在腌制30 d后,TBARS无显著变化;并且在试验条件下,提高腌制用盐量能显著提高蛋黄中的 TBARS(P<0.05);动力学分析表明,增加食盐用量能够降低蛋黄中脂质初始氧化反应的活化能,从而促进脂质氧化。因此,通过调整腌制用盐量及腌制温度能够实现对咸鸭蛋蛋黄中脂质氧化的调控,由此得出咸鸭蛋较好的腌制条件为腌制温度25℃、腌制用盐量25 g/(100 g)、腌制时间为25 d,该研究结果可以为咸鸭蛋的腌制生产提供技术参考。%Salted duck egg is a kind of Chinese-style pickled egg with a long shelf life. Its pleasant and fragrant taste is preferred by most of the people in China and other Southeast Asian countries. Salted duck egg is normally made by pickling the duck eggs in 20.0%-30.0% NaCl solution at room temperature (30℃) for 30 days. Lipid is one of the important structural and functional compositions for duck eggs; it has a very important impact on the quality of the duck egg, and has close relationship with the nutrition value and flavor and texture of duck eggs. The lipid oxidation also plays a role in the human body health, and is closely related to many diseases of the human body. The prooxidant effect of NaCl will enhance the oxidation of duck egg lipid during pickling. In that case, the objective of this paper was to research the oxygenolysis of the lipid

  1. 雪里蕻腌菜腌制过程中主要成分的动态变化研究%Dynamic Change of Essential Components of Pickled Potherb Mustard during Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐娟娣; 刘东红

    2013-01-01

    Pickled potherb mustard is a traditional salted vegetable and popular with consumers because of its unique taste,texture and flavor.Contents of moisture content,crude protein,reducing sugar,total acidity,nitrite,NaCl,organic acid and free amino acid of pickled potherb mustard during its fermentation were determined by using moisture tester,Kieldahl method,3,5-two nitro salicylic acid colorimetric method,acid-base neutralization method,naphthyl ethylenediamine hydrochloride method,indirect precipitation titration method and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC),respectively.It is showed that content of nitrite in pickled potherb mustard is far below the national standard for pickle,which is 20 mg/kg.Changes of contents of reducing sugar,total acidity,organic acid and amino acid during processing also followed certain regulations,which providing theory basis for the industrialization,standardization and nutrimental production of pickled potherb mustard.Besides,these main ingredients are closely related to the flavor formation of pickled potherb mustard and the increases of the contents of reducing sugar,organic acid and amino acid could make it more delicious.%雪里蕻腌菜是我国一种传统腌制蔬菜,口感、质地和风味独特,深受消费者喜爱.采用水分测定仪、凯氏定氮法、3,5-二硝基水杨酸比色法、酸碱中和法、盐酸萘乙二胺法、间接沉淀滴定法和高效液相色谱仪测定雪里蕻腌菜腌制过程中的水分含量、粗蛋白、还原糖、总酸、亚硝酸盐、氯化钠、有机酸和游离氨基酸含量的动态变化情况.结果表明,腌制过程中,腌菜中的亚硝酸盐含量均远远低于国家标准规定的酱腌菜亚硝酸盐小于20 mg/kg的要求.还原糖、总酸、有机酸和氨基酸呈一定的变化规律.这些主要成分与腌菜的风味形成有密切联系,还原糖、有机酸和氨基酸含量的增加,可使其口味更为鲜美.为今后

  2. Study on Jerusalem artichoke Pickle Fermented Directly by LactobaciUus plantarum Producing Higher Extracellular Polysaccharide%高产胞外多糖的植物乳杆菌直投发酵菊芋泡菜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔树茂; 郭钦; 刘崇万; 董英

    2011-01-01

    采用自主研发的高产胞外多糖的植物乳杆菌直投式泡菜发酵剂制备菊芋泡菜,研究其发酵过程中泡菜液pH、总酸、活菌数、维生素c、氨基酸态氮和可溶性固形物含量的变化,同时探讨菊芋主要成分菊粉对植物乳杆菌生长的影响,并测定该菌胞外多糖的产量。结果表明,菊粉可促进植物乳杆菌的生长,37℃培养24h,该菌胞外多糖产量高达471mg/L。与自然发酵相比,直投发酵的菊芋泡菜各项指标均优于自然发酵,其泡菜液pH达到3.46、总酸含量达到0.36%,活菌数保持在4.3×10^8CFU/mL、维生素C含量为16.92%、氨基酸态氮含量为0.033%、可溶性固形物含量达到15%。得到的菊芋泡菜酸度适宜,呈诱人乳白色,活菌含量高,且富含植物乳杆菌胞外多糖,为老少皆宜的益生泡菜产品。%Jerusalem artichoke polysaccharidc and extraccllular polysaccharide of lactic acid bacteria have different functional properties which are probiotic. In this paper, a Lactobacillus plantarum with high EPS-produclng capacity was selected for direct vat set (DVS) culture starter and prepared for Jerusalem artichoke pickles. The changes of the pH, total acid, viable count, vitamin C, amino acid nitrogen and soluble solids content in the pickle liquid were studied, while the effect of inulin which is the main component of artichoke on growth of Lactobacillus plantarum was studied. The yield of extracellular polysaccharide produced by the strain was determined. The results showed that inulin could promote the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum, and the yield of extracellular polysaccharide was up to 471 mg/L after 24h under the temperature of 37℃. Various indexes of Jerusalem artichoke pickle direct investment indicators were better than natural fermentation. The pH was up to 3.46, total acid content was 0.36% , the number of viable cells remained at 4.3×10^8 CFU/mL, content of

  3. 利用钢铁盐酸酸洗废液在填料塔中制备FeCl3%Preparation of FeCl3 from Steel Pickling Waste Liquor in Packed Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖娟宜; 丁德才; 王权永; 尹平河

    2013-01-01

    以钢铁盐酸酸洗废液为原料,亚硝酸钠为催化剂,氧气为氧化剂,在填料塔中催化氧化制备三氯化铁.考察了反应温度、催化剂加入量和添加方式、循环流量等对制备三氯化铁的影响.实验结果表明,在优化的工艺条件为料液预热温度为60℃、催化剂加入量为钢铁盐酸酸洗废液总质量的0.30%、料液循环流量6.0 m3/h的条件下,反应80~120 min,酸洗废液中的Fe2+完全氧化为Fe3+.%FeCl3 was prepared by catalytic oxidation in a packed column using steel pickling waste liquor as raw material,sodium nitrite as catalyst,oxygen as oxidant.The effects of reaction temperature,catalyst dosage and adding method,and circulation flow rate on FeCl3 preparation were investigated.The experimental results show that under the conditions of feed solution preheating temperature 60 ℃,catalyst dosage 0.3% of steel pickling waste liquor mass,feed solution circulation flow rate 6.0 m3/h and reaction time 80-120 min,Fe2+ in steel pickling waste liquor can be oxidized to Fe3+ completly.

  4. Effect of ferric ions in AISI 316L stainless steel pickling using an environmentally-friendly H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HF-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, L. [Metallurgical Institute, UASLP Avda. Sierra Leona 550, 78210 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Cano, E.; Bastidas, J.M. [CENIM-National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CSIC) Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2003-02-01

    A mixture of hydrogen peroxide, sulphuric and hydrofluoric acids has been used as pickling solution at pH 2.0 for AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel (SS). The stability of the H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HF-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} mixture is assessed varying the ferric ions content from 0 to 40 g/L, the temperature from 25 to 60 C, and with and without stirring of the pickling solution. The AISI 316L SS pickling rate at 50 C was 2.6 and 0.2 mg/dm{sup 2} day (mdd) in the absence and presence of 40 g/L ferric ions, respectively. p-toluene sulphonic acid (PTSA) has been used as stabiliser of hydrogen peroxide. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Es ist ein Gemisch mit einem pH-Wert von 2.0 aus Wasserstoffperoxid, Schwefelsaeure und Fluorwasserstoffsaeure als Beizloesung fuer nichtrostenden Stahl AISI 316L angewandt worden. Die Stabilitaet des Gemisches H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HF-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} haengt vom Gehalt der dreiwertigen Eisenionen, zwischen 0 und 40 g/L, von der Temperatur, zwischen 25 und 60 C, und von der Ruehrintensitaet der Beizloesung ab. Die Beizgeschwindigkeit des nichtrostenden Stahls AISI 316L bei 50 C lag bei 2.6 bzw. 0.2 mg/dm{sup 2} taeglich (mdd), je nachdem, ob 40 g/L dreiwertige Eisenionen enthalten waren oder nicht. Als Stabilisator des Wasserstoffperoxids ist para-Toluensulfonsaeure (PTSA) eingesetzt worden. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. 榨菜火腿新式苏式月饼的制作工艺研究%Cooking Processes of Pickle-sausage Su-style Moon Cakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李书丰

    2014-01-01

    Taking flour, pickle and ham sausage as main raw material, stuffed vegetables Su-style moon cakes was cooked with rolling skin, making crisp, making crisp skin, making stuffing, filling, molding and baking process. Tests proved that optimum formula as follow:ratio of flour, water, sugar and oil in water-oiled crust was 10∶5∶3∶3, ratio of skin and crisp material in pastry was 2∶1, ratio of water-oiled crust and pastry was 2∶1, ratio pickle and beef in stuffing was 1∶1, and ratio of crisp and pickle stuffing was 4∶6.%蔬菜馅料苏式月饼以面粉、榨菜和火腿肠为主要原料,经过制皮、制酥、制皮酥、调馅料、包馅、成型和烘烤等工艺加工而成的食品。试验证明:水油皮中面粉∶水∶糖∶油脂的比例大约为10∶5∶3∶3、油酥皮中皮料和酥料比是2∶1、包酥的水油皮∶油酥皮大约为2∶1、馅料中榨菜和牛肉比是1∶1及皮酥和榨菜馅料比是4∶6效果最佳。

  6. 独山“素臭酸”中亚硝酸盐和游离氨基酸含量的动态变化分析%Study on Nitrite and Free Amino Acid Concentration Dynamic Changes of Smelly Pickled Greenstuffs in Dushan Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李咏梅; 龚元

    2016-01-01

    The changes of nitrite and total amino acids concentration during pickling process of smelly pickled greenstuffs in Dushan region are studied.The results show that the dynamic change trends of nitrite concentration in pickling prophase appear sharply increasing trends after slightly decreasing then sharply increasing again with the increase of pickling time.The nitrite concentration in smelly pickled greenstuffs products is far lower than 20 mg/kg for pickled and salted greenstuffs.The dynamic change trends of total free amino acids in pickling prophase appear sharply increasing trends after slightly decreasing then without distinct changes with the increase of pickling time,and the total free amino acids concentration is increasing as a whole.Considering these two factors,the optimum fermentation time is 4 months.%实验以独山“素臭酸”为分析对象,利用紫外分光光度法对其在腌制过程中的亚硝酸盐含量和游离氨基酸含量进行动态检测,结果发现:随着腌制时间的增加,亚硝酸盐含量呈现先增大,后有少许降低,再增大的变化趋势,但从总体上看均远低于酱腌菜的国家安全控制标准,即小于20 mg/kg 的限量指标;游离氨基酸的含量则是随着腌制时间的增加呈先增大后略有下降后不再有明显变化的总体上升趋势。综合考虑这两个因素,确定了最佳发酵时间为4个月。

  7. The Effect of Tea Polyphenol on Volatile Flavor Compounds in Pickled Cabbage during Shelf Life%茶多酚对货架期泡菜气味成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向阳; 董欢欢; 俞兴伟

    2016-01-01

    茶多酚在腌菜中防腐效果好,为了解茶多酚对货架期泡菜气味的影响,在泡菜液中添加0.18%茶多酚,采用固相微萃取与气相质谱色谱联用法(SPME-MS/GC),分析泡菜的气味成分变化。结果表明:茶多酚抑制乳酸菌生长量,泡菜的主要风味物质是酮、酸、酯、醛、烯、醇。其中3-乙酰-4-羟基-6-甲基-2H-吡喃-2-酮、苯甲酸类、烯丙基异硫氰酸酯、壬醛、石竹烯、1-辛烯-3-醇是含量较高的气味成分。泡菜后期醛类、酯类比例显著上升。另外,苯衍生物、烯、烷、萘类也有较多比例增加。壬醛、癸醛、烯丙基异硫氰酸酯、丁酸-3-甲基丁酯的大量增加可能是引起泡菜后期异味的主要原因。苯衍生物、烯、萘类增加可能也促进异味。茶多酚处理大幅度降低酸类、酮类,降低后期酯类、醛类,提高醇类和后期烯类,导致其他类中咔唑类消失,蒽醌物质上升,腙类消失,酚类出现。茶多酚处理显著降低了3-乙酰-4-羟基-6-甲基-2H-吡喃-2-酮、苯甲酸类、异硫氰酸酯、壬醛,显著提升了后期 D-柠檬烯。茶多酚处理泡菜后期主要气味物质是 D-柠檬烯、3-乙酰-4-羟基-6-甲基-2H-吡喃-2-酮、1-辛烯-3-醇。%Tea polyphenols is an excellent preservative for pickles.To find out the effects of tea polyphenols on the smell of pickle during shelf life,tea polyphenols (0.18%,W/V)is added into pickled cabbage.The change of volatile components of pickled cabbage is analyzed with solid phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS).The results show that tea polyphenols inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria,the main flavor compounds of pickled cabbage are ketones,acids,esters,aldehydes,alkenes and alcohols.The main odors components are 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one,benzoic acids,allyl isothiocyanate,nonanal,caryophyllene and 1-octene-3-alcohol

  8. Analysis of quality and volatile components in pickles during natural fermentation%泡菜自然发酵过程中品质及挥发性成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹萍; 蒲彪; 罗松明; 张金凤; 卓志航; 冯亚超; 贾春燕

    2015-01-01

    为得到泡菜在自然发酵过程中的品质变化规律及对风味影响较大的挥发性成分种类,对泡菜的乳酸菌总数、基本理化指标和感官进行测定,同时采用顶空固相微萃取结合气相色谱-质谱联用技术对发酵过程的挥发性成分进行分析检测.结果表明,发酵第6d泡菜品质最优,为最佳食用期;不同发酵时间的泡菜挥发性成分种类和含量差异较大,发酵过程共检出化合物45种,酯类在发酵过程相对含量最高,是结球甘蓝泡菜的特征挥发性物质.对挥发性物质进行主成分分析,得到硫氰酸甲酯、(E)-丁酸-4-己烯酯、乙酸己酯、叶醇、正己醇、B-蒎烯、二甲基二硫和二甲基三硫对泡菜风味形成影响较大.%Several quality indexes of pickles including total number of lactic acid bacteria,physicochemical properties and sensory evaluation were detected in order to learn the discipline of quality variation during fermentation.Methods of headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME)and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) were used to detect the volatile components.The results showed that the quality of pickles was the best in the sixth day of fermentation.Type and relative content of volatile components were distinct at different fermentation time.A total of 45 types of volatile components were identified.Relative content of esters was the highest during fermentation which made it a characteristic component in pickles of cabbage.The volatile components were analyzed by method of principal component analysis (PCA).It showed that thiocyanic acid methyl ester,(E)-Hex-4-en-1-yl butyrate,acetic acid hexyl ester,(Z)-3-Hexen-1-ol,1-Hexanol,.beta.-Pinene,disulfide dimethyl,dimethyl trisulfide were the main components contributed to the flavor of pickles.

  9. Efeito de densidade de plantas na produtividade de cultivares de pepino para processamento tipo "cornichon" Effect of plant density on yield of cornichon pickling cucumber cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Milanez de Resende

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade de cultivares de pepino para processamento, tipo "cornichon", semeadas em diferentes espaçamentos. O experimento foi desenvolvido em Petrolina, PE, no período de abril a julho de 1999. Foram estudadas as cultivares para processamento Calypso, Eureka, Prêmio, Vlaspik e Vlasset e os espaçamentos entre plantas de 0,20, 0,30 e 0,50 m, em sistema rasteiro. Os tratamentos foram arranjados no esquema fatorial 5x3, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. A parcela experimental foi composta de quatro linhas de 3,0 m, com espaços entre elas de 1,0 m, duas plantas por cova, e área útil constituída pelas linhas centrais. O incremento do espaçamento entre plantas teve efeitos lineares negativos na produtividade das cultivares Vlaspik, Vlasset e Prêmio. As menores produtividades das cultivares Calypso e Eureka ocorreram sob espaçamento, respectivamente, de 0,50 e 0,46 m. Os maiores valores de massa de matéria fresca dos frutos foram observados nas cultivares Vlasset (6,94 g/fruto e Eureka (6,82 g/fruto que não apresentaram diferenças entre si. Observaram-se efeitos lineares positivos do aumento do espaçamento entre plantas no número de frutos por planta em todas as cultivares. As cultivares apresentaram uma variação de 12,18 a 15,10% de frutos tipo 3 (5,0 a 5,5 cm de comprimento, tendo as cultivares Vlaspik (15,10%, Eureka (14,50% e Calypso (13,60% apresentado as maiores proporções, sem diferirem entre si.The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield of cornichon pickling cucumber cultivars in different sowing spacings. The experiment was developed out in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil, from April to July, 1999. Five cultivars of pickling for processing (Calypso, Eureka, Prêmio, Vlaspik and Vlasset and three plant spacings (0.20, 0.30 and 0.50 m led in the low system were studied. The treatments were arranged in the 5x3 factorial scheme in experimental

  10. Antimicrobial Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Sichuan Pickles%四川泡菜中乳酸菌的抗菌性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婧; 尹礼国; 马伟玲; 张文学

    2014-01-01

    乳酸菌在发酵食品中可以降低食品的pH 值并产生天然抑菌代谢物,发掘天然抗菌物质已成为当下的研究热点。试验通过对52株从四川泡菜中分离得到的乳酸菌进行抑菌活性筛选,得到10株具有良好抑菌活性的乳酸菌菌株;采用牛津杯法对这10株乳酸菌的抗菌能力与代谢产物酸度之间的关系进行了研究,并比较了其代谢产物分别对细菌和产璞酵母的抑菌能力大小;对乳酸菌的抗菌机理进行了初步探讨。结果显示:对于同一种指示菌,乳酸菌的代谢产物总酸度越高,其抑菌能力越强;将代谢产物总酸中和至p H 7.0后,仅1株乳酸菌L7仍具有抗菌特性,其抗菌能力明显下降;同种乳酸菌对细菌的抗菌作用较强,对酵母菌几乎无抑制作用。经鉴定L7为植物乳杆菌,其代谢物对细菌和产璞酵母均有良好的抑制作用,在泡菜发酵中起重要作用。%The lactic acid bacteria applied in food has a long history,they can reduce pH value and pro-duce antibacterial material.10 strains of lactic acid bacteria with well antibacterial activity are screened out from 52 strains of lactic acid bacteria in pickled vegetable in Sichuan.Then the antibacte-rial properties of 10 strains of lactic acid bacteria and the relationship between the antibacterial activity of lactic acid bacteria and their metabolites are studied,and the antibacterial ability of lactic acid bacte-ria metabolites of bacteria and yeast are compared by agar-well diffusion method.At last,the antibac-terial mechanism of lactic acid bacteria is studied.The result shows that,for the same indicator bacte-ria,the stronger the antibacterial activity of lactic acid bacteria,the higher the total acidity.After the metabolites are naturalized to pH 7 .0 ,only L7 has antibacterial properties ,but the antibacterial ability is not obvious.The antibacterial activity of the same lactic acid bacteria to bacteria is

  11. 腌菜型复合骨汤肉酱调料的开发%Development of Complex Seasoning of Meat Sauce with Bone Soup and Pickles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭秀兰; 王文亭; 肖龙泉; 李杉杉; 王卫; 刘达玉

    2014-01-01

    The livestock bone is used as main material,and chicken bone,crucian,etc.are added with a small quantity to reduce fishy smell.Bone oil is separated by centrifuge after all the materials are boiled,and the clear soup remainder is made into a complex bone puree by vacuum concentration.Stir livestock and poultry meat pieces into minced meat with deodorization or without deodorization,then being fried with pickles to be as meat solids.Finally,pack bone oil,bone puree and solids into bags according to a certain ratio,and complex meat sauce products are obtained after atmospheric steriliza-tion,the shelf life can be more than 6 months,the product may be used as convenient seasoning of rice flour noodles,vermicelli,noodles,soup and cooked food.%以畜骨为主要原料,并辅以鸡骨、鲫鱼等来减轻腥味,组合熬制后经过离心分离得到复合骨油,!汤真空浓缩制备复合骨浓汤。再用畜禽分割碎肉,经过脱膻或不脱膻后搅成肉糜,与腌菜一并经过炒制后作为肉酱固形物,最后将骨油、骨浓汤、固形物按一定比例装袋,常压杀菌后得到复合肉酱成品,保质期达6个月以上,可作为米线、粉丝、面条、汤汁、菜肴的方便调料。

  12. 腌制菜亚硝酸盐含量的调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of Nitrite Content in Pickled Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳虹

    2011-01-01

    Through diagnosis reswlts to the market 4 kinds of 18 samples among pickled vegetable of nitrite content′s,get the results indicating finally that the marinated vegetable product nitrite content and the vegetables variety different have the big difference,are most by the radish class content,next is the hot pepper class and the Chinese cabbage class,what the content are least is the cucumber class.in 18 samples has 4 sample nitrite content exceeding the allowed figure,exceeding the allowed figure rate is 22%.Low pH the value and the lactobacillus can suppress the intestinal tract fungus quantities,thus reduces the nitrite content,certain density scope′s table salt is not big to influence the nitrite content.the findings will to provide certain theory basis for people′s edible safety.%通过对市售4种18个样品腌制菜亚硝酸盐含量的调查分析,结果表明,腌制菜产品的亚硝酸盐含量与蔬菜的品种不同而存在较大差异,以萝卜类含量最多,其次是辣椒类和白菜类,含量最少的是黄瓜类.18个样品中有4个样品亚硝酸盐含量超标,超标率为22%.低pH值和乳酸菌能抑制肠道菌的数量,降低亚硝酸盐含量.一定浓度范围的食盐对亚硝酸盐含量影响不大.研究结果将为人们的安全食用提供一定的理论依据.

  13. Research on technology of Chinese cheese depending on Lactic acid bacteria from pickled vegetable%泡菜乳酸菌生产干酪工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建暖; 于建军; 谢爱英

    2012-01-01

    In this study lactic acid bacteria in pickled vegetable was separated. Fermenting properties study and clabbering experiment were carried out further. Two lactic acid bacteria were selected to produce cheese. Through orthogonal test of L9(34), we studied the proportion of different parameters such as starter cultures, starter contents, fermentation temperature and pH value of cutting. The result showed that the quality of fresh soft cheese was the best when the proportion of leu.1 and leu.2 was 1:1, starter contents were 3%, fermentation temperature was 37 ℃ and pH value of cutting was 4.6.%对泡菜中乳酸菌进行了初步分离纯化,共筛选出4种菌株,对这4种菌株进一步进行了发酵性能研究和凝乳实验,选择出优良两种菌株,并应用于新鲜软质干酪的制作,采用L9(34)正交实验的方法,研究了不同发酵剂菌株添加比例、发酵温度、切割pH值对成品干酪滋味口感、色泽的影响,确定了该产品生产的最佳配方和工艺条件:菌种比为菌株8与菌株12比为1∶1(质量比),发酵剂添加量为3%(质量分数),发酵温度为37℃,切割pH值为4.6.

  14. Ultrasonic Fenton-like catalytic degradation of bisphenol A by ferroferric oxide (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles prepared from steel pickling waste liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruixiong; Fang, Zhanqiang; Fang, Xiaobo; Tsang, Eric Pokeung

    2014-12-15

    In this study, Fe3O4 NPs (named as Fe3O4 NPs-PO) were prepared by steel pickling waste liquor to reduce the cost of preparation, and were compared with those obtained by the common co-precipitation method (named as Fe3O4 NPs-CP) which prepared from chemical reagent using BET, XRD, XPS, TEM and SEM techniques. The results indicated that Fe3O4 NPs-PO nanoparticles mainly existed in the form of Fe3O4 and appeared to be roughly spherical in shape with a size range of 20-50 nm. The heterogeneous Fenton-like catalytic capacity of Fe3O4 NPs-PO in US+Fe3O4+H2O2 system was comprehensively investigated. BPA could be degraded within a wide pH range of 7-10. The removal efficiencies of BPA were close to 100% and about 45% total organic carbon (TOC) in solution was eliminated at the optimized conditions. It was found that ·OH radicals which mainly caused the degradation of BPA were promptly generated due to the catalysis of the Fe3O4 NPs-PO. Furthermore, the comparative study of catalytic activity, stability and reusability between Fe3O4 NPs-PO and Fe3O4 NPs-CP showed that the two catalysts both remained good activity after several reaction cycles and no significant change in composition and structure was observed, the loss of catalyst was negligible, which demonstrated that Fe3O4 NPs-PO were promising in ultrasonic Fenton-like process to treat refractory organics.

  15. Influence of several nonferrous metals in the treatment of residual liquors from hydrochloric acid pickling processes. Influencia de diversos metales no ferreos en el tratamiento de lejias residuales de decapado con acido clorhidrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, C.; Cobos, M.A.; Latorre, R.; Dufour, J.; Formoso, A.; Lopez, F.

    1994-01-01

    In the oxiprecipitation of waste liquors from siderurgical processes of pickling with hydrochloric acid, several kinds of iron oxides and oxihydroxides are obtained: alpha-FeOOH, gamma-FeOOH, Fe[sub 3]O[sub 4], gamma-Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3]. Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3].1,2H[sub 2]O, etc. These products can be used like pigments in the painting industry and like raw materials for the obtaining of ferrites. Varying the operation conditions, the presence of these products can be changed greatly, obtaining different mixtures of them. The presence of non-ferrous metals catalyzes and modifies the mechanism of the reaction, yielding pure products. This simplifies their later industrial applications. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of Cu(II), Zn(II), Mo(VI) and Al(III) on the oxiprecipitation of residual liquors from hydrochloric acid pickling processes, selecting the most favourable operation conditions at which it is possible to obtain products for industrial applications.

  16. Evaluation of the Uncertainty for Determination of Tartrazine in Preserved Pickle by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定榨菜中柠檬黄的不确定度评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪炜华; 孙颖霞; 蔡丹萍; 翁光灿; 陈婷

    2013-01-01

    根据JJF 1059-1999《测量不确定度评定与表示》对高效液相色谱法测定榨菜中柠檬黄含量的测定不确定度进行评定。通过对实验过程中样品的取样称量、使用仪器、标准物质、测试过程中的随机因素以及标准工作曲线的拟合等因素进行分析,计算了不确定度分量和合成不确定度。榨菜中柠檬黄含量的测定结果为(0.0375±0.0050) g/kg,k=2。%According to JJF 1059-1999,evaluation of the uncertainty for determination of tartrazine in preserved pickle by HPLC was established. Uncertain factors in the experimental process were analyzed,including weight, instruments,standard substances,random factors and the fit of standard curve. The uncertainty componenet and expanded uncertainty were caculated. The finally concentration of tartrazine in preserved pickle was (0.037 5±0.005 0) g/kg,k=2.

  17. 超高压处理对泡豇豆杀菌效果的影响%Effect of inactivation on microorganisms in pickled cowpea by high hydrostatic pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冬; 蒲彪; 黎雪梅; 陈安均; 胡凯宁; 曾悦予

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the application of high hydrostatic pressure(HHP) sterilization in Sichuan pickled industry and to improve the microbial safety.The effect of different salt concentration in pickled cowpea,treatment pressure and treatment time on bactericidal effect of HHP were investigated,and the preserved performance of pickled cowpea treated by HHP was studied.The results showed that salt concentration of 4.2% was superior to salt concentration of 4.2% in pickled cowpea on bactericidal effect by HHP, so HHP was more suitable for picked cowpea with lower salt concentration.With the increase of treatment pressure and treatment time,the lethality for microorganisms raised gradually, but the pressure had more significant effect to mortality of microorganisms than treatment time.The reduced the amount of total plate counts were respectively 5.45,5.52,and the molds and yeasts wasn' t observed in samples treated by 300,400MPa for 30min.Treatment at level of 300 400MPa could effectively reduce the amount of coliforms and improve the preserved performance of pickled cowpea.%为了探求超高压杀菌在四川泡菜工业中的应用,提高其微生物安全,以泡豇豆为供试材料,研究了泡豇豆含盐量、处理压力、处理时间对超高压杀菌效果的影响,并考察了超高压处理对泡豇豆保藏性能的影响。实验结果表明:含盐量为4.2%的泡豇豆超高压杀菌效果优于含盐量6.7%,超高压技术更适用于低盐泡菜的杀菌;压力越大、处理时间越长,微生物致死率越高,但压力较时间对杀菌效果的影响更大;对样品分别采用300、400MPa处理30min,菌落总数降低的对数为5.45、5.52,且均无霉菌和酵母菌检出;300~400MPa处理可以使大肠菌群数有效得到降低,且能有效提高泡豇豆的保藏性能。

  18. Research on Nutritional Value and Edible Safety of Dried Pickled Vegetables in Yunnan%云南干腌菜营养价值及安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝勇; 张宝琼; 胡雪琴

    2014-01-01

    通过对市售云南干腌菜(腾冲、昭通、宣威)中营养成分(水分、灰分、脂肪、蛋白质、铜、锌)以及安全性指标(亚硝酸盐、铅)进行检测。结果表明:水分、灰分、蛋白质、脂肪、铜、锌含量分别为16.50 g/100 g,12.94 g/100 g,10.91 g/100 g,3.75 g/100 g,3.77 mg/kg,7.30 mg/kg。通过对比,三种干腌菜中亚硝酸盐(1.73 mg/kg)、铅(0.12 mg/kg)含量均低于酱腌菜卫生标准(GB 2714-2003)、干制金针菜卫生标准(NY 5186-2002),研究结果将为人们的安全食用提供一定的理论依据。%The nutrients (moisture,ash,fat,protein,copper,zinc)and safety indexes (nitrite,Pb) of dried pickled vegetables in Yunnan (Tengchong,Zhaotong,Xuanwei )are detected,the results show that the content of moisture,ash,protein,fat,copper,zinc is respectively 16.50 g/100 g, 12.94 g/100 g,10.91 g/100 g,3.75 g/100 g,3.77 mg/kg,7.30 mg/kg.By contrast,the content of nitrite (1.73 mg/kg)and Pb (0.12 mg/kg)in three dried pickles is all lower than that of the health standards of pickled vegetables (GB 2714-2003)and dried daylilies (NY 5186-2002),the research results will provide certain theory basis for people's edible safety.

  19. Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Pickling Chayote with Direct Vat Set Starter%直投式功能菌剂发酵佛手瓜腌菜工艺优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武杰; 张引成; 葛浩

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize fermentation conditions for the production of pickled chayote with direct vat set (DVS) starter. Dynamic changes in total acidity were analyzed during the fermentation of pickled chayote under varying conditions of DVS dose, salt concentration, temperature and other fermentation parameters. Using an orthogonal array design, based on total acid content, the optimal fermentation conditions were determined as follows: sucrose addition 3%, DVS dose 0.1%, fermentation temperature 30 ℃, salt addition 7%, and fermentation time 4 d. Under these conditions, the acid production was 0.73 g/100 g. In conclusion, the application of DVS to produce pickled chayote requires a short fermentation period and nrovides desired results.%目的:对直投式功能菌剂发酵生产佛手瓜腌菜的工艺进行优化研究。方法:研究直投式佛手瓜腌制在不同直投式功能菌剂添加量、食盐添加量、发酵温度、发酵时间等条件下,佛手瓜发酵时腌菜液中总酸含量的动态变化。根据动态变化和正交试验法确定直投式功能菌剂发酵腌菜的最佳条件。结果:直投式功能菌剂发酵腌菜的最佳条件为:蔗糖添加量3%、直投式功能菌剂添加量0.1%、发酵温度30℃、食盐添加量7%、发酵时间4d,此时产酸量达0.73g/100g。结论:采用直投式功能菌剂生产发酵佛手瓜腌菜,发酵周期短,发酵效果好。

  20. Microbial Community Structure and Its Dynamic Analysis during the Processing of Low-salinity Pickled Mustard Tuber%榨菜低盐腌制过程的微生物群落结构与动态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锐; 吴祖芳; 沈锡权; 雷兰兰

    2011-01-01

    Microbial community structure and population changes were investigated, using plate count and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) method, during the processing of low salinity pickled mustard tuber. Through SSCP method, 11 distinct dominant bands were obtained by sequence contrasting. The result showed that Leuconostoc mesenteroides is the dominant microorganism in the initial stage of fermentation; Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis showed up accompany with the alteration of fermentation condition. At the later stage, the dominant microorganism are Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus versmoldensis. The pH was descending all the time and the amounts of lactic acid bacteria increased firstly, reached the peak then began to descend slowly till to maintain a stable quantity.The contribution of lactic acid bacteria was confirmed by microbial community structure analysis in low-salinity pickled mustard tuber, which is conducted by pickling under the optimize condition.%采用平板菌落计数法及PCR-SSCP(单链构象多态性)方法,分析低盐榨菜腌制过程中微生物群落结构及数量的变化情况;对通过SSCP方法得到的图谱中11条优势条带序列进行比对,结果表明,在榨菜腌制发酵初期,肠膜明串珠菌(Leuconostoc mesenteroides)为主要的优势菌群;随着腌制环境条件的变化,出现植物乳杆菌(Lactobacillus plantarum)和短乳杆菌(Lactobacillus brevis);在腌制保存后期起主导作用的微生物为植物乳杆菌(Lactobacillus plantarum)和Lactobacillus versmoldensis;榨菜腌制保藏过程中pH值始终呈下降趋势,乳酸菌数量经历了一个先急速上升后逐渐趋缓,并稳定在一定数量的过程.对优化条件下制得的不同阶段的高品质低盐腌制榨菜样品进行微生物结构及分布分析,证实了不同乳酸菌的作用.

  1. Rapid Detection of Lactobacillus and a Preliminary Investigation of Lactobacillus Plasmids of Pickle%泡菜中乳杆菌的快速检出和乳杆菌质粒资源的初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨四佳; 王颖; 李宇婷; 李晨; 张进; 刘锐; 潘渠

    2013-01-01

    乳杆菌(Lactobacillus)的质粒不仅决定了乳杆菌的某些性状,还应用于乳杆菌克隆表达载体的构建,是一种珍贵的遗传信息资源.为了调查中国泡菜中的乳杆菌质粒资源,采集了52份中国泡菜样品,采用乳杆菌PCR快速检出技术检出其中的乳杆菌,并用16s rDNA测序验证检出结果,然后提取检出乳杆菌菌株的质粒.结果检出1株清酒乳杆菌(Lactobacillus sakei)和18株植物乳杆菌(Lactobacillus plantarum),乳杆菌检出率为36.5%.检出含质粒的乳杆菌菌株11株,琼脂糖电泳显示有9种质粒谱型,乳杆菌质粒检出率为21.2%,质粒谱型检出率为17.3%.调查结果提示,中国泡菜中蕴藏丰富的乳杆菌质粒资源,值得进行更大规模的调查和研究.%Plasmids of Lactobacillus are precious genetic resources,which carried with some characteristics of Lactobacillus and used in construction of Lactobacillus cloning expression vectors.To investigate resources of Lactobacillus plasmids from Chinese pickle,we collected 52 samples of Chinese pickle,and isolated Lactobacillus strains from these samples using rapid-detection PCR technology which was designed by us.Isolated Lactobacillus strains were further confirmed by 16s rDNA sequencing.Finally,plasmids of isolated Lactobacillus strains were extracted.One Lactobacillus sakei strain and 18 Lactobacillus plantarum strains were detected,and the detection rate of Lactobacillus strain was 36.5%.Eleven Lactobacillus strains contained plasmids,and the detection rate was 21.2%.The results of agarose gel electrophoresis showed 9 band profiles which detection rate was 17.3%.The results of our investigation indicated Chinese pickle are rich in Lactobacillus plasmids,which need to be further study.

  2. 蔬菜预处理和盐渍新工艺对泡菜生产用盐量的影响研究%New Technology of Pretreatment and Salted Vegetables of Pickle Production with Salt Impact Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁芝; 王艳丽; 张其圣; 陈功; 冯宽

    2014-01-01

    采用蔬菜预处理和低盐高酸技术改造提升传统盐渍工艺,本实验针对青菜、萝卜、榨菜、豇豆这四种较有代表性的泡菜生产原料蔬菜进行研究,重点考察了经过净菜处理后的原料净菜率、用盐量及其对稀释用水量的影响。通过对比实验发现,在提高泡菜产品质量的同时,可显著降低盐渍用盐量,使得用盐量由原来的15-20%,降低至6-10%;按四川省吉香居食品有限公司目前年加工1.0×108kg 蔬菜的规模,每年可以节省食盐使用量2.6×106kg以上,节盐效益显著。通过减少用盐量,可大量减少后期清洗、脱盐工段的用水量。%The vegetable pretreatment and low in salt and high in acid technology to upgrade traditional salted pro-cess, this experiment for green vegetables, turnip, pickle, cowpea, these four are representative of pickled vegeta-bles production materials for research, focuses on the after dealing with the major of major raw material ratio, with salt and its effect on the dilution water. Through experiment and comparison, in improving the quality of pickled products at the same time, can significantly reduce the salted with salt from 15-20%, to 6-10%; According to the Sichuan province Jixiangju Foods Company Inc at the current size of the processing of 100000 t vegetables , can save the salt use each year more than 2600 t, salt, benefit is remarkable. By reducing the use of salt, can sub-stantially reduce the late cleaning, water desalination section.

  3. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria produced antimicrobial peptides from Sichuan pickles%泡菜中产抗菌素的乳酸菌筛选和性能鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊华; 张国栋; 宁霞蕊; 任亚妮

    2011-01-01

    主要是对自然发酵泡菜中的乳酸菌素产生菌株分离筛选、鉴定。采用TJA培养基初步筛选9株典型菌株进行抗菌素产生菌的筛选,供试菌为金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)、枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)。通过抑菌实验,综合菌株的形态学特征、生理生化特征,筛选确定了2株细菌素产生菌菌株。%The lactic acid bacteria produced antimicrobial peptides was isolated and identified from Sichuan pickles.Using TJA medium,the 9 typical strains were screened,and the antimicrobial activities were investigated upon Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subti

  4. 响应面法优化即食泡牛皮食品工艺条件研究%Research on Optimization of the Processing Conditions of Instant Pickled Cattle Skin by Response Surface Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎英; 陈小红; 陈雪梅; 石小琼

    2014-01-01

    With fresh cattle skin as raw material,based on the single factor experiment,the cooking time,pH value of bittern liquid,soaking temperature,pickling time are chosen as influencing factors, the sensory score as the response value is selected as response value,the mathematical model is estab-lished by Box-Behnken central composite design,and the final product is analyzed by sensory,physi-cochemical and microbiological indexes.The results show that the optimum conditions are as follows:the cooking time is 35.80 min,the pH value of bittern liquid is 4.46,the pickling temperature is 19.92 ℃,the pickling time is 7.63 days,the sensory evaluation theoretical value of instant pickled cattle skin food is 9.47984,the verified value is 9.51,which is consistent with the model predicted value.The pH value of detected product is 4.63,the nitrite content is 18.65 mg/kg,the total bacterial count is 2.48 lg(cfu/g),coliform group count is less than 30/100 g.The product is golden in color,tender and tasty,and it is of hot and sour taste.%以鲜牛皮为原料,在单因素试验基础上,选取煮制时间、卤料pH、泡制温度、泡制时间为影响因子,以感官评分为响应值,应用中心组合Box-Behnken试验设计构建二次回归方程的数学模型,进行响应面分析,并对产品进行感官、理化和微生物指标检测。结果表明,最佳工艺条件:煮制时间35.80 min,卤料pH 4.46,泡制温度19.92℃,泡制时间7.63天,所得即食泡牛皮食品的感官评分理论值为9.47984分,验证值为9.51,与模型预测值基本相符。测得产品 pH 为4.63,亚硝酸盐含量为18.65 mg/kg,菌落总数为2.48 lg(cfu/g),大肠菌群<30个/100 g。产品色泽金黄,脆韧爽口,酸辣适口。

  5. Change of Nitrite Content in the Process of Making Five Flavor Pickled Cabbage%五香味泡菜制作过程中亚硝酸盐含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余蕾; 尤嘉; 顾文炎; 陈凌

    2016-01-01

    Taking the cabbage and cylinder beans as the main raw material, the dynamic change of nitrite content in pickled cabbage natural fermentation production process at 30℃ was studied. The result showed that the content of nitrite in the fermentation process first increased and then decreased with fermentation time. Nitrite content in fourth day reached 68. 37 mg·kg-1 , and then began to decline. The content of nitrite in seventh day was 6. 96 mg/kg. Nitrite content in eighth day was only 2. 87 mg/kg. After 7 days fermentation, nitrite content was far below the standards prescribed by the state. As the result, pickled cabbage produced in this way 7 days will be safe to eat after 7 days.%本文以包心菜和缸豆为主要原料,研究了在30℃条件下自然发酵制作泡菜的过程中亚硝酸盐含量的动态变化。试验结果显示:发酵过程中亚硝酸盐的含量,随发酵时间呈“先增后降”的趋势,第4天亚硝酸盐含量最高达到68.37 mg · kg-1,随后开始下降,第七天为6.96 mg·kg-1,第8天亚硝酸盐含量仅为2.87 mg·kg-1。发酵7天后亚硝酸盐的含量远远低于国家规定的标准,因此用这种方法制作的泡菜7天后食用是安全的。

  6. Produção de pepino para conserva no Vale do São Francisco Yield of pickling cucumber in the São Francisco Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Milanez de Resende

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar as cultivares mais produtivas de pepino para conserva, instalou-se um experimento no período de setembro a novembro de 1996, no Campo Experimental de Bebedouro/Petrolina (PE. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 22 cultivares (Flurry, Francipak, Nautillus, Primepak, Navigator, Vlasstar, Vlaspik, Vlasset, Calypso, Eureka, Panorama, Imperial, Prêmio, Supremo, HE-671, HE-713, HE-601, HE-657, Premier, Pioneiro, Ginga AG-77 e Wisconsin SMR 18 e três repetições. A parcela experimental foi composta de quatro linhas de 3,0 m de comprimento, com espaçamento de 1,0 x 0,30 m. As cultivares Supremo (39,78 t/ha, Vlasset (39,72 t/ha, Ginga AG-77 (39,58 t/ha, Vlaspik (39,21 t/ha, Calypso (37,89 t/ha, Francipak (37,87 t/ha, Navigator (37,59 t/ha, Primepak (36,95 t/ha, Imperial (36,77 t/ha, Panorama (35,99 t/ha e Eureka (35,13 t/ha apresentaram as produtividades estatisticamente mais elevadas. A cultivar Wisconsin SMR 18 foi a que apresentou a produtividade significativamente mais baixa (21,29 t/ha. Com relação ao número de frutos por planta, as cultivares Vlasset (13,90 frutos, Ginga AG-77 (13,83, Primepak (13,58, Panorama (13,55, Supremo (13,54, Calypso (13,01, Vlaspik (12,83, Francipak (12,59 e Navigator (12,16 apresentaram estatisticamente os melhores resultados. As cultivares Supremo (83,13%, HE-657 (82,23%, Flurry (81,55%, Ginga AG-77 (81,31%, e Eureka (81,24% apresentaram as proporções significativamente mais altas de produção de frutos comerciais do tipo 1, com comprimento entre 6 e 9 cm e maior valor comercial. Todas as cultivares apresentaram ciclo entre 72 e 75 dias, do plantio à última colheita.The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Field of Bebedouro, Petrolina, Brazil, from September to november, 1996. The purpose of this study was to identify the highest yielding pickling cucumber cultivars. The experiment was Iaid out in a complete randomized block design

  7. 泡菜中乳酸菌的分离及其发酵液抑菌活性研究%Study on the Isolation of the Lactic Acid Bacteria from Pickled Vegetable and Its Antibiotic Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 朱强; 朱明

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The reference for the production of the ferment of pure lactic acid bacteria and the improvement of traditional lactic acid fermentation was provided through the research on the isolation of the lactic acid bacteria from pickled vegetable and the formation of its antibiotic material. [ Method] The bacterium for acid formation was isolated from the pickled vegetable by means of the medium of lactic acid isolation and the product was identified based on the experiment in acid formation and morphologic/biochemical character. The antibiotic activity of the supernatant was tested. [ Result] 11 bacterium strains were isolated from pickled vegetable and the experiment in the acid-producing of the strain indicated that the strain: J-4, J-5, J-9 and J-11, was better strain. The preliminary identification of morphologic/biochemical character indicated that 4 bacterium strains belonged to lactic acid bacteria spp. The experiment in antibiotic activity of the supernatant indicated that the four bacterium strains was with stronger antibiotic activity, among which, the strain: J-4, had broad-spectrum antibiotic activity.[ Conclusion] The research could provide the inspiration and reference value of development and application of the fermentation and antibacterial factor of lactic acid bacteria.%[目的]从泡菜中分离筛选优势乳酸菌并时其产抑菌物质进行研究,为生产纯菌乳酸茵发酵剂、改进传统乳酸发酵食品生产提供参考.[方法]利用乳酸菌分离培养基从泡菜中分离产酸菌,并通过产酸试验、形态学及生化特性判断是否为乳酸菌属;取发酵上清液进行抑菌活性研究.[结果]从泡菜中分离获得11株产酸菌,产酸试验表明J-4、J-5、J-9、J-11为优势产酸菌;通过形态学及生化特性,初步鉴定4株产酸菌均为乳酸杆菌属;发酵上清液抑菌试验表明,4株菌均具有较强的抑菌活性,其中,J-4还具有广谱抑菌活性.[结论]研究对于纯种发

  8. Simultaneous Determination of Organic Acids in Pickled Garl ic by HPLC%高效液相色谱法同时测定泡蒜中的有机酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶秀娟; 郑炯

    2014-01-01

    建立了 HPLC 同时测定泡蒜中有机酸含量的分析方法。通过色谱条件的优化,确定了泡蒜中有机酸含量测定的最佳色谱条件:色谱柱为 Agilent ZORBAX SB-Aq(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm),流动相为0.01 mol/L 磷酸氢二铵(pH 2.5)和甲醇溶液,流速0.6 mL/min,柱温30℃,检测波长220 nm。在此条件下,酒石酸等6种有机酸可得到很好的分离和测定。该方法各种酸的线性范围为0.001~1.000 mg/mL,标准曲线相关系数均在0.9999以上,精密度检测 RSD 为0.07%~0.36%(n=5),重复性检测 RSD 为0.43%~4.64%(n=5),回收率为96.25%~105.57%。该方法简单、快捷、准确、重复性好,可应用于泡蒜成品中有机酸的同时测定。%A high performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of organic acids content in pickled garlic is established.Through the optimization of chromatographic conditions to determine the optimal chromatographic conditions of organic acids content in pickled garlic:an Agilent ZORBAX SB-Aq (4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm)column is used to separate the organic acids.The mobile phase is 0.01 mol/L (NH 4 )2 HPO4 (pH 2.5)and methanol solution at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min.The column temperature and UV detection wavelength are set as 30 ℃ and 220 nm, respectively.Tartaric acid and the other five organic acids could be successfully separated and determined at the chosen experimental conditions.All the calibration curves for these organic acids display a good linear relationship with correlation coefficients above 0.9999,precision RSD of 0.07%~0.36% (n=5)and repeatability RSD of 0.43%~4.64% (n=5).The recovery rates of six organic acids are in the range of 96.25% ~ 105.57%.This method is convenient,rapid,accurate and reproducible.It can be applicable to determine organic acids in pickled garlic.

  9. 腌制苋菜梗的微生物菌群结构及其品质%A Preliminary Study of Microbial Community Structure and Its Quality of Pickled Amaranth Stem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈锡权; 赵永威; 吴祖芳; 翁佩芳

    2012-01-01

    腌制苋菜梗是浙东传统的特色腌制食品,了解其细菌种群结构并探讨对亚硝酸盐等理化品质的影响,以确保腌制食品的安全性.采用16S rDNA基因克隆文库的方法,对腌制成熟的苋菜梗中细菌组成结构多样性进行了分析,共检测出了乳杆菌、类香菌、弓形杆菌等6个菌属,其中乳杆菌属占优势为总数的83.9%.与此同时,测定了腌制苋菜梗体系亚硝酸盐等一些理化指标,腌制成熟时pH值为4.35,盐度为5.5,亚硝酸盐质量分数为3.99mg/kg(未超标),细菌和乳酸菌浓度分别为8.8×106 CFU/mL和1.6×106 CFU/mL.%Fermented amaranth stem is a special traditional characteristics pickled food in east Zhejiang provice, and it is necessary to understand the microbial community structure and influence on physical and chemical properties such as nitrite concentration of fermented amaranth stem to ensure food safety. The bacterial community diversity of fermented amaranth stem was investigated based on the method of 16S rDNA clone library. The results indicated that 6 bacterial communities in sample were detected including Myroides, Arcobacter and Lactobacillus, etc. The predominant community was i-dentified as Lactobacillus, which account for 83. 9% in total 16S rDNA sequences. In the mean time, the pH value, salinity and nitrite concentration of pickled product of amaranth stem were also detected, they are 4. 35, 5. 5% and 3. 99 mg/kg, respectively. The population of bacteria and lactic acid bacteria were 8. 8×106 CFU/mL and 1. 6× 106 CFU/mL, respectively. These data are within national standard. The research results can provide microbial and theory identification for process parameters of fermented amaranth stem.

  10. 几种香辛料对四川泡菜品质的影响%The Effects of Several Kinds of Common Spices on the Qualities of Sichuan Pickle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐乙银; 刘丽婷; 谭杰; 蒲彪; 敖晓琳

    2014-01-01

    为了探究大蒜、生姜、辣椒、花椒4种不同香辛料对自然发酵四川泡菜品质的影响,通过测定香辛料对泡菜感官品质、总酸、亚硝酸盐含量和乳酸菌总数4个指标的影响实验,分析香辛料种类及最佳添加量对泡菜品质的影响。结果表明:不同因素对不同指标的影响有差异,其中大蒜对泡菜总酸及乳酸菌总数的影响较大,而对感官品质影响的重要程度依次为:辣椒>花椒>大蒜>生姜,最佳发酵组合为A3B2C1D3(大蒜为1.5%,生姜为4.0%辣椒为2.5%,花椒为0.025%)。%The effect of four common spices, including garlic, ginger, chili and Chinese prickly ash, on the qualities of Sichuan pickle were studied by single factor experiment and orthogonal design. The tested items included the sensory quality, total acid, nitrite content and the number of live lactic acid bacteria. The results indicated that the concentration of garlic exhibited the strongest effect on viable lactic acid bacteria and total acid, and the importance degree of each factor the sensory quality of pickled radish was chili>Chinese prickly ash>garlic>ginger. And the optimal combination of fermentation conditions was A3B2C1D3 (garlic was 1.5%, ginger was 4.0%, chili was 2.5%, Chinese prickly ash was 0.025%).

  11. 皮蛋腌制过程中碱度、pH及质构特性变化规律的研究%Change of alkalinity, pH and texture properties during pidan pickling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨有仙; 赵燕; 涂勇刚; 黄新球; 李建科; 罗序英; 王俊杰

    2012-01-01

    Pidan(Chinese preserved egg) had prepared by the traditional copper method. The change of alkalinity of curing liquid,pH and free alkalinity of albumen and yolk,textural properties of albumen were studied during pickling,which could provide basic data for the quality control of pidan during pickling,exploiting the substitute of metal additives,and researching new processing technic. The result showed that alkalinity of curing liquid presented a declining curve. The pH and free alkalinity of albumen increased rapidly at first and decreased gradually,then slowly increased again. The pH and free alkalinity of yolk showed an increasing trend. Hardness of albumen presented an upward trend overall. Flexibility,chewing and cohesion of albumen all increased firstly,then decreased slightly,and finally remain stable.%采用简易传统铜盐清料法腌制皮蛋,研究皮蛋腌制过程中料液碱浓度、蛋内pH和游离碱度、蛋白的质构特性的变化规律,旨为皮蛋加工过程中的质量控制,开发代金属添加剂和研究新加工工艺提供基础数据。结果表明,在腌制过程中,料液碱浓度呈下降趋势;蛋白pH和游离碱度呈现先迅速升高,后逐渐下降,再缓慢回升的趋势;蛋黄pH和游离碱度则一直呈升高的趋势;蛋白硬度总体呈上升趋势;蛋白弹性、咀嚼性、内聚性均是先上升再略有下降,然后基本保持稳定。

  12. EDTA Titrimetric Determination of Fluorion in Chemical Milling Solution and Acid Pickling Solution for Titanium Alloys%EDTA滴定法测定钛合金化铣液和酸洗液中氟的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔永莲; 沙春鹏; 张敏; 严鹏飞

    2016-01-01

    为测定钛合金化铣液和酸洗液中氟的含量,将待测液酸度调节至pH 2.0,加入过量镧(Ⅲ)标准溶液并煮沸2 min,使溶液中F-与La3+生成难溶的LaF3沉淀,加入乙酸-乙酸钠缓冲溶液10 mL。用EDTA标准溶液滴定溶液中过量的镧(Ⅲ),从而间接算出待测液中氟离子的含量。对已知含F-的质量浓度为45.00 g·L-1的氢氟酸溶液连续按所提出的方法测定10次,测得回收率几近100%,测定值的相对标准偏差为0.080%。对化铣液和酸洗液实样分别按本法及硝酸钍滴定法进行测定,所得氟离子的测定值相符。%For the determination of content of F- in samples of chemical milling and acid pickling solution used for titanium alloys,an aliquot of the sample solution was adjusted to pH 2.0 and buffered with 10 mL of HOAc-NaOAc buffer solution;an excess of standard La3+solution was added to the sample solution and the mixture was heated to boiling for 2 min to precipitate completely the F- as LaF3 .Excess of La3+ in the solution was then titrated with standard EDTA solution,and the content of F-was determined indirectly by calculation on the base of the amount of titrant consumed.To test for the accuracy and precision of the proposed method,10 successive determinations were made with a known HF solution of 45 .00 g·L-1 F-by the proposed method,giving values of recovery very close to 100% and of RSD′s of 0.080%.Substantial samples of chemical milling solution and acid pickling solution were analyzed by the present method and checked by the Th(NO3 )4 titrimetric method,consistent results were obtained.

  13. Separation of LactobacUlus plantarum from pickle and optimization of its fermentation technology%泡菜中植物乳杆菌的分离及其发酵特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎尔纳; 林海燕; 邓开野

    2012-01-01

    A strain of Lactobacillus isolated from pickle, gram-positive, straight rod with round-ended in the state of single, in pairs or short chains, was proved to be Lactobacillus plantarum after identification test. The fermentation characteristic was studied and the optimized fermentation condition was initial pH value of 6. 5, NaCl mass concentration at 4%, 33 ℃ for 32 h.%从泡菜中分离到一株乳酸菌(Lactobacillus sp.),并对其进行形态和生化反应鉴定.结果表明,该菌株为革兰氏阳性,短杆状,单个、成对或成短链排到的植物乳杆菌(Lactobacillus plantarum).同时对该菌株的发酵特性进行了研究,最佳发酵工艺条件为:初始pH6.5,NaCl用量为质量分数4%,33℃培养32h.

  14. 微波加热技术在钛带卷酸洗及脱脂过程中的应用%Application of Pickling and Degreasing Titanium Strip Coil based on Microwave Heating Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常军; 郭胜惠; 彭金辉; 杨彪; 苏鹤洲; 史亚鸣

    2013-01-01

    In the present, the application of conventional heating method and its problems for the pickler and degrea-ser in titanium strip coil production process were described, and also introduced the principles and the advantages of microwave heating acid and alkali. Pilot experiment with self - developed microwave heating device show that the thermal efficiency values of both NaOH solution and acid can be above 70%. The results show that the microwave heating technology can be applied to the titanium strip coil pickling industrial. Finally, the development prospect of microwave heating technology in the titanium industry was presented.%针对钛带卷生产工艺过程中加热酸洗液和脱脂液常规方法的不足,分析了微波加热的原理及优势,并利用自主研制的微波流体加热设备,对微波加热酸洗液和脱脂液进行了中试实验.研究得出,微波加热酸洗液和脱脂液的热效率值均在70%以上.举例说明了微波加热技术在钛带卷酸洗工业化应用情况,并展望了微波加热技术在钛产业中的推广前景.

  15. Application of pickling waste liquor in advanced treatment of papermaking wastewater by Fenton oxidation%酸洗废液在Fenton氧化深度处理造纸废水中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华东; 曾金枝

    2014-01-01

    以公司二级生化后的造纸废水为研究对象,首先确定了其Fenton氧化的最佳实验条件和在该实验条件下的Fenton氧化处理效果,然后分别将钛白粉废酸和钢铁废酸用于Fenton氧化,确定其最佳的Fenton氧化条件,最后以不同的混合比将钛白粉废酸和钢铁废酸混合用于Fenton氧化,确定其最佳的混合比。对比不同条件下Fenton氧化的处理效果和处理成本,选择Fenton氧化的最佳工艺条件。%The optimal process conditions and the Fenton oxidation treating effect were determined taken the eflfuent after the second stage biochemical treatment in our company as an object. Furthermore, titanium dioxide waste acid and steel waste acid were used to Fenton oxidation to ifnd the optimal conditions in Fenton oxidation process. The mixing liquor of the two pickling waste liquor at different ratios was used for the Fenton oxidation to conifrm the optimal ratio. The optimal conditions for Fenton oxidation were selected with comparison of treating effect and the cost at different conditions of Fenton oxidation.

  16. J4酸洗板表面线裂缺陷原因分析与控制措施%Cause Analysis and Prevention Measures of J4 Pickled Sheet Surface Crack Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴月龙

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at J4 pickled sheet surface crack failure and through metallographic analysis, SEM detection and energy spectrum analysis, failure cause has been found, which was incomplete reparation and grinding of continuous casting blank failure.By means of data statistical analysis, parameters have been optimized, such as Cr and Ni equiva-lence ratio, pouring temperature and pulling rate, these measures have decreased failure scale and improved economic benefit.%针对J4酸洗板线裂缺陷,通过金相分析、扫描电镜检测和能谱分析,找出了产生缺陷的原因是连铸坯缺陷修磨不彻底。通过数据统计分析的手段优化了铬镍当量比、浇注温度、拉速等参数,降低了缺陷比例,提高了经济效益。

  17. 酸洗对薄壁0Cr18Ni9不锈钢腐蚀的试验研究%Test Study on Corrosion of 0 Cr18 Ni9 Stainless Steel Thin-wall Product during Acid Pickling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈胜利; 郭和平; 李玉生; 张新宇

    2015-01-01

    In the process of acid pickling, 0Cr18Ni9 stainless steel thin-wall products are easily over-etched. The stainless steel strips with the thickness of 0. 1mm were used to study the influencing factors of acid pickling. The test results are as follows:(a) 0Cr18Ni9 stainless steel in different status has different corrosion resistance. The annealed material is more likely to be over-etched. ( b) The temperature of acid fluid, acid picking time, and concentration of acid fluid have a significant influence on the corrosion degree and mechanical property of stainless steel. ( c ) In the process of acid pickling, the etchant containing hydrofluoric acid lowers on the mechanical property of 0Cr18Ni9 stainless steel and causes material embrittlement during the acid pickling. (d) The higher the content of hydrofluoric acid is, the greater the influence on the mechanical property of 0Cr18Ni9 stainless steel is.%0Cr18Ni9 不锈钢薄壁产品在酸洗过程中易发生过腐蚀. 本研究采用0. 1 mm厚度0Cr18Ni9不锈钢带,对酸洗的各影响因素进行试验研究,结果表明: 材料状态不同,耐腐蚀能力不同,退火态更易出现过腐蚀; 酸液温度、浓度及酸洗的时间均对不锈钢带腐蚀程度和力学性能有较大影响;在含HF的腐蚀剂中酸洗容易使薄壁不锈钢带力学性能降低,造成材料脆化,且HF含量越高对薄壁不锈钢力学性能影响越大.

  18. Production process characteristics and development trends of smelly wax gourd, smelly edible amaranth and smelly taro and the research status of production technology for pickled vegetables%宁波“三臭”的制作工艺特点、发展趋势及腌制蔬菜生产工艺的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林波; 赵菲; 孙志栋

    2016-01-01

    The smelly wax gourd, smelly edible amaranth and smelly taro are characteristic pickled vegetables in Ningbo which rich in vitamins, minerals and amino acids. Although the 3 kinds of pickled vegetables have balanced nutrition and unique flavors, there were lots of quality problems and security risks during their manufacturing process. This paper introduced the production process characteristics and possible problems of smelly wax gourd, smelly edible amaranth and smelly taro, and the research status of production technology for pickled vegetables was also introduced which included new fermentation and preservation technologies. According to the studies of production process characteristics and new production technology for smelly wax gourd, smelly edible amaranth and smelly taro, their development directions should be the exploration of dominant strains, the improvement of product quality by improving the production process, and the realization of standardized production. The corresponding quality standards for production of the 3 kinds of pickled vegetables should also been established.%臭冬瓜、臭苋菜和臭菜心(臭芋艿蓊)是宁波地区的特色腌制蔬菜,其富含维生素、矿物质和氨基酸,且营养成分均衡,具有独特的风味,但在其制作过程中也存在诸多质量问题和安全隐患。本文介绍了宁波“三臭”的加工工艺特点以及加工过程中可能存在的问题,并对腌制蔬菜和宁波“三臭”的生产工艺研究现状进行了介绍,包括新型发酵技术和新型保鲜技术等。针对宁波“三臭”的制作工艺特点和新生产工艺的研究,其今后的发展方向应该是开发优势菌种、通过改善生产工艺提高产品质量以及实现标准化生产,并制定相应的产品质量标准。

  19. Determination of eight biogenic amines in merchant pickles by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相法测定市售腌制蔬菜商品中8种生物胺的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢茜; 陈浩; 曲桂芹; 殷丽君

    2013-01-01

    采用丹磺酰氯为衍生试剂,建立反相高效液相色谱法同时测定腌制蔬菜中色胺,β-苯乙胺,腐胺,尸胺,组胺,酪胺,亚精胺和精胺含量的方法.色谱条件:C18色谱柱分离,以水和乙腈为流动相梯度洗脱,流速0.8 mL/min,紫外检测器,检测波长:254 nm.在设定的试验条件下,8种生物胺在30 min内实现了良好的分离,待测生物胺峰面积同其相应浓度呈良好的线性相关性(R2 >0.998).仪器重复性良好(RSD<0.63%),方法重复性在可接收范围内(RSD< 10%),8种生物胺的平均回收率在89.19%~103.02%之间.结果表明生物胺的HPLC检测方法,灵敏度高,精密度和重复性好,可快捷、准确地对腌制蔬菜中的生物胺进行检测.对市售腌制蔬菜样品中的生物胺含量进行了分析,检测出生物胺总量范围在39.38 ~ 628.82 mg/kg,属于目前我国安全标准范围之内.%A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of tryptamine,β-phenylethylamine,putrescine,cadaverine,histamine,tyramine,spermidine,and spermine in pickles.The samples in experiment derivatized with dansyl chloride.The chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 column.The gradient elution program with a mixture of ultrapure water and acetonitrile at the flow rate 0.8 mL/min was used under UV detector with a wavelength of 254 nm.Under this experimental condition,8 amines had a good resolution in 30 min and well linearity(R2 > 0.998) in detection range.The relative standard deviation (RSD) of precision and repeatability were lower than 0.63% and 10% respectively.The average recoveries ranged from 89.19% to 103.02% for all amines.The results showed that,with the merits of high sensitivity,precision and well repeatability,the HPLC method is convenient,rapid and reliable for biogenic amines detection.The contents of biogenic amines were ranging between 39.38 and 628.82 mg/kg in

  20. Simultaneous HPLC Determination of 4 Synthetic Pigments in Pickled Vegetables%HPLC 法同时测定泡菜中的4种合成色素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莹; 方灿; 王其勇; 庞秀清; 伍曦; 赵丽; 邱红燕

    2014-01-01

    采用 Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18色谱柱,以0.02 mol/L 乙酸铵溶液(含0.2%三乙胺,冰醋酸调 pH至4.0)+甲醇为流动相,梯度洗脱,HPLC 法同时测定泡菜中的柠檬黄、胭脂红、日落黄和诱惑红。制备模拟阳性样品并进行方法学考察,以无水乙醇-2%氨水-水(7∶2∶1)为溶剂提取样品中的色素,用聚酰胺除杂质、提纯。结果4种色素质量分别在17.14~342.7 ng,16.67~333.3 ng,15.97~319.3 ng 和16.51~330.1 ng 范围内与峰面积呈良好线性关系,4种色素的加样回收率分别为99.8%,99.8%,99.0%和99.1%,RSD 均低于2.0%。实验结果表明此方法精密度高,重现性好,定量准确,可对泡菜中添加的合成色素进行有效监控。%The Agilent Eclipse XDB-C1 8 column is used,with 0.02 mol/L ammonium acetate solution (containing 0.2% triethylamine,adjusted to pH 4.0 )and methanol as the mobile phase,gradient eluting.The HPLC method is applied to determine the tartrazine,carmine,sunset yellow and allura red in pickled vegetables.Simulated positive samples are prepared and methodology investigating is implemented.Anhydrous ethanol-2% ammonia-water (7 ∶ 2 ∶ 1 )is used as the extracting agent to extract the pigment in samples,then the polyamide is used in impurity removal and purification.The mass of four pigments shows good linear relation with the peak area in the scope of 17.14~342.7 ng, 1 6.67~333.3 ng,15.97~31 9.3 ng and 1 6.5 1~330.1 ng.The percent recoveries of the pigments are 99.8%,99.8%,99.0%and 99.1%,RSDs are all below 2%.The experimental results show that this method is precise,reproducible,accurate,and could effectively monitor the pigments added in pickled vegetables.

  1. 加工类型黄瓜果实脆度与其组织结构的关系%Studies on the Relations between Fruit Crispness and the Structure of Pickling-type Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜庆平; 李伶利; 徐强; 陈学好

    2012-01-01

    对加工类型黄瓜果实脆度与组织结构和纤维素含量的关系进行了研究.结果表明,影响黄瓜脆度的因素有果皮厚度、薄壁细胞递增情况、纤维素含量和果实硬度等,它们的基本关系表现为表皮的厚度要适中,过厚的表皮脆度不好;近表皮的薄壁细胞由小到大递增快的多比较脆.果实纤维素含量与脆度相关性不大,果实硬度与脆度的关系比较复杂,硬度高的并不意味着脆度好,硬度小的也不表明脆度差.%The relations between fruit crispness and fruit structure and cellulose content of pickling-type cucumber were studied preliminarily. The results showed that fruit crispness was influenced by several factors including fruit skin thickness, progressively increasing thin-wall cells, celtulous content and fruit hardness. The relationships among those factors showed that thicker epidermal cells might mean unsuitable fruit crispness. Fruit crispness would be better if the volume of thin-wall cells very close to epidermal size increased rapidly. No general and direct relation was found between fruit crispness and fruit cellulose content so as between fruit crispness and fruit hardness.

  2. Screening of a Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid-Producing Strain of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Pickled Vegetable%从酸菜液中筛选产γ-氨基丁酸的菌株

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁金钟; 田宇; 王风青

    2011-01-01

    从腌制的酸菜液中,采用乳酸菌分离纯化法,经初筛、复筛得到一株产γ-氨基丁酸的菌株,编号为LpL-0212,对菌株进行形态学观察和生理生化实验及16S rDNA、atpA基因序列分析鉴定,鉴定该菌株为Enterococcus faecium。在含2%谷氨酸钠的TYG发酵培养基中静置培养24h,经薄层层析定性、高效液相色谱法测定,发酵液中的γ-氨基丁酸含量可达到102.37μmol/L。%A strain capable of producing γ-amino butyric acid(GABA),named as LpL-0212,was screened from pickled cabbage by a previously reported method for isolating and screening lactic acid bacteria.The strain was identified as Enterococcus faecium according to morphological observations,physiological and biochemical experiments,16S rRNA sequence analysis,and atpA gene sequence analysis.Using quantitative thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography,the content of GABA was determined to be 102.37 μmol/L in the fermentation broth obtained after 24 h culture of the strain in TYG medium containing 2% monosodium glutamate.

  3. Experimental research on the preparation of polyferric aluminum chloride by acid pickle and spent lye%以废酸、废碱液制备聚合氯化铁铝的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵青; 霍文敏; 苑运丽; 王震

    2012-01-01

    以钢厂含铁废酸和铝加工业含铝废碱及废铁屑为原料制备聚合氯化铁铝(PFAC).实验研究了废铁屑加入量等因素对Fe2+溶出率的影响,同时研究了Fe2+的氧化条件.结果表明,在25℃、反应时间为15~20 min、氧化剂氯酸钠加入量等于化学计量值时,Fe2+氧化率可达98.7%以上.用废碱液调整盐基度,PFAC盐基度为20%时,对活性蓝P-3R水溶液的A590去除率可达99.8%;并对PFAC样品进行了红外光谱表征.%Iron-containing acid pickle in steel works,aluminum-containing spent lye in aluminum processing industry and waste iron scraps have been used as raw materials for preparing polyferric aluminum chloride (PFAC). The influence of waste iron scraps dosage and other factors on Fe2+ dissolution rate is studies. The oxidation rate of Fe2+ is 98.7%,when the oxidation conditions are as follows: its temperature is 25 ℃, reaction time 15-20 min,and the dosage of sodium chlorate equals to stoichiometric value. Spent lye is used for adjusting the PFAC basicity to 20%. The As90 removing rate of the activated Blue P-3R aqueous solution can reach 99.8%; and the PFAC samples are characterized by infrared spectroscopy.

  4. 高效液相色谱法同时测定榨菜中的10种食品添加剂%SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF 10 FOOD ADDITIVES IN PICKLED MUSTARD BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海龙; 庄莉; 崔群; 孙伟强

    2011-01-01

    建立了高效液相色谱法直接测定榨菜中的防腐剂、甜味剂、合成着色剂的方法.采用C18柱以甲醇-乙酸按(0.02 mot/L)为流动相,紫外检测波长为230,254 nm,可在25 min内将苯甲酸、山梨酸、脱氮乙酸、对羟基苯甲酸乙酯、对羟基苯甲酸丙酯、糖精钠、乙酰磺胺酸钾(安赛蜜)、天门冬酰苯丙胺酸甲酯(阿斯巴甜)、柠檬黄、日落黄完全分离,测定结果的相对标准偏差为1.1%-3.3%(n=3),回收率为96.6%-99.4%.%A method was developed for simultaneous determination of food additives in pickled mustard by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) directly. The analysis was performed on a C18 column using methanol - ammonium acetate (0.02 mol/L) as mobile phase, and ultraviolet detection wavelength was 230, 254 nm. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, dehydroacetic acetate, ethyl p-hydroxy benzoate, propyl p-hydroxyl benzoate, saccharin sodium, acesulfame potassium (acesulfame-K) , L-aspartyl-L-phenyl-alanine methyl ester (aspartame), tartrazine and sunset yellow were separated completely in 25 minutes. The RSD of determination results were in the range of 1. 1 % -3.3%(n=3), and the recoveries were in the range of 96.6% -99.4%.

  5. 具有降解亚硝酸盐特性的泡菜发酵剂的研究%Research on Pickle Starter with the Properties of Degradation Nitrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫亚梅; 吕嘉枥; 王霄鹏; 杜冰; 王笋

    2016-01-01

    选用从西北地区泡菜中分离出的6株乳酸菌(植物乳杆菌、乳杆菌、副干酪乳杆菌、发酵乳杆菌、戊糖乳杆菌、短乳杆菌)进行降解亚硝盐能力测试,筛选得到具有较强亚硝酸盐降解力的4株供试菌。然后选用10种蔬菜对供试菌进行增菌培养基的初筛,在此基础上扩大培养复筛。并对供试菌离心浓缩后,按照等比例与保护剂混合进行菌体悬浮,再喷雾干燥制备菌粉。按照不同的接菌量进行泡菜发酵实验,最后验证了泡菜发酵剂的保存时间。结果表明:亚硝酸盐的降解率依次为87%,93%,88%,88%,83.2%,85.5%,同时选取黄瓜汁作为4株供试菌的增菌培养基时,活菌数都达到1011 cfu/mL 以上;L1,L3和 L4的最佳离心条件为4℃下离心转速为6000 r/min,离心10 min;L2的最佳离心条件为4℃下离心转速为6000 r/min,离心20 min,泡菜发酵过程中接种量为4%时最佳,发酵120 h 亚硝酸盐含量降为0 mg/kg;不同的保存条件对发酵剂中活菌数下降的速度影响差异很大,随着保存时间的延长,发酵剂中活菌数呈指数下降趋势,与室温相比较,4℃条件下活菌数下降比较慢。%Six strains of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus harbinensis ,Lactobacillus plantarum , Lactobacillus brevis ,Lactobacillus fermentum ,Lactobacillus pentose ,Lactobacillus paracasei ) isolated from the northwestern pickles are tested with their capacity of degradation nitrate in this paper,and four strains of bacteria are chosen.Then ten kinds of vegetables are selected for the preliminary screening of enrichment medium,based on which,expand training is performed.And after the centrifuge enrichment,the tested bacteria of same proportion will mix with protective agent, and preparation of spray-dried powder.Pickle fermentation experiments will be performed according to different amounts of inoculum,finally,the save

  6. Detection of streptomycin resistance and resistance genes in lactic acid bacteria from Sichuan Pickle of China%四川泡菜中乳酸菌链霉素抗性与抗性基因的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋菲菲; 徐顾榕; 蔡婷; 林凯; 贾碧洪; 陈功; 向文良; 张庆

    2014-01-01

    lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Sichuan Pickle of China.Methods The streptomycin resistant LABs were isolated by MRS containing 8μg/ml streptomycin, and were identified by 16S rRNA analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for streptomycin was determined for each isolate by broth microdilution method. And then susceptibility status was determined by comparing MIC values to breakpoints proposed by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). In the streptomycin resistant LABs, the candidate streptomycin resistance genes (strA, strB,aadA,aadE,ant(6),aac(6')-aph(2'), andaph(3')-Ⅲa) were detected by PCR. ResultsSixty-seven lactic acid bacteria which belonged toPediococcus ethanolidurans (36),Lactococcus garvieae (14),Lactobacillus buchneri (12),Lactobacillus acetotolerans (2),Lactococcus lactis(1) andStaphylococcus.spp (2) were isolated from Sichuan Pickle of China. In these isolates, allLactococcus garvieae,Lactobacillus acetotolerans, Lactococcus lactisandStaphylococcus.spp strains displayed streptomycin resistance, while only 20 Pediococcus ethanoliduransand 7Lactobacillus buchneri isolates were streptomycin resistant. Except Lactobacillus acetotolerans, isolates belonged to the other 5 species harbored several or all candidate resistance genes. ThestrA andaph(3')-Ⅲa genes were detected in all5 species isolates with detection rate of 50% - 100% and 21.4% - 100%, respectively. The detection rates ofstrB gene inPediococcus ethanolidurans, Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactococcus garvieae andLactococcus lactis were 70%, 42.9%, 28.6% and 100%, respectively.The aac(6')- aph(2') genes were detected only in 3Pediococcus ethanolidurans,oneLactobacillus buchneri,one Lactococcus garvieaeand 2Staphylococcusspp strains. And no amplicon resistance genes such asaadA,aadE andant(6) were detected in either isolate. In conclusion, the detection rates of strA,strB andaph(3')-Ⅲa genes were more than other genes.Conclusion These results indicated that lactic acid bacteria with

  7. PCR-DGGE Analysis of Lactic Acid Bacterial Community Structure in Pickled Mustard Tuber%基于PCR-DGGE方法分析榨菜中乳酸菌群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕平梅; 乔宏萍; 赵文婧; 单树花; 王琪; 柴政; 陈燕飞

    2016-01-01

    为了深入了解榨菜中的乳酸菌多样性以及影响因素,以市场销售含有辣椒和不含辣椒两种袋装榨菜为研究对象,测定榨菜中的食盐浓度以及亚硝酸盐含量;通过变性梯度凝胶电泳(denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE)法分离榨菜总微生物混合16S rDNA基因V7~V8片段,采用Quantity One软件分析乳酸菌物种丰富度、均匀度及物种多样性指数。结果表明:含辣椒的榨菜食盐浓度和亚硝酸盐含量均略低于不含有辣椒的榨菜;含有辣椒和不含辣椒的榨菜两者间物种多样性指数、丰富度和均匀度无显著差异(P>0.05)。通过回收DGGE电泳带,经克隆后测定碱基序列、与GenBank库序列对比鉴定,不含有辣椒的榨菜5条回收聚合酶链式反应(polymerase chain reaction,PCR)-DGGE泳带a、b、c、d、e经鉴定分别与Pediococcus argentinicus CRL 776、Uncultured Lactobacillus sp. isolate DGGE gel band lx12、Uncultured bacterium clone 11.02-12、Uncultured bacterium clone 11.02-9、Uncultured Lactobacillus sp. clone PxSC03相似度为98%、96%、97%、97%、97%。含有辣椒的榨菜4条回收PCR-DGGE泳带1、2、3、4经鉴定分别与Uncultured Lactobacillus sp.、Lactobacillus sakei A156、Lactobacillus sakei YY1、Lactobacillus sakei WJ1相似度为96%、97%、98%、97%。研究结果表明辣椒对榨菜中微生物群落结构无显著影响。%In order to understand the diversity of lactic acid bacteria in pickled mustard tuber and its influencing factors, two commercial bagged pickled mustard tubers (with and without hot pepper) were determined for the contents of salt and nitrite, and the V7-V8 region of total bacterial 16S rDNA sequences was separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Furthermore, the species richness, evenness and diversity of lactic acid bacteria were analyzed by the Quantity One software. Results indicated that the contents of salt and nitrite

  8. The Determination Of Nitrite And Nitrate In Pickles By Ion Chromatography With Inline Filtration%英兰超滤-离子色谱法测定咸菜中的亚硝酸盐和硝酸盐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文君; 叶德龙; 孙丹红; 杨雪峰

    2012-01-01

      目的:采用英兰超滤-离子色谱法同时测定咸菜中的亚硝酸盐和硝酸盐.方法:样品切碎混匀经水超声提取后,瑞士万通Metrohm-881型离子色谱仪测定.英蓝超滤在线样品前处理装置,电导检测器,Metrosep A Supp 5-250型阴离子离子分析柱(250×4mm),流动相:3.2mmom/L碳酸钠+1.0mmol/L碳酸氢钠,进样体积:20μL,流速:0.7mL/min.结果:方法检出限为:亚硝酸盐1 mg/kg,硝酸盐10 mg/kg .线形范围:亚硝酸盐0.00~0.20mg/L;硝酸盐0.00~2.00 mg/L,相关系数均大于0.999,加标回收率86.7%~93.2%,相对标准偏差均小于5%.结论:该方法简单易行,灵敏度高,可以为咸菜中硝酸盐和亚硝酸盐含量的测定提供参考.%  Objective: To determine nitrite and nitrate in pickles by ion chromatography with inline filtration. Methods: The homogenized samples were extracted with water and determined by Metrohm-881 ion chromatography with inline filtration and conductivity detector. The chromatographic conditions included Metrosep A Supp 5-250 ion chromatogrphy column with the mobile phase of 3.2mmom/L Na2CO3 and 1.0mmol/L NaHCO3. The injection volumn is 20μL. The mobile speed is 0.7ml/min. Results: The detection limited were nitrite 1 mg/kg ,nitrate 10 mg/kg. This method had linear relationship (γ>0.999) between nitrite 0.00~0.20 mg/kg ,nitrate 0.00~2.00mg/kg. RSD is below 5%.The samples’ average rates of recovery were 86.7%~93.2%. Conclusion: The method is simple, sensitive, accurate and reproducible.

  9. Comparative Study on Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Pickle and Their Antioxidant Activity%泡菜中乳酸菌的分离鉴定及其抗氧化能力的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌洁玉; 龚文秀; 包梦莹; 高丽

    2015-01-01

    Three lactic acid bacteria are isolated from homemade pickle and identified as L.plantarum, P.pentosaceus and L .casei subsp .These three strains are cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions,and the antioxidant activity of their fermentation supernatants and intracellular extracts is evaluated.The results show that three strains under anaerobic conditions show higher antioxidant activity,and have the greatest impact on hydroxyl free radical scavenging.For hydroxyl free radicals and lipid peroxidation free radicals scavenging,three strains'fermentation supernatants compared with the intracellular extracts reflect a higher level,and for scavenging superoxide anion,the intracellular extracts show a better level.Contrast three strains,P.pentosaceus shows the strongest hydroxyl free radical scavenging ability,L.plantarum indicates the strongest superoxide anion radical scavenging ability,and L.casei subsp shows stronger anti-lipid peroxidation than the other two strains.%从自制泡菜中,分离出三株乳酸菌,经鉴定,三株菌分别为植物乳杆菌、戊糖片球菌和干酪乳杆菌干酪亚种。分别在有氧和厌氧条件下培养这三株乳酸菌,评价其发酵上清液和胞内提取物的抗氧化能力。结果表明:三株乳酸菌均在厌氧条件下呈现出较高抗氧化能力,厌氧培养对清除羟自由基影响最大;对于清除羟自由基及脂过氧化自由基,三株乳酸菌的发酵上清液较胞内提取物均体现出更高的水平;对于清除超氧阴离子自由基,三株乳酸菌的胞内提取物效果更佳。对比三株乳酸菌,戊糖片球菌清除羟自由基的能力最强,植物乳杆菌清除超氧阴离子自由基的能力最强,而干酪乳杆菌抗脂质过氧化能力较另外两株菌强。

  10. 四川冬菜中细菌群落组成及多样性%Bacterial biodiversity in Dongcai, a traditional pickled mustard product in Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董玲; 蒲彪; 敖晓琳; 张小平; 郑有坤; 李小林

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] To investigate the bacteria community and biodiversity of four-years pickled Yanshan Dongcai. [Methods] We studied the bacterial communities of Dongcai by 16S rDNA diversity analysis and the cultured species isolated from Dongcai sample by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism ( RFLP) and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. [ Results] The 16S rDNA diversity showed that the bacteria belonged to the phyla Proteobacteria (87. 9% ) and Firmicutes (7. 1% ) , including many moderately halophilic bacteria such as Virgibacillus kekensis, Marinococcus albus, Salinicoccus sp. , Lactobacillus halophilus and Halomonas. Only 5% of clone sequences belonged to the phylum Actinobacteria. Thirty-five strains were isolated from Dongcai sample, and 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis indicated that 34 isolates affiliated with the phylum Firmicutes, including Virgibacillus, Bacillus megaterium and Gracilibacillus saliphilus which were moderately halophilic bacteria, but only one isolate belonged to the phylum Actinobacteria. [ Conclusion ] The bacterial diversity is low in Dongcai, dominated by moderately halophilic bacteria.%[目的]了解腌制4年的四川南充冬菜中细菌群落组成及多样性.[方法]通过16S rDNA多样性分析样品细菌落组成;采用16S rDNA-RFLP方法分析从样品中分离出的纯培养细菌.[结果]16S rDNA多样性分析结果表明,样品中细菌主要属于变形杆菌门( Proteobacteria)和厚壁菌门(Firmicutes),分别占克隆文库的87.9%、7.1%,其中包括Virgibacillus kekensis,Marinococcus albus,Salinicoccus sp.,Lactobacillus halophilus和Halomonas等中度嗜盐菌,仅有5%属于放线菌门(Actinobacteria).通过纯培养方法从冬菜中分离到35株菌,16S rDNA-RFLP分析结果表明,34株属于厚壁菌门(Firmicutes),包括Virgibacillus,Bacillus megaterium和Gracilibacillus saliphilus等中度嗜盐菌,1株属于放线菌门(Actinobacteria).[结论]冬菜中细菌群落多样性较低,以中度嗜盐菌为主.

  11. 毛细管柱气相色谱法测定酱腌菜中环己基氨基磺酸钠%Determination of sodium cyclamate with capillary gas chromatography in pickled vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李力军; 李鹏; 姜延国

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the cyclamic sodium in foods in a rapid and accurate way.Methods:Use TR - 1 capillary column gas chromatography to determine the cyclamic sodium in pickled vegetables.Results: In the best chromatographic conditions, the result shows in the range of 1 μg ~ 5 μg as a good linear relationship ( r = 0.9998), and the detection limit was 4 ng.Under repeatability conditions, the absolute difference of two independent measurements was no more than 10% of the arithmetic mean.The actual measurement result was between 3.0% and 6.7%, and the recovery rate with added specimen was between 95.4% and 100.6%.Conclusion: This method is simple, fast, accurate and easy to operate to determine cyclamic sodium in vegetables and other foods.%目的:快速、准确地测定食品中的环己基氨基磺酸钠.方法:采用TR-1型毛细管柱气相色谱法测定酱腌菜中环己基氨基磺酸钠含量.结果:在最佳色谱条件下,结果在1μg~5μg范围内呈良好的线性关系(r=0.9998),检出限为4 ng.在重复性条件下获得的两次独立测定结果的绝对差值不超过算术平均值的10%,实际测定在3.0%~6.7%之间.加标回收率在95.4%~100.6%之间.结论:方法简单、快速、准确、易于操作,适用于酱腌菜等食品中环己基氨基磺酸钠的测定.

  12. 泡菜、传统腊肠中降胆固醇乳酸菌的筛选及鉴定%Isolation and identification of cholesterol-reducing lactic acid bacteria from indigenously fermented pickles and dried-sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪晓辉; 于平; 励建荣

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] To obtain cholesterol-reducing lactic acid bacteria (tAB), we isolated and identified strains of LAB from indigenously fermented pickles and dried-sausage.[Methods] We screened original LAB strains based on the Calcium Carbonate-MRS medium (Calcium Carbonate-Man Rogosa and Sharp Medium) from pickles and sausage. The cholesterolreducing strains were confirmed by screening with in vitro cholesterol levels. These strains were identified by methods of morphologic observation, catalase reaction, carbohydrate reaction and 16SrRNA sequencing. [Results] We obtained two strains of LAB (LpT1 and LpT2), which presented a comparatively high ability of cholesterol reducing. The two strains also showed high acid resistance and bile salt tolerance. The time of LpT1 entering the logarithm phase of growth and stationary phase of growth was 14 hours and 22 hours after cultivated, while that of LpT2 was 12 hours and 20 hours after cultivated. These two strains survived for at least 4 hours in the MRS broth with pH 2.0 and grew well in the MRS broth containing 0.2% bile salt, and we identified these two strains to be Lactobacillus plantarum by 16SrRNA sequencing. [Conclusion] The two LAB strains could reduce cholesterol in vitro and resist acid and bile salt.%[目的]筛选具有降胆固醇功能的乳酸菌菌株,为乳酸菌体外、体内的降胆固醇生理特性和机理研究奠定基础.[方法]以碳酸钙-MRS选择性培养基(Calcium Carbonate-Man Rogosa and Sharp Medium)从中国传统食品泡菜、腊肠中筛选乳酸菌,应用改良的胆固醇筛选培养基筛选具有较高降胆固醇能力的乳酸菌菌株,并研究其耐酸性,耐胆盐活性,生长曲线及产酸特性;结合菌落形态学、接触酶反应、革兰氏染色、碳水化合物微量鉴定管及16SrRNA寡核苷酸碱基序列分析鉴定菌株.[结果]筛选得到的两个菌株LpT1和LpT2胆固醇降解率分别达到49.11%和50.03%,且呈现了较好的耐

  13. 泡椒牛百叶加工工艺优化及其挥发性风味成分分析%Optimization of Processing Conditions for the Production of Bovine Omasum with Pickled Peppers and Analysis of Its Volatile Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奕琳; 杨勇; 李诚; 李俣珠; 林琪; 朱成林; 姜海洋; 刘韫滔; 冯朝辉; 刘爱平

    2016-01-01

    In this study one-factor-at-a-time method and Box-Behnken response surface methodology were employed to optimize the conditions for producing bovine omasum with pickled peppers. The volatile lfavor compounds of this product were analyzed by a headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method (HS-SPME-GC-MS). The product obtained by cooking bovine omasum for 25 s and subsequently marinating it with a mixture of 30% pickled peppers, 5% salt, 20% white vinegar, and 7% crystal sugar had the best sensory evaluation. A total of 46 volatile flavor compounds were found in the product, including esters, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, heterocyclic compounds, and phenols. Among these compounds, esters, alcohols and aldehydes made greater contribution to the lfavor of bovine omasum with pickled peppers.%以新鲜牛百叶为原料,通过单因素试验和Box-Behnken中心组合响应面试验,优化泡椒牛百叶的加工工艺,并采用顶空固相微萃取(headspace solid-phase microextraction,HS-SPME)结合气相色谱-质谱联用(gas chromatography-mass spectrometry,GC-MS)对泡椒牛百叶的挥发性风味成分进行分析。结果表明:牛百叶煮制25 s、腌制10 h,泡椒、食盐、白醋和冰糖添加量(以质量分数计)分别为30%、5%、20%和7%时,泡椒牛百叶的感官评价结果最好;在最佳工艺条件下制备的泡椒牛百叶共分析出酯类、醛类、烃类、醇类、酸类、杂环类化合物、酚类等挥发性风味成分共46种。其中酯类、醇类和醛类对泡椒牛百叶挥发性风味的贡献较大。

  14. 设计乳杆菌特异性引物并运用菌落PCR技术快速检出和鉴定四川泡菜中的乳杆菌%Rapid detection and identification Lactobacillus from Sichuan pickle by colony PCR using Lactobacillus-specific primers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘渠; 杨维华; 王颖; 余小平; 陈恬; 陈玮

    2011-01-01

    乳杆(Lactobacillus)是益生菌,也是当前的研究热点之一.研究泡菜等样品中的乳杆菌需要快速的检出方法.根据已完成全基因组测序的14种乳杆菌的16S rDNA序列,设计一对乳杆菌特异性引物.PCR检测结果表明该引物对乳杆菌和明串珠菌能扩增出800 bp的片段,对表皮葡萄球菌、乳酸乳球菌和枯草芽胞杆菌却没有扩增条带,具有一定的乳杆菌特异性.结合MRS乳杆菌半选择培养基和革兰氏染色,运用菌落PCR技术,可以快速高效地检出四川泡菜中的乳杆菌.再通过对PCR扩增片段测序,可以将乳杆菌鉴定到种.从16份四川泡菜样品中检出了15株乳杆菌,其中14株被鉴定为植物乳杆菌,1株需进一步鉴定才能确定种.该方法可以检出乳杆菌新种.%Lactobacillus is used as probiotics and there has been much interest. The detection and identification of Lactobacillus from pickle need a rapid method. We designed a pair Lactobacillus-specific primer by analyzing 16S rDNA of 14 Lactobacillus species whose complete genomes had been sequenced. The results of colony PCR showed that an 800 bp band was generated when Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc strains used as template but no band appeared when Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, or Lactococcus lactis used as template. Lactobacillus of Sichuan pickle was rapidly detected by a procedure including selection of MRS culture, Gram stain and colony PCR. By sequencing the 800 bp fragment, the detected strain was identified at the species level. 15 Lactobacillus strains were detected from 16 samples of Sichuan pickle. 14 Lactobacillus strains were identified as L. plantarum and a Lactobacillus strain need more identification. The method would detect new Lactobacillus species.

  15. Spalling and Pickling Rate of Oxide Scale on Hot-Rolled Steel Strip Surface in Different Stress States%不同应力状态下热轧带钢表面氧化皮的剥离及酸洗速率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶东东; 陈建钧; 张新宇; 王忠建; 陈广; 阴子良

    2016-01-01

    利用自主设计的拉矫机对热轧带钢施加不同的压下量或张紧力进行拉矫破鳞试验,使试验钢表面获得不同的应力状态,观察了破鳞前后氧化皮/基体的界面形貌;采用拉伸试验研究了不同应力状态下氧化皮/基体界面的结合强度;采用电位导数首零方法对试验钢进行酸洗试验,研究了应力状态对酸洗速率的影响.结果表明:不论是拉应力还是压应力,随着应力值的增大,氧化皮的全剥落率不断增大,且压应力时的全剥落效果好于拉应力时的,最终受压应力面和受拉应力面氧化皮的全剥落率稳定值分别为24.1%和6.3%;当全剥落率相同或相近时,拉应力对氧化皮/基体结合强度的降低效果和对酸洗速率的提升效果都好于压应力的;当压下量相同或相近时,压应力对酸洗速率的提升效果好于拉应力的.%In order to obtain different stress states,the self designed descaling tension leveler was applied to conduct scale breaking test on hot-rolled steel strip at different reductions or tension forces.The interface morphology of oxide scale/substrate before and after descaling were observed,and tensile test was used to study bonding strength of oxide scale/substrate interface in different stress states.The pickling test was carried out to study the effect of stress state on pickling rate with first zero potential differential value method.The results show that complete spalling rate of oxide scale increased with the increase of the tensile stress and compressive stress values.The compressive stress had a stronger effect than the tensile stress on complete spallation rate.The stable values of oxide scale full spalling rate at compressive stress and tensile stress were approximately 24.1% and 6.3%. The tensile stress had a stronger effect than compressive stress on decreasing oxide scale/substrate bonding strength and increasing pickling time when the full

  16. 真空包装萝卜缨泡菜保鲜液最佳配方研究%Study on the Optimum Formula about the Preservation Solution of Vacuum-packedPickled Stems and Leaves of Radish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石小琼; 高章平; 谢银萍; 黄慧欢; 洪更新; 汪聿坤; 谢艺欣; 韩小成; 雷河华

    2016-01-01

    The pickle was prodecd by using the stems and leaves of radish ,to keep it fresh, the preservation solution and vacuum-packing technology were used. The preservation solution includes sodium benzoate , sodium metabisulfite and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium. The optimum formula about the preserva-tion solution had been studied. The results showed:the optimum formula of 0.25 g sodium benzoate ,`0.025 g sodium metabisulfite, 0.0625 g ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium and 200 g cold boiled water. Accord-ing to this formula and cooperating with the vacuum-packaging , the products was not bad and the bag was not bulged,while the products′s smell was sweet , the lactic acid flavor was rich , the color was yellow and pleas-ant, the texture was crisp and refreshing , the amount of microbes meeted the requirements of the standard of SB/T 10439-2007, after stored 180 days under the common condition. The preservation effect was obviously better than that storaged under the coumon condition or the low temperature (5℃-10℃)after common-pack-aged and without the preservation solution.%将萝卜缨加工成酸泡菜,为了对其进行防腐保鲜,采用真空包装配合保鲜液的复合技术.保鲜液所用的食品添加剂为:苯甲酸钠、焦亚硫酸钠和乙二胺四乙酸二钠(即:EDTA-二钠).将它们进行复配,筛选和优化最佳保鲜液配方.结果表明:以生产1 kg产品(萝卜缨泡菜80%、保鲜液20%)计,最佳保鲜液配方为,苯甲酸钠0.25 g、焦亚硫酸钠0.025 g、EDTA-二钠0.0625 g、冷开水200 g.按此配方并配合真空包装,产品在室温存放180 d,气味芳香、乳酸味浓郁、色泽淡黄怡人、质地脆嫩爽口、不变质不胀袋、微生物指标符合SB/T 10439-2007《酱腌菜》的要求,此防腐保鲜效果比不加保鲜液、普通包装后室温存放或低温冷藏(5℃~10℃)的对照组明显更好.

  17. Rendimento e qualidade de cultivares de pepino para processamento em função do espaçamento de plantio Effect of plant spacing on the yield and quality of pickling cucumber cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo M. de Resende

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o rendimento e a qualidade de cultivares de pepino para processamento em diferentes espaçamentos de plantio, em experimento em Petrolina (PE, de abril a julho/99. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados sendo os tratamentos dispostos no esquema fatorial 5 x 3, compreendendo cinco cultivares (Calypso, Eureka, Supremo, Vlaspik e Vlasset e três espaçamentos entre plantas (0,20; 0,30 e 0,50 m com três repetições. A parcela experimental foi composta de quatro linhas de 3,0 m espaçadas de 1,00 m, com duas plantas por cova, sendo as duas linhas centrais consideradas como área útil. Verificou-se efeitos lineares negativos na produtividade com o incremento do espaçamento entre plantas para as cultivares Vlaspik, Vlasset e Eureka, e efeitos quadráticos com pontos de mínima e máxima produtividade para as cultivares Calypso e Supremo. As maiores massas frescas de frutos foram observadas nas cultivares Vlaspik (35,44 g/fruto e Vlasset (35,07 g/fruto que não apresentaram diferenças entre si. Observou-se efeito linear positivo com o aumento do espaçamento entre plantas no número de frutos por planta para as cultivares Vlaspik, Vlasset e Supremo. Para as cultivares Calypso e Eureka constataram-se efeitos quadráticos com pontos de máximo número de frutos por planta. Na classificação de frutos comerciais não verificou-se efeitos significativos dos tratamentos.The yield and quality of pickling cucumber cultivars was evaluated in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil, from April to June of 1999. The experimental design was a complete randomized block, with three replications in a 5 x 3 factorial scheme, with five cultivars (Calypso, Eureka, Supremo, Vlaspik and Vlasset, and three planting spaces (0.20; 0.30 and 0.50 m. Experimental plots consisted of four rows spaced 1.00 m apart, with three meters in length and two plants per hole. The main plot was comprised of the two central rows. Negative linear effect

  18. Produção de pepino para conserva na região Norte de Minas Gerais Yield of pickling cucumber in the north region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo M. de Resende

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar as cultivares mais produtivas de pepino para conserva, instalou-se um experimento no período de agosto a outubro de 1988, no Campo Experimental de Gorutuba, em Porteirinha (MG. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos ao acaso, com dez cultivares (Colônia, Guaíra, Ginga AG-77, Indaial, Itapema, Levina, Pérola, Primepak, Score e Tamor e quatro repetições. A parcela experimental foi composta por quatro linhas de 6 m de comprimento, com espaçamento de 1,00 x 0,30 m. As cultivares Indaial (29,72 t.ha-1, Score (26,46 t.ha-1, Colônia (26,43 t.ha-1 e Ginga AG-77 (26,12 t.ha-1 apresentaram as produtividades estatisticamente mais elevadas. Em termos de número de frutos por planta, as cultivares Indaial (7,72, Colônia (7,40, Ginga AG-77 (7,40, Score (6,94 e Tamor (6,68 apresentaram estatisticamente os melhores resultados. As cultivares Ginga AG-77 (77,96%, Levina (75,71% e Tamor (73,58% apresentaram as proporções significativamente mais altas de produção de frutos comerciais do tipo I, com comprimento entre 6 e 9 cm e maior valor comercial. Todas as cultivares apresentaram ciclo entre 76 e 82 dias, do plantio à última colheita.The experiment was carried out at the Gorutuba Experimental Station, in the Porteirinha county, Minas Gerais state, from August to October, 1988. The purpose of this study was to identify the highest yielding pickling cucumber cultivars. The experiment was laid out in a complete randomized block design, with ten cultivars (Colônia, Guaíra, Ginga AG-77, Indaial, Itapema, Levina, Pérola, Primepak, Score, and Tamor as treatments, and four replications. Experimental plots consisted of four 6 m rows, with spaces of 1.00 x 0.30 m. Cultivars Indaial (29.72 t.ha-1, Score (26.46 t.ha-1, Colônia (26.43 t.ha-1, and Ginga AG-77 (26.12 t.ha-1 showed the significantly highest yields. Considering the number of fruits per plant, cultivars Indaial (7.72 fruits, Colônia (7.40, Ginga AG-77 (7

  19. Produtividade e qualidade de frutos de cultivares de pepino para conserva tipo "cornichon" no Vale do São Francisco Yield and quality of pickling cucumber "cornichon" in the Vale do São Francisco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo M. de Resende

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Identificou-se as cultivares mais produtivas de pepino para conserva em um experimento, de setembro a novembro de 1996, no Campo Experimental de Bebedouro/Petrolina (PE. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de casualizados completos, com 22 cultivares (Calypso, Eureka, Flurry, Francipak, Ginga AG-77, HE-601, HE-657, HE-671, HE-713, Imperial, Nautillus, Navigator, Panorama, Pioneiro, Premier, Prêmio, Primepak, SMR 18 Wisconsin, Supremo, Vlaspik, Vlasset e Vlasstar e três repetições. A parcela experimental foi composta de quatro linhas de 3,0 m de comprimento, com espaçamento de 1,0 x 0,30 m. As cultivares Vlaspik (11,5 t/ha, Eureka (11,2 t/ha, Calypso (11,1 t/ha, Ginga AG-77 (10,7 t/ha, Imperial (10,6 t/ha, Prêmio (10,6 t/ha, Panorama (10,3 t/ha HE-671 (10,2 t/ha, Vlasset (10,1 t/ha, Francipak (10,0 t/ha, Supremo (9,7 t/ha, Primepak (9,5 t/ha, Navigator (9,5 t/ha e Pioneiro (9,3 t/ha, destacaram-se com produtividades mais elevadas, não diferindo estatisticamente entre si. O pior desempenho foi da cultivar SMR 18 Wisconsin, com produtividade comercial de frutos de 6,1 t/ha. No que se refere a número de frutos por planta, observou-se para as cultivares Vlaspik, Eureka, Calypso, Ginga AG-77, Imperial, Prêmio, Panorama, HE-671, Vlasset e Francipak, valores oscilando de 22,7 a 25,7 frutos/planta, não diferindo estatisticamente entre si. Para classificação de frutos comerciais, verificou-se uma maior proporção de frutos tipo 1 (frutos com In 1996, a field experiment was carried out in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil, to evaluate the yield of pickling cucumber cultivars. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with twenty-two treatments (cv Calypso, Eureka, Flurry, Francipak, Ginga AG-77, HE-601, HE-657, HE-671, HE-713, Imperial, Nautillus, Navigator, Panorama, Pioneiro, Premier, Prêmio, Primepak, SMR 18 Wisconsin, Supremo, Vlaspik, Vlasset and Vlasstar, and three replications. Experimental plots consisted of four

  20. LCA case study of pickled herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jannick Andresen; Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    The chaper provides an example of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of fish products, carried out by a fictive Danish fish processing factory.......The chaper provides an example of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of fish products, carried out by a fictive Danish fish processing factory....

  1. Winterization strategies for bulk storage of pickles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumbers are commercially fermented and stored in bulk in outdoor open top fiberglass tanks. During winter, snow and ice accumulates around and on top of tanks influencing heat transfer in an unpredictable manner, often compromising the fruit quality. This study evaluates the performance of inexpen...

  2. Risk of field cultivation of pickling cucumber caused by unfavorable sunshine duration conditions Risco do cultivo de campo de pepino decapado causado por condições desfavoráveis de duração de brilho solar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kalbarczyk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy, accessible to plants during sunshine from the sunrise to the sunset is of key importance in productivity of agrocenoses. The aim of the work was to determine risk of pickling cucumber cultivation caused by an unfavorable course of sunshine duration in Poland on the basis of a 40-year research period 1966-2005. The research into the subject was undertaken due to frequent occurrence of sunshine deficiency in Poland and its high temporal and spatial variability. Effect of solar conditions described by sunshine duration in the five development stages on the quantity of the total and marketable yield of cucumber with consideration of a linear trend of an independent variable was determined by means of multiple regression analysis. The accuracy of the equations was evaluated on the basis of, among other things, determination coefficient, average relative forecast error and the indexes: mean bias error (MBE, mean absolute bias error (MABE and root mean square error (RMSE. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. yield was confirmed for the period from the end of emergence to the beginning of flowering and from the beginning of harvesting to the end of harvesting. Cucumber yield was lower by 18% than the multiannual average in the years 1966-2005 every 1.5-2 years -in the case of the occurrence of the shortage in the period from the end of emergence to the beginning of flowering and by 12-15% every 2-3 years in the period from the beginning of harvesting to the end of harvesting. In four years, out of the 40 considered ones, simultaneously in both cucumber development stages, unfavorable solar conditions occurred, causing reduction by at least 5% in the total yield of the plant in Poland, and in three years - the marketable yield.A disponibilidade de energia solar para as plantas desde o nascer ao por do sol é de fundamental importância para todo agronegócio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o risco da produção de pepino (Cucumis sativus

  3. 锦州腌渍小菜中耐盐乳酸菌的筛选与产酸性能研究%Screening of salt-tolarent acid-producing lactic acid bacteria in Jinzhou pickled cucumber and study on its acid production property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲玲童; 牛文静; 孙征; 马欢欢; 刘邑娥; 马驰; 白凤翎

    2012-01-01

    从锦州腌渍小菜中分离获得28株耐盐性乳酸菌,对其在不同盐浓度条件下产酸能力进行分析,结果表明,从初步鉴定的20株乳酸菌中筛选出6株菌株,最终得到高产耐盐乳酸菌菌株L7.采用正交试验方法优化试验条件,结果发现选择提供乳糖为碳源,大豆蛋白胨为氮源的生长环境,发酵时间为20h,发酵温度为32℃,盐浓度为7%在此条件下菌株L7的产酸能力可由1.48%提高至1.60%.耐盐产酸性能的优良菌株筛选为改善锦州腌渍小菜的品质具有一定的理论和应用价值.%The 28 salt-resistant lactic acid bacteria strains were isolated from Jinzhou pickled cucumber and Their acid production capacity under different NaCl concentrations were analyzed. The results indicated that the 6 strains were screened from the 20 preliminarily screened strains, and the high salt-resistant with high acid production with strain L7 was obtained. The experimental conditions of acid-producing ability for strain L7 were optimized with L9 (33) orthogonal test. And the results showed that the optimum fermentation conditions were as follows: lactose as the best carbon source and soya peptone as the best nitrogen source, the acid production of strain L7 increased from 1.48% to 1.60% when fermented at 32℃, for 20 h with salt-concentration 7%. The results had significance on theory and application for improved Jinzhou pickled cucumber quality.

  4. 泡菜乳酸菌筛选鉴别及耐受性和促益生菌增殖的研究%Study on Selection and Identification of Lactic Bacteria and Its Tolerance and the Proliferation in Probiotic Bacterial in Pickles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵立彬; 刘凌; 童军茂; 陈功; 余文华

    2009-01-01

    In order to look for the effective approach of beneficial function in Chinese traditional pickled vegetables, the Lactic bacteria from traditional pickles are isolated and selected by lineation on slab. The tolerances are inspected in simulation of gastrointestinal tract. The Bifidobacterium proliferation and the strain identification are carried out in the selected high tolerance bacteria strains. The viable counts of tow Lactic bacteria are above 10~6 CFU/mL after keeping 2 hours in the simulation of the environment of gastric juices(pH 2. 5-4. 5) and the viable counts are almost unchanged after keeping 4 hours in the simulation of the environment of 0. 3% gall. The Bifidobacterium proliferations are promoted by Lactic Acid Bacteria in the six hours fermentation. By examining the morphosis, measuring the metabolic organic acids in gas chromatography and the G + C contents in DNA with denaturation temperature, it is demonstrated that the selected desired strains are homofermentation Lactic bacteria.%以寻求提高我国传统发酵型腌渍蔬菜益生作用的有效途径为目的,采用平板划线分离的方法从典型泡菜产品中分离筛选乳酸菌,考察其在模拟人体胃肠环境条件下的耐受能力,选择耐受力强的菌株进行双歧杆菌增殖试验和菌株分类鉴别.结果显示:2株乳酸菌在pH为2.5-4.5的模拟胃液环境中停留2 h活菌数仍达10~6CFU/mL以上,在0.3%的模拟肠道胆汁环境停留4h活菌数仍保持在初始状态;发酵时间6h内乳酸菌株对长双歧杆菌生长有促进作用.经形态特征观察、气相色谱检测代谢有机酸种类和热变性温度法测定DNA中G+C(鸟嘌呤+胞嘧啶)含量,确认筛选出的优质菌株为同型发酵乳杆菌属.

  5. Hyperspectral Waveband Selection for Internal Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumbers and Whole Pickles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral imaging under transmittance mode has shown potential for detecting internal defect, however, the technique still cannot meet the on-line speed requirement because it needs to acquire and analyze a large amount of image data. This study was carried out to select important wavebands that...

  6. 不同添加物对包头地区酸菜发酵中亚硝酸盐含量的影响%The Effect of Different Additives on Nitrite Content in Fermentation of Pickled Vegetables in Baotou Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩永霞

    2015-01-01

    The effects of sugar liquid,onion juice,garlic juice,vinegar,Vc and citric acid on the content of nitrite in fermentation of pickled vegetables in Baotou areas are researched,the combination with low nitrite content is obtained by orthogonal experiment,and the sensory scores of the several groups with low nitrite content are evaluated. The color, flavor, taste and nitrite content are integrated in order to select the optimal combination,which provides a theoretical basis for vegetables fermentation in Baotou areas.%试验研究了糖液、大葱汁、大蒜汁、食醋、Vc、柠檬酸对包头地区酸菜发酵中亚硝酸盐含量的影响情况,并采用正交试验得出了亚硝酸盐含量较低的组合,并对含量较低的几组进行感官评分,综合色泽、风味、口感和亚硝酸盐含量,选出最优组合,为包头地区蔬菜发酵提供理论依据。

  7. Acúmulo e repartição da matéria seca da planta de pepino tipo conserva sob três doses de nutrientes minerais Dry matter accumulation and distribution of pickling cucumber plants under three mineral nutrient levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Nicasio Rodríguez Espínola

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se o efeito de três doses de nutrientes minerais sobre o acúmulo e distribuição da matéria seca da planta de pepino tipo conserva, híbrido Crispina. As plantas foram cultivadas em sacolas plásticas com 4,6kg de substrato composto por uma mistura de 40% de casca de arroz e 60% de solo, no interior de uma estufa de polietileno, na primavera de 1998 e no verão de 1999. Foi empregado um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com três repetições e 15 plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por três níveis múltiplos de uma dose padrão de nutrientes aplicada para cada planta, contendo N-P-K-Ca e Mg nas quantidades de 0,8-0,12-0,8-0,46-0,086g.pl-1, com 0,33m de solução de micronutrientes e 0,07m de quelato de ferro. Os níveis corresponderam às quantidades de 50%, 100% e 150% da dose padrão, denominados de tratamentos T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente, aplicados semanalmente através da fertirrigação em todas as plantas de uma mesma parcela. Determinou-se a matéria seca dos diferentes órgãos da parte aérea da planta a intervalos semanais. Houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos no acúmulo da matéria seca, nos dois experimentos. A maior fração foi alocada para os frutos, atingindo o valor mais elevado de 0,64 na primavera. Concluiu-se que a distribuição da matéria seca desse material vegetal não é constante, sofrendo interações com as variáveis do ambiente.It was determined the effect of three mineral nutrient levels on dry matter accumulation and distribution of pickling cucumber plants, hybrid Crispina, grown inside a polyethylene greenhouse, in spring 1998 and in summer 1999. Planting was made in bags filled with 4.6kg of a substrate mixture composed by 40% rice husks and 60% soil. A randomized block experimental design was used, with three replications and15 plants per plot. A reference nutrient dose was supplied weekly to each one of the plants, with the following composition

  8. Influence of osmotic dehydration on ascorbic acid loss in pickled dry peppers (Capsicum chinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissiane Mayara da Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was (1 to develop a dehydrated pepper with 45% humidity, determining the drying curves for pepper, with and without osmotic pre-treatment and (2 to evaluate the influence of both drying and osmotic treatment on the content ascorbic acid (vitamin C in fresh pepper and pepper with 45% humidity. The experiments were carried out using the peppers cut in half, with and without osmotic pre-treatment, followed by drying in an oven at 70 ºC. The results showed that the osmotic pretreatment did not influence the retention of ascorbic acid during the drying of pepper. The sensory analysis regarding the color, flavor, and texture attributes revealed that there was no difference in the acceptability.

  9. Transformation of pickling cucumber with chitinase-encoding genes using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharjo, S H; Hernandez, M O; Zhang, Y Y; Punja, Z K

    1996-04-01

    Transformation of cucumber cv. Endeavor was attempted using three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (a supervirulent leucinopine type, an octopine type and a nopaline type), each harbouring one of three binary vectors which contained an acidic chitinase gene from petunia, and basic chitinase genes from tobacco and bean, respectively, driven by the CaMV 35S promoter. Petiole explants were inoculated with a bacterial suspension (10(8) cells·ml(-1)), cocultivated for 48-96 h and placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 5.0 μM each of 2,4-D and BA, 50 mg·l(-1) kanamycin and 500 mg·l(-1) carbenicillin. The frequency of embryogenic callus formation ranged from 0 to 12%, depending on strains/vectors used and length of cocultivation, with the highest being obtained using the leucinopine strain with petunia acidic chitinase gene. The kanamycin-resistant embryogenic calli were used to initiate suspension cultures (in liquid MS medium with 1.0/1.0 μM 2,4-D/BA, 50 mg·l(-1) kanamycin) for multiplication of embryogenic cell aggregates. Upon plating of cell aggregates onto solid MS medium with 1.0/1.0 μM NAA/BA and 50 mg·l(-1) kanamycin, calli continued to grow and later differentiated into plantlets. Transformation by the leucinopine strain and all three vectors was confirmed by PCR amplification of the NPT II gene in transgenic calli and plants, in addition to Southern analysis. Expression of the acidic chitinase gene (from petunia) and both basic chitinase genes (from tobacco and bean) in different transgenic cucumber lines was confirmed by Western analyses.

  10. Making of pickled cucumber%酸黄瓜的制造方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曾三

    2003-01-01

    探讨了以小黄瓜为原料,生产酸黄瓜的加工工艺.对原材料的配方、主要生产设备、生产工艺流程、原材料处理、生产过程中的操作要点,及质量标准等问题进行了详细论述.

  11. 甜酱黄瓜的加工%Process of sweet pickled cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田忠萍

    2008-01-01

    鲜黄瓜通过挑选、晾晒、盐渍、保鲜、保绿、保脆、储存制作成咸黄瓜.咸黄瓜经过脱盐、脱水后装酱口袋、装入甜面酱缸进行酱制,制成甜酱黄瓜.该产品糖、维生素、矿物质含量均有明显增高,口感比鲜黄瓜有极大的提高.

  12. Necrotrophic fungi associated with epidermal microcracking caused by chilling injury in pickling cucumber fruit

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to visualize the association between microcracking and other epidermal chilling injury symptoms, and to identify rots in cucumber fruit (Cucumis sativus L.) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Depressed epidermal areas and surface cracking due to damages of subepidermal cells characterized the onset of pitting in cucumber fruit. The germination of conidia of Alternaria alternata, with some of them evident on the fractures in the cultivar Trópico, occurred aft...

  13. Pickles and Ice Cream! Food Cravings in Pregnancy: Hypotheses, Preliminary Evidence, and Directions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia C. Orloff

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Women in the United States experience an increase in food cravings at two specific times during their life, 1 perimenstrually and 2 prenatally. The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain (GWG is a growing concern due to its association with adverse health outcomes in both mothers and children. To the extent that prenatal food cravings may be a determinant of energy intake in pregnancy, a better understanding of craving etiology could be crucial in addressing the issue of excessive GWG. This paper reviews the available literature to corroborate and/or dispute some of the most commonly accepted hypotheses regarding the causes of food cravings during pregnancy, including a role of 1 hormonal changes, 2 nutritional deficits, 3 pharmacologically active ingredients in the desired foods, and 4 cultural and psychosocial factors. An existing model of perimenstrual chocolate craving etiology serves to structure the discussion of these hypotheses. The main hypotheses discussed receive little support, with the notable exception of a postulated role of cultural and psychosocial factors. The presence of cravings during pregnancy is a common phenomenon across different cultures, but the types of foods desired and the adverse impact of cravings on health may be culture-specific. Various psychosocial factors appear to correlate with excess GWG, including the presence of restrained eating. Findings strongly suggest that more research be conducted in this area. We propose that future investigations fall into one of the four following categories: 1 validation of food craving and eating-related measures specifically in pregnant populations, 2 use of ecological momentary assessment to obtain real time data on cravings during pregnancy, 3 implementation of longitudinal studies to address causality between eating disorder symptoms, food cravings, and gestational weight gain, and 4 development of interventions to ensure proper prenatal nutrition and prevent excess GWG.

  14. Survival and growth of probiotic lactic acid bacteria in refrigerated pickle products

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined 10 lactic acid bacteria that have been previously characterized for commercial use as probiotic cultures, mostly for dairy products, including 1 Pediococcus and 9 Lactobacilli. Our objectives were to develop a rapid procedure for determining the long-term survivability of these cultures ...

  15. Peeling the Energy Pickle: Expert Perceptions on Overcoming Nepal’s Electricity Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sovacool, Benjamin; Dhakal, Saroj; Gippner, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Underinvestment, low levels of electricity access, natural disasters, topography and hydrology make Nepal’s electricity crisis akin to ‘peeling a pickle’: difficult to pin down and hard to manage. Based primarily on the perceptions of a sample of experts, this article lays out a roadmap for how......; political instability resulting from the aftermath of the Maoist insurgency; poverty and corruption; lack of financing and investment; constrained technological and human resources; and, finally, aid dependency and political manoeuvring. We conclude by calling on Nepali policymakers to invest in distributed...... generation, transmission upgrades, seasonal hydroelectric storage and industrial energy efficiency practices, and to introduce electricity tariff reforms, among other measures....

  16. Pickles and ice cream! Food cravings in pregnancy: hypotheses, preliminary evidence, and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orloff, Natalia C; Hormes, Julia M

    2014-01-01

    Women in the United States experience an increase in food cravings at two specific times during their life, (1) perimenstrually and (2) prenatally. The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is a growing concern due to its association with adverse health outcomes in both mothers and children. To the extent that prenatal food cravings may be a determinant of energy intake in pregnancy, a better understanding of craving etiology could be crucial in addressing the issue of excessive GWG. This paper reviews the available literature to corroborate and/or dispute some of the most commonly accepted hypotheses regarding the causes of food cravings during pregnancy, including a role of (1) hormonal changes, (2) nutritional deficits, (3) pharmacologically active ingredients in the desired foods, and (4) cultural and psychosocial factors. An existing model of perimenstrual chocolate craving etiology serves to structure the discussion of these hypotheses. The main hypotheses discussed receive little support, with the notable exception of a postulated role of cultural and psychosocial factors. The presence of cravings during pregnancy is a common phenomenon across different cultures, but the types of foods desired and the adverse impact of cravings on health may be culture-specific. Various psychosocial factors appear to correlate with excess GWG, including the presence of restrained eating. Findings strongly suggest that more research be conducted in this area. We propose that future investigations fall into one of the four following categories: (1) validation of food craving and eating-related measures specifically in pregnant populations, (2) use of ecological momentary assessment to obtain real time data on cravings during pregnancy, (3) implementation of longitudinal studies to address causality between eating disorder symptoms, food cravings, and GWG, and (4) development of interventions to ensure proper prenatal nutrition and prevent excess GWG.

  17. Indole and Its Derivatives as Corrosion Inhibitors forC-Steel during Pickling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The corrosion of three types of C-steel in 10% hydrochloric acid solution has been investigated in the absence and the presence of the inhibitors, indole (A), indole acetic acid (B), indole butyric acid (C), and 3-acetyl indole (D), by weight-loss measurements at different temperatures (30~70℃). The results showed that inhibiting efficiency depended upon the presence of the substituted groups in the pyrrole ring. The inhibiting efficiency of the inhibitors increased in the order: Inh. C<lnh. B<lnh. A<lnh. D. Linear Arrhenius plots were obtained in the absence and the presence of inhibitors. Results elucidated the effect of temperatures and molecular structure on the inhibition efficiency. The activation energy, Ea, of the three alloys was calculated and it was found that it depended on the type of steel and inhibitor.

  18. Effects of organic acid pickling on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Blawert, C.; Scharnagl, N.;

    2010-01-01

    mu m of the contaminated surface was required to reach corrosion rates less than 1 mm/year in salt spray condition. Among the three organic acids examined, acetic acid is the best choice. Oxalic acid can be an alternative while citric acid is not suitable for cleaning AZ31 sheet, because......Organic acids were used to clean AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet and the effect of the cleaning processes on the surface condition and corrosion performance of the alloy was investigated. Organic acid cleanings reduced the surface impurities and enhanced the corrosion resistance. Removal of at least 4...

  19. Out of the Pickle: Promoting Food Science and STEM in Public Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn States

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the popularity of the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM movement and provides related statistical information as well as a projection of the future importance and impact of STEM. This article summarizes the significance and need for STEM both locally and nationally, focusing food science in public libraries to increase and maintain interest among secondary school students. This article furnishes an overview of how a food science program was implemented at Martin Library and how this same programming is scalable for any size library. In addition, this article provides an overview of how libraries across the nation and Martin library are providing vital STEM programs to communities. 

  20. Studies on Heat Sterilization of Pickled Mustard Tuber and Pickled Radish with Vacuum Package%真空软包装榨菜和萝卜热力杀菌工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健初; 叶兴乾; 吴丹

    2008-01-01

    研究了杀菌工艺条件对真空包装榨菜和萝卜灭菌效果和感官品质的影响,防腐荆对真空包装榨菜和萝卜贮藏过程中微生物生长和品质的影响.结果表明,榨菜较适灭菌条件为95℃ 10 min或90℃ 20min,萝卜较适灭菌条件为85℃ 20 min或90℃10 min;加入0.05%苯甲酸钠可以大大延长产品的保质期.

  1. 40 CFR 407.61 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pickles, cucumbers and other vegetables, all varieties, sizes and types, made after fermentation and... necessary to achieve proper fermentation for the packing of processed pickle products. Limitations...

  2. 黄瓜酸渍工艺的研究%The Study on Processing Combination of Pickled Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓旭红; 秦智伟

    2006-01-01

    采用L9(34)正交试验设计,对腌渍过程中酸黄瓜的感官品质、安全品质、营养品质的动态变化进行了分析.以模糊综合评价的方法筛选出本试验中综合品质最优的酸渍工艺:发酵温度25 ℃,加盐3 %,接种浓度3 %,加蔗糖量3 %.

  3. Isolation, culture and plantlet regeneration from cotyledon and mesophyll protoplasts of two pickling cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punja, Z K; Tang, F A; Sarmento, G G

    1990-07-01

    Optimal protoplast yields from cotyledons (2.0×10(6) protoplasts/ 0.5 g tissue) and from true leaves (5.0×10(6) protoplasts/g tissue) of two Cucumis sativus genotypes were obtained following a 16 h digestion with, respectively, 1.25% pectinase+0.5% Cellulysin and 0.5 % pectinase+ 1.0% Cellulysin. Enzyme solutions were prepared in modified MS medium containing half-strength major salts, full complement of minor salts and vitamins, 2% sucrose and 0.25 M mannitol. A plating density of 3.5-4.0× 10(4) protoplasts/ml or higher was required for sustained division, with first division occurring in 6-7 days, second-third division in 8-9 days, and minicalli formation by day 13. Embedding in 0.4% agarose provided the highest plating efficiency (proportion that formed minicalli) of mesophyll protoplasts, which was 28.3% for genotype 3672 and 15% for genotype 3676. By comparison, liquid culture and droplet culture gave lower plating efficiencies (10-19%). Cotyledon and mesophyll protoplasts of one genotype formed minicalli on MS medium containing 2,4-D/BA at 1.0/2.5 μM and 5.0/5.0 μM, respectively, within 21 days, while mesophyll protoplasts of the second genotype formed minicalli on MS medium containing NAA/BA at 5.0/5.0 μM within 12 days. Shoot buds or somatic embryos were obtained upon subculture of calli to MS medium containing lower concentrations (0.05-0.01 μM) of 2,4-D/BA or NAA/BA and a few plantlets, ca.18, were recovered on hormone-free medium.

  4. Comparison Experiments of Pickling Varieties of Cucumbers%腌渍加工黄瓜品种比较试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许映君; 蔡娜丹; 孙金才; 徐伟韦; 陈纪算

    2009-01-01

    黄瓜除了鲜食消费外,很大一部分被加工成腌渍品.专用加工品种通常要求干物质含量高,中心腔小,抗性强.以5个腌渍加工黄瓜品种为试材进行品种比较试验,综合植株性状、果实性状和腌渍加工特点,结果表明:长果形的品种以‘宁佳6号'表现良好,果皮墨绿,刺少瘤明显,果肉绿色,丰产性好,果实商品性好,口感脆、微甜;短果形品种以‘宁佳7号'和‘宁佳5号'表现良好,果皮墨绿略带黄线,刺瘤稀少,果肉绿色,抗病性强,丰产性好,口感脆、微甜,适宜腌渍.

  5. Effect of pickling solution on the surface morphology of Ti6Al4V alloy investment cast

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutombo, K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ti6Al4V alloy interacted with yttria fully stabilized zirconia face-coat to generate the alpha-case layer during the investment casting. The alpha-case mainly contained Al2O3, TiO2, TiO0.48, VO2, ZrO2 and Ti2ZrAl as revealed by the Energy dispersive...

  6. Identification and leaching characteristics of sludge generated from metal pickling and electroplating industries by Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Sihorwala, T A

    2003-06-01

    One of India's major concerns is the increasing level of land pollution largely due to the uncontrolled disposal of industrial solid and hazardous waste. With rapid industrialization, the generation of industrial solid and hazardous waste has increased appreciably and the nature of waste generated has become complex. Their impacts on the ecological bodies are noticeable. The article describes the details of studies conducted using Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure, to estimate the toxicity effects of the metals viz., chromium, zinc, manganese, iron, nickel, cobalt and copper by the Zero Headspace Extractor for the sludges generated from effluent treatment plant of steel tube, wire and plating industries on environment constituents like groundwater, surface water and land. Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure determines the mobility of organic and inorganic analytes of liquid, solid or multiphase waste from hazardous solid wastes in the form of primary and secondary extracts. These extracts are mixed in equal volume proportion and analyzed by Direct Reading 2000 spectrophotometer. The amount of heavy metals observed during the studies in the leachates were found and the results were compared with Hazardous Waste categories as per Indian Standards. TCLP regulatory limits given by United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) and Germany Leachate Quality Standards and it was observed that they were on higher side, needing a proper preventive concept of sludge management including handling, treatment, recovery and disposal.

  7. A new strategy to protect Katsura-uri (Japan's heirloom pickling melon, Cucumis melo var. conomon from extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azusa Sasaki

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: This demonstrated a new strategy to protect this heirloom vegetable from extinction by adding a new function that could increase its demand as a low-calorie fruit in the present diet habit for human health.

  8. Preparation of the Pickling Inhibitor of Complex Aminoacid%复合氨基酸缓蚀剂的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨新科

    2002-01-01

    胱氨酸厂的废液中氨基酸总量达20%以上,开发利用价值极高.利用胱氨酸厂的废液制取工业酸洗缓蚀剂,对该缓蚀剂在盐酸中的缓蚀率进行了测定.结果表明,该缓蚀剂对碳钢的缓蚀率达90%以上,表明该技术较为安全、有效.这为胱氨酸厂废液的综合利用开辟了新的领域.

  9. 香辣酱豆的制作法%Tips of Pickling Aromatic Thick Chilli Sauce Soya Beans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏家超

    2002-01-01

    @@ 一、原料选择 1、大豆:要求无霉烂、无虫蛀、颗粒饱满. 2、辣椒:选择辣味比较浓的线辣椒为好晒干、碾成细辣椒面,越细越好. 3、佐料:花椒、大蒜、五香粉、食盐等. 一般配比大豆10kg,辣椒面1kg,食盐0.5kg其他佐料适量.

  10. 钛及钛合金的酸洗技术%Pickling Technology of Titanium and Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑锋; 程挺宇; 张巧云

    2009-01-01

    在简述钛及钛合金特性的基础上,介绍了去除其表面氧化皮的酸洗技术,分析了盐酸、硫酸、硝酸和氢氟酸对钛及钛合金酸洗效果和吸氢量的影响. 钛;钛合金;酸洗;吸氢

  11. 宜宾芽菜低盐腌渍工艺研究%Study on the Low-salt Pickling Technology of Yibin Sprouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹礼国; 庄婷; 凌跃; 游玲; 王松; 徐洲; 张超

    2015-01-01

    从宜宾芽菜腌渍产品中筛选到5株产酸能力强的乳酸菌,降亚硝酸盐能力均在90%以上.通过16S rDNA分子生物学鉴定初步确定LAB-YC-2为Bacillus tequilensis,LAB-YC-8,LBA-YC-23为Brevibacterium halotolerans,LAB-YC-22,LAB-YC-28为Bacillus subtilis subsp.subtilis.LAB-Yc28较其他4株菌更适于制作低盐芽菜.研究确定芽菜低盐腌渍工艺条件是在25℃条件下,接种5%的以LAB-YC-28制作的发酵剂,腌渍6天,添加6%的食盐,腌渍产品色泽鲜艳,香气纯正,脆嫩可口,pH值为3.46~3.64,总酸度(以乳酸计)为0.75%±0.08%,亚硝酸盐含量为(1.528士0.122)mg/kg.低盐腌渍工艺是降低工厂废水排放量,减少人体食盐撮入量的有效措施.

  12. 糟黄瓜加工的HACCP管理及质量控制研究%Study on HACCP management and quality control in pickling cucumber production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长贵; 谢伍容; 张伟; 杨希

    2012-01-01

    针对糟黄瓜生产加工管理过程的质量要求,主要探讨了HACCP体系在糟黄瓜加工中的应用.通过分析糟黄瓜加工过程中各个环节可能存在的潜在危害,应用HACCP确定关键控制点,并制定相应的监测方法和质量控制措施.糟黄瓜加工过程中各种危害的有效控制,可确保产品的安全性,从而为HACCP质量控制体系在该产品生产中的推广应用提供有意义的参考.

  13. 黄瓜不同品种盐渍的适应性评价%Adaptability evaluation of cucumber genetic resource in pickling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    员金鑫; 秦智伟; 曹虹

    2010-01-01

    以45份黄瓜品种为试材,采用相同工艺进行盐渍对比试验,对盐渍成品的感官品质、安全品质和营养品质进行分析测定,采用模糊综合评判法统计分析其综合品质,结果表明,适合盐渍的黄瓜品种有D0847、HN53-61-1-3、D0842、津春5号、HN53-61-1-2,同时对适宜品种的植物学性状进行总结归纳.

  14. 商丘酱曲醅制黄瓜生产技术%The Production Technology of Using Shangqiu Soy Sauce Mash for Pickle Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马勇

    2002-01-01

    @@ 黄瓜,又名胡瓜.在我国有悠久的栽培历史,南北城乡普遍有栽培.黄瓜的幼嫩果实供食用,生食、熟食,食法多样,各具风味,是深受广大群众喜爱的果菜.而且,它结果能力强,产量高,可陆续收获,陆续供应.黄瓜果实的形态、大小和颜色,因品种而异.

  15. Quality change of pickled cucumber fermented with pure culture%人工接菌黄瓜发酵过程中的品质变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春; 张毅; 李明瞾; 李琳琳; 王丹娅

    2006-01-01

    探讨了人工接菌发酵黄瓜理化指标及微生物变化规律.结果表明,人工接菌黄瓜在发酵过程中,总酸度增高,总糖的含量随发酵时间延长而减少,亚硝峰出现较快,发酵后期大肠菌群最近似值降到很低;发酵黄瓜中VC损失小.同时对黄瓜泡菜与传统酸黄瓜进行了感官评价.

  16. Study on maintaining and recovering green color of pickled cucumber%盐渍黄瓜护(复)绿的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程建军; 任运宏; 刘毅; 杨丽; 巩红英

    2002-01-01

    以半成品盐渍小黄瓜为原料,研究了醋酸铜、醋酸锌对黄瓜护(复)绿的影响,以及氯化钙浓度对黄瓜硬度和脆度的影响.并把不能复绿的原料加工成酱香黄瓜和糖醋黄瓜.

  17. HACCP体系在出口俄式酸黄瓜中的应用%Application of HACCP System in the Export of Russian Pickled Cucumbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莉; 沈艾彬; 骆倩

    2013-01-01

    为了出口中亚俄式酸黄瓜罐头生产的产品质量安全控制提供借鉴,依据国际先进的HACCP质量管理体系,对俄式酸黄瓜罐头生产各环节主要危害进行分析.结果表明,确定出原辅料验收、装瓶、加汁、旋盖、杀菌4道工序为关键控制点(CCP),并提出相应的控制措施.

  18. 咸蛋腌制剂低盐高渗替代物的筛选%Salted Eggs Pickled Formulation Screening of Low Hypertonic Salt Substitutes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静; 皮劲松; 潘爱銮; 申杰; 梁振华; 吴艳; 蒲跃进; 张昊; 杜金平

    2015-01-01

    为了研究木糖醇、甘露糖醇、山梨糖醇、麦芽糖醇等食品添加剂部分替代NaCl对咸蛋进行腌制,分别设置0.5%、1%、2%、4%、8%5个浓度梯度检测其渗透压,发现糖醇的渗透压值随糖醇浓度的增加呈正比趋势,同时筛选出渗透压较高的糖醇种类为山梨糖醇(470 mOsm/L)和甘露糖醇(471 mOsm/L),筛选出部分替代食盐效果最好的糖醇是1%山梨糖醇、4%木糖醇和0.5%麦芽糖醇,三者腌制24 d后蛋清含盐率分别为(3.91±0.37)%、(4.09±0.04%)、(3.25±0.09)%,蛋黄含盐率分别为(1.56±0.12)%、(1.58±0.09)%、(1.69±0.04)%,腌制30 d后蛋黄出油率感官评分分别为(7.60±0.40)、(8.75±0.25)、(8.50±1.40)分,并观察试验组咸蛋的货架期,发现甘露糖醇组在腌制30 d时即出现大量霉变现象,不适宜用于咸蛋腌制;山梨糖醇组、木糖醇、麦芽糖醇组在4℃下保存45 d仍未见变质。%Using 0%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9% and 10% salt water for osmotic pressure detection, osmotic pressure was obtained by linear regression relation.Xylitol, mannitol, sorbitol, maltitol set respectively 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 8% con-centration gradient of the five test the osmotic pressure, it is found that sugar alcohol osmotic pressure value with the in-crease of the concentration of sugar alcohol was increased. At the same time, select higher osmotic pressure of sugar alcohol types for sorbitol (470 mosm/L) and mannitol (471 mosm/L). Under the condition of 17% brine concentration, the xylitol, mannitol, maltitol, sorbitol content were 0.5%, 1% and 4% of 12 groups. Test sampling regularly, to egg white salt rate, egg yolk, salt content, egg yolk, spiral and sensory evaluation as evaluation index, screen out partly replace salt effect is the best sugar alcohol 1% sorbitol (3.91+/-0.37%, egg yolk, egg white salt content rate of salt 1.56+/-0.12%, egg yolk, two 57.6+/-0.40%), 4% xylitol (4.09+/-0.04%, egg yolk, egg white salt content rate of salt 1.58+/-0.09%, egg yolk, two 58.75+/-0.25%)) and 0.5% maltitol (3.25+/-0.09%, egg yolk, egg white salt content rate of salt 1.69+/-0.04%, egg yolk, two 58.50+/-1.40%). It is indicated that a large amount of mildew occurred in manitol group for 30 d, which is not suitable for salty preserved. Sorbitol, xylitol, maltitol groups were not metamorphic when reserved under 4℃ for 45 d.

  19. 改革甜包瓜传统生产工艺的试验%The Experiment on Innovation of Traditional Process of Pickling Mush Melon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学贵

    2002-01-01

    @@ 甜包瓜,是南通传统的特色酱菜之一.甜包瓜的生产季节在三伏盛夏,一般在小暑至大署,生产季节性很强,技术要求高,耗用工时大.根据这一现实,如何解决劳力紧张的难题,多增产甜包瓜,提高产品质量,满足市场需要,是摆在我们酱腌菜行业一个重要课题.

  20. Isolation and identification of probiotic lactic acid bacteria starter from pickles%泡菜中益生性乳酸菌的筛选和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缑敬轩; 吕嘉枥; 张智维; 宋宏新

    2008-01-01

    以筛选具益生特性的泡菜发酵剂为目的,从15个泡菜样品中通过比较溶钙圈的大小分离出59株产酸能力较强的菌株.通过测定发酵液的酸度以及耐酸性和耐胆汁盐试验,再从中筛选出2株产酸能力和在胃肠道生存能力都强的菌株A18和B17.经形态特征及16S rDNA序列分析,确定A18和B17均属于植物乳杆菌.

  1. 风鸭的腌制发酵工艺研究%Procesing Technology of Pickled and Fermented Air-drying Duck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海祥; 杨士章; 施帅; 吴明亮

    2012-01-01

    Complex microbial agents were studied for air-drying duck in this experiment. Conditions of the best curing for the duck were determined according to orthogonal design. The curing parameters were salt 8%, sucrose 3%, compound condiment (Chinese prickly ash-illicium verum ratio, 1:1) 1.5% and curing hours 12 h. The best fermentation conditions of fermented salted duck were studied with single factor experiments and orthogonal experiment design successively. The experimental results showed that the best proportion of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Mcrococcus varians, Dabaryanyces hansenula was 1:2:1:2. The optimum inoculation amount of complex microbial agents, fermentation temperature and time were 1.5%, 22 ℃ and 73 h, respectively. Under these conditions, the air-drying duck is processed with pH of 5.18 and N content of amino acid being of 0.75%.%本试验研究了用复合发酵剂生产风鸭的工艺条件.通过正交试验确定了鸭胚腌制的最佳条件为食盐浓度8%,蔗糖3%,复合香辛料(花椒八角1∶1混合)1.5%,腌制时间12h.通过单因素试验与正交试验确定了最佳的发酵条件:植物乳杆菌、戊糖乳杆菌、变异微球菌与汉逊德巴利氏酵母菌之间的菌种比例1∶2∶1∶2,接种量1.5%,发酵温度22℃,发酵时间73h,所得风鸭pH值为5.18,氨基酸态氮含量为0.75%.

  2. Improved Pickling Technology Prior the Silver Plating on Copper and Its Alloys%铜及铜合金镀银前酸洗工艺改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝增; 李四清; 张楠楠; 王丽丽; 张红军; 路亚娟; 张颖杰

    2015-01-01

    以紫铜、锰黄铜及铍青铜为基体的高压开关导电零部件镀银前的酸洗处理采用硫酸和硝酸混合溶液,生产过程中产生大量的酸雾挥发,影响环境质量.研制了新型前处理酸洗溶液,在紫铜、锰黄铜与镀青铜材料制件的酸洗处理工艺中,清洗效果良好,满足了电镀的技术要求,并且与环境友好.

  3. Effects of fermentation time and low temperature during the production process of Thai pickled fish (pla-som) on the viability and infectivity of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsurathum, Sudarat; Pinlaor, Porntip; Haonon, Ornuma; Chaidee, Apisit; Charoensuk, Lakhanawan; Intuyod, Kitti; Boonmars, Thidarut; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Pinlaor, Somchai

    2016-02-02

    Contamination of a popular fermented fish dish, pla-som, by Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OVMC) is a possible cause of carcinogenic liver fluke infection in Thailand. Affected individuals are at risk of bile duct cancer, which is a major health problem for people in the Greater Mekong Subregion. In order to investigate concerns about food safety, we studied the effects of fermentation time and low temperature on the viability and infectivity of OVMC during the pla-som production process. Pla-som was prepared at room temperature for up to 1 week in duplicate experiments using cyprinid freshwater fish obtained from an O. viverrini-endemic area. OVMC were then isolated and identified under a stereomicroscope. Complete and viable OVMC were found on days 1-4 of fermentation, while their morphology was degenerated thereafter. After OVMC were fed to hamsters, the percentage of the worm recovery after 1 to 2 months of infection was 52%, 44.7%, 11.3% and 1% for days 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In order to measure the effect of low temperature on OVMC, fish were kept in a refrigerator (4 °C) for up to five days and then subsequently fermented for three days. In fish stored in a refrigerator for 1 and 2 days, viable OVMC were clearly observed and were able to infect hamsters, a worm-recovery percentage of 3.3% and 12.7%, respectively. By contrast, in pla-som prepared from fish stored for 3 to 5 days, OVMC were degenerated and could not infect the host. In conclusion, pla-som fermentation for more than four days and refrigerating fish for three days before pla-som processing can prevent O. viverrini infection. This study may increase awareness of fermented-fish dish preparation to prevent liver fluke infection.

  4. 脱盐咸蛋清蛋白质的单因素酶解条件研究%Hydrolysis of Desalted Salt-pickled Duck Egg White

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林静芬; 林捷; 郑华

    2007-01-01

    本试验以脱盐率达84.88 %的咸鸭蛋蛋清蛋白质为原料,通过对胰蛋白酶、复合风味蛋白酶及木瓜蛋白酶进行筛选,并在确定了以胰蛋白酶和复合风味蛋白酶作为水解酶的条件下,通过对酶解时间、复合风味蛋白酶的添加时间、底物浓度、不同酶用量复配、pH值和酶解温度等影响酶解效果的条件进行单因素试验,得到的结果是:利用胰蛋白酶和复合风味蛋白酶对脱盐咸蛋清蛋白质进行酶解时,应该在添加胰蛋白酶酶解处理1 h后,再添加复合风味蛋白酶,复合酶解效果最理想;其它理想的酶解条件为:底物浓度5.0 %,胰蛋白酶酶用量4000 U/g(sub),复合风味蛋白酶用量700 U/g(sub),pH值8.5,酶解温度50 ℃.

  5. 乳酸菌发酵黄瓜泡菜品质的研究%Study on quality of cucumber pickles fermented by lactic acid bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈影; 王锦慧; 张文菱子; 何新益

    2015-01-01

    利用直投式乳酸菌粉发酵制备黄瓜泡菜.研究不同菌粉添加量下黄瓜泡菜发酵过程中的pH值、亚硝酸盐含量、盐度、酸度、色泽、菌落总数的动态变化,并应用模糊综合评判法筛选较优发酵工艺条件.结果表明:随着发酵时间的延长,黄瓜泡菜液中pH值逐渐降低,酸度逐渐增加;黄瓜中盐度先增加后稳定,色泽逐渐变浅,亚硝酸盐含量先增加后下降并趋于稳定,且其最高峰值远低于GB 2714-2003规定的亚硝酸盐小于20 mg/kg的要求.感官分析表明:添加0.4%的乳酸菌粉发酵24 h条件下制作的黄瓜泡菜感观分值最高.直投式乳酸菌发酵可有效地缩短黄瓜泡菜发酵时间,可广泛应用于方便型泡菜的生产.

  6. 加气母站压缩机冷却器水垢的酸洗清除%Pickling for scale of compressor cooler in primary filling station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少杰; 宋玉红

    2013-01-01

    管壳式冷却器是往复式压缩机的重要部件,冷却管附着水垢会降低冷却效率和供气量,影响压缩机性能.以某加气母站压缩机冷却器为例,采取以氨基磺酸、柠檬酸为主的有机酸混合溶液对冷却器进行清洗,有效清除水垢的同时,减少了对冷却系统部件材质的腐蚀.对于气缸、润滑油冷却管等部件的清洗,提出逆流向、分段式清洗方法,解决了因冷却管路复杂而清洗困难的问题.为了降低故障发生率,总结了压缩机日常保养注意事项,对其冷却系统的运行管理具有借鉴意义.%Tubular cooler is an important part of reciprocating compressor. Scale on the cooling pipes will reduce the cooling efficiency and gas supply so as to affect performance of the compressor. Taking compressor coolers in some primary filling station as an example, sulfamic acid and citric acid-based organic acid mixed solutions are used to clean coolers, which can reduce material corrosion of cooling system components in addition to effectively removing the scale. For cleaning of the cylinder, lubricating oil cooling pipe and other parts, the reverse and sectional cleaning method is proposed to solve the problem of difficult cleaning due to the complexity of cooling lines. In order to reduce failure rate, routine maintenance considerations of cooling systems are summarized, which can provide references to the operation and management of compressor cooling systems.

  7. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Corrosion Protection of Hot Swaged Ti-54M Alloy in 2 M HCl Pickling Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed M. Sherif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion of Ti-54M titanium alloy processed by hot rotary swaging and post-annealed to yield different grain sizes, in 2 M HCl solutions is reported. Two annealing temperatures of 800 °C and 940 °C, followed by air cooling and furnace cooling were used to give homogeneous grain structures of 1.5 and 5 μm, respectively. It has been found that annealing the alloy at 800 °C decreased the corrosion of the alloy, with respect to the hot swaged condition, through increasing its corrosion resistance and decreasing the corrosion current and corrosion rate. Increasing the annealing temperature to 940 °C further decreased the corrosion of the alloy.

  8. 佛手瓜泡菜腌制品质的变化研究%Change Research on Quality of Chayote Pickles in Marinated Procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伯凯; 徐俐; 钟潇; 周娇; 王梅

    2013-01-01

    以鲜佛手瓜为原料,在常温条件下,以不同质量分数的CaCl2(不添加为对照,0.10%、0.20%和0.30%及3%盐进行腌制,对腌制过程中佛手瓜的生理及品质变化进行研究.结果表明,新鲜佛手瓜以0.30%的CaCl2腌制处理对脆度的保持效果最佳,可有效抑制粗纤维、原果胶等物质的减少,增加佛手瓜的脆度该处理能满足工厂的周期性生产,延长贮藏期及货架期.

  9. Optimization of Sterilization Process of Chayote Pickles' Britleness%保持佛手瓜酱腌菜脆度的杀菌工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅; 徐俐

    2015-01-01

    以新鲜佛手瓜为原料,用20%食盐对其进行腌制,脱盐后制作成酱腌菜.在保持产品脆度的前提下,尽量延长其保质期.以佛手瓜酱腌菜的保脆率为指标,通过单因素及正交试验探究保持佛手瓜酱腌菜脆度的杀菌工艺.结果表明:巴氏杀菌的杀菌温度以及微波杀菌的杀菌功率和杀菌时间对佛手瓜酱腌菜的脆废影响差异显著(p<0.05).正交试验优化得到保持佛手瓜酱腌菜脆度的最佳巴氏杀菌工艺为:杀菌温度85℃,杀菌时间10 min,复合防腐剂m(脱氢醋酸钠)∶m(异抗坏血酸钠)=3∶2;微波杀菌的最佳工艺为:杀菌功率320 W,杀菌时间15s,复合防腐剂m (脱氢醋酸钠)∶m(异抗坏血酸钠)=4∶1.

  10. Quantitative determination of flavonoids of pickles by HPLC with fluorescence detector%腌菜中黄酮的HPLC-荧光分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴波; 张寒俊; 严建芳

    2010-01-01

    建立了高效液相色谱法(HPLC)荧光法测定腌菜中的桑色素、槲皮素,山奈酚和异鼠李素的含量的方法.桑色素、槲皮素,山奈酚和异鼠李素的线性范围及相关系数分别为0.25mg/L~8mg/L,r=0.9993;0.25~8.mg/L,r=0.9998;0.25mg/L~8mg/L,r=9993;0.25mg/L~8mg/L、r=0.9999.平均加样回收率为89.5%~102.3%.

  11. Libraries and the Pickle (PCLE) of Content Management Schemes: Survey of Pending Copyright Policy Battles and Their Implications for School Libraries, Free Speech, Access to Information, and Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Mary; Wilson, Cicely Reed

    2003-01-01

    Explains the copyright policy battles now pending in Congress and the courts, with a discussion of what they mean for free speech, access to information, and democratic culture in school libraries. (MES)

  12. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Corrosion Protection of Hot Swaged Ti-54M Alloy in 2 M HCl Pickling Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed M. Sherif; Ehab A. El Danaf; Hany S. Abdo; Sherif Zein El Abedin; Hasan Al-Khazraji

    2017-01-01

    The corrosion of Ti-54M titanium alloy processed by hot rotary swaging and post-annealed to yield different grain sizes, in 2 M HCl solutions is reported. Two annealing temperatures of 800 °C and 940 °C, followed by air cooling and furnace cooling were used to give homogeneous grain structures of 1.5 and 5 μm, respectively. It has been found that annealing the alloy at 800 °C decreased the corrosion of the alloy, with respect to the hot swaged condition, through increasing its corrosion resis...

  13. Study on Acid Evaporation and Valuable Metal Elements Recovery in Stainless Steel Pickling Waste Liquors%不锈钢酸洗废水蒸酸研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵俊学; 贺慧; 马红周; 李小明; 崔雅茹

    2010-01-01

    针对目前不锈钢酸洗废水处理技术的欠缺,对蒸发法处理不锈钢酸洗废水回收馏出液,并从浓缩后的剩余废液中回收有价金属元素的工艺进行了研究.探索了不同硫酸加入量条件下,酸洗废液中硝酸和氢氟酸的逸出规律.研究表明,硫酸的加入能明显提高氢氟酸和硝酸的蒸出效果,合理的硫酸加入量为10%左右.蒸酸后残液中的镍、铬、铁等有价金属元素含量可提高一倍以上,为其综合利用奠定了基础.

  14. Study on Roll Shape of Temper Mill for Hot- rolled Pickled Plate%热轧酸洗板平整机辊型曲线研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中平; 李俊洪

    2007-01-01

    针对热轧酸洗板的生产工艺特点,以带材前张应力横向分布均匀和辊间接触压力分布均匀作为目标函数,建立了一套针对热轧酸洗板平整机辊型优化的数学模型,并将其应用到攀钢热轧酸洗板平整机组中,提高了热轧酸洗板的平整质量.

  15. 抛丸对钛带酸洗的影响研究%Research on the Influence of Shot Blasting on Titanium Strip Pickling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘自莲; 彭金辉; 郭胜惠; 常军; 曹占元; 史亚鸣

    2013-01-01

    通过抛丸和未抛丸钛带表面形貌的分析及两种钛带的酸洗对比试验,研究了抛丸对钛带酸洗效果的影响.结果表明:随着氢氟酸与硝酸体积比的降低,抛丸和未抛丸钛带的失重率均逐渐降低,所需酸洗时间均逐渐增加;达到最佳酸洗效果时,抛丸钛带所需的氢氟酸与硝酸体积比稍大于未抛丸钛带,但其酸洗时间稍长,因此抛丸对钛带酸洗工艺的强化效果不明显.

  16. 超级棕榈液油在酱腌菜生产中的应用%Application of super palm olein in pickled vegetable products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈耕; 吴苏喜; 肖文艳; Ooi Cheng Keat

    2013-01-01

    酱腌菜产品生产用油主要是菜籽油,用油成本比较高.通过在菜籽油中加入一定比例的棕榈液油和抑晶剂制成调和油,分别在0,2.5,5.0℃下进行冷冻试验,得出最佳调和油配方;再将该调和油和一级菜籽油分别应用在酱腌菜产品生产中,分析比较两种产品的品质及其在不同温度条件下的储藏稳定性.试验结果表明,通过冷冻试验和综合成本分析得出的调和油最佳配方为菜籽油70 g、10°棕榈液油30 g、羟基硬脂精0.025 g.分别用该调和油和一级菜籽油生产的腌制刀豆在品质上没有明显差异,均达到GB 2714-2003(酱腌菜卫生标准)的质量要求;用该调和油生产的腌制刀豆其氧化稳定性优于菜籽油生产的腌制刀豆,说明利用棕榈液油部分代替菜籽油来生产酱腌菜产品,不但可以延长产品的货架期,而且可以降低其生产成本.

  17. The Early Morphological Development of the Near Surface Region of Pickled Grade 91 Tubing Exposed to Steam and Its Long Term Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Gorman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve intra-laboratory consistency and experimental repeatability during high temperature oxidation testing, metallic coupons undergo a standardised surface preparation. It is stipulated in international testing standards that grinding of a coupons surface acceptably replicates surface conditions encountered in industrial settings whilst ensuring that each coupons surface is chemically and topographically homogenised [1,2]. Grade 91 steel tubing exposed in the laboratory to flowing steam at 650 °C and 1 bar for up to 3000 h has been compared with Grade 91 tubing exposed in a commercially operated boiler system at elevated pressures at temperatures in the range of 500 to 650 °C for 91 kh. It has been found that a pre-existing surface structure dissimilar from that of the bulk alloy and that of a ground surface, is present on the inside surface of the tubing. The presence of pre-existing surface features in commercially exposed material has implications on the long term morphological development of the oxidation region and may account for some of the discrepancies between observations made in laboratory and service exposures.

  18. Separation and Identification of Lactobacilli in Pickle Juice%泡菜汁中乳酸菌的分离与初步鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳梅; 马俪珍

    2007-01-01

    分析了泡菜发酵过程中乳酸菌的变化情况,并对其进行了鉴定与发酵特性的初步研究.结果表明:夏秋季节,泡菜汁中乳酸菌数一般在5 d可以达到107 cfu/mL;冬春季节,一般8 d可以达到107cfu/mL.之后,不断取出少量泡菜汁,补进新的菜和汁,每次加入新菜和汁时,1~2 d可保证泡菜汁中乳酸菌数稳定在107 cfu/mL左右.用MRS培养基和改良MC培养基分离出3株乳酸菌,经初步鉴定是乳杆菌、短乳杆菌和乳球菌.对其发酵特性的研究结果表明,它们能耐受6%的食盐、150 mg/kg的亚硝酸盐,且无分解蛋白质和脂肪的性质.

  19. Preaching to the Unconverted--Dialogue vs Doctrine in the Ministry or: You Cannot Put Cucumbers into a Vinegar Barrel and Not Expect Them To Emerge as Pickles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kotze, Astrid

    A South African ministry invited the Centre for Adult Education in Durban to conduct a nonformal adult educator training course for its staff. During the 10-session course, the adult educators attempted to persuade the ministry staff that although their approach to education, which was based on acceptance rather than questioning and on a single…

  20. Research on Methods of Preserving Scrip for White Radish Pickle%白萝卜泡菜的保脆工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐毅; 刘学文

    2011-01-01

    以白萝卜为泡菜原料,分别采用低温漂烫法和外源性果胶甲酯酶法对白萝卜进行护脆处理,通过正交试验,得出低温漂烫处理的最佳工艺条件为:低温漂烫时间20min,温度55℃,乳酸钙添加量为20g/L.外源性果胶甲酯酶最佳作用条件是:酶添加量为0.9 mL酶液/100 mL水,温度为50℃,pH为4.5,最佳乳酸钙添加量为12 g,L.通过对两种工艺进行比较,得出了低温漂烫处理更为实用、效果更好的结论.%Based on white radish as raw material,white radish was preserved scrip with two methods which lowtemperature blanching and adding exogenous pectin methylesterase. By orthogonal experiment, the best preparation technology of low-temperature blanching is: the additive amount of calcium lactate is 20g/L, 55℃, remaining 20min. The best preparation technology of exogenous pectin methylesterase is: enzyme addition 0.9 ml/lO0 ml water, pH 4.5, 50℃, the additive amount of calcium lactate was 12g/L. By comparing two processes, conclusions are drawn: Treatment with lowtemperature blanching white radish Law was better than adding exogenous pectin methylesterase.

  1. 眉山泡菜中乳酸菌的分离鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Pickled Vegetables from Meishan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨吉霞; 张利玲; 蒋厚阳; 贺稚非

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析眉山泡菜的基本数据和乳酸菌的菌种构成.方法:从眉山市采集泡菜12份,测定pH值、总酸度、盐度、乳酸菌计数,用16S rRNA序列分析法鉴定菌种.结果:样品pH值的范围是3.37~3.89,总酸度的范围是0.65~0.92 g/100 g(以乳酸计),盐度的范围是4.16%~5.28%(以NaCl计),MRS和M17乳酸菌计数分别是1.71~6.33、1.33~5.78 (lg (CFU/g)).总酸度对乳酸菌计数影响最大.共分离鉴定出16株乳酸菌:Lactobacillus fermentum(2株)、Lactobacillus plantarum(3株)、Lactobacillus brevis(2株)、Lactobacillus acidophilus(1株)、Lactobacillus casei(1株)、Lactobacillus pentosus(1株)、Lactobacillus delbrueckii (1株)、Lactococcus lactis(3株)、Pediococcus pentosaceus(2株).结论:眉山泡菜中乳酸菌存在多样性,实验结果为工业发酵生产泡菜积累了菌株.

  2. A new insight into resource recovery of excess sewage sludge: Feasibility of extracting mixed amino acids as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for industrial pickling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Wen; Tang, Bing, E-mail: renytang@163.com; Fu, Fenglian; Huang, Shaosong; Zhao, Shiyuan; Bin, Liying; Ding, Jiewei; Chen, Cuiqun

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A value-added product was extracted from the municipal excess sludge. • The effective components contained in the product were mixed amino acids. • The product could provide a reliable protection to the steel from the acid medium. • A new insight into the resource recovery of excess sewage sludge was provided. - Abstract: The work mainly presented a laboratory-scale investigation on an effective process to extract a value-added product from municipal excess sludge. The functional groups in the hydrolysate were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and the contained amino acids were measured by means of an automatic amino acid analyzer. The corrosion-inhibition characteristics of the hydrolysate were determined with weight-loss measurement, electrochemical polarization and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that the hydrolysate contained 15 kinds of amino acid, and their adsorption on the surface could effectively inhibit the corrosion reaction of the steel from the acid medium. Polarization curves indicated that the obtained hydrolysate was a mixed-type inhibitor, but mainly restricted metal dissolution on the anode. The adsorption accorded well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, involved an increase in entropy, and was a spontaneous, exothermic process.

  3. Research of halophilic bacteria community in the pickled burdock bittern%腌制牛蒡盐卤中嗜盐菌群组成的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静; 顾晨艳; 吴小晶; 邓连婷; 温洪宇

    2015-01-01

    为了研究腌制牛蒡盐卤中嗜盐菌群物种组成,采用微生物学方法对腌制牛蒡盐卤进行多次逐级梯度稀释后涂布,最后通过划线纯化菌株;通过革兰氏染色观察细菌形态;经聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测,获得16S rRNA基因序列,进而进行序列比对分析,对菌株进行分子生物学鉴定.结果表明,从腌制牛蒡盐卤中筛选分离获得2株嗜盐细菌菌株,编号为X1和X2,其中X1菌株与腐生葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus saprophyticus)模式菌株的16S rRNA基因序列相似度为99.81%;X2菌株与人葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus hominis)模式菌株的16S rRNA基因序列相似度为100%.腌制牛蒡盐卤中的优势菌株为腐生葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus saproph yticus)和人葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus hominis).

  4. Requirements for 25,000 Servings of Items Selected From the 42-Day Menu

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    Sugar, granulated 31 31 32 0.7 Onions, dry 35 42 43 1.2 Parsley, fresh 23 23 29 2.4 Peppers, sweet, fresh 63 77 83 3.6 Pickles , sweet, cucumber 78 78...Barbecued Pork Spareribs, Barbecued Spaghetti arid Meatballs Spaghetti with Meat Sauce Squash, Creole, Summer Veal Parmesan Pickles . Sweet. Cucumber ...Parsley, Dehydrated Peaches, Canned Pears, Canned Peanut ..Butter Pepper, Black Pepper, Cayenne Pickles , Sweet, Cucumber Pickles , Sweet Relish

  5. 制革生态学(续二)%The Ecological Aspects of Leather Manufacture(to be continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ 2 Tanning 2.1 Pickling Pickling consists of adjusting the pH of the pelts with acid in order to prepare them for tanning. Conventional pickling processes employ formic acid and/or sulfuric acid. Common salt is also added to prevent the pelts from swelling. We would recommend low-salt or salt-free pickling processes, especially in regions in which priority is given to reducing the salt content of the effluent.

  6. 盘条无酸洗拉拔技术及设备的研究与实践%Research and practice of wire rod pickling free drawing technology and equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李湘民

    2013-01-01

    针对传统酸洗工艺生产成本较高,操作不当易使盘条出现质量缺陷等不足,研究盘条无酸洗拉拔技术及设备.无酸洗拉拔技术是通过机械剥壳除鳞清除盘条表面的氧化铁皮,同时应用先进的压力模润滑工艺,改善润滑条件,取代酸洗和磷化.给出组成无酸洗拉拔机组的弯曲剥壳机、钢刷除锈机和润滑压力模装置的主要参数.弯曲剥壳机盘条最大进线直径14 mm,延伸率7.7%,弯曲辊直径155 mm;钢刷除锈机的钢刷尺寸8 mm×150 mm,最高转速2 800 r/min;润滑压力模装置中压力模的工作直径与配套的工作模直径相比略大0.3~0.5 mm,冷却压力模与拉丝模及压力腔的水流量为1∶2∶4较为合适.

  7. 不锈钢的轧制、退火、酸洗综合生产线%DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTEGRATED,ROLLING,ANNEALING AND PICKLING LINES FOR STAINLESS STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew Orme

    2004-01-01

    将轧制、退火和酸洗工段综合在一起的一体化的主要设想可追溯到1990年在瑞典的Avesta Nyby厂增加在线轧机.自此以后,通过在J & L Midland, 然后在Ugina Isbergue,最后在 AvestaPolarit RAP 5生产线上取得了进展.对不同阶段的综合生产线的工艺发展进行了比较,并且对Tornio的AvestaPolarit RAP5生产线的工艺流程和设备安装进行了总结.

  8. 多功能酸洗缓蚀剂Lan-926与Lan-826缓蚀性能的对比研究%The comparative study of corrosion inhibitive effect between pickling inhibitor Lan- 926 and Lan- 826

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小红

    2006-01-01

    多功能酸洗缓蚀剂Lan-926是在Lan-826基础上的更新配方.研究了在不同酸液温度、不同酸浓度、不同缓蚀剂添加量下,将Lan-926与Lan-826进行缓蚀性能对比实验.结果表明:Lan-926与Lan-826具有同样优异的缓蚀性能,且Lan-926生产成本仅为Lan-826的2/3.

  9. 通过种间杂交选育加工黄瓜新品种宁佳1号%A New Pickling Cucumber F1 Hybrid Bred from Interspecific Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙正; 陈劲枫; Jack Staub; 钱春桃

    2005-01-01

    以黄瓜属(Cucumis)野生种(C.hystrix Chakr.)为母本,以栽培黄瓜(C.sativus L.)北京截头为父本,通过远缘杂交导入外源种质,结合多代回交、自交获得黄瓜新种质7012A.将7012A与美国威斯康辛大学选育的雌性系黄瓜(7011A)杂交获得F1,与亲本及美国推广加工黄瓜品种进行品种比较试验,结果表明:F1具有超亲优势,结瓜整齐,营养价值高,加工品质良好.植株长势强,主侧蔓均有结瓜能力,主蔓结瓜为主,后期产量高.

  10. Necrotrophic fungi associated with epidermal microcracking caused by chilling injury in pickling cucumber fruit Fungos necrotróficos associados à microfissura epidérmica causada pelo frio em pepinos em conserva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Martínez

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to visualize the association between microcracking and other epidermal chilling injury symptoms, and to identify rots in cucumber fruit (Cucumis sativus L. by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Depressed epidermal areas and surface cracking due to damages of subepidermal cells characterized the onset of pitting in cucumber fruit. The germination of conidia of Alternaria alternata, with some of them evident on the fractures in the cultivar Trópico, occurred after damaging on the epidermis. Before, the chilling injury symptoms became visible, Stemphylium herbarum conidia germinated, and mycelium penetrated through the hypodermis using the microcracks as pathway. In the cultivar Perichán 121 the fungus was identified as Botrytis cinerea.O objetivo deste trabalho foi visualizar a associação entre microfissuras e outros sintomas na epiderme, induzidos pelo frio, e identificar as podridões de pepino (Cucumis sativus L. por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O início do desenvolvimento da lesão em pepino é caracterizado por depressões epidérmicas e pelo fendilhamento superficial, provocado pelo colapso das células subepidérmicas. A germinação dos conídios de Alternaria alternata, localizados nas fendas de pepino cultivar Trópico, ocorreu após o início do desenvolvimento dos sintomas dos danos, causados pelo frio, na epiderme do fruto. A germinação dos conídios de Stemphylium herbarum e a penetração do micélio na hipoderme pelas microfissuras ocorreram antes de os sintomas dos danos causados pelo frio se tornarem visíveis. Na cultivar Perichán 121 observou-se o fungo Botrytis cinerea.

  11. 百菌清在黄瓜、番茄加工前后的残留变化%Change of chlorothalonil residue in pickled cucumber and tomato juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓梅; 王文桥; 潘文亮; 张小风

    2006-01-01

    采用气相色谱电子捕获检测技术(GC-ECD)研究了75%百菌清WP在黄瓜腌渍、番茄制酱前后的残留变化.百菌清的最低检出量为1.5×10-12g,在黄瓜和番茄中的最低检出浓度为0.002mg/kg.在黄瓜、番茄中平均回收率为79.8%~102.3%,变异系数为6.9%,符合农药残留分析的要求.研究结果表明,黄瓜、番茄在加工后百菌清残留量降低很快,食用更安全.

  12. 低盐腌渍黄瓜半固态纯种发酵工艺中试%Pilot test on semi-solid-state pure-fermentation technology of low-salt pickled cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武晋海; 王昌禄; 王玉荣; 陈勉华; 陈志强; 隋志文

    2009-01-01

    为了使传统的人工腌渍菜实现工业化生产,并减少腌渍液排放对环境的污染,该文研究了低盐腌渍黄瓜半固态纯种发酵工艺中腌渍液的连续利用.经脱水预处理黄瓜(Cucumis sativus L,含水率65%~70%)利用密闭厌氧发酵设备进行低盐发酵,腌渍液作为发酵剂进行预发酵,结合使用乳酸菌(L.plantarum)纯培养物,实现腌渍液的再利用.结果表明:发酵量,腌渍液用量,108cfu/mL菌剂使用量及4%盐水用量之比为18:6:2:1,可实现腌渍液再利用,同时得到2.24%低盐度产品;主发酵罐低于100 r/min搅拌速率条件下,搅拌对产品质构不存在显著影响(p>0.05),质构硬度可维持在1209.1 N以上;产品出品率最高为115.8%;与固态自然发酵工艺相比,可溶性膳食纤维、维生素E、总抗坏血酸、蛋白质和脂肪含量有了明显改善,分别可达3.592%,0.601×10-2 mg/g,7.843×10-2mg/g,1.991%,0.375%.

  13. 酸浓度对酸黄瓜中亚硝酸盐含量的影响%Effects of Acid Concentration on Generation Amount of Nitrite in Pickled Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程安玮; 杜方岭; 刘丽娜; 徐同成; 祝清俊

    2010-01-01

    [目的]研究酸黄瓜中酸浓度对亚硝酸盐生成量的影响.[方法]以华北基因型和欧美基因型黄瓜为试验材料,采用醋酸浸泡法腌制成酸黄瓜,研究酸浓度对酸黄瓜中亚硝酸盐生成量的影响.[结果]酸浓度的增加有利于亚硝酸盐生成量的降低,在腌制的第1 d,亚硝酸盐的生成量较低,在第2~3 d出现亚硝酸盐含量的峰值,腌制5 d后,亚硝酸盐的生成量降低到一个平稳且较低的水平.欧美基因型酸黄瓜中亚硝酸盐的量要低于华北基因型,低温下亚硝酸盐的量要低于常温下.[结论]适当提高酸浓度,在腌制5 d后,酸黄瓜中亚硝酸盐的含量很低,具有食用安全性.

  14. Improvement of Sample Method for the Determination of Pickled Cucumbers' s Acidity and Salinity%抽样方法测定酱黄瓜酸度和盐度的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢绪文

    2001-01-01

    通过试验及生产实践,对酱黄瓜酸度、盐度和白利糖度测定的抽样方法作一些调整,由原来每个样品抽取300~500克酱黄瓜,改为只抽取酱黄瓜汁液5~10克.结果表明,两种不同的抽样方法的检测结果比较一致,误差很小.在实际使用中,我们一直采用改进后的抽样方法对产品进行质量控制,达到了节省生产成本和提高工效的目的.

  15. 盐渍期间黄瓜理化品质与电学参数的相关性%Determination of Correlation Between Quality Indices and Electrical Parameters of Cucumber During Pickling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马倩; 杨哪; 金亚美; 赵娟娟; 徐学明

    2014-01-01

    为了考察盐渍黄瓜的理化品质与电学参数的相关性,采用平行板电极法测量了黄瓜在不同盐溃时期于频率20~12 MHz下的复阻抗Z、相位角θ、并联等效电容Cp、导纳值Y,同时还测量了产品的7个理化指标.结果表明,黄瓜的并联等效电容Cp随盐溃时间的增加而增大,且随频率的增加而减小,并联等效电容Cp与频率的对数坐标呈良好的线性关系(R2 =0.982).在特征频率0.1kHz下,阻抗值Z与可溶性固形物质量分数、坚实度呈显著性正向相关,而与灰分、NaC1质量分数呈显著的负相关,相关系数分别为0.867、0.791,-0.874,-0.974;而相位角θ在0.1 MHz下与水分质量分数有极显著的相关性,相关系数为-0.848;并联等效电容Cp和导纳y在0.1 kHz下可有效量化氨基酸总量和NaCl质量分数,相关系数分别为-0.848、0.886.研究结论可为腌渍黄瓜产品理化指标的快速检测提供参考.

  16. Study on quality change and the optimum process in cucumber pickled processing%黄瓜盐渍过程中品质变化规律及最佳盐渍工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    员金鑫; 秦智伟; 周秀艳

    2010-01-01

    以津春5号为试材,采用L9(34)正交试验设计,对盐渍过程中黄瓜的感官品质、安全品质、营养品质的动态变化过程进行了分析.运用模糊综合评价的方法筛选出综合品质最优的工艺为:加盐量30%,加VC量0.15%,加CaCl2浓度0.2%,加醋酸浓度3%,盐渍时间为10 d.

  17. 加工黄瓜品质性状遗传力和遗传相关的初步研究%PRELIMINARY STUDY ON HERITABILITY AND GENETIC CORRELATION OF QUALITY CHARACTERS IN PICKLING CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVUS L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐强; 陈学好; 于杰; 李伶利; 曹碚生

    2001-01-01

    对19个加工黄瓜品种的7个果实性状的遗传力、遗传变异系数和遗传相关进行了研究.结果表明: 可溶性总糖含量、果实长度和果肉厚度的遗传力较高,对其进行早世代单株选择有较好的效果;遗传变异系数以可溶性总糖含量和果实鲜重较高,选择潜力较大.性状间遗传相关的研究结果表明: 通过对果实长度的选择,可实现对果实鲜重、果实干重性状的间接选择,而对总蛋白质含量的选择可通过对果肉厚度的间接选择而实现.

  18. Analysis of Combining Ability on Quality Characters of Pickling Cucumber%加工类型黄瓜部分品质性状的配合力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伶利; 徐强; 陈学好

    2005-01-01

    采用Griffing方法二,对加工类型黄瓜5个主要品质性状(果实长度、果肉厚度、果实鲜质量、可溶性蛋白质和可溶性总糖含量)的一般配合力和特殊配合力进行了研究.结果表明:ZR22的果肉厚度、果实鲜质量、可溶性蛋白质和可溶性总糖含量4个品质性状的一般配合力均较高,而果实长度的一般配合力则较低,是杂交育种的理想亲本;组合LN11×ZR22 5个品质性状的特殊配合力效应值均为正值,说明其用于杂种优势育种的可行性比较大.

  19. 加工类型黄瓜品质性状的主成分及聚类分析%PRINCIPAL COMPONENT AND CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF QUALITY CHARACTERS OF PICKLING CUCUMBER(CUCUMIS SATIVUS L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐强; 刘进生; 陈学好; 李伶利; 郭绍贵; 陈志明; 萧江; 曹碚生

    2003-01-01

    对19个加工类型黄瓜品种的7个品质性状进行了主成分和聚类分析.结果表明:19个品种分为产量、形态和品质3个主成分因子,其主成分的累计贡献率达89.81%,而且基本上可描述7个品质性状的遗传变异.当类平均距离为1.035时,19个品种被聚为短果和长果2种类型,而当类平均距离为0.942时,19个品种被聚为短果中等品质、短果优质和长果高产3种类型.

  20. 锦州虾油小黄瓜中耐盐乳酸菌的生物性能研究%Biological properties of salt-tolerance lactic acid bacteria isolated from Jinzhou pickled cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白凤翎; 刘邑娥; 马驰; 李莹; 吕欣然; 石金鑫; 励建荣

    2013-01-01

    对从锦州虾油小黄瓜中分离筛选的6株耐盐乳酸菌进行抗氧化和形成风味物质等生物性能研究,结果表明菌株L7对羟自由基、DPPH自由基、超氧阴离子自由基清除作用明显,清除率均分别为38.56%、33.65%、36.65%;对Fe3+有较强的还原能力,与还原能力成正比的吸光度值为0.875;在发酵过程中,形成风味物质乙醛和双乙酰分别为5.02μg/mL和3.65μg/mL.通过特征性耐盐性乳酸菌的生物性能分析,获得高活性的菌株L7,对改善锦州虾油黄瓜产品品质具有一定的应用前景.

  1. Determination of the sodium cyclamate in pickled vegetable using two different polar columns by GC-FID%双柱GC-FID法检测腌制辣泡菜中甜蜜素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩深; 卢晓宇; 徐超一

    2006-01-01

    本文介绍甜蜜素的GC-FID检测方法,并利用异极性双柱(CP-SIL 1301和CP-WAX57CB)进行比对检测,解决腌制辣泡菜中普遍出现的假阳性问题.本方法的回收率为86%~99%,最低检测限为10mg/kg.

  2. 某酸菜腌制场发生急性硫化氢中毒的调查报告%Investigation on a case of acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning in a pickle sauerkraut processing plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪丰; 蓝荣伟; 梁友光; 赵雪梅

    2006-01-01

    目的 查明中毒原因,为防治中毒提供参考依据.方法 对酸菜腌制场进行现场职业卫生学调查,采用快速检气管法测定现场空气中硫化氢浓度.结果 7人在此事件中发生急性硫化氢中毒,其中4人死亡,现场空气中硫化氢浓度>1 500 mg/m3.结论 以蔬菜为原料腌制酸菜所产生的废水中因含硫有机物腐败而含有大量硫化氢,从事接触这类废水的作业须慎防硫化氢中毒.

  3. Preparation of blue pigment extract from pickled garlic and its physio-chemical properties%绿变大蒜蓝色素的制备及理化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓丹; 李星

    2014-01-01

    为了进一步明确大蒜绿变物质的结构及性质,该研究对绿变产物进行分离制备并探索了其相关理化活性。从绿变大蒜中提取出绿变产物,并通过AmberliteCG-50和SephadexLH-20两步纯化制备得到了蓝色素的纯化产品,其色价为76.7。对色素的理化性质进行了研究,结果表明蓝色素在酸性条件pH值<7时稳定;对热处理也比较稳定,60℃以下加热处理对色素影响较小;长时间的日光照射会使蓝色素有较大的损失;一些常见的金属离子Cu2+、Zn2+、Al3+、Fe2+的存在对蓝绿色素几乎没有影响,Fe3+的存在会使色素迅速褪色。蓝色素对自由基有清除效果:质量浓度为2 mg/mL的蓝色素提取物对1,1-二苯基-2-三硝基苯肼(DPPH)清除率达到96.4%;在10 mg/mL质量浓度下,蓝色素对超氧和羟基自由基的清除率分别为96.8%和87.6%;色素提取物对自由基的清除效果低于同浓度的抗坏血酸。该研究结果对深入研究绿变色素的性质和结构奠定了初步基础。%The greening compounds in garlic are of great importance to both industry and academic research. In this study, the blue pigment extract in greening garlic has been prepared and its physio-chemical properties and scavenging activities towards DPPH radicals, superoxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals have been investigated. The blue pigments in Laba garlic were extracted and separated by chromatography with Amberlite CG-50 and Sephadex LH-20, and the blue pigment extract (BPE) was obtained. Color value of BPE was elevated to 76.7 compared to 10.7 that of the raw extract without any purification. BPE was stable in acidic conditions, but sensitive to illumination. Low-temperature heating (lower than 60 2℃+,)Zhna2d+,lAittl3e+,eFffe2c+thoandthliettlsetaebfifleictyt onfBthPeE.M etalionssuch as pigment stability, but Fe3+ caused obvious color loss. The BPE displayed concentration-dependent inhibition of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and also exhibited scavenging activities against hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals by electron spin resonance essay. BPE can scavenge DPPH by 96.4%at 2 mg/mL, while the scavenging rate of ascorbic acid was 97.1%. For hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals, the scavenging ability of BPE at 10 mg/mL was 96.8%and 87.6%, lower than ascorbic acid. The blue pigments in greening garlic were stable in acidic condition or by low-temperature heating;it also showed great potentials in possessing antioxidant activities.

  4. Ronald McDonald dit: "Tout le monde connait: 'Deuxsteakshachessaucespecialesaladefromageoignons dansuntriplepainrondrecouvertdegrainsdesesames'" (Ronald McDonald Says: "Everyone Knows: 'Two-All-Beef-Patties-Special-Sauce-Lettuce-Cheese-Pickles- Onions-on-a-Sesame-Seed Bun'").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headrick, Robert J., Jr.

    This booklet is intended for classroom use in first-year high school French to acquaint students with the McDonald's fast food restaurants in Paris. The specific objectives are for the student to: (1) discuss the similarities and differences between the American and Parisian McDonald's, (2) set up a miniature McDonald's in the classroom, (3) order…

  5. Ronald McDonald pregunta: "Puedes decir: 'dostortosdepurocarnederessalsaespeciallechugagueso- pepinillosycebollasenunpanconsemillasdeajonjoli'?" (Ronald McDonald Asks: "Can You Say: 'Two-All-Beef-Patties-Special-Sauce-Lettuce-Cheese-Pickles-Onions-On- A-Sesame-Seed-Bun'?" Activities in Spanish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headrick, Robert J., Jr.

    This booklet is intended for classroom use in first-year high school Spanish to acquaint students with the McDonald's fast food restaurants in Costa Rica. The specific objectives are for the student to: (1) discuss the similarities and differences between the American and Costa Rican McDonald's, (2) set up a miniature McDonald's in the classroom,…

  6. Determination of 10 Synthetic Pigments in Pickled Vegetables by HPLC%液相色谱同时测定腌渍蔬菜中的10种合成色素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝鹏飞; 徐琴; 吕宁; 马云; 牟志春; 苏广坤; 宫萍

    2013-01-01

    建立对腌渍蔬菜中诱惑红、苋菜红、胭脂红、赤藓红、偶氮玉红、柠檬黄、日落黄、专利蓝、亮蓝和靛蓝共10种人工合成色素同时测定的方法.样品经含有1%氨水的70%的乙醇提取,提取液经聚酰胺粉末吸附,无水乙醇-氨水-水解吸,通过XDB-C18柱分离(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),甲醇-0.02 mol/L乙酸铵梯度洗脱,检测波长的范围为254 nm~700 nm.方法的相对标准偏差(n=6)为1.1%~5.1%,回收率为85%~104%,检出限为0.10 mg/kg~0.62 mg/kg.该方法准确度高,分离效果好,结果稳定可靠,适用于腌渍蔬菜中多种人工合成色素的高通量检测.

  7. Study on application of lactic acid bacteria technology to the processing of traditional pickled mustard tuber%传统榨菜腌制加工应用乳酸菌技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴祖芳; 刘璞; 翁佩芳

    2008-01-01

    将自然选育的两株乳酸菌明串珠菌Lact.2、乳杆菌Lact.8作为发酵起动剂应用在传统榨菜腌制加工中,比较了接种发酵与自然发酵腌制工艺,并通过正交实验分析,确定其合适发酵条件为:混合菌株发酵,接种量2%,盐水浓度8%,发酵温度25℃,发酵时间15d左右,制品游离氨基酸总量略有升高,风味、质地等指标优于自然发酵产品.

  8. 榨菜加工中乳酸菌技术的应用及研究进展%Key Technologies and Development of Lactic Acid Bacteria Application in Pickled Mustard Tuber Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴祖芳; 刘璞; 翁佩芳

    2005-01-01

    论述了乳酸菌在榨菜加工中的作用以及对榨菜产品的品质影响和作用机理,提出了在传统榨菜加工工艺中应用乳酸菌关键技术,分析了对改进传统榨菜加工工艺和解决存在问题的可行性,并阐述了该技术的发展前景.

  9. Application of Siraitia grosvenori to the lactic acid bacteria fermented food of pickle%罗汉果在乳酸菌发酵食品泡菜中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林燕文

    2008-01-01

    以包心芥菜和胡萝卜为原料,两者比为3:2,添加罗汉果水煎汁,采用正交实验方法制作泡菜,并结合泡菜中乳酸菌数及维持高含菌量的时间,得出最佳工艺条件为:罗汉果汁量4%、盐浓度4%、糖浓度1%、接种量3%、发酵温度30℃,发酵时间5d.根据此条件,开发出了具有消暑止渴、清热解毒、止咳化痰等功效的新型泡菜保健食品.

  10. 四川泡菜中降解亚硝酸盐乳酸菌的筛选鉴定及其应用%Screening, identification and application of nitrite-degenerating lactic acid bacteria from Sichuan pickles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓华; 刘书亮; 蒲彪; 陈功; 颜正财

    2013-01-01

    从四川传统泡菜中分离疑似乳酸菌170株,通过溶钙力测定获得33株产酸力较强的菌株,然后对其进行亚硝酸盐降解力初筛试验,得到5株具有较强降解亚硝酸盐能力的菌株,再采用控制pH值的方法从中筛选出1株酶降解亚硝酸盐作用明显的菌株N2,该菌株按0.1%(v/v)接种量接种于含125 mg/L NaNO2、pH 6.4和添加有2% CaCO3(w/v)的MRS培养基中,于30℃、120 r/min振荡培养72 h,对NaNO2的降解率达90.81%.菌株N2经形态学、生理生化特征及16S rDNA序列分析被鉴定为植物乳杆菌(Lactobacillus plantarum).接种菌株N2发酵泡菜,测定发酵过程中泡菜pH值、亚硝酸盐含量,与自然发酵泡菜比较,菌株N2应用于发酵泡菜中降解亚硝酸盐的效果显著.

  11. 低温等离子体法处理电厂锅炉EDTA清洗废水实验研究%TREATMENT OF ACID PICKLE WASTEWATER FROM POWER PLANT BOILER BY LOW TEMPERATURE PLASMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁渭军; 张文治; 张改; 赵菁

    2015-01-01

    使用介质阻挡放电和脉冲电晕放电2种低温等离子体对电厂锅炉乙二胺四乙酸二钠(EDTA)清洗废水进行处理,采用COD降解率、色度去除率为评价指标,探寻放电功率、电介质间距(介质阻挡放电)/电极间距(脉冲电晕放电)、放电时间、处理量等因素对COD降解率及色度去除率性能的影响.结果表明,当放电功率为15 kW,电介质间距/电极间距为5mm时,2h可使电厂锅炉EDTA清洗废水COD降解率70%以上、色度去除率90%以上.

  12. Dynamic changes of quality of pickles fermented by different lactic acid bacteria%不同乳酸菌纯种发酵萝卜过程中品质的动态化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晓艳; 陈安均; 罗惟; 董维; 牛凯莉; 彭易涛

    2015-01-01

    以白萝卜为主要原料,利用植物乳杆菌、短乳杆菌、肠膜明串珠菌、戊糖片球菌进行纯种发酵,并以自然发酵萝卜为对照,对发酵过程中泡萝卜的总酸及氨基态氮、亚硝酸盐、脆度4个理化指标进行动态测定,同时利用顶空固相微萃取和气质联用方法对发酵成熟的泡萝卜的挥发性风味物质进行测定.结果表明,接种发酵可以明显的缩短发酵周期,提升产品品质.

  13. 低温乳酸菌发酵泡白菜工艺与品质分析%Processing and quality analysis of pickled Chinese cabbage fermented with low temperature tolerant lactic acid bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩新锋; 李小艳; 黄道梅; 贾秋思; 胡露; 胡欣洁; 何利; 刘书亮

    2015-01-01

    10℃下,以2株酎低温乳酸菌3m-1(Lactobacillus plantarum)和8m-9(Leuconostoc mesenteroides)为对象,经拮抗试验确定2株菌在白菜汁培养基中无拮抗作用后,比较了2株耐低温乳酸菌单独或复配发酵以及自然发酵泡白菜的产酸、亚硝酸盐降解和发酵风味的动态变化.结果表明,接种发酵的产酸情况明显优于自然发酵,且亚硝酸盐含量也低于自然发酵,感官评价结果表明口感风味以8m-9菌株单独发酵以及菌株3m-1和8m-9以2∶1复配发酵最好.通过正交试验确定菌株8 m-9单独发酵以及菌株3m-1和8m-9复配发酵的最佳工艺参数分别为:盐加量4%、糖加量4%、接种量0.3%;盐加量5%、糖加量2%、接种量0.3%.比较了10℃和30℃条件下泡菜成品的理化、微生物及感官指标,结果表明,10℃下,泡菜酸度适宜,亚硝酸盐含量更低,发酵周期虽长,但口感清淡风味更佳,而且低温还一定程度上抑制了杂菌的生长.

  14. Caracteristicas fisico-quimicas e microbiológicas de ovos de codorna conservados na forma de picles
    Physico-chemical and microbiology of quail eggs preserved in the form of pickles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. FARIA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Visando aumentar o tempo de conservação, com salga e acidificação do ovo de codorna cozido na forma de picles, foram testados sete tipos de soluções: A (60% vinagre, 8% NaCl; B (40% vinagre, 8% NaCl; C (20% vinagre, 0,3% ácido cítrico, 8% NaCl; D (20% vinagre, 0,3% ácido cítrico, 5% NaCl; E (2% ácido acético, 0,3% ácido cítrico, 5% NaCl,; F (2% ácido acético, 0,3% ácido cítrico, 5% NaCl, 0,02% benzoato de sódio e G (0,4% ácido acético, 0,3% ácido cítrico, 5% NaCl. Foram realizados análises de pH, acidez titulável, cloretos totais e perda de peso dos ovos, nos intervalos de 2, 7, 14, 21, 28 dias. Todos os resultados foram infl uenciados significativamente a partir do segundo dia do início do experimento. Para acidez titulável as soluções A, E e F mostraram maior acidez (p<0,05. No produto, o pH inicial foi reduzido a partir do segundo dia e somente a solução G apresentou valores de pH acima de 4,5. Para cloretos totais, as soluções A, B e C mostraram maior percentual (p<0,01 do que os demais. As conservas promoveram mudanças significativas a partir do segundo dia, as soluções com maiores porcentagens de acidez e menor valores de pH proporcionaram melhor estabilidade e menor desenvolvimento de microrganismos mesófilos. As soluções D, E e F apresentaram em geral melhores características físico-químicas e microbiológicas para conservação de ovos de codorna na forma de picles.

  15. The Up to Date Returns of Nutritive Value and Health Protection of Corea Pickled Vegetable%韩国泡菜营养价值与保健功能的最新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文斌; 唐中伟; 宋敏丽

    2006-01-01

    韩国泡菜以其丰富的营养和多种保健功能风靡世界.最新研究成果表明,韩国泡菜具有维持人体消化道健康、减肥、抗肿瘤、抗病毒、预防食物中毒、预防心脑血管疾病、防止皮肤老化、抗皱美容等多种保健和医疗功能.

  16. Nisin和植酸复合抑制腌制蔬菜中G-腐败菌的效果研究%Effect of Nisin and phytic acid in situ on inhibition of Gram negatives in rotten pickle vegetable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘丽军; 刘兰花; 曾敏

    2008-01-01

    针对Nisin抑菌谱狭窄的问题,采用复合生物防腐的方法,研究Nisin与植酸复合作用对腌制蔬菜中G-腐败菌的抑制效果.通过对腌制蔬菜中腐败菌的菌种分离纯化与鉴别,得到10种细菌,其中5种G-菌;在菌液浓度为106cfu/mL情况下,进行Nisin与植酸对G-菌抑制效果实验,获得Nisin与植酸复合作用的最佳抑菌浓度为Nisin 1mg/mL,植酸1.5mg/mL.同时,实验证明此复合抑菌浓度对腌制蔬菜中的其它腐败细菌、食品中常见的致病菌大肠杆菌及金黄色葡萄球菌均具有良好的抑制效果.

  17. Properties Research and Selection of Hanging Tools Material for Titanium Alloy Acid Pickling Process%钛合金酸洗挂具材料性能研究及其筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡维; 游丽梅; 冯长杰

    2016-01-01

    钛合金酸洗是飞机钛合金零件荧光渗透检测前的必要工序,常规钛合金酸洗用的是钛篮,酸洗工艺不稳定.文章筛选聚四氟乙烯(PTFE)和聚氯乙烯(PVC)作为钛合金酸洗的挂具材料,研究其在钛合金酸洗液中(氢氟酸90 g/L,硝酸300 g/L,钛离子5 g/L)室温浸泡1000h后,浸泡前后的质量、厚度及拉伸强度变化,以及硬度和耐磨损性能.实验结果表明,两种材料的拉伸强度,硬度和质量在浸泡试验前后均无明显变化,都具有优良的耐酸液腐蚀的能力.硬度和磨损试验表明,PTFE和PVC材料的硬度分别为:HA56.8和HA83.8,相同条件下的磨损量分别为1.0 mg和1.1 mg,二者耐磨损性能相近.由于PVC材料具有较高的硬度和抗拉强度,综合考量,PVC材料更适合作为钛合金酸洗工序的挂具材料.

  18. 钢板酸洗废液制备高纯氧化铁的研究%STUDY ON THE RECOVERY OF HIGH PURITY IRON OXIDE FROM PICKLING WASTE LIQUOR OF STEEL SHEET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何明兴; 何安西; 陈秀云; 徐南南

    2000-01-01

    对酸洗废液除杂质的工艺方法进行了试验研究.分析了铁粉加入量、反应温度、搅拌速率、氧化时间等除杂工艺参数对反应速率和除杂效果的影响,并给出了最佳工艺参数.

  19. 钛、镍特种金属冷轧生产中退火、酸洗工艺研究%Study on Pickling and Annealing Process in Cold Rolling of Special Titanium and Nickel Metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巧云

    2009-01-01

    主要论述了某厂钛、镍基特种金属冷轧板带生产中退火、酸洗工艺的设计思路及工艺布置方案的确定,并通过计算确定出钛、镍基特种金属冷轧板带的退火、酸洗可以在一条生产线上完成,结合实际情况,最终考虑采用退火、酸洗处理线分线布置较为合理.

  20. Pickling Process Model of Zr-4 Alloy Tube Based on RBF Network%基于RBF神经网络法的Zr-4合金管材酸洗工艺模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫新民; 袁改焕; 李小宁

    2015-01-01

    研究了Zr-4合金管材酸洗处理过程中,酸洗去除量、酸水转换时间、冲水时间及酸洗次数对管材氟残留量的影响,并基于径向基(RBF)人工神经网络法建立了Zr4合金管材酸洗工艺与氟残留的神经网络模型.结果表明:冲水酸水转换时间和冲水时间对氟残留量均有影响,且酸水转换时间的影响更为显著;氟残留量与酸洗次数无明显对应关系.Zr4合金酸洗工艺的RBF神经网络模型结构为3-5-1,实际值与模拟值的相对误差为9.2%.该神经网络模型具有较高的可靠性,可为Zr-4合金酸洗工艺参数的优化提供参考.

  1. Study on Preparation of Titanium Rich Material by Alkali Leaching and Pickling Titanium Concentrate%碱浸酸洗钛精矿制备富钛料工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓林

    2015-01-01

    通过先用碱液浸出钛精矿,再用盐酸酸洗的方法来提高攀枝花地区钛精矿品位.正交实验结果表明碱浸过程各因素影响程度排序为:反应时间>反应温度>液矿比>碱液浓度.同时得出了适宜的碱浸工艺条件为:碱液浓度4.5 mol/L、碱浸温度100℃、碱浸时间7h、液固比20∶1,碱浸酸洗后可获得品位为76.73%的富钛料.

  2. PENAMBAHAN ASAM ASETAT DAN FUMARAT UNTUK MEMPERTAHANKAN KUALITAS PIKEL UBI JALAR KUNING PASCA FERMENTASI (Addition of Acetic and Fumaric Acid to Maintain Quality of Fermented Yellow Sweet Potatoes Pickle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neti Yuliana

    2014-10-01

    bakteri bukan asam laktat, dan bakteri asam laktat masing masing <30 koloni/ml, total asam 1,35%, pH 3,18 dan total padatan terlarut 2,07o brix, warna orange pucat, beraroma asam dengan tingkat penerimaan panelis 87%. Berdasarkan penerimaan sensoris, perlakuan asam fumarat lebih baik daripada asam asetat ataupun kombinasai asam asetat-fumarat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa asam asetat, fumarat dan kombinasi keduanya dapat mempertahankan kualitas pikel ubi jalar kuning yang berpotensi menjadi alternatif pengganti pengawet benzoat. Kata Kunci: Pikel ubi jalar kuning, asetat, fumarat, natrium benzoat

  3. Biological Study on Complex Preservatives of High Safety for Salt-pickl Fresh Water Fish%白鲢鱼复合腌制保鲜剂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴正奇; 凌秀菊; 朱有良

    2007-01-01

    本文采用平板菌落记数法,研究了甘氨酸、富马酸、山梨酸和葡萄糖酸内酯及其复合物对白鲢鱼腌制过程中微生物的抑制效果,测出其半抑菌浓度(IC50)分别为:甘氨酸IC50=0.172%、富马酸IC50=0.431%、山梨酸IC50=0.145%和葡萄糖酸内酯IC50=0.205%;甘氨酸、山梨酸、富马酸和葡萄糖酸内酯复合使用能产生十分显著的抗菌协同作用,复合物的IC50只相当于四者IC50总量的35.0%,能大幅度地降低四者单独使用时的IC50,并且复合物还具有提高风味、改善质构、增强弹性和抗油脂氧化等多种功能.

  4. Microbial communities in biofilm and brine samples during the spoilage process of traditional pickle%传统泡菜腐败过程中膜醭和盐卤的微生物区系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋云露; 杨建涛; 何鹏晖; 王猛; 李成龙; 陈功; 饶瑜

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究以Lactobacillus plantarum为菌剂发酵的传统泡菜在腐败过程中微生物的区系变化.方法 通过提取腐败前、中、后期3个阶段腐败膜醭及盐卤中微生物总基因组并构建16S rRNA基因文库,分析其细菌群落构成和动态变化,并通过丰富度指数SChaol和SACE、覆盖率及多样性指数H等揭示其群落多样性.结果 从不同阶段膜醭和盐卤样品中共检测到Lactobacillus等15个属,盐卤及膜醭不同腐败阶段的微生物区系差异较大.其中L.plantarum为腐败前期膜醭及盐卤样品中的优势菌.腐败中期膜醭中的优势菌群为L.plantarum、Propionbacteriumacidipropionici,腐败中期盐卤中的优势菌为L.plantarum、Enterococcus malodoratus、P.acidipropionici.而腐败后期样品中,膜醭的优势菌为E.malodoratus、Providencia rettgeri和Shewanella algae,盐卤的优势菌为Morganellamorganii、S.algae、Emalodoratus和Proteus mirabilis.结论 盐卤及膜醭中的微生物区系在腐败前、中、后期都以细菌为主并细菌种类有差异较大.腐败前期以革兰氏阳性为主,腐败后期以革兰氏阴性为主.

  5. Isolation and Characteristics of Histamine-producing Bacteria from Pickled Wax Gourd in East Zhejiang%浙东腌冬瓜产组胺微生物的分离及产组胺特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐赛男; 吴祖芳; 张鑫; 翁佩芳

    2015-01-01

    为了解浙东地区传统腌冬瓜发酵体系中产组胺细菌及其组胺产生规律,本研究通过鉴别培养基结合HPLC筛选并确认了菌株的产组胺能力,并利用16S rDNA分子鉴定产组胺菌株;研究培养温度、pH和盐度对菌株生长和产组胺的影响.结果表明,从腌冬瓜发酵前、中期筛选出的5株菌属于2个菌种,命为M1和M3,均是肠杆菌属,且分别与Enterobacter aerogenes(产气肠杆菌)和Enterobacter xiangfangensis的亲缘关系最近.这两种菌的最适生长温度均为30℃,最适生长pH均为7,在小于5%盐度时生长均稳定;在组胺发酵培养基中,产组胺的最适pH均为4,在20~35℃的适宜生长温度内,最适产组胺温度均为35℃,随盐度的升高,产组胺量均降低.适宜的实验条件下,M1和M3的最大生长量分别为11.65 lgCFU/mL和14.30 lgCFU/mL,最大产组胺量分别为35.66 mg/L和39.54 mg/L.研究结果可为浙东特色腌冬瓜的加工工艺及质量安全控制等提供参考依据.

  6. Composing of lactic acid bacteria and diversity of microorganisms in pickle%河南林州泡菜中微生物多样性及乳酸菌种群的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈重芳; 王晶晶; 王雁萍; 李宗伟; 常胜合; 蔡义民; 秦广雍

    2010-01-01

    分析河南林州泡菜中的微生物区系,从中分离鉴定了15株乳酸菌,并研究了这些乳酸菌的特性.结果表明,分离株都是革兰阳性、过氧化氢酶阴性和兼性厌氧菌.根据所分离到的乳酸菌的形态学和生理生化特性分类鉴定,13株菌属于乳杆菌属(Lactobacillus)的6个种,分别为Lactobacillus pentosus、Lactobacillus plantarum,Lactobacillus collinoides、Lactobacillus fermentum、Lactobacillus buchneri和Lactobacillus brevis.另外2株均为明串珠菌属(Leuconostoc)中的Leuconostoc mensenteroides.泡菜中的大多数乳酸菌为Lactobacillus,占总数的78%.

  7. 低盐腌制大头菜腐败菌的分离与初步鉴定%Isolation and identification of specific spoilage from low-salinity pickled turnip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡怀容; 张庆; 鲜欣言; 唐萍; 张友华; 蒋梦琳; 李明元

    2014-01-01

    以低盐腌制大头菜为原料,对贮藏、流通期间主要腐败微生物进行分离鉴定.利用微生物学传统分离培养方法从腐败的真空包装低盐腌制大头菜中分离得到菌落形态差异明显的7株细菌、2株酵母.对细菌菌株进行革兰氏染色,同时提取细菌和酵母菌纯培养物基因组DNA,分别进行16S rDNA、26S rDNA的D1/D2序列PCR扩增.测序结果与NCBI中已知序列进行比对和鉴定,发现5株为Bacillus属,1株为Lysinibacillus属,2株为Candida属,1株为非培养细菌的同源菌.经系统发育分析,菌株X5和Lysinibacillus sphaericus的相似性为97%,其余菌株分别与Bacillus sp.,Bacillussubtilis,Bacillus megaterium,Bacillus boroniphilus,Bacillus gibsonii,Uncultured bacterium,Candida pararugosa,Candidazemplinina的相似性为99%~100%.通过微生物生理特性研究及腐败现象分析,推断芽孢杆菌和酵母可能是引起腌制大头菜腐败变质的主要原因.

  8. An Evaluation of the Proposed Marine Corps Expeditionary Food Service System Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Carrots. Buttered Succotash Buttered Wax Beans Buttered Green Beans Spring Salad Carrot Strips Assorted Dressings Corn Relish Bread Pickled Cherry Butter...Sweet Mixed Pickles Cottage Cheese Bread & Butter Bread & Butter Spice Cake Assorted Beverages 3 Peanut Butter Cookies Beverages 24 July (Tray Pack Items...Dinner Rolls & Butter Sliced Cucitber & Onion Salad Tossed Green Salad Brownies Tomatoes & Cucumbers Assorted Beverages Refrigerator Cookies Assorted

  9. Effect of Corrosion Resistant Coatings on the Fatigue Strength of Cast Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    DOW 17 anodic coatings - both light and heavy applications. Pretreatments such as acid pickling, shot peening, and polystyrene impregnation were also...After 7 Days in HJjh Ituoidity Environnent ................... 74 SO Exposed and Unexposed (Upper Left Only) Speciroens With DOW 7 Coating (06...standard acid pickling pretreatment was also evaluated as well as practices not currently employed such as polystyrene impregnation and shot peening

  10. Dietary Factors and Hypertensive Disorder Complicating Pregnancy:A Case -control Study%膳食因素与妊娠期高血压疾病关系的病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晓华; 刘小玲; 张悦; 彭晓明

    2015-01-01

      两组粮谷类和蔬菜水果类评分比较,差异均无统计学意义( P>0.05);研究组肉禽鱼类、蛋类、奶类、豆类、干果类评分均低于对照组,咸菜泡菜类评分高于对照组( P0. 05). The scores of meat/poultry/fish, eggs,milk,beans,nuts were lower,those of pickles higher in study group than in control group(P<0. 05). Taking HDCP suffering as dependent variable, and cereals, meat/poultry/fish, eggs, milk, beans, fruits/vegetables, nuts, pickles as independent variables,the univariate Logistic regression analysis showed that intakes of meat/poultry/fish,eggs,milk,beans, nuts,pickles were related to HDCP ( P <0. 05 ), thereinto the risk factor was pickles, the protective factors were cereals, meat/poultry/fish,eggs,milk,beans,nuts. Taking HDCP suffering as dependent variable and the significant independent variables in univariate analysis as independent variables,Logistic regression analysis showed that pickles,eggs and milk were related to HDCP(P<0. 05),thereinto pickles was risk factor,eggs and milk were protective factors. Conclusion Intake of pickles would increase the risk of HDCP,while intake of eggs and milk prevent or reduce HDCP incidence effectively.

  11. 21 CFR 114.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., “pickles” or “pickled ___.” Carbonated beverages, jams, jellies, preserves, acid foods (including such... alcoholic beverages, with a finished equilibrium pH greater than 4.6 and a water activity (aw) greater than...

  12. Dietary Plans for Carbohydrate Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    12.0 GMS PICKLE -DILL- CUCUMBER -MED 1.00 ITEM 65.0 GMS STRAWBERRIES-FROZ-SLICED 1.50 CUPS 382.5 GMS LEMONADE-FROZ-DILUTED 1.30 CUPS 322.4 GMS DINNER...Gm (1%) MILK-NONFAT-FLUID 0.50 CUP 5.95 Gm (1%) PICKLE RELISH-SWEET 1.00 TBSP 5.00 Gm (1%) PICKLE -DILL- CUCUMBER -MED 1.00 ITEM 1.00 Gm (0%) SAL DRESS...WHITE-CAN/WATER 4.00 OUNCES 113.4 GMS SAL DRESS-MAYO-LOW CAL 3.00 TBSPS 48.0 GMS PICKLE RELISH-SWEET 1.00 TBSP 15.0 GMS SUGAR-WHITE-GRANULATED 1.00 TBSP

  13. Chemical milling of Zircaloy tubing to produce integral OD spiral finned tubes (AWBA development program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwood, W.A.

    1982-02-01

    A detailed process description is provided for producing integral spiral fins on the outside surface of Zircaloy nuclear fuel cladding tubes by masking with pressure sensitive tape strips and then chemical milling (pickling) the tube wall between the tape strips to leave the fins in relief. Fins up to 0.020 inch high by 0.05 to 0.12 inch wide were consistently produced on tubes having wall thickness of 0.008 inch or greater after fin pickling. Wall thickness uniformity was excellent. Information is provided on tube surface preparation to maximize tape mask adhesion time during pickling, acid chemistry control to prevent local tube wall thinning near the fin, and pickling techniques to promote uniform material removal. Simple fixture designs are described for quickly and conveniently applying the tape strips to the tube wall in an accurate spiral. 13 figures, 4 tables.

  14. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as cured or smoked meats, bacon, hot dogs, sausage, bologna, ham, and salami Anchovies, olives, pickles, ... risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. ...

  15. Uued plaadid / Koit Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsepp, Koit

    1999-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Leftfield "Rhythm and Srealth", Sting "Brand Neew Day", Toto "Livefields", The Beatles "Yellow Submarine Songtrack", Ocean Colour Scene "One From The Modern", The All Seeling I "Pickled Eggs & Sherbet"

  16. 30__159

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This paper or review discusses the natural plant exudates and mucilages, their sources, properties and uses ... The fact for increase in importance of natural plant based materials is that plant ..... preservatives and are added to pickles. The ripe.

  17. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... swelling during pregnancy may be a sign of preeclampsia , a serious condition that includes high blood pressure ... Studdiford JS, Pickle S, Tully AS. Edema: Diagnosis and management. Am Fam Phys . 2013;88(2): 102-110. ...

  18. Effects of soil solarization and some amendments to control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-04

    Oct 4, 2010 ... At the end of two years, the disease incidence and ... supplies 80% of olive oil and 20% of pickled olive .... The vials were capped and incubated at ..... double soil solarization to control Verticillium wilt in established olive.

  19. Uued plaadid / Koit Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsepp, Koit

    1999-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Leftfield "Rhythm and Srealth", Sting "Brand Neew Day", Toto "Livefields", The Beatles "Yellow Submarine Songtrack", Ocean Colour Scene "One From The Modern", The All Seeling I "Pickled Eggs & Sherbet"

  20. 76 FR 25569 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Minimizing the Use of Materials Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... chromium minimization. One of the presentations by the Aerospace Industries Association described the aerospace industry's minimization strategy. (Reference: http://symposium.serdp-estcp.org/Technical-Sessions...; Chromic acid anodizing; Most chromated metallic ceramics; and Chromate washes, etches, pickling, etc....

  1. Linezolid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics will not kill viruses that can cause colds, ... raisins; bananas; sour cream; pickled herring; liver (especially chicken liver); dried meats and sausage (including hard salami ...

  2. Linezolid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, and other ... raisins; bananas; sour cream; pickled herring; liver (especially chicken liver); dried meats and sausage (including hard salami ...

  3. Interstitial Cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bladder is “leaky.” This may let urine irritate the bladder wall, causing interstitial cystitis.Other possible ... pickled foods, artificial sweeteners and acidic foods may irritate your bladder. That makes symptoms worse. Try removing ...

  4. Penggunaan agensia penghilang kapur yang juga berfungsi sebagai agensia pemutih dalam pembuatan kulit pikel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titik Purwati Widowati

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to get deliming agents having function s bleaching agent in pickle process, but it also keeps the quality of the pickles and waste water remaining good. Deliming process is conducted on the preparation of pickles. Five deliming agents were used on the experiment, they were ZA 2% (I, NH4Cl2% (II, NaHSO32% (III, a combination of ZA 1 % and NH4Cl 0,5% (IV, and a combination of ZA 1 % and NH4Cl 1% (V. The quality of the pickles were then evaluated on the shade and the acceptance of panelists. In order to ascertain wheter or not the process be related as environmentally friendly one, the waste water quality were also evaluated. The results showed that NH4Cl 2% was the best deliming agent as well as a bleaching agent.

  5. Nutritional response of Okra to various packaging materials and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional response of Okra to various packaging materials and chemical pickling agents. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... and groundnut oil) and packaging materials (glass jar, plastic and stainless ...

  6. Marine Corps Shelterized Expeditionary Food Service System. Marine Corps ISO (International Organization for Standardization) Galley and Sanitation Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    1980 Lunch Hot Sliced Beef Sandwich Mashed Potatoes Brown Gravy Buttered Succotash Buttered Green Beans Carrot Strips Corn Relish Pickled Cherry Peppers...Tossed Vegetable Salad Sweet Mixed Pickles Bread and Butter Spice Cake Peanut Butter Cookies Beverages Supper Spaghetti with Meat Sauce Grated Cheese...Mein Noodles Buttered Green Beans Buttered Wax Beans Assorted Breads Butter Sliced Cucumber and Onion Salad Assorted Beverages Brownies Supper Baked

  7. Feasibility Report for Flood Control, Minnesota River at Chaska, Minnesota,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-08-01

    companies which manufacture bricks and machine tools and process pickles . Chaska is also an important center of retail and wholesale trade. Civil service...along portions of East Creek is not well developed because of dense tree and shrub layers. Such species as wild cucumber and comon and wood nettles...however, considerable dust becomes airborne on surrounding farmlands. Some mildly objectionable odors are occasionally emitted from a local pickle plant

  8. Minnesota River at Chaska, Minnesota, Flood Control. Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    would divert flood waters into a bypass channel which would lead first to the east and then southward just west of the Gedney Pickle Factory. Water...Under disturbed conditions a variety of species is found such as the wild cucumber (Echinocystis lobata), an indicator of floodplain conditions in the...surrounding farmlands, and some objectionable odors are occasionally emitted from the Gedney pickle plant. SOLID WASTE Solid wastes generated in

  9. Technology Insertion Engineering Services Masking Process Evaluation Task Order No. 7. (Phase 1). Revision B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-06

    anodizing (both chromic and sulphuric ), Dow 7 and 17 Processes for magnesium, acid etching on steel , electropolishing . and other severe cycles. MICCROSHIELD...and sulphuric acid steel pickling sslu- to both the embossing and the companion plate. tions. For such applications the use of 14 or 12 ga. b For...Plating or Alloy 825 for Common Metal Finishing Solutions 23 Sulphuric Acid Pickling Alloy 20Cb-3 (no chlorides) or Alloy 825 PREFERRED Steel parts

  10. Study on blister of the coating on solid cantilevers of hydraulic supports for coal mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this work, blister of the Cu-Sn plus Cr coating on solid cantilevers of hydraulic supports for coal mining was investigated by hydrogen-charging, Devanathan-Stachurski method and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement. It was found that the permeation hydrogen during the pickling process and the electroplating process was responsible for the blisters. The residual tensile stress due to the machining process would increase the permeation hydrogen amount during pickling and electroplating processes.

  11. CIRCULATION IN BATHROOM TANNING TANNING INDUSTRIES WITHIN A CONTEXT OF CLEANER PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Colotta, G.; Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of recycling pickling-tanning baths, ensuring the quality of the final product at ali times and achieving, on the one hand, the reduction of saline pollution (50%) caused by pickling and tanning baths and, on the other hand, the reduction of chromium salt (14%) in tanning wastewater. With regards to the anatytical parameters of the bath, the results show that the parameters analysed (pH, conductivity, density, chlorides, sulp...

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    production. At the canning factory here 500 tons of fruit, 400 of vegetables and 300 of brown mushroom juice are processed each year. Each day the meat...and nuts... Yet the owners of the personal subsidiary farms sell potatoes, fresh, pickled and fermented vegeta- bles and fruits practically year...more fermented cabbage with fillers, soaked and frozen apples, pickled cucumbers and tomatoes. We must pro- cure more wild berries, mushrooms and

  13. Manufacturing Methods and Technology Project Summary Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    for titanium blades. Early in Phase I of this effort, a shift to steel blades for the engine reduced the saving available by this process. This...the copper cladding peeling off the uranium core resulted in interference with the rotation of the rod. Removal of the copper cladding by pickling ...conducted on five full length extruded rods that were pickled and rotary straightened at ambient temperature. All five rods were proc ssed without incident

  14. Net-Shape Processing Applied to Aero-Engine Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    sustainable in the aero-engine business as the cost of key materials such as titanium and nickel alloys is escalating, fuelled by the seemingly...have deformed to consolidate the powder is removed by rough machining and/or pickling to reveal the net-shape component. The key to producing net...being relatively expensive in terms of cost and environmental impact, mainly due to the cost of machining the mild steel tooling and having to pickle

  15. Confirmation Tests of Hot and Cold Artillery Shell Drawing Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    is often necessary be- tween the initial and the final draw. Prior to cold drawing, the shell body is pickle -cleaned, phosphated and lubricated with...other hard-tool materials, such as titanium carbide. Although die wear normally is not a serious problem, punch breakage commonly occurs due to poor...operarion, both inside and outside of the preform 13 is pickle -cleaied, phosphatad aud lubricated with a commercial soap. In the present investigation

  16. Development of Hot Isostatically Pressed Rene 95 Turbine Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    Iteration Shape - Vendor B .. .. .. ..... 134 51 Task lB Second Iteration Shape Disk After Pickling Off thle Steel Container - Vendor B...iteration shape would be necessary in the third iteration. A typical second- iteration disk is shown in Figure 51 after the steel- container was pickled ...0.09 Columbium ........... 3.30 - 3.70 Manganese ............ 0.15 Max. Zirconium ............. 003-- 0-07 Silicon ............... 0.20 Max. Titanium

  17. Stress-Corrosion Cracking of Metallic Materials. Part III. Hydrogen Entry and Embrittlement in Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    Strength Steels," Stress Corrosion Cracking in High-Strength Steels and in Titanium and Altuninum Alloys, Naval Rasearch Laboratory, Washington, D.C...to pickling solutions. In all of these examples, the sulfide, cyanide, etc., caused a hydrogen-related problem that would not have existed in their...desorption reaction. In studying the pickling of low-carbon steel in various strong acids, Hudson’ 4 measured the corrosion rate and amount of hydr-ogen

  18. Crack Propagation of Corona 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    for 5 minutes and air cooled. Annealed panels were then descaled by grit blasting and pickled in nitric-hydrofluoric mixed acid to remove the oxygen...enriched surface layer of metal. The anneal, grit blast, and pickle were repeated after each cycle of cold rolling. In general, the cold rolling went...F. /Yolton Research Engineer Approved by: 1J. H. Moll Technical Director P/M & Titanium . E. J. Dulis President _ 76 mbk. SRockwell International

  19. Shanghai Home-Cooking in Shikumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Apopular dish in Shanghai is soaked rice—cooked rice reheated in boiling water. It is usually eaten together with pickles, and so cannot be considered particularly upscale or nutritious. However, a recent survey of the social and economic situation in urban Shanghai indicated that 66 percent of the people in Shanghai eat soaked rice and pickles for breakfast everyday. Soaked rice is a typical food among Shanghai’s shikumen

  20. Effect of different alkali treatments on the chemical composition, physical properties, and microstructure of pidan white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianwei; Jiang, Aimin; Chen, Mingtsao; Ockerman, Herbert W; Chen, Jiaojiao

    2015-04-01

    Changes in chemical composition, physical property and microstructure of pidan white treated with 4.5 % NaOH or 5.5 % KOH were monitored during pickling up to 4 weeks, and followed by aging for another 2 weeks. As the pickling and ageing times increased, moisture content of pidan white decreased and salt content increased for both (4.5 % NaOH and 5.5 % KOH) treatments (P alkalinity and pH of pidan white treated with 4.5 % NaOH increased as pickling proceeded, but decreased during ageing for both pickling treatments (P hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness than those treated with 4.5 % NaOH. After ageing, higher springiness, elastic modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G") were generally found in pidan white treated with 5.5 % KOH (P < 0.05). As the pickling time increased, lower L*, b* values and higher a* value were observed in pidan white from both treatments (P < 0.05). As visualized by scanning electron microscope, the aggregation of egg proteins took place in pidan white gels, irrespective of pickling treatments used. Nevertheless, closer and more orderly protein aggregates with denser network were founded in pidan white treated with 5.5 % KOH.

  1. Residues change of chlorpyrifos and its metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in cucumber during pickling process%毒死蜱及其代谢物3,5,6-三氯-2-吡啶酚在黄瓜腌制过程中的残留水平变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文明; 韩永涛; 董丰收; 徐军; 刘新刚; 李远播; 孔志强; 郑永权

    2013-01-01

    采用超高效液相色谱-串联质谱(UPLC-MS/MS)检测了毒死蜱及其有毒代谢物3,5,6-三氯-2-吡啶酚(TCP)在黄瓜腌制加工过程中残留水平的变化.结果表明:用水常规清洗能使黄瓜中毒死蜱的残留水平降低34%,清洗后的黄瓜经初腌和复腌2次处理后,其中毒死蜱的残留水平有所升高,3步处理的总加工因子为0.97;清洗对TCP的残留水平影响不大(仅降低2.6%),但经初腌和复腌处理后,其残留水平明显高于清洗前,3步加工的总加工因子为1.63.本研究表明,黄瓜经腌制前后毒死蜱的残留水平无明显变化,而代谢物TCP的残留水平明显升高.

  2. 紫色辣椒与黄瓜、芥菜混合泡制中某些品质指标的变化%Changes of some Quality Indexes in the Process of Purple Chili mix- pickled with Cucumber or Mustard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋益虎; 张子学; 胡能兵; 王霞

    2007-01-01

    为了检测紫色辣椒新品种在加工过程中的品质,以绿色辣椒为对照,分别与黄瓜、芥菜等配料进行6个处理组合的泡制试验,测定各处理卤汁的pH值变化及各组份的原花青素、VC、硝酸盐、亚硝酸盐含量.结果表明:各处理卤汁pH先降低后趋向稳定;各组份间原花青素、VC含量达(极)显著差异;硝酸盐含量随泡制时间持续下降,亚硝酸盐先升高,后下降.具有紫色辣椒组份的处理,其pH略大于绿色辣椒;其辣椒、黄瓜及芥菜的原花青素、VC含量都高于绿色辣椒,而硝态氮和亚硝酸盐含量均低于绿色辣椒.具有紫色辣椒组份的处理,其黄瓜或芥菜的营养品质及风味有了一定改善.

  3. 超声提取-毛细管气相色谱法检测酱腌菜中对羟基苯甲酸酯%Determination of p-Hydroxy Benzoic Acid Ethyl Ester in Pickles by Ultrasonic Extracting-Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全美; 黄锦燕; 王守卿

    2012-01-01

    采用超声提取法提取酱腌菜中的对羟基苯甲酸甲酯、对羟基苯甲酸乙酯及对羟基苯甲酸丙酯,在SE30毛细管柱(33 m×0.53 mm,2.65 μm)上得到了良好分离.对羟基苯甲酸甲酯、对羟基苯甲酸乙酯及对羟基苯甲酸丙酯在0~750 μg/mL浓度范围内与色谱峰面积呈良好的线性关系,相关系数为0.9999.对羟基苯甲酸甲酯、对羟基苯甲酸乙酯、对羟基苯甲酸丙酯的检出限分别为0.1,0.1,0.2 μg/mL,测定结果的相对标准偏差小于3.6%(n=11),平均回收率为84.5%~97.1%.%Ultrasonic extraction method was used to extract p-hydroxy benzoic acid methyl ester, ethyl ester and acrylic ester, which were separated in SE30 column(33 m×0.53 mm,2.65 μm). The content of p-hydroxy benzoic acid methyl ester, ethyl ester and acrylic ester had a linear relationship with the chromatographpeak area in the range of 0-750 μg / mL, and results correlation coefficient was 0.9999. The detection limits of p-hydroxy benzoic acid methyl ester, p-hydroxy benzoic acid ethyl ester and p-hydroxy benzoic acid acrylic ester were 0.1, 0.1,0.2 μg/mL, repectively, the RSD of determination results was less than 3.6%(n=ll). The average recoveries were 84.5%-97.1%.

  4. Investigation of nitrite in processed meat and pickled vegetables available in market and a related knowledge-attitude-practice survey in Haidian district in Beijing%北京市海淀区市售肉制品和腌制蔬菜中亚硝酸盐含量及居民知信行调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 高鹏; 马爽; 孙美平; 秦东亮; 许雅君

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解北京市海淀区市售肉制品和腌制蔬菜中亚硝酸盐含量,并调查该地区居民对亚硝酸盐的知识、态度以及对含有亚硝酸盐食物的摄人情况.方法采集市售肉制品和腌制蔬菜样品34份,经过预处理后采用分光光度法检测样品中亚硝酸盐含量.采用自拟调查表和偶遇抽样面访采集数据,使用Epidata 3.1对问卷进行平行双录入,使用SPSS 20.0进行统计分析.结果样品中亚硝酸盐含量均在食品安全国家标准允许范围内,平均亚硝酸盐含量从高到低依次为香肠、酱卤肉、腌腊肉、腌制蔬菜,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).受访者对亚硝酸盐的危害及亚硝酸盐含量高的食物认识不足,仅有54.5%的人表示会有意减少食用亚硝酸盐含量高的食物;受访者在上个月内食用肉制品及腌制蔬菜的量和频率不高.结论北京市海淀区居民通过肉制品及腌制蔬菜摄入过量亚硝酸盐的风险很低,可以安全食用.

  5. 由蟹壳制备壳聚糖及其在钢洗废水中回收镍镉的应用%The Preparation of Chitosan from Crust of Crab and It's Application in the Spent Steel Pickle Liquor Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武志刚; 高建峰

    2009-01-01

    以蟹壳为原料,制备了高脱乙酰度的壳聚糖,确定了最佳制备条件.利用制备的壳聚糖处理钢洗废水,并对壳聚糖吸附的的镍镉离子进行了解吸回收,效果良好.

  6. Isolation and identification of nitrite-degrading lactic acid bacteria from pickles and application in fermented sausage%酸菜中降解亚硝酸盐乳酸菌的筛选、鉴定及其在发酵香肠中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔珏; 孙会刚; 朱兆丽; 娄雪莲

    2016-01-01

    目的:依据多项评价指标筛选亚硝酸盐降解能力强且适用于肉制品发酵的乳酸菌.方法:首先采用添加0.3%CaCO3的MRS培养基从15份不同产地的农家自制酸菜中筛选乳酸菌,其后以降解亚硝酸盐能力和肉制品发酵剂所需要求为筛选指标对初筛所得乳酸菌进行复筛,并对其进行菌种的分子鉴定.最后以筛选到的菌株为发酵剂制作单菌株发酵香肠,通过检测香肠在发酵和贮藏期间的NaNO2含量来进一步验证所得菌株的实际降解亚硝酸盐能力.结果:筛选到1株降解亚硝酸盐能力优良(降解率为78.77%)且适于肉制品发酵的乳酸菌菌株,16S rDNA全序列分析鉴定为鼠李糖乳杆菌(Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG,ATCC 53103).香肠发酵实验结果显示,在发酵结束时香肠的NaNO2含量为12.2 mg/kg,低于国家标准.同时,微生物指标检测结果证明了此条件下生产的发酵香肠的质量是安全可靠的.结论:鼠李糖乳杆菌能有效降低发酵香肠中的NaNO2含量,可用于开发成用于生产低亚硝酸盐的健康、安全的肉品发酵剂.

  7. Use of the longitudinal Pickle's effect in the measure of the electro- and photo-conductivity of crystals of sillenite and with high resistivity; Utilizacion del efecto Pockels longitudinal en la medicion de la electro y fotoconductividad de cristales de silenita impurificados y con alta resistividad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilinskii, A. V.; Silva-Andrade, F.; Chavez, F.; Banuelos, F.; Prutskij, T. A. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2001-06-01

    Using the electro-optic longitudinal effect we have measured the electro- and photo-conductivity in photorefractive sillenite crystals with high resistivity. We have studied doped samples with aluminium, chromium, vanadium, cobalt, iron, and neodymium impurities distributed in the bulk or in a thin region near the surface. The data of the electro-optical measurements has been completed with the spectra of optical absorption in the investigated samples. [Spanish] Empleando el efecto electrooptico longitudinal se ha medido la electro y la fotoconductividad en cristales fotorrefractivos de silenita con alta resistividad. Se han estudiado muestras impurificadas con Al, Cr, V, Co, Fe y Nd distribuidas en todo el volumen o en una region delgada cerca de la superficie. Los datos de la medicion electroptica se han complementado con los espectros de absorcion optica en las muestras investigadas.

  8. 基于宏基因组分析四川泡菜母水作引子的泡菜发酵过程中细菌多样性变化%Metagenomic analysis of bacterial diversity changes during vegetables fermentation using Sichuan pickle water as starter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟婷婷; 田丰伟; 王刚; 刘小鸣; 张灏; 陈卫

    2015-01-01

    本文旨在研究以泡菜母水作引子的蔬菜发酵过程中细菌多样性变化,并对泡菜质量控制和泡菜中功能性细菌资源开发提供理论支持.采集发酵过程中不同发酵时间的样品,提取基因组,PCR扩增16S rRNA的V3+ V4区并进行Illumina高通量测序,通过生物信息学分析比较发酵不同时间细菌多样性.结果表明:以老坛水作引子的发酵过程中发酵启动时魏斯氏菌属可达到74.5%,而之后则在10%左右,取而代之成为优势菌的是乳杆菌属,含量达到80%~85%.说明泡菜发酵中启动菌为魏斯氏菌属,发酵的关键菌为乳杆菌属,同时表明四川泡菜是优良的微生物资源,可用于魏斯氏菌属,乳杆菌属,乳球菌属,片球菌属和明串珠菌属等益生菌的分离和筛选.

  9. HPLC method for simultaneous determination of benzoic acid,sorbic acid, tartrazine and turmeric in Sichuan pickles%HPLC法同时测定四川泡菜中苯甲酸、山梨酸、柠檬黄和姜黄

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊; 黄琼; 邹萍; 万红梅

    2010-01-01

    采用Inersil-ODS-SP,4.6 mm×250 mm 色谱柱,以甲醇+0.02 mo1/L乙酸铵为流动相,HPLC法同时测定四川泡菜中苯甲酸、山梨酸、柠檬黄和姜黄.样品经纯水溶液浸泡后,苯甲酸钠、山梨酸钠、柠檬黄和姜黄均可溶于水,杂质则在过滤后再进行离心沉淀以后与被测组分分离,检出限:苯甲酸为0.22 mg/L、山梨酸为0.02 mg/L、柠檬黄为0.14 mg/L、姜黄为0.37 mg/L.试验结果表明,此法不仅定量准确、精密度高而且操作极为方便.

  10. Effects of Different Sterilization Methods on The Quality of Low- salt Picked Tubers Mustard%不同杀菌方式对低盐榨菜品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尼海峰; 熊发祥; 邓冕; 卢晓黎

    2011-01-01

    试验研究了微波杀菌和水浴巴氏杀菌对低盐榨菜品质的影响,结果表明:微波杀菌后的榨莱,其色泽、脆度及气味均优于巴氏杀菌榨菜;微波杀菌榨菜中亚硝酸盐含量低于巴氏杀菌榨菜;微波杀菌能比水浴巴氏杀菌更有效地杀灭榨菜中的有害微生物.%Effects of microwave sterilization and pasteurization on quality in low-salt pickle were studied. The results showed that the low-salt pickle treated with microwave sterilization was better than that with pasteurization not only in color, taste, but also in flavor;, the reduced value of nitrite concentration in pickle with microwave sterilization was lowered than pickle with pasteurization; the microorganisms in low-salt pickle could be inactivated effectively by microwave sterilization.

  11. Molds in Brined Cucumbers: Cause of Softening During Air-Purging of Fermentations †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costilow, Ralph N.; Gates, Karen; Lacy, Melvyn L.

    1980-01-01

    Softening of cucumbers in fermentations purged at high air-flow rates was caused by molds growing in the brined cucumbers, not in the brine. This conclusion is based on the following results: (i) no microorganisms were isolated in significant numbers from brines that caused softening of pasteurized brined cucumbers, (ii) no pectinolytic enzyme activities were produced in cucumber brines in the absence of cucumbers, (iii) the pickles in some air-purged fermentations became very soft without the appearance of any pectinolytic enzyme activity in the brine, (iv) mold hyphae were consistently observed in tissues of soft pickles, (v) molds consistently developed in cultures of slices of surface sterilized cucumbers taken from fermentations in which soft pickles were subsequently found, and (vi) molds belonging to the genera Alternaria, Fusarium, and Mucor isolated from slices all softened pasteurized brined cucumbers. Images PMID:16345619

  12. A Low - cost Method of Dealing with Environmental Protection Mist%一种低成本环保处理酸雾的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华

    2012-01-01

    利用在酸洗池上方加装酸雾收集器,在酸雾收集器内形成一定的负压,配合缓蚀剂的抑雾作用,阻隔酸雾的扩散,回收的氯化氢水溶液用于新酸洗液的配制。本方案成本低,效果显著,可适用不同大小,形状的酸洗池。%Using the mist collector was installed in the top of the pickling pool to form a certain amount of negative pressure in the mist collector, and with the role of the inhibitor of fog, the proliferation of the mist was blocked, and the recovery of hydrogen chloride aqueous solution was used for the new pickling preparation. The program was low cost, effective, and applicable to different size, shape, and pickling pool.

  13. The Camp Edwards Experiment in Battalion Level Consolidated Field Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    Cucumbers 6 - 1.0 1 Apple Juices 8 42 8.5 NATIONAL GUARD CAMP EDWARDS MENU REVISED BY NARADCOM & 101ST EWG 7 J"{JLY -1975 Rl 88 MENU I - SATURDAY 9...August 1975 Dinner Cheeseburgers/Hamburgers (~32) Catsup - Mustard Pickle Relish Lyonnaise Potatoes {Q-54) Buttered Cor~ (Q-G-3) Lettuce and... Pickle Relish O’Brien Potatoes (Q-54) Buttered Green Beans (Q-G-1) Lettuce and Tomato Salad (M-33) Sliced Onion French Dressing (M-58) Hamburger

  14. Near East/South Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    year is now producing and marketing pickled vegetables of all kinds as a sideline in addition to its basic production of olive oil. A source...connected with the plant said that as a result of the innovation of the plant employees, in the first quarter of this year 35,000 bottles of cucumber ... pickles , 20,000 bottles of black eggplant, 15,000 bottles of Italian eggplant, 1,900 bottles of orange juice and 30,000 bottles of olives were produced in

  15. Plate Waste in School Feeding Programs: Individual and Aggregate Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    day 1, no waste occurred in three items which were to have been measured - pickles , macaroni salad, and cucumbers - which were all available on the...guidelines for waste separation. First, most salad bar components were not individually separated. Scraped together were lettuce, cucumber , tomato, onion...0.076 Apple Sauce 0.1 1.2 461 0.04 0.280 Pickles 1.6 15.0 264 0.14 0.086 Potato Chips 1.0 11.5 347 0.12 0.123 Milk, Whole 82.1 8662.0 103 3.40 0.041

  16. PRETREATING THORIUM FOR ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, J.G.; Schaer, G.R.

    1959-07-28

    A method is presented for pretreating a thorium surface prior to electroplating the surface. The pretreatment steps of the invention comprise cleaning by vapor blasting the surface, anodically pickling in a 5 to 15% by volume aqueous hydrochloric acid bath with a current of 125 to 250 amp/sq ft for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, chemically pickling the surface in a 5 to 15% by volume of aqueous sulfuric acid for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, and rinsing the surface with water.

  17. Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Waste Disposal Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    tons calcium sulfate (gypsum) per ton of titanium oxide (TiO2 ) produced. Because of the shear magnitude of the calcium sulfate disposal problem, one... pickling liquors that used as high as a 40:1 seed recycle ratio (we did not talk directly with Bethlehem Steel on their process). The Dorr Oliver...I I I 4-14 / Arthur D. Little, Inc. SECTION 5 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Aarons, R. and Taylor, R.A. (1967), The DuPont Waste Pickle Liquor Process, 22 Ind

  18. Researching the Possibility of Creating Highly Effective Catalysts for the Thermochemical Heat Regeneration and Hydrocarbon Reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    oxide films or chemical pickling . Mechanical treatment of the samples (50x12 mm plates) was performed in the ball mill under the following conditions... pickling (temperature 90 - 160°C, time – 0.01 -1.0 h, alkali NaOH concentration – 10-30 % by mass) on surface variation has been studied on X15Ю5...using Bulat installation) on: • Ni-Cr alloy of Х15Ю5 grade, 100 x 100 mm in size – for measurement of catalytic activity; • Titanium foil – for

  19. Plasma-Arc Deposited Elemental Boron Film for use as a Durable Nonstick Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    It will be noted that these two samples were ones for which no surface cleaning, acid pickling , or treatment of the “swaged in oxide layer” was done...stages of the project, it was decided to try an idea to use titanium as the interlayer between boron and aluminum. Titanium is a light material that is...been overcome by acid pickling of the substrate and pulse-dc bias techniques. The Contractor Name: HY-Tech Research Corporation 16 Contract No

  20. 不同干燥方式对酸菜粉品质及抗氧化性能的影响%Effect of Different Drying Methods on QuaI ity and InoxidabiIity of PickIes Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰; 车宇博; 马利华; 陈学红; 宋慧

    2016-01-01

    The changes of physical properties,nutritive peculiarity and inoxidability of pickles powder under the drying methods of freeze drying,spray drying,vacuum drying,microwave vacuum drying, hot-air drying and extrusion.The results show that the content of lactic acid,FAA of pickles powder by freeze drying is the highest,which is 48.39%,45.45% higher than that of hot-air drying;the content of soluble dietary fiber of pickles powder by extrusion is the highest,which is 64.21% higher than that of hot-air drying;the solvency of pickles powder by spray drying is the best,which is 32.39% higher than that of hot-air drying;the flow ability of pickles powder by spray drying and freeze drying is better,the slope of repose of pickles powder is 25.51%,23.14% smaller than that of hot-air drying;the volume of pickles powder by freeze drying is the smallest,which is 31.17% lower than that of hot-air drying;the bulk density of pickles powder by freeze drying is the smallest,which is 42.31%lower than that of hot-air drying;the hydratability of pickles powder by freeze drying is the highest,which is 61.61% higher that that of hot-air drying,the oil-absorbing ability of pickles powder by extrusion is the highest,which is 77.14% higher than that of hot-air drying;the hydroxyl radical clearance rate and DPPH radical inhibition rate of pickles powder by freeze drying is the least.%实验考察了在冷冻干燥、喷雾干燥、真空干燥、微波真空干燥、热风干燥及挤压膨化等干燥方式下酸菜粉的物理特性、营养特性及抗氧化特性的变化。结果表明:冷冻干燥酸菜粉中乳酸含量、游离氨基酸含量最高,比热风干燥高48.39%,45.45%;挤压膨化处理后酸菜粉可溶性膳食纤维含量最高,比热风干燥高64.21%;喷雾干燥制作的酸菜粉冲调性最好,比热风干燥高32.39%;喷雾干燥和真空冷冻干燥制得的酸菜粉流动性较好,休止角分别比热风干燥小25.51%,23

  1. DRY COMPOSITION OF STARTER CULTURES FORM LACTIC ACID MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    At. Kraevska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of producing of lyophilized lactic acid starter Lb. plantarum strain 226/1, designed for a starter culture in the production of pickles. The results of our studies demonstrate achievement of this goal by the specified process parameters.

  2. Social Security Disability Reviews: The Human Costs. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Social Security of the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives and the Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (Part 3 - Hot Springs, Arkansas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    This document provides transcripts of witness testimony and prepared statements from the third of three Congressional hearings called to examine at the local level the administration of the social security disability review program. Opening statements are presented from Representatives J. J. Pickle and Beryl Anthony, Jr., and Senator Daniel Pryor.…

  3. Development of Processed Products from Guapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita Acevedo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop processed products from guapple. Characterization of the guapple fruit was intially conducted before proceeding to formulation studies.The following characteristics of the guapple fruit were observed: color of outer skin - yellow green with Munsell notation of 10 Y7/6, color of inner flesh - off white with Munsell notation of 7.5Y 8/2; texture, 20.4-37.1 mm; average weight per piece, from 219 to 420 gms; ph, 3.7; titrable acidity (citric acid, 0.34%, and soluble solids, 2.6° Brix.The identified processed products from guapple were puree, pickles, and preserves. Standardized processes and formulations for each of these products were developed in semi-pilot scale. Removal of the skin for the guapple preserves and pickles was facilitated using 5% brine-l % CaCI2.Suitable packaging materials were also identified. Flexible films were used for guapple puree while glass jars and flexible films were found to be satisfactory both for guapple pickles and preserves.Physico-chemical, microbiological, and sensory evaluation were done after two months of storage. Based on these tests, the pasteurization process of 180° F for 20 minutes for puree and 10 minutes for preserves and pickles, was found to make the products commercially sterile.

  4. An Evaluation of the New ’Multi-Restaurant’ Food Service System for the Marine Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Include everyday: Carrots (’/«in. slice), celery (’/«in. slice), cucumbers (sliced), endive, escarole, or romaine (torn), head lettuce (torn), green, or... pickles , radishes (optional), cherry or (quartered) tomatoes, chick peas. Occasionally include: Croutons Com Relish B. Cottage Cheese Use Standard

  5. Inheritance of Beta-Carotene-Associated Flesh Color in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutritional value of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) can be improved by the introgression of ß-carotene (i.e., provitamin A and/or orange flesh) genes from “Xishuangbanna gourd” (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan) into U.S. pickling cucumber. However, the genetics of ß-carote...

  6. Fine genetic mapping of Cp, a recessive gene for compact (dwarf) plant architecture in cucumber, cucumis sativus L

    Science.gov (United States)

    The compact or dwarf plant architecture is an important trait in cucumber breeding. Compact cucumber has the potential to be used in once-over mechanical harvest of pickling cucumber production. Compact growth habit is controlled by a simply inherited recessive gene. To facilitate markers assisted s...

  7. Recommendations for Improving the Food Service Operations at MCB Camp Pendleton, CA MCAS El Toro and MCAS(H) Santa Ana, CA, MCB Camp Lejeune, NC, and MCDEC, Quantico, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Include everyday: Carrots (/4 in. slice), celery (% in. slice), cucumbers (sliced), endive - escarole or romaine (torn), head lettuce (torn), green...mixed pickles , radishes (optional), cherry or (quartered) tomatoes, chick peas. Occasionally include: Croutons Corn Relish B) Cottage Cheese Use Standard

  8. Assessment of Habitual Diners Nutrient Intake in a Military-Operated Garrison Dining Facility Fort Devens 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    Hamburgers Cucumber Slices Grilled Cheeseburgers Cherry Tomatoes Grilled Frankfurters Block Cheddar Cheese Hamburger & Frankfurter Buns Flavored Gelatin...Fries Carrot Sticks Potato Chips Celery Sticks Sliced Mushrooms Sandwiches Chopped Hard Cooked Egg Cucumber & Onion Salad Egg Salad Green Pepper Tuna...Bacon Lettuce Tomato Sliced Pickles Soup du Jour Chopped Lettuce Leaves Apple Sauce Beverages Chopped Onions Tabasco Sauce 2% Fat Milk Mayonnaise Skim

  9. 7 CFR 301.80 - Quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... kind. (10) Seed cotton and gin trash. (11) Stumpwood. (12) Long green cucumbers, cantaloupes, peppers, squash, tomatoes, and watermelons, except those from which all soil has been removed. (13) Pickling cucumbers, string beans, and field peas. (14) Cabbage, except firm heads with loose outer leaves...

  10. INTRODUKSI PEMBUATAN ASINAN UNTUK MEMPERPANJANG MASA SIMPAN BUAH SALAK DI DESA SIBETAN KARANGASEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duniaji A. S.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many varieties of salak. Salak Pondoh, Salak Manonjaya and one of very popular is Salak Bali. The taste of Salak Bali is usually sweet and acidic taste, but its pineapple-, pear-, and banana-like aroma, texture very dry and crumbly. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP with specific Standard Operating Procedures (SOP has been recognized as the requirement of quality and safety management system, competition tools in the global market to improve growers’ knowledge and skills on producing commodities in managing farms and products. The community service was done on July- August 2014 to the women farmer group of KWT Srada and KWT Subak Abian Salak at village Sibetan, Bebandem Distric of Karangasem. The objective of training was to improve the skill of women farmer group on snake fruit pickles products. A number of eight kinds of snake fruits pickle product has been produced. The training has been improving the skill of women farmer group of KWT Srada and KWT Subak Abian Salak at Sibetan to produce the good quality snake fruit pickles products in global market competition.Key word: salak, snake fruit pickles

  11. Reassessment of the succession of lactic acid bacteria in commercial cucumber fermentations and physiological and genomic features associated with their dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current cucumber pickling practices differ significantly from those in the 1940s, when most of the microbiological studies of cucumber fermentations were completed, using culture dependent and biochemical testing. It is the objective of this study to conduct a compositional re-assessment of the micr...

  12. 40 CFR 432.2 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Fecal coliform means the bacterial count, as determined by approved methods of analysis for Parameter 1..., breaking, trimming, skinning, tenderizing, marinating, curing, pickling, extruding and/or linking. (f) LWK... quarter carcasses or small meat cuts. (l) The approved methods of analysis for the following...

  13. 40 CFR 420.95 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for existing sources. (a) Sulfuric acid (spent acid solutions and rinse waters)—(1) Rod, wire, and... pickling (spent acid solutions and rinse waters)—(1) Rod, wire, and coil. Subpart I Pollutant or...

  14. 40 CFR 420.105 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cold Forming... combination acid pickling wastewaters. (b) Cold worked pipe and tube mills—(1) Using water. Subpart J... for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold...

  15. 40 CFR 420.106 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cold Forming... acid pickling wastewaters. (b) Cold worked pipe and tube mills—(1) Using water. Subpart J Pollutant or... nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold forming wastewaters are...

  16. 40 CFR 420.93 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Acid Pickling... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology...

  17. 40 CFR 420.97 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Acid Pickling Subcategory § 420... of the best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional technology (BCT)....

  18. Pemanfaatan air olahan wetland di Sitimulyo dalam pembuatan kulit pikel domba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Ningsih

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Research has been done to study the effects of treated wetland water utilization in Sitimulyo on the making of pickled sheepskin. The treated wetland water on the making of pickled sheepskin was done by using three variable ratio of wetland water: water that is 100:0; 75:25; 50:50. Used as a comparison was control or without any additional water wetland. Skin that was used as much as 12 pieces of sheepskin divided into 4 groups and 3 pieces of leather for each treatment. Quality parameters observed include skin moisture content, salinity, pH, and organoleptic observation. From the results showed that the treated wetland water in Sitimulyo not meet the water requirements for tanning leather according to SNI 06-0649-1989 on water for vegetable leather tanning process. Pickle skin test results show that the chemical (moisture, salt and pH and organoleptic not meet the requirements of SNI 06-3537-1994 on quality leather and test methods pickle sheep.

  19. You May be Surprised by How Much Salt You're Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foods high in sodium don’t always taste salty. While pickles quickly give themselves away, sweet-tasting ... and each food has a different potential for sodium reduction,” says Kasey Heintz, a biologist in the FDA’s ...

  20. It's All Fun and Games in "Tiny's Diner": Preschool Programming in Unusual Exhibit Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Nora; Diamant-Cohen, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to Port Discovery's "Tiny's Diner" where children can be seen doing the chicken dance or putting pickles on their heads. What do these activities have to do with promoting nutrition through early literacy activities? Educators know that young children learn through play, which can include using drama, games, movement,…

  1. Workers' agency and power relations in Cambodia's garment industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, D.; Rossi, A.; Luinstra, A.; Pickles, J.

    2014-01-01

    In the past three decades, a major transformation has occurred in the global economy as supply chains originating in ‘core economies’ have further expanded their sourcing networks into new frontier regions of production across East and South-East Asia (Arnold and Pickles 2011; Gereffi 2005).

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccc of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart CCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart CCC 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCC of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. CCC, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCC of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions...

  3. Next Generation Nanotechnology Assembly Fabrication Methods: A Trend Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    focused electron beam induced deposition of materials, patterned laser beam induced deposition of titanium dioxide (titania), and other non classical UV...War: Searching for the Silver Bullet Eric J. Schnitzer Who Pushes the Pickle Button? John E. Marselus Leveraging Simulation Against the F-16

  4. BMDO Technology and the Electric Utility Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    diameters, both units were continuously wound solenoids using low-temperature niobium- titanium (Nb-Ti) superconducting materials cooled by superfluid...for Electromechanics (page 71) Technology: Air-core compulsator Dr. Theodore Aanstoos (principal investigator) JJ. Pickle Research Campus Mail Code

  5. JPRS Report, Science and Technology, China: Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the other lands are planted to mustard root for pickling , a specialty product of Sichuan, and to Chinese pharmaceutical plants; the grain lands...body of the machine was first modified. Aluminum blades were replaced with steel and titanium alloy blades, wear resistance and bearing lubri- cation

  6. Experimental Studies of Transitional Boundary Layer Shock Wave Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    experimental program is carried out in the Mach 5 blow down wind tunnel located at the High-Speed Wind Tunnel Laboratory at the Pickle Research Campus...used the same laser and camera setup, as described above. For PIV the flow was seeded in the stagnation chamber with titanium -dioxide particles that

  7. China Report, Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    organizations to improve people’s living and working conditions and dissuade them from smoking, drinking excessively and eating too many pickled and...the use of titanium alloys, molybdenum alloys, as well as graphite composite materials, fiber glass and other non-metallic materials; in the area of

  8. The Lead Crack Fatigue Lifting Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    fracture properties of high strength aluminium and titanium alloys. ____________________ ________________________________________________ Russel...and the fatigue crack growth properties of high strength aluminium and titanium alloys. Russell and Simon have also collaborated on a chapter on...forms of machining damage (scratches, grooves, burrs, small tears and nicks); etch pits from surface treatments ( pickling , anodising); porosity

  9. A Decision Model for Choosing Among Photovoltaic Technologies to Generate Electricity at Grid-Connected Air Force Facilities: A Value-Focused Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    cells, based on titanium dioxide nanoparticles coated with a light-sensitive dye and surrounded by electrodes (Pinestream Communications, 2003), and...simply the lettuce by itself, and another might be simply pickles and cheese (Howard, 1988). Would a customer really pay for these choices? These

  10. JPRS Report Science & Technology Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    8, 47 (1988). 7. P. D. Zavitsanos and A. Gatti, "The Use of Self- Propagating Reactions for the Synthesis of High Density Titanium Diboride." 8...Contents: The insulating coating is removed; pickling ; metal plating with Sb, Zn, Sn and Ni; 0.76 W/kg (before treatment: 0.91) 28. Powders for

  11. Design for Corrosion Control of Aviation Fuel Storage and Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    platinized titanium , scrap steel, old rails and pipe, and lead. Availability, cost, life expectancy and type of environment (soil or water) determine which...humidity of 100 percent. Hydrogen embrittlement -- Embrittlement caused by entrance of hydrogen into the metal. (As for example, through pickling or

  12. European Scientific Notes. Volume 36, Number 4,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-30

    configuration, a 32-level The basic phase-modulating element is a piece amplitude modulator is provided. of titanium -doped lithium niobate whose...solutions from plating Katholieke Universiteit at Leuven, Belgium, was operations and from etching and pickling baths. founded in the late 1960s as one of

  13. 9 CFR 317.309 - Nutrition label content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (e.g., pickled pigs feet), the manufacturer may state the typical number of servings per container (e... calories per gram for protein, total carbohydrate less the amount of insoluble dietary fiber, and total fat... this incorporation by reference is given in paragraph (c)(1)(i)(A) of this section.) (i) “Dietary...

  14. Shiitake, a new mushroom variety proposed in Mauritius

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    originates, Shiitake is known as 'xiang-gu', in USA as the 'black forest ... with an estimated fresh weight production of 2 million tonnes in 2002 (Luo, ..... canning, pickling and powder or tea preparation (Fan et al, 2005) can be ... help maintain required quality. ... crumbling of blocks during immersions and loss of flushes.

  15. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  16. Resistance contact thin-film resistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spirin V. G.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The analytical model of the calculation of the contact resistance of the thin-film resistor is Offered. The Explored dependency of the contact resistance from wedge of the pickling. The Considered influence adhesive layer on warm-up stability of the resistor. They Are Received formulas of the calculation systematic and casual inaccuracy contributed by contact resistance.

  17. Glucansucrases of lactobacilli : characterization of genes, enzymes, and products synthesized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kralj, Slavko

    2004-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used in the feed and food (fermentation) industry (e.g. beer, cheese, yoghurt, olives, pickles, sauerkraut and silage). LAB form various metabolites during fermentation of carbohydrates, which contribute positively to the taste, smell and preservation of the

  18. 40 CFR 63.1156 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pickling means the chemical removal of iron oxide mill scale that is formed on steel surfaces during hot... material is lowered in batches into a bath of acid solution, allowed to remain until the scale is dissolved... does not include removal of light rust or scale from finished steel products or activation of the...

  19. WHAT WAS YOUR ORDER?%猜猜是谁点的餐?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李端奇

    2003-01-01

    @@ A LOGIC PUZZLE There are eleven related facts listed below for this logic puzzle. After reading them, help the waitress who is serving the table to figure out the answer to this question: Who ordered the cola,cheeseburger with pickles, and French fries?

  20. From Loss to Awakening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高崇毅; 李柳英

    2007-01-01

    Katherine Mansfield's short story A Dill Pickle (1917) shows a full picture of the female image to the readers: Vera's loss in love and her awakening from the sorrow and despair.Vera changes during the talk with her former boyfriend and achieves in awakening as a female at last.

  1. Treasure Fathoms Below the Yangtze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China goes to great depths to open its first underwater museum It used to be famous for hot pickled vege-tables, but now Fuling, a city in southwestChina’s Chongqing Municipality, has anew claim to fame.On May 18, International MuseumDay, an underwater museum was openedto the public in the city, which is located

  2. Corrosion leaking of preheater weldment in alumina factories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; CHEN Wen-mi; GONG Zhu-qing; LIU Hong-zhao

    2005-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and anticorrosion measures of TU42C weld-joint were studied by constant load experiments and pickling experiments. The results show that in 40%(mass fraction) NaOH solution at 110 ℃, caustic SCC occurs in TU42C weld-joints at the applied potential of -1 020 mV(vs SCE) for 3 d while at the potential of -950 mV(vs SCE) for 10 d. All the cracks are intergranular. In the 10% sulfuric acid, the cracks have the most negative self-corrosion potential -432.5 mV(vs SCE) and are active to be further corroded by the acid. Because of the same corrosion behaviour as the lab weldment, preheater's cracking in alumina factories is attributed to the combining actions of previous caustic SCC in Bayer solutions and continuous acid corrosion by pickling with the addition of RD. The following measures are effective to prevent the corrosion failure of preheater, such as postweld heat treatment at 620 ℃ to relax the residual weld stress, addition of CC3 and L826 as the corrosion inhibitors to improve the pickling and cleaning by the high pressure water instead of by pickling.

  3. Influence of tumbling, tumbling time, trim and sodium tripolyphosphate on quality and yield of cured hams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, R.J.; Ockerman, H.W.; Krol, B.; Moerman, P.C.; et al.

    1978-01-01

    Forty‐four boneless, cured hams were assigned to treatment groups to study the effect of tumbling, tumbling time (18 hr intermittent, 9.5 hr intermittent, 3 hr continuous), tumbling temperature (5°C and 15°C), sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) pickle level (0 and 3.3%), and trim (lean, regular, and fat)

  4. Research on AppIication of Metagenomics in TraditionaI PickIes MicrobiaI Community%宏基因组学在传统酱腌菜微生物群落中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左勇; 张晶

    2016-01-01

    In this study,the development status and existing problems of traditional pickles are analyzed;the research process of metagenomics technology is introduced.According to the technical features and research methods of metagenomics,the application prospect of metagenomics technology in the analysis of microbial community structure of traditional pickles is discussed.Along with application of metagenomics technology,new genes are to be found,active substances are to be developed and microbial diversity is to be determined,which is beneficial to control the fermentation of pickles and promote the development of pickles industry.%简要分析了传统酱腌菜的发展状况及其存在的问题,并介绍宏基因组学技术的研究进展。根据宏基因组学的技术特点和研究方法,论述了其应用于研究酱腌菜微生物群落结构的前景,将有利于发现新基因,开发活性物质,认识微生物多样性,从而更有利于酱腌菜发酵控制,促进酱腌菜行业的发展。

  5. 76 FR 22603 - Geographic Preference Option for the Procurement of Unprocessed Agricultural Products in Child...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... commentor wanted to allow pasteurized cider and pickled products to be considered ``unprocessed'' for..., including a cost/benefit analysis, for proposed and final rules with Federal mandates that may result in... intended to limit or reduce in any way the ability of protected classes of individuals to receive...

  6. 21 CFR 172.120 - Calcium disodium EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... million) Use Cabbage, pickled 220 Promote color, flavor, and texture retention. Canned carbonated soft drinks 33 Promote flavor retention. Canned white potatoes 110 Promote color retention. Clams...

  7. Operation and Maintenance Manual for Draw-Off Holdback (DOHB) Control Console.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    SIZE COlE iDENT NO.IwesTeRniilrcal" A356 ......... IAI 16603A0, EVENETT. WASHINGTON 56201 A 16603 SCALE JsHEEA -7 A-17 4-0. CLEANING AND PICKLING 4-1...castings are zinc alloycotns huarnpretmeil Sand castings on sizes above 11 are Secit Quard-Made from steel and used with all potycarbionate aluminum

  8. British physics Newton's law of funding

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In Britain, fundamental physics is in a pickle ISAAC NEWTON, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.

  9. The Effect of PickIed Chinese Cabbage on Lipid Oxidation and QuaIity of Sausage%酸菜对风干香肠中脂类氧化及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车宇博; 张峰; 马利华; 宋慧; 陈学红; 陈丹; 李继昊

    2016-01-01

    Take pickled Chinese cabbage and pork as the main materials to make air-dried sausage. Take non-added pickled Chinese cabbage powder as the control,the effect of different additive amount of pickled Chinese cabbage powder on the color,texture,POV,AV,inhibition ratio of LPO of sausage is studied.The results show that adding pickled Chinese cabbage powder has a certain effect on the lipid oxidation and quality of air-dried sausage,adding 12% pickled Chinese cabbage powder, the color,texture,POV,AV of sausage are all decreased,the inhibition ratio of LPO is increased compared with the control.After 100 days,the POV and AV of sausage added with pickled Chinese cabbage powder are decreased by 31.6%,21.14% compared with the control,the inhibition ratio of LPO is increased by 47.24%.The lipid oxidation can be inhibited to some extent with the addition of pickled Chinese cabbage,the quality of sausage can be improved and the product has unique flavor and good taste.%实验以酸菜、猪肉为主要原料,制成风干香肠。以不加酸菜粉为对照,研究了酸菜粉不同添加量对香肠的色泽、质构、过氧化值、酸价、脂质过氧化物抑制率的影响。结果表明:添加酸菜粉对风干香肠的脂类氧化及品质均有一定程度的影响,香肠添加酸菜粉12%,香肠的色泽、质构、过氧化值、酸价比对照均有下降,脂质过氧化物抑制率比对照有所升高。储藏100天后,添加酸菜粉香肠的过氧化值、酸价比对照分别大幅降低了31.6%,21.14%,脂质过氧化物抑制率则显著提高了47.24%。酸菜的添加可以一定程度抑制香肠的脂类氧化,提高香肠的品质,口味独特而鲜美。

  10. Pre-slaughter, slaughter and post-slaughter defects of skins and hides at the Sheba Tannery and Leather Industry, Tigray region, northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahsay, Tesfay; Negash, Guesh; Hagos, Yohannes; Hadush, Birhanu

    2015-08-21

    Skins and hides are perishable resources that can be damaged by parasitic diseases and human error, which result in downgrading or rejection. This study was conducted to identify defect types and to determine their prevalence in pickled sheep and wet blue goat skins and wet blue hides. Each selected skin or hide was examined for defects in natural light and the defects were graded according to established quality criteria in Ethiopian standard manuals. Major defects were captured by digital photography. The major pre-slaughter defects included scratches (64.2%), cockle (ekek) (32.8%), wounds or scars (12.6%), lesions from pox or lumpy skin disease (6.1%), poor substance (5%), branding marks (2.3%) and tick bites (1.5%). The presence of grain scratches in wet blue hides (76.3%) was significantly higher than in pickled sheep (67.2%) and wet blue goat (59.1%) skins. The major slaughter defects included flay cuts or scores, holes, poor pattern and vein marks, with a higher occurrence in wet blue goat skins (28.7%; P < 0.001) than in wet blue hides (22.8%) and pickled sheep skins (11.1%). The most prevalent postslaughter defects were grain cracks (14.9%), hide beetle damage (8%), damage caused by heat or putrefaction (3.7%) and machine-induced defects (0.5%). Grain cracks (27.04%) and hide beetle damage (13.9%) in wet blue goat skins were significantly more common than in wet blue hides and pickled sheep skins. These defects cause depreciation in the value of the hides and skins. Statistically significant (P < 0.001) higher rejection rates were recorded for wet blue hides (82.9%) than for pickled sheep skins (18.3%) and wet blue goat skins (8.5%). Improved animal health service delivery, effective disease control strategies and strong collaboration between stakeholders are suggested to enhance the quality of skins and hides.

  11. 戊糖乳杆菌的分离及其发酵特性%Isolation of Lactobacillus pentosus and its fermentation properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈加红; 范丽平; 沈晶晶

    2014-01-01

    对酱腌菜中的戊糖乳杆菌进行分离鉴定后研究其在蔬菜汁培养基中生长特性,并利用优良戊糖乳杆菌菌株发酵泡菜。结果分离得到11株乳酸杆菌,5株为戊糖乳杆菌,其中2株戊糖乳杆菌在蔬菜汁培养基中生长良好,分别为戊糖乳杆菌Mao6.2和戊糖乳杆菌Tang3.2。利用这两株菌分别接种发酵泡菜,结果表明,发酵时间较自然发酵泡菜短,且产品感官品质优良。%To screen good strains for pickle starter , several strains of Lactobacillus pentosus were isolated and identified from the traditional fermented pickles .Their growth characteristics in the medium of vegetable juice were studied and the excellent L.pentosus strain was used to ferment pickles.Eleven Lactobacillus strains were isolated from traditional fermented food, 5 strains were identified as L.pentosus.Among them, 2 strains showed better growth in vegetable juice medium.L.pentosus strains Mao6.2 and Tang3.2 were then inoculated into the ferment pickles . After 2 days incubation, pickles by the test strains demonstrated better characteristics than that fermented by natural process based on the production level of the lactic acid and sensory evaluation .

  12. The antioxidant and anti-cadmium toxicity properties of garlic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonpeng, Suwannaporn; Siripongvutikorn, Sunisa; Sae-Wong, Chutha; Sutthirak, Pornpong

    2014-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a highly dangerous international problem because it can transfer into the food chain and become bioaccumulated, endangering human health. Cd detoxication is very interesting particularly the method providing no undesirable side effects. Cd also causes lipid oxidation that leads to undesired food quality. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as conventional food and in herbal therapy and folklore medicine as an antibacterial, antitumorogenic, and antioxidant agent for over 5000 years. In the present work, fresh garlic and pickled garlic extracted with distilled water was brought to determine antioxidant activities in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) assay, chelating activities, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assay. The data showed that pickled garlic extracts significantly possessed more DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assays as 11.86, 13.74, 4.9, 46.67, and 15.33 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively, compared with fresh one as 7.44, 7.62, 0.01, 4.07, and 8.09 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively. However, iron chelating activity of fresh garlic extract was higher than that of pickled garlic while there was no significant difference in the copper chelating activity of both extracts. For anti-Cd properties, pickled garlic was more effective than fresh garlic and contained less toxicity than standard diallyl disulfide (DADS). Therefore, therapeutic properties of pickled garlic favored its consumption compared with fresh and standard DADS for its antioxidant and anti-Cd properties.

  13. 桑蚕两广二号蚕种延期冷藏实用化探讨%Discussion on the practical hatchability of“LiangGuang Ⅱ”deferred refrigeration silkworm eggs in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国栋

    2013-01-01

      探索延期冷藏两广二号桑蚕种的有效时间和最适贮藏方法,可以提高生产中大量延期冷藏种的利用率。对已经冷藏160d~320d 两广二号蚕种进行延期冷藏调查研究,试验中对蚕种设计了单式冷藏浸酸、单式冷藏不浸酸、复式冷藏浸酸、复式冷藏不浸酸区等处理方式。主要调查了实用孵化率、绝食80h蚁蚕生命率。结果表明延期冷藏蚕种孵化率随着冷藏时间增加而呈下降趋势,不浸酸区孵化率稍高于浸酸区,复式冷藏孵化率稍高于单式冷藏。%Practical time and optimal storage method of the“LiangGuang Ⅱ”deferred refrigeration silkworm eggs were explored to improve their utilization rate in production. “LiangGuang Ⅱ”silkworm eggs frozen for 160 to 320 days were investigated. Four processing modes of the silkworm eggs were single refrigeration and pickling, single refrigeration and no pickling, double refrigeration and pickling, double refrigeration and no pickling. Practical hatchability and newly-hatched silkworm life rate for fast 80 hours were the main focus in the survey. The results showed that the silkworm egg hatchability exhibited a downward trend with the increasing cold stor-age time. The hatchability of the no pickling processing mode was slightly higher than that of the pickling ones, and double refrigeration processing mode had higher hatchability than single refrigeration ones.

  14. Computerized Analysis of Nutrients (CAN) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    8 .8 58.8 CEREAL-CORN FLAKES K 808020 113 .7 .7 59.6 ORANGE MINUS SKIN 809203 ill .7 .7 60.3 CUCUMBER -RAW 811205 110 .7 .7 61.0 CRACKERS, SALTINES...RICE 8 9L E00503 29 .2 .2 86.8 LASAGNA 8 4D L02500 29 .2 .2 87.0 PICKLE SWEET 015610 28 .2 .2 87.2 MILK-SKIM 801085 28 .2 .2 87.4 PLUM-FRESH-9% 809279 28...L158LQ 17 .1 .1 94.7 ,MASHED POTATOES 8 1 POTATO 17 .1 .1 94.8 BEANS LIMA, CANNED QG1650 17 .1 .1 94.9 PICKLE -DILL 015580 16 .1 .1 95.0 CHEESE-COTTAGE

  15. An Analysis of Data on the Nutrition of American Officer Prisoners of War at the Zentsuji Prisoner of War Camp at Shikoku, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1948-05-01

    ISSUED BY ’M JAPAES TO WMLIU~ P..4 AT SJULY, 1944. - Beans84.4 ni.ce 223.0 Barloy 109.9 Millot 136.0 MLao 40.8 cucumber 97.5 Bean soup 55,3 Frosh Groeen...mmmnTSJ, JAp,’.a ijtdaJUYs 1945. 11=ewn of Food GasmM~ nlice 221.00 Baorley 11215 Lullot 212.0 Groono 240.0 Pickled Greono 15.2 Soweet Potwto Soup 2300... Pickled Grewen 175o2 Seoveed2, Oil 0,4 Dridgarknr 0.6 Beef 5.3 Demo 4,2 Swee Pottoes13,5 Tric Pottoes4.0 DreUaoTp ridDios6. TB228I ,UMITY Or, F•’oD I:L

  16. 榨菜中亚硝酸盐与其它食物中亚硝酸盐含量的对比研究%Mustard Nitrite and Nitrite Content of Other Foods Comparative Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉礼; 何家林

    2011-01-01

    本文对榨菜原料及产品、日常蔬菜、猪肉、火腿肠、香肠、腊肉中亚硝酸盐的含量进行了检测.结果显示,榨菜产品中亚硝酸盐含量均值在3.1mg/kg左右,而隔夜菜、火腿肠、香肠、腊肉中亚硝酸盐的的含量是其2-5倍.%In this paper, nitrate content of raw materials and products of the pickle, daily vegetables, pork, sausage, sausages and bacon were detected respectively. The results showed, nitrate content in pickle products was about 3.1mg/kg, but nitrate contents of overnight dish, sausage, sausages and bacon were its 2-5times.

  17. Flash fixation of heavy metals from two industrial wastes into ferrite by microwave hydrothermal co-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Mei, Chun-Yan; Yao, Li-Hua; Jin, Hong-Ming; Qian, Guang-Ren; Xu, Zhi-Ping

    2011-09-15

    Flash fixation of heavy metals from electroplating wastewater (EPW) and pickling waste liquor (PWL) into ferrite lattice can be investigated by microwave hydrothermal process. The toxicity of wastewater may be reduced by the redox reaction between Cr(VI) in electroplating wastewater and Fe(II) in pickling waste liquor. Box-Behnken design (BBD) experiment gives optimal process condition of ferrite formation as follows: wastewater volume ratio (V(PWL):V(EPW) = 0.20), pH value 11 and retention time 15 min, on which formed ferrite has a soft magnetic property with high saturation magnetization (M(s)) 47.4 emu/g. The rapid ferrite process has lower activation energy 7.01 kJ/mol according to grain growth kinetics. Concerning the environmental and economy, we introduced a new and interesting method for water remediation simultaneously synthesizing ferrite by using microwave mediated hydrothermal processes.

  18. Pengaruh pengawetan kulit ikan buntal (Arothon reticularis terhadap suhu kerut ditinjau melalui analisis differential scanning calorimeter (DSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RLM. Satrio Ari Wibowo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the skin preservation type against shrinkage temperature of leather. The material used in this study was the skin of pufferfish (Arothon reticularis that have been preserved by salting, formaldehyde and pickling and also raw skin as a reference. The method used to measure the shrinkage temperature was thermal analysis using Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC that operated from 4°C up to 440°C with nitrogen stream. DSC measurement results showed that shrinkage temperature of puffer fish preserved with formaldehyde was higher than salting and pickling, which is 63.64°C; 47.95°C; 57.37oC respectively. The advantage of using formaldehyde compared to others preservation technique was not only can protect the skin from damage by microorganisms, but also can create a bond with the collagen .

  19. Salt processed food and gastric cancer in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Si-Hao; Li, Yuan-Hang; Leung, Kayee; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between salt processed food and gastric cancer, a hospital based case-control study was conducted in a high risk area of China. One hundred and seven newly diagnosed cases with histological confirmation of gastric cancer and 209 controls were recruited. Information on dietary intake was collected with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratios with adjustment for other potential confounders. Comparing the high intake group with never consumption of salt processed foods, salted meat, pickled vegetables and preserved vegetables were significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Meanwhile, salt taste preference in diet showed a dose-response relationship with gastric cancer. Our results suggest that consumption of salted meat, pickled and preserved vegetables, are positively associated with gastric cancer. Reduction of salt and salt processed food in diets might be one practical measure to preventing gastric cancer.

  20. Review of chemical cleaning process for titanium materials%钛材化学清洗工艺综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙乖凤; 吴军堂

    2013-01-01

    The chemical cleaning process for Ti substrate is reviewed .Namely ,the principle and method for removing oxide scale of titanium substrate by alkaline-wash degreasing and acid pickling are introduced .The technological conditions ,process flow and equipment for remo-ving oxide scale of titanium substrate by alkaline-wash degreasing and acid pickling are high-lighted .%介绍了钛材碱洗脱脂除油和酸洗除去氧化皮的原理和方法,重点阐述了钛材碱洗除油和酸洗除去氧化皮的工艺条件、工艺流程和设备。

  1. Development and assessment of 316LVM cardiovascular stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raval, Ankur [Research and Development Division, Sahajanand Medical Technologies, Surat 395003 (India)]. E-mail: ankur.med@sahmed.com; Choubey, Animesh [Research and Development Division, Sahajanand Medical Technologies, Surat 395003 (India); Engineer, Chhaya [Research and Development Division, Sahajanand Medical Technologies, Surat 395003 (India); Kothwala, Devesh [Research and Development Division, Sahajanand Medical Technologies, Surat 395003 (India)

    2004-11-25

    One of the most common causes for heart failure is vasoconstriction. The medical procedure for alleviating vasoconstriction, angioplasty, calls for intracoronary stents. And the manufacture of intracoronary stents demands absolutely unmatched precision. Current study investigates CNC controlled pulsed Nd:YAG (neodymium:yttrium aluminium garnet) laser for cutting complex geometry of a stent on 316LVM tubings. It has been shown that surface quality of cardiovascular stents has a significant influence on biocompatibility. Therefore, optimal method and parameters for acid pickling of these slotted tube laser cut stents were explored, as a pretreatment for electropolishing. Pickling was necessary prior to electropolishing for removing the oxide films covering the stent surface. An optimal condition for electrochemical polishing could also be established and it caused a smooth stent surface. Passivation of these electropolished stents was done. Furthermore, materials characterization of stents was performed by means of composition and microstructural analysis.

  2. ESTIMATING THE PREVALENCE OF POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN ONIONS (ALLIUM CEPA L. AND THEIR PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Lachowicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Onion is vegetable with good nutrition and its growth could stand different kinds condition. It’s medical properties attract researchers attention. The author characterized the preparations and the phenolic compounds from fresh onions (red, yellow, white and shallots mild pickles in brine and syrup using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (UPLC-PDA-MS. The results are reasonable and analysis is acceptable. The test material was identified: quercetin, isorhamnetin and derivatives of these compounds. The total content of phenolic compounds in fresh onions ranged from 0.72 to 89.47 mg.100g-1 dry weight, mild pickles in brine from 5.39 to 0.31 mg.100g-1, syrup from 2.85 to 0.31 mg.l-1. Polyphenol content was highest in fresh onions, and much lower in the material subjected marinating process.

  3. Penelitian konversi hubungan timbal balik antara kulit kambing segar menjadi kulit garaman dan kulit pikel sebagai produk perdagangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Buchori

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the conversion of value goatskin to knowtge mutual relation ship initiating betwen fresh goatskin, preserevation goatskin and pickle goatskin. The raw material used in this research in the form of primary data fresh goatskin and salted goatskin come frome of butchering animal and leather collector/preservators in Ypgyakarta Special Region (DIY and secondary data from IRDLAI tanning Process Labolators in the from of second data of pickle goatskin come from salted foatskin. Data analvesed using statisik method with mean calculation and deviation standaerd. The result of the research could to know several conversion of goatskin possobilility can used in the Indonesian leather Industry ad commersial commondity.

  4. Penelitian konversi hubungan timbal balik antara kulit domba segar menjadi kulit domba awetan dan kulit domba pikel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Supriyono

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the conversion of value of sheep skin to know the mutual relationship initiating between fresh leather, preservation leather and pickle leather. The raw material used in this research in the form of primary data of fresh sheep skin, dried sheep skin and salted sheep skin came from house of butchering animal and leather collector / preservators in Yogyakarta special region (DIY and secondary data from IRDLAI Tanning Process Laboratory in the form of square data of pickle sheep skin came from salted leather. Data analysed using statistic method with mean calculation and deviation standard. The results of the study could to know several conversion of sheep skin may be used in the Indonesian Leather Industry.

  5. 越瓜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德纯

    2008-01-01

    越瓜(oriental pickling melon)学名Cucumis melo L.var.conomon Makino,葫芦科甜瓜属甜瓜种中以嫩果生食的变种。一般认为,越瓜与甜瓜起源于同一物种。甜瓜由非洲经中东传入印度进一步分化后,再传入中国。

  6. Production Guides for Vegetable Entrees, Soups, Desserts, Pastries and Salads Developed for Use in Central Food Preparation Facilities. Fort Lee, Interim Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    105 Tossed Vegetable Salad 106 Tossed Lettuce, Cucumber and Tomato Salad 107 Cottage Cheese Salads Cottage Cheese Salad 108 Cottage Cheese and...Salad) Mixed Fruit Salad Salads with Dressing Carrot and Raisin Salad Sliced Cucumber and Onion Salad Cabbage and Carrot Slav with Cream...Dressing Cole Slav with Cream Dressing Vegetable Slav with Cream Dressing Waldorf Salad Macaroni Salad Potato Salad Kidney Bean Salad Pickled Beet and

  7. Hıyar Turşusu Fermentasyonunda Görülen Mikroorganizmalar

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Pickling cucumbers are used in various methods for commercial processing including brine fermentation. Cucumbers in the presence of appropriate concentrations of salt (NaC) and under suitable environmental conditions, will undergo fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Although the number of lactic acid bacteria is usually quite low compared to the total number of microorganisms, the lactic acid bacteria eventually predominate due to the production of acids and other products which restrict gr...

  8. Climatic Risk of Field Cultivation of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present work was to separate zones of pickling cucumber field cultivation in Poland according to the various degrees of climatic risk. The study used 40-years of (1966-2005) data from 28 experimental stations of the Research Centre for Cultivar Testing. The data characterised the course of the growth, development, cucumber crop productivity and also the agrotechnical dates. Additionally, the work considered agrometeorological data of 7 development stages of the analysed plant:...

  9. Separación selectiva de hierro y cromo de las lejías agotadas del decapado de acero inoxidable

    OpenAIRE

    Gálvez, J. L.; Dufour, J.; Negro, C.; López-Mateos, F.

    2005-01-01

    Stainless steel spent pickling baths are very complex solutions of metals and acids (HNO3 and HF) and are a very important environmental concern. Several processes have been developed for acid recovery (free and bounded acid) with techniques like acid retardation, solvent extraction, evaporation and dialysis diffusion. In these processes, metallic content is precipitated and treated for its disposal. We have developed a process that permits the separation of metals by m...

  10. IMLII: A CRAZE LOVELY

    OpenAIRE

    Dhamija Isha; Parle Milind

    2012-01-01

    Every part of Tamarind tree, from roots to leaf tips has been utilized to meet different human needs. Tamarindus indica (Caesalpiniaceae), popularly known as imli is a perennial evergreen tree with a spreading crown, feathery evergreen foliage and fragrant flowers. Tamarindus indica is one of the auspicious, versatile tree species in the Indian subcontinent. The pulp of Tamarind finds important place in chutneys, pickles, jams, curries, sauces, ice cream, sharbat and “tamarind fish”. It is ex...

  11. Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Color Analysis of Garlic Fermented in Kombucha and Red Grape Vinegar

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Garlic, in different types, is a very common food ingredient all over the world. Traditionally, garlic is fermented in grape vinegar to produce garlic pickles; in this study, to produce a novel fermented food, garlic was fermented in kombucha beverage; then, antibacterial and chemical properties and color changes of garlics fermented in kombucha and vinegar were compared with each other and those of fresh garlic.Material and Methods: Folin-Ciocalteu assay was perform...

  12. Oral Historical, Documentary, and Archaeological Investigations of Colbert, Barton, and Vinton, Mississippi: An Interim Report on Phase I of the Tombigbee Historic Townsites Project. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    possible hotel at 3artcn 0HlO6d OH.11! stage line from Darracott to Columou O 1Hi17b OH1,: Vinton Stagecoach Inn OH127 OHIQ- Vinton store as stage...description of her childhood nome, including its furnishings, her family’s lifestyle, and celebrations she remembered attending. In 1923 she narried ...Collection Pickle Hotel Register Sanders Collection Shell Collection Strong Hotel Collection Terrell Collection J.W. Timberlake Collection Timberlake

  13. Processing Technique of Instant Flavored Daylily (Hemerocallis citrina Baroni)%即食风味金针菜的加工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童斌; 杨薇红; 贾君; 洪文龙; 韩艳丽; 李志强; 王毓宁

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the recipe and process of instant pickle by multiple steps with dry daylily as a raw material, and an orthogonal test was adopted to obtain the optimal recipe and process. The pickling process of the instant flavored daylily was conducted at an optimal crisp-keeping CaCl2 concentra-tion at 0.050%, cooking time of 5 min, pickling time of 6 h and a salt concentration of 4%. The effects of various factors on product taste were in order of salt concen-tration>cooking time>pickling time>CaCl2 concentration.The obtained product has the characteristics of strong fragrance, crisp delicious taste and unique flavor with stom-achic effect.%探讨了以泡发后的干制金针菜为原料,经过多道工序加工而成的一种即食性腌制熟食品的配方、工艺,利用正交试验找出最佳配方与工艺方法,在即食风味金针菜的泡制过程中采用的工艺为:最适保脆浓度为0.050%的CaCl2,煮制时间为5 min,泡制时间为6 h,食盐浓度为4%。各工艺条件的影响效果从强到弱依次为食盐浓度、煮制时间、泡制时间、CaCl2浓度。制得产品的特点是成品香气特别浓郁,风味独特,组织嫩脆,具有增进食欲的作用。

  14. Effect of pretreating technologies on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion property of Zn coated NdFeB specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengjie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co. Ltd., Hefei (China); Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials, Hefei (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials (Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co., Ltd.), Hefei (China); Xu, Guangqing, E-mail: gqxu1979@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Liu, Jiaqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Yi, Xiaofei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co. Ltd., Hefei (China); Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials, Hefei (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials (Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co., Ltd.), Hefei (China); Wu, Yucheng, E-mail: ycwu@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Chen, JingWu [Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co. Ltd., Hefei (China); Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials, Hefei (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials (Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co., Ltd.), Hefei (China)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Zn coated NdFeB specimens pretreated with different technologies possess different adhesive strengths and anticorrosion properties. And the combined technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s) achieves the best comprehensive performance. - Highlights: • Zn coated NdFeB specimens are achieved with different pretreating technologies. • Combined technology possesses the highest adhesive strength. • Combined technology possesses excellent anticorrosion property. - Abstract: Zinc coated NdFeB specimens were prepared with different pretreating technologies, such as polishing, pickling (50 s), sandblasting and combined technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s). Morphologies of the NdFeB substrates pretreated with different technologies were observed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer and an atomic force microscope. The tensile test was performed to measure the adhesive strength between Zn coating and NdFeB substrate. The self-corrosion behavior of the NdFeB specimen was characterized by potentiodynamic polarization curve. The anticorrosion properties of Zn coated NdFeB specimens were characterized by neutral salt spray tests. The pretreating technologies possess obvious impact on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion property of Zn coated NdFeB specimens. Combined pretreating technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s) achieves the highest adhesive strength (25.56 MPa) and excellent anticorrosion property (average corrosion current density of 21 μA/cm{sup 2}) in the four pretreating technologies. The impacting mechanisms of the pretreating technology on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion properties are deeply discussed.

  15. Archeological Survey and Testing in the Holy Cross Historic District, New Orleans, Louisiana. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    bottle 132 A Figure 27. Bottles from Excavation Unit 4. A. Union oval bottle B. round ink bottle C. culinary bottle D. rye sample bottle E. Worcester...sauce bottle, club sauce shape 133 Figure 28. Bottles from Excavation Unit 4. A. culinary bottle B. American square pickle bottle C. possible mucelage...Excavations of the U.S. Mint, 160R52. New Orleans. Louisiana. Submitted to the Office of Museums, Department of Culture, Recreation and Tourism , Baton Rouge

  16. タカシマチョウニオケルケンコウチョウサ-ダイサンホウ- : (2)エイヨウチョウサ(シシツトショクモツセッシュジョウキョウ)

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 和枝; 川崎, 晃一; 上園, 慶子; 山口, 敦子

    1988-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty-six young subjects 143 males and 113 females, aged from 20 to 39 years participated in the nutrient survey. The nutrient intakes and food consumption structures were analysed by means of the questionnaires. Daily physical activity index was calculated based on the basal metabolic rates of individual activities. The intakes of rice, soybeans, fishes, alcohol and pickles were greater and those of bread, oil, meat, eggs and milk were smaller in Takashima than the intakes of...

  17. Made in China: Policy Analysis and Prescriptions to Improve China’s Consumer Product Safety Regulatory Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    of fruits and vegetables, 130 tons of meat , 82 tons of seafood, 21 tons of cheese and 19 tons of eggs…There [was] great pressure on [the Beijing...26 Barboza, "China Acts to Cleanse Reputation." – “Chinese regulators have rejected imports of American meat , Indonesian seafood and other...dangerous raw materials had been used in the production of flour , candy, pickles, biscuits, black fungus, melon seeds, bean curd, and seafood. As a

  18. Evaluation of the Wedge Cleavage Test for Assessment of Durability of Adhesive Bonded Joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    applied to the adherends. Exposures of hundreds or thousands of hours are necessary to discriminate between pretreatments if conventional lap shear or peel ...was preceded by additional degreasing in a conventional non- caustic proprietary alkaline cleaning solution. Pickling was for 30 minutes at 62-65°C in...consistent with the lower peel strength given by anodised surfaces5 (c) Adhesive FMIOOO Crack lengths are shown in Table 3 and Fig 5. Fracture energies were

  19. Preserving Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Brennand, Charlotte P.

    2010-01-01

    The best way to preserve chile depends on how you plan to use it and your available storage space. Frozen or canned chile is best for chile rellenos and salsas. Stews can use frozen, canned or dried chile. Dried chile has minimal storage requirements and is light-weight for taking on camping trips. Pickled chiles can be used on a relish plate or as an ingredient in other dishes.

  20. Corrosion Chemistry in Inhibited HDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-30

    Titanium and chromium have sufficiently low Flade potentials to pass- ivate in non-oxidising acids, but Iron will only exhibit self-passivity if the...inhibition e.g. involving organic and pickling inhibitors* the rest potential can actually 4.5,4.6become more negative " This is due to cathodic rather...media. 321 stainless steel, titanium stabilised, was the particular steel studied, being very similar in composition to the 347also stainless steel