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Sample records for piceance basin basement

  1. Delineation of Piceance Basin basement structures using multiple source data: Implications for fractured reservoir exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoak, T.E.; Klawitter, A.L.

    1995-10-01

    Fractured production trends in Piceance Basin Cretaceous-age Mesaverde Group gas reservoirs are controlled by subsurface structures. Because many of the subsurface structures are controlled by basement fault trends, a new interpretation of basement structure was performed using an integrated interpretation of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), side-looking airborne radar (SLAR), high altitude, false color aerial photography, gas and water production data, high-resolution aeromagnetic data, subsurface geologic information, and surficial fracture maps. This new interpretation demonstrates the importance of basement structures on the nucleation and development of overlying structures and associated natural fractures in the hydrocarbon-bearing section. Grand Valley, Parachute, Rulison, Plateau, Shire Gulch, White River Dome, Divide Creek and Wolf Creek fields all produce gas from fractured tight gas sand and coal reservoirs within the Mesaverde Group. Tectonic fracturing involving basement structures is responsible for development of permeability allowing economic production from the reservoirs. In this context, the significance of detecting natural fractures using the intergrated fracture detection technique is critical to developing tight gas resources. Integration of data from widely-available, relatively inexpensive sources such as high-resolution aeromagnetics, remote sensing imagery analysis and regional geologic syntheses provide diagnostic data sets to incorporate into an overall methodology for targeting fractured reservoirs. The ultimate application of this methodology is the development and calibration of a potent exploration tool to predict subsurface fractured reservoirs, and target areas for exploration drilling, and infill and step-out development programs.

  2. Mahogany Ledge Digital Line Outcrop of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mahogany ledge outcrop was needed to limit resource calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009 National Oil Shale Assessment.

  3. Western Gas Sands Project: stratigrapy of the Piceance Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S. (comp.)

    1980-08-01

    The Western Gas Sands Project Core Program was initiated by US DOE to investigate various low permeability, gas bearing sandstones. Research to gain a better geological understanding of these sandstones and improve evaluation and stimulation techniques is being conducted. Tight gas sands are located in several mid-continent and western basins. This report deals with the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado. This discussion is an attempt to provide a general overview of the Piceance Basin stratigraphy and to be a useful reference of stratigraphic units and accompanying descriptions.

  4. Oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an in-place assessment of the oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado. The Piceance Basin is one of three large structural and sedimentary basins that contain vast amounts of oil shale resources in the Green River Formation of Eocene age. The other two basins, the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and westernmost Colorado, and the Greater Green River Basin of southwest Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah also contain large resources of oil shale in the Green River Formation, and these two basins will be assessed separately. Estimated in-place oil is about 1.5 trillion barrels, based on Fischer a ssay results from boreholes drilled to evaluate oil shale, making it the largest oil shale deposit in the world. The estimated in-place nahcolite resource is about 43.3 billion short tons.

  5. Assessment of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources in the Late Cretaceous Mancos Shale of the Piceance Basin, Uinta-Piceance Province, Colorado and Utah, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Sarah J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Tom M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phoung A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2016-06-08

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geology-based assessment of the continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources in the Late Cretaceous Mancos Shale within the Piceance Basin of the Uinta-Piceance Province (fig. 1). The previous USGS assessment of the Mancos Shale in the Piceance Basin was completed in 2003 as part of a comprehensive assessment of the greater UintaPiceance Province (U.S. Geological Survey Uinta-Piceance Assessment Team, 2003). Since the last assessment, more than 2,000 wells have been drilled and completed in one or more intervals within the Mancos Shale of the Piceance Basin (IHS Energy Group, 2015). In addition, the USGS Energy Resources Program drilled a research core in the southern Piceance Basin that provided significant new geologic and geochemical data that were used to refine the 2003 assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas in the Mancos Shale.

  6. Reserve estimates in western basins. Part 2: Piceance Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde group in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Total in place resource is estimated at 307.3 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 5.8 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. About 82.6% of the total evaluated resource is contained within sandstones that have extremely poor reservoir properties with permeabilities considered too low for commerciality using current frac technology. Cost reductions and technology improvements will be required to unlock portions of this enormous resource. Approximately 2.7% of the total resource is contained within sandstone reservoirs which do not respond to massive hydraulic fracture treatments, probably due to their natural lenticular nature. Approximately 6.8% of the total resource is located in deeply buried settings below deepest established production. Approximately 7.9% of the total resource is considered to represent tight reservoirs that may be commercially exploited using today`s hydraulic fracturing technology. Recent technology advances in hydraulic fracturing practices in the Piceance Basin Mesaverde has resulted in a marked improvement in per well gas recovery which, where demonstrated, has been incorporated into the estimates provided in this report. This improvement is so significant in changing the risk-reward relationship that has historically characterized this play, that previously uneconomic areas and resources will graduate to the economically exploitable category. 48 refs., 96 figs., 18 tabs.

  7. Structurally controlled and aligned tight gas reservoir compartmentalization in the San Juan and Piceance Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, A.D.; Kuuskraa, V.A.; Klawitter, A.L.

    1995-10-01

    Recurrent basement faulting is the primary controlling mechanism for aligning and compartmentalizing upper Cretaceous aged tight gas reservoirs of the San Juan and Piceance Basins. Northwest trending structural lineaments that formed in conjunction with the Uncompahgre Highlands have profoundly influenced sedimentation trends and created boundaries for gas migration; sealing and compartmentalizing sedimentary packages in both basins. Fractures which formed over the structural lineaments provide permeability pathways which allowing gas recovery from otherwise tight gas reservoirs. Structural alignments and associated reservoir compartments have been accurately targeted by integrating advanced remote sensing imagery, high resolution aeromagnetics, seismic interpretation, stratigraphic mapping and dynamic structural modelling. This unifying methodology is a powerful tool for exploration geologists and is also a systematic approach to tight gas resource assessment in frontier basins.

  8. Mineral Occurrence data for the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance and Uinta Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This legacy database lists occurrences of minerals identified in the Green River Formation in the Uinta and Piceance Basins, Utah and Colorado using X-ray...

  9. TIN Dataset Model of Overburden Above the Mahogany Zone in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI TIN data model of the overburden material above the Mahogany Zone was needed to perform calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009...

  10. Reporting Polygons to Summarize Overburden Material Above the Mahogany Zone in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Reporting polygons were created to display and quantify overburden material above the Mahogany Zone, by PLSS section, in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a...

  11. Mahogany Ledge Digital Structure Contour Lines of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mahogany ledge structure contour lines were needed to perform overburden calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009 National Oil Shale...

  12. Raster Dataset Model of Overburden Above the Mahogany Zone in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI GRID raster data model of the overburden material above the Mahogany Zone was needed to perform calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a...

  13. Raster Dataset Model of Nahcolite Resources in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ESRI GRID raster datasets were created to display and quantify nahcolite resources for eight oil shale zones in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009...

  14. The Base of the Parachute Creek Member Digital Line Outcrop of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The base of the Parachute Creek Member outcrop was needed to limit resource calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009 National Oil Shale...

  15. TIN Dataset Model of the Mahogany Zone Structure in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI TIN data model of the Mahogany Zone structure was needed to perform overburden calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009 National Oil...

  16. Raster Dataset Model of the Mahogany Zone Structure in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI GRID raster data model of the Mahogany Zone structure was needed to perform overburden calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009...

  17. Dta points used in assessment of coal in the southern Piceance basin study area (psptg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and point coverage of 627 data points used in the assessment of coal in the southern Piceance Basin study area. Information in this file includes...

  18. Geologic and production characteristics of the Tight Mesaverde Group: Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myal, F.R.; Price, E.H.; Hill, R.E.; Kukal, G.C.; Abadie, P.A.; Riecken, C.C.

    1989-07-01

    The Mesaverde Group of the Piceance Basin in western Colorado has been a pilot study area for government-sponsored tight gas sand research for over 20 years. This study provides a critical comparison of the geologic, production and reservoir characteristics of existing Mesaverde gas producing areas within the basin to those same characteristics at the MWX site near Rifle, Colorado. As will be discussed, the basin has been partitioned into three areas having similar geologic and production characteristics. Stimulation techniques have been reviewed for each partitioned area to determine the most effective stimulation technique currently used in the Mesaverde. This study emphasizes predominantly the southern Piceance Basin because of the much greater production and geologic data there. There may be Mesaverde gas production in northern areas but because of the lack of production and relatively few penetrations, the northern Piceance Basin was not included in the detailed parts of this study. 54 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Late Neogene exhumation of the Piceance basin, N.W. Colorado, USA: Integrated analysis of multiple thermochronometers and subsidence modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, A. J.; Kendall, J. J.; Becker, T. P.; Patterson, P. E.; Reiners, P. W.; Kapp, J.

    2010-12-01

    The retrograde history of sedimentary basins is often poorly constrained by the study of subsidence, compaction, and thermal diffusion models. As part of industry/academic collaborative research on the fundamental processes active in convergent tectonics we combined multiple paleothermometers, paleobarometers, and thermochronometers on deep borehole samples with modern heat flow measurements to provide powerful constraint for estimating the exhumation history in an area. The Piceance basin (N.W. Colorado) lies east of the leading edge of the Cretaceous to early Eocene Sevier thrust belt, and is flanked by several basement-involved structures (Douglas Creek arch, White River dome, Uinta uplift, White River uplift) that exhibit growth from the Maastrichtian through the late Eocene. The youngest preserved strata within the Piceance basin are within the early Oligocene Uinta Formation, although there are deposits as young as Miocene locally preserved in the region that may have also capped the basin. The timing of uplift, river incision, and plateau-scale exhumation within this region fits into the larger context of the evolution of the Colorado River drainage system. A series of core, cutting, and surface samples were compiled to develop a synthetic well (or vertical section) of over 5000 m. Samples were collected from stratigraphic intervals ranging from the Jurassic to the Eocene and analyzed for apatite and zircon U-Th/He ages, as well as apatite fission track length distributions and ages. As the exhumation model was the unconstrained parameter, the timing and magnitude of the cooling associated with such an event was systematically varied. Thermal histories of each sampled interval were extracted from differing exhumation scenarios in the Piceance basin model (which tracks the temperature and pressure evolution during burial and denudation) and forward modeled using HeFTy. The combined use of several thermochronometers (apatite and zircon U-Th/He, apatite fission

  20. Oil shale in the Piceance Basin: an analysis of land use issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenson, D.; Pei, R.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to a framework for establishing policies to promote efficient use of the nation's oil shale resources. A methodology was developed to explain the effects of federal leasing policies on resource recovery, extraction costs, and development times associated with oil shale surface mines. This report investigates the effects of lease size, industrial development patterns, waste disposal policies, and lease boundaries on the potential of Piceance Basin oil shale resource. This approach should aid in understanding the relationship between federal leasing policies and requirements for developing Piceance Basin oil shale. 16 refs., 46 figs. (DMC)

  1. Gas-and water-saturated conditions in the Piceance Basin, Western Colorado: Implications for fractured reservoir detection in a gas-centered coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoak, T.E.; Decker, A.D.

    1995-10-01

    Mesaverde Group reservoirs in the Piceance Basin, Western Colorado contain a large reservoir base. Attempts to exploit this resource base are stymied by low permeability reservoir conditions. The presence of abundant natural fracture systems throughout this basin, however, does permit economic production. Substantial production is associated with fractured reservoirs in Divide Creek, Piceance Creek, Wolf Creek, White River Dome, Plateau, Shire Gulch, Grand Valley, Parachute and Rulison fields. Successful Piceance Basin gas production requires detailed information about fracture networks and subsurface gas and water distribution in an overall gas-centered basin geometry. Assessment of these three parameters requires an integrated basin analysis incorporating conventional subsurface geology, seismic data, remote sensing imagery analysis, and an analysis of regional tectonics. To delineate the gas-centered basin geometry in the Piceance Basin, a regional cross-section spanning the basin was constructed using hydrocarbon and gamma radiation logs. The resultant hybrid logs were used for stratigraphic correlations in addition to outlining the trans-basin gas-saturated conditions. The magnitude of both pressure gradients (paludal and marine intervals) is greater than can be generated by a hydrodynamic model. To investigate the relationships between structure and production, detailed mapping of the basin (top of the Iles Formation) was used to define subtle subsurface structures that control fractured reservoir development. The most productive fields in the basin possess fractured reservoirs. Detailed studies in the Grand Valley-Parachute-Rulison and Shire Gulch-Plateau fields indicate that zones of maximum structural flexure on kilometer-scale structural features are directly related to areas of enhanced production.

  2. Nahcolite and halite deposition through time during the saline mineral phase of Eocene Lake Uinta, Piceance Basin, western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Halite and the sodium bicarbonate mineral nahcolite were deposited during the saline phase of Eocene Lake Uinta in the Piceance Basin, western Colorado. Variations in the area of saline mineral deposition through time were interpreted from studies of core and outcrop. Saline minerals were extensively leached by groundwater, so the original extent of saline deposition was estimated from the distribution of empty vugs and collapse breccias. Vugs and breccias strongly influence groundwater movement, so determining where leaching has occurred is an important consideration for in-situ oil shale extraction methods currently being developed. Lake Uinta formed when two smaller fresh water lakes, one in the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and the other in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado, expanded and coalesced across the Douglas Creek arch, an area of comparatively low subsidence rates. Salinity increased shortly after this expansion, but saline mineral deposition did not begin until later, after a period of prolonged infilling created broad lake-margin shelves and a comparatively small deep central lake area. These shelves probably played a critical role in brine evolution. A progression from disseminated nahcolite and nahcolite aggregates to bedded nahcolite and ultimately to bedded nahcolite and halite was deposited in this deep lake area during the early stages of saline deposition along with rich oil shale that commonly shows signs of slumping and lateral transport. The area of saline mineral and rich oil shale deposition subsequently expanded, in part due to infilling of the compact deep area, and in part because of an increase in water flow into Lake Uinta, possibly due to outflow from Lake Gosiute to the north. Finally, as Lake Uinta in the Piceance Basin was progressively filled from north to south by volcano-clastic sediment, the saline depocenter was pushed progressively southward, eventually covering much of the areas that had previously been marginal shelves

  3. Development, evolution, and destruction of the saline mineral area of Eocene Lake Uinta, Piceance Basin, western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Halite and the sodium bicarbonate mineral nahcolite were deposited in Eocene-age saline Lake Uinta in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado. Variations in the areal extent of saline mineral deposition through time were studied using descriptions of core and outcrop. Saline minerals have been extensively leached by groundwater, and the original extent of saline deposition was determined from the distribution of empty vugs and collapse breccias. Because vugs and breccias strongly influence groundwater movement, determining where leaching has occurred is an important consideration for in-situ oil shale extraction methods currently being developed.

  4. Geological and hydrological factors affecting coalbed methane producibility in the San Juan, Greater Green River and Piceance Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A.R.; Kaise, W.R.; Tyler, R.; Hamilton, D.S.; Finley, R.J. [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology

    1996-01-01

    In the traditional view, coalbed methane resources were generated in situ during coalification and stored primarily in micro-pores on the coal matrix`s large internal surface area by sorption. Net coal thickness and coal rank are assumed to be the dominant factors for determining areas of exceptionally high coalbed methane producibility. However, new insights based on research performed in the San Juan, Greater Green River, and Piceance Basins indicate that this traditional view is oversimplified because it fails to recognize the need for additional sources of gas beyond that generated initially during coalification to achieve unusually high gas contents. Migrated conventionally and hydrodynamically trapped gases, in-situ generated secondary biogenic gases, and solution gases are required to achieve high gas contents or fully gas-saturated coals. This paper summarises research on the geological and hydrological controls that are critical to coalbed methane producibility by contrasting the prolific San Juan and marginally-producing Greater Green River and Piceance Basins in the Rocky Mountain Foreland. These basins have different geologic and hydrologic attributes critical to coalbed methane producibility and are thought to be end-members of a coalbed methane producibility continuum. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Swamy, K. V.; Raj, Neetha

    2016-04-01

    Marine magnetic anomalies along three representative profiles falling between shelf break and continent-ocean boundary in the offshore Krishna-Godavari basin were quantitatively interpreted for understanding the nature and structure of the magnetic basement using inversion technique. The interpretation of the anomalies shows that the magnetic basement lies deeper than the base of the sediments, i.e., acoustic basement identified by the seismic studies. This interpretation also shows that the magnetic basement is faulted along the NW-SE direction with the upthrown side lying to the north of the anomaly trend of this region. The coincidence of magnetizations observed through the present interpretation with that of charnockites of neighbouring EGMB and onshore K-G basin areas indicates that EGMB geology (charnockites, granitic gneiss, etc.) extends up to COB in the offshore K-G basin.

  6. Geochemical variability of soils and biogeochemical variability of plants in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M.L.; Severson, R.C.; Dean, W.E.; Klusman, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Geochemical baselines for native soils and biogeochemical baselines for plants in the Piceance basin provide data that can be used to assess geochemical and biogeochemical effects of oil-shale development, monitor changes in the geochemical and biogeochemical environment during development, and assess the degree of success of rehabilitation of native materials after development. Baseline values for 52 properties in native soils, 15 properties in big sagebrush, and 13 properties in western wheatgrass were established. Our Study revealed statistically significant regional variations of the following properties across the basin: in soil&-aluminum, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, sodium, nickel, phosphorus, lead, scandium, titanium, vanadium, zinc, organic and total carbon, pH, clay, dolomite, sodium feldspar, and DTPA-extractable calcium, cadmium, iron, potassium, manganese, nickel, phosphorus, yttrium, and zinc; in big sagebrush-barium, calcium, copper, magnesium, molybdenum, sodium, strontium, zinc, and ash; and in western wheatgrass-boron, barium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, strontium, zinc, and ash. These variations show up as north-south trends across the basin, or they reflect differences in elevation, hydrology, and soil parent material. Baseline values for properties that do not have statistically significant regional variations can be represented by geometric means and deviations calculated from all values within the basin. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of soil and chemical analyses of western wheatgrass samples from Colorado State University's experimental revegetation plot at Anvil Points provide data useful in assessing potential effects on soil and plant properties when largescale revegetation operations begin. The concentrations of certain properties are related to the presence of topsoil over spent shale in the lysimeters. In soils, calcium, fluorine, lithium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, strontium, carbonate and total carbon

  7. Basement faults and volcanic rock distributions in the Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Volcanic rocks in the Ordos Basin are of mainly two types: one in the basin and the other along the margin of the basin. Besides those along the margin, the marginal volcanic rocks also include the volcanic rocks in the Yinshanian orogenic belt north of the basin. Based on the latest collection of gravitational and aeromagnetic data, here we interpret basement faults in the Ordos Basin and its peripheral region, compare the faults derived from aeromagnetic data with those from seismic data, and identify the geological ages of the fault development. Two aeromagnetic anomaly zones exist in the NE-trending faults of the southern basin, and they are in the volcanic basement formed in pre-Paleozoic. These NE-trending faults are the channel of volcanic material upwelling in the early age (Archean-Neoproterozoic), where igneous rocks and sedimentary rocks stack successively on both sides of the continental nucleus. In the Cambrian, the basin interior is relatively stable, but in the Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic, the basin margin underwent a number of volcanic activities, accompanied by the formation of nearly north-south and east-west basement faults in the basin periphery and resulting in accumulation of great amount of volcanic materials. Volcanic tuff from the basin periphery is discovered in the central basin and volcanic materials are exposed in the margins of the basin. According to the source-reservoir-cap rock configuration, the basin peripheral igneous traps formed in the Indosinian-Early Yanshanian and Late Hercynian are favorable exploration objectives, and the volcanic rocks in the central basin are the future target of exploration.

  8. Overview of groundwater quality in the Piceance Basin, western Colorado, 1946--2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.C.; McMahon, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater-quality data from public and private sources for the period 1946 to 2009 were compiled and put into a common data repository for the Piceance Basin. The data repository is available on the web at http://rmgsc.cr.usgs.gov/cwqdr/Piceance/index.shtml. A subset of groundwater-quality data from the repository was compiled, reviewed, and checked for quality assurance for this report. The resulting dataset consists of the most recently collected sample from 1,545 wells, 1,007 (65 percent) of which were domestic wells. From those samples, the following constituents were selected for presentation in this report: dissolved oxygen, dissolved solids, pH, major ions (chloride, sulfate, fluoride), trace elements (arsenic, barium, iron, manganese, selenium), nitrate, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, methane, and the stable isotopic compositions of water and methane. Some portion of recharge to most of the wells for which data were available was derived from precipitation (most likely snowmelt), as indicated by δ2H [H2O] and δ18O[H2O] values that plot along the Global Meteoric Water Line and near the values for snow samples collected in the study area. Ninety-three percent of the samples were oxic, on the basis of concentrations of dissolved oxygen that were greater than or equal to 0.5 milligrams per liter. Concentration data were compared with primary and secondary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Constituents that exceeded the primary standards were arsenic (13 percent), selenium (9.2 percent), fluoride (8.4 percent), barium (4.1 percent), nitrate (1.6 percent), and benzene (0.6 percent). Concentrations of toluene, xylenes, and ethylbenzene did not exceed standards in any samples. Constituents that exceeded the secondary standard were dissolved solids (72 percent), sulfate (37 percent), manganese (21 percent), iron (16 percent), and chloride (10 percent). Drinking-water standards have not been established for

  9. Geohydrologic feasibility study of the Piceance Basin of Colorado for the potential applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented gas/produced water separation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieffer, F.

    1994-02-01

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geologic and hydrologic feasibility studies of the potential applicability of Jack McIntyre`s patented process for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Piceance Basin through literature surveys. Jack McIntyre`s tool separates produced water from gas and disposes of the water downhole into aquifers unused because of poor water quality, uneconomic lifting costs or poor aquifer deliverability. The beneficial aspects of this technology are two fold. The process increases the potential for recovering previously uneconomic gas resources by reducing produced water lifting, treatment and disposal costs. Of greater importance is the advantage of lessening the environmental impact of produced water by downhole disposal. Results from the survey indicate that research in the Piceance Basin includes studies of the geologic, hydrogeologic, conventional and unconventional recovery oil and gas technologies. Available information is mostly found centered upon the geology and hydrology for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Lesser information is available on production technology because of the limited number of wells currently producing in the basin. Limited information is available on the baseline geochemistry of the coal/sand formation waters and that of the potential disposal zones. No determination was made of the compatibility of these waters. The study also indicates that water is often produced in variable quantities with gas from several gas productive formations which would indicate that there are potential applications for Jack McIntyre`s patented tool in the Piceance Basin.

  10. Basement structure of the Granada basin, Betic Cordilleras, southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, J.; Vidal, F.; De Miguel, F.; Alguacil, G.; Posadas, A. M.; Ibañez, J. M.; Guzmán, A.; Guirao, J. M.

    1990-06-01

    The analysis and interpretation of geophysical data (gravity and seismic reflection) has facilitated the definition of the Granada basin structure. The reflector showing the contact between the Betic-Subbetic basement and the Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary filling has been identified. Mapping of the basement in two and three dimensions is presented. The presence of four important depocenters (Genil, Chimeneas, Cubillas and Granada) has been determined. These troughs are limited by ridge areas through important sets of fractures. In some cases the accumulation of Neogene-Quaternary sediments reaches a thickness exceeding 3 km as in the Genii and Cubillas depocenters. The mapping of the most important fractures affecting the basement has been achieved, defining four systems that have influenced and conditioned the genesis and late evolution of the Granada basin. The directions of the most important groups of fractures are: NE-SW, N70W to E-W, N45W and N10-30E.

  11. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Subrahmanyam; K V Swamy; Neetha Raj

    2016-04-01

    Marine magnetic anomalies along three representative profiles falling between shelf break and continent–ocean boundary in the offshore Krishna–Godavari basin were quantitatively interpreted for understandingthe nature and structure of the magnetic basement using inversion technique. The interpretation of theanomalies shows that the magnetic basement lies deeper than the base of the sediments, i.e., acousticbasement identified by the seismic studies. This interpretation also shows that the magnetic basementis faulted along the NW–SE direction with the upthrown side lying to the north of the anomaly trendof this region. The coincidence of magnetizations observed through the present interpretation with thatof charnockites of neighbouring EGMB and onshore K–G basin areas indicates that EGMB geology(charnockites, granitic gneiss, etc.) extends up to COB in the offshore K–G basin.

  12. Formation and Evolution of the Junggar basin basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D.

    2015-12-01

    Junggar Basin is located in the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Its basement nature is a highly controversial scientific topic, involving the basic style and processes of crustal growth.Based on the borehole data from over 300 wells drilled into the Carboniferous System, together with the high-resolution gravity and magnetic data (in a 1:50,000 scale), we made a detailed analysis of the basement structure, formation timing and process and later evolution on basis of core geochemical and isotopic analysis. Firstly, we defined the Mahu Precambrian micro-continental block in the juvenile crust of Junggar Basin according to the Hf isotopic analysis of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks. Secondly, the results of the tectonic setting and basin analysis suggest that the Junggar area incorporates three approximately E-W trending island arc belts (from north to south: Yemaquan-Wulungu-Chingiz, Jiangjunmiao-Luliang-Darbut and Zhongguai-Mosuowan-Baijiahai-Qitai respectively) and intervened three approximately E-W trending retro-arc or inter-arc basin belts from north to south, such as Santanghu-Suosuoquan-Emin, Wucaiwan-Dongdaohaizi-Mahu (Mahu block sunk as a bathyal basin during this phase) and Fukang-western well Pen1 accordingly. Thirdly, the closure of these retro-arc or inter-arc basins gradually toward the south led to the occurrence of collision and amalgamation of the above-mentioned island arcs during the Carboniferous, constituting the basic framework of the Junggar "block". Fourthly, the emplacement of large-scale mantle-derived magmas occurred in the latest Carboniferous or Early Permian. For instance, the well Mahu 5 penetrate the latest Carboniferous basalts with a thickness of over 20m, and these mantle-derived magmas concreted the above-mentioned island arc-collaged body. Therefore, the Junggar basin basement mainly comprises pre-Carboniferous collaged basement, and its formation is characterized by two-stage growth model, involving the

  13. Assessment of In-Place Oil Shale Resources of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pantea, Michael P.; Self, Jesse G.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a reassessment of in-place oil shale resources, regardless of richness, in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, western Colorado. A considerable amount of oil-yield data has been collected after previous in-place assessments were published, and these data were incorporated into this new assessment. About twice as many oil-yield data points were used, and several additional oil shale intervals were included that were not assessed previously for lack of data. Oil yields are measured using the Fischer assay method. The Fischer assay method is a standardized laboratory test for determining the oil yield from oil shale that has been almost universally used to determine oil yields for Green River Formation oil shales. Fischer assay does not necessarily measure the maximum amount of oil that an oil shale can produce, and there are retorting methods that yield more than the Fischer assay yield. However, the oil yields achieved by other technologies are typically reported as a percentage of the Fischer assay oil yield, and thus Fischer assay is still considered the standard by which other methods are compared.

  14. Basement topography of the Kathmandu Basin using microtremor observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, Youb Raj; Yatabe, Ryuichi; Bhandary, Netra Prakash; Dahal, Ranjan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Kathmandu Valley, an intermontane basin of the Himalaya, has experienced many destructive earthquakes in the past. The observations of the damage pattern during the 1934 Earthquake (Mw = 8.1), in particular, suggest that the spectral ground amplification due to fluvio-lacustrine sediments plays a major role in intensifying the ground motion in the basin. It is, therefore, imperative to conduct a detailed study about the floor variation of sediments in the basin. In this paper, a preliminary attempt was made to estimate the thickness of soft sediment in the Kathmandu Basin using microtremor observations. The measurements of microtremors were carried out at 172 sites spaced at a grid interval of 1 km. The results showed that the predominant frequency varies from 0.488 Hz to 8.9 Hz. A non-linear regression relationship between resonance frequency and sediment depth was proposed for the Kathmandu Basin. The thickness of lacustrine sediments at various points in the basin was estimated using the proposed equation, and then the estimated thickness was used to plot a digital elevation model of the basement topography and cross profiles of the sediment distribution in the basin. The results were validated by correlating the estimated sediment thickness with geology and geomorphology of the study area.

  15. GIS-based Geospatial Infrastructure of Water Resource Assessment for Supporting Oil Shale Development in Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States) Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering; Minnick, Matthew D [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States) Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering; Mattson, Earl D [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Geza, Mengistu [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States) Dept. of Cilvil and Environmental Engineering; Murray, Kyle E. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States) Oklahoma Geological Survey

    2015-04-01

    encountered many technical challenging and hasn't been done in the past for any oil shale basin. The database built during this study remains valuable for any other future studies involving oil shale and water resource management in the Piceance Basin. The methodology applied in the development of the GIS based Geospatial Infrastructure can be readily adapted for other professionals to develop database structure for other similar basins.

  16. Ordovician Basement Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in the Tarim Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiangbin; LI Tiejun; ZHANG Tao

    2004-01-01

    Ordovician marine carbonate basement traps are widely developed in the paleo-highs and paleo-slopes in the Tarim Basin. Reservoirs are mainly altered pore-cavity-fissure reservoirs. Oil sources are marine carbonate rocks of the Lower Paleozoic. Thus, the paleo-highs and paleo-slopes have good reservoiring conditions and they are the main areas to explore giant and large-scale oil reservoirs. The main factors for their reservoiring are: (1) Effective combination of fenestral pore-cavity-fracture reservoirs, resulting from multi-stage, multi-cyclic karstification (paleo-hypergene and deep buried) and fracturing, with effective overlying seals, especially mudstone and gypsum mudstone in the Carboniferous Bachu Formation, is essential to hydrocarbon reservoiring and high and stable production; (2) Long-term inherited large rises and multi-stage fracture systems confine the development range of karst reservoirs and control hydrocarbon migration, accumulation and reservoiring; (3) Long-term multi-source hydrocarbon supply, early reservoiring alteration and late charging adjustment are important reservoiring mechanisms and determine the resource structure and oil and gas properties. Favorable areas for exploration of Ordovician carbonate basement hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Tarim Basin are the Akekule rise, Katahe uplift, Hetianhe paleo-high and Yakela faulted rise.

  17. Rationale for finding and exploiting fractured reservoirs, based on the MWX/SHCT-Piceance basin experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, J.C.; Warpinski, N.R.; Teufel, L.W.

    1993-08-01

    The deliverability of a reservoir depends primarily on its permeability, which, in many reservoirs, is controlled by a combination of natural fractures and the in situ stresses. Therefore it is important to be able to predict which parts of a basin are most likely to contain naturally fractured strata, what the characteristics of those fractures might be, and what the most likely in situ stresses are at a given location. This paper presents a set of geologic criteria that can be superimposed onto factors, such as levels of maturation and porosity development, in order to predict whether fractures are present once the likelihood of petroleum presence and reservoir development have been determined. Stress causes fracturing, but stresses are not permanent. A natural-fracture permeability pathway opened by one system of stresses may be held open by those stresses, or narrowed or even closed by changes of the stress to an oblique or normal orientation. The origin of stresses and stress anisotropies in a basin, the potential for stress to create natural fractures, and the causes of stress reorientation are examined in this paper. The appendices to this paper present specific techniques for exploiting and characterizing natural fractures, for measuring the present-day in situ stresses, and for reconstructing a computerized stress history for a basin.

  18. Power-law Scaling of Fracture Aperture Sizes in Otherwise-Undeformed Foreland Basin Sandstone: An Example From the Cozzette Sandstone, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, J. N.; Gale, J. F.; Laubach, S. E.; Gomez, L. A.; Marrett, R.; Reed, R. M.

    2007-12-01

    Power-law variation of aperture size with cumulative frequency has been documented in vein arrays, but such patterns have not been conclusively demonstrated from open or incompletely mineralized opening-mode fractures (joints) in otherwise-undeformed sedimentary rocks. We used subhorizontal core from the nearly flat- lying Cretaceous Cozzette Sandstone, Piceance Basin, Colorado, to document fracture aperture sizes over five orders of magnitude. We measured microfractures (0.0004-0.1164 mm in aperture) along a 276-mm-long scanline using scanning electron microscope-based cathodoluminescence; we measured macrofractures (0.5- 2.15 mm in aperture) in 35 m of approximately horizontal core cut normal to fracture strike. Microfractures are typically filled with quartz. Macrofractures are mostly open and resemble non-mineralized joints, except for thin veneers of quartz cement lining their walls. Micro- and macrofractures share both a common orientation and the same timing with respect to diagenetic sequence, only differing in size and the degree to which they are filled with quartz cement. Power-law scaling equations were derived by fitting trendlines to aperture vs. cumulative frequency data for the microfractures. These equations successfully predicted the cumulative frequencies of the macrofractures, accurate to within a factor of four in each test and within a factor of two in 75 percent of tests. Our results show that tectonic deformation is not prerequisite for power-law scaling of fractures, but instead suggest that scaling emerges from fracture interaction during propagation.

  19. Histograms showing variations in oil yield, water yield, and specific gravity of oil from Fischer assay analyses of oil-shale drill cores and cuttings from the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, John D.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado contains over 1.5 trillion barrels of oil in place, making the basin the largest known oil-shale deposit in the world. Previously published histograms display oil-yield variations with depth and widely correlate rich and lean oil-shale beds and zones throughout the basin. Histograms in this report display oil-yield data plotted alongside either water-yield or oil specific-gravity data. Fischer assay analyses of core and cutting samples collected from exploration drill holes penetrating the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin can aid in determining the origins of those deposits, as well as estimating the amount of organic matter, halite, nahcolite, and water-bearing minerals. This report focuses only on the oil yield plotted against water yield and oil specific gravity.

  20. Spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Green River Formation using Fischer assay, Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado was studied in detail using some 321,000 Fischer assay analyses in the U.S. Geological Survey oil-shale database. The oil-shale section was subdivided into 17 roughly time-stratigraphic intervals, and the distribution of water in each interval was assessed separately. This study was conducted in part to determine whether water produced during retorting of oil shale could provide a significant amount of the water needed for an oil-shale industry. Recent estimates of water requirements vary from 1 to 10 barrels of water per barrel of oil produced, depending on the type of retort process used. Sources of water in Green River oil shale include (1) free water within clay minerals; (2) water from the hydrated minerals nahcolite (NaHCO3), dawsonite (NaAl(OH)2CO3), and analcime (NaAlSi2O6.H20); and (3) minor water produced from the breakdown of organic matter in oil shale during retorting. The amounts represented by each of these sources vary both stratigraphically and areally within the basin. Clay is the most important source of water in the lower part of the oil-shale interval and in many basin-margin areas. Nahcolite and dawsonite are the dominant sources of water in the oil-shale and saline-mineral depocenter, and analcime is important in the upper part of the formation. Organic matter does not appear to be a major source of water. The ratio of water to oil generated with retorting is significantly less than 1:1 for most areas of the basin and for most stratigraphic intervals; thus water within oil shale can provide only a fraction of the water needed for an oil-shale industry.

  1. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Swamy, K.V.; Raj, N.

    T dipping at 53◦. This interpretation shows that the magnetic basement is faulted along the NW–SE direction with the upthrown side lying to the north of the anomaly trend of this region. This is consistent with the known data for the depth to the acous- tic...

  2. In-place oil shale resources in the saline-mineral and saline-leached intervals, Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Dietrich, John D.

    2014-01-01

    A recent U.S. Geological Survey analysis of the Green River Formation of the Piceance Basin in western Colorado shows that about 920 and 352 billion barrels of oil are potentially recoverable from oil shale resources using oil-yield cutoffs of 15 and 25 gallons per ton (GPT), respectively. This represents most of the high-grade oil shale in the United States. Much of this rich oil shale is found in the dolomitic Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation and is associated with the saline minerals nahcolite and halite, or in the interval where these minerals have been leached by groundwater. The remaining high-grade resource is located primarily in the underlying illitic Garden Gulch Member of the Green River Formation. Of the 352 billion barrels of potentially recoverable oil resources in high-grade (≥25 GPT) oil shale, the relative proportions present in the illitic interval, non-saline R-2 zone, saline-mineral interval, leached interval (excluding leached Mahogany zone), and Mahogany zone were 3.1, 4.5, 36.6, 23.9, and 29.9 percent of the total, respectively. Only 2 percent of high-grade oil shale is present in marginal areas where saline minerals were never deposited.

  3. Zircon U-Pb ages of the basement rocks beneath the Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The basement of the Songliao Basin is mainly composed of slightly-metamorphosed or unmetamorphosed Paleozoic strata, granites and gneiss. Petrographical studies indicate that the gneiss was originally the granitic intrusions which were deformed in the later stage. One undeformed granitic rock sample gives a U-Pb age of (305±2) Ma, and the mylonitic granite yields a U-Pb age of (165±3) Ma. Both of the two samples contain no inherited zircon, which suggests that there is no large-scale Precambrian crystalline basement beneath the Songliao Basin.

  4. Geology of tight oil and potential tight oil reservoirs in the lower part of the Green River Formation, Uinta, Piceance, and Greater Green River Basins, Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2016-05-02

    The recent successful development of a tight oil play in the Eocene-age informal Uteland Butte member of the lacustrine Green River Formation in the Uinta Basin, Utah, using modern horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques has spurred a renewed interest in the tight oil potential of lacustrine rocks. The Green River Formation was deposited by two large lakes, Lake Uinta in the Uinta and Piceance Basins and Lake Gosiute in the Greater Green River Basin. These three basins contain the world’s largest in-place oil shale resources with recent estimates of 1.53 trillion, 1.33 trillion, and 1.44 trillion barrels of oil in place in the Piceance, Uinta, and Greater Green River Basins, respectively. The Uteland Butte member was deposited during an early freshwater stage of the lake in the Uinta Basin prior to deposition of the assessed oil shale intervals. This report only presents information on the early freshwater interval and overlying brackish-water interval in all three basins because these intervals are most likely to have tight oil potential. Burial histories of the three basins were reconstructed to study (1) variations in subsidence and lake development, and (2) post deposition burial that led to the development of a petroleum system in only the Uinta Basin. The Uteland Butte member is a successful tight oil play because it is thermally mature for hydrocarbon generation and contains organic-rich shale, brittle carbonate, and porous dolomite. Abnormally high pressure in parts of the Uteland Butte is also important to production. Variations in organic richness of the Uteland Butte were studied using Fischer assay analysis from oil shale assessments, and pressures were studied using drill-stem tests. Freshwater lacustrine intervals in the Piceance and Greater Green River Basins are immature for hydrocarbon generation and contain much less carbonate than the Uteland Butte member. The brackish-water interval in the Uinta Basin is thermally mature for

  5. Influence of basement structures on in situ stresses over the Surat Basin, southeast Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke-Barnett, Samuel; Flottmann, Thomas; Paul, Pijush K.; Busetti, Seth; Hennings, Peter; Reid, Ray; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2015-07-01

    The Jurassic to Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Surat Basin in southeast Queensland host a significant volume of coal seam gas resources. Consequently, knowledge of the in situ stress is important for coal permeability enhancement and wellbore stability. Using wireline log data and direct stress measurements, we have calculated stress orientations from 36 wells and stress magnitudes from 7 wells across the Surat Basin. Our results reveal a relationship between high tectonic stress and proximity to structures within the underlying "basement" rocks. The influence of tectonic stresses is diminished with depth in areas with thicker sedimentary cover that are relatively far from the basement structures. We suggest that this relationship is due to the redistribution of in situ stresses around areas where basement is shallower and where basement structures, such as the Leichhardt-Burunga Fault System, are present. This behavior is explained by a lower rigidity in the thickest basin cover, which reduces the ability to maintain higher tectonic stress. Over the entire Surat Basin, a significant amount of variability in in situ stress orientation is observed. The authors attribute this stress variability to complex plate boundary interactions on the northern and eastern margins of the Indo-Australian Plate.

  6. Postcollisional mantle-derived magmatism, underplating and implications for basement of the Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宝福; 何国琦; 王式洸

    1999-01-01

    The late Paleozoic postcollisional granitoids, mafic-ultramafic complexes, and volcanic rocks are extensively distributed around the Junggar Basin; they are generally characterized by positive εNd(t) values, implying that the magmas were mantle-derived and contaminated with crustal materials to some extents. The emplacement of mantle-derived magmas and their differentiates in the upper crust is the expression of deep geological processes at shallow level, while much more mantle-derived magmas were underplated in the lower crust and the region near the crust-mantle boundary, being component part of basement of the Junggar Basin. The postcollisional mafic-ultramafic complexes would not be generated by re-melting of residual oceanic crust, which was considered as the basement of the Junggar Basin, unless very high degrees of partial melting occurred. Even if old continental crust had been present before collision, it would have been strongly modified by the mantle-derived magma underplating. This inter

  7. Percolation of diagenetic fluids in the Archaean basement of the Franceville basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouélé, Idalina Moubiya; Dudoignon, Patrick; Albani, Abderrazak El; Cuney, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Gauthier-Lafaye, François

    2014-01-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic Franceville basin, Gabon, is mainly known for its high-grade uranium deposits, which are the only ones known to act as natural nuclear fission reactors. Previous work in the Kiéné region investigated the nature of the fluids responsible for these natural nuclear reactors. The present work focuses on the top of the Archaean granitic basement, specifically, to identify and date the successive alteration events that affected this basement just below the unconformity separating it from the Palaeoproterozoic basin. Core from four drill holes crosscutting the basin-basement unconformity have been studied. Dating is based on U-Pb isotopic analyses performed on monazite. The origin of fluids is discussed from the study of fluid inclusion planes (FIP) in quartz from basement granitoids. From the deepest part of the drill holes to the unconformable boundary with the basin, propylitic alteration assemblages are progressively replaced by illite and locally by a phengite + Fe chlorite ± Fe oxide assemblage. Illitic alteration is particularly strong along the sediment-granitoid contact and is associated with quartz dissolution. It was followed by calcite and anhydrite precipitation as fracture fillings. U-Pb isotopic dating outlines three successive events: a 3.0-2.9-Ga primary magmatic event, a 2.6-Ga propylitic alteration and a late 1.9-Ga diagenetic event. Fluid inclusion microthermometry suggests the circulation of three types of fluids: (1) a Na-Ca-rich diagenetic brine, (2) a moderately saline (diagenetic + meteoric) fluid, and (3) a low-salinity fluid of probable meteoric origin. These fluids are similar to those previously identified within the overlying sedimentary rocks of the Franceville basin. Overall, the data collected in this study show that the Proterozoic-Archaean unconformity has operated as a major flow corridor for fluids circulation, around 1.9 Ga. highly saline diagenetic brines; hydrocarbon-rich fluids derived from organic matter

  8. Zircon U-Pb geochronology of basement metamorphic rocks in the Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI FuPing; XU WenLiang; YANG DeBin; ZHAO QuanGuo; LIU XiaoMing; HU ZhaoChu

    2007-01-01

    Zircon LA-ICP MS U-Pb dating of six metamorphic rocks and a metagranite (breccia) from southern basement of the Songliao Basin are reported in order to constrain the formation ages of basement. The basement metamorphic rocks in the Songliao Basin mainly consist of metagabbro (L45-1), amphibolite (SN117), metarhyolitical tuff (G190), sericite (Ser) schist (N103), chlorite (Chi) schist (T5-1), biotite (Bi)-actinolite (Act)-quartz (Q) schist (Y205), and metagranite (L44-1). The cathodoluminesence (CL)images of the zircons from metagabbro (L45-1) and metagranite (L44-1) indicate that they have cores of magmatic origin and rims of metamorphic overgrowths. Their U-Pb isotopic ages are 1808±21 Ma and 1873±13 Ma, respectively. The zircons with oscillatory zoning from amphibolite (SN117) and Chi schist (T5-1), being similar to those of mafic igneous rocks, yield ages of 274 ± 3.4 Ma and 264 ± 3.2 Ma, respectively. The zircons from metarhyolitical tuff (G190) and Ser schist (N103) display typical magmatic growth zoning and yield ages of 424 ± 4.5 Ma and 287 ± 5.1Ma, respectively. Most of zircons from Bi-Act-Q schist (Y2O5) are round in shape and different in absorption degree in the CL images, implying their sedimentary detritals. U-Pb dating yield concordant ages of 427 ± 3.1Ma, 455 ± 12 Ma, 696 ± 13 Ma,1384±62 Ma, 1649±36 Ma, 1778±18 Ma, 2450±9 Ma, 2579±10 Ma, 2793±4 Ma and 2953±14 Ma. The above-mentioned results indicate that the Precambrian crystalline basement (1808-1873 Ma) exists in the southern Songliao Basin and could be related to tectonic thrust, and that the Early Paleozoic (424-490 Ma) and Late Paleozoic magmatisms (264-292 Ma) also occur in the basin basement, which are consistent with the ages of the detrital zircons from Bi-Act-Q schist in the basement.

  9. Structure of Charnockitic basement in a part of the Krishna–Godavari basin, Andhra Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I V Radhakrishna Murthy; S Bangaru Babu

    2006-08-01

    A regional magnetic survey was carried out over an area of 8000 km2 in Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh,India,which is covered by the rocks of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) viz., the Khondalitic series and Charnockites in the northern half and Permian to Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments in the southern half,and forms a part of the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin. The survey brought out a strong NE –SW trending anomaly in the area covered by the rocks of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB),and a mild ENE –WSW trending anomaly in the area covered by the sediments of the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin.The NE –SW trending anomaly in the northern half could be attributed to the exposed/near surface Charnockite basement that has come closer to the surface as a result of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB)tectonics.Explanation of the mild ENE –WSW trending anomaly over the sediments of the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin required a faulted magnetic basement at depth downthrown towards the south.It is therefore concluded that the Charnockitic basement together with the Khondalite group of rocks which are folded and faulted during the different phases of tectonics of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) extend into the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin and further,were involved in faulting during the phases of formation and sedimentation in the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin.

  10. Regional trends in radiogenic heat generation in the Precambrian basement of the Western Canadian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F. W.; Majorowicz, J. A.

    Radiogenic heat generation values for 381 basement samples from 229 sites in the western Canadian basin exhibit a lognormal frequency distribution. The mean value = 2.06 (S.D. = 1.22) µWm-3 is larger than the radiogenic heat generation values reported for the shield in the Superior (ca. 1.2 µWm-3, Jessop and Lewis, 1978) and Churchill (ca. 0.7 µWm-3, Drury, 1985) provinces. When equal Log A contour intervals are used to map the basement heat generation, three large zones of relatively high heat generation are found. One coincides with the Peace River Arch basement structure and one with the Athabasca axis (Darnley, 1981). There is no apparent indication of increased heat flow through the Paleozoic formations associated with these two zones. The third zone, in southwestern Saskatchewan, coincides with a high heat flow zone in the Swift Current area. The lack of correlation between heat flow and heat generation in Alberta may be due to the disturbance to the heat flow in the Paleozoic formations by water motion, or may indicate that the heat is from uranium, thorium and potassium isotope enrichment near the basement surface rather than enrichment throughout the entire upper crust.

  11. Thermochronology and geochemistry of the Pan-African basement below the Sab'atayn Basin, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, A. Hugh N.; Schneider, David A.; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    Three important lithologies occur in two drill wells from the Pan-African basement underlying the Mesozoic Sab'atayn Basin, in a previously undocumented area of the Pan-African, 83 and 90 km NE of known exposures in Yemen. Cores from well 1 include amphibolite, with basaltic to andesitic compositions, affected by crustal contamination during emplacement into a thickened crust. Deeper in the well, an unfoliated dark red monzogranite has a U-Pb zircon age of 628.8 ± 3.1 Ma and a Rb-Sr biotite cooling age of 591.6 ± 5.8 Ma (∼300 °C). Regional constraints suggest emplacement in a transitional tectonic setting with compressional terrane amalgamation followed by extensional collapse. Sm-Nd isotope analysis yields a TDM model age of 1.24 Ga with negative εNd values, suggesting the monzogranite is part of the Al Bayda island arc terrane. Cores from well 2 contains a weakly deformed, massive (unbedded) medium grey meta-arkose exhibiting essentially no geochemical signature of weathering and with an almost pure dacitic composition. This rock may have been directly derived from an (extrusive) granitoid that was emplaced prior to, or during terrane amalgamation. A (U-Th-Sm)/He zircon age of 156 ± 14 Ma constrains the time of basement cooling to ∼180 °C, synchronous with basin formation. These lithologies provide new insights in the development of the Pan-African basement of Yemen, extending our knowledge of the nearby surface geology to the subsurface.

  12. Integrated Analysis on Gravity and Magnetic Fields of the Hailar Basin, NE China: Implications for Basement Structure and Deep Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, B.; Wang, L.; Dong, P.; Scientific Team Of Applied Geophysics

    2010-12-01

    The Hailar Basin is one of the most representative basins among the Northeast China Basin Group, which is situated in the east of East Asia Orogene between the Siberia Plate and the North China Plate. Based on the detailed analysis of the Bouguer gravity anomaly, aeromagnetic anomaly as well as petrophysical data, we studied the features of gravity-magnetic fields in the basin and its neighboring areas. A combined approach of Wavelet Multi-scale Decomposition and Power Spectrum Analysis was adopted to quantitatively grade the gravity and magnetic anomalies into four levels. Accordingly, the apparent depths of the source fields can be assessed. The results reveal the crustal density and magnetic structures of the Hailar Basin. Low-order wavelet details of gravity-magnetic anomalies were carried out on studying basin basement structure. Seven major basement faults of the basin were identified, and the basement lithology was discussed and predicted. Three major uplifts and 14 depressions were delineated according to basement depth inversion by the Park method. High-order wavelet approximations of gravity-magnetic anomalies were carried out on studying deep tectonics of the basin. The average Moho depth of the study area is about 40 km, with a mantle uplift located in the northeast of the basin. The average depth of the Curie interface is about 19 km, while the uplift of the Curie interface is in the basin center and its east and west sides are depressions. Finally, inversion of Bouguer gravity anomalies was conducted on an across-basin GGT profile using the Wavelet Multi-scale Decomposition. The inversion results are consistent with those of GGT seismic inversion, suggesting that the Wavelet Multi-scale Decomposition can be applied to distinguish major crustal density interfaces.

  13. Gravity analysis of the Precambrian basement topography associated with the northern boundary of Ghadames Basin (southern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaoui, Mohamed; Gabtni, Hakim; Jallouli, Chokri; Jleilia, Ali; Mickus, Kevin Lee; Turki, Mohamed Moncef

    2014-12-01

    Gravity data were analyzed to determine the structural development of the northern boundary of the Ghadames Basin in southern Tunisia. The Ghadames Basin which also occurs in eastern Algeria and northwestern Libya is one of the most prolific hydrocarbon producers in North Africa with several of the largest oil fields occurring along its northern boundary. The Ghadames Basin was formed during a series of tectonic events ranging from the Early Paleozoic to the Early Cenozoic. These tectonic events produced a basin in southern Tunisia that has a complex basement configuration which is not completely known. A residual gravity anomaly map constructed using polynomial trend surfaces, and vertical and horizontal gravity derivative maps indicate that the northern boundary contains a series of maxima and minima anomalies that trend in two prominent directions: northeast-southwest and east-west. The horizontal and vertical derivative gravity anomaly maps indicate that the width of the basement structures range between 10 and 20 km in width. Three-dimensional (3D) Euler deconvolution and 3D forward modeling constrained by well data, one seismic reflection profile and remote sensing data confirm the width of the basement structures and indicates that the depth of basin varies between 1.5 and 5 km, with deeper sections in general more numerous in the southern sections of the boundary. The gravity analysis constrained by the seismic reflection profile and well data implies that the basement topography may have been formed during the Pan African and/or late Mesozoic rifting. However, additional seismic reflection and well data are needed to confirm this conclusion. The discovery of the numerous basement structures suggests that there may exist additional hydrocarbon traps within the northern boundary of the Ghadames Basin.

  14. Rift architecture and evolution: The Sirt Basin, Libya: The influence of basement fabrics and oblique tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdunaser, K. M.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary northwest-trending Sirt Basin system, Libya, is a rift/sag basin formed on Pan-African to Paleozoic-aged basement of North Africa. In this study, we investigate the rift-basin architecture and tectonic framework of the western Sirt Basin. Using remote sensed data, supported by borehole data from about 300 deep wells and surface geologic maps, we constructed geological cross sections and surface geology maps. Indication of the relative timing of structures and movement along faults has been determined where possible. Direction statistics for all the interpreted linear features acquired in the study area were calculated and given as a total distribution and then the totals are broken down by the major basin elements of the area. Hundreds of lineaments were recognized. Their lengths, range between a hundred meters up to hundreds of kilometers and the longest of the dominant trends are between N35W-N55W and between N55E-N65E which coincides with Sirt Basin structures. The produced rose diagrams reveal that the majority of the surface linear features in the region have four preferred orientations: N40-50W in the Zallah Trough, N45-55W in the Dur al Abd Trough, N35-55W in the Az Zahrah-Al Hufrah Platform, and in contrast in the Waddan Uplift a N55-65E trend. We recognize six lithostratigraphic sequences (phases) in the area's stratigraphic framework. A Pre-graben (Pre-rift) initiation stage involved the Pre-Cretaceous sediments formed before the main Sirt Basin subsidence. Then followed a Cretaceous to Eocene graben-fill stage that can divided into four structurally-active and structurally-inactive periods, and finally a terminal continental siliciclastics-rich package representing the post-rift stage of the development in post-Eocene time. In general five major fault systems dissect and divide the study area into geomorphological elevated blocks and depressions. Most of the oil fields present in the study area are associated with structural hinge

  15. Tectonic inheritage from adjacent basement, north of the Campos Basin; Heranca tectonica no embasamento adjacente no norte da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Felipe R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Castro, Joel C. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Geologia Aplicada; Souza, Iata A. de; Castro, Joel C. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    The evolution of the Atlantic Brazilian basins is a target of researches since the firth discovery of oil deposits. With the advance of the geophysical methods the understanding of the structures in depth became possible. The objective of this paper is to determine if the adjacent basement in the north of Campos Basin has significant influence in the identification of areas that can contain hydrocarbons. Therefore, lineaments had been extracted with SRTM images of continental basement and the main alignment was correlated with gravimetric anomalies map and seismic data. Eight levels on seismic data had been interpreted (basement, top rift, shallow water Albian, Albian, mid-Oligocene and mid-Miocene). In all levels were identified a fault normal system, which cut sediments since basement until the Recent. The main direction of the basement is NE-SW, and the alignments formed for basin basement faults coincide with this direction, what indicates that the system is active and also genetically related. (author)

  16. 2.9-1.9 Ga paleoalterations of Archean granitic basement of the Franceville basin (Gabon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouélé, Idalina Moubiya; Dudoignon, Patrick; El Albani, Abderrazak; Meunier, Alain; Boulvais, Philippe; Gauthier-Lafaye, François; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Martin, Hervé; Cuney, Michel

    2014-09-01

    The Archean granitoids in the Kiéné area, Gabon, are overlained by the Paleoproterozoic sediments of the Franceville basin (2.1 Ga). The basin is known for its high-grade uranium deposits among which some have been forming natural nuclear fission reactors. Most of the studies were dedicated to the FA-FB Paleoproterozoic sediments hosting these uranium deposits. Little is known on the Archean basement itself and specifically on the hydrous alteration events it experienced before and after the sediment deposition. The present work is focused on their petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical characterization. Dating the successive alteration events has been attempted on altered monazite crystals. Rocks in different alteration states have been sampled from eight drill cores crosscutting the Archean - Paleoproterozoic unconformity. The Archean granitoids observed in the deepest levels exhibit typical petrographical features of a propylitic alteration while they are intensely illitized up to the unconformity. The propylitic alteration is mainly pervasive but the original texture of the granitoïds is conserved in spite of the formation of new minerals: Mg-chlorite, allanite and epidote forming a typical paragenesis. The illitic alteration is much more invasive near the unconformity. The illitization process leads to the replacement of feldspars and the corrosion of quartz crysals by an illitic matrix while the ferromagnesian minerals are pseudomorphosed by a Fe-chlorite + phengite + hematite assemblage. The final fluid-rock interaction step is marked by fissural deposits of calcite and anhydrite. The δ13C isotopic data show that the fissural carbonates precipitated from diagenetic fluids enriched carbon products deriving from the maturation of organic matter. The U-Pb isotopic analyzes performed on monazite crystals have dated three distinct events: 3.0-2.9 Ga (magmatic), 2.6 Ga (propylitic alteration) and 1.9 Ga (diagenetic illitization). The calculation of

  17. Two-stage formation model of the Junggar basin basement: Constraints to the growth style of Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dengfa

    2016-04-01

    Junggar Basin is located in the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Its basement nature is a highly controversial scientific topic, involving the basic style and processes of crustal growth. Some researchers considered the basement of the Junggar Basin as a Precambrian continental crust, which is not consistent with the petrological compositions of the adjacent orogenic belts and the crust isotopic compositions revealed by the volcanic rocks in the basin. Others, on the contrary, proposed an oceanic crust basement model that does not match with the crustal thickness and geophysical characteristics of the Junggar area. Additionally, there are several viewponits, such as the duplex basement with the underlying Precambrian crystalline rocks and the overlying pre-Carboniferous folded basement, and the collaged basement by the Precambrian micro-continent block in the central part and the Hercynian accretionary folded belts circling it. Anyway, it is necessary to explain the property of basement rock, its strong inhomogeneous compositions as well as the geophysical features. In this paper, based on the borehole data from more than 300 industry wells drilled into the Carboniferous System, together with the high-resolution gravity and magnetic data (in a scale of 1:50,000), we made a detailed analysis of the basement structure, formation timing and processes and its later evolution on a basis of core geochemical and isotopic analysis. Firstly, we defined the Mahu Pre-Cambrian micro-continental block in the juvenile crust of Junggar Basin according to the Hf isotopic analysis of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks. Secondly, the results of the tectonic setting and basin analysis suggest that the Junggar area incorporates three approximately E-W trending island arc belts (from north to south: Yemaquan- Wulungu-Chingiz, Jiangjunmiao-Luliang-Darbut and Zhongguai-Mosuowan- Baijiahai-Qitai island arcs respectively) and intervened three approximately E-W trending

  18. Thermal history of the Pan-African basement under the Jurassic Marib-Shabwa Basin, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. Hugh N.; Schneider, David; Veeningen, Resi; Grasemann, Bernhard; Decker, Kurt

    2013-04-01

    Pan-African tectonism within the Arabian Nubian Shield in Yemen is very poorly known. New drill-cores from the Marib-Shabwa Basin (Habban oil field) from central Yemen penetrated 600 m into the pre-Jurassic crystalline basement, providing a unique opportunity to extend our understanding of Pan-African events in Yemen. The cores were obtained some 80 km NE of the exposure limit of the Al Bayda Terrane, which lies SE of Sana'a. This terrane, which has no direct correlative in the ANS further north in Saudi Arabia, comprises deformed greenschist facies acid to basic volcanic rocks later witnessing acid to basic magmatism and has been previously interpreted as a Pan-African island arc complex with a basement component. Ophiolite fragments are common, both within the terrane and at its margins (sutures). To the north lies the Abas Gneiss Terrane and to the south the Al Mahfid Gneiss Terrane; both consist of older pre-Pan-African crystalline basement rocks. Geochemistry of a red, undeformed granite from the drill core indicates an A-type composition. LA-ICPMS U-Pb analysis of granite zircons gave two concordant age populations: 628.3 ± 3.1 Ma (large & small zircons) and 604.9 ± 2.0 Ma (intermediate sized zircons). The former age is interpreted as the time of crystallization, within the range of other A-type Younger Granites in the ANS, and the latter age as constraining lower temperature dissolution-reprecipitation of zircon, due to hydrothermal fluids or melt remobilization. Nd Tdm model ages for two granite samples from the drill core both gave ages of 1.24 Ga, within the range of the Al Bayda Terrane (1.2-2.5 Ga) and outside the range of the adjacent Palaeoproterozoic gneissic terranes (1.7-2.3 Ga, Abas Gneiss Terrane; 1.8-3.0 Ga, Al Mahfid Gneiss Terrane). Thus it seems certain that the Al Bayda Terrane extends at least 80 km to the NE of its present surface exposure. Rb-Sr biotite ages from the granite indicate closure through ~300°C at 593 Ma, indicating fast

  19. Digital data for depth to basement in the deep-sea basins of the Pacific continental margin (cowbsm) based on data collected in 1984.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital vector data for the contours of depth to basement for the deep-sea basins of the Pacific continental margin offshore of Washington, Oregon, and California....

  20. Digital data for depth to basement in the deep-sea basins of the Pacific continental margin (cowbsm) based on data collected in 1984.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital vector data for the contours of depth to basement for the deep-sea basins of the Pacific continental margin offshore of Washington, Oregon, and California....

  1. Basement configuration of the West Bengal sedimentary basin, India as revealed by seismic refraction tomography: its tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodara, N.; Rao, V. Vijaya; Sain, Kalachand; Prasad, A. S. S. S. R. S.; Murty, A. S. N.

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the sedimentary thickness, structure and tectonics of the West Bengal basin is attempted using pseudo 3-D configuration derived from the first arrival seismic refraction data. Velocity images of the West Bengal basin are derived using traveltime tomography along four profiles. The models are assessed for their reliability through chi-squares estimates, rms residual, traveltime fit, rays traced through the models and resolution by checkerboard tests. Tomographic images depict smooth velocity variations of Recent, Quaternary and Tertiary sediments of velocity 1.8-4.3 km s-1 deposited over the Rajmahal trap of 4.8 km s-1 velocity and the basement (5.9 km s-1) down to a maximum depth of 16 km. The present study indicates a south-easterly dip of basin as evidenced from the pseudo 3-D configuration. The basement depth along the seismic profiles varies from 1 to 16 km depending on its location in the basin. It is shallow in the north & west and deep in the east & south. The depth of the basement on the stable shelf of the basin in the west gently increases to about 8 km and dips to a maximum depth of 16 km in the deep basin part within a short distance in the east. The study identifies a regional feature, known as the Shelf break or the Hinge zone, where stable Indian shield ends and a sharp increase in sediment thickness occurs. The Hinge zone may represent the relict of continental and proto-oceanic crustal boundary formed during the rifting of India from Antarctica. The regional gravity map of the Bengal basin prepared in this study clearly brings out the Hinge zone with a linear gravity high that is compatible with seismic data. Presence of Shelf break/Hinge zone and Rajmahal volcanism in the basin suggests the influence of rifting of India from the combined Antarctica-Australia at ˜130 Ma due to mantle plume activity on the structure and tectonics of the West Bengal basin. These features along with the elevated rift shoulder are in agreement with the

  2. The first deep heat flow determination in crystalline basement rocks beneath the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorowicz, Jacek; Chan, Judith; Crowell, James; Gosnold, Will; Heaman, Larry M.; Kück, Jochem; Nieuwenhuis, Greg; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Unsworth, Martyn; Walsh, Nathaniel; Weides, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Heat flow (Q) determined from bottom-hole temperatures measured in oil and gas wells in Alberta show a large scatter with values ranging from 40 to 90 mW m-2. Only two precise measurements of heat flow were previously reported in Alberta, and were made more than half a century ago. These were made in wells located near Edmonton, Alberta, and penetrated the upper kilometre of clastic sedimentary rocks yielding heat flows values of 61 and 67 mW m-2 (Garland & Lennox). Here, we report a new precise heat flow determination from a 2363-m deep well drilled into basement granite rocks just west of Fort McMurray, Alberta (the Hunt Well). Temperature logs acquired in 2010-2011 show a significant increase in the thermal gradient in the granite due to palaeoclimatic effects. In the case of the Hunt Well, heat flow at depths >2200 m is beyond the influence of the glacial-interglacial surface temperatures. Thermal conductivity and temperature measurements in the Hunt Well have shown that the heat flow below 2.2 km is 51 mW m-2 (±3 mW m-2), thermal conductivity measured by the divided bar method under bottom of the well in situ like condition is 2.5 W m-1 K-1, and 2.7 W m-1 K-1 in ambient conditions), and the geothermal gradient was measured as 20.4 mK m-1. The palaeoclimatic effect causes an underestimate of heat flow derived from measurements collected at depths shallower than 2200 m, meaning other heat flow estimates calculated from basin measurements have likely been underestimated. Heat production (A) was calculated from spectral gamma recorded in the Hunt Well granites to a depth of 1880 m and give an average A of 3.4 and 2.9 μW m-3 for the whole depth range of granites down to 2263 m, based on both gamma and spectral logs. This high A explains the relatively high heat flow measured within the Precambrian basement intersected by the Hunt Well; the Taltson Magmatic Zone. Heat flow and related heat generation from the Hunt Well fits the heat flow-heat generation

  3. Thermotectonic history of the southeastern Brazilian margin: Evidence from apatite fission track data of the offshore Santos Basin and continental basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann de Oliveira, Christie Helouise; Jelinek, Andréa Ritter; Chemale, Farid; Cupertino, José Antônio

    2016-08-01

    The Santos Basin is the largest offshore sedimentary basin in the southeastern Brazilian margin and originated by breakup of West Gondwana in the Early Cretaceous. We carried out a new thermochronological study by apatite fission track analysis from borehole samples of the Santos Basin and its continental basement to constrain the tectonic history of the southeastern Brazilian margin. Apatite fission track central ages of the basement and borehole samples vary from 21.0 ± 1.8 to 157.0 ± 35.0 Ma and from 6.5 ± 1.1 to 208.0 ± 11.0 Ma, respectively. From thermal modeling, the basement samples reached the maximum paleotemperatures during the final breakup of South America and Africa. The onshore basement and offshore basin record an early thermotectonic event during the Late Cretaceous linked to the uplift and denudation of the Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira. Maturation of the organic matter in the offshore basin is related with the progressive increase of the geothermal gradient due to burial. The thermal modeling indicates that the oil generation window started at 55-25 Ma. The basement samples experienced the final cooling during the Cenozoic, with an estimated amount of denudation linked to the sedimentary influx in the offshore basin. A rapid cooling during the Neogene becomes evident and it is linked to the reactivation along Precambrian shear zones and change of the Paraíba do Sul drainage system.

  4. 3D seismic analysis of gravity-driven and basement influenced normal fault growth in the deepwater Otway Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, A. G.; King, R. C.; Holford, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    We use three-dimensional (3D) seismic reflection data to analyse the structural style and growth of a normal fault array located at the present-day shelf-edge break and into the deepwater province of the Otway Basin, southern Australia. The Otway Basin is a Late Jurassic to Cenozoic, rift-to-passive margin basin. The seismic reflection data images a NW-SE (128-308) striking, normal fault array, located within Upper Cretaceous clastic sediments and which consists of ten fault segments. The fault array contains two hard-linked fault assemblages, separated by only 2 km in the dip direction. The gravity-driven, down-dip fault assemblage is entirely contained within the 3D seismic survey, is located over a basement plateau and displays growth commencing and terminating during the Campanian-Maastrichtian, with up to 1.45 km of accumulated throw (vertical displacement). The up-dip normal fault assemblage penetrates deeper than the base of the seismic survey, but is interpreted to be partially linked along strike at depth to major basement-involved normal faults that can be observed on regional 2D seismic lines. This fault assemblage displays growth initiating in the Turonian-Santonian and has accumulated up to 1.74 km of throw. Our detailed analysis of the 3D seismic data constraints post-Cenomanian fault growth of both fault assemblages into four evolutionary stages: [1] Turonian-Santonian basement reactivation during crustal extension between Australia and Antarctica. This either caused the upward propagation of basement-involved normal faults or the nucleation of a vertically isolated normal fault array in shallow cover sediments directly above the reactivated basement-involved faults; [2] continued Campanian-Maastrichtian crustal extension and sediment loading eventually created gravitational instability on the basement plateau, nucleating a second, vertically isolated normal fault array in the cover sediments; [3] eventual hard-linkage of fault segments in both fault

  5. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating of meta-diorite from the basement of the Songliao Basin and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; ZHANG Fuqin; ZHANG Dawei; MIAO Laicheng; LI Tiesheng; XIE Hangqiang; MENG Qingren; LIU Dunyi

    2006-01-01

    The basement of the Songliao Basin mainly contains low-grade metamorphic rocks and granites. It has been long disputed whether the basin has Precambrian metamorphic basement. This is a report of zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating results of a meta-diorite sample, which was taken from the Si-5 drilling hole in the southern portion of the Songliao Basin. The SHRIMP analyses indicate that the meta-diorite with a weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 1839±7 Ma (2σ, n = 8) was emplaced during Paleo-Proterozoic time. Additionally, the meta-diorite has old Nd model ages (TDM1:2999Ma; TDM2:2849Ma). These data suggest that the southern part of the Songliao Basin do possess Precambrian basement.

  6. Seismic transpressive basement faults and monocline development in a foreland basin (Eastern Guadalquivir, SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrera, A.; Ruiz-Constán, A.; Marín-Lechado, C.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; González, A.; Peláez, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    We examine the late Tortonian to present-day deformation of an active seismic sector of the eastern Iberian foreland basement of the Betic Cordillera, in southern Spain. Transpressive faults affecting Paleozoic basement offset up to Triassic rocks. Late Triassic clays and evaporites constitute a décollement level decoupling the basement rocks and a ~100 m thick cover of Jurassic carbonates. Monoclines trending NE-SW to ENE-WSW deform the Jurassic cover driven by the propagation of high-angle transpressive right-lateral basement faults. They favor the migration of clays and evaporites toward the propagated fault tip, i.e., the core of the anticline, resulting in fluid overpressure, fluid flow, and precipitation of fibrous gypsum parallel to a vertical σ3. The overall geometry of the studied monoclines, as well as the intense deformation within the clays and evaporites, reproduces three-layer discrete element models entailing a weak middle unit sandwiched between strong layers. Late Tortonian syn-folding sediments recorded the initial stages of the fault-propagation folding. Equivalent unexposed transpressive structures and associated monoclines reactivated under the present-day NW-SE convergence are recognized and analyzed in the Sabiote-Torreperogil region, using seismic reflection, gravity, and borehole data. A seismic series of more than 2100 low-magnitude earthquakes was recorded within a very limited area of the basement of this sector from October 2012 to May 2013. Seismic activity within a major NE-SW trending transpressive basement fault plane stimulated rupture along a subsidiary E-W (~N95°E) strike-slip relay fault. The biggest event (mbLg 3.9, MW 3.7) occurred at the junction between them in a transpressive relay sector.

  7. Two-dimensional basement modeling of central loop transient electromagnetic data from the central Azraq basin area, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogeshwar, P.; Tezkan, B.

    2017-01-01

    Thick sedimentary sequences are deposited in the central area of the Azraq basin in Jordan consisting mostly of hyper-saline clay and various evaporates. These sediment successions form the 10 km × 10 km large Azraq mudflat and are promising archives for a palaeoclimatical reconstruction. Besides palaeoclimatical research, the Azraq area is of tremendous importance to Jordan due to groundwater and mineral resources. The heavy exploitation of groundwater has lead to a drastic decline of the water table and drying out of the former Azraq Oasis. Two 7 and 5 km long transects were investigated from the periphery of the mudflat across its center using a total of 150 central loop transient electromagnetic (TEM) soundings. The scope of the survey was to detect the thickness of sedimentary deposits along both transects and to provide a basis for future drilling activities. We derive a two-dimensional model which can explain the TEM data for all soundings along each profile simultaneously. Previously uncertain depths of geological boundaries were determined along both transects. Particularly the thickness of the deposited mudflat sediments was identified and ranges from 40 m towards the periphery down to approximately 130 m at the deepest location. Besides that, the depth and lateral extent of a buried basalt layer was identified. In the basin center the groundwater is hyper-saline. The lateral extent of the saline water body was determined precisely along both transects. In order to investigate the detectability of the basement below the high conductive mudflat sediments an elaborate two-dimensional modeling study was performed. Both, the resistivity and depth of the basement were varied systematically. The basement resistivity cannot be determined precisely in most zones and may range roughly between 1 and 100 Ωm without deteriorating the misfit. In contrast to that, the depth down to the basement is detected accurately in most zones and along both transects. Varying

  8. Enhancement of Seismic Data Processing and Interpretation of Fracture Zones on the Upper Part of Granitic Basement in Cuu Long Basin, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Mai Thanh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fractured granite basement is the primary oil and gas reservoir in the Cuu Long Basin, Vietnam. Due to the complexity of this non-layered unconventional target, combined with complicated fault and fracture systems, the seismic data quality near and within the basement section is very low. For this reason, it is important to apply improved seismic data processing workflows, filtering and migration techniques, as wells as attribute processing methods to enhance the imaging quality.

  9. Geochemical characteristics of pyrolysis gas from epimetamorphic rocks in the northern basement of Songliao Basin,Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Xushen gas field,located in the north of Songliao Basin,is a potential giant gas area for China in the future.Its proved reserves have exceeded 1000×10 8 m 3 by the end of 2005.But,the origin of natural gases from the deep strata is still in debating.Epimetamorphic rocks as a potential gas source are widely spreading in the northern basement of Songliao Basin.According to pyrolysis experiments for these rocks in the semi-confined system,gas production and geochemistry of alkane gases are discussed in this paper.The Carboniferous-Permian epimetamorphic rocks were heated from 300℃to 550℃,with temperature interval of 50℃.The gas production was quantified and measured for chemical and carbon isotopic compositions.Results show thatδ13C 1 is less than?20‰,carbon isotope trend of alkane gas isδ13C 1 <δ13C 2 <δ13C 3 orδ13C 1 <δ13C 2 >δ13C 3 ,these features suggest that the gas would be coal-type gas at high-over maturity,not be inorganic gas with reversal trend of gaseous alkanes (δ13C 1 >δ13C 2 >δ13C 3 ).These characteristics of carbon isotopes are similar with the natural gas from the basin basement,but disagree with gas from the Xingcheng reservoir.Thus,the mixing gases from the pyrolysis gas with coal-typed gases at high-over maturity or oil-typed gases do not cause the reversal trend of carbon isotopes.The gas generation intensity for epimetamorphic rocks is 3.0×10 8 ―23.8×10 8 m 3 /km 2 ,corresponding to Ro from 2.0%to 3.5%for organic matter.

  10. Structural control of the basement in the central portion of the Santos Basin-Brazil; Controle estrutural do embasamento na porcao central da Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izeli, Maira G.B.; Morales, Norberto; Souza, Iata A. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    New discoveries of oil in deep water and ultra-deep water in Santos Basin suggest that it needs to be studied to better understanding of basement structures and their role in the basin control and configuration. This study characterizes the main tectonic structures of a portion at the central area of this basin, looking for their relation to the geological basement framework. The study is based on the integration of the geological and geophysical data from subsurface (offshore) and surface of the adjacent continent. These analyses include the continental structures that continue in direction of this basin (Guapiara Lineament and Ponta Grossa Arc), checking their possible influence on the basin evolution and deformation. To achieve the proposed goals, the Precambrian basement lineaments were extracted from the offshore area using remote sensing, as result was obtained strong NW-SE structural trend. According to the interpretation of seismic sections, it is possible to observe that this portion of the basin presents main NE-SW structural trend, and most of the structures are typical of passive margin and halokintics process. It is possible to see that some recognized faults in the rift deposits may be coinciding with the main continental guidelines which are projected into the basin. (author)

  11. Exhumation of the Panama basement complex and basins: Implications for the closure of the Central American seaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Diego A.; Foster, David A.; Min, Kyoungwon; Montes, Camilo; Cardona, Agustín.; Sadove, Gephen

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of the Central American isthmus occurred episodically from Eocene to Pliocene time and was caused by a series of tectonic and volcanic processes. Results from zircon U-Pb geochronology, zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) and apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronology, and zircon Lu-Hf isotopic data from sedimentary (sandstones and recent river sands) and plutonic rocks from the Azuero Peninsula and Central Panama document the exhumation and uplift history of the Panamanian basement complex. Our data support previous paleobotanical and thermochronological studies that suggest that by middle Eocene time some areas of Central Panama and Azuero Peninsula were exposed above sea level as a series of islands surrounded by shallow open marine waters. The Gatuncillo, Cobachón and Tonosí formations were deposited during this partial emergence. Transtension in the Oligocene-early Miocene produced various pull-apart basins (e.g., the Canal Basin) and local uplift that exhumed the Eocene strata (Gatuncillo and Cobachón formations). This event probably reduced circulation between the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The Tonosí Formation records late Miocene to Pleistocene cooling and exhumation, which may be related to uplift above the subducting Coiba Ridge. These results suggest that the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama followed a series of diachronous events that led to the final closure of the Central American seaway.

  12. The Ordovician Sierras Pampeanas-Puna basin connection: Basement thinning and basin formation in the Proto-Andean back-arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Steffen H.

    2009-11-01

    The Ordovician Sierras Pampeanas, located in a continental back-arc position at the Proto-Andean margin of southwest Gondwana, experienced substantial mantle heat transfer during the Ordovician Famatina orogeny, converting Neoproterozoic and Early Cambrian metasediments to migmatites and granites. The high-grade metamorphic basement underwent intense extensional shearing during the Early and Middle Ordovician. Contemporaneously, up to 7000 m marine sediments were deposited in extensional back-arc basins covering the pre-Ordovician basement. Extensional Ordovician tectonics were more effective in mid- and lower crustal migmatites than in higher levels of the crust. At a depth of about 13 km the separating boundary between low-strain solid upper and high-strain lower migmatitic crust evolved to an intra-crustal detachment. The detachment zone varies in thickness but does not exceed about 500 m. The formation of anatectic melt at the metamorphic peak, and the resulting drop in shear strength, initiated extensional tectonics which continued along localized ductile shear zones until the migmatitic crust cooled to amphibolite facies P-T conditions. P-T-d-t data in combination with field evidence suggest significant (ca. 52%) crustal thinning below the detachment corresponding to a thinning factor of 2.1. Ductile thinning of the upper crust is estimated to be less than that of the lower crust and might range between 25% and 44%, constituting total crustal thinning factors of 1.7-2.0. While the migmatites experienced retrograde decompression during the Ordovician, rocks along and above the detachment show isobaric cooling. This suggests that the magnitude of upper crustal extension controls the amount of space created for sediments deposited at the surface. Upper crustal extension and thinning is compensated by newly deposited sediments, maintaining constant pressure at detachment level. Thinning of the migmatitic lower crust is compensated by elevation of the crust

  13. Layer-block tectonics of Cenozoic basements and formation of intra-plate basins in Nansha micro-plate,southern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hailing; XIE Guofa; LIN Qiujin; ZHENG Hongbo; LIU Yingchun

    2009-01-01

    Layer-block tectonics (LBT) concept, with the core of pluralistic geodynamic outlook and multi-layer-sliding tectonic outlook, is one of new keys to study 3-dimensional solid and its 4-dimensional evolution history of global tectonic system controlled by global geodynamics system. The LBT concept is applied to study the lithospheric tectonics of the southern South China Sea (SCS). Based on the analysis of about 30 000 km of geophysical and geological data, some layer-blocks in the Nansha micro-plate can be divided as Nansha ultra-crustal layer-block, Zengmu crustal layer-block, Nanwei (Rifleman bank)-Andu (Ardasier bank) and Liyue (Reed bank)-North Palawan crustal layer-blocks, Andu-Bisheng and Liyue-Banyue basemental layer-blocks. The basic characteristics of the basemental layer-blocks have been dicussed, and three intra-plate basin groups are identified. The intra-plate basins within Nansha micro-plate can be divided into three basin groups of Nanwei-Andu, Feixin-Nanhua, and Liyue-North Palawan based on the different geodynamics. In the light of pluralistic geodynamic concept, the upheaving force induced by the mid-crust plastic layer is proposed as the main dynamical force which causes the formation of the intra-plate basins within the Nansha micro-plate. Finally, models of a face-to-face dip-slip-detachment of basemental layer-block and a unilateral dip-slip-detachment of basemental layer-block are put forward for the forming mechanisms of the Nanwei-Andu and Liyue-North Palawan intra-plate basin groups, respectively.

  14. Metal-rich fluid inclusions provide new insights into unconformity-related U deposits (Athabasca Basin and Basement, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Antonin; Cathelineau, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Mercadier, Julien; Banks, David A.; Cuney, Michel

    2016-02-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Canada) hosts numerous giant unconformity-related uranium deposits. The scope of this study is to establish the pressure, temperature, and composition (P-T-X conditions) of the brines that circulated at the base of the Athabasca Basin and in its crystalline basement before, during and after UO2 deposition. These brines are commonly sampled as fluid inclusions in quartz- and dolomite-cementing veins and breccias associated with alteration and U mineralization. Microthermometry and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) data from five deposits (Rabbit Lake, P-Patch, Eagle Point, Millennium, and Shea Creek) complement previously published data for the McArthur River deposit. In all of the deposits investigated, fluid inclusion salinity is between 25 and 40 wt.% NaCl equiv., with compositions displaying a continuum between a "NaCl-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Na > Ca > Mg > K) and a "CaCl2-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Ca ≈ Mg > Na > K). The CaCl2-rich brine has the highest salinity and shows evidence for halite saturation at the time of trapping. The continuum of compositions between the NaCl-rich brine and the CaCl2-rich brine end-members combined with P-T reconstructions suggest anisothermal mixing of the two brines (NaCl-rich brine, 180 ± 30 °C and 800 ± 400 bars; CaCl2-rich brine, 120 ± 30 °C and 600 ± 300 bars) that occurred under fluctuating pressure conditions (hydrostatic to supra-hydrostatic). However, because the two brines were U bearing and therefore oxidized, brine mixing was probably not the driving force for UO2 deposition. Several scenarios are put forward to account for the Cl-Na-Ca-Mg-K composition of the brines, involving combinations of seawater evaporation, halite dissolution, mixing with a halite-dissolution brine, Mg/Ca exchange by dolomitization, Na/Ca exchange by albitization of plagioclase, Na/K exchange by albitization of K-feldspar, and Mg loss by Mg

  15. Curved thrusts from associated basin depocenters. Basement Paleozoique the morphologyc control. The Rides Prerifaines in the Volubilis Basin (Rif Cordillera, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Francisco Javier; Galindo, Jesus; Ruano, Patricia; Chalouan, Ahmed; Pedrera, Antonio; Ahmamoud, Mfedal; Ruiz, Ana; Sanz, Carlos; Benmakhlouf, Mohammed; Lopez, Angel Carlos; Gonzalez, Lourdes

    2014-05-01

    The Volubilis Basin is located between two structural arcs formed by the Prerif Ridges that developed during and after sedimentation (Roldán et al., 2013). The arcs correspond with WSW-verging anticline culminations, limited by NE-SW strike-slip lateral ramps (Chalouan et al., 2006). Sedimentary infill took place during two stages of ridge formation and propagation. The first stage occurred in the Middle Miocene-Early Tortonian? and was determined by the deposition of the Nappe Prérifaine in the northern part of the basin, and continental and marine sediments over the Prerif Ridges. The second one, Late Miocene in age (Tortonian-Messinian), corresponds to the sedimentation of calcarenites and bioclastic limestones at the basin edges, with a lateral transition to white and blue marls towards the center of the basin (Faugères 1978). There is clear evidence of synsedimentary deformation, suggesting the interaction of sedimentation and tectonics. Geophysical data allow us to characterize the stratigraphic architecture of the Volubilis Basin and the geometry of the top of the Paleozoic basement. An approximately N-S Tortonian-Messinian asymmetric depocenter is located close to the front of the eastern arc. This research illustrates the nucleation, progressive thrust bending and segmentation, and the propagation of folds interacting with sedimentation. Thrust nucleation agrees with Paleozoic basement highs under the detachment surface (Roldán et al., 2013). The progressive development of these tectonic structures conditioned the formation, segmentation and final continentalization of the Volubilis Basin, which can be considered as a piggy-back basin (Roldán et al., 2009). References: Chalouan, A., Galindo-Zaldívar, J., Akil, M., Marín, C., Chabli, A., Ruano, P., Bargach, K., Sanz de Galdeano, C., Benmakhlouf, M., Ahmamou, M. and Gourari, I. (2006). Tectonic wedge escape in the southwestern front of the Rif Cordillera (Morocco) . In: Tectonics of the Western

  16. Enhancement of Seismic Data Processing and Interpretation of Fracture Zones on the Upper Part of Granitic Basement in Cuu Long Basin, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mai Thanh; Ha, Mai Thanh; Marfurt, Kurt J.; Hieu, Nguyen Trung; Hanh, Nguyen Thi My

    2016-12-01

    The fractured granite basement is the primary oil and gas reservoir in the Cuu Long Basin, Vietnam. Due to the complexity of this non-layered unconventional target, combined with complicated fault and fracture systems, the seismic data quality near and within the basement section is very low. For this reason, it is important to apply improved seismic data processing workflows, filtering and migration techniques, as wells as attribute processing methods to enhance the imaging quality. Our studies show that applying different types of filters, including the f-k, Radon transform and Tau-P, improves signal to noise ratio, removing multiples, revealing basement's top and its related fractured and fault zones. In addition, the application of multi-arrival-solution migration algorithms, such as Kirchhoff Migration and Controlled Beam Migration, provides improved imaging for identifying basement top and faults and fractures within the basement. Furthermore, the application of seismic attributes such as curvature, apparent dip, or energy gradient, is important in locating faults and fractures, whereas mapping of intensity and orientation of such structures assists the delineation of "sweet spots" and assists the planning of exploration.

  17. Mapping Precambrian Basement Fabric with Magnetic Data in the Karonga Basin Area and its Control on the Development of the Malawi Rift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Atekwana, E. A.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Clappe, B.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.; Dawson, S.; Hull, C. D.; Nyalugwe, V.; Salima, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Malawi Rift forms the southern termination of the western branch of the East African Rift System. It is suggested that it propagates from the Rungwe Volcanic Province in the north for ~700 km into Mozambique in the south. The northern portion of the Malawi Rift is dominated by the Mesoproterozoic basement rocks of the Ubendian-Usagaran belts to the north and west and the Irumide Belt in the south. The Mugese shear zone (MSZ) forms the boundary between the Ubendian-Usagaran and Irumide Belts. We used magnetic data to determine the relationship between the geology of the nascent Malawi Rift and the strong magnetic fabric observed in the Mugese shear zone from aeromagnetic maps. We integrated the aeromagnetic data with ground magnetic data acquired along two W-E transects using a cesium vapor magnetometer at a nominal station spacing of 500 m. We also acquired kinematic data (strike and dip) on exposed basement geology and Karoo sediments. Both transects extend from the uplifted basement areas cutting across the MSZ into the rift floor sediments. Our results show that the MSZ is characterized by a prominent WNW-ESE magnetic anomaly that is parallel to the basement fabric north of the town of Karonga but changes orientation to NNW-SSE south of Karonga. This shear zone is composed of gneisses in amphibolite to granulite facies that are steeply dipping (50-80°) to the west. The strong magnetization and magnetic lineation of the MSZ results from alternating light and dark colored gneissic bands. This magnetization is strongest in unweathered basement rocks and lowest in weathered basement rocks and Karoo sediments. The orientation of the strong magnetic fabric of the Mugese shear zone may play an important role on the accommodation of strain within the rift basin. Detailed mapping of the magnetic fabric can improve our understanding of the formation of faults in the nascent Malawi Rift.

  18. Western Gas Sands Project. Quarterly basin activities report, October 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This report is a summation of three months drilling and testing activitie in the four primary study areas of the WGSP: Greater Green River Basin, Northern Great Plains Province, Piceance Basin, and Uinta Basin.

  19. SHRIMP zircon dating and LA-ICPMS Hf analysis of early Precambrian rocks from drill holes into the basement beneath the Central Hebei Basin, North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yusheng Wan; Runlong Fan; Huiyi Sun; Xianzheng Zhao; Zejiu Wang; Dunyi Liu; Alfred Kröner; Chunyan Dong; Hangqian Xie; Yuansheng Geng; Yuhai Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The Central Hebei Basin (CHB) is one of the largest sedimentary basins in the North China Craton, extending in a northeastesouthwest direction with an area of>350 km2. We carried out SHRIMP zircon dating, Hf-in-zircon isotopic analysis and a whole-rock geochemical study on igneous and metasedi-mentary rocks recovered from drill holes that penetrated into the basement of the CHB. Two samples of gneissic granodiorite (XG1-1) and gneissic quartz diorite (J48-1) have magmatic ages of 2500 and 2496 Ma, respectively. Their zircons also record metamorphic ages of 2.41e2.51 and w2.5 Ga, respec-tively. Compared with the gneissic granodiorite, the gneissic quartz diorite has higher SREE contents and lower Eu/Eu* and (La/Yb)n values. Two metasedimentary samples (MG1, H5) mainly contain w2.5 Ga detrital zircons as well as late Paleoproterozoic metamorphic grains. The zircons of different origins haveεHf (2.5 Ga) values and Hf crustal model ages ranging from 0 to 5 and 2.7 to 2.9 Ga, respectively. Therefore, w2.5 Ga magmatic and Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks and late Neoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic and late Paleoproterozoic tectono-thermal events have been identified in the basement beneath the CHB. Based on regional comparisons, we conclude that the early Precambrian basement beneath the CHB is part of the North China Craton.

  20. Anomalous Heat Flow and Basement Depth in the Newfoundland Basin Ocean-Continent Transiton Compared With the Iberia Abyssal Plain Conjugate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louden, K.; Lau, H.

    2004-05-01

    A total of 30 new heat flow stations were taken in the Newfoundland Basin, in conjunction with seismic reflection and refraction profiles of the SCREECH and MARIPROBE programs, in order to constrain its lithospheric thermal structure. This was the first use of a new heat flow probe that allows high resolution sampling from up to 48 thermistors over a 4-6-m long sensor string, although only 24 sensors were used for these measurements. Data were taken at three multi-penetration sites: HF1 (12 stations) on oceanic crust seaward of magnetic anomaly M0 along Line 1 (SE of Flemish Cap); and HF2 (12 stations) and HF3 (8 stations) on Line 3 (NW of the Newfoundland Seamounts) on thin oceanic crust landward of the J-anomaly (HF2) and on thin continental crust within the ocean-continent transition (HF3). Temperature gradients are linear at all sites except within the uppermost 1 m at site HF2, where there is evidence for recent variations in bottom water temperature. Average thermal conductivity is very uniform at 0.88±0.8 W/m-K (HF1 and HF2) and 0.85±0.4 W/m-K (HF3). Mean heat flow values are similar at HF1 (57.5±2.1 mW/m2) and HF3 (58.4±2.7 mW/m2) and lower at HF2 (49.5±1.0 mW/m2). Values of heat flow versus sediment-corrected basement depth are consistent with the lithospheric thermal model GDH1 of Stein and Stein (1992) and the expected age at HF2 (130 Ma), but they are 20-50 my younger than expected for HF1 and HF3. In comparison to plots of heat flow and basement depth for the Iberia Abyssal Plain, the Newfoundland Basin shows a significant anomaly in both basement depth (~500-800 m shallower) and heat flow (5-18 mW/m2 higher). The heat flow results indicate that differences in basement depth between these conjugate basins are compensated by significant differences in lithospheric thermal structure and not by differences in shallow crustal structure. The recent discovery of lower Albian diabase sills beneath the Newfoundland Basin at ODP Site 1276, might indicate

  1. Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.

    2013-10-01

    Spectral analysis of the digital data of the Bouguer anomaly of North India including Ganga basin suggest a four layer model with approximate depths of 140, 38, 16 and 7 km. They apparently represent lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, lower crust, and maximum depth to the basement in foredeeps, respectively. The Airy's root model of Moho from the topographic data and modeling of Bouguer anomaly constrained from the available seismic information suggest changes in the lithospheric and crustal thicknesses from ˜126-134 and ˜32-35 km under the Central Ganga basin to ˜132 and ˜38 km towards the south and 163 and ˜40 km towards the north, respectively. It has clearly brought out the lithospheric flexure and related crustal bulge under the Ganga basin due to the Himalaya. Airy's root model and modeling along a profile (SE-NW) across the Indus basin and the Western Fold Belt (WFB), (Sibi Syntaxis, Pakistan) also suggest similar crustal bulge related to lithospheric flexure due to the WFB with crustal thickness of 33 km in the central part and 38 and 56 km towards the SE and the NW, respectively. It has also shown the high density lower crust and Bela ophiolite along the Chamman fault. The two flexures interact along the Western Syntaxis and Hazara seismic zone where several large/great earthquakes including 2005 Kashmir earthquake was reported. The residual Bouguer anomaly maps of the Indus and the Ganga basins have delineated several basement ridges whose interaction with the Himalaya and the WFB, respectively have caused seismic activity including some large/great earthquakes. Some significant ridges across the Indus basin are (i) Delhi-Lahore-Sargodha, (ii) Jaisalmer-Sibi Syntaxis which is highly seismogenic. and (iii) Kachchh-Karachi arc-Kirthar thrust leading to Sibi Syntaxis. Most of the basement ridges of the Ganga basin are oriented NE-SW that are as follows (i) Jaisalmer-Ganganagar and Jodhpur-Chandigarh ridges across the Ganga basin intersect

  2. From source to sink in central Gondwana: Exhumation of the Precambrian basement rocks of Tanzania and sediment accumulation in the adjacent Congo basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanzu, Charles Happe; Linol, Bastien; Wit, Maarten J.; Brown, Roderick; Persano, Cristina; Stuart, Finlay M.

    2016-09-01

    Apatite fission track (AFT) and (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronometry data are reported and used to unravel the exhumation history of crystalline basement rocks from the elevated (>1000 m above sea level) but low-relief Tanzanian Craton. Coeval episodes of sedimentation documented within adjacent Paleozoic to Mesozoic basins of southern Tanzania and the Congo basin of the Democratic Republic of Congo indicate that most of the cooling in the basement rocks in Tanzania was linked to erosion. Basement samples were from an exploration borehole located within the craton and up to 2200 m below surface. Surface samples were also analyzed. AFT dates range between 317 ± 33 Ma and 188 ± 44 Ma. Alpha (Ft)-corrected AHe dates are between 433 ± 24 Ma and 154 ± 20 Ma. Modeling of the data reveals two important periods of cooling within the craton: one during the Carboniferous-Triassic (340-220 Ma) and a later, less well constrained episode, during the late Cretaceous. The later exhumation is well detected proximal to the East African Rift (70 Ma). Thermal histories combined with the estimated geothermal gradient of 9°C/km constrained by the AFT and AHe data from the craton and a mean surface temperature of 20°C indicate removal of up to 9 ± 2 km of overburden since the end of Paleozoic. The correlation of erosion of the craton and sedimentation and subsidence within the Congo basin in the Paleozoic may indicate regional flexural geodynamics of the lithosphere due to lithosphere buckling induced by far-field compressional tectonic processes and thereafter through deep mantle upwelling and epeirogeny tectonic processes.

  3. SHRIMP zircon dating and LA-ICPMS Hf analysis of early Precambrian rocks from drill holes into the basement beneath the Central Hebei Basin, North China Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusheng Wan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Central Hebei Basin (CHB is one of the largest sedimentary basins in the North China Craton, extending in a northeast–southwest direction with an area of >350 km2. We carried out SHRIMP zircon dating, Hf-in-zircon isotopic analysis and a whole-rock geochemical study on igneous and metasedimentary rocks recovered from drill holes that penetrated into the basement of the CHB. Two samples of gneissic granodiorite (XG1-1 and gneissic quartz diorite (J48-1 have magmatic ages of 2500 and 2496 Ma, respectively. Their zircons also record metamorphic ages of 2.41–2.51 and ∼2.5 Ga, respectively. Compared with the gneissic granodiorite, the gneissic quartz diorite has higher ΣREE contents and lower Eu/Eu* and (La/Ybn values. Two metasedimentary samples (MG1, H5 mainly contain ∼2.5 Ga detrital zircons as well as late Paleoproterozoic metamorphic grains. The zircons of different origins have εHf (2.5 Ga values and Hf crustal model ages ranging from 0 to 5 and 2.7 to 2.9 Ga, respectively. Therefore, ∼2.5 Ga magmatic and Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks and late Neoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic and late Paleoproterozoic tectono-thermal events have been identified in the basement beneath the CHB. Based on regional comparisons, we conclude that the early Precambrian basement beneath the CHB is part of the North China Craton.

  4. Intertonguing of the Lower Part of the Uinta Formation with the Upper Part of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin During the Late Stages of Lake Uinta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, John R.

    2009-01-01

    During most of middle Eocene time, a 1,500-mi2 area between the Colorado and White Rivers in northwestern Colorado was occupied by the Piceance lobe of Lake Uinta. This initially freshwater lake became increasingly saline throughout its history. Sediments accumulating in the lake produced mostly clay shale, limestone, and dolomite containing varying concentrations of organic matter. At the time of the maximum extent of the lake, the organic-rich Mahogany bed of the Green River Formation was deposited throughout the area. Shortly after its deposition, stream deposits began infilling the lake from the north through a series of contractions interspersed with minor expansions. This fluctuation of the shoreline resulted in the intertonguing of the stream sediments of the lower part of the overlying Uinta Formation with the lacustrine sediments of the upper part of the Green River over a distance of about 40 mi; construction of regional stratigraphic cross sections show the pattern of intertonguing in considerable detail. The data utilized in this study, which covered parts of Rio Blanco, Garfield, and Mesa counties, was derived from (1) geologic mapping of thirty-four 7 1/2-minute quadrangles and stratigraphic studies by geologists of the U.S. Geological Survey, and (2) shale-oil assay information from numerous cores. As a result of this previous work and the additional effort involved in the compilation here presented, more than a dozen Green River Formation tongues have been named, some formally, others informally. Middle Eocene strata above the Mahogany bed in the northern part of the study area are dominantly coarse clastics of the Uinta Formation. The sedimentary sequence becomes more calcareous and organic-rich to the south where, in a 400-mi2 area, a 250 ft-thick sequence of oil shale above the Mahogany bed contains an average of 16 gallons of oil per ton of shale and is estimated to contain 73 billion barrels of oil.

  5. 伊通盆地基底内幕含气组合%DISCUSSIONS OF GAS COMBINATION IN THE BASEMENT OF YITONG BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗洪波; 唐振兴; 邱玉超; 宫帅汝; 崔炳辉

    2011-01-01

    Hydrocarbon gas reservoir is discovered in the granitic reservoir beneath Cenozoic sedimentary rocks of Yitong Basin, and furthermore its source rock has no relation with the overlying Cenozoic hydrocarbon source rock.Through electrical, seismic and source rock analyses, and moreover integrating with the outcrops in adjacent area,Carboniferous-Permian formations are thought to exit in Yitong Basin and possess much better hydrocarbon-generating potential. Their overlying granite is pretty thick favorite cap rock as well as much better reservoir, so the favor-able source-reservoir-caprock assemblage is generated in the end. According to the lithological characteristicsof the basement and its isotope age data, the genesis mode of the basement structure has been established. The above study results have a great significance in the structure evolution history and palaeogeography studies and furthermore the petroleum exploration.%在伊通盆地新牛代沉积岩层下的花岗岩储层中发现了烃类C藏,其气源岩与上覆新生界烃源岩无关.通过对该地区的电法、地震、烃源岩进行分析,结合邻区地表露头,认为伊通盆地深部存在石炭·二叠纪地层,具有较好的生烃能力,其上部覆盖较厚的花岗岩,既是良好的盖层,义是优质的储层,形成有利的牛储盖组合.依据基底岩性特征,结合基岩同位素测年资料,建立了盆地基底结构成因模式,对东北地区的构造演化历史、古地理研究及油气勘探具有重要意义.

  6. Lead isotope study of Zn-Pb ore deposits associated with the Basque-Cantabrian basin and Paleozoic basement, Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, F.; Pesquera, A.; Herrero, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    A total of forty-three galena samples from syngenetic and epigenetic Pb-Zn mineralizations emplaced in the Lower Cretaceous Basque-Cantabrian basin and Paleozoic basement of the Cinco Villas massif in the western Pyrenees, have been analyzed for Pb-isotopic composition. Galena from sedex mineralizations hosted in Carboniferous clastic rocks in the Cinco Villas massif display an homogeneous lead isotopic signature (206Pb/2044Pb ≈ 18.43, 207Pb/204Pb ≈ 15.66, 208Pb/ 204Pb ≈ 38.69) suggesting a single lead reservoir. These values are slightly more radiogenic than lead from other European Hercynian deposits, possibly reflecting the influence of a more evolved upper crustal source. Underlying Paleozoic sediments are proposed as lead source for the Cinco Villas massif ores. Analyses from twenty-six galena samples from the four strata-bound ore districts hosted in Mesozoic rocks reveal the existence of two populations regarding their lead isotopic composition. Galena from the western Santander districts (e.g., Reocin) is characterized by more radiogenic isotope values (206Pb/204Pb ≈ 18.74, 207Pb/204Pb ≈ 15.67, 208Pb/ 204Pb ≈ 38.73) than those from the central and eastern districts (Troya-Legorreta, Central and Western Vizcaya, 206Pb/204Pb ≈ 18.59, 207Pb/204Pb ≈ 15.66, 208Pb/ 204Pb ≈ 38.73). In all districts, the most likely source for these mineralizations was the thick sequence of Lower Cretaceous clastic sediments. The existence of two separate lead isotopic populations could be the result of regional difference in the composition of the basement rocks and the clastic sediments derived of it or different evolution histories. In both sub-basins, isotopic ratios indicate an increase in crustal influence as the age of the ores decreases.

  7. Structure and age of the Lower Magdalena Valley basin basement, northern Colombia: New reflection-seismic and U-Pb-Hf insights into the termination of the central andes against the Caribbean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Bohórquez, J. Alejandro; Ibánez-Mejia, Mauricio; Oncken, Onno; de Freitas, Mario; Vélez, Vickye; Mesa, Andrés; Serna, Lina

    2017-03-01

    Detailed interpretations of reflection seismic data and new U-Pb and Hf isotope geochemistry in zircon, reveal that the basement of the Lower Magdalena Valley basin is the northward continuation of the basement terranes of the northern Central Cordillera, and thus that the Lower Magdalena experienced a similar pre-Cenozoic tectonic history as the latter. New U-Pb and Hf analyses of zircon from borehole basement samples retrieved in the basin show that the southeastern region consists of Permo-Triassic (232-300Ma) metasediments, which were intruded by Late Cretaceous (75-89 Ma) granitoids. In the northern Central Cordillera, west of the Palestina Fault System, similar Permo-Triassic terranes are also intruded by Late Cretaceous felsic plutons and display ESE-WNW-trending structures. Therefore, our new data and analyses prove not only the extension of the Permo-Triassic Tahamí-Panzenú terrane into the western Lower Magdalena, but also the along-strike continuity of the Upper Cretaceous magmatic arc of the northern Central Cordillera, which includes the Antioquia Batholith and related plutons. Hf isotopic analyses from the Upper Cretaceous Bonga pluton suggest that it intruded new crust with oceanic affinity, which we interpret as the northern continuation of a Lower Cretaceous oceanic terrane (Quebradagrande?) into the westernmost Lower Magdalena. Volcanic andesitic basement predominates in the northwestern Lower Magdalena while Cretaceous low-grade metamorphic rocks that correlate with similar terranes in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Guajira are dominant in the northeast, suggesting that the Tahamí-Panzenú terrane does not extend into the northern Lower Magdalena. Although the northeastern region of the Lower Magdalena has a similar NE-SW fabric as the San Lucas Ridge of the northeastern Central Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, lithologic and geochronologic data suggest that the San Lucas terrane terminates to the north against the

  8. Diferentiation of Basements Types Using Seismic Reflection Data and 40Ar-39Ar Dating in the Western Half of the Farallon Basin (gulf of California, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero Lajas, D.; González Fernández, A.; López-Martínez, M.; Lonsdale, P.; Kluesner, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Gulf of California is an active continental rift with an oblique right lateral displacement. Defining a clear boundary between continental and oceanic crust is difficult due to the high sedimentation rate. The new crust is a mixture of sills and sediments that do not produce aligned magnetic anomalies. The main objective of this work is to identify this boundary in the western part of the Farallon Basin. In order to accomplish this goal we used multichannel 2D high-resolution seismic reflection data taken during a cruise aboard oceanographic vessel Francisco de Ulloa in 2006. We also used petrological characterization and 40Ar-39Ar dating of continental samples collected in nearby Santa Catalina, Santa Cruz and San Diego islands, Punta Botella in the Baja California Peninsula, and marine samples of the continental margin next to Las Animas island (ROCA 2008 cruise). Oceanic crust created in the Farallòn spreading axis is identified primarily by saucer-shaped structures in the seismic profiles, which are interpreted as sills. The plutonic continental basement is located on the westernmost part of the margin and is recognized by a continuous high amplitude reflector. There are also volcanic patches in this area, like the South Farallon Massif, which are evident as discontinuities in the high amplitude reflector and with a different seismic character. The Farallon Basin is affected by two different tectonic regimes, the first (compressive) is related to the subduction of the Farallon Plate under the North American Plate, when the plutonic basement was originated. It consists of granodiorites and tonalites belonging to two phases of subduction during the Upper Cretaceous and Early Miocene. Outcrops of the latter phase are exposed in the peninsula of Baja California (Conception Bay); Mexico mainland (middle Sinaloa); and dredged samples of Pescadero Basin. These are similar to the plutonic Santa Catalina Island outcrop described and dated in this study. These

  9. Grid of depth to basement in deep-water basins offshore Washington, Oregon, and California (cowbsmg.tif) based on data collected in 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — COWBSMG is a 1000-m resolution grid of depth to basement off of Washington, Oregon, and California constructed from depth to basement contour data (cowbsm.shp, also...

  10. Grid of depth to basement in deep-water basins offshore Washington, Oregon, and California (cowbsmg.tif) based on data collected in 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — COWBSMG is a 1000-m resolution grid of depth to basement off of Washington, Oregon, and California constructed from depth to basement contour data (cowbsm.shp, also...

  11. 含油气盆地重要勘探领域——基岩油气藏%Important Exploration Areas in Petaliferous Basins-The Basement Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文玲; 周文

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes domestic and foreign reservoir characters, accumulation factors and distribution of basement reservoir and concludes that basement is formed before basin and distributed in any platforms. There is one basement in simple basin. In superimposed basins there must be a long hiatus or tectonic movement so that they can have both new and old basements. Basement hydrocarbon reservoirs can be divided into two types: the reservoir on top of buried hills and the reservoir inside buried hills. The reservoirs are composed of granite and eruptive rocks, and have particular effective reservoir spaces and have strong heterogeneity. Characteristics of them include that they are early oil generation and late reservoir, early accumulation period and early trap generation. They have various of trap types and migration modes, and have complex inside composition and translocation systems. The world's largest oil and gas reservoirs are located in depression basin, and most Chinese reservoirs distributes in eastern fault basin and in northern flexural basin and old basement of superimposed basins.%通过对国内外基岩油气藏储层特征、成藏要素、分布特征的分析,认为基岩是盆地形成前的地层,任何时期的地台均有分布.简单盆地只有一个基岩,叠合盆地必需有长时间的沉积间断或有过大的构造运动才能有新、老基岩之分.基岩油气藏可以分为潜山顶部基岩油气藏和潜山内幕型基岩油气藏.储集岩以花岗岩和火成岩为主,具有特殊的有效储集空间,非均质性强.基岩油气藏储层具有新生古储、成藏期早、圈闭形成早且类型多、内幕结构复杂、疏导体系复杂、运移方式多等特征.世界大型基岩油气藏多分布在拗陷盆地,中国基岩油气藏重点分布在东部断陷盆地基底和北部褶皱盆地基底以及叠合盆地的老基底中.

  12. Western Gas Sands Project Quarterly Basin Activities Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C H

    1979-04-30

    This quarterly basin activities report is a summation of three months drilling and testing activities in the Greater Green River Basin, Northern Great Plains Province, Piceance Basin, and Uinta Basin. Detailed information is given for each study area for the first quarter of 1979.

  13. Western Gas Sands Project. Quarterly Basin Activities Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C H

    1979-01-31

    This report is a summation of 3 months' drilling and testing activities in the four primary WGSP study areas: Greater Green River Basin, Northern Great Plains Province, Piceance Basin, and Uinta Basin. The monitoring of basin activities is part of resource assessment. (DLC)

  14. Primary uranium sources for sedimentary-hosted uranium deposits in NE China: insight from basement igneous rocks of the Erlian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnetti, Christophe; Cuney, Michel; Bourlange, Sylvain; Deloule, Etienne; Poujol, Marc; Liu, Xiaodong; Peng, Yunbiao; Yang, Jianxing

    2016-05-01

    Carboniferous-Permian, Triassic and Jurassic igneous basement rocks around the Erlian Basin in northeast China have been investigated through detailed mineralogical, whole-rock geochemistry, geochronological data and Sm-Nd isotope studies. Carboniferous-Permian biotite granites and volcanic rocks belong to a calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (313 ± 1-286 ± 2 Ma). These rocks are characterised by positive ɛNd(t) (3.3-5.3) and fairly young T DM model ages (485-726 Ma), suggesting a dominant derivation from partial melting of earlier emplaced juvenile source rocks. Triassic biotite granites belong to a high-K calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Middle Triassic (243 ± 3-233 ± 2 Ma). Their negative ɛNd(t) (-2 to -0.1) and higher T DM model ages (703-893 Ma) suggest a contribution from Precambrian crust during the magma generation processes, leading to a strong enrichment in K and incompatible elements such as Th and U. Highly fractionated magmas crystallised in U-rich biotite (up to 21 ppm U) and two-mica granites. In biotite granite, the major U-bearing minerals are uranothorite and allanite. They are strongly metamict and the major part of their uranium (90 %) has been released from the mineral structure and was available for leaching. Mass balance calculations show that the Triassic biotite granites may have, at least, liberated ˜14,000 t U/km3 and thus correspond to a major primary uranium source for the U deposits hosted in the Erlian Basin.

  15. Primary uranium sources for sedimentary-hosted uranium deposits in NE China: insight from basement igneous rocks of the Erlian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnetti, Christophe; Cuney, Michel; Bourlange, Sylvain; Deloule, Etienne; Poujol, Marc; Liu, Xiaodong; Peng, Yunbiao; Yang, Jianxing

    2017-03-01

    Carboniferous-Permian, Triassic and Jurassic igneous basement rocks around the Erlian Basin in northeast China have been investigated through detailed mineralogical, whole-rock geochemistry, geochronological data and Sm-Nd isotope studies. Carboniferous-Permian biotite granites and volcanic rocks belong to a calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (313 ± 1-286 ± 2 Ma). These rocks are characterised by positive ɛNd( t) (3.3-5.3) and fairly young T DM model ages (485-726 Ma), suggesting a dominant derivation from partial melting of earlier emplaced juvenile source rocks. Triassic biotite granites belong to a high-K calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Middle Triassic (243 ± 3-233 ± 2 Ma). Their negative ɛNd( t) (-2 to -0.1) and higher T DM model ages (703-893 Ma) suggest a contribution from Precambrian crust during the magma generation processes, leading to a strong enrichment in K and incompatible elements such as Th and U. Highly fractionated magmas crystallised in U-rich biotite (up to 21 ppm U) and two-mica granites. In biotite granite, the major U-bearing minerals are uranothorite and allanite. They are strongly metamict and the major part of their uranium (90 %) has been released from the mineral structure and was available for leaching. Mass balance calculations show that the Triassic biotite granites may have, at least, liberated ˜14,000 t U/km3 and thus correspond to a major primary uranium source for the U deposits hosted in the Erlian Basin.

  16. Evidence of a large deep conductive body within the basement of the Guadalquivir foreland Basin (Betic Cordillera, S-Spain) from tipper vector modelling: Tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castillo, L.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Junge, A.; Martínez-Moreno, F. J.; Löwer, A.; Sanz de Galdeano, C.; Pedrera, A.; López-Garrido, A. C.; Ruiz-Constán, A.; Ruano, P.; Martínez-Martos, M.

    2015-11-01

    The Betic Cordillera is an Alpine belt formed by the interaction of the Eurasian and African plates and the westward motion of the Alboran Domain. Long Period Magnetotelluric observations at 26 sites in its westernmost part provide induction arrows that have been compared with 3D forward models including bathymetry and major geological bodies. The results highlight the presence of a major conductive body (0.05 Ω m) unknown to date and located within the basement of the Guadalquivir foreland basin. Aeromagnetic and field magnetic measurements further support the occurrence of magnetic anomalies related to the top of this anomalous body. This major structure is interpreted as an intermediate or basic igneous rock, with a high proportion of metallic mineralization. Its origin is discussed in the framework of the regional geological setting, possibly produced in the southern Iberian Variscan Massif by a huge concentration of volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) in the prolongation of the Iberian Pyrite Belt during Devonian-early Carboniferous times. Another possibility is that the conductive anomaly is due to magmatic intrusions associated with the Mesozoic fragmentation of Southern Iberia and the opening of the Tethys.

  17. Basement Charateristics of Junggar Basin and Its Effect on Sandstone-type Uranium metallogenesis%准噶尔盆地基底结构特征及其对砂岩型铀矿成矿的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋继叶; 秦明宽; 蔡煜琦; 何中波

    2015-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive analysis of acquired geophysical,geological and paleontological and isotope research data,authors suggest that the basement of Junggar basin is of continental crust property composed of Precambrian crystalline basement and Hercynian fold basement.Such “double”layer basement structure might be more practical and is comparable to that of those in U-producing basins such as Yili,Turpan—Hami and Erdos typical uranium-producing basin.It indicates that the Junggar basin posseses basic conditions for the metallogenesis of sandstone type uranium deposits to some extent.%本文通过对已取得的地球物理、航空磁测、同位素地质年代及古生物等方面研究成果的进一步整理分析,认为准噶尔盆地基底为陆壳性质、存在前寒武纪结晶基底,且与其上的海西期褶皱基底构成了“双层基底”的认识更为接近实际;准噶尔盆地这种由前寒武纪结晶基底与海西期褶皱基底组成的“双层”基底结构,与伊犁、吐哈、鄂尔多斯等典型产铀盆地的基底相似,具备了砂岩型铀矿成矿的基底条件。

  18. Revegetation research on oil shale lands in the Piceance Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redente, E.F.; Cook, C.W.

    1981-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to study the effects of various reclamation practices on above- and belowground ecosystem development associated with disturbed oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado. Plant growth media that are being used in field test plots include retorted shale, soil over retorted shale, subsoil materials, and surface disturbed topsoils. Satisfactory stands of vegetation failed to establish on unleached retorted shale during two successive years of seeding. All seedings with soil over retorted shale were judged to be successful at the end of three growing seasons, but deep-rooted shrubs that depend upon subsoil moisture may have their growth hampered by the retorted shale substrate. Natural revegetation on areas with various degrees of disturbance shows that natural invasion and succession was slow at best. Invasion of species on disturbed topsoil plots showed that after three years introduced seed mixtures were more effective than native mixtures in occupying space and closing the community to invading species. Fertilizer appears to encourage the invasion of annual plants even after the third year following application. Long-term storage of topsoil without vegetation significantly decreases the mycorrhizal infection potential and, therefore, decreases the relative success of aboveground vegetation and subsequent succession. Ecotypic differentation related to growth and competitive ability, moisture stress tolerance, and reproductive potential have been found in five native shrub species. Germplasm sources of two grasses and two legumes, that have shown promise as revegetation species, have been collected and evaluated for the production of test seed. Fertilizer (nitrogen) when added to the soil at the time of planting may encourage competition from annual weeds to the detriment of seeded species.

  19. Piceance Basin Oil Shale Data: Assays, Boreholes and Formation Tops

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This database contains Oil Shale Assays, Borehole Locations and Formation Tops that were used in support of the 2009 Oil Shale Assessment (Survey Fact Sheet...

  20. Oil shale resources of the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales of the Eocene Green River Formation of the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and western Colorado. The oil shale interval was subdivided into eighteen roughly time-stratigraphic intervals, and each interval was assessed for variations in gallons per ton, barrels per acre, and total barrels in each township. The Radial Basis Function extrapolation method was used to generate isopach and isoresource maps, and to calculate resources. The total inplace resource for the Uinta Basin is estimated at 1.32 trillion barrels. This is only slightly lower than the estimated 1.53 trillion barrels for the adjacent Piceance Basin, Colorado, to the east, which is thought to be the richest oil shale deposit in the world. However, the area underlain by oil shale in the Uinta Basin is much larger than that of the Piceance Basin, and the average gallons per ton and barrels per acre values for each of the assessed oil shale zones are significantly lower in the depocenter in the Uinta Basin when compared to the Piceance Basin. These relations indicate that the oil shale resources in the Uinta Basin are of lower grade and are more dispersed than the oil shale resources of the Piceance Basin.

  1. A new regional tectonic map of the consolidated crystalline basement of sedimentary basins and near-surface fold structures of the Ural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druzhinin, V. S.; Martyshko, P. S.; Osipov, V. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    A new approach to the tectonic zoning of the consolidated crystalline basement and near-surface fold structures, taking into account the specific features of the structure of the Earth's crust is suggested. As a result, a new regional tectonic map of these complexes of the Ural region was created.

  2. FRACTURED RESERVOIR E&P IN ROCKY MOUNTAIN BASINS: A 3-D RTM MODELING APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Ortoleva; J. Comer; A. Park; D. Payne; W. Sibo; K. Tuncay

    2001-11-26

    Key natural gas reserves in Rocky Mountain and other U.S. basins are in reservoirs with economic producibility due to natural fractures. In this project, we evaluate a unique technology for predicting fractured reservoir location and characteristics ahead of drilling based on a 3-D basin/field simulator, Basin RTM. Recommendations are made for making Basin RTM a key element of a practical E&P strategy. A myriad of reaction, transport, and mechanical (RTM) processes underlie the creation, cementation and preservation of fractured reservoirs. These processes are often so strongly coupled that they cannot be understood individually. Furthermore, sedimentary nonuniformity, overall tectonics and basement heat flux histories make a basin a fundamentally 3-D object. Basin RTM is the only 3-D, comprehensive, fully coupled RTM basin simulator available for the exploration of fractured reservoirs. Results of Basin RTM simulations are presented, that demonstrate its capabilities and limitations. Furthermore, it is shown how Basin RTM is a basis for a revolutionary automated methodology for simultaneously using a range of remote and other basin datasets to locate reservoirs and to assess risk. Characteristics predicted by our model include reserves and composition, matrix and fracture permeability, reservoir rock strength, porosity, in situ stress and the statistics of fracture aperture, length and orientation. Our model integrates its input data (overall sedimentation, tectonic and basement heat flux histories) via the laws of physics and chemistry that describe the RTM processes to predict reservoir location and characteristics. Basin RTM uses 3-D, finite element solutions of the equations of rock mechanics, organic and inorganic diagenesis and multi-phase hydrology to make its predictions. As our model predicts reservoir characteristics, it can be used to optimize production approaches (e.g., assess the stability of horizontal wells or vulnerability of fractures to

  3. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uinta-Piceance Province (020) Maturation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The maturation contours show vitrinite reflectance trends and ranges for five key petroleum system horizons within the Uinta-Piceance Province. The horizons are the...

  4. Potassium, uranium and thorium contents in the basement rocks of the Camamu and Almada sedimentary basins; Teores de uranio, torio e potassio nas rochas do embasamento das bacias sedimentares de Camamu e Almada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapucaia, Najara S.; Argollo, Roberto M. de; Barbosa, Johildo S.F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Pos-graduacao em Geofisica

    2004-07-01

    The basement of the of Camamu and Almada basins is inserted in the granulitic region of the southeast Bahia. It is characterized, in bigger proportion, by the rocks of the Cinturao Itabuna represented by metatonalites calcium - alkaline of low potassium and matamonzonites with high-potassium geochemistry shoshonitics trend, associate to the basic granulites. In lesser proportion, one has: the rocks of the Jequie block, characterized by charnockites, charnoenderbites and enderbites with calcium-alkaline chemical and high-K contents and associated with amphibolites with low K-contents; the granite of Teolandia and the granodiorite of Moenda, representatives of the Ipiau Domain; and the neoproterozoics syenites and mafic dikes. On this context, the acid rocks of intermediate compositions, as the charnockites, the metamonzonites, the granitic rocks of the Ipiau band and the sienites, are the main lithologic units that show relevant concentrations of the U, Th and K elements. Already the metatonalites are more abundant in this basement ad show intermediate values of K, varying of 0,5 to 2.5 %, while the basic granulitos and the amphibolites show low K-contents as low as 0,02%. The Th concentrations in the basic metatonalites and ten granulite are below 10 ppm, arriving to below the determination limit of 0.4 ppm; the same thing occurs with U concentrations in these rocks. (author)

  5. Magnetotelluric inversion for depth-to-basement estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Zhdanov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) method can be effectively applied for depth-to-basement estimation, because there exists a strong contrast in resistivity between a conductive sedimentary basin and a resistive crystalline basement. Conventional inversions of MT data are usually aimed at determining...

  6. CAUSATIVE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BASEMENT STRETCHING AND GROUND FISSURES FORMATION IN WEIHE BASIN%渭河盆地基底伸展与地裂缝成因关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓亚虹; 彭建兵; 李丽; 慕焕东

    2013-01-01

    渭河盆地是我国乃至世界上地裂缝最为发育,灾害最为严重的地区.本文以渭河盆地为原型,采用有限元数值分析方法,分析了基底伸展作用下盆地浅表层岩土介质和多级破裂系统的应力和变形响应特征,从而揭示基底伸展变形与该区域地裂缝之间的成因关系.结果表明,盆地基底的伸展作用可以引起近地表岩土介质的拉张变形,当这种拉张作用与盆地断裂的上盘正断倾滑式伸展拉张叠加时,必然形成或加剧地表土层的张剪性破裂,从而为地裂缝的发育奠定了构造基础.%The Weihe Basin can be the most developed area of ground fissures and the associated geo-hazard in China and even in the world. Taking the Weihe Basin as the prototype, a numerical analysis with finite element method is made to study the stress and strain response characteristics of superficial ground and multistage fracture system subjected to the action of basement stretching. The germination relationship between deep structure activities and ground fissures development is revealed. Results show that the basement stretching can cause the tensile deformation of superficial ground. When this kind of action is coupled with normal dip-slipping tension of faults, it can inevitably form or aggravate the tension-shear fracturing, and establish the tectonic foundation for the development of ground fissures.

  7. Reserves in western basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W. [Scotia Group, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  8. Seismic basement in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The area of contact between Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe in Poland has complicated structure of sedimentary cover and basement. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclize is only 0.3-1 km thick, increases to 7-8 km along the East European Craton margin, and 9-12 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1- to 2-km-thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sediments, up to c. 20 km. The map of the basement depth is created by combining data from geological boreholes with a set of regional seismic refraction profiles. These maps do not provide data about the basement depth in the central part of the TESZ and in the Carpathians. Therefore, the data set is supplemented by 32 models from deep seismic sounding profiles and a map of a high-resistivity (low-conductivity) layer from magnetotelluric soundings, identified as a basement. All of these data provide knowledge about the basement depth and of P-wave seismic velocities of the crystalline and consolidated type of basement for the whole area of Poland. Finally, the differentiation of the basement depth and velocity is discussed with respect to geophysical fields and the tectonic division of the area.

  9. EPMA monazite geochronology of the basement and supracrustal rocks within the Pur-Banera basin, Rajasthan: Evidence of Columbia breakup in Northwestern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozha, Manoj Kumar; Mishra, Biswajit; Hazarika, Pranjit; Jeyagopal, A. V.; Yadav, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    We deduce the timing of the rift-induced collisional event between two orogenies in the central Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt using monazite chemical dating and metamorphic P-T estimates from metapelites of the Mangalwar Complex (MC), and the overlying Pur-Banera (PB) supracrustals. The MC rocks preserve evidence of three regional metamorphic events, while the PB rocks record the last event. The M1 metamorphism attained its peak P-T at ∼5.5 kbar and 520-550 °C in the MC rocks at ∼1.82 Ga, followed by the M2 event with peak P-T of ∼7.5 kbar and 580-660 °C at ∼1.35 Ga. The youngest high-pressure M3 metamorphism attained a peak P-T of ∼8.0 kbar and 590-640 °C at ∼0.99 Ga. Thermobarometry coupled with ages of included monazites in chemically zoned garnet from the MC metapelites indicate preservation of ages spanning between ∼1.82 Ga and ∼0.99 Ga from different zones (i.e., core to rim), implying episodic garnet growth during supercontinent cycle. The PB metapelites constitute two prominent ages of ∼1.37 Ga and ∼1.05 Ga. The youngest high-pressure metamorphism (M3) in the PB rocks with maximum P-T of ∼8.0 kbar, and 580-670 °C during the Neoproterozoic has overprinted their earlier metamorphic records. Based on monazite geochronology, we assign the ∼1.82 Ga and ∼1.37-1.35 Ga ages to the amalgamation and breakup of the Columbia supercontinent respectively. The youngest age record of ∼1.05-0.99 Ga indicates evidence of Rodinia formation in and around the Pur-Banera basin.

  10. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uinta-Piceance Province (020) Depth to the top of the Dakota Sandstone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset shows depth ranges to the top of the Dakota Sandstone within the Uinta-Piceance Province, northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah.

  11. Patterns of stress field orientations, structures, basement structural heritage and tectonic evolution of the Camamu and Reconcavo South Basins, Palm Tree's coastline, Bahia, Brazil; Padroes de orientacao dos campos de tensao, estruturas, heranca do embasamento e evolucao tectonica das bacias de Camamu e porcao sul do Reconcavo, Costa do Dende, Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa-Gomes, Luiz Cesar [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Aplicadas]. E-mails: gomes@cefetba.br, lccgomes@ufba.br; Dominguez, Jose Maria Landim; Barbosa, Johildo Salomao Figueiredo; Silva, Idney Cavalcanti da; Pinto, Moises Vieira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Campus de Ondina, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia]. E-mails: jose_landim@uol.com.br; johildo@cpgg.ufba.br; idney25@ig.com.br

    2005-12-15

    The Camamu and Reconcavo South Basins are located near the passive continental margin of the Bahia State, Brazil, and have high potential for hydrocarbon exploration. In these basins and surrounding basement, brittle and ductile structures were studied, which resulted in 3D stress field orientations by use of inversion methods. From this study, the following results are relevant: important control of the basement structural heritage on the basin formation and evolution; local strike-inversion of {sigma}{sub 1} and {sigma}{sub 3} orientations in transtensive settings; vertical {sigma}{sub 1} typical of extensional regime precedes sub horizontal {sigma}{sub 1} of transtensive one; in relation to basin's long axes, at least four main horizontal {sigma}{sub 1} orientations were obtained, involving parallel, orthogonal and two diagonal sets. This could be related to: parallel and orthogonal flexural stress due to the sedimentary load, local elastic rebound of fault blocks, stress channeling, density contrasts between oceanic and continental crusts and ridge pull of the adjacent oceanic plate; diagonals, due to a combination of first order regional and second order local stress fields. This suggest that the continental margin of the Bahia State evolves from a typical passive into a transtensive margin, with transpressive regime that have been observed in some places, in a classical evolution of the Wilson Cycle. (author)

  12. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the Uinta-Piceance Province, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geology-based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States, focusing on the distribution, quantity, and availability of oil and natural gas resources. The USGS has recently completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Uinta-Piceance Province of northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado (USGS Province 5020). The Uinta- Piceance Province is a priority province for the National Assessment because of its potential for significant natural gas resources.

  13. Basement membrane proteoglycans and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Abrahamson, D R; McCarthy, K J

    1993-01-01

    Basement membranes contain distinct collagen, glycoprotein and proteoglycan species, and these exhibit considerable heterogeneity in isoform or type when different tissue types are compared. Additionally, many components are differentially expressed in organogenesis. We have considered the distri...

  14. Measure Guideline: Basement Insulation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Mantha, P.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-10-01

    This guideline is intended to describe good practices for insulating basements in new and existing homes, and is intended to be a practical resources for building contractors, designers, and also to homeowners.

  15. basement reservoir geometry and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, bastien; Geraud, yves; Diraison, marc

    2017-04-01

    Basement reservoirs are nowadays frequently investigated for deep-seated fluid resources (e.g. geothermal energy, groundwater, hydrocarbons). The term 'basement' generally refers to crystalline and metamorphic formations, where matrix porosity is negligible in fresh basement rocks. Geothermal production of such unconventional reservoirs is controlled by brittle structures and altered rock matrix, resulting of a combination of different tectonic, hydrothermal or weathering phenomena. This work aims to characterize the petro-structural and petrophysical properties of two basement surface analogue case studies in geological extensive setting (the Albert Lake rift in Uganda; the Ifni proximal margin of the South West Morocco Atlantic coast). Different datasets, using field structural study, geophysical acquisition and laboratory petrophysical measurements, were integrated to describe the multi-scale geometry of the porous network of such fractured and weathered basement formations. This study points out the multi-scale distribution of all the features constituting the reservoir, over ten orders of magnitude from the pluri-kilometric scale of the major tectonics structures to the infra-millimetric scale of the secondary micro-porosity of fractured and weathered basements units. Major fault zones, with relatively thick and impermeable fault core structures, control the 'compartmentalization' of the reservoir by dividing it into several structural blocks. The analysis of these fault zones highlights the necessity for the basement reservoirs to be characterized by a highly connected fault and fracture system, where structure intersections represent the main fluid drainage areas between and within the reservoir's structural blocks. The suitable fluid storage areas in these reservoirs correspond to the damage zone of all the fault structures developed during the tectonic evolution of the basement and the weathered units of the basement roof developed during pre

  16. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Olivia D; Jungbluth, Sean P; Lin, Huei-Ting; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Miranda, Jaclyn A; Schvarcz, Christopher R; Rappé, Michael S; Steward, Grieg F

    2017-03-07

    Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement), but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C) were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B) drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 10(5) to 2 × 10(5) ml(-1) (n = 8), higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27). Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%). Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737), 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome.IMPORTANCE The hydrothermally active ocean basement is voluminous and likely provided conditions critical to the origins of life, but the microbiology of this vast habitat is not

  17. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, Sean P.; Lin, Huei-Ting; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Miranda, Jaclyn A.; Schvarcz, Christopher R.; Rappé, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement), but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C) were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B) drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 105 to 2 × 105 ml−1 (n = 8), higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27). Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%). Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737), 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome. PMID:28270584

  18. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uinta-Piceance Province (020) Estimated Depth to the Base of the Mesaverde Total Petroleum System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset shows estimated depth ranges to stratigraphic horizons near the base of the Mesaverde Total Petroleum System, Uinta-Piceance Province, northwestern...

  19. Unioned layer of coal resource calculation in the southern Piceance Basin, Colorado (ps*fing)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and coverages of final unioned polygon coverages used to calculate coal resources of the Cameo/Fairfield coal group east of 107 deg 15'...

  20. Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, Oil Shale Geodatabase (Compiled from 3 legacy publications)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase is a digital reproduction of three legacy USGS oil shale publications--MF-958 (Pitman and Johnson, 1978), MF-1069 (Pitman, 1979), and OC-132 (Pitman...

  1. Net coal thickness in the southern Piceance Basin, Colorado (ps*thkg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and ARC/INFO polygon coverages showing the isopachs of total net coal in beds greater than or equal to 1 ft thick for the Cameo/Fairfield coal...

  2. Analysis of magnetic anomaly and crystalline basement of the Yinshan orogen and the northern Ordos basin regions%阴山造山带和鄂尔多斯盆地北部磁异常场与结晶基底特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮小敏; 滕吉文; 安玉林; 闫雅芬; 王谦身

    2011-01-01

    阴山造山带与鄂尔多斯盆地跨越不同的构造单元,是典型的盆、山耦合地带,且是构造活动强、弱的变异地域,了解该区结晶基底分布特征对于深化认识盆山耦合的深部要素和深层动力学过程具有十分重要的意义.本文在最新的高精度的地磁观测剖面和数据采集基础上,与航磁异常场在该区域上的展布进行集成研究.通过磁场特征分析以研究盆地和造山带地域的构造分区和结晶基底起伏,进而对该区的油、气能源和金属矿产资源分布特征及前景进行探讨.这一研究成果为进一步深化认识该区的深部构造格局及其深层动力学过程提供了深部介质磁性结构与属性的重要判据.%Yinshan orogen and the northern Ordos basin cross different tectonic units, they are typical of basin-mountain coupling zones and transition regions between strong and weak tectonic activities. As a result, the knowledge of the distribution of crystalline basement is of vital importance to identifying and understanding of deep factors contributing to basin-mountain coupling zone as well as deep dynamical processes. Based on updated and highly accurate observational data of geomagnetic profile, we also collect aero-magnetic data of this region, and study the crystalline basement of basin and orogenic belts and the characteristics of tectonicdivisions. Then we discuss the distribution features and good prospects of energy and resources in this region. The research results will inevitably provide solid evidence of magnetic structure and properties for further research on this region, including the internal structure and the deep dynamical processes.

  3. Anti-glomerular basement membrane blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used to diagnose certain kidney diseases, such as Goodpasture syndrome and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease. ... the blood may mean any of the following: Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease Goodpasture syndrome

  4. Laminins in basement membrane assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenester, Erhard; Yurchenco, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    The heterotrimeric laminins are a defining component of all basement membranes and self-assemble into a cell-associated network. The three short arms of the cross-shaped laminin molecule form the network nodes, with a strict requirement for one α, one β and one γ arm. The globular domain at the end of the long arm binds to cellular receptors, including integrins, α-dystroglycan, heparan sulfates and sulfated glycolipids. Collateral anchorage of the laminin network is provided by the proteoglycans perlecan and agrin. A second network is then formed by type IV collagen, which interacts with the laminin network through the heparan sulfate chains of perlecan and agrin and additional linkage by nidogen. This maturation of basement membranes becomes essential at later stages of embryo development.

  5. Characterization of hydrology and water quality of Piceance Creek in the Alkali Flat area, Rio Blanco County, Colorado, March 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Judith C.

    2015-12-07

    Previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey identified Alkali Flat as an area of groundwater upwelling, with increases in concentrations of total dissolved solids, and streamflow loss, but additional study was needed to better characterize these observations. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, White River Field Office, conducted a study to characterize the hydrology and water quality of Piceance Creek in the Alkali Flat area of Rio Blanco County, Colorado.

  6. Gravity anomalies and basement structure in Osaka plain; Osaka heiya no juryoku ijo to kiban kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, N.; Nakagawa, K. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Science; Ryoki, K. [Osaka Polytechnical College, Osaka (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Many kinds of new information about the underground structure are necessary for elucidating problems on the distribution characteristics of the structural damage and the ground failure due to the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake. The gravity anomalies in and around the Osaka sedimentary basin, which is mainly composed of Mesozoic granitic basement and post Tertiary sedimentary layers covering the basement, has been compiled with the data additional gravity measurements in the Hanshin-Osaka area. Basement configuration plays the important role in concentration or dispersion of seismic waves. In general, trends of the gravity anomalies should be removed from obtained gravity anomalies in order to estimate the sub-surface structures. The local free-air anomalies, which are residual anomalies obtained by applying regression technique to regional trends, exhibit linear relationship with the depth to the basement surface. In this study, therefore, the underground structure of the Osaka basin was estimated from the local free-air anomalies. First approximate model of basement surface was constructed by means of the method mentioned above, based upon the two layer (basement rock and the sedimentary cover) model. Further three dimensional model was developed based on the characteristic distribution of density inferred from seismic exploration analysis. 19 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  7. ew Breakthrough in Research of Framework and Faults in Basement of Turfan Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangCaifu; HaoHongjian; ChenXiuru

    2003-01-01

    The deep information of the Turfan sag was extracted and analyzed through the re-processing of the magneto-gravitational data of the Turfan sag in the Turfan-Hami basin. It is considered that the basement faults have played an important role in the controlling of the framework, lithology and the distribution of volcanic rocks in the basement of the Turfan sag. The deep crystalline basement and the upper Hercynian folded basement were studied part by part in the sag through the combined data of aeromagnetic and electric methods. It is revealed that the Huoyanshan fault is steep in the upper and lower parts but gentle in the middle, displaying a “S” type texture, and discovered that there are at least a row of local structures in the down-thrown block of the Huoyanshan fault, through the CEMP prospecting in Huoyanshan. The result is very important for the studying of the Turfan sag as a whole.

  8. The nature and biology of basement membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Ambra; Yurchenco, Peter D; Iozzo, Renato V

    2017-01-01

    Basement membranes are delicate, nanoscale and pliable sheets of extracellular matrices that often act as linings or partitions in organisms. Previously considered as passive scaffolds segregating polarized cells, such as epithelial or endothelial cells, from the underlying mesenchyme, basement membranes have now reached the center stage of biology. They play a multitude of roles from blood filtration to muscle homeostasis, from storing growth factors and cytokines to controlling angiogenesis and tumor growth, from maintaining skin integrity and neuromuscular structure to affecting adipogenesis and fibrosis. Here, we will address developmental, structural and biochemical aspects of basement membranes and discuss some of the pathogenetic mechanisms causing diseases linked to abnormal basement membranes.

  9. Three-Dimensional Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data for the Sediment–Basement Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Zhdanov, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Determining the sediment-basement interface is the major step in evaluating the mineral resource potential of a region. The magnetotelluric (MT) method can be effectively used for solving this problem because there exists a strong contrast in resistivity between a conductive sedimentary basin...

  10. Analogue experiments of salt flow and pillow growth due to basement faulting and differential loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsitzka, M.; Kley, J.; Kukowski, N.

    2015-01-01

    Salt flow in sedimentary basins is mainly driven by differential loading and can be described by the concept of hydraulic head. A hydraulic head in the salt layer can be imposed by vertically displacing the salt layer (elevation head) or the weight of overburden sediments (pressure head). Basement faulting in salt-bearing extensional basins is widely acknowledged as a potential trigger for hydraulic heads and the growth of salt structures. In this study, scaled analogue experiments were designed to examine the kinematics of salt flow during the early evolution of a salt structure triggered by basement extension. In order to distinguish flow patterns driven by elevation head or by pressure head, we applied a short pulse of basement extension, which was followed by a long-lasting phase of sedimentation. During the experiments viscous silicone putty simulated ductile rock salt, and a PVC-beads/quartz-sand mixture was used to simulate a brittle supra-salt layer. In order to derive 2-D incremental displacement and strain patterns, the analogue experiments were monitored using an optical image correlation system (particle imaging velocimetry). By varying layer thicknesses and extension rates, the influence of these parameters on the kinematics of salt flow were tested. Model results reveal that significant flow can be triggered in the viscous layer by small-offset basement faulting. During basement extension downward flow occurs in the viscous layer above the basement fault tip. In contrast, upward flow takes place during post-extensional sediment accumulation. Flow patterns in the viscous material are characterized by channelized Poiseuille-type flow, which is associated with subsidence in regions of "salt" expulsion and surface uplift in regions of inflation of the viscous material. Inflation of the viscous material eventually leads to the formation of pillow structures adjacent to the basement faults (primary pillows). The subsidence of peripheral sinks adjacent to

  11. Fold deformations of the paleozoic basement roof in the Chunkurchak Trough, Kyrgyz Ala-Too Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przhiyalgovskii, E. S.; Lavrushina, E. V.

    2017-07-01

    A structural-geological study has been performed on the northern slope of the Kyrgyz Ala-Too Range. Deformations of the peneplaned Paleozoic basement surface, structures of granite disintegration, and morphostructural manifestation of Late Cenozoic tectonic movements have been investigated. Based on the location of pre-Paleocene peneplain remnants with the retained weathering mantle partly overlapped by Paleocene-Miocene sedimentary complexes, we have reconstructed the morphology of the folded surface of the Chunkurchak Trough separated from the Chu Basin at the early Miocene. The dome-fold forms, the morphology and arrangement of which are controlled by disintegration of the basement, have been described for the basement surface. It has been established that granites are broken by systems of steeply dipping, fanshaped, and gently dipping faults and fractures. Variously oriented insignificant offsets along slickensides, as well as displacements deduced from the geometry of fracture intersections, are a result of volumetric cataclastic flow of rocks. The tectonic mobility of disintegrated granites, which are abundant in the Paleozoic-Precambrian basement, explains the complexity and scale of tectonic processes initiated by Cenozoic activation. In paleotectonic reconstructions, which take into consideration tectonic flow and the redistribution of basement masses, the estimates of Cenozoic relative rapprochement of the Chu Basin and the Kyrgyz Ala-Too Range decrease substantially to 4-6 km.

  12. 塔里木盆地巴楚隆起北缘阿恰基底卷入构造%Basement-Involved wedge-shaped Structure of Aqia Fault in Northern Magin of Bachu Uplift in Northwestern Tarim Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨庚; 李本亮; 杨海军; 陈竹新; 王晓波; 张朝军; 雷永良

    2012-01-01

    The Tarim Basin records the history of deposition and deformation affected by the Indian-Eurasia collision during the Cenozoic. The seismic data shows that the faulted rigid Bachu uplift, central Tarim, is a paleo-uplift covered by Quaternary deposits. NW-striking Aqia fault, Qiaolaitnaiti fault and Salambulake syncline and anticline between them were developed on the north margin of the Bachu uplift, northward adjacent to Awati depression. Many seismic lines and well data show that the Aqia fault is a deep basement-involved, south-dipping thrust fault, and the shallow structures are both Qiaolaimaiti north-dipping thrust fault and Salambulake fold. The Aqia fault cuts through the Precambrian basement to the Middle Cambrian evaporates and its displacements decrease from west to east. Salambulake anticline is a fault-propagation fold controlled by the Qiaolaimaiti fault which develops from the main decollement layer of the Cambrian evaporates. The south-dipping basement-involved fault, north-dipping cover-detached fault and Salambulake anticline forms a typical wedge-shaped structure in profile and a triangular structural belt in map view. The Aqia fault and the Salambulake fold extend northwestwardly into the Kelpin thrust belt and forms the NW-striking surface structures superimposed by northeastern-striking deformation. The growth strata indicates that NW-striking wedge-shaped structure formed during Eocene to Miocene, which extends northwestwards into the Kelping thrust zone formed in the Quaternary.%塔里木盆地巴楚隆起为第四系不整合覆盖的古隆起,在其西北缘发育NW走向的阿恰断裂、萨拉姆布拉克背斜、向斜和隐伏的乔来麦提断裂.地震剖面和钻井资料显示,阿恰断裂为倾向南的基底卷入逆冲断裂,向北逆冲,错断层位从前寒武系基底一直到中寒武统膏岩,从西向东逆冲断距减少.乔来麦提断裂则以中寒武统膏岩为滑动面,向南逆冲,并在断层端部发育萨拉

  13. Analogue experiments of salt flow and pillow growth due basement faulting and differential loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsitzka, M.; Kley, J.; Kukowski, N.

    2014-07-01

    Basement faulting is widely acknowledged as a potential trigger for salt flow and the growth of salt structures in salt-bearing extensional basins. In this study, dynamically scaled analogue experiments were designed to examine the evolution of salt pillows and the kinematics of salt flow due to a short pulse of basement faulting and a long-lasting phase of successive sedimentation. Experiments performed in the framework of this study consist of viscous silicone putty to simulate ductile rock salt, and a PVC-beads-quartz sand mixture representing a brittle supra-salt layer. In order to derive 2-D incremental displacement and strain patterns, the analogue experiments were monitored by an optical image correlation system (Particle Imaging Velocimetry). By varying layer thicknesses and extension rates, the influence of these parameters on the kinematics of salt flow were tested. Model results reveal that significant strain is triggered in the viscous layer by minor basement faulting. During basement extension downward flow occurs in the viscous layer above the basement fault tip. In contrast, upward flow takes place during post-extensional sedimentation. Lateral redistribution of the viscous material during post-extensional sedimentation is associated with subsidence above the footwall block and uplift adjacent to the basement faults leading to the formation of pillow structures (primary pillows). Decoupled cover faulting and the subsidence of peripheral sinks adjacent to the primary pillow causes the formation of additional pillow structures at large distance from the basement fault (secondary pillows). Experimental results demonstrate that the development of salt pillows can be triggered by basement extension, but requires a phase of tectonic quiescence. The potential for pillow growth and the displacement rate in the viscous layer increase with increasing thickness of the viscous layer and increasing extension rate, but decrease with increasing thickness of the

  14. A Preliminary Analysis of Relations Between Tectonic Deformation of Sedimentary Cover and Basement in Kuqa Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jie; Qu Guosheng; Tong Xiaoguang; Song Huizhen; Zhou Qing; Zhang Ning

    2004-01-01

    Study of seismic activity in the Kuqa area enables us to infer some possible active faults in basement from the ePicentral distribution on different profiles. The relations between active faults in the basement and surface structures are analyzed and the difference between sedimentary cover and basement in their deformation characteristics and the genesis are discussed. The following conclusions have been drawn: (1) the epicentral distribution indicates that, the east Qiulitag and south and north Qiulitag deep faults in the basement correspond to the east and west Qiulitag anticlines, respectively. Moreover, deep faults also exist beneath the Yiqiklik and Yaken anticlines. It indicates that the formation of surface structures is controlled by deep structures; (2) A NE-trending strike-slip fault develops along the line from the western termination of Yiqiklik structure to Dongqiu Well 5 and a NW-trending active fault on the western side of Baicheng. The two active faults across the tectonic strike are the main causes for tectonic segmentation of the Kuqa depression and possibly the cause for the middle segment (Kuqa-Baicheng) of the depression to be more shortened than both its eastern and western terminations; (3) The difference between the sedimentary cover and basement in their deformation characteristics depends mainly on the different properties of media between them.The lithospheric strength of the basement in the basin is fairly high, which determines the basement deformation to be mainly of brittle fracture seismic activity. While the strength of sedimentary cover is low, where there exist weak thin layers, such as coal and gyps. Under the effect of strong tectonic compression, the sedimentary rocks may undergo strong viscous or plastic flow deformation; meanwhile, an aseismic detachment may take place along the weak layers.

  15. Late-Paleozoic emplacement and Meso-Cenozoic reactivation of the southern Kazakhstan granitoid basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pelsmaeker, Elien; Glorie, Stijn; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Zhimulev, Fedor I.; Poujol, Marc; Korobkin, Valeriy V.; Vanhaecke, Frank; Vetrov, Evgeny V.; De Grave, Johan

    2015-11-01

    The Ili-Balkhash Basin in southeastern Kazakhstan is located at the junction of the actively deforming mountain ranges of western Junggar and the Tien Shan, and is therefore part of the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The basement of the Ili-Balkhash area consists of an assemblage of mainly Precambrian microcontinental fragments, magmatic arcs and accretionary complexes. Eight magmatic basement samples (granitoids and tuffs) from the Ili-Balkhash area were dated with zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS and yield Carboniferous to late Permian (~ 350-260 Ma) crystallization ages. These ages are interpreted as reflecting the transition from subduction to (post-) collisional magmatism, related to the closure of the Junggar-Balkhash Ocean during the Carboniferous-early Permian and hence, to the final late Paleozoic accretion history of the ancestral Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Apatite fission track (AFT) dating of 14 basement samples (gneiss, granitoids and volcanic tuffs) mainly provides Cretaceous cooling ages. Thermal history modeling based on the AFT data reveals that several intracontinental tectonic reactivation episodes affected the studied basement during the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Late Mesozoic reactivation and associated basement exhumation is interpreted as distant effects of the Cimmerian collisions at the southern Eurasian margin and possibly of the Mongol-Okhotsk Orogeny in SE Siberia during the Jurassic-Cretaceous. Following tectonic stability during the Paleogene, inherited basement structures were reactivated during the Neogene (constrained by Miocene AFT ages of ~ 17-10 Ma). This late Cenozoic reactivation is interpreted as the far-field response of the India-Eurasia collision and reflects the onset of modern mountain building and denudation in southeast Kazakhstan, which seems to be at least partially controlled by the inherited basement architecture.

  16. Provenance of Neoproterozoic sedimentary basement of northern Iran, Kahar Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemad-Saeed, Najmeh; Hosseini-Barzi, Mahboubeh; Adabi, Mohammad Hossein; Sadeghi, Abbas; Houshmandzadeh, Abdolrahim

    2015-11-01

    This article presents new data to understand the nature of the hidden crystalline basement of northern Iran and the tectonic setting of Iran during late Neoproterozoic time. The siliciclastic-dominated Kahar Formation represents the oldest known exposures of northern Iran and comprises late Ediacaran (ca. 560-550 Ma) compositionally immature sediments including mudrocks, sandstones, and conglomerates. This work focuses on provenance of three well preserved outcrops of this formation in Alborz Mountains: Kahar Mountain, Sarbandan, and Chalus Road, through petrographic and geochemical methods. Mineralogical Index of Alteration (MIA) and Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA-after correction for K-metasomatism) values combined with A-CN-K relations suggest moderate weathering in the source areas. The polymictic nature of Kahar conglomerates indicates a mixed provenance for them. However, modal analysis of Kahar sandstones (volcanic to plagioclase-rich lithic arkose) and whole rock geochemistry of mudrocks suggest that they are largely first-cycle sediments and that their sources were remarkably late Ediacaran, intermediate-felsic igneous rocks from proximal arc settings. Tectonic setting discrimination diagrams also indicate a convergent plate margin and continental arc related basin for Kahar sediments. This interpretation is supported by the phyllo-tectic to tectic composition and geochemistry of mudrocks. These results reveal the presence of a felsic/intermediate subduction-related basement (∼600-550 Ma) in this region, which provides new constraints on subduction scenario during this time interval in Iran, as a part of the Peri-Gondwanan terranes.

  17. Experimental approach to domino-style basement fault systems with evaporites during extension and subsequent inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Oriol; McClay, Ken

    2017-04-01

    Salt is mechanically weaker than other sedimentary rocks in rift basins. During extension it commonly acts as a strain localizer, decoupling supra- and sub-salt deformation. In this scenario the movement of the subsalt faults combined with the salt migration commonly constraint the development of syncline basins. The shape of these synclines is basically controlled by the thickness and strength of the overlying salt section, as well as by the shapes of the extensional faults, and the magnitudes and slip rates along the faults. The inherited extensional structure, and particularly the continuity of the salt section, plays a key role if the rift basin is subsequently inverted. This research utilizes scaled physical models to analyse the interplay between subsalt structures and suprasalt units during both extension and inversion in domino-style basement fault systems. The experimental program includes twelve analogue models to analyze how the thickness and stratigraphy of the salt unit as well as the thickness of the pre-extensional cover constraint the structural style during extension and subsequent inversion. Different models with the same setup have been used to examine the kinematic evolution. Model kinematics was documented and analyzed combining high-resolution photographs and sub-millimeter resolution scanners. The vertical sections carried out at the end of the experiments have been used to characterize the variations of the structures along strike using new methodologies (3D voxel models in image processing software and 3D seismic). The experimental results show that after extension, rift systems with salt affected by domino-style basement faults don't show the classical growth stratal wedges. In this case synclinal basins develop above the salt on the hangingwall of the basement faults. The evolution of supra- and subsalt deformation is initially decoupled by the salt layer. Salt migrates from the main depocenters towards the edges of the basin constraining

  18. Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvariño, Ricardo; Noboa, Oscar; Cervera, Ricard

    2014-11-01

    Basement membranes form an anatomic barrier that contains connective tissue. They are composed of type IV collagen, laminin and proteoglycans. Anti-basement membrane antibodies bind to the non-collagen site of the α3 chain of type IV collagen. A group of renal diseases, pulmonary diseases and perhaps others affecting different organs have long been associated with the presence of antibodies directed against glomerular basement membrane (GBM), alveolar basement membrane and tubular basement membrane. Goodpasture disease has a frequency of 0.5 to 1 case by million/year, and is responsible for up to 20% of crescentic glomerulonephritis in renal biopsy. It has been associated with genetic and immune abnormalities and there are usually environmental triggers preceding clinical onset. Renal disease can occur isolated or in association with pulmonary hemorrhage. In general, renal disease has a rapid progression that determines severe compromise, with rare spontaneous resolution. The diagnosis of Goodpasture disease requires the presence of the anti-GBM antibody, either in circulation or in renal tissue. The prognosis of non-treated patients is poor. The standard of care is plasma exchange combined with prednisone and cyclophosphamide. Anti-GBM antibody levels must be monitored frequently until their disappearance, and then every 6 months to confirm sustained remission in the absence of clinical signs of recurrence. Prognosis of the disease is strongly associated with its initial presentation. Survival rates are related to the degree of renal compromise at onset of the disease. Recurrence of the disease post-transplantation is low.

  19. SHRIMP chronology of the Magallanes Basin basement, Tierra del Fuego: Cambrian plutonism and Permian high-grade metamorphism Geocronología SHRIMP del basamento de la Cuenca de Magallanes, Tierra del Fuego: plutonismo Cámbrico y metamorfismo Pérmico de alto grado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Hervé

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Five new SHRTMP U-Pb zircon ages are reported for gneisses and foliated plutonic rocks belonging to the Tierra del Fuego igneous and metamorphic basement complex (TFIMC, obtained from the bottom of borehole cores through the Magallanes Basin. Three of the samples yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages (523±7 Ma, 522±6 Ma and 538±6 Ma, interpreted as indicating Early Cambrian igneous crystallization of the host rocks. A migmatitic gneiss shows peaks at ca. 950-1,100 Ma and 560-650 Ma from inherited zircon grains in addition to two grains with ages of ca. 525 Ma, suggesting involvement of Grenvillian and Brasiliano material in the protolith of a Cambrian migmatite. A cordierite-sillimanite-garnet gneiss contains igneous zircons of Cambrian age and a population of U-rich metamorphic Permian zircons, indicating that a Permian high-grade metamorphic and anatectic (P=2-3 kbar, T=730-770°C event affected the Cambrian igneous rocks or sedimentary rocks derived from them. Cambrian/Ediacaran plutonic rocks are known from the basement of NW Argentina, the Sierra de la Ventana, the Cape Fold Belt in South Africa, and the Ross Orogen in Antarctica. The Permian metamorphic event is coeval with the deformation and low-grade metamorphism of the sedimentary successions that overlie the basement in many of these areas. In Tierra del Fuego at least 8 to 12 km of cover rocks were removed following the high-grade Permian metamorphic episode and the unconformable deposition of the Tobífera Formation volcanic rocks in the Middle to Late Jurassic. This eroded cover could nave been an important source of detritus for the conglomeratic Permian and Triassic? Successions of neighboring regions in South America, Africa and Antarctica.Cinco nuevas edades radiométricas logradas mediante análisis U-Pb en circón utilizando el SHRIMP, fueron determinadas en gneises y rocas plutónicas foliadas obtenidas desde el fondo de pozos de sondajes en la Cuenca de Magallanes y

  20. Structural analysis of a fractured basement reservoir, central Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, Hugh; Schneider, Dave; Grasemann, Bernhard; Decker, Kurt

    2013-04-01

    The Pan-African Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), within which Yemen lies, formed as a result of Neoproterozoic collisional events between c. 870-550 Ma. Several subsequent phases of extension occurred, from the Mesozoic (due to the breakup of Gondwana) to the Recent (forming the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea). These resulted in the formation of numerous horst- and-graben structures and the development of fractured basement reservoirs in the southeast part of the ANS. Two drill cores from the Mesozoic Marib-Shabwa Basin, central Yemen, penetrated the upper part of the Pan-African basement. The cores show both a lithological and structural inhomogeneity, with variations in extension-related deformation structures such as dilatational breccias, open fractures and closed veins. At least three deformation events have been recognized: D1) Ductile to brittle NW-SE directed faulting during cooling of a granitic pluton. U-Pb zircon ages revealed an upper age limit for granite emplacement at 627±3.5 Ma. As these structures show evidence for ductile deformation, this event must have occurred during the Ediacaran, shortly after intrusion, since Rb/Sr and (U-Th)/He analyses show that subsequent re-heating of the basement did not take place. D2) The development of shallow dipping, NNE-SSW striking extensional faults that formed during the Upper Jurassic, simultaneously with the formation of the Marib-Shabwa Basin. These fractures are regularly cross-cut by D3. D3) Steeply dipping NNE-SSW to ENE-WSW veins that are consistent with the orientation of the opening of the Gulf of Aden. These faults are the youngest structures recognized. The formation of ductile to brittle faults in the granite (D1) resulted in a hydrothermally altered zone ca. 30 cm wide replacing (mainly) plagioclase with predominantly chlorite, as well as kaolinite and heavy element minerals such as pyrite. The alteration- induced porosity has an average value of 20%, indicating that the altered zone is potentially a

  1. Structural Architecture and Evolution of Kumkuli Basin, North Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Bizhu; Xu Zhiqin; Jiao Cunli; Cui Junwen; Wang Shenglang; Wang Gonghuai; Li Zhaoyang; Qiu Zhuli

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing the new data of gravity, magnetic, and magnetotelluric survey, we analyzed the characteristics of the three geophysical attribute (gravity, magnetic, and resistivity) interfaces and the deep architecture and structure of Kumkuli basin. The research results can provide basic data for early basin structural study. From coupled basin and mountain system, analysis of the structure, and evolution of Knmknli basin, we found that there was zoning from north to south and from west to east. Kumkuli basin has three structural architecture layers including metamorphic crystallization basement, fold basement and sedimentary cover. Knmkuli basin can be divided into three structural units, two depressions, and one uplift. Structural evolution of the Kumkuli basin can be divided into five evolution stages, including Kumkuli microcontinent formed in Sinian-Ordovician, suture around Kumkuli basin formed in Eopaleozoic, retroarc foreland basin formed in Neopaleozoic, rejuvenated foreland hasin developed in Mesozoic, and strike slip and compression basin developed in Cenozoic.

  2. Equity Oil Company BX in situ oil shale project, Piceance Basin, Colorado. Environmental quarter report, March 1-May 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-12

    This report has been organized into three sections for ease of review. Section A - Air Resources covers data collected by the 100-foot tower between September and December 1980. Section B - Water Resources covers data collected since the last Quarterly Report. Section C - Aquatic Biology covers data collected since January 1981. Laboratory analysis results of all water samples show no significant changes from previous sample have occurred. The alluvial wells did exhibit slightly higher concentrations of phenols. Presently no baseline record exists for these wells to establish the normal levels of phenols in the alluvial ground water. Laboratory analysis of all sampling locations are presented in Appendix B. Aquatic biology covers data collected during the initial two aquatic biology field sampling trips of 1981. Benthic invertebrates, periphyton algae, and a fishery survey was conducted. Stream observations indicate that the stream habitat has remained unchanged since the August 1980 field visit. (ATT)

  3. Area of coal-bearing Mesaverde Formation and Mesaverde Group, southern Piceance Basin assessment area, Colorado (psmvbndg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shape file and coverage of the top of the Rollins Sandstone Member. It outlines the area underlain by the coal-bearing Cameo/Fairfield coal group in the...

  4. Still more complexity in mammalian basement membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erickson, A C; Couchman, J R

    2000-01-01

    At the epithelial/mesenchymal interface of most tissues lies the basement membrane (BM). These thin sheets of highly specialized extracellular matrix vary in composition in a tissue-specific manner, and during development and repair. For about two decades it has been apparent that all BMs contain...

  5. ROCK1-directed basement membrane positioning coordinates epithelial tissue polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, William P; Gervais, Elise M; Centanni, Samuel W; Gulfo, Kathryn M; Nelson, Deirdre A; Larsen, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    The basement membrane is crucial for epithelial tissue organization and function. However, the mechanisms by which basement membrane is restricted to the basal periphery of epithelial tissues and the basement membrane-mediated signals that regulate coordinated tissue organization are not well defined. Here, we report that Rho kinase (ROCK) controls coordinated tissue organization by restricting basement membrane to the epithelial basal periphery in developing mouse submandibular salivary glands, and that ROCK inhibition results in accumulation of ectopic basement membrane throughout the epithelial compartment. ROCK-regulated restriction of PAR-1b (MARK2) localization in the outer basal epithelial cell layer is required for basement membrane positioning at the tissue periphery. PAR-1b is specifically required for basement membrane deposition, as inhibition of PAR-1b kinase activity prevents basement membrane deposition and disrupts overall tissue organization, and suppression of PAR-1b together with ROCK inhibition prevents interior accumulations of basement membrane. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of wild-type PAR-1b results in ectopic interior basement membrane deposition. Significantly, culture of salivary epithelial cells on exogenous basement membrane rescues epithelial organization in the presence of ROCK1 or PAR-1b inhibition, and this basement membrane-mediated rescue requires functional integrin β1 to maintain epithelial cell-cell adhesions. Taken together, these studies indicate that ROCK1/PAR-1b-dependent regulation of basement membrane placement is required for the coordination of tissue polarity and the elaboration of tissue structure in the developing submandibular salivary gland.

  6. Using the IODP Expedition 312 Vertical Seismic Profile to Investigate Sub-basement Reflections in Multi-Channel Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, S.; Swift, S. A.; Stephen, R. A.

    2008-05-01

    The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) initiated drilling at Site 1256D in the Guatemala Basin, about 1000km off the East Pacific Rise to penetrate plutonic rocks, anticipated to be relatively shallow in this region formed at an ultra- fast spreading rate. IODP Expedition E312 successfully drilled into gabbros at ~ 1150m in basement. Multi- channel seismic traces, although not processed for the purpose, show weak laterally-coherent sub-basement reflections at borehole depths (Hallenborg et. al., Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 108 No. B11, 2532, 2003). Synthetic reflectivity seismograms were computed using a Ricker wavelet and impedance profiles from borehole sonic logs. They strongly suggest the presence of significant sub-basement amplitude peaks - although attenuation has not been modeled. Zero-offset vertical seismic profiles were processed to investigate the authenticity of these reflections and interpret the geological features that caused them. A dual scheme of the median filtering and F-K dip filtering was used. Down-going energy is clearly identified but negligible up-going energy is visible over random noise. The absence of geophones above the basement prevents comparison of basement reflections with sub-basement ones, so that a critical energy level above the noise could be established to identify up-going energy. The negative results are consistent with the topography of geological horizons on horizontal scales less than the Fresnel Zone (~ 300m). This expedition is the first penetration through volcanic extrusives and dikes into plutonic basement. In such a setting, sub-basement reflections, if present, would have been accurately measured. Absence of such clear and comprehensible observations in this area strongly suggests that lava flows and igneous contacts in upper ocean crust have significant topography on lateral scales < 300 m due to igneous and tectonic processes.

  7. Gravitational salt tectonics above a rising basement plateau offshore Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaullier, Virginie; Vendeville, Bruno C.; Besème, Grégoire; Legoux, Gaetan; Déverchère, Jacques; Lymer, Gaël

    2017-04-01

    above the rising basement toward the deeper adjacent basins. So far, the deformation pattern of the salt and overburden on the plateau did not allow us to use it as a clear indicator of whether the plateau's rise started before or during Messinian times.

  8. 3D gravity inversion and uncertainty assessment of basement relief via Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallero, J. L. G.; Fernández-Martínez, J. L.; Bonvalot, S.; Fudym, O.

    2017-04-01

    Nonlinear gravity inversion in sedimentary basins is a classical problem in applied geophysics. Although a 2D approximation is widely used, 3D models have been also proposed to better take into account the basin geometry. A common nonlinear approach to this 3D problem consists in modeling the basin as a set of right rectangular prisms with prescribed density contrast, whose depths are the unknowns. Then, the problem is iteratively solved via local optimization techniques from an initial model computed using some simplifications or being estimated using prior geophysical models. Nevertheless, this kind of approach is highly dependent on the prior information that is used, and lacks from a correct solution appraisal (nonlinear uncertainty analysis). In this paper, we use the family of global Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) optimizers for the 3D gravity inversion and model appraisal of the solution that is adopted for basement relief estimation in sedimentary basins. Synthetic and real cases are illustrated, showing that robust results are obtained. Therefore, PSO seems to be a very good alternative for 3D gravity inversion and uncertainty assessment of basement relief when used in a sampling while optimizing approach. That way important geological questions can be answered probabilistically in order to perform risk assessment in the decisions that are made.

  9. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  10. Cracked and full of sand: microstructural insights into how oil gets into a crystalline basement reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Bob; McCaffrey, Ken; Dempsey, Eddie

    2017-04-01

    The fractured Neoarchaean orthogneisses forming the 200km long, NE-SW trending Rona Ridge lie offshore along the southeast margin of the Faroe-Shetland Basin (FSB). The basement ridge was uplifted during Cretaceous-age normal faulting and is flanked and immediately overlain by Devonian to Cretaceous cover sequences. Basement-hosted oil is known to occur in significant volumes in at least two fields (Clair, Lancaster). Re-Os dating of bitumen samples from the Clair Field suggests that oil was generated in the period 64-72Ma. A new microstructural study of basement cores was carried out to assess the mechanisms and timing of oil charge and other fracture-hosted mineralization. Oil charge is everywhere associated with quartz-adularia-calcite-pyrite mineralization and is hosted in a complex mesh of interconnected shear and tensile fractures that formed during a single protracted episode of brittle deformation. This association is recognized in all basement cores containing oil and also in locally overlying well-cemented Devonian (Lower Clair Group) and Jurassic (Rona Sandstone) sequences. Mineralization and oil charge is everywhere associated with clastic sedimentary infillings which occur either as vein-hosted injected slurries, or as little deformed laminated infills in mm to dm-scale open fractures. The latter preserve delicate way-up criteria and geopetal structures. The largest accumulations of oil are found either in these poorly-cemented sedimentary infills, or in fracture-hosted vuggy cavities up to several cm across. All these features, together with the widespread development of zoned mineral cements and cockade textures suggest a low-temperature hydrothermal system that likely formed in a near surface (process may have also helped to drive oil migration from the Jurassic source rocks located to the west in the FSB, through the basement ridge and up into the overlying Clair Group and other cover sequences during the 64-72Ma time period. Our findings have

  11. Detrital record of initial basement exhumation along the Laramide deformation front, southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Meredith A.; Horton, Brian K.; Murphy, Michael A.; Stockli, Daniel F.

    2016-09-01

    New geochronological constraints on upper crustal exhumation in the southern Rocky Mountains help delineate the latest Cretaceous-Paleogene history of drainage reorganization and landscape evolution during Laramide flat-slab subduction beneath western North America. Detrital zircon U-Pb results for the Raton basin of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico define the inception of coarse-grained siliciclastic sedimentation and a distinctive shift in provenance, from distal to proximal sources, that recorded shortening-related uplift and unroofing along the Laramide deformation front of the northern Sangre de Cristo Mountains. This Maastrichtian-early Paleocene ( 70-65 Ma) change—from distal foreland accumulation of sediment derived from the thin-skinned Cordilleran (Sevier) fold-thrust belt to coarse-grained sedimentation proximal to a Laramide basement block uplift—reflects cratonward (eastward) deformation advance and reorganization of drainage systems that supplied a large volume of Paleocene-lower Eocene sediments to the Gulf of Mexico. The timing of unroofing along the eastern deformation front is synchronous with basement-involved shortening across the interior of the Laramide province, suggesting abrupt wholesale uplift rather than a systematic inboard advance of deformation. The growth and infilling of broken foreland basins within the interior and margins of the Laramide province had a significant impact on continental-scale drainage systems, as several ponded/axial Laramide basins trapped large volumes of sediment and induced reorganization of major source-to-sink sediment pathways.

  12. BASIN STRUCTURE FROM TWO-DIMENSIONAL SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA, CRAZY MOUNTAINS BASIN, MONTANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Taylor

    2003-08-01

    Some 140 miles of multichannel seismic reflection data, acquired commercially in the 1970's, were reprocessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in late 2000 and early 2001 to interpret the subsurface geology of the Crazy Mountains Basin, an asymmetric Laramide foreland basin located in south-central Montana. The seismic data indicate that the northwestern basin margin is controlled by a thrust fault that places basement rocks over a thick (22,000 feet) sequence of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks to the south. From the deep basin trough, Paleozoic through Tertiary rocks slope gently upward to the south and southeast. The northern boundary of the basin, which is not imaged well by the seismic data, appears to be folded over a basement ridge rather than being truncated against a fault plane. Seismic data along the basin margin to the south indicate that several fault controlled basement highs may have been created by thin-skinned tectonics where a series of shallow thrust faults cut Precambrian, Paleozoic, and early Mesozoic rocks, whereas, in contrast, Cretaceous and Tertiary strata are folded. The data are further interpreted to indicate that this fault-bounded asymmetric basin contains several structures that possibly could trap hydrocarbons, provided source rocks, reservoirs, and seals are present. In addition, faults in the deep basin trough may have created enough fracturing to enhance porosity, thus developing ''sweet spots'' for hydrocarbons in basin-centered continuous gas accumulations.

  13. Characteristics of seismostratigraphy and analysis of structural- lithofacies in the southern Yellow Sea Cenozoic basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the upper structural layer of the southern Yellow Sea Basin (SYSB) is further divided into three layers based on the latest obtained high-resolution single-channel seismic profiles. Combined with the borehole data, the characteristics and evolvement of structure and environment since middle-late Tertiary are discussed. The study shows that the acoustic-base indicated by shallow seismic profiles represents the basic shape of the SYSB in late Oligocene-early Miocene. Based on the comprehensive analysis of some typical profiles crossing the basin about seismostratigraphy, gravity and magnetics, the basin edge fault and some basin inner structure are identified. Furthermore, the acoustic-base is classified into four types of basal lithofacies: Eogene basin basement, Paleozoic basement, Mesozoic basement and magma intrusion basement.

  14. Successor Characteristics of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Songliao Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongquan; Timothy KUSKY; YING Danlin; GUO Xiaoyu; LI Hongkui

    2008-01-01

    The Songliao basin is a complex successor basin that was initiated in the Mesozoic and experienced multiple periods of reactivation. Based on seismic and drilling data, as well as regional geologic research, we suggest that the Songliao basin contains several different successor basins resting on top of Carboniferous-Permian folded strata forming the basement to the Songliao basin. These basins include the Triassic-Mid Jurassic Paleo-foreland basin, the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous downfaulted basin, and an early Cretaceous depressed basin (since the Denglouku Group). This paper presents a systematic study of the basin-mountain interactions, and reveals that there are different types of prototype basin at different geologic times. These prototype basins sequentially superimposed and formed the large Songliao basin. Discovery of the Triassic-early Middle Jurassic paleo-foreland basin fills a Triassic-early Middle Jurassic gap in the geologic history of the Songliao basin. The paleoforeland basin, downfaulted basin, and depressed thermal subsidence basin all together represent the whole Mesozoic-Cenozoic geologic history and deformation of the Songliao basin. Discovery of the Triassic-early Middle Jurassic paleo-foreland basin plays an important role both for deep natural gas exploration and the study of basin-mountain coupling in north China and eastern China in general. This example gives dramatic evidence that we should give much more attention to the polyphase tectonic evolution of related basins for the next phase of exploration and study.

  15. Basement membrane proteoglycans are of epithelial origin in rodent skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamane, Y; Yaoita, H; Couchman, J R

    1996-01-01

    proteoglycan and rat and mouse perlecan. While the isolated rat epidermis was shown to completely lack rat basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and rat basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans, including perlecan, immunofluorescence staining of tissue sections from the grafted sites......-epidermal junction and hair follicle epithelium are of epidermal (epithelial) origin in vivo. Stratified rat keratinocytes cultured on a collagen matrix at the air-liquid interface showed the synthesis of perlecan, laminin 1, and type IV collagen in basement membranes, but not clearly detectable basement membrane...

  16. Stratigraphic architecture of Devonian lacustrine basins of northern Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Thorben; Moreau, Julien; Andrews, Steven D.

    In Northeastern Scotland, the Orcadian Basin hosted large lacustrine systems which developed during Devonian times (c. 400 Ma). The pre-Devonian metamorphic basement unconformity is only exposed in a small number of places around the basin margin and therefore the characterization of the nature o...

  17. Garzon Massif basement tectonics: A geopyhysical study, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakioglu, Kadir Baris

    The mechanics and kinematics of basement tectonic uplifts, such as the Laramide Rocky Mountain orogeny, remain poorly understood and controversial. The debate continues in part because of the limited number of well-documented present day analogs. The Garzon Massif rising between the Upper Magdalena Valley and the Llanos Basin of Colombia is an active basement uplift with well, seismic, gravity, and magnetic data available. In the past 10 Ma, PreCambrian age granitic rocks of the Garzon Massif have been uplifted and displaced against Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments of the Upper Magdalena Valley along the Garzon fault. Aerogravimetric data calibrated by well data and 2D seismic data were used to model the geometry of the Garzon fault and the top of basement (Saldana Fm) in 2 dimensions. The density models provide an independent estimate of fault orientation. A high density airborne gravity and magnetic survey were flown over the Garzon fault in 2000, including 2,663 line km along 1 x 5 and 1 x 4 km flight lines at elevations of 2564 and 4589 m above mean sea level. An initial depth model was derived from the well logs, seismic reflection profile, and down-hole velocity surveys. Airborne gravity data was used to produce a Bouguer anomaly gravity map. Average rock densities were estimated from density logs, seismic velocities, and formation rock types. The regional gravity field was estimated and 2-dimensional forward models were constructed with average densities from the wells, seismic velocities, and rock types, and the initial depth model. Since the model fit is dependent on the density assumed for the Garzon Massif rocks, multiple densities and dip angles were tested. The gravity analysis indicates that the Garzon fault is a basement thrust fault dipping at a shallow angle under the Massif. Best-fit models show a true dip of 12 to 17 degrees to the southeast. A regional density and magnetic susceptibility model of the entire Massif is consistent with dense

  18. Basement structure of the United Arab Emirates derived from an analysis of regional gravity and aeromagnetic database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. Y.; Fairhead, J. D.; Green, C. M.; Noufal, A.

    2017-08-01

    Gravity and aeromagnetic data covering the whole territory of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have been used to evaluate both shallow and deep geological structures, in particular the depth to basement since it is not imaged by seismic data anywhere within the UAE. Thus, the aim has been to map the basement so that its structure can help to assess its control on the distribution of hydrocarbons within the UAE. Power spectrum analysis reveals gravity and magnetic signatures to have some similarities, in having two main density/susceptibility interfaces widely separated in depth such that regional-residual anomaly separation could effectively be undertaken. The upper density/susceptibility interface occurs at a depth of about 1.0 km while the deeper interface varies in depth throughout the UAE. For gravity, this deeper interface is assumed to be due to the combined effect of lateral changes in density structures within the sediments and in depth of basement while for magnetics it is assumed the sediments have negligible susceptibility and the anomalies unrelated to the volcanic/magmatic bodies result from only changes in depth to basement. The power spectrum analysis over the suspect volcanic/magmatic bodies indicates they occur at 5 km depth. The finite tilt-depth and finite local wavenumber methods were used to estimate depth to source and only depths that agree to within 10% of each other were used to generate the depth to basement map. This depth to basement map, to the west of the UAE-Oman Mountains, varies in depth from 5 km to in excess of 15 km depth and is able to structurally account for the location of the shear structures, seen in the residual magnetic data, and the location of the volcanic/magmatic centres relative to a set of elongate N-S to NE-SW trending basement highs. The majority of oilfields in the UAE are located within these basement highs. Therefore, the hydrocarbon distribution in the UAE basin appears to be controlled by the location of the

  19. Tectonic heat flow modelling for basin maturation - Implications for frontier areas in the mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Bonte, D.; Nelskamp, S.

    2009-01-01

    Basement heat flow is one of the most influential parameters on basin maturity. Although rapid progress has been made in the development of tectonic models capable of modelling the thermal consequences of basin formation, these models are hardly used in basin modelling. To better predict heat flows

  20. The Feature of Sedimentary, Structure and the Laws of Hydrocarbon Distribution in Erlian Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wenchao; Du Jinhu; Xu Wenbin; Wang Hongsheng; He Shuping

    1996-01-01

    @@ Introduction Erlian Basin is one of the ten biggest oil/gas-bearing basins in China. It is a faulted lake basin developed in Early Cretaceous on the basement of Paleozoic fold. The total area is 100 000 km2, There are altogether 49 sags bulging alternatively, totaling about 55 000 km2 (Fig. 1).

  1. Mapping of Basement Faults with Gravity and Magnetic Data at NE Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutsis, V.; Krivosheya, K.; Tamez Ponce, A.

    2012-04-01

    Northeast Mexico is essentially the juncture of two distinctly different tectono-stratigraphic provinces, the eastern Gulf of Mexico (Coastal Plane, Sierra Madre Oriental) province and the western Pacific Mexico (Rivera plate, Meso-American trench, Sierra Madre Occidental) province (Goldhammer & Johnson, 2001). Tectonic evolution in northeast Mexico is dominated by divergent-margin development associated with the opening of the Gulf of Mexico and overprinted by non-igneous Laramide orogenic effects (Pindell et al., 1988). The structural grain of northeast Mexico consists of Triassic to Liassic fault-controlled basement blocks, the development of which reflects in part late Paleozoic orogenic patterns of metamorphism and igneous intrusion (Wilson, 1990). There are different tectonic provinces which are recognized interpreting the basement and sediment cover of this area: Coahuila block, La Popa sub-basin, Sabinas basin, Burgos basin, Sierra Madre Oriental (Monterrey trough), and Parras basin. Mojave-Sonora megashear and San Marcos fault (Chavez-Cabello et al., 2007) are two principal fault zones crossing the northeast Mexico in NW-SE direction. This paper is presented the integral analysis of the gravity and magnetic data in the northeast Mexico. Complementing with a Digital Model of Elevations (DME) that combined with the review of previous geological studies it serves to compare the surface structures and blocks of basement in this area. Also the separation of the most important tectonic blocks was done, and 2.5D geological-geophysical model was finally developed. This model represents in a general way the principal structural characteristics of northeast Mexico. Gravity and magnetic data analysis was used with purpose to study the structure of the substrata in order to allow modeling of the basement structure and its relation with the sedimentary cover features. The Bouguer gravity and the total field aeromagnetic data were supplied by Geological Survey of Mexico

  2. The offshore basement of Perú: Evidence for different igneous and metamorphic domains in the forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Darwin; Valencia, Kiko; Alarcón, Pedro; Peña, Daniel; Ramos, Victor A.

    2013-03-01

    As a result of new studies carried out in the offshore of Perú during the exploration and hydrocarbon evaluation of the forearc basins, new U-Pb SHRIMP and TIMS in zircons and some Ar-Ar data were obtained in the metamorphic and igneous basement. The understanding of this basement was critical to evaluate different hypotheses that have been proposed for the tectonic evolution of pre-Andean crust of Perú. Recent research performed in the basement rocks of the Marañón Massif in northern Perú, claimed that west of this area was a basement-free region in the Paleozoic, where the arc and forearc were developed in a mafic quasi-oceanic crust. However, petrographic studies and new preliminary ages indicate, for the first time, the nature and age of this sialic basement. Reconnaissance studies were performed in several offshore islands, as the Las Hormigas de Afuera Island west of Lima, and Macabí and Lobera islands along the edge of the continental platform. These data were complemented with the studies of some cutting samples obtained in recent exploration wells in northern Perú. The results of the present work show two large crustal domains in the Peruvian offshore forearc. A northern domain contains late Paleozoic igneous rocks that appear to be the southern offshore continuation of the Amotape-Tahuin block, which is interpreted as the southernmost remnant of the Laurentia Alleghenian orogen. The central offshore domain, known as the Paracas High, corresponds to the outer shelf high of previous studies. It contains orthogneisses of Grenville-age, probably recrystallized during an Ordovician magmatic episode. The new results show that the central offshore of Perú is an extension of the Grenville-age basement affected by Famatinian, early Paleozoic magmatism, well exposed in the southern domain in the Arequipa Massif along the coast of southern Perú.

  3. The major basement membrane components localize to the chondrocyte pericellular matrix--a cartilage basement membrane equivalent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Alexander J.; Nyström, Alexander; Hultenby, Kjell;

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that articular cartilage chondrocytes are surrounded by the defining basement membrane proteins laminin, collagen type IV, nidogen and perlecan, and suggest that these form the functional equivalent of a basement membrane. We found by real-time PCR that mouse chondro...... to the progression of degenerative joint disorders....

  4. Basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is abnormally associated with the glomerular capillary basement membrane of diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Abrahamson, D R; Bynum, K R;

    1994-01-01

    We have previously reported the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAb) recognizing the core protein of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG). Using immunohistochemical techniques, we have shown that BM-CSPG is present in almost every basement membrane, one...

  5. Deforming Etna's Basement: Implications for Edifice stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Richard; Benson, Philip; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2013-04-01

    At over 3 kilometers in height, Mt. Etna (Italy) is the largest volcano of continental Europe. The volcano formed on top of the alpine fold and thrust belt, with basaltic outflows lying unconformably on top of an alternation between sandstones, limestones and clays. Presently Etna's eastern flank is moving with speeds up to 2cm/yr to the east [Tibaldi and Groppelli, 2002]. It is the sequence of layers below the volcano that is thought to provide a complex, structurally controlled, mechanism to the volcano deformation as a whole. This is due to the interplay of gravitational forces, volcanic pressurization, and regional tectonics, which combine to play a complex role that remains poorly understood, especially when the physical and mechanical properties of the rocks are considered. In this study, we concentrate on the rock mechanical component, and in particular the formation known as Comiso Limestone. This limestone forms of one of the key lithologies of Etna's basement. The formation has been suggested to be affected by thermal weakening [Heap et al., 2013]. Previous work on Comiso Limestone suggests brittle behavior for the range of temperatures (up to 760 ˚C) and a significant reduction in strength with higher temperatures. [Mollo et al., 2011]. Chiodini et al [2011], speculate carbonate assimilation. This implies that the Carbondioxide created by decarbonatization, is able to escape. Using an internally heated "Paterson" type pressure vessel, we recreated conditions at 2-4 km depth (50-100 MPa) and using an anomalously high geotherm, as expected in volcanic settings (ranging from room to 600 ˚C). With the addition of confining pressure, we show a brittle to ductile transition occurs at a relatively low temperature of 300 ˚C. A significant decrease in strength occurs when the rock is exposed to temperatures exceeding 400 ˚C. In addition, we observe a significant difference in mechanical behavior between vented and unvented situations when decarbonatization is

  6. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Basement Insulation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes research on basement insulation, which identifies the wall installation methods and materials that perform best in terms of insulation and water resistance.

  7. Expression of VLA-integrins and their related basement membrane ligands in gingiva from patients of various periodontitis categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürses, N.; Thorup, Alis Karabulut; Reibel, J.;

    1999-01-01

    integrins, basement membrane, gingiva, periodontitis, periodontal disease activity immunofluorescence......integrins, basement membrane, gingiva, periodontitis, periodontal disease activity immunofluorescence...

  8. Basement domain map of the conterminous United States and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karen; Box, Stephen E.; Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.; San Juan, Carma A.; Blakely, Richard J.; Saltus, Richard W.; Anderson, Eric D.; DeWitt, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The basement-domain map is a compilation of basement domains in the conterminous United States and Alaska designed to be used at 1:5,000,000-scale, particularly as a base layer for national-scale mineral resource assessments. Seventy-seven basement domains are represented as eighty-three polygons on the map. The domains are based on interpretations of basement composition, origin, and architecture and developed from a variety of sources. Analysis of previously published basement, lithotectonic, and terrane maps as well as models of planetary development were used to formulate the concept of basement and the methodology of defining domains that spanned the ages of Archean to present but formed through different processes. The preliminary compilations for the study areas utilized these maps, national-scale gravity and aeromagnetic data, published and limited new age and isotopic data, limited new field investigations, and conventional geologic maps. Citation of the relevant source data for compilations and the source and types of original interpretation, as derived from different types of data, are provided in supporting descriptive text and tables.

  9. AUTOIMMUNE BASEMENT MEMBRANE AND SUBEPIDERMAL BLISTERING DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune mucocutaneous blistering diseases (ABDs represent a group of conditions that manifest with blisters on the skin and/or mucous membranes. Bullous pemphigoid (BP is the most common autoimmune mucocutaneous blistering disease. In BP, the location of the blisters is subepidermal and the oral involvement is rare. Variants of BP have been described, including pemphigoid vegetans; however, this disease is not completely characterized. The majority of ABDs have blisters and/or vesicles, that are often pruritic, and manifest autoantibodies to diverse proteins. These proteins include 1 hemidesmosomal plaque proteins(ie, BP230, plectins, 2 transmembrane proteins such as BP180 and α6β4-integrin, which are connected via laminin 332 to type VII collagen and 3 currently uncharacterized 105 kDa and 200 kDa molecules. Other ABDs include drug-induced linear IgA disease, bullous systemic lupus erythematosus (BSLE, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH, cicatricial pemphigoid (CP; also termed mucous membrane pemphigoid, lichen planus pemphigoides (LPP, pemphigoid gestationis (PG, herpes gestationis(HG, chronic bullous dermatosis of childhood (CBDC and the localized forms of CP, such as Brunsting-Perry pemphigoid. The diagnosis of ABDs requires clinical data; skin biopsies (in 10% buffered formalin for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E examination and skin biopsies(in Michel’s transport medium for direct immunofluorescence (DIF. In many ABDs, the histopathologic findings demonstrate a subepidermal vesicle or bulla with a luminal inflammatory infiltrate of neutrophils, eosinophils and/or lymphocytes. In many ABDs, an extensive perivascular and interstitial inflammatory infiltrate is also noted subjacent to the blister in the upper dermis. Normal skin adjacent to an ABD plaque is often excellent for DIF results. Many ABD biopsies reveal autoantibody deposition at the lesional basement membrane zone (BMZ; IgG, IgM, IgA, other immunoglobulins, complement components and

  10. Basement Fault Reactivation by Fluid Injection into Sedimentary Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Eichhubl; Fan, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Many suspected injection-induced earthquakes occur in crystalline basement rather than in the overlying sedimentary injection reservoir. To address why earthquakes nucleate in the basement rather than the injection layer we investigate the relationship between pore pressure diffusion, rock matrix deformation, and induced fault reactivation through 3D fully coupled poroelastic finite element models. These models simulate the temporal and spatial perturbation of pore pressure and solid stresses within a basement fault that extends into overlying sedimentary layers and that is conductive for flow along the fault but a barrier for flow across. We compare the effects of direct pore pressure communication and indirect poroelastic stress transfer from the injection reservoir to the fault on increasing the Coulomb failure stress that could reactivate the basement fault for normal, reverse, and strike-slip faulting stress regimes. Our numerical results demonstrate that volumetric expansion of the reservoir causes a bending of the fault near the injector and induces shear tractions along the downdip direction of the fault in the basement. These induced shear tractions act to increase the Coulomb failure stress for a normal faulting stress regime, and decrease the Coulomb failure stress for a reverse faulting regime. For a strike-slip faulting stress regime, the induced shear tractions increase the Coulomb failure stress both in the reservoir and basement. The induced normal traction on the fault reduces the Coulomb failure stress in all three tectonic regimes, but is larger in the reservoir than in the basement due to the more pronounced poroelastic effect in the reservoir. As a result, strike-slip stress regimes favor fault reactivation in the basement. Whereas the magnitude of the direct pore pressure increase exceeds the magnitude of induced poroelastic stress change, the poroelastic stress change increases the Coulomb failure stress in the basement fault for the normal

  11. The role of mechanical heterogeneities in evaporite sequence during deformation initiated by basement fault activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamuszek, Marta; Dabrowski, Marcin; Burliga, Stanisław

    2016-04-01

    Kłodawa Salt Structure (KSS) situated in the centre of the Polish Zechstein Basin started to rise above a basement fault in the Early Triassic. Geological studies of the KSS revealed significant differences in the deformation patterns between the PZ1-PZ2 (intensely deformed) and PZ3-PZ4 (less deformed) cycle evaporites. These two older and two younger cycle evaporite complexes are separated by the thick Main Anhydrite (A3) bed. We use numerical simulations to assess the impact of a thick anhydrite bed on intrasalt deformation. In our models, the overburden consists of clastic sediments. A normal fault located in the rigid basement beneath the salt is activated due to model extension. At the same time, the sedimentation process takes place. The evaporites consist of a salt bed intercalated with a thick anhydrite layer of varying position and geometry. To understand the role of anhydrite layer, we run comparative simulations, in which no anhydrite layer is present. In the study, we use our own numerical codes implemented in MATLAB combined with the MILAMIN and MUTILS numerical packages. Our investigations revealed a significant influence of the anhydrite on deformation style in the evaporate series. The supra-anhydrite domain is characterized by weaker deformation and lower rates of salt flow in comparison to the sub-anhydrite domain. The highest contrast in the rate of salt flow between the two domains is observed in the case of the anhydrite layer situated close to the bottom of the salt complex. The thick anhydrite layer additionally diminishes the deformation rate in the supra-anhydrite domain and can lead to detachment of the basement deformation from its overlay. Our numerical simulations showed that the presence of the A3 Main Anhydrite bed could be the dominant factor responsible for the decoupling of deformation in the KSS salt complex.

  12. Examination of the Basement of Historic Buildings in Investment Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulybin Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process and methodology of the survey of basements rarely mentioned in the various construction rules and regulations. Basically describes the procedure of conducting a detailed survey of some of the individual elements. These surveys are fundamental in nature, include a large number of estimates and require significant financial and time costs. Usually the purpose of these surveys is to check the state of the building as a whole, it’s safe operation or before starting of reconstruction. In the process of selecting areas of investment activity such large-scale survey is not possible. Needed a quick and inexpensive method intended for decision about investment in a particular object. At the same time, the survey should cover all the elements of the basement significantly affect the cost of reconstruction of the basement associated with his penetration. The article presents the general conception of conducting a rapid survey. The described methods and technologies applicable to the examination for the purpose of making decisions about investments in reconstruction of a basement level rooms. The composition of the works and their sequence. A comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of different methods. The practical examples. Scheme of conducting a rapid survey of the basement. The article analyzes the materials used in the construction of historic buildings in St. Petersburg.

  13. Basement geology and tectonic development of the greater New Zealand region: an interpretation from regional magnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rupert

    1999-07-01

    The basement geology of New Zealand is composed of early Palaeozoic terranes of the Western Province, that are separated from late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic Eastern Province terranes by a suite of Carboniferous-Cretaceous arc-related igneous rocks (Median Tectonic Zone, MTZ). The Stokes Magnetic Anomaly System (SMAS) is associated with MTZ rocks and volcanogenic basement terranes of the Eastern Province. Offshore, it can be traced north along the northern margin of the New Caledonia Basin, and correlative Eastern Province rocks are found in New Caledonia. It can also be traced south across the Great South Basin, until a significant ENE-trending tectonic boundary is encountered on the central Campbell Plateau. This boundary is defined by linear gravity and magnetic anomalies (Campbell Magnetic Anomaly System, CMAS), and narrow fault-bounded sedimentary basins. If the sources of CMAS anomalies are correlative with those of the SMAS, then magnetic data require a ˜400 km dextral offset of basement rocks by faults along the northern margin of the CMAS prior to 80 Ma. The geometry of correlative Western Province and MTZ rocks in Marie Byrd Land supports the hypothesis that CMAS anomalies are sourced by MTZ-correlative rocks. A NNE-trending boundary on the central Challenger Plateau marks a change from high amplitude magnetic anomalies to weakly magnetic basement, and appears to represent a fundamental change in crustal character. The western Challenger Plateau and Lord Howe Rise (south of 30°S) are characterised by high amplitude magnetic and gravity anomalies with a NW-trending fabric, but the source of magnetic anomalies is unresolved. The magnetic character, combined with Cretaceous reconstruction, supports basement rock correlations with the east Lachlan Fold Belt or New England Fold Belt in Australia, rather than Western Province rocks in New Zealand. The magnetic signature of marginal ocean crust around New Zealand also offers clues into the region's tectonic history

  14. Laminations and microgranule formation in pediatric glomerular basement membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Randall; Crespo-Salgado, Janice; Aviles, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Glomerular basement membrane (GBM) splitting, laminations, and microgranular formation are classically encountered with Alport disease, but can be found in other glomerular diseases. We found moderate to marked GBM laminations/microgranular formations in 51 of 724 (7%) pediatric diagnostic renal biopsies. These included 12 Alport disease, 12 thin basement membrane disease (TBM), 13 mesangial hypercellularity (MH), 6 focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and 8 other diseases. Follow-up demonstrated progression in most of the Alport disease and FSGS, as expected, but also in 40% of TBM and 30% of MH. Basement membrane laminations/microgranular formations are not specific for Alport disease, may represent a non-specific injury, and may herald a progressive clinical course.

  15. Sulfur isotope evidence for penetration of MVT fluids into igneous basement rocks, southeast Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, K. L.; Burstein, I. B.; Hagni, R. D.; Vierrether, C. B.; Grant, S. K.; Hennigh, Q. T.; Bradley, M. F.; Brandom, R. T.

    1995-08-01

    Previous studies of galena and sphalerite from Paleozoic MVT deposits in the Viburnum Trend, southeast Missouri documented large variations in δ34S values throughout the ore-forming event. The present study of Cu-Fe-sulfides reveals a similar δ34S variation that reflects two end-member sulfur reservoirs whose relative importance varied both temporally and spatially. More 34S-enriched sulfides (δ34S approaching 25‰) indicate introduction of sulfur from basinal sedimentary sources, whereas more 32S-enriched sulfides (δ34S Precambrian, igneous-hosted FeCu mineralization in southeast Missouri (West and Central Domes of Boss-Bixby) were investigated to elucidate their relationship to Cu-rich MVT orebodies hosted nearby within the overlying Cambrian Bonneterre Dolomite. Mineralization at Boss-Bixby is composed of an early phase of iron oxide deposition followed by Cu-Fe-sulfides. The Central Dome is faulted and its mineralization is more fracture-controlled than the typically podiform ores of the West Dome. The δ34S values of West Dome sulfides are 0.9 to 6.5‰ and pyrite-chalcopyrite indicate a temperature of 525° ± 50 °C. These data indicate an igneous source of sulfur during Precambrian ore deposition. In contrast, δ34S values of Central Dome sulfides are 9.4 to 20.0‰ and pyrite-chalcopyrite indicate temperatures of 275° ± 50 °C. Similar δ34S values are obtained for chalcopyrite from the overlying MVT deposits. We speculate that deeply circulating, basin-derived MVT fluids mobilized sulfur and copper from the underlying igneous basement and redeposited them in overlying Curich MVT orebodies, as well as overprinting earlier Precambrian sulfides of the Central Dome with a later, Paleozoic MVT sulfur isotope signature. Many models for MVT fluid circulation in the Midcontinent region of North America assume that igneous basement rocks are an impermeable boundary, but in southeast Missouri, evidence exists for structurally controlled MVT fluid movement

  16. Potential links between porphyry copper deposits and exhumed metamorphic basement complexes in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Frances; Docherty, Alistair; Perkins, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) are typically associated with magmatic arcs in compressional subduction zone settings where thickened crust and fractionated calc-alkaline magmas produce favourable conditions for copper mineralisation. A classic example is the Eocene-Oligocene PCD belt of Chile, the world's leading copper producing country. In other parts of the world, older late Cretaceous to early Tertiary PCDs are found in regions of former subduction-related magmatism that have undergone subsequent post-orogenic crustal extension, such as the Basin and Range province of western North America, and the Eurasian Balkan-Carpathian-Dinaride belt. In the Basin and Range there is a striking correlation between the location of many PCDs and exhumed metamorphic core complexes (isolated remnants of the middle to lower crust exhumed during extensional normal faulting). This close spatial relationship raises questions about the links between the two. For example, are their exhumation histories related? Could the presence of impermeable metamorphic rocks at depth affect and localise mineralising fluids? In Chile there appears to be a similar spatial relationship between PCDs and isolated outcrops of exhumed metamorphic basement. In northern Chile, isolated exposures of high-grade metamorphic gneisses and amphibolites are thought to be exhumed remnants of the pre-subduction Proterozoic-Paleozoic continental margin of Gondwana [2], although little is known about when they were exhumed and by what mechanism. For example, the Limón Verde metamorphic complex, exhumed from a depth of ca. 50 km, is situated adjacent to Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world. In northernmost Chile, another metamorphic exposure, the Belén complex, sits close to the Dos Hermanos PCD, a small deposit that is not actively mined. Comprising garnet-bearing gneisses and amphibolites, the Belén is thought to have been exhumed from a depth of ca. 25 km, but when and how is unclear [3

  17. Lateral continuity of basement seismic reflections in 15 Ma ultrafast-spreading crust at ODP Site 1256

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Swift, Stephen A.

    2011-09-01

    The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) initiated drilling at Site 1256D in the Guatemala Basin, about 1,000 km off the East Pacific Rise to penetrate plutonic rocks, anticipated to be relatively shallow in this region, formed at an ultra-fast spreading rate. IODP Expedition E312 successfully drilled into gabbros at ~1,150 m in basement. Multi-channel seismic traces show weak laterally coherent sub-basement reflections at borehole depths. Synthetic reflectivity seismograms were computed using a Ricker wavelet and impedance profiles from borehole sonic logs. These seismograms show significant sub-basement amplitude peaks. A zero-offset vertical seismic profile, shot on E312, was processed to investigate the authenticity of these reflections and their relationship to borehole geology. A dual scheme of the median filtering and F-K dip filtering was used. Tests with synthetic seismograms indicate the approach is effective at reasonable SNR levels. Downgoing energy is clearly identified but negligible upgoing energy is visible over random noise. These results indicate that lava flows and igneous contacts in upper ocean crust have significant topography on lateral scales less than the Fresnel Zone (~300 m) due to igneous and tectonic processes.

  18. The Aquitaine basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biteau, J.-J.; Le Marrec, A.; Le Vot, M.; Masset, J.-M.

    2006-07-01

    The Aquitaine Basin is located in the southwest of France, between the Gironde Arch in the north and the Pyrenean Mountain Chain in the south. It is a triangular-shaped domain, extending over 35000km{sup 2}. From north to south, six main geological provinces can be identified: (1) the Medoc Platform located south of the Gironde Arch; (2) the Parentis sub-basin; (3) the Landes Saddle; (4) the North Aquitaine Platform; (5) the foreland of the Pyrenees (also known as the Adour, Arzacq and Comminges sub-basins); and (6) the Pyrenean fold-and-thrust belt. Only the Parentis sub-basin, the foreland of the Pyrenean Chain and a minor part of the fold-and-thrust belt itself are proven hydrocarbon provinces. The Aquitaine Basin, in turn, is subdivided into four sub-basins - the Parentis, Adour-Arzacq, Tarbes and Comminges areas. The lozenge shape of these depocentres is related to the Hercynian tectonic framework of the Palaeozoic basement, reactivated during Early Cretaceous rifting. This rift phase aborted at the end of the Albian (prior to the development of an oceanic crust) in response to the beginning of the subduction of the Iberian plate under the European plate. During the Upper Cretaceous, continued subduction led to the creation of northwards-migrating flexural basins. In the Eocene, a paroxysmal phase of compression was responsible for the uplift of the Pyrenean Mountain Chain and for the thin-skinned deformation of the foreland basin. The resulting structuration is limited to the south by the internal core of the chain and to the north by the leading edge of the fold-and-thrust belt, where the Lacq and Meillon gas fields are located. Four main petroleum provinces have been exploited since the Second World War: (1) the oil-prone Parentis sub-basin and (2) salt ridges surrounding the Arzacq and Tarbes sub-basins; and (3) the gas-prone southern Arzacq sub-basin (including the external Pyrenean fold-and-thrust belt and the proximal foreland sub-basin) and (4

  19. Coarctation induces alterations in basement membranes in the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipke, D W; McCarthy, K J; Elton, T S

    1993-01-01

    A coarctation hypertensive rat model was used to examine the effects of elevated blood pressure on basement membrane component synthesis by cardiac myocytes and aorta using immunohistochemistry and Northern blot analysis. Carotid arterial pressure increased immediately on coarctation, and left ve...

  20. Abnormal glomerular basement membrane in idiopathic multicentric osteolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, SJL; Vos, GD; Verschure, PDMM; Mulder, AH; Tiebosch, TMG

    1996-01-01

    The primary cause of nephropathy in idiopathic multicentric osteolysis is as yet unknown. We report a young girl with idiopathic multicentric osteolysis and nephropathy. An abnormal glomerular basement membrane was the only abnormality found in a renal biopsy taken 2 years before the development of

  1. Expression of basement membrane antigens in spindle cell melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, V G; Woodruff, J M

    1998-07-01

    Spindle cell melanoma (SCM) is an uncommon form of melanoma that may be confused histologically with other tumors, including malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). Tumors with neural differentiation and melanocytic nevi may both show basement membrane immunohistochemically and at the ultrastructural level. However, most ultrastructural studies of melanoma have failed to demonstrate well formed basement membrane around tumor cells. The presence of basement membrane has been used by some authors as evidence favoring MPNST, as opposed to SCM. To evaluate this distinction immunohistochemically, 22 primary and metastatic cutaneous melanomas having a spindle cell component (SCM) were studied using monoclonal antibodies against laminin and Type IV collagen. S100 protein and HMB45 antigen expression were also studied. All but one of the SCM were reactive for S100 protein in at least 25% of the cells. Thirteen of 20 tumors (65%) were focally reactive with HMB45. Laminin was expressed in 42% of the tumors (only membranous pattern in 3; cytoplasmic and membranous in 5). Seventeen tumors (77%) expressed type IV collagen (only membranous pattern in 7; cytoplasmic and membranous pattern in 10). Laminin and type IV collagen, known components of basement membrane, are often found in SCM. Therefore, their detection cannot be used to distinguish SCM from MPNST.

  2. Basement - Cover decoupling and progressive exhumation of metamorphic sediments at hot rifted margin. Insights from the Northeastern Pyrenean analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Camille; Lagabrielle, Yves; Labaume, Pierre; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Vauchez, Alain; Nalpas, Thierry; Bousquet, Romain; Ballard, Jean-François; Lahfid, Abdeltif; Fourcade, Serge

    2016-08-01

    We compile field data collected along the eastern part of the North Pyrenean Zone (NPZ) to point to a tectonic evolution under peculiar thermal conditions applying to the basin sediments in relation with the opening of the Cretaceous Pyrenean rift. Based on this compilation, we show that when thinning of the continental crust increased, isotherms moved closer to the surface with the result that the brittle-ductile transition propagated upward and reached sediments deposited at the early stage of the basin opening. During the continental breakup, the pre-rift Mesozoic cover was efficiently decoupled from the Paleozoic basement along the Triassic evaporite level and underwent drastic ductile thinning and boudinage. We suggest that the upper Albian and upper Cretaceous flysches acted as a blanket allowing temperature increase in the mobile pre-rift cover. Finally, we show that continuous spreading of the basin floor triggered the exhumation of the metamorphic, ductily sheared pre-rift cover, thus contributing to the progressive thinning of the sedimentary pile. In a second step, we investigate the detailed geological records of such a hot regime evolution along a reference-section of the eastern NPZ. We propose a balanced restoration from the Mouthoumet basement massif (north) to the Boucheville Albian basin (south). This section shows a north to south increase in the HT Pyrenean imprint from almost no metamorphic recrystallization to more than 600 °C in the pre- and syn-rift sediments. From this reconstruction, we propose a scenario of tectonic thinning involving the exhumation of the pre-rift cover by the activation of various detachment surfaces at different levels in the sedimentary pile. In a third step, examination of the architecture of current distal passive margin domains provides confident comparison between the Pyrenean case and modern analogs. Finally, we propose a general evolutionary model for the pre-rift sequence of the Northeastern Pyrenean rifted

  3. Geochemical interpretation of the Precambrian basement and overlying Cambrian sandstone on Bornholm, Denmark: Implications for the weathering history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Yang, Tian; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj

    2017-08-01

    Borggård borehole (CIA = 52-69, PIA = 56-99) and an outcrop in Nexø, eastern Bornholm (CIA = 52-66, PIA = 61-96), have endured similar degrees of weak to moderate weathering but lost most of the plagioclase. The LSF has a comparable weathering history (CIA = 63-73), but the plagioclase is better preserved (PIA = 65-78). The significant variation of weathering rates of plagioclase and K-feldspar in the basement granite and the provenance of sandstone from the Borggård borehole are likely due to the different permeability developed within the internal crystal structures, a Ca- rich plagioclase original composition of the plagioclase, and the occurrence of weathering in a very humid climate. ​K metasomatism occurred in the basement granite and sandstone in both the Borggård and the G14-1 boreholes, mainly through the conversion of aluminous clay minerals (e.g. kaolinite) to illite, with transformation of plagioclase to K-feldspar occurring locally. This my have taken place during deep burial in the Caledonian foreland basin.

  4. Peering into the deep: Illuminating the crustal evolution of the Eucla basement and its relationship to the Albany-Fraser Orogen of southwest Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnady, Michael; Kirkland, Chris; Clark, Chris; Spaggiari, Catherine; Smithies, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    The Albany-Fraser Orogen is a 1200 km long east to northeasterly trending Palaeoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic orogenic belt that defines the southern to southeastern margin of the West Australian Craton (WAC). The belt records a long and complex geological history spanning the break-up of Nuna between 2000 and 1700 Ma and amalgamation of Rodinia between 1300 and 1000 Ma. Recent geochronological, geochemical and isotopic work has shown that the Albany-Fraser Orogen formed through a protracted period of reworking of the margin of the Archean Yilgarn Craton (part of the WAC) with various additions of mantle-derived material. The Cretaceous Bight and Cenozoic Eucla Basins partially overlie the northeastern part of the Albany-Fraser Orogen and completely cover 1000 km of crystalline basement (the Eucla basement) that separates the belt from the South Australian Craton. This basement constitutes the glue between the major building blocks of Proterozoic Australia, yet, its geological history is poorly understood. New drill cores penetrating the basement have intersected interlayered granitic and gabbroic rocks that yield U-Pb zircon dates that are dissimilar to any magmatic ages from units within the adjoining Albany-Fraser Orogen, with the exception of the youngest, 1190-1125 Ma magmatic suite. In addition, mantle-like hafnium and neodymium isotopic signatures indicate that the rocks of the Eucla basement are dominated by new juvenile addition, and may represent an allochthonous terrane of oceanic heritage. New ɛHf contour maps for the Albany-Fraser Orogen and Eucla basement highlight this difference. Time-slicing the isotopic dataset reveals a pattern of Palaeoproterozoic juvenile magmatism sub-perpendicular to the present day structural grain in the belt. If this marks the presence of an older lithospheric structure then it demonstrates the power that time-constrained isotopic mapping provides for illuminating lithospheric architecture through time. This may be

  5. Ultrastructure of basement membranes in developing shark tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, T; Inoue, S

    2003-01-01

    Based on studies of the tooth of largely mammalian species, the dental basement membranes are shown to be specialized for various roles significant in the development and maintenance of the tooth. Comparative studies with the nonmammalian tooth will facilitate further clarification of the mechanisms of mammalian tooth formation. In this study, basement membranes of the shark tooth in successive developmental stages was ultrastructurally examined for elucidation of their roles in odontogenesis. Teeth of a shark, Cephaloscyllium umbratile, were processed for thin section electron microscopy. Throughout the developmental stages the lamina densa of the basement membrane was made up of a fine network of "cords," irregular anastomosing strands known to be the major component of mammalian basement membranes. In the presecretory stage of the shark tooth, dental papilla cells were immobilized for their differentiation into odontoblasts by means of the binding of their processes to numerous narrow extensions of the lamina densa of the inner dental epithelium. In the secretory stage, a number of cords of the widened lamina densa were extended towards and bound to tubular vesicles of the forming enameloid. During the mineralization stage, fragments of the degrading enameloid matrix appeared to be moving through the lamina densa to the epithelial cells for processing. In the maturation stage, half of the lamina densa facing the enameloid was mineralized forming an advancing edge of mineralization of the enameloid. It provided strong binding and smooth transition of organic to mineral phase which may allow transportation of substances across the phases for enameloid maturation in a way similar to that reported in the mammalian tooth. These observations indicate that basement membranes of the developing shark tooth, as those in the mammalian tooth, play various roles, including anchoring, firm binding, and possible mediation of the transport of substances that are known to be

  6. Chemistry and age of groundwater in bedrock aquifers of the Piceance and Yellow Creek watersheds, Rio Blanco County, Colorado, 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P.B.; Thomas, J.C.; Hunt, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen monitoring wells completed in the Uinta and Green River Formations in the Piceance Creek and Yellow Creek watersheds in Rio Blanco County, Colorado, were sampled for chemical, isotopic, and groundwater-age tracers to provide information on the overall groundwater quality, the occurrence and distribution of chemicals that could be related to the development of underlying natural-gas reservoirs, and to better understand groundwater residence times in the flow system. Methane concentrations in groundwater ranged from less than 0.0005 to 387 milligrams per liter. The methane was predominantly biogenic in origin, although the biogenic methane was mixed with thermogenic methane in water from seven wells. Three BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene) were detected in water from six of the wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded Federal drinking-water standards. The presence of thermogenic methane in the aquifers indicates a connection and vulnerability to chemicals in deeper geologic units. Helium-4 data indicate that groundwater had ages ranging from less than 1,000 years to greater than 50,000 years. The presence of old groundwater in parts of the aquifers indicates that these aquifers may not be useful for large-scale water supply because of low recharge rates.

  7. Intersection patterns of normal faults in the Lufeng Sag of Pearl River Mouth Basin, China: Insights from 4D physical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fusheng; Koyi, Hemin; Zhang, Xiangtao

    2016-12-01

    Interpretation of seismic data from the Lufeng Sag of the Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB) in the northern part of South China Sea shows that different intersection patterns developed in the cover units above basement normal faults. A series of analogue models are used to investigate the intersection patterns and deformation in the sedimentary cover sequences above a basement horst bounded by two non-parallel faults. Modelling results show that during their upward propagation, the basement faults may intersect within the cover sequences and form a graben above the basement horst. Length and width of the graben increase with cover thickness. The strike and dip intersection points are controlled directly by the thickness of the cover sequences, dip and strike of the basement faults, and width of the basement horst. The intersection point migrates along the axis of the graben toward the wide end of the basement horst, when the cover sequence thickens. In contrast, it migrates toward the narrow end of the basement horst, where both fault dip and angle of strike difference increase. The intersection point moves upward with increasing width of the basement horst crest. Model profiles also indicate that in the presence of a ductile layer between the cover and basement such intersection patterns do not form. Interpretation of seismic data and model results show that the intersection pattern developed in the Lufeng Sag is a result of propagation of basement faults into cover units during different extension stages of the basin. Results of this study can be applied to many other sedimentary basins where such fault intersection patterns are likely to form when non-parallel conjugate basement faults are active during sedimentation.

  8. The character and significance of basement rocks of the southern Molucca Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert; Nichols, Gary; Ballantyne, Paul; Charlton, Tim; Ali, Jason

    Pre-Neogene basement rocks in the southern Molucca Sea region include ophiolitic rocks, arc volcanic rocks and continental rocks. The ophiolitic complexes are associated with arc and forearc igneous and sedimentary rocks. They are interpreted as the oldest parts of the Philippine Sea Plate with equivalents in the ridges and plateaux of the northern Philippine Sea. In the Molucca Sea region igneous components include rocks with a "supra-subduction zone" character, bonintic volcanic rocks and basic volcanic rocks with a "within-plate" character; "MORB-type" rocks are rare or absent. The ophiolitic rocks are overlain by Upper Cretaceous and Eocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Plutonic rocks of island arc origin which intrude the ophiolites yield Late Cretaceous radiometric ages and amphibolites with ophiolitic protoliths yield Eocene ages. The "supra-subduction zone" ophiolites are speculated to have originated during a mid-Cretaceous plate reorganization event. For the Late Cretaceous and Eocene the present-day Marianas arc and forearc provides an attractive model. Volcanic rocks from the basement of Morotai, western Halmahera and much of Bacan. These also have an island arc character and are probably of Late Cretaceous-Paleogene age. Both the arc volcanic rocks and the ophiolitic complexes are overlain by shallow water Eocene limestones and an Oligocene rift sequence including basaltic pillow lavas and volcaniclastic turbidites. The distribution of the Eocene-Oligocene sequences indicate pre-Mid/Late Eocene amalgamation of the ophiolitic and arc terranes. Mid Eocene-Oligocene extension appears to be synchronous with opening of the central West Philippine Basin. Continental crust probably arrived in this region in the Late Paleogene-Early Neogene, either due to collision of the Australian margin with Pacific arc-ophiolite terranes or by terrane movement along the Sorong Fault Zone.

  9. Basement configuration of Visakhapatnam - Paradip continental margin from inversion of magnetic anomalies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, M.M.M.; Rao, S.J.; Venkateswarlu, K.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Murthy, I.V.R.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.

    deeper basement was observed throughout. Horst and graben basement structure inferred from our studies can be spatially correlated to the basement structure obtained from Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) studies13 on the adjacent coastal region. Shallow... in the Mahanadi delta area, India from deep seismic soundings, J Geol Soc India, 29(1987)293-308. ...

  10. Superficial Dermal Fibroblasts Enhance Basement Membrane and Epidermal Barrier Formation in Tissue-Engineered Skin: Implications for Treatment of Skin Basement Membrane Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Basement membrane is a highly specialized structure that binds the dermis and the epidermis of the skin, and is mainly composed of laminins, nidogen, collagen types IV and VII, and the proteoglycans, collagen type XVIII and perlecan, all of which play critical roles in the function and resilience of skin. Both dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes contribute to the development of the basement membrane, and in turn the basement membrane and underlying dermis influence the development ...

  11. Regulation of the basement membrane by epithelia generated forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kandice

    2012-12-01

    Tumor metastasis involves a progressive loss of tissue architecture and dissolution of structural boundaries between the epithelium and connective tissue. The basement membrane (BM), a specialized network of extracellular matrix proteins forms a barrier that physically restricts pre-invasive lesions such that they remain as local insults. The BM is not a static structure, but one that is constantly regenerated and remodeled in the adult organism. Matrix organization also regulates cell function. Thus alterations in the balance of synthesis, remodeling and proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix proteins may contribute to a loss of structural integrity. However, the de novo assembly and maintenance of the complex structural properties of in vivo basement membranes remain elusive. Here, this paper highlights the current understanding on the structural properties and the establishment of the BM, and discusses the potential role of self-generated forces in adult tissue remodeling and the maintenance of the BM as a malignancy suppressor.

  12. Antiglomerular basement membrane antibody-crescentic glomerulonephritis complicating chronic bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, R; Cabezuelo, J B; Sirvent, A E; Andrada, E; Amorós, F; Orti, C

    2001-04-01

    A 68-year-old woman with chronic bronchiectasis presented with haematuria and severe oligoanuric renal failure with no other serious systemic manifestation. Antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibodies and anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies were positive. Renal biopsy revealed anti-GBM crescentic glomerulonephritis. A conservative approach was followed and the patient is stable on chronic haemodialysis 6 months later. To the authors' knowledge, there has only been one previous report of anti-GBM disease complicating bronchiectasis.

  13. Biostratigraphical and palaeoecological implications of the small mammal assemblage from the late early Miocene of Montalvos2, Teruel Basin, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, Kees; Bosma, Anneke; de Bruijn, Hans; van Dam, Jan; Geraedts, Caspar; van den Hoek Ostende, Lars; Reumer, Jelle; Wessels, Wilma

    The rich early Miocene small mammal assemblage from Montalvos2, collected from lacustrine deposits directly overlying the basement, is unique within the Teruel Basin, a basin that is otherwise well known for its late Miocene/Pliocene mammal faunas. The presence of Democricetodon decipiens,

  14. Analisis Risiko pada Proyek Pembangunan Parkir Basement Jalan Sulawesi Denpasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Muka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Construction of Basement Parking Sulawesi Road Denpasar is a government attempt to tackle congestion and parking problems in the city of Denpasar. This activity is highly correlated with the location of Badung Market. This study aims to identify risks arising, assess the level of acceptance of risk analysis, risk mitigation and ownership of dominant risk. The results showed 25 risks identified. Of the risks identified are 24 risk dominant with 5 risk category is unacceptable occurrence of accidents in the project, the landslide during basement excavation, the lack of security fence project that can cause accidents especially hazard fell during basement excavation, the damage caused by natural disasters and the workers were not using safety equipment. Additionally identified 19 risk category is undesirable, one acceptable risk category. Dominant risk is unacceptable risks do 11 mitigation measures such as building damage due to natural disasters (force majeure, which is also a risk with follow-up by reducing the risk that anticipated early preparing for disasters and transfer risk to another party by insuring the work to others. Ownership is the most dominant risk of the contractor. The parties should consider the risks unacceptable category and also should pay attention to the risks classified as undesirable.

  15. Effects of Basement, Structure, and Stratigraphic Heritages on Volcano Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar Francisco A.

    2006-06-01

    Effective natural hazard mitigation requires that the science surrounding geophysical events be thoroughly explored. With millions of people living on the flanks of volcanoes, understanding the parameters that effect volcanic behavior is critically important. In particular, basements can influence the occurrence of volcanic eruptions and landslides. This control by the substrate on volcano behavior usually has been considered questionable or less important than the conditions of the deep magma source. However, due to recent findings, this view is changing, specifically with regard to approaches in assessing volcanic hazards. The November 2005 AGU Chapman Conference ``Effects of Basement, Structure, and Stratigraphic Heritages on Volcano Behavior'' brought together geologists and geophysicists from North and South America, Europe, and Asia to discuss the results of their research on the reciprocal effects of the interaction between volcanos and their basements. The conference also highlighted the importance of holding Chapman conferences in developing countries such as the Philippines because many hazardous volcanos are situated in these countries. Apart from having natural field laboratories, these are the very same places that need to promote scientific discourse on volcano research, which can lead to more effective hazard mitigation programs.

  16. The Grenville-age basement of the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Victor A.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of the basement of the Andes shows the strong Grenville affinities of most of the inliers exposed in the different terranes from Colombia to Patagonia. The terranes have different histories, but most of them participated in the Rodinia supercontinent amalgamation during the Mesoproterozoic between 1200 and 1000 Ma. After Rodinia break-up some terranes were left in the Laurentian side such as Cuyania and Chilenia, while others stayed in the Gondwanan side. Some of the terranes once collided with the Amazon craton remained attached, experiencing diverse rifting episodes all along the Phanerozoic, as the Arequipa and Pampia terranes. Some other basement inliers were detached in the Neoproterozoic and amalgamated again to Gondwana in the Early Cambrian, Middle Ordovician or Permian times. A few basement inliers with Permian metamorphic ages were transferred to Gondwana after Pangea break-up from the Laurentian side. Some of them were part of the present Middle America terrane. An exceptional case is the Oaxaquia terrane that was detached from the Gondwana margin after the Early Ordovician and is now one of the main Mexican terranes that collided with Laurentia. These displacements, detachments, and amalgamations indicate a complex terrane transfer between Laurentia and Gondwana during Paleozoic times, following plate reorganizations and changes in the absolute motion of Gondwana.

  17. Structural mapping based on potential field and remote sensing data, South Rewa Gondwana Basin, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swarnapriya Chowdari; Bijendra Singh; B Nageswara Rao; Niraj Kumar; A P Singh; D V Chandrasekhar

    2017-08-01

    Intracratonic South Rewa Gondwana Basin occupies the northern part of NW–SE trending Son–Mahanadi rift basin of India. The new gravity data acquired over the northern part of the basin depicts WNW–ESE and ENE–WSW anomaly trends in the southern and northern part of the study area respectively. 3D inversion of residual gravity anomalies has brought out undulations in the basement delineating two major depressions (i) near Tihki in the north and (ii) near Shahdol in the south, which divided into two sub-basins by an ENE–WSW trending basement ridge near Sidi. Maximum depth to the basement is about 5.5 km within the northern depression. The new magnetic data acquired over the basin has brought out ENE–WSW to E–W trending short wavelength magnetic anomalies which are attributed to volcanic dykes and intrusive having remanent magnetization corresponding to upper normal and reverse polarity (29N and 29R) of the Deccan basalt magnetostratigrahy. Analysis of remote sensing and geological data also reveals the predominance of ENE–WSW structural faults. Integration of remote sensing, geological and potential field data suggest reactivation of ENE–WSW trending basement faults during Deccan volcanism through emplacement of mafic dykes and sills. Therefore, it is suggested that South Rewa Gondwana basin has witnessed post rift tectonic event due to Deccan volcanism.

  18. Structural mapping based on potential field and remote sensing data, South Rewa Gondwana Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, Swarnapriya; Singh, Bijendra; Rao, B. Nageswara; Kumar, Niraj; Singh, A. P.; Chandrasekhar, D. V.

    2017-08-01

    Intracratonic South Rewa Gondwana Basin occupies the northern part of NW-SE trending Son-Mahanadi rift basin of India. The new gravity data acquired over the northern part of the basin depicts WNW-ESE and ENE-WSW anomaly trends in the southern and northern part of the study area respectively. 3D inversion of residual gravity anomalies has brought out undulations in the basement delineating two major depressions (i) near Tihki in the north and (ii) near Shahdol in the south, which divided into two sub-basins by an ENE-WSW trending basement ridge near Sidi. Maximum depth to the basement is about 5.5 km within the northern depression. The new magnetic data acquired over the basin has brought out ENE-WSW to E-W trending short wavelength magnetic anomalies which are attributed to volcanic dykes and intrusive having remanent magnetization corresponding to upper normal and reverse polarity (29N and 29R) of the Deccan basalt magnetostratigrahy. Analysis of remote sensing and geological data also reveals the predominance of ENE-WSW structural faults. Integration of remote sensing, geological and potential field data suggest reactivation of ENE-WSW trending basement faults during Deccan volcanism through emplacement of mafic dykes and sills. Therefore, it is suggested that South Rewa Gondwana basin has witnessed post rift tectonic event due to Deccan volcanism.

  19. Structures of the Bohai Petroliferous Area, Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper, for the first time, deals with a more systematic study of the structures in the Bohai petroliferous area that covers nearly one third of the Bohai Bay basin. The study mainly involves the effects of pre-existing basement faults on the basin formation, the characteristics of basin geometry and kinetics, the modelling of the tectonic-thermal history, the polycyclicity and heterogeneity in the structural evolution and the natural seismic tomographic images of the crust and upper mantle. The authors analyze the features of the dynamic evolution of the basin in the paper and point out that the basin in the Bohai petroliferous area is an extensional pull-apart basin.

  20. Crustal structure beneath the Paleozoic Parnaíba Basin revealed by airborne gravity and magnetic data, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castroa, David L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D. Phillips; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Bezerra, Francisco H.R.; Dantas, Elton L.

    2014-01-01

    The Parnaíba Basin is a large Paleozoic syneclise in northeastern Brazil underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement, which comprises a complex lithostructural and tectonic framework formed during the Neoproterozoic–Eopaleozoic Brasiliano–Pan African orogenic collage. A sag basin up to 3.5 km thick and 1000 km long formed after the collage. The lithologic composition, structure, and role in the basin evolution of the underlying basement are the focus of this study. Airborne gravity and magnetic data were modeled to reveal the general crustal structure underneath the Parnaíba Basin. Results indicate that gravity and magnetic signatures delineate the main boundaries and structural trends of three cratonic areas and surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts in the basement. Triangular-shaped basement inliers are geophysically defined in the central region of this continental-scale Neoproterozoic convergence zone. A 3-D gravity inversion constrained by seismological data reveals that basement inliers exhibit a 36–40.5 km deep crustal root, with borders defined by a high-density and thinner crust. Forward modeling of gravity and magnetic data indicates that lateral boundaries between crustal units are limited by Brasiliano shear zones, representing lithospheric sutures of the Amazonian and São Francisco Cratons, Tocantins Province and Parnaíba Block. In addition, coincident residual gravity, residual magnetic, and pseudo-gravity lows indicate two complex systems of Eopaleozoic rifts related to the initial phase of the sag deposition, which follow basement trends in several directions.

  1. Flower structures in the Ales coal basin - structural implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genna, A.; Debriette, P.J. (Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, Orleans (France). Dept. de Geologie)

    1994-04-07

    The presence of flower structures in the Stephanian Ales (coal) basin has led the authors propose a new formation model for the basin, based on reverse strike-slip movement along N-S to NW-SE striking basement faults. This model confirms, through structural arguments, the recent questioning of the traditional explanation of the basin structure as thrust sheets. Such compressive strike-slip structures are not taken into account by the model of late Hercynian crustal extension in the French Massif Central.

  2. A 100 km-long paleomagnetic traverse radial to the Sudbury Structure, Canada and its bearing on Proterozoic deformation and metamorphism of the surrounding basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halls, Henry C.

    2009-09-01

    The 1850 Ma Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC), considered to be a composite melt sheet of a major meteorite impact, has been deformed into an oval-shaped basin known as the Sudbury Structure. This paper explores to what extent this deformation has been communicated to the surrounding Archean basement around the northern margin of the SIC. Paleomagnetism of 2450 Ma Matachewan dykes and 1850 Ma impact breccia along a traverse, about 100 km-long and normal to strike of the contact between the SIC and the basement, suggests that the basement beneath the NW corner of the Sudbury Structure has been tilted to the SE within about 10 km of the contact. At this distance a possible fault separates the tilted region from one that shows no evidence of tilting. Petrographically the dykes out to a distance of about 50 km distant from the SIC are altered to upper greenschist facies of metamorphism with a fibrous amphibole replacing pyroxene and with loss of primary texture that characterizes less altered Matachewan dykes at distances greater than 50 km. The direction of magnetization found in the altered Matachewan dykes is an overprint which is probably associated with regional metamorphism related to orogenesis, or possibly with thermo-chemical alteration associated with SIC emplacement. The direction of the component is compatible with an age of about 1.8 to 1.9 Ga suggesting that the Penokean orogen is the most likely cause, if not the impact event. The paleomagnetism of the breccias, together with shatter cone orientation data, suggests that within 10 km of the SIC/basement contact, basement tilting to the southeast increases towards the SIC.

  3. Low-temperature thermochronology of the northern Thomson Orogen: Implications for exhumation of basement rocks in NE Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdel, Charles; Stockli, Daniel; Purdy, David

    2016-01-01

    The Tasmanides of eastern Australia record much of the Phanerozoic tectonic development of the retreating Pacific-Australia plate boundary and are an oft-cited example of an orogen that has undergone "tectonic mode switching." To begin to constrain the timing of exhumation of basement rocks that are now exposed in portions of the NE Tasmanides, we measured apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages from the Thomson Orogen and overlying Paleozoic strata in the back-arc of the New England Orogen in NE Australia. Zircon (U-Th)/He ages from basement samples (including those recovered from boreholes at depths of up to 1.1 km) are characterized by large inter- and intra-sample variability and range from approximately 180 Ma (Early Jurassic) to 375 Ma (Late Devonian). (U-Th)/He zircon ages from several individual samples are negatively correlated with effective uranium (eU), a pattern that is also true of the dataset as a whole, suggesting that variations in U and Th zoning and radiation damage are partially responsible for the age variability. The oldest zircon (U-Th)/He cooling ages coincide with the formation of regionally extensive Late Devonian-early Carboniferous back-arc basins, suggesting that Late Devonian extension played a significant role in exhumation of parts of the northern Thomson Orogen. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages from a basement sample and a late Permian sandstone in the overlying Bowen Basin, which are also marked by intra-sample variability and age-eU correlations, span from the Early Cretaceous through Oligocene, in general agreement with previous apatite fission track data. In conjunction with observations of key geologic relationships and prior K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar data, our results suggest four overall phases in the thermal history of the northern Thomson Orogen: (1) Cambrian-early Silurian metamorphism during the Delamerian and Benambran Orogenies; (2) protracted cooling during the Late Devonian through mid-Permian that likely resulted from extensional

  4. Strain rates of opening-mode fractures in deep basinal settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhubl, Peter; Hooker John, N.; Andras, Fall; Laubach Stephen, E.

    2010-05-01

    Long-term strain rates for geologic processes are characteristically in the range of 10-13 to 10-17 s-1 as measured by a variety of techniques, including geodetic techniques, radiometric dating of tectonic and structural processes, and through stratigraphic correlations. Here, we present strain rates for populations of opening-mode fractures in sandstone in deep basinal settings. Fracture strain is obtained by collecting aperture-frequency data for microfractures along scanlines in weakly deformed sandstone. Opening durations of individual macrofractures in the same population are then obtained through detailed microthermometry of fluid inclusions in crack-seal fracture cement, combined with textural reconstructions of the fracture opening history. Temperature data are then correlated with known burial history models to obtain the duration of fracture opening and the fracture opening strain rate. Individual fractures in deeply buried sandstone of the East Texas basin, a passive margin setting, opened over 48 m.y. with a strain rate of 2x10-18 s-1to 5x10-19 s-1. Similar strain rates are obtained for fractures in the Piceance intermontane basin of Colorado. These ultraslow strain rates compare well to longterm intraplate seismic strain rates suggesting that rates of fracture opening are controlled by intraplate tectonic deformation processes.

  5. Crustal rifting and subsidence of Sirte basin, Libya: a mature hydrocarbon Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumati, Y.; Schamel, S.; Nairn, A.E.M.

    1985-02-01

    The complex rifting and subsidence history of the Sirte basin serves as an instructive case study of the tectonic evolution of an intercratonic extensional basin. The Sirte basin formed by collapse of the Sirte arch in the mid-Cretaceous. Marine sediments accumulated following initial crustal arching and rifting as the basin was flooded from the north. Upper Cretaceous strata lie unconformably on igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Precambrian basement complex, Cambrian-Ordovician Gargaf Group, or the pre-Cretaceous continental Nubian Sandstone. The most rapid subsidence and accumulation of basinal strata occurred in the early Cenozoic; however, the basin has been relatively stable since the Oligocene. The basin is floored by a northwest-southeast-trending mosaic of narrow horsts and grabens, an important structural characteristic that distinguishes it from the adjacent intracratonic Kufra, Murzuk, and Ghadames basins. The details of basin subsidence, sediment accumulation rates, and facies variations have been reconstructed for the northern Sirte basin from a suite of approximately 100 well logs and numerous seismic lines. Subsidence-rate maps for short time intervals from the mid-Cretaceous through the Eocene show a continual shifting of the loci of maximum and minimum subsidence. The nonsteady character of basin subsidence may reflect a periodicity of movement on the major basement-rooted growth faults bounding the underlying horsts and grabens.

  6. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been described as the major proteoglycan component of basement membranes. However, previous investigators have also provided evidence for the presence of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in these structures. Recently we described the production...... and characterization of core protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) present in Reichert's membrane, a transient extra-embryonic structure of rodents. This CSPG was also demonstrated to be present in adult rat kidney. We report here the tissue distribution...... sulfate proteoglycans previously described....

  7. Active basement uplift of Sierra Pie de Palo (Northwestern Argentina): Rates and inception from10Be cosmogenic nuclide concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siame, Lionel L.; Sébrier, Michel; Bellier, Olivier; Bourlès, Didier; Costa, Carlos; Ahumada, Emilio A.; Gardini, Carlos E.; Cisneros, Hector

    2015-06-01

    Quaternary tectonic and denudation rates are investigated for an actively growing basement anticline: the Sierra Pie de Palo range, which belongs to the Andean foreland of Northwestern Argentina (28°S-33°S). In this study, a detailed morphometric analysis of the topography is combined with in situ-produced cosmogenic10Be concentrations measured in (1) surface boulders abandoned on alluvial terraces affected by fault activity (along the north bounding fault) and growth of the basement fold (along the southeastern border), (2) bedrock outcrops corresponding to an exhumed and folded, regional erosion surface, and (3) fluvial sediments sampled at the outlets of several watersheds. Along the eastern and northern borders of the range, incision and uplift rates have been estimated at approximately 0.5 and 1 mm/yr when integrated on Holocene and Pleistocene time scales, in close agreement with both long-term (structural and basin evolution data) and short-term (GPS-derived velocity field) analyses. Cosmogenic-derived denudation and uplift rates combined with geomorphic characteristics of watersheds and river channels allows estimating the onset of the uplift at 4-6 Ma, followed by a more recent period of topographic rejuvenation at roughly 1-2 Ma, probably synchronous with steepening of the eastern and northern flanks of the anticline.

  8. Impact of climate on groundwater recharge in the crystalline basement rocks aquifer of Northern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    Water is the cornerstone of human life and for all economic developments. West Africa and specifically Ghana are no exception to this reality.Northern Ghana is characterized by a semi-arid climate, with prolonged dry season (7 months of very few rainfall) leading to the drying up of many rivers and streams. In addition, rainfall is highly variable in space and time. Therefore, surface water is unreliable and insufficient to meet the water demands for socio-economic development in this area. As a result, the area is heavily dependent on groundwater for domestic water supply as well as for dry season irrigation of vegetables (cash crops).However, aquifers in northern Ghana are dominantly the hard rock type (Crystalline basement rock). This aquifer has no primary porosity and may not be able to sustain the increasing demand on the resource. Further, climate change may worsen the situation as recharge is dependent on rainfall in northern Ghana. Therefore, it is important to understand exactly how climate change will impact on recharge to the groundwater for sustainable development and management of the resource.Previous groundwater studies in Northern Ghana barely analyzed the combined impacts of Climate change on the recharge to the groundwater. This research is aimed at determining the current relationship between groundwater recharge and rainfall and to use the relationships to determine the impacts of changes in climate on the groundwater recharge. The results will inform plans and strategies for sustainably managing groundwater resources in Ghana and the Volta basin.

  9. The Basement of the Central Andes: The Arequipa and Related Terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Victor A.

    2008-05-01

    The basement of the Central Andes provides insights for the dispersal of Rodinia, the reconstruction of Gondwana, and the dynamics of terrane accretion along the Pacific. The Paleoproterozoic Arequipa terrane was trapped during collision between Laurentia and Amazonia in the Mesoproterozoic. Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism correlates with the collapse of the Sunsás-Grenville orogen after 1000 Ma and is related to slab break-off and dispersal of Rodinia. The Antofalla terrane separated in the Neoproterozoic, forming the Puncoviscana basin. Its closure was coeval with the collision of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas. The rift-drift transitions of the early Paleozoic clastic platform showed a gradual younging to the north, in agreement with counterclockwise rotation based on paleomagnetic data of Antofalla. North of Arequipa arc magmatism and high-grade metamorphism are linked to collision of the Paracas terrane in the Ordovician, during the Famatinian orogeny in the Sierras Pampeanas. The early Paleozoic history of the Arequipa massif is explained by a backarc, which further south changed to open oceanic conditions and subsequent collision. The Antofalla terrane reaccreted to the continental margin by the late Ordovician. These accretions and subsequent separations during the Mesoproterozoic, Neoproterozoic early Cambrian, and late Cambrian middle Ordovician are explained by changes in absolute motion of the Gondwana supercontinent during plate global reorganization.

  10. Crustal structure across the Colorado Basin, offshore Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Dieter; Neben, Soenke; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Schulze, Albrecht; Stiller, Manfred; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2006-06-01

    The geology of the wide shelves surrounding the South Atlantic is closely linked to the kinematics and history of the opening of the ocean. However, several wide sedimentary basins, which developed along the margins show peculiarities that are not yet understood in the context of the evolution of the South Atlantic. The Colorado Basin, a wide sedimentary basin on the broad shelf of Argentina, extends in EW direction. The basin's evolution oblique or orthogonal to the continent-ocean boundary indicates that it is not a product of simple progressive extension and crustal thinning. In addition a basement high, paralleling the continental margin and separating the Colorado Basin from the deep-sea basin is a common interpretation. These findings are hardly in accordance with the idea that the Colorado Basin is an extensional basin that developed in conjunction with the early E-W opening phase of the South Atlantic in the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous. The composition, type, and structure of the basement, key points for the evaluation of the basins evolution, are widely speculative. In this context multichannel seismic reflection data from the Argentine Shelf and a 665-km-long onshore-offshore refraction profile, running across the Colorado Basin onto the coast are discussed in combination with gravity data. The stratigraphy for the sedimentary successions was adopted from the literature and the reflection seismic marker horizons formed besides the interval velocities the input for the starting model for refraction seismic traveltime modelling. The modelling strategy was an iterative procedure between refraction seismic traveltime and gravity modelling. The preparation of the density models was coarsely orientated on published velocity-density relations. The modelling results are in favour of a continuation of the main onshore geological features beneath the sedimentary infill of the Colorado Basin. We interpret the basement along the line from west to east as offshore

  11. Immunohistochemical localization of basement membrane components during hair follicle morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westgate, G E; Shaw, D A; Harrap, G J

    1984-01-01

    Specific antisera were used to investigate the distributions of several basement membrane zone (BMZ) components, namely, bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPA), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), laminin, and type IV collagen, during the development of hair follicles in late embryo rats. BPA was not ......Specific antisera were used to investigate the distributions of several basement membrane zone (BMZ) components, namely, bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPA), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), laminin, and type IV collagen, during the development of hair follicles in late embryo rats. BPA...... of the elongating follicle. HSPG was associated with the basal cell layer prior to the appearance of hair follicle primordia and became BMZ-associated before birth but after follicle buds were first observed. HSPG was also found to be associated with the basal cell surfaces in the epidermis, but not in the hair...... follicle. Laminin and type IV collagen were continually present in epidermal and follicular BMZ both before and during development of hair follicles and were later present in the dermal papilla matrix. From these observations we conclude that (1) laminin and type IV collagen are functionally important...

  12. Tectonic Characteristics and Evolution of Bohai Bay Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Pengju; ZHANG Meisheng; SUN Xiaomeng; YANG Baojun

    2002-01-01

    Synthetical analyzing the deep geophysical data within Bohai bay basin the authors detect the deep crustal structure presenting high geothermal flux, thinned crust and arched Moho discontinuity, and the basin basement belongs to rigid continental crust. The development of the basin was controlled by two - dimensional faults in NNE and NWW directions. The tectonic units of the basin can be subdivided into three structural divisions: the east, middle and west division. The basin is considered as a continental rift. The tectonic background and regional right - lateral stress field during the late Cretaceous and Paleogene were a compound result of the Kula Plate W - directional subducting under Eurasia Continental Plate in 80 ~ 74Ma and the Philippine sea Plate W -directional subducting under the Eurasia Continental Plate since 60Ma, the long-rang effect of the India Continental Plate wedging into the Eurasia Continental Plate and of the Siberia Plate SE - directional relatively moving.

  13. Structure of an inverted basin from subsurface and field data: the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Maestrat Basin (Iberian Chain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebot, M.; Guimera, J.

    2016-07-01

    The Maestrat Basin experienced two main rifting events: Late Permian-Late Triassic and Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, and was inverted during the Cenozoic Alpine orogeny. During the inversion, an E-W-trending, N-verging fold-and-thrust belt developed along its northern margin, detached in the Triassic evaporites, while southwards it also involved the Variscan basement. A structural study of the transition between these two areas is presented, using 2D seismic profiles, exploration wells and field data, to characterize its evolution during the Mesozoic extension and the Cenozoic contraction. The S-dipping Maestrat basement thrust traverses the Maestrat Basin from E to W; it is the result of the Cenozoic inversion of the lower segment–within the acoustic basement–of the Mesozoic extensional fault system that generated the Salzedella sub-basin. The syn-rift Lower Cretaceous rocks filling the Salzedella sub-basin thicken progressively northwards, from 350m to 1100m. During the inversion, a wide uplifted area –40km wide in the N-S direction– developed in the hanging wall of the Maestrat basement thrust. This uplifted area is limited to the North by the E-W-trending Calders monocline, whose limb is about 13km wide in its central part, dips about 5ºN, and generates a vertical tectonic step of 800-1200m. We interpreted the Calders monocline as a fault-bend fold; therefore, a flat-ramp-flat geometry is assumed in depth for the Maestrat basement thrust. The northern synformal hinge of the Calders monocline coincides with the transition from thick-skinned to thin-skinned areas. The vast uplifted area and the low-dip of the monocline suggest a very low-dip for the basement ramp, rooted in the upper crust. The Calders monocline narrows and disappears laterally, in coincidence with the outcrop of the Maestrat basement thrust. The evaporitic Middle Muschelkalk detachment conditioned the structural style. Salt structures are also related to it; they developed during the

  14. Pseudofaults and associated seamounts in the conjugate Arabian and Eastern Somali basins, NW Indian Ocean- New constraints from high-resolution satellite-derived gravity data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreejith, K.M.; Chaubey, A; Mishra, A; Kumar, S.; Rajawat, A

    is characterized by a gravity low and rugged basement. The refined satellite gravity image of the Arabian Basin also revealed three seamounts in close proximity to the pseudofaults, which were not reported earlier. In the Eastern Somali Basin, seamounts are aligned...

  15. Eocene extensional exhumation of basement and arc rocks along southwesternmost Peru, Central Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noury, Mélanie; Bernet, Matthias; Sempéré, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    The overthickened crust of the current Central Andes is commonly viewed as the result of tectonic shortening. However, in the present-day terrestrial forearc and arc of southwesternmost Peru, crustal thickness increases from 30 km along the coastline to >60 km below the active arc, whereas the upper crust exhibits little to no evidence of crustal shortening and, in constrast, many extensional features. How (and when) crustal overthickness was acquired in this region is thus little understood. Because crustal overthickening often results in extensional collapse and/or significant erosion, here we address this issue through a regional-scale study of exhumation using fission-track thermochronology. The limited fission-track data previously available in the area suggested that exhumation began during the Mesozoic. In this study, we present new apatite and zircon fission-track data obtained along the current terrestrial forearc of southwesternmost Peru. This relatively restricted area presents the interest of providing extensive outcrops of Precambrian to Ordovician basement and Early Jurassic to Late Cretaceous arc plutons. In order to compare the chronology of exhumation of these units, we performed extensive sampling for fission-track dating, as well as structural mapping. Our results indicate that the basement rocks and Jurassic plutons that crop out in the Arequipa region, where the crust is now >50 km-thick, experienced a rapid cooling through the 240-110°C temperature range between ~65 and ~35 Ma. This period of rapid exhumation coincided in time with the accumulation of terrestrial forearc deposits (the Lower Moquegua Group), that exhibit many syn-sedimentary extensional features and are bounded by conspicuous normal faults, specifically along the region where intense activity of the main arc between ~90 and ~60 Ma had led to voluminous magma emplacement. This close succession of (1) intense magmatic activity and (2) regional-scale exhumation associated with

  16. The Basement of the Andes: the Gondwana-Laurentia Connections Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, V. A.

    2009-05-01

    The research performed in the last decade in the basement of the Andes have shown that the Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks have recorded a series of igneous and metamorphic events through time. These episodes can be grouped in discrete orogenic events, which have different paleogeographic distribution and intensity. The first and most important orogenic event is widely distributed along the margin and correspond to the Sunsas-Grenville orogen. Evidence of metamorphism and associated magmatic rocks are found from Colombia to the southernmost Patagonia. This episode produced the amalgamation of Amazonia, Pampia and Patagonia, among other cratonic blocks, to form Rodinia. The Rodinia break-up leaved several cratonic blocks accreted in the Gondwana side, such as Marañón, Arequipa, and Antofalla, although the generalized extension of this period produced crustal attenuation, rifted basins, and limited oceanic realms during late Proterozoic times. The Brasiliano-Pampean orogeny reamalgamated these blocks against the Gondwana margin. A new episode of break-up produced the dispersal of several Gondwanian blocks, separation along some previous sutures, crustal attenuation and magmatism in Late Cambrian times, until the new amalgamation occurred in Middle Late Ordovician times. These processes led to the Famatinian orogeny when metamorphism and arc magmatism was widely spread along the continental margin, as seen in Chibcha, Marañón, Arequipa and Sierras Pampeanas. Besides the re-accretion of some parautochthonous terranes, new exotic blocks were derived from Laurentia, such as the Cuyania terrane, which finally collided against the Andean proto-margin at ~ 460 Ma to form the Argentine Precordillera and surrounding regions. Late accretion in Early to Middle Devonian times of Chilenia and related terranes formed most of the basement of Central Andes. Final collision between Laurentia and Gondwana in the Late Carboniferous - Early Permian times to form the Alleghanides

  17. Effects of radiation on the permeability of human basement membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, B.-T.; Achour, S.; Simmonet, F.; Guerin, D.

    1999-02-01

    The influence of radiation on the permeability properties of human basement membrane was investigated by measuring the diffusion rate of several organic compounds (glycine, proline, glucose, urea and insulin) through human anterior lens capsules. The basement membranes borne an γ-irradiation treatment change significantly their permeability vis-a-vis studied organic substances. This modification in physico-chemical properties is probably due to the radiation, which alters or degrades the complex structure (or architecture) of basement membranes. Moreover the change in permeability is dependent upon the diffusing compounds. An increase in diffusion has been observed for glucose, glycine and urea. However for insulin and proline, a decrease in diffusion rate was observed. L'influence de radiation sur la perméabilité de la membrane basale a été étudiée par la mesure de la vitesse de diffusion de plusieurs composés organiques d'intérêt biologique (glycine, proline, glucose, urée et insuline) à travers la lame basale antérieure du cristallin de l'oil humain. Les membranes basales qui sont traitées avec l'irradiation γ changent significativement leur perméabilité vis-à-vis des substances organiques. Ce changement de propriétés physico-chimiques est probablement dû à l'altération ou la dégradation de la structure (ou de l'architecture) de la membrane basale entraînée par l'irradiation. De plus, la modification de la perméabilité de la membrane basale est dépendante des composés diffusants. Une augmentation de la vitesse de diffusion a été observée pour le glucose, le glycine et l'urée. Par contre, dans les cas de l'insuline et de la proline, on a observé une diminution de la vitesse de diffusion.

  18. Delaware basin/Central basin platform margin: The development of a subthrust deep-gas province in the Permian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, W.J. (Mobil Oil Corp., Midland, TX (USA)); Ting, S.C. (Mobil, Farmers Branch, TX (USA))

    1990-05-01

    A deep-gas-prone province was identified along the Delaware basin/Central Basin platform margin, a margin conventionally interpreted to be bounded by high-angle normal or high-angle reverse structures. Redefinition of the tectonic style between the Delaware basin and the adjacent platform resulted in the identification of this Delaware basin/Central Basin platform subthrust province and a giant prospect within it. Definition of a giant-sized gas prospect in northern Pecos County, Texas, revealed that portions of this margin may be characterized by shingled, low-angle, eastward-dipping, basement involved thrust faults. Interpretations suggest that hidden, subthrust footwall structures may trend discontinuously for greater than 100 mi along this structural margin. Subthrust footwall structures formed as basinal buttress points for the Central Basin platform to climb over the Delaware basin. In this area, structural relief of over 19,000 ft over a 10-mi width is believed due to stacking of low-angle thrust sheets. Seismic resolution of this subthrust margin has been complexed by allochtonous hanging-wall gravity-glide blocks and folds and by velocity changes in overlying syn- and posttectonic sediments associated with basin-to-shelf lithofacies changes. Statistical studies indicate that this deep-gas province has a play potential of greater than 10 tcf of gas, with individual prospect sizes exceeding 1 tcfg. The prospects defined along this trend are deep (approximately 20,000 ft) subthrust structural traps that are indigenously sourced and reservoired by dual-matrix porosity. Vitrinite supported maturation modeling suggests that these subthrust structures formed prior to catagenic conversion of the oldest source rocks to oil and later to gas. Tectonically fractured Ordovician Ellenburger and Devonian sediments are considered the principal reservoirs. Shales overlying reservoir intervals form vertical seals.

  19. Geochemical, microtextural and petrological studies of the Samba prospect in the Zambian Copperbelt basement: a metamorphosed Palaeoproterozoic porphyry Cu deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Sharad; Mirrander Ndhlovu, N.

    2015-04-01

    Ever since Wakefield (1978, IMM Trans., B87, 43-52) described a porphyry-type meta-morphosed Cu prospect, the ca 50 Mt, 0.5% Cu Samba deposit (12.717°S, 27.833°E), hosted by porphyry-associated quartz-sericite-biotite schists in northern Zambia, there has been controversy about its origin and significance. This is because it is situated in the basement to the world's largest stratabound sediment-hosted copper province, the Central African Copperbelt, which is hosted by rocks of the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup. Mineralization in the pre-Katangan basement has long played a prominent role in ore genetic models, with some authors suggesting that basement Cu mineralization may have been recycled into the Katangan basin through erosion and redeposition, while others have suggested that the circulation of fluids through Cu-rich basement may have leached out the metals which are found concentrated in the Katangan orebodies. On the basis of ca 490-460 Ma Ar-Ar ages, Hitzman et al. (2012, Sillitoe Vol., SEG Spec. Publ., 16, 487-514) suggested that Samba represents late-stage impregnation of copper mineralization into the basement, and that it was one of the youngest copper deposits known in the Central African Copperbelt. If the Samba deposit really is that young, then it would have post-dated regional deformation and metamorphism (560-510 Ma), and it ought to be undeformed and unmetamorphosed. The Samba mineralization consists of chalcopyrite and bornite, occurring as disseminations, stringers and veinlets, found in a zone >1 km along strike, in steeply-dipping lenses up to 10m thick and >150m deep. Our new major and trace element XRF geochemical data (14 samples) show that the host rocks are mainly calc-alkaline metadacites. Cu is correlated with Ag (Cu/Ag ~10,000:1) with no Au or Mo. Our study focused on the microtextures and petrology of the Samba ores. We confirm that there is alteration of similar style to that accompanying classical porphyry Cu mineralization

  20. The Acinar Cage: Basement Membranes Determine Molecule Exchange and Mechanical Stability of Human Breast Cell Acini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljona Gaiko-Shcherbak

    Full Text Available The biophysical properties of the basement membrane that surrounds human breast glands are poorly understood, but are thought to be decisive for normal organ function and malignancy. Here, we characterize the breast gland basement membrane with a focus on molecule permeation and mechanical stability, both crucial for organ function. We used well-established and nature-mimicking MCF10A acini as 3D cell model for human breast glands, with ether low- or highly-developed basement membrane scaffolds. Semi-quantitative dextran tracer (3 to 40 kDa experiments allowed us to investigate the basement membrane scaffold as a molecule diffusion barrier in human breast acini in vitro. We demonstrated that molecule permeation correlated positively with macromolecule size and intriguingly also with basement membrane development state, revealing a pore size of at least 9 nm. Notably, an intact collagen IV mesh proved to be essential for this permeation function. Furthermore, we performed ultra-sensitive atomic force microscopy to quantify the response of native breast acini and of decellularized basement membrane shells against mechanical indentation. We found a clear correlation between increasing acinar force resistance and basement membrane formation stage. Most important native acini with highly-developed basement membranes as well as cell-free basement membrane shells could both withstand physiologically relevant loads (≤ 20 nN without loss of structural integrity. In contrast, low-developed basement membranes were significantly softer and more fragile. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the key role of the basement membrane as conductor of acinar molecule influx and mechanical stability of human breast glands, which are fundamental for normal organ function.

  1. ENFORCEMENT OF FINANCIAL BASEMENTS AS A FACTOR OF TERRITORIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Sidorova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Article contains description of structure of regional finance resources, discloses the sources of financing, describes the role of budgeting. Problems and possible ways of solution of inter-budget relationships optimisation are described with the purpose of increasing of financial prosperity of territories. Overall role of optimisation as one of the most important factors of strengthening of financial basement of territories is described along with the necessity of considering the budget process as stimulated factor for regional economic systems development. Suggestions on substitution of cost method of budget resources management by the model of outcomes management and further development of mechanisms of territorial bodies interaction with economic entities on the base of state-private partnership were proposed.

  2. The bi-functional organization of human basement membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfter, Willi; Monnier, Christophe; Müller, David; Oertle, Philipp; Uechi, Guy; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Safi, Farhad; Lim, Roderick; Loparic, Marko; Henrich, Paul Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The current basement membrane (BM) model proposes a single-layered extracellular matrix (ECM) sheet that is predominantly composed of laminins, collagen IVs and proteoglycans. The present data show that BM proteins and their domains are asymmetrically organized providing human BMs with side-specific properties: A) isolated human BMs roll up in a side-specific pattern, with the epithelial side facing outward and the stromal side inward. The rolling is independent of the curvature of the tissue from which the BMs were isolated. B) The epithelial side of BMs is twice as stiff as the stromal side, and C) epithelial cells adhere to the epithelial side of BMs only. Side-selective cell adhesion was also confirmed for BMs from mice and from chick embryos. We propose that the bi-functional organization of BMs is an inherent property of BMs and helps build the basic tissue architecture of metazoans with alternating epithelial and connective tissue layers.

  3. The bi-functional organization of human basement membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi Halfter

    Full Text Available The current basement membrane (BM model proposes a single-layered extracellular matrix (ECM sheet that is predominantly composed of laminins, collagen IVs and proteoglycans. The present data show that BM proteins and their domains are asymmetrically organized providing human BMs with side-specific properties: A isolated human BMs roll up in a side-specific pattern, with the epithelial side facing outward and the stromal side inward. The rolling is independent of the curvature of the tissue from which the BMs were isolated. B The epithelial side of BMs is twice as stiff as the stromal side, and C epithelial cells adhere to the epithelial side of BMs only. Side-selective cell adhesion was also confirmed for BMs from mice and from chick embryos. We propose that the bi-functional organization of BMs is an inherent property of BMs and helps build the basic tissue architecture of metazoans with alternating epithelial and connective tissue layers.

  4. Laminin isoforms in endothelial and perivascular basement membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Lema F; Di Russo, Jacopo; Sorokin, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    Laminins, one of the major functional components of basement membranes, are found underlying endothelium, and encasing pericytes and smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall. Depending on the type of blood vessel (capillary, venule, postcapillary venule, vein or artery) and their maturation state, both the endothelial and mural cell phenotype vary, with associated changes in laminin isoform expression. Laminins containing the α4 and α5 chains are the major isoforms found in the vessel wall, with the added contribution of laminin α2 in larger vessels. We here summarize current data on the precise localization of these laminin isoforms and their receptors in the different layers of the vessel wall, and their potential contribution to vascular homeostasis.

  5. Production of monoclonal antibodies to human glomerular basement membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mino,Yasuaki

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the technique of somatic cell fusion, we produced monoclonal antibodies to collagenase-digested human glomerular basement membrane (GBM. Fourteen monoclonal antibodies which reacted with normal human kidney in indirect immunofluorescence (IIF studies were produced. An analysis of the binding patterns indicated that the antigens recognized could be divided into six broad groups. Monoclonal antibody B3-H10 (Group 1 reacted with only GBM in a fine granular pattern. A5-B12 and B5-C2 (Group 2 reacted with GBM and peritubular capillary in a linear pattern. B2-A12 (Group 3 reacted with only epithelial cells. Al-C9 and A4-E2 (Group 4 showed a mesangial pattern in glomerulus and a lineal pattern in tubular basement membrane (TBM, Bowman's capsule and peritubular capillary. A1-E1, A1-E11, A2-E6, A3-B6, A4-F8 and B5-H2 (Group 5 recognized determinants common to GBM, TBM, Bowman's capsule and/or peritubular capillary. A3-F1 and B5-E10 (Group 6 reacted with TBM and Bowman's capsule. The staining pattern of B3-H10 (Group 1 was characteristic because it was not linear, but finely granular along the GBM. The staining pattern of B2-A12 (Group 3 was also characteristic because only epithelial cells were stained, and processes of epithelial cells were observed as fine fibrils. To the best of our knowledge, these two types of monoclonal antibodies have not been reported previously.

  6. Basement structures over Rio Grande Rise from gravity inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Renata Regina; Hackspacher, Peter Christian; de Souza, Iata Anderson; Lima Costa, Iago Sousa

    2017-04-01

    The basement depth in the Rio Grande Rise (RGR), South Atlantic, is estimated from combining gravity data obtained from satellite altimetry, marine surveys, bathymetry, sediment thickness and crustal thickness information. We formulate a crustal model of the region by inverse gravity modeling. The effect of the sediment layer is evaluated using the global sediment thickness model of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and fitting the sediment compaction model to observed density values from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) reports. The Global Relief Model ETOPO1 and constraining data from seismic interpretation on crustal thickness are integrated in the inversion process. The modeled Moho depth values vary between 6 and 27 km over the area, being thicker under the RGR and also in the direction of São Paulo Plateau. The inversion for the gravity-equivalent basement topography is applied to gravity residual data, which is free from the gravity effect of sediments and from the gravity effect of the estimated Moho interface. We find several short-wavelengths structures not present in the bathymetry data. Our model shows a rift crossing the entire Rio Grande Rise deeper than previously presented in literature, with depths up to 5 km in the East Rio Grande Rise (ERGR) and deeper in the West Rio Grande Rise (WRGR), reaching 6.4 km. An interesting NS structure that goes from 34°S and extends through de São Paulo Ridge may be related to the South Atlantic Opening and could reveal an extinct spreading center.

  7. Identification of Goodpasture antigens in human alveolar basement membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, K; Iseki, T; Okada, M; Morimoto, Y; Eryu, N; Maki, S

    1988-01-01

    Goodpasture (GP) antigens, protein components reactive with human autoantibodies against glomerular basement membrane (GBM), were identified in human alveolar basement membrane (ABM) using an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), Western blotting and immunoprecipitation. All six anti-GBM antisera studied, three obtained from patients with glomerulonephritis and pulmonary haemorrhages (i.e. GP syndrome), and three from patients with glomerulonephritis alone, distinctively reacted with collagenase-digested (CD) ABM. Very cationic 22-28 kD and 40-48 kD components were detected by blot analysis combined with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. These proteins showed some similarities to GP antigens in human GBM with respect to the monomer-dimer composition and charge distribution. Inhibition ELISA revealed that the binding of anti-GBM antisera to CDGBM decreased when they were pre-incubated with CDABM, suggesting that the anti-GBM antisera recognized the same epitope(s) on the GBM and ABM. Heterogeneity of the GP antigens in human ABM was demonstrated by blotting; monomeric antigens were absent or at low levels in the CDABM of three out of 10 normal individuals. In immunoprecipitation, anti-GBM antisera from patients with and without pulmonary haemorrhage showed different reactivities with CDABM. The former antisera precipitated both monomeric and dimeric components, but the latter did not. The observations of variation in monomer-dimer composition of ABM, and the different binding of anti-GBM antisera to it may explain why only some patients with anti-GBM nephritis have lung involvement. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2466590

  8. Seismic amplification within the Seattle Basin, Washington State: Insights from SHIPS seismic tomography experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelson, C.M.; Brocher, T.M.; Miller, K.C.; Pratt, T.L.; Trehu, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent observations indicate that the Seattle sedimentary basin, underlying Seattle and other urban centers in the Puget Lowland, Washington, amplifies long-period (1-5 sec) weak ground motions by factors of 10 or more. We computed east-trending P- and S-wave velocity models across the Seattle basin from Seismic Hazard Investigations of Puget Sound (SHIPS) experiments to better characterize the seismic hazard the basin poses. The 3D tomographic models, which resolve features to a depth of 10 km, for the first time define the P- and S-wave velocity structure of the eastern end of the basin. The basin, which contains sedimentary rocks of Eocene to Holocene, is broadly symmetric in east-west section and reaches a maximum thickness of 6 km along our profile beneath north Seattle. A comparison of our velocity model with coincident amplification curves for weak ground motions produced by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake suggests that the distribution of Quaternary deposits and reduced velocity gradients in the upper part of the basement east of Seattle have significance in forecasting variations in seismic-wave amplification across the basin. Specifically, eastward increases in the amplification of 0.2- to 5-Hz energy correlate with locally thicker unconsolidated deposits and a change from Crescent Formation basement to pre-Tertiary Cascadia basement. These models define the extent of the Seattle basin, the Seattle fault, and the geometry of the basement contact, giving insight into the tectonic evolution of the Seattle basin and its influence on ground shaking.

  9. Segmentations of foreland belts and their tectonic mechanism in the Southwest Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU; Guosheng; LI; Yigang; LI; Yanfeng; J.; Canerot; CHEN; X

    2005-01-01

    Based on lots of field investigations and comprehensive interpretations of seismic profiles with outcrop cross-sections, this paper shows that the foreland belts surrounding the Southwest Tarim Foreland Basin have the regularity of segmentation along the strike of foreland belts. There are many thin-skinned thrusting systems thrusting from mountains to the basin and the arcuate back-thrusting systems to the mountains distributed at intervals in the front of West Kunlun-Pamir and Southern Tianshan. Between thrusting and back-thrusting systems, the strike-slip faults developed. The northeast uplifts and depressions of Southwest Tarim Basin correspond with the segmentation of foreland basin. The thin-skinned thrusting system is formed in the case that the thickness of sedimentary covers is less than 10 km in depth where the basement is an uplift belt in general. The back-thrusting systems and triangle zones are formed in the case that the thickness of sedimentary covers is larger than 8 km in depth where the basement is a depression zone. The main mechanics of segmentation of foreland basin are the difference of mountain uplift and deformation rate along the longitude of the mountains, the huge sedimentary rocks in different depression centers, the uplift belts and depression zones in the basement rocks, and multi-displaced weak layers in the foreland basin. The segmentation of Southwest Tarim Foreland Basin is due to the intra-plate deformation of re-orogenies of West Kunlun-Pamir and Southwest Tianshan and the co-related deformation between mountains and basement of basin since Neocene.

  10. Polyphase basin evolution of the Vienna Basin inferred from 3D visualization of sedimentation setting and quantitative subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Novotny, Johannes; Wagreich, Michael

    2016-04-01

    This study analyzed and visualized data from 210 wells using a MATLAB-based program (BasinVis 1.0) for 3D visualization of sediment distribution, thickness, and quantitative subsidence of the northern and central Vienna Basin. The sedimentation settings for selected horizons were visualized to 3D sediment distribution maps, isopach maps, and cross-sections. Subsidence of the study area resulted in 3D subsidence depth and rate maps of basement and tectonic subsidences. Due to the special position of the Vienna Basin, the basin evolution was influenced by the regional tectonics of surrounding units. The 2D/3D maps provided insights into the polyphase evolution of the Vienna Basin, which is closely related to changes in the changing regional stress field and the paleoenvironmental setting. In the Early Miocene, the sedimentation and subsidence were shallow and E-W/NE-SW trending, indicating the development of piggy-back basins. During the late Early Miocene, maps show wider sedimentation and abruptly increasing subsidence by sinistral strike-slip faults, which initiated the Vienna pull-apart basin system. The sediments of the Early Miocene were supplied through a small deltaic system entering from the south. After thin sedimentation and shallow subsidence of the early Middle Miocene, the development of the Vienna Basin was controlled and accelerated mainly by NE-SW trending synsedimentary normal faults, especially the Steinberg fault. From the Middle Miocene, the subsidence was decreasing overall, however the tectonic subsidence show regionally different patterns. This study suggests that a major tensional regime change, from transtension to E-W extension, caused laterally varying subsidence across the Vienna Basin. The Late Miocene was characterized by the slowing down of basement and tectonic subsidence. From the middle Middle to Late Miocene, enormous amount of sediments supplied by a broad paleo-Danube delta complex on the western flank of the basin. The latest

  11. Basement domain map of the conterminous U.S.A. and Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The basement-domain map is a compilation of basement domains in the conterminous United States and Alaska designed to be used at 1:5,000,000-scale, particularly as...

  12. Enhanced assembly of basement membrane matrix by endodermal cells in response to fibronectin substrata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austria, M R; Couchman, J R

    1991-01-01

    Basement membranes are complex extracellular matrices contributing to the regulation of growth, migration and differentiation of many cell types. However, little is known about the mechanisms regulating the deposition and assembly of basement membrane from its constituents. We have investigated t...

  13. Basement domain map of the conterminous U.S.A. and Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The basement-domain map is a compilation of basement domains in the conterminous United States and Alaska designed to be used at 1:5,000,000-scale, particularly as a...

  14. The borderline: Basement membranes and the transition from premalignant to malignant neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.T.B. Bosman (Fré)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, the use of immunohistochemistry for the analysis of basement membrane components and related extracellular matrix proteins in human cancer is reviewed. Basement membranes in cancer are dynamic structures that are constantly degraded but also deposited, in close collaborati

  15. Oil shale resources in the Eocene Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales in the Eocene Green River in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah. This CD-ROM includes reports, data, and an ArcGIS project describing the assessment. A database was compiled that includes about 47,000 Fischer assays from 186 core holes and 240 rotary drill holes. Most of the oil yield data were analyzed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, and some analyses were made by private laboratories. Location data for 971 Wyoming oil-shale drill holes are listed in a spreadsheet and included in the CD-ROM. Total in-place resources for the three assessed units in the Green River Formation are: (1) Tipton Shale Member, 362,816 million barrels of oil (MMBO), (2) Wilkins Peak Member, 704,991 MMBO, and (3) LaClede Bed of the Laney Member, 377,184 MMBO, for a total of 1.44 trillion barrels of oil in place. This compares with estimated in-place resources for the Piceance Basin of Colorado of 1.53 trillion barrels and estimated in-place resources for the Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado of 1.32 trillion barrels.

  16. The Concertina Coast: the role of basement inheritance during repeated reactivation events along Australia's northern margin since the Permian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keep, Myra; Gartrell, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    The present day configuration of Australia's northern margin includes a series of Phanerozoic sedimentary basins forming the North West Shelf. Their polyphase history, dominantly extensional, and closely associated with the breakup of Eastern Gondwana, includes the early formation of intracratonic basins (from the mid-Devonian), overprinted by Permo-Carboniferous rifting that generated the dominant NE-trending structural trends that persist to the present-day. Subsequent Mesozoic extension, associated with the formation of abyssal plains, further refined the margin, creating additional depocentres. During this polyphase rift history, a number of periods of inversion have punctuated the margin. These include a Carboniferous event (the Meda Transpression), a late Permian to Early Triassic event, sometimes referred to as the Bedout Movement (possibly transtensional), and two events, one in the Middle to Late Triassic, followed by another in the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, often referred to as the Fitzroy events. These various events, recorded locally, caused inversion, folding, uplift and erosion where documented, with the Fitzroy events described as transpressional, resulting from right-lateral oblique inversion. Subsequent inversion during the Cretaceous, also attributed to dextral transpression, caused long wavelength folding and fault inversion in some basins. Whereas the effects of earlier inversions are somewhat sporadic across the North West Shelf, the effects of Neogene inversion have been documented across both the active and passive segments of the present day North West Shelf, and also appear to be strongly controlled by right-lateral oblique reactivation mechanisms, with associated seismicity and focal mechanism solutions. The history of the North West Shelf therefore includes 6 discrete episodes of reactivation and inversion, apparently strongly dominated by oblique mechanisms, which punctuate the long, multi-phase extensional history. Whereas

  17. Contrasting basin architecture and rifting style of the Vøring Basin, offshore mid-Norway and the Faroe-Shetland Basin, offshore United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpfer, Kateřina; Hinsch, Ralph

    2017-04-01

    are present in the Faroe-Shetland Basin, but are not recognisable in the Vøring Basin. (iv) Based on seismic data only, a Permian/Triassic rift phase can be suggested for the Vøring Basin, but the evidence for an equivalent rift phase in the Faroe-Shetland Basin is inconclusive. The present study demonstrates that basins developing above a complex mosaic of basement terrains accreted during orogenic phases can exhibit significant differences in their architecture. The origin of these differences may be considered to be a result of inherited pre-existing large-scale structures (e.g. pre-existing fault blocks) and/or a non-uniform crustal thickness prior to rifting.

  18. Geophysical exploration for coal-bearing Gondwana basins in the states of West Bengal and Bihar in northeast India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, S.N.; Roy, A.K.; Brahman, C.V.; Sastry, C.B.K.; De, M.K.

    1992-10-01

    The states of West Bengal and Bihar in northeast India are known to bear 'A' grade coal seams within Gondwana basins. An alluvium-covered area to the north of the Ajay river was considered to be prospective for the exploration of coal. Gravity and magnetic surveys were mainly carried out over an area of 1900 km[sup 2] with resistivity soundings taken at selected places. Gondwana sediments lying over basement subbasins are prospective areas for the exploration of coal. The gravity survey interpreted an 8-km wide and 20-km long depression known as the Pachami basin. This basin was drilled at several places and thick 'A' grade coal seams were intersected. The gravity survey broadly outlined the Pachami basin and several other basement depressions through gravity low contour closures. A forward modelling of a profile across the Pachami basin indicated a maximum depth of about 1.3 km to the basement at its deepest part. The magnetic map was vitiated through the presence of fluctuating high amplitude and high wavenumber anomalies due to a thick blanket of trap lying above the Gondwana sediments. Selected resistivity soundings could approximately interpret the shallow-basement depths, and the thickness and depths of the overlying trap.

  19. Uranium distribution in the Variscan Basement of Northeastern Sardinia

    CERN Document Server

    Kaçeli, Xhixha M; Baldoncini, M; Bezzon, G P; Buso, G P; Callegari, I; Casini, L; Cuccuru, S; Fiorentini, G; Guastaldi, E; Mantovani, F; Mou, L; Oggiano, G; Puccini, A; Alvarez, C Rossi; Strati, V; Xhixha, G; Zanon, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed map of the uranium distribution and its uncertainties in the Variscan Basement of Northeastern Sardinia (VBNS) at a scale 1:100,000. An area of 2100 km2 was investigated by means of 535 data points obtained from laboratory and in situ gamma-ray spectrometry measurements. These data volume corresponds to the highest sampling density of the European Variscides, aimed at studying the genetic processes of the upper crust potentially triggered by an enrichment of radiogenic heat-producing elements. For the first time the Kriging with Variance of Measurement Error method was used to assign weights to the input data which are based on the degree of confidence associated to the measurements obtained with different gamma-ray spectrometry techniques. A detailed tuning of the model parameters for the adopted Experimental Semi-Variogram led to identify a maximum distance of spatial variability coherent to the observed tendency of the experimental data. We demonstrate that the obtained uranium distri...

  20. Syndecan-1 deficiency aggravates anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rops, A L; Götte, M; Baselmans, M H; van den Hoven, M J; Steenbergen, E J; Lensen, J F; Wijnhoven, T J; Cevikbas, F; van den Heuvel, L P; van Kuppevelt, T H; Berden, J H; van der Vlag, J

    2007-11-01

    During the heterologous phase of experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) nephritis, leukocyte influx peaks within hours, whereas albuminuria occurs within 1 day. In the subsequent autologous phase, endogenous anti-GBM IgG develops and albuminuria persists. Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans like syndecan-1 play multiple roles during inflammation and we evaluate its role in experimental anti-GBM disease using syndecan-1 knockout (sdc-1-/-) mice. During the heterologous phase, glomerular leukocyte/macrophage influx was significantly higher in the sdc-1-/- mice and this was associated with higher glomerular endothelial expression of specific HS domains. In the autologous phase, glomerular influx of CD4+/CD8+ T cells was higher in the sdc-1-/- mice and these mice had persistently higher albuminuria and serum creatinine levels than wild-type mice. This resulted in a more sever glomerular injury and increased expression of extracellular matrix proteins. The sdc-1-/- mice developed higher plasma levels and glomerular deposits of total mouse Ig and IgG1 anti-rabbit IgG, whereas the levels of mouse IgG2a anti-rabbit IgG were lower. Furthermore, decreased Th1 and higher Th2 renal cytokine/chemokine expression were found in the sdc-1-/- mice. Our studies show that syndecan-1 deficiency exacerbates anti-GBM nephritis shifting the Th1/Th2 balance towards a Th2 response.

  1. Magnetically inferred basement structure in central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Peter R.; Stewart, Ian C. F.

    1995-05-01

    A compilation of magnetic data acquired during the past three decades for a region in central Saudi Arabia where Precambrian basement is partly exposed on the Arabian shield and partly concealed by overlying Phanerozoic strata, shows a central sector of conspicuous N-S-trending anomalies, a heterogeneous western sector of short-wavelength, high-intensity anomalies, and an eastern sector of low- to moderate-intensity broad-wavelength anomalies. Anomalies in the western and central sectors correlate with Neoproterozoic metavolcanic, metasedimentary, and intrusive rocks of the Arabian shield and are interpreted as delineating extensions of shield-type rocks down-dip beneath Phanerozoic cover. These rocks constitute terranes making up part of a Neoproterozoic orogenic belt that underlies Northeast Africa and western Arabia and it is proposed that their magnetically indicated easternmost extent marks the concealed eastern edge of the orogenic belt in central Arabia. The flat magnetic signature of the eastern sector, not entirely accounted for as an effect of deep burial, may reflect the presence of a crustal block different in character to the terranes of the orogenic belt and, speculatively, may outline a continental block that, according to some tectonic models of the region, collided with the Neoproterozoic terranes and thereby caused their deformation and tectonic accretion.

  2. Type IV Collagens and Basement Membrane Diseases: Cell Biology and Pathogenic Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Mao; Alavi, Marcel V; Labelle-Dumais, Cassandre; Gould, Douglas B

    2015-01-01

    Basement membranes are highly specialized extracellular matrices. Once considered inert scaffolds, basement membranes are now viewed as dynamic and versatile environments that modulate cellular behaviors to regulate tissue development, function, and repair. Increasing evidence suggests that, in addition to providing structural support to neighboring cells, basement membranes serve as reservoirs of growth factors that direct and fine-tune cellular functions. Type IV collagens are a major component of all basement membranes. They evolved along with the earliest multicellular organisms and have been integrated into diverse fundamental biological processes as time and evolution shaped the animal kingdom. The roles of basement membranes in humans are as complex and diverse as their distributions and molecular composition. As a result, basement membrane defects result in multisystem disorders with ambiguous and overlapping boundaries that likely reflect the simultaneous interplay and integration of multiple cellular pathways and processes. Consequently, there will be no single treatment for basement membrane disorders, and therapies are likely to be as varied as the phenotypes. Understanding tissue-specific pathology and the underlying molecular mechanism is the present challenge; personalized medicine will rely upon understanding how a given mutation impacts diverse cellular functions.

  3. The basement complexes in Italy, with special regards to those exposed in the Alps: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AttilioBoriani; FrancescoSassi; RaffaeleSassi

    2003-01-01

    Most of the sedimentary rocks occurring in Italy are post-Carboniferous. All what lies below is considered basement, mostly metamorphic or igneous. Understand-ing the pre-Carboniferous evolution depends on the reconstruction of the sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous evolution of the basement. In general, the base-ment sedimentary protoliths were Lower to Middle Pale-ozoic siliciclastic rocks, while the igneous protolithsbelong to an Ordovician cycle. The prevailing metamor-phism,from very-low grade to granulite facies, is Variscan. It was followed by the formation of large amounts of granitic melts.

  4. Basement membrane proteoglycans in glomerular morphogenesis: chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is temporally and spatially restricted during development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Bynum, K; St John, P L;

    1993-01-01

    We previously reported the presence of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG) in basement membranes of almost all adult tissues. However, an exception to this ubiquitous distribution was found in the kidney, where BM-CSPG was absent from the glomerular capillary......, the present study used light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry to examine the distribution of BM-CSPG and basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan (BM-HSPG) during prenatal and postnatal renal development in the rat. Our results show that the temporal and spatial pattern of expression of BM...

  5. Thermal evolution of a hyperextended rift basin, Mauléon Basin, western Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nicole R.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Lavier, Luc L.; Hayman, Nicholas W.

    2017-06-01

    Onshore and offshore geological and geophysical observations and numerical modeling have greatly improved the conceptual understanding of magma-poor rifted margins. However, critical questions remain concerning the thermal evolution of the prerift to synrift phases of thinning ending with the formation of hyperextended crust and mantle exhumation. In the western Pyrenees, the Mauléon Basin preserves the structural and stratigraphic record of Cretaceous extension, exhumation, and sedimentation of the proximal-to-distal margin development. Pyrenean shortening uplifted basement and overlying sedimentary basins without pervasive shortening or reheating, making the Mauléon Basin an ideal locality to study the temporal and thermal evolution of magma-poor hyperextended rift systems through coupling bedrock and detrital zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometric data from transects characterizing different structural rifting domains. These new data indicate that the basin was heated during early rifting to >180°C with geothermal gradients of 80-100°C/km. The proximal margin recorded rift-related exhumation/cooling at circa 98 Ma, whereas the distal margin remained >180°C until the onset of Paleocene Pyrenean shortening. Lithospheric-scale numerical modeling shows that high geothermal gradients, >80°C/km, and synrift sediments >180°C, can be reached early in rift evolution via heat advection by lithospheric depth-dependent thinning and blanketing caused by the lower thermal conductivity of synrift sediments. Mauléon Basin thermochronometric data and numerical modeling illustrate that reheating of basement and synrift strata might play an important role and should be considered in the future development of conceptual and numerical models for hyperextended magma-poor continental rifted margins.

  6. Perlecan and basement membrane-chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (bamacan) are two basement membrane chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans in the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Kapoor, R; Sthanam, M;

    1996-01-01

    The presence of proteoglycans bearing galactosaminoglycan chains has been reported, but none has been identified previously in the matrix of the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor, which is a source of several basement membrane components. This tumor matrix contains perlecan, a large, low buoyant density...... heparan sulfate proteoglycan, widespread in many basement membranes and connective tissues. We now identify two distinct proteoglycan species from this tumor source, which are substituted with galactosaminoglycans and which show basement membrane localization by immunohistochemistry. One species...... is perlecan but, in addition to being present as a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, it is also present as a hybrid molecule, with dermatan sulfate chains. A minor population of perlecan apparently lacks heparan sulfate chains totally, and some of this is substituted with chondroitin sulfate. The second species...

  7. 3D model of Campo de Dalías basement from H/V spectral ratio of ambient seismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jerez, Antonio; Seivane, Helena; Luzón, Francisco; Navarro, Manuel; Molina, Luis; Aranda, Carolina; Piña-Flores, José; Navarro, Francisco; Sánchez-Martos, Francisco; Vidal, Francisco; Posadas, Antonio M.; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    Campo de Dalías is a large coastal plain in the southeastern mountain front of the Betic Cordillera (SE of the Iberian Peninsula), being one of the most seismically active regions of Spain. This area has a population of about 213.000 inhabitants, with a high growth rate during the last decades due to the development of intensive agricultural activities. Seismic risk assessment and hydrogeological issues are major topics of interest for this area, relaying on the knowledge of the geophysical properties of the basin. A passive seismic survey has been conducted throughout the basin. We have recorded ambient noise at 340 sites located approximately on the vertexes of a 1000 x 1000 m square grid, as well as around a set of deep boreholes reaching the Triassic basement. These broad-band records, of at least 45 minutes long each, have been analyzed by using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio method (H/V). The spectral analysis shows clear H/V peaks with periods ranging from 0.3 s to 4 s, approximately, associated to relevant contrasts in S-wave velocity (Vs) at depth. Simulations based on the diffuse field approach (Sánchez-Sesma et al. 2011) show that long periods are explained by the effect of several hundred meters of soft sedimentary rocks (mainly Miocene marls). Well-developed high-frequency secondary peaks have been found in some specific zones (e.g. N of Roquetas de Mar town). Then, fundamental frequencies and basement depths at borehole sites have been fitted by means of a power law, which can be applied down to 900 - 970m. Larger depths are estimated by extrapolation. This relationship has been used to map the basement (main Vs contrast) throughout the plain. The prospected basement model describes well the main structural features of this smoothly folded region, namely, the El Ejido Synform and the Guardias Viejas Antiform, with ENE-WSW-trend. These features are shifted toward the south in comparison with Pedrera et al. (2015). The homogeneous

  8. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of a basement-onlapping shallow marine sandstone succession, the Charcot Bugt Formation, Middle-Upper Jurassic, East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, M.; Piasecki, S. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)]. Geocenter; Surlyk, F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)]. Geological Inst.

    2003-07-01

    A rocky shore developed in early Middle Jurassic times by transgression of the crystalline basement in Milne'Land at the western margin of the East Greenland rift basin. The basement is onlapped by shallow marine sandstones of the Charcot Bugt Formation, locally with a thin fluvial unit at the base. The topography of the onlap surface suggests that a relative sea-level rise of at least 300 m took place in Early Bathonian - Middle Oxfordian times. The sea-level rise was punctuated by relative stillstands and falls during which progradation of the shoreline took place. Palynological data tied to the Boreal ammonite stratigraphy have greatly improved time resolution within the Charcot Bugt Formation, and the Jurassic succession in Milne Land can now be understood in terms of genetically-related depositional systems with a proximal to distal decrease in grain size. The sequence stratigraphic interpretation suggests that translation of the depositional systems governed by relative sea-level changes resulted in stacking of sandstone-dominated falling stage deposits in the Bastern, basinwards parts of Milne Land, whereas thick, remarkably coarsegrained transgressive systems tract deposits formed along the western basin margin. The bulk of the Charcot Bugt Formation consists of stacked sandstone-dominated shoreface units that prograded during highstands. The overall aggradational to backstepping stacking pattem recognised in the Charcot Bugt Formation is comparable to that in the contemporaneous Pelion Formation of the Jameson Land Basin and in correlative units of the mid-Norway shelf and the Northern North Sea. We suggest that the long-term evolution of the depositional systems may have been controlled by long-term eustatic rise acting in concert with relative sea-level changes reflecting regionally contemporaneous phases of rift initiation, dimax and gradual cessation of rifting. (au)

  9. Pericapillary basement membrane thickening in human skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Oliver; Bigler, Marius

    2016-09-01

    The basement membrane (BM) surrounding capillaries in skeletal muscles varies physiologically in thickness according to age, physical fitness, and anatomical site in humans. Furthermore, the pericapillary BM thickness (CBMT) increases pathophysiologically during several common disease states, including peripheral arterial disease and diabetes mellitus. This review on CBM thickening in human skeletal muscles is two pronged. First, it addresses the advantages/disadvantages of grid- and tablet-based measuring and morphometric techniques that are implemented to assess the CBMT on transmission electron micrographs. Second, it deals with the biology of CBM thickening in skeletal muscles, particularly its possible causes, molecular mechanisms, and functional impact. CBM thickening is triggered by several physical factors, including diabetes-associated glycation, hydrostatic pressure, and inflammation. Increased biosynthesis of type IV collagen expression or repetitive cycles in pericyte or endothelial cell degeneration/proliferation appear to be most critical for CBM accumulation. A thickened CBM obviously poses a greater barrier for diffusion, lowers the microvascular elasticity, and impedes transcytosis of inflammatory cells. Our own morphometric data reveal the CBM enlargement to be not accompanied by the pericyte coverage. Owing to an overlap or redundancy in the capillary supply, CBM thickening in skeletal muscles might not be such a devastating occurrence as in organs with endarterial circulation (e.g., kidney and retina). CBM growth in skeletal muscles can be reversed by training or administration of antidiabetic drugs. In conclusion, CBM thickening in skeletal muscles is a microvascular remodeling process by which metabolic, hemodynamic, and inflammatory forces are integrated together and which could play a hitherto underestimated role in etiology/progression of human diseases.

  10. Superficial dermal fibroblasts enhance basement membrane and epidermal barrier formation in tissue-engineered skin: implications for treatment of skin basement membrane disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkey, Mathew; Ding, Jie; Tredget, Edward E

    2014-02-01

    Basement membrane is a highly specialized structure that binds the dermis and the epidermis of the skin, and is mainly composed of laminins, nidogen, collagen types IV and VII, and the proteoglycans, collagen type XVIII and perlecan, all of which play critical roles in the function and resilience of skin. Both dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes contribute to the development of the basement membrane, and in turn the basement membrane and underlying dermis influence the development and function of the epidermal barrier. Disruption of the basement membrane results in skin fragility, extensive painful blistering, and severe recurring wounds as seen in skin basement membrane disorders such as epidermolysis bullosa, a family of life-threatening congenital skin disorders. Currently, there are no successful strategies for treatment of these disorders; we propose the use of tissue-engineered skin as a promising approach for effective wound coverage and to enhance healing. Fibroblasts and keratinocytes isolated from superficial and deep dermis and epidermis, respectively, of tissue from abdominoplasty patients were independently cocultured on collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrices, and the resulting tissue-engineered skin was assessed for functional differences based on the underlying specific dermal fibroblast subpopulation. Tissue-engineered skin with superficial fibroblasts and keratinocytes formed a continuous epidermis with increased epidermal barrier function and expressed higher levels of epidermal proteins, keratin-5, and E-cadherin, compared to that with deep fibroblasts and keratinocytes, which had an intermittent epidermis. Further, tissue-engineered skin with superficial fibroblasts and keratinocytes formed better basement membrane, and produced more laminin-5, nidogen, collagen type VII, compared to that with deep fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Overall, our results demonstrate that tissue-engineered skin with superficial fibroblasts and keratinocytes

  11. Geometry and Kinematics of Tumuxiuke Fold and Thrust Belt in Bachu Uplift, Tarim Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z.; Tang, L.

    2016-12-01

    Bachu uplift, mainly characterized by a series of out-of-sequence basement involved structures, is a large scale Cenozoic structural unit located in the west of Tarim basin. The NW-SE oriented, arc shaped Tumuxiuke fold and thrust belt (TFTB), which is roughly 200km in length, constrains the northern boundary of Bachu uplift. Based on multiple 2D seismic reflection profiles, we analysed the differences in structural styles along the strike of TFTB. It is mainly consist of several basement involved thrust faults and associated folds (or monoclines). The western segment of TFTB is characterized by a single basement involved structure; as to the middle segment, there is also backthrust branching from the main basement involved structure; in contrast, the eastern segment is consist of basement involved contractional wedge structures. According to the analysis of stratigraphy involved in deformation, fault slip and growth strata, we summarized that the TFTB mainly constructed by the compressional stress during late Miocene Himalayan orogency. Then, we analyzed the kinematics of TFTB with trishear fault propagation folding model. It is suggested that the initial fault tip that located below the basement-cover contact began to propagate during the late Miocene epoch and the propagation to slip ratio (P/S) also changes along strike. At the early stage of compression, the P/S was low and sedimentary cover mainly folded; then, the thrust faults of western segment and middle segment propagated rapidly with high P/S ratio and broke through early formed folds into Neogene strata; but in the eastern segment, the main thrust fault pinch out in the thick gypsum salt layer of middle Cambrian and the sedimentary cover decoupled from basement. About the genesis of basement-involved structures of TFTB in the intracontinent circumstance, we consider the effect of positive inversion of late Proterozoic-early Palaeozoic rift which requires further evidences.

  12. How the structure of a continental margin affects the development of a fold and thrust belt. 2: Imaging basement structures with seismic velocities and seismicity in south-central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biete, Cristina; Brown, Dennis; Alvarez-Marron, Joaquina; Camanni, Giovanni; Kuo-Chen, Hao; Ho, Chun-Wei

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the geophysical signature within the south-central Taiwan fold and thrust belt of the reactivation of pre-existing structures developed on the Eurasian margin. Seismic tomography (P-wave) and earthquake hypocenters are combined to trace structures mapped on the margin offshore western Taiwan into the fold and thrust belt. The extensional tectonic history of the margin began in the Early Eocene and culminated in the Late Eocene to Early Oligocene with sea-floor spreading and the opening of the South China Sea. Several NE trending basins developed during the rifting of a pre-Cenozoic basement and these were filled with Eocene sediments. Further extension on the outer margin took place during the Middle to Late Miocene, forming basins that are now involved in the Taiwan deformation. Finally, the margin's transition from the platform to the slope takes place across south-central Taiwan and is oriented at a high angle to the active deformation front. We define the basement as pre-Eocene rocks and use a P-wave velocity (Vp) of 5.2 km/s as a proxy for the interface between them and their younger cover. This Vp interface is characterized by highs and lows that can be interpreted to image basement topography whose possible causes we investigate here. In the Hsuehshan Range there is a pronounced shallowing of the 5.2 km/s surface across the Shuilikeng fault. It is accompanied by an east-dipping cluster of seismicity down to more than 25 km depth, and forming what appears to be a crustal ramp across which the Eocene-age Hsuehshan Basin is being inverted. Westward, the 5.2 km/s interface forms a high called Paikang basement high, the southern flank of which is the on land projection of the Mesozoic basement shelf break. Southward, there is an increase in seismicity and topography that is associated to a NE-SW oriented lateral structure in the fold and thrust belt. South of this lateral structure, beneath the Alishan Range, a shallowing of the 5.2 km/s interface

  13. FOS-1 promotes basement-membrane removal during anchor-cell invasion in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, David R; Butler, James A; Kramer, James M; Sternberg, Paul W

    2005-06-17

    Cell invasion through basement membranes is crucial during morphogenesis and cancer metastasis. Here, we genetically dissect this process during anchor-cell invasion into the vulval epithelium in C. elegans. We have identified the fos transcription factor ortholog fos-1 as a critical regulator of basement-membrane removal. In fos-1 mutants, the gonadal anchor cell extends cellular processes normally toward vulval cells, but these processes fail to remove the basement membranes separating the gonad from the vulval epithelium. fos-1 is expressed in the anchor cell and controls invasion cell autonomously. We have identified ZMP-1, a membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase, CDH-3, a Fat-like protocadherin, and hemicentin, a fibulin family extracellular matrix protein, as transcriptional targets of FOS-1 that promote invasion. These results reveal a key genetic network that controls basement-membrane removal during cell invasion.

  14. Coexistence of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies and myeloperoxidase-ANCAs in crescentic glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Slot, Marjan; van Paassen, Pieter; van Breda Vriesman, Peter; Heeringa, Peter; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a substantial proportion of patients with crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN), both anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) with specificity for myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA) are detected. In the present study, we questioned wh

  15. Active Peptide-Conjugated Chitosan Matrices as an Artificial Basement Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Hozumi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The basement membrane, a thin extracellular matrix, plays a critical role in tissue development and repair. Laminins are the major component of basement membrane and have diverse biological activities. We have identified various cell-adhesive peptides from laminins and their specific cell surface receptors. Polysaccharides, including chitosan, have been used as scaffolds, which regulate cellular functions for tissue engineering. We have developed laminin-derived active peptide-chitosan matrices as functional scaffolds. The biological activity of the peptides was enhanced when the peptides were conjugated to a chitosan matrix, suggesting that the peptide-chitosan matrix approach has an advantage for an active biomaterial. Further, the laminin peptide-chitosan matrices have the potential to mimic the basement membrane and are useful for tissue engineering as an artificial basement membrane.

  16. Coexistence of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies and myeloperoxidase-ANCAs in crescentic glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Slot, Marjan; van Paassen, Pieter; van Breda Vriesman, Peter; Heeringa, Peter; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen

    BACKGROUND: In a substantial proportion of patients with crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN), both anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) with specificity for myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA) are detected. In the present study, we questioned

  17. Development of the Mozambique and Ruvuma sedimentary basins, offshore Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, G.; Abdula, I.

    1995-04-01

    Two major sedimentary basins have been identified on the continental margin of Mozambique—Mozambique Basin and Ruvuma Basin. The formation of the basins is related to the break-up of Gondwana and opening of the western part of the Indian Ocean. The basins are relatively young, having developed discordantly to the structural plan of Gondwana sedimentary basins. The history of the formation of the East African continental margin sedimentary basins within Mozambique has been studied on the basis of the present-day concept of Gondwana break-up and Madagascar's drift with respect to Africa. Two stages in the history of the East African basins can be recognized: late-Gondwana and post-Gondwana. The late-Gondwana stage (303-157 Ma) is typified by sedimentary and volcanogenic rocks of the Karoo Group. The post-Gondwana stage (157-0 Ma) corresponds to the period of active Gondwana break-up and the formation of Indian Ocean marginal basins. The Mozambique Basin occupies both central and southern parts of the coastal plain of Mozambique, extending onto the continental shelf and slope. The sedimentary fill is composed of Upper Jurassic, Cretaceous and Cenozoic rocks which discordantly overly the Karoo basalts. The Upper Jurassic occurs as continental red-beds, mostly distributed within buried grabens. Cretaceous rocks occur as terrigenous sediments of continental and marine genesis. Cenozoic deposits are of predominantly marine and deltaic origin. The Ruvuma Basin, situated in the north of Mozambique, is part of an extended East African marginal basin which includes parts of the coastal plains and continental margins of Tanzania and Kenya. The basement of the basin is composed of crystalline and metamorphic rocks of pre-Cambrian age. The sedimentary fill is represented by continental terrigenous Karoo sediments, marine and lagoonal Jurassic deposits, and marine and deltaic rocks of Cretaceous and Cenozoic age. The main difference between the sedimentary fill of the

  18. The Alpine tectonic evolution of the Danube Basin and its northern periphery (southwestern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hók Jozef

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The tectonic evolution of the pre-Cenozoic basement, as well as the Cenozoic structures within the Danube Basin (DB and its northern periphery are presented. The lowermost portion of the pre-Cenozoic basement is formed by the Tatricum Unit which was tectonically affected by the subduction of the Vahicum / Penninicum distal continental crust during the Turonian. Tectonically disintegrated Tatricum overlaid the post-Turonian to Lower Eocene sediments that are considered a part of the Vahicum wedge-top basin. These sediments are overthrust with the Fatricum and Hronicum cover nappes. The Danube Basin Transversal Fault (DBTF oriented along a NW–SE course divided the pre-Neogene basement of the DB into two parts. The southwestern part of the DB pre-Neogene basement is eroded to the crystalline complexes while the Palaeogene and Mesozoic sediments are overlaid by the Neogene deposits on the northeastern side of the DBTF. The DBTF was activated as a dextral fault during the Late Oligocene – Earliest Miocene. During the Early Miocene (Karpatian – Early Badenian it was active as a normal fault. In the Middle – Late Miocene the dominant tectonic regime with NW – SE oriented extension led to the disintegration of the elevated pre-Neogene basement under the simple and pure shear mechanisms into several NE – SW oriented horst and graben structures with successive subsidence generally from west to east. The extensional tectonics with the perpendicular NE – SW orientation of the Shmin persists in the Danube Basin from the ?Middle Pleistocene to the present.

  19. Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis and thrombotic microangiopathy in first degree relatives; a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Idorn Thomas; Schejbel Lone; Rydahl Casper; Heaf James; Jølvig Karen; Bergstrøm Marie; Garred Peter; Kamper Anne-Lise

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis and thrombotic microangiopathy are rare diseases with no known coherence. Case Presentation A daughter and her biological mother were diagnosed with pregnancy-induced thrombotic microangiopathy and anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis, respectively. Both developed end-stage renal disease. Exploration of a common aetiology included analyses of HLA genotypes, functional and genetic aspects of the complement...

  20. Distribution of basement membrane type IV collagen alpha chains in ameloblastoma: an immunofluorescence study

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, K.; Siar, C. H.; Nagai, N.; Naito, I.; Sado, Y.; Nagatsuka, H; Hoh, C; Kurada, K.; Tsujigiwa, H; M. Gunduz

    2002-01-01

    Background: Type IV collagen, a heterotrimeric molecule that exists in six genetically distinct forms, alpha1(IV)-alpha6(IV) is a major structural component of basement membrane (BM) and acts as a scaffold for other BM constituents. Methods: Indirect immunofluorescence using alpha chain-specific monoclonal antibodies was employed to clarify basement membrane (BM) collagen IV distribution in two ameloblastoma, and for comparison, on oral mucosa and tooth germ. Results: Ameloblastoma BM express...

  1. Goodpasture antigen of the glomerular basement membrane: localization to noncollagenous regions of type IV collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieslander, J; Barr, J F; Butkowski, R J; Edwards, S J; Bygren, P; Heinegård, D; Hudson, B G

    1984-01-01

    The glomerular basement membrane antigen in Goodpasture syndrome is a collagenase-resistant molecule with a monomer molecular weight of about 26,000. Type IV collagen isolated from glomerular basement membrane contains collagenase-resistant sequences within its structure. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and chemical analysis were used to demonstrate that the collagenase-resistant sequences of type IV collagen contain Goodpasture antigen. Images PMID:6328527

  2. Basement Kind Effects on Air Temperature of a Solar Chimney in Baghdad - Iraq Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A solar updraft tower power plant (solar tower is a solar thermal power plant that utilizes a combination of solar air collector and central updraft tube to generate an induced convective flow which drives pressure staged turbines to generate electricity. This paper presents practical results of a prototype of a solar chimney with thermal mass, where the glass surface is replaced by transparence plastic cover. The study focused on chimney's basements kind effect on collected air temperatures. Three basements were used: concrete, black concrete and black pebbles basements. The study was conducted in Baghdad from August to November 2009. The results show that the best chimney efficiency attained was 49.7% for pebbles base. The highest collected air temperature reached was 49ºC when using the black pebbles basement also.also, the maximum basement temperature measured was 59ºC for black pebbles. High increaments in collected air temperatures were achieved in comparison with the ambient air temperatures for the three basement kinds. The highest temperature difference reached was 22ºC with the pebble ground.

  3. A Review on the Potential Role of Basement Membrane Laminin in the Pathogenesis of Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, J P; Kimber, I

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reviewed alterations to basement membrane laminin in psoriasis and how disruption of this layer could lead to at least some of the pathological changes observed. We here postulate that basement membrane laminin is the key antigen in driving psoriasis, inducing a T cell-mediated autoimmune response. For laminin to be considered as the key autoantigen in psoriasis, it would be reasonable to expect the following to be demonstrable: (1) that autoantigens are present in psoriatic inflammation; (2) that basement membrane laminin is perturbed in involved and uninvolved skin, and that some of the pathological changes associated with psoriasis could be predicted as a sequel to this; (3) that disruption of the basement membrane is among the earliest events in the evolution of psoriatic lesions; (4) that as streptococcal pharyngitis is the most clearly defined event to trigger or exacerbate psoriasis, then a T cell-mediated autoimmune response to laminin should be anticipated as a potential sequelae to streptococcal pharyngitis; (5) that T cells in psoriasis can be shown to react to peptides with homology to laminin; (6) that HLACw6, as the most closely related gene associated with psoriasis and which is involved in antigen expression, should be preferentially expressed within lesional psoriasis towards the basement membrane, together with other proximal associated immune activity; and (7) that there is some association between antilaminin pemphigoid, a humorally mediated autoimmune disease to skin basement membrane laminin, and psoriasis. We here review the data relevant to each of these requirements.

  4. Structural interpretation of the Konkan basin, southwestern continental margin of India, based on magnetic and bathymetric data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Rao, D.G.; Ramana, M.V.; Rao, M.G.

    Magnetic and bathymetric studies on the Konkan basin of the southwestern continental margin of India reveal prominent NNW-SSE, NW-SE, ENE-WSW, and WNE-ESE structural trends. The crystalline basement occurs at about 5-6 km below the mean sea level. A...

  5. A study on the evolution of Indian Ocean triple junction and the process of deformation in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.

    and Southeast Asia. The deformation effects, viz., folded and faulted oceanic basement/sediments, high localized heat flow, intraplate seismicity are well reported over a narrow band in the equatorial region of the basin (5 degrees N to 8 degrees S, 80 degrees E...

  6. The Alegre Lineament and its role over the tectonic evolution of the Campos Basin and adjacent continental margin, Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, Salomão Silva; Neves, Mirna Aparecida; Guadagnin, Felipe; França, George Sand; Vincentelli, Maria Gabriela Castillo

    2016-08-01

    The structural framework and tectonic evolution of the sedimentary basins along the eastern margin of the South American continent are closely associated with the tectonic framework and crustal heterogeneities inherited from the Precambrian basement. However, the role of NW-SE and NNW-SSE structures observed at the outcropping basement in Southeastern Brazil and its impact over the development of those basins have not been closely investigated. In the continental region adjacent to the Campos Basin, we described a geological feature with NNW-SSE orientation, named in this paper as the Alegre Fracture Zone (AFZ), which is observed in the onshore basement and can be projected to the offshore basin. The main goal of this work was to study this structural lineament and its influence on the tectonic evolution of the central portion of the Campos Basin and adjacent mainland. The onshore area was investigated through remote sensing data joint with field observations, and the offshore area was studied through the interpretation of 2-D seismic data calibrated by geophysical well logs. We concluded that the AFZ occurs in both onshore and offshore as a brittle deformation zone formed by multiple sets of fractures that originated in the Cambrian and were reactivated mainly as normal faults during the rift phase and in the Cenozoic. In the Campos Basin, the AFZ delimitates the western side of the Corvina-Parati Low, composing a complex fault system with the NE-SW faults and the NW-SE transfer faults.

  7. Tectonic evolution of the Tualatin basin, northwest Oregon, as revealed by inversion of gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Darcy K.; Langenheim, Victoria E.; Wells, Ray; Blakely, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The Tualatin basin, west of Portland (Oregon, USA), coincides with a 110 mGal gravity low along the Puget-Willamette lowland. New gravity measurements (n = 3000) reveal a three-dimensional (3-D) subsurface geometry suggesting early development as a fault-bounded pull-apart basin. A strong northwest-trending gravity gradient coincides with the Gales Creek fault, which forms the southwestern boundary of the Tualatin basin. Faults along the northeastern margin in the Portland Hills and the northeast-trending Sherwood fault along the southeastern basin margin are also associated with gravity gradients, but of smaller magnitude. The gravity low reflects the large density contrast between basin fill and the mafic crust of the Siletz terrane composing basement. Inversions of gravity data indicate that the Tualatin basin is ∼6 km deep, therefore 6 times deeper than the 1 km maximum depth of the Miocene Columba River Basalt Group (CRBG) in the basin, implying that the basin contains several kilometers of low-density pre-CRBG sediments and so formed primarily before the 15 Ma emplacement of the CRBG. The shape of the basin and the location of parallel, linear basin-bounding faults along the southwest and northeast margins suggest that the Tualatin basin originated as a pull-apart rhombochasm. Pre-CRBG extension in the Tualatin basin is consistent with an episode of late Eocene extension documented elsewhere in the Coast Ranges. The present fold and thrust geometry of the Tualatin basin, the result of Neogene compression, is superimposed on the ancestral pull-apart basin. The present 3-D basin geometry may imply stronger ground shaking along basin edges, particularly along the concealed northeast edge of the Tualatin basin beneath the greater Portland area.

  8. Structural characteristics and petroliferous features of Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Using the modern tectonic geology theories and methods such as the plate tectonic analysis, the paleo-struc- ture analysis, the structural-lithofacies analysis, and the fault related fold and petroleum system, and combining with the seismic data, well drilling data and the circumferential field geology, study on the structural characteristics and petroleum prospect in the Tarim Basin has been carried out. Results show that the Tarim Basin is a large superimposition and combination basin with continental crustal basement, composed of a Paleozoic craton and Meso-Cenozoic foreland basins. The characteristics of the basin are: the kernel part of the basin is the marine facies Paleozoic craton, superimposed 4 continental facies foreland basins. Though the scale of the paleozoic craton of the Tarim Basin is relatively small, the structure is steady. The petroleum prospect of the Paleozoic craton is: multiphase pool-generation and accumulation controlled by ancient uplift. The Meso-Cenozoic foreland basins in the Tarim Basin, which are distributed on the cratonic circumference and are a long-term subsidence, turned into rejuvenated foreland basins after the Meso-Cenozoic period. The petroleum prospects are: coal-bed generating hydrocarbon, abundant natural gas, pool-generation in later and recent periods, the oil and gas distribution controlled by the foreland thrust belt. The structural characteristics of Tarim provide it with a superimposition and combination petroleum system of multiple resources, multiple reservoirs and multiphase pool-generation. The oil and gas exploration prospect covers two large fields: the Paleozoic craton and the Meso-Cenozoic foreland thrust belt.

  9. Formation and evolution of the Chinese marine basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    -Cenozoic tectonic stability has determined the preservation condition of the Paleozoic marine basins. The marine basins have Precambrian crystal basement, the tectonic activities are relatively stable and the basin modification is relatively faint, and the ancient reservoirs are fit for preservation, such as the Tarim Basin,Sichuan Basin and Ordos Basin. They are all potential regions for marine oil and gas to be explored.

  10. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.

    2010-12-01

    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  11. Gravity inversion predicts the nature of the amundsen basin and its continental borderlands near greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Arne; Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard

    2014-01-01

    the results of 3-D gravity inversion for predicting the sediment thickness and basement geometry within the Amundsen Basin and along its borderlands. We use the recently published LOMGRAV-09 gravity compilation and adopt a process-oriented iterative cycle approach that minimizes misfit between an Earth model...... and observations. The sensitivity of our results to lateral variations in depth and density contrast of the Moho is further tested by a stochastic inversion. Within their limitations, the approach and setup used herein provides the first detailed model of the sediment thickness and basement geometry in the Arctic...... of the Eurekan Mount Rawlinson Fault in Ellesmere Island. We compute the anomalous basement topography and show evidence of deformed oceanic and continental crust in relation to this fault zone (LKFZ), suggesting that pronounced Eurekan crustal shortening took place here....

  12. Vascular basement membranes as pathways for the passage of fluid into and out of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alan W J; Sharp, Matthew MacGregor; Albargothy, Nazira J; Fernandes, Rute; Hawkes, Cheryl A; Verma, Ajay; Weller, Roy O; Carare, Roxana O

    2016-05-01

    In the absence of conventional lymphatics, drainage of interstitial fluid and solutes from the brain parenchyma to cervical lymph nodes is along basement membranes in the walls of cerebral capillaries and tunica media of arteries. Perivascular pathways are also involved in the entry of CSF into the brain by the convective influx/glymphatic system. The objective of this study is to differentiate the cerebral vascular basement membrane pathways by which fluid passes out of the brain from the pathway by which CSF enters the brain. Experiment 1: 0.5 µl of soluble biotinylated or fluorescent Aβ, or 1 µl 15 nm gold nanoparticles was injected into the mouse hippocampus and their distributions determined at 5 min by transmission electron microscopy. Aβ was distributed within the extracellular spaces of the hippocampus and within basement membranes of capillaries and tunica media of arteries. Nanoparticles did not enter capillary basement membranes from the extracellular spaces. Experiment 2: 2 µl of 15 nm nanoparticles were injected into mouse CSF. Within 5 min, groups of nanoparticles were present in the pial-glial basement membrane on the outer aspect of cortical arteries between the investing layer of pia mater and the glia limitans. The results of this study and previous research suggest that cerebral vascular basement membranes form the pathways by which fluid passes into and out of the brain but that different basement membrane layers are involved. The significance of these findings for neuroimmunology, Alzheimer's disease, drug delivery to the brain and the concept of the Virchow-Robin space are discussed.

  13. Basement depth estimation from gravity anomalies: two 2.5D approaches coupled with the exponential density contrast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, V.; Mallesh, K.; Ramamma, B.

    2017-03-01

    We develop two automatic techniques in the spatial domain using the exponential density contrast model (EDCM) to trace the bottom surface of a 2.5D sedimentary basin from the observed gravity anomalies. The interface between the sediments and basement is described with a finite strike polygonal source, whose depth ordinates become the unknown parameters to be estimated. The proposed automatic modeling technique makes use of the forward difference approximation and the inversion solves a system of normal equations using the ridge regression to estimate the unknown parameters. Furthermore, the proposed inversion technique simultaneously estimates the regional gravity background that is associated with the residual gravity anomaly. In either case, forward modeling is realized in the spatial domain through a method that combines both analytical and numerical approaches. The utility of each algorithm was successfully tested on a theoretically produced noisy residual gravity dataset. The validity of the inversion technique is also exemplified with the noisy gravity anomalies attributable to a synthetic structure in the presence of regional gravity background. We demonstrate that the magnitude of gravity anomaly is offset dependent and that it would influence the modeling result. Additionally, some applications with real gravity datasets from the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens in western Turkey using the derived EDCMs have produced geologically reasonable results which are in close agreement with those reported previously.

  14. Magnetic constraints of basement structure offshore of western Kyushu, Japan; Kyushu seiho kaiiki ni okeru jiki ijo no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, S.; Nakatsuka, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ishihara, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the results from the qualitative analysis of magnetic anomalies offshore of western Kyushu and from an analysis by a three-dimensional two-layer model inversion. The analysis ranged from Kyushu on the east to Jeju Island on the west and from the southern part of the Korean Peninsula on the north to Tanegashima and Yakushima Islands on the south, namely, the area of 580km from east to west and 580km from south to north. The analytical data used was Magnetic Anomaly Map of Asia (GSJ and CCOP, 1994). In the qualitative analysis, a pseudogravity anomaly map and a pole gravity anomaly map were prepared from the total magnetic force anomaly map by means of a frequency filter operation. As a result, it was noted that two distinctive magnetic high belts existed in the margin of the Tunghai Shelf, extending from the sea area to the west of the Nansei Islands continuously to NNE, and being distributed transversely through the Goto sedimentary basin. Additionally, in the inversion analysis, it was demonstrated that the magnetic basement became shallow at the margin of the Tunghai Shelf north of latitude 31 degrees north, extending nearly in the NNE direction through west of the Goto Islands, west of Tsushima Island, and continuing to the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Andean Basin Evolution Associated with Hybrid Thick- and Thin-Skinned Deformation in the Malargüe Fold-Thrust Belt, Western Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.

    2015-12-01

    Andean deformation and basin evolution in the Malargüe fold-thrust belt of western Argentina (34-36°S) has been dominated by basement faults influenced by pre-existing Mesozoic rift structures of the hydrocarbon-rich Neuquen basin. However, the basement structures diverge from classic inversion structures, and the associated retroarc basin system shows a complex Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of mixed extension and contraction, along with an enigmatic early Cenozoic stratigraphic hiatus. New results from balanced structural cross sections (supported by industry seismic, well data, and surface maps), U-Pb geochronology, and foreland deposystem analyses provide improved resolution to examine the duration and kinematic evolution of Andean mixed-mode deformation. The basement structures form large anticlines with steep forelimbs and up to >5 km of structural relief. Once the propagating tips of the deeper basement faults reached cover strata, they fed slip to shallow thrust systems that were transported in piggyback fashion by newly formed basement structures, producing complex structural relationships. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages for the 5-7 km-thick basin fill succession reveal shifts in sedimentation pathways and accumulation rates consistent with (1) local basement sources during Early-Middle Jurassic back-arc extension, (2) variable cratonic and magmatic arc sources during Late Jurassic-Cretaceous postrift thermal subsidence, and (3) Andean arc and thrust-belt sources during irregular Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic shortening. Although pulses of flexural subsidence can be attributed to periods of fault reactivation (inversion) and geometrically linked thin-skinned thrusting, fully developed foreland basin conditions were only achieved in Late Cretaceous and Neogene time. Separating these two contractional episodes is an Eocene-lower Miocene (roughly 40-20 Ma) depositional hiatus within the Cenozoic succession, potentially signifying forebulge passage or neutral to

  16. Conductivity models for the North Perth Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, T. E.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Jones, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Exploration for geothermal resources in the North Perth basin, Western Australia, led to acquisition of new, high resolution Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-Magnetotelluric (AMT) data, the first of its kind in the area. Electromagnetic (EM) techniques are widely used in geothermal exploration and ground water investigations and they are well suited for application in the Perth basin. Two east-west transects investigating the structure of the onshore basin and its eastern margin, the Darling Fault Zone, are compared with existing geological models and geophysical data. Down-hole temperature data and depth-to-basement models were used to define areas of investigation in the basin, but there are limited geophysical data available. 1D, 2D and 3D modeling of electromagnetic data have been used to produce new conductivity models using existing data to constrain modelling. EM data complement existing gravity and seismic data and support published models in the upper 4-6km. However in deeper parts of the basin, MT data provide additional information allowing for revision of depth-to-basement. In addition to this, we clearly identify a conductivity anomaly associated with the Darling Fault Zone and are able to image this anomaly penetrating into the upper mantle. Fault zone conductors have been imaged on other lithosphere faults around the world, with one explanation being fluids in the enhanced permeability of the damage zone. Evidence to explain the fault zone conductor of the Darling Fault is presented and discussed as it could have significant implications in the identification of new areas, prospective for geothermal resources in the basin.

  17. Fracture and vein characterization of a crystalline basement reservoir, central Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, R.; Grasemann, B.; Decker, K.; Bischoff, R.; Rice, A. H. N.

    2012-04-01

    The country of Yemen is located in the south-western part of the Arabian plate. The Pan-African basement found in western and central Yemen is highly deformed during the Proterozoic eon and is part of the Arabian-Nubian shield ANS (670-540Ma). This ANS is a result of the amalgamation of high-grade gneiss terranes and low-grade island arcs. The development of an extensive horst-and-graben system related to the breakup of Gondwana in the Mesozoic, has reactivated the Pan-African basement along NW-SE trending normal faults. As a result, younger Meosozoic marls, sandstones, clastics and limestones are unconformably overlying the basement. Some of these formations act as a source and/or reservoir for hydrocarbons. Due to fracturing of the basement, hydrocarbons have migrated horizontally into the basement, causing the crystalline basement to be a potential hydrocarbon reservoir. Unfortunately, little is known about the Pan-African basement in Central Yemen and due its potential as a reservoir, the deformation and oil migration history (with a main focus on the fracturing and veining history) of the basement is investigated in high detail. Representative samples are taken from 2 different wells from the Habban Field reservoir, located approximately 320 ESE of Sana'a. These samples are analysed using e.g. the Optical Microscope, SEM, EDX and CL, but also by doing Rb-Sr age dating, isotope analysis and fluid inclusion analysis. In well 1, the only lithology present is an altered gneiss with relative large (<5 cm diameter) multi-mineralic veins. In well 3, quartzite (top), gneiss (middle) and quartz porphyry's (middle) are intruded by a so called "younger" granitoid body (592.6±4.1Ma). All lithologies record polyphase systems of mineral veins. Pyrite and saddle dolomite in these veins have euhedral shapes, which means that they have grown in open cavities. Calcite is the youngest mineral in these veins, closing the vein and aborting the fluid flow. Fluid inclusions inside

  18. Structural and stratigraphic analysis of the paleozoic Murzuk and Ghadames basins, western Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasek, R. M.

    The intracratonic basins in western Libya are characterized by extensional basement controlled faulting along northwest and northeast trends. The northwest southeast trending Tripoli-Soda, Ben Ghenma and Hasi Atshan subsurface arches were uplifted from Cambian through Devonian time. The anomalous west-southwest trending Gargaf Arch acted as a hinge line from Silurian through Devonian time, with consequent paleoslopes to the northwest (Ghadames Basin) and southeast (Murzuk Basin). Paleozoic detrital sediments are up to 1500 m thick in the Murzuk Basin and 2500 m thick in the Ghadames Basin. Five depositional sequences comprise transgressive-regressive cycles of deposition from parallic (coarse grained) to marine (fine-grained). Detailed environmental interpretation of the sequences is based on outcrop models for the Middle Devonian-Lower Carboniferous Aouinet Ouenine and Shatti Formations.

  19. Structure of the Los Angeles Basin from ambient noise and receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yiran; Clayton, Robert W.

    2016-09-01

    A velocity (Vs) and structure model is derived for the Los Angeles Basin, California based on ambient-noise surface wave and receiver-function analysis, using data from a low-cost, short-duration, dense broad-band survey (LASSIE) deployed across the basin. The shear wave velocities show lateral variations at the Compton-Los Alamitos and the Whittier Faults. The basement beneath the Puente Hills-San Gabriel Valley shows an unusually high velocity (˜4.0 km s-1) and indicates the presence of schist. The structure of the model shows that the basin is a maximum of 8 km deep along the profile and that the Moho rises to a depth of 17 km under the basin. The basin has a stretch factor of 2.6 in the centre grading to 1.3 at the edges and is in approximate isostatic equilibrium.

  20. Simulation modeling of vegetation effects on [sup 222]Rn transport into basements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The author developed a model of [sup 222]Rn transport through soils and into experimental basements. The model was based on current theories and data from the Radon Project experimental basements at Colorado State University were used to calibrate it to that site. Uncertainty analysis of the model showed that model predictions of indoor [sup 222]Rn concentrations come from a distribution having a CV of no greater than 0.25. Sensitivity analysis of the model indicated that the dry bulk density, the [sup 226]Ra concentration of the soil and the effective permeability of the basement wall are, perhaps, the most important parameters in the model for determining a set of output. The effective diffusion coefficient of the basement wall is also important. The model was perturbed in manners consistent with three expected mechanisms, and their combination, by which vegetation might influence indoor [sup 222]Rn concentration. The presence of vegetation, acting by any mechanism, reduces indoor [sup 222]Rn concentration. Vegetation also influences the pattern in time of indoor [sup 222]Rn. In general, indoor [sup 222]Rn concentrations tend to follow surface soil moisture, with variability added to the trend by the wind speed. This pattern was modified, however, by vegetation action. Based on these results, I developed a set of predictions which can be tested by experiment at the Radon Project experimental basements to determine which of the hypothesized mechanisms of vegetation action is supported.

  1. Crustal types, distribution of salt and the early evolution of the Gulf of Mexico basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffler, R.T. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

    1990-05-01

    A new contour map on the top of basement shows the overall configuration of the entire Gulf of Mexico basin. Basement, as used here, is all rocks lying below (older than) the extensive Middle Jurassic (Callovian ) premarine evaporites (Louann Salt, etc.) plus the Late Jurassic oceanic crust in the deep part of the basin. The contour map combined with all other available geophysical data has been used to subdivide the gulf basin into four crustal types: continental, thick transitional, thin transitional, and oceanic crust. The broad region of transitional crust and the basic architecture of the basin shown by the map is believed to have formed mainly during a separate Middle Jurassic period of widespread attenuation of the entire gulf region. The area of thick transitional crust around the periphery of the northern gulf is characterized by broad basement highs and lows with wave lengths of 200-300 km. These features controlled the general distribution and thickness of salt and the overlying Jurassic through Lower Cretaceous rocks. In the area of thin transitional crust Mesozoic basins tend to be assymetrical and generally trend more parallel to the overall basin. The boundary between thin transitional crust and oceanic crust is characterized by various salt-related features. For example, the northwest and north-central boundaries are defined by two northeast trending salt-cored foldbelts, the Perdido and Mississippi fan foldbelts, respectively. The offset between the two foldbelts may represent a major transform boundary related to the northwest opening of the gulf basin. All these data put important constraints on models for early gulf evolution.

  2. A reassessment of the Archean-Mesoproterozoic tectonic development of the southeastern Chhattisgarh Basin, Central India through detailed aeromagnetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, M.; Ramesh Babu, V.; Markandeyulu, A.; Raju, B. V. S. N.; Chaturvedi, A. K.; Roy, M. K.

    2017-08-01

    We constrained the geological framework over polydeformed Paleoproterozoic Sonakhan Greenstone Belt and addressed the tectonic evolution of Singhora basin in the fringes of Bastar Craton, central India by utilizing aeromagnetic data interpretation, 2.5D forward modelling and 3D magnetic susceptibility inversions. The Sonakhan Greenstone Belt exposes volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Sonakhan Group within NNW-SSE to NW-SE trending linear belts surrounded by granite gneisses, which are unconformably overlain by sedimentary rocks of Chhattisgarh Basin. The orientations of aeromagnetic anomalies are coincident with geological trends and appear to correlate with lithology and geologic structure. Regional magnetic anomalies and lineaments reveal both NNW-SSE and NE-SW trends. Prominent E-W trending linear, high amplitude magnetic anomalies are interpreted as the Trans-Chhattisgarh Aeromagnetic Lineament (TCAL). NW-SE trending aeromagnetic signatures related to Sonakhan Greenstone Belt extends below the Singhora sedimentary rocks and forms the basement in the west. The analysis suggests that TCAL is a block fault with northern block down-thrown and affected the basement rocks comprising the Sonakhan Greenstone Belt and Samblapur Granitoids. The episode of faulting represented by the TCAL is pre-Singhora sedimentation and played a vital role in basin evolution. The basement configuration image generated by estimates of depth to magnetic basement suggests a complex pattern of NNE-SSW to NE-SW trending depressions separated by a linear N-S trending basement ridge. It is inferred from the 3D magnetic susceptibility inversion that the thickness of sediments is more towards the eastern basin margin and the N-S ridge is a manifestation of post sedimentary faulting. Results of 2.5D modelling of a WNW-ESE profile across the Singhora Basin combined with results from 3D inversion suggest suggests the basin subsidence was controlled by NE-SW trending regional faults in an active

  3. Inversion of gravity data in the Big Bear Lake Area to recover depth to basement using Cauchy-type integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Zhdanov, Michael

    2014-01-01

    One of the important applications of the gravity method is evaluation of the depth to the basement, which is characterized by a significant density contrast with the sedimental layeres. We have introduced recently a new method of modeling and inversion of potential field data generated by a density...... response caused by sediment-basement interface with variable density in depth. We have also developed the inversion of gravity data to recover the depth to basement given the density profile with depth....

  4. Molecular sieve of the rat glomerular basement membrane: a transmission electron microscopic study of enzyme-treated specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiyasu,Akira

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolated rat glomerular basement membrane was treated with elastase and observed by transmission electron microscopy. The treatment with elastase revealed the fundamental structure of the glomerular basement membrane quite clearly, and enabled the observation of a sieve structure within the glomerular basement membrane. This sieve structure may play a major role in the filtration of blood as well as in the production of urine. Treatment with antibody showed that the sieve was mainly constituted of type IV collagen.

  5. The birth of the Xigaze forearc basin in southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Gang; Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo; An, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Chi

    2017-05-01

    The stratigraphic succession of a forearc basin provides crucial information on the history of a convergent plate margin. In particular, it helps to establish the origin of the underlying ophiolites and to unravel the earliest evolutionary stage of arc-trench systems, which remain poorly understood. The Xigaze forearc basin in southern Tibet is one of the best examples of a fossil forearc basin. This study illustrates detailed stratigraphic and high-precision SIMS U-Pb zircon geochronological and Hf isotopic data from the Chongdui Formation, representing the very base of the Xigaze forearc-basin succession, and reconstructs when and how the basin was formed. The Chongdui Formation includes tuffaceous chert and siliceous mudrocks deposited directly on top of pillow basalts of the Xigaze ophiolite and conformably overlain by volcaniclastic turbidites. Tuff layers are interbedded throughout the unit, and their U-Pb zircon ages range from 119 to 113 Ma in the lower member and from 113 to 110 Ma in the upper member, broadly consistent with the established radiolarian biostratigraphy. U-Pb ages and Hf isotope signatures of zircons contained in both tuff layers and turbiditic sandstones indicate clear affinity with magmatic rocks of the Lhasa terrane. Direct depositional and chronostratigraphic relationship with the underlying oceanic crust, dated between 131 and 124 Ma, proves that the Xigaze ophiolite is the basement of the Xigaze forearc basin. After an initial prolonged stage of starved siliceous sedimentation, influx of terrigenous detritus began at 113-110 Ma, reflecting the onset of topographic growth and erosion of the Lhasa terrane in response to intense magmatic activity. Formation of the ophiolitic basement during the early stage of subduction and the subsequent topographic growth of the arc source induced by subduction-related magmatism are thus two critical factors for the birth of the Xigaze forearc basin. Similar stratigraphies were identified in the Great

  6. Intercellular deposits of basement membrane material in active human pituitary adenomas detected by immunostaining for laminin and electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-eight human pituitary adenomas (24 endocrine active and 14 endocrine inactive tumors) were studied immunohistochemically for the presence of the basement membrane component, laminin, and ultrastructurally for the presence of basement membrane. Immunoreactivity of laminin delineated staining...... and one patient with Cushing's syndrome). Concurrently, at the ultrastructural level, bunches of basement membrane-like material intermingled between the adenoma cells were demonstrated in seven of these ten active adenomas. Furthermore, secretory granules were entrapped occasionally in this intercellular...... matrix, indicating a mutual dependence between excessive hormone extrusion and an increase of "misplaced" deposits of basement membrane components, e.g., laminin....

  7. Cenozoic basin development and its indication of plateau growth in the Xunhua-Guide district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Xunhua, Guide and Tongren Basins are linked with the Laji Mountain and the northern West Qinling thrust belts in the Xunhua-Guide district. Basin depositional stratigraphy consists of the Oligocene Xining Group, the uppermost Oligocene-Pliocene Guide Group and the Lower Pleistocene. They are divided into three basin phases by unconformities. Basin phase 1 is composed of the Xining Group, and Basin phase 2 of the Zharang, Xiadongshan, Herjia and Ganjia Conglomerate Formations in the Guide Group, and Basin phase 3 of the Gonghe Formation and the Lower Pleistocene. Three basin phases all develop lacustrine deposits at their lower parts, and alluvial-braided channel plain depositional systems at upper parts, which constitute a coarsening-upward and progradational sequence. Basin deposition, paleocurrent and provenance analyses represent that large lacustrine basin across the Laji Mountain was developed and sourced from the West Qinling thrust belt during the stage of the Xining Group (Basin phase 1), and point-dispersed alluvial fan-braided channel plain deposition systems were developed beside the thrust and uplifted Laji Mountain and sourced from it, as thrusting migrated northwards during the stage of the Guide Group (Basin phase 2). Evolution of basin-mountain system in the study area significantly indicates the growth process of the distal Tibetan Plateau. The result shows that the Tibetan Plateau expanded to the northern West-Qinling at Oligocene (29―21.4 Ma) by means of northward folded-and-thrust thickening and uplifting and frontal foreland basin filling, and across the study area to North Qilian and Liupan Mountain at the Miocene-Pliocene (20.8―2.6 Ma) by means of two-sided basement-involved-thrust thickening and uplifting and broken foreland basin filling, and the distant end of Tibetan Plateau behaved as regional erosion and intermontane basin aggradational filling during the Pliocene and early Pleistocene (2.6―1.7 Ma).

  8. The role of strain partitioning on intermontane basin inception and isolation, External Western Gibraltar Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Bonilla, A.; Expósito, I.; Balanyá, J. C.; Díaz-Azpiroz, M.; Barcos, L.

    2015-12-01

    The intermontane Ronda Basin, currently located in the Western Betics External Zones, started as an embayment of the Betic foreland basin during the Tortonian. We have characterized a post-Serravallian, basin-related deformation event that overprinted the former fold-and-thrust belt. Updated structural and kinematic maps allow us to identify NW-SE basinward-dipping normal faults at the southwestern and northeastern boundaries of the basin and NE-SW shortening structures (large-scale folds and reverse faults) affecting both the outcropping basement and partially the basin infill. In order to test the possible tectonic activity of these structures during the last 5 Ma, exhaustive geomorphologic analyses in the Ronda Basin area have been done. This included the qualitative study of relief and drainage network, together with the characterization of quantitative indices (SLk, Smf, Vf and HI). These results obtained from this analysis are coherent with structural data and suggest that the identified post-Serravallian structures were active up to at least 5 Ma. We also conclude that the Ronda Basin was generated by along strike segmentation of the relief in the Western Betics induced by NE-SW (arc-parallel) stretching accompanied with NW-SE shortening. In the NW basin boundary, the strain was partitioned into ENE-WSW dextral strike-slip faults and NE-SW shortening structures, which gave rise to a Messinian transpressive structural high that disconnected the former Ronda Basin from its parental foreland basin.

  9. Palinspastic reconstruction and geological evolution of Jurassic basins in Mongolia and neighboring China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Genyao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The important event in Jurassic tectonics in Mongolia was the subduction and closure of the Mongolia-Okhotsk ocean; correspondingly, basin evolution can be divided into two main stages, related to the orogeny and collapse of the orogenic belt, respectively. The developing of Early–Middle Jurassic basins to the north of the ocean resulted from back-arc extension. The fossil sutures, from the China–SE Asia sub-continent to the south of the ocean, were rejuvenated by subduction-related orogeny; in addition, the Yanshanian intra-continental movement occurred. Three Early–Middle Jurassic molasse basins were developed by movement in Inner Mongolia, all of which stretched westwards (or northwards into Mongolia; therefore, the molasse basins in eastern and southern Mongolia had the same geometric and kinematic features as the basins in the Inner Mongolia. Owing to the collapse of the Mongolia-Okhotsk orogenic belt, a group of rift basins developed during the Late Jurassic. In eastern Mongolia, the NE orientated extensional basins were controlled by the neogenic NE-structure. The contemporary basins in southern Mongolia and the neighboring areas in China were constrained by remobilization (inherited activation of the latitudinal or ENE-directional basement structures. Three stages can be recognized in the evolution of the Early–Middle Jurassic basins after reversal; the basins also experienced four episodes of reformation.

  10. Laminin, a noncollagenous component of epithelial basement membranes synthesized by a rat yolk sac tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R; Ruoslahti, E

    1981-01-01

    Laminin, a glycoprotein antigenically similar or identical to a component of epithelial basement membranes, was identified as a major component of the abundant extracellular matrix synthesized by an experimentally induced rat yolk sac tumor. Immunocytochemical staining revealed laminin in cultured...... polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 200,000 and 400,000. These comigrated with the polypeptides of mouse laminin isolated previously. The yolk sac tumor tissue grown in vivo contained laminin in the tumor cells and in the extracellular material as evidenced by immunofluorescence...... and in their basement membranes suggesting, but not proving, that both types of cells have ability to synthesize laminin. Production of laminin and the presence of laminin-containing basement membrane material may be important for the biological behavior of the yolk sac tumor. This tumor will also be a useful source...

  11. Expression of basement membrane components through morphological changes in the hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Gibson, W T

    1985-01-01

    membrane separating this from the epithelial cells of the hair bulb, and in the basement membrane and connective tissue sheath which underly the cells of the outer root sheath. Early in catagen, the transitional stage, staining of the dermal papilla matrix disappeared. Fibronectin persisted in the basement...... membrane and connective tissue sheath, which undergo corrugation and apparent thickening in catagen. After follicle shortening, the telogen (resting) stage is reached, at which point fibronectin staining was found to be minimal, being restricted to the basement membrane around the secondary germ. The onset...... the increase in fibronectin expression. However, growing cells, even in a suprabasal position, always had some fibronectin at their surface. Immunoelectron microscopy of early anagen follicles confirmed the light microscopic findings and also showed that fibronectin was present in small vesicles close...

  12. Study on the nature of the Goodpasture antigen using a basement membrane-producing mouse tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, G; Timpl, R

    1980-01-01

    Autoantibodies in the sera of patients with Goodpasture's syndrome showed a strong reaction in indirect immunofluorescence tests on unfixed, frozen sections of a mouse tumour (EHS sarcoma), previously shown to produce extracellular basement membrane. Anti-basement membrane antibodies from patients with bullous pemphigoid failed to react with the mouse tumour, but showed a distinct reaction with cylindroma tissue. Absorption of Goodpasture sera with tumour homogenate completely abolished their reaction on sections of human and murine kidney. Basement membrane (type IV) collagen and a high molecular weight, non-collagenous glycoprotein were isolated from the tumour matrix and studied in absorption experiments and radioimmunoassays. Little or not reaction was observed with Goodpasture patients' sera indicating that neither of these two proteins is the major antigen involved in the disease. Antigenic material reacting with Goodpasture sera was extracted from the tumour in neutral salt solutions, suggesting that it is a non-collagenous protein. PMID:6247110

  13. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan alterations in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehara, T; Carone, F A; McCarthy, K J;

    1994-01-01

    Alterations in basement membrane components, notably proteoglycans, in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease have been investigated. Rats were fed phenol II (2-amino-4-hydroxyphenyl-5-phenyl thiazole) for 4 days and then changed to normal diet for a 7-day recovery period. Marked dilation...... of distal tubules and collecting ducts was observed by 4 days with phenol II treatment, but the morphology returned to normal after 7 days of subsequent normal diet. Staining of tissue sections with two mouse monoclonal antibodies to a recently described basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan...... membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein related to perlecan did not diminish but rather stained affected tubules intensely, whereas laminin, on the other hand, was apparently diminished in the basement membranes of the cystic tubules. Type IV collagen staining did not change through disease...

  14. Influence of basements, garages, and common hallways on indoor residential volatile organic compound concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Robin E.; Levy, Jonathan I.; Spengler, John D.; Shine, James P.; Bennett, Deborah H.

    Concentrations of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often higher inside residences than outdoors as a result of sources or activities within the residences. These sources can be located directly in the living space of the home or in areas associated with the home such as an attached garage, basement, or common apartment hallway. To characterize the contributions from these areas to indoor residential concentrations, VOC concentrations were measured inside, outside, and, if present, in the attached garage, basement, or common hallway of an apartment of 55 residences in the Boston area, most over two seasons, as part of the Boston Exposure Assessment in Microenvironments (BEAM) Study. Of the 55 residences in the study, 11 had attached garages and basements, 24 had only basements, 10 other residences had common apartment hallways, and the remaining 10 were treated as single compartment residences. Concentrations in the garage were up to 5-10 times higher at the median than indoor concentrations for mobile source pollutants including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes. Basement/indoor concentration ratios were significantly >1 for methylene chloride, ethylbenzene, m, p-xylene, and o-xylene, and summer ratios tended to be higher than winter ratios. Approximately, 20-40% of the indoor concentration for compounds associated with gasoline sources, such as methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes, can be attributed to an attached garage at the residence, with garages laterally attached to the first floor of the home having a larger impact. At the median, basements contributed to approximately 10-20% of the estimated indoor concentrations. For apartments, approximately 5-10% of the estimated indoor concentrations confer with air from the hallway. Contributions of these secondary zones to concentrations in the living area of a home were calculated using concentration and airflow estimates. Our findings illustrate the potential

  15. The surface of crystalline basement, Great Valley and Sierra Nevada, California: A digital map database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Carl M.; Fisher, G. Reid; Levine, Paia; Jachens, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    Crystalline basement in central California extends westward from the exposed Sierra Nevada beneath the sedimentary fill of the Great Valley and under the eastern edge of the Coast Ranges at mid-crustal depth. The surface of this basement is defined from three types of control: in the Sierra Nevada from the topography itself, beneath the eastern two thirds of the Great Valley in considerable detail from numerous wells drilled for oil and gas, and beneath the western San Joaquin Valley in less detail from seismic reflection and refraction profiles. Together, these data demonstrate that the surface of crystalline rock is continuous from the exposed rock in the mountains to the top of high-velocity rock buried deep beneath the eastern front of the southern Coast Ranges. This report presents a compilation of data through 1985 that define the surface of this crystalline basement, a contour map of the surface, and the lithology of the basement rock sampled by many of the wells. The compilation was begun as part of the investigation of the 1983 Coalinga earthquake, and was subsequently converted to digital form and extended to the whole of the Great Valley and Sierra Nevada. The main purpose was to explore and document the shape and continuity of the basement surface and to determine the relation of the surface to the tectonic wedge hypothesis (Wentworth and others, 1984; Wentworth and Zoback, 1989). Available basement samples from wells - principally the thin-section collection of May and Hewitt (1948) preserved by the California Academy of Sciences - were also reexamined by cooperating petrologists in an effort to distinguish wells that bottomed in ophiolitic rocks.

  16. Large Sanjiang basin groups outside of the Songliao Basin Meso-Senozoic Tectonic-sediment evolution and hydrocarbon accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, M.; Wu, X.

    2015-12-01

    The basis geological problem is still the bottleneck of the exploration work of the lager Sanjiang basin groups. In general terms, the problems are including the prototype basins and basin forming mechanism of two aspects. In this paper, using the field geological survey and investigation, logging data analysis, seismic data interpretation technical means large Sanjiang basin groups and basin forming mechanism of the prototype are discussed. Main draw the following conclusions: 1. Sanjiang region group-level formation can be completely contrasted. 2. Tension faults, compressive faults, shear structure composition and structure combination of four kinds of compound fracture are mainly developed In the study area. The direction of their distribution can be divided into SN, EW, NNE, NEE, NNW, NWW to other groups of fracture. 3. Large Sanjiang basin has the SN and the EW two main directions of tectonic evolution. Cenozoic basins in Sanjiang region in group formation located the two tectonic domains of ancient Paleo-Asian Ocean and the Pacific Interchange. 4. Large Sanjiang basin has experienced in the late Mesozoic tectonic evolution of two-stage and nine times. The first stage, developmental stage basement, they are ① Since the Mesozoic era and before the Jurassic; ② Early Jurassic period; The second stage, cap stage of development, they are ③ Late Jurassic depression developmental stages of compression; ④ Early Cretaceous rifting stage; ⑤ depression in mid-Early Cretaceous period; ⑥ tensile Early Cretaceous rifting stage; ⑦ inversion of Late Cretaceous tectonic compression stage; ⑧ Paleogene - Neogene; ⑨ After recently Ji Baoquan Sedimentary Ridge. 5. Large Sanjiang basin group is actually a residual basin structure, and Can be divided into left - superimposed (Founder, Tangyuan depression, Hulin Basin), residual - inherited type (Sanjiang basin), residual - reformed (Jixi, Boli, Hegang basin). there are two developed depression and the mechanism

  17. Numerical simulation of the thermomechanical processes resulting in the major pull-apart basins at the Dead Sea Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey Petrunin; Stephan V. Sobolev; Z. Garfunkel; [Child, Sir Josiah, bart.] 

    2004-01-01

    The continental transform boundary between the Arabian and African plates marked by the Dead Sea Transform (DST) accommodated ca 105 km of relative transform displacement during the last 15-20 Myr. The strike-slip deformation resulted in a string of the pull-apart basins along the DST, with up to 10 km thick sedimentary cover. The reconstruction of the pre-DST basement topography indicates that there was a crystalline basement high close to the DST trace between the Red Sea and the Dead Sea, ...

  18. Determination of the Antarctic region active margin basement by using integration of the information coming from the multichannel seismic analysis and the magnetometry; Determinacao do embasamento da margen ativa da regiao Antartica pela integracao de informacoes provenientes da sismica multicanal e da magnetometria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Luiz Carlos [Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegacao, XX (Brazil); Gomes, Benedito Souza [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gamboa, Luiz Antonio P. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    Geophysical measurements were carried out in the Western Margin of the Antarctic Peninsula and Bransfield Strait by the Brazilian Antarctic Program during the summers of 1987 and 1988. The present work, using a continued seismic multi channel and magnetometry data profile crossing the area, intends to present a two-dimensional model of the interface sediment/basement and contribute to the understanding of the complex geology verified in the studying area. By this model, the main provinces of the are (Deep Ocean, South Shetland Trench, Accretionary Prism, Volcanic Arc South Shetland Islands and Bransfield Basin) could be determined. The seismic and magnetic measurements information when superposed can attribute more consistencies to the interpreted basement; although each method has its particular resolution. This way, when the seismic interpretation was not possible due to complex structures disposition, magnetic measurements could offer good estimation about basement depth. The fit between both methods (seismic and magnetic measurements) was reasonable both on the oceanic basin and in the region of Bransfield Strait. The magnetometry, as as well seismic, was sensible to the dip of Drake Plate at South Shetland Trench and the Intrusive occurrence at Bransfield Basin axis. (author)

  19. Rat hair follicle dermal papillae have an extracellular matrix containing basement membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1986-01-01

    Dermal papillae are small mesenchymally derived zones at the bases of hair follicles which have an important role in hair morphogenesis in the embryo and control of the hair growth cycle in postnatal mammals. The cells of the papilla are enmeshed in a dense extracellular matrix which undergoes...... extensive changes in concert with the hair cycle. Here it is shown that this matrix in anagen pelage follicles of postnatal rats contains an abundance of basement membrane components rather than dermal components such as interstitial collagens. In particular, type IV collagen, laminin, and basement membrane...

  20. Membranous nephropathy, antitubular basement membrane antibodies and alveolar hemorrhage in a diabetic child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, N; Olivares, F; Mampaso, F; Gonzalo, A; Barrio, R; Estepa, R; Ortuño, J

    1990-01-01

    We describe an 8-year-old boy who was diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus at the age of 3 months. During the follow-up the diabetes was uncontrolled, and he presented nephrotic syndrome with renal function impairment, a renal biopsy showing a membranous nephropathy. Subsequently he had episodes of anemia and dyspnea, due to alveolar hemorrhage, and he also developed Fanconi's syndrome. A later renal biopsy showed membranous glomerulonephritis and interstitial nephritis. The presence of antitubular basement membrane antibodies was noted but antialveolar basement membrane antibodies were not detected. We do not believe that this unusual clinical picture was a coincidence, and we speculate about a possible explanation.

  1. Co-deposition of basement membrane components during the induction of murine splenic AA amyloid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, A W; Narindrasorasak, S; Young, I D

    1991-01-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that during murine AA amyloid induction there is co-deposition of the AA amyloid peptide and the basement membrane form of heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The synthesis and accumulation of heparan sulfate proteoglycan does not usually occur in the absence of other bas...... enhancing factor induction of amyloid, the period when amyloid is first detected. These observations raise the possibility that an abnormality in basement membrane metabolism is a very early event, and potentially plays an integral part in the process of AA amyloidogenesis....

  2. Heterogeneous distribution of a basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan in rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1987-01-01

    in immunohistochemical studies on frozen tissue sections from many rat organs. However, there was no reactivity with some basement membranes, notably those of several smooth muscle types and cardiac muscle. In addition, it was found that pancreatic acinar basement membranes also lacked the HSPG type recognized...... HSPG from the murine Engelbreth-Holm swarm tumor. It was, however, confirmed that only a single population of antibodies was present in the serum. Despite the presence of similar epitopes on these two proteoglycans of different hydrodynamic properties, it was apparent that the PYS-2 HSPG represents...

  3. Folded Lithospheric Basins in Central Asia: Altai-Sayan and Tien Shan basins in a folding lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Damien; Cloetingh, Sierd; Beekman, Fred; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Burov, Evguenii; Buslov, Misha; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbeck

    2014-05-01

    Central Asia is a classic example for continental lithospheric folding. In particular, the Altay-Sayan belt in South-Siberia and the Kyrgyz Tien Shan display a special mode of lithospheric deformation, involving decoupled lithospheric mantle folding and upper crustal folding and faulting. A review of the paleostress data and tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Kurai-Chuya basin in Siberian Altai, Zaisan basin in Kazakh South Altai and Issyk-Kul basin in Kyrgyz Tien Shan suggests that these basins were initiated in an extensional context and later inverted by a combination of fault-controlled deformation and flexural folding. They deformed by a combination of lithospheric buckling inducing surface tilting, uplift and subsidence, together with upper crustal fault-controlled deformation. They are good examples of Folded Lithospheric Basins (FLB) which typically form in a buckling lithosphere. Their characteristic basin fill and symmetry, inner structure, folding wavelength and amplitude, thermal regime and time frame are examined in relation to basement structure, stress field, strain rate, timing of deformation, and compared to existing modelling results. Both regions of active lithospheric folding have a heterogeneous crust with a long history of accretion-collision, subsequently reactivated as a far-field effect of the Indian-Eurasian collision. Thanks to the youthfulness of the tectonic deformation in this region (peak deformation in late Pliocene - early Pleistocene), the surface expression of lithospheric deformation is well documented by the surface topography and superficial tectonic structures.

  4. The elastic properties of the lithosphere beneath Scotian basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Arkani-Hamed, Jafar

    2002-02-01

    To assess the possibility that the North Atlantic Ocean may subduct at Scotian basin east of Canada, we investigate the present compensation state of this deep basin. A Fourier domain analysis of the bathymetry, depth to basement and observed gravity anomalies over the oceanic area east of Nova Scotia indicates that the basin is not isostatically compensated. Moreover, the analysis emphasizes that in addition to the sediments, density perturbations exist beneath the basin. The load produced by the sediments and these density perturbations must have been supported by the lithosphere. We simulate the flexure of the lithosphere under this load by that of a thin elastic plate overlying an inviscid interior. It is shown that a plate with a uniform rigidity does not adequately represent the lithosphere beneath the basin as well as the oceanic lithosphere far from the basin, rather the rigidity of the lithosphere directly beneath the basin is about one to two orders of magnitude smaller than elsewhere. We relate this weakening to the thermal blanketing effects of the thick sediments and the fact that the lithosphere has a temperature-dependent rheology. We suggest that this weak zone would have a controlling effect on the reactivation of normal faults at the hinge zone of the basin, that were formed during the break-up of Africa and North America and were locked in the early stages after the break-up. The weak zone would facilitate reactivation of the faults if tensional stresses were produced by possible reorientation of the spreading direction of the North Atlantic Ocean in the future. The reactivation of the faults would create a free boundary condition at the hinge zone, allowing further bending of the lithosphere beneath the basin and juxtaposition of this lithosphere to the mantle beneath the continent. This may provide a favorable situation for initiation of slow subduction due to subsequent compressional forces.

  5. Fluid flow and permeabilities in basement fault zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinsworth, Allan; Koehn, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    rocks, and younger Mesozoic age faults may provide analogues for the West Shetland basin. Samples have been collected from both of these localities, and will be examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. X-Ray micro-tomography will also be used to analyse the permeability characteristics of the fault rocks. Our understanding of fault zone permeability is crucial for a number of research areas, including earthquake geoscience, economic mineral formation, and hydrocarbon systems. As a result, this research has relevance to a variety of industry sectors, including oil and gas (and ccs), nuclear waste disposal, geothermal and mining.

  6. Resistivity soundings and VLF profiles for siting groundwater wells in a fractured basement aquifer in the Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, A. I.; Kruse, S. E.

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal shortages of groundwater are common in parts of the Arabian Shield, where complex basement hydrogeology can make siting of water wells difficult. To identify optimal production well locations, six 200-400 m-long Very Low Frequency (VLF) electromagnetic traverses and ten Vertical Electrical Soundings (VESes) were run at the western edge of the Arabian Shield near At-Taif town, Saudi Arabia. Here wadi sediments overlie fractured Precambrian basement, which in turn overlies unfractured basement. The fractured basement forms the water supply aquifer. Both VLF and VES data indicate significant lateral heterogeneity in the electrical conductivity of both wadi and basement deposits over lengths scales as small as ∼100 m. VES results correlate closely with data from two wells in the study area. The change in resistivity at the wadi-to-fractured basement contact is relatively subtle, but the transition from low resistivity fractured basement to high resistivity unfractured basement is well resolved. Inferred wadi thicknesses range from 0 to 14 m; the electrically conductive fractured basement extends from wadi down to 12-32 m depth. VES data indicate the fractured basement aquifer thickens progressively to the south in this area. A production well, sited on the basis of the VES analysis, successfully yielded 70m3/day. The relationship between VLF and VES data is complex, suggesting that the terrain is heterogeneous on the scale of the different effective sampling volumes of the two methods, and/or that fracture azimuth is locally heterogeneous. Overall resistivities in this study are similar to those observed at other locations in Saudi Arabia, suggesting these methods may be widely applicable for siting of groundwater wells in the complex basement of the Arabian Shield.

  7. New seismo-stratigraphic data of the Volturno Basin (northern Campania, Tyrrhenian margin, southern Italy: implications for tectono-stratigraphy of the Campania and Latium sedimentary basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennio Marsella

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A geological section of the Volturno Basin (northern Campania, continental margin, Italy has been constructed based on new multi-channel seismic data, to show the stratigraphic relationships between the filling in the Quaternary basin and the Meso-Cenozoic acoustic basement. The new seismic sections presented here outline the underlying structures of the basin and their relationships to the filling in the Quaternary basin. Deep exploration wells in Campania and Latium on the Tyrrhenian margin have gathered litho-stratigraphic and commercial multi-channel seismic data that can be used for better integration of the geological data for the area under study. The trending of the seismic units is controlled by the Massico Structural High, which forms the boundary of the Volturno Basin towards the north-west. This produces a geometry that is characteristic of a fan complex, with NE-SW trending. This qualitative calibration of the seismic sequences that fill the sedimentary basin was carried out through the litho-stratigraphic data of the «Castelvolturno 2» well, which highlights the pyroclastic layers and conglomeratic strata of the lagoon and delta environments as they evolve upwards towards marine sediments. Seismo-stratigraphic analysis shows the complex depositional geometries of the filling in the Volturno Basin, which overlie the Meso-Cenozoic carbonatic basement and the related flysch deposits. Coupled with regional geological evidence, the data interpretation here suggests that the Volturno Basin represents a half-graben structure that is characterized by down-thrown blocks along normal faults.

  8. 2D and 3D modelling of the Linking Zone between the Iberian and the Catalan Coastal Ranges (NE Spain): Characterizing basement and cover deformation from geological and geophysical cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Llavall, Esther; Ayala, Concepción; Rubio, Félix Manuel; Pueyo, Emilio; Casas, Antonio; Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Rodríguez-Pintó, Adriana; Rey-Moral, Carmen

    2015-04-01

    reality. Second, the cross sections were imported in Move (by Midland Valley Exploration) and GeoModeller (by Intrepid Geosciences) to create a 3D geological model in accordance with all the geological observations. Finally, a 3D gravimetric inversion using GeoModeller was carried out to obtain the lithological horizons that also honor the petrophysical and gravimetric data. The studied area can be divided in three structural domains: (1) the eastern margin of the Aragonian Branch, (2) the Linking Zone and (3) the transition between the Linking Zone and the Catalan Coastal Ranges. In the Aragonian Branch, the main structures partly correspond to the inversion of basement faults limiting the margins of the Oliete sub-basin, Lower Cretaceous in age. The boundaries of this basin coincide with positive residual gravity anomalies. Structures in the Linking Zone belong to the northern margin of the inverted Morella basin (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) to the South and the thin-skinned Portalrubio-Vandellòs thrust system to the North, both separated by a strongly deformed zone corresponding to inverted structures in the marginal areas of the Mesozoic basin. In the Catalan Coastal Ranges, faults affecting the basement are dominant. Positive residual gravity anomalies match with antiformal structures at the front of the range and negative gravity anomalies to Plio-Quaternary basins superimposed on the Alpine compressional structure. In the foreland of the Iberian and Catalan Coastal ranges, the slightly deformed basement of the Cenozoic Ebro Basin is characterized by positive residual anomalies indicating the location of basement uplifts. From the 3D model we obtained a faulted, deformed basement at a maximum depth of 1700 m but generally found between 350 and 1400 m.

  9. The Brazilian marginal basins: current state of knowledge; As bacias marginais brasileiras: estagio atual de conhecimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponte, Francisco Celso; Asmus, Haroldo Erwin

    2004-11-01

    Based on distinctive stratigraphic and/or structural characteristics, the brazilian continental margin can be divided into two main provinces : (1)The southeastern-eastern province, extending from the Pelotas to the Recife - Joao Pessoa Basin, presents a tensional tectonic style of Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous age, paralleling the structural alignments of the Precambrian basement, except in the northeastern segment where the Mesozoic faults of the Recife - Joao Pessoa Basin cut across the east west basement directions. The basin-fill, Upper Jurassic through Recent, consists, where complete, of three stratigraphic sequences, each of a distinct depositional environment: (a) a lower clastic non-marine sequence; (b) a middle evaporitic sequence, and (c) an upper clastic paralic and open marine sequence. (2)The northern province, extending from the Potiguar Basin to the Amazon Submarine Basin, displays both tensional and compressional tectonic styles of Upper Jurassic (?) to Upper Cretaceous age either paralleling or cutting transversally the basement alignments. The stratigraphic column differs from the southeastern - eastern province in lacking the Lower Cretaceous evaporitic rocks. The integration of the stratigraphic and structural data allows one to determine in the eastern Brazilian marginal basins the main evolutionary stages of a typical pull-apart continental margin: a continental pre-rift and rift stage, an evaporitic proto-ocean stage, and a normal open ocean stage. In the northern province it is possible to infer a continental rift valley stage, a marine transform - movement stage and an open ocean stage. The relationship between the rift valley and transform movement stages is not clear. (author)

  10. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources—Southern Rocky Mountain Basins: Chapter M in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Drake, Ronald M.; Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; East, Joseph A.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Brennan, Sean T.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Philip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2016-06-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey has completed an assessment of the potential geologic carbon dioxide storage resources in the onshore areas of the United States. To provide geological context and input data sources for the resources numbers, framework documents are being prepared for all areas that were investigated as part of the national assessment. This report, chapter M, is the geologic framework document for the Uinta and Piceance, San Juan, Paradox, Raton, Eastern Great, and Black Mesa Basins, and subbasins therein of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. In addition to a summary of the geology and petroleum resources of studied basins, the individual storage assessment units (SAUs) within the basins are described and explanations for their selection are presented. Although appendixes in the national assessment publications include the input values used to calculate the available storage resource, this framework document provides only the context and source of the input values selected by the assessment geologists. Spatial-data files of the boundaries for the SAUs, and the well-penetration density of known well bores that penetrate the SAU seal, are available for download with the release of this report.

  11. Tectonics of Precambrian basement of the Tarim craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Zhaojie; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Jia Chengzao, Tectonic Characteristics and Petroleum, Tarim Basin, China (in Chinese), Beijing: Petroleum Industry Press, 1997, 29?/FONT>92.[2]Huang, T. K., Ren, J. S., Jiang, C. F. et al., The Geologic Evolution of China (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1980.[3]Che, Z. C., Liu, L., Liu, H. F. et al., Discovery and occurrence of high-pressure meta-pelitic rocks from Altun Mountain areas, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1995, 40(23): 1988.[4]An Yin, Nie Shangyou, A phanerozoic palinspastic reconstruction of China and its neighboring regions, in The Tectonic Evolution of Asia (eds. An Yin, Harrison, T. M.), London: Cambridge University Press, 1996, 442-485.[5]Sobel, E. R., Arnaud, N., A possible middle Paleozoic suture in the Altyn Tagh, NW China, Tectonics, 1999, 18(1): 67.[6]Xu, Z. Q., Yang, J. S., Zhang, J. X. et al., A comparison between the tectonic units on the two sides of the Altun sinistral strike-slip fault and the mechanism of lithospheric shearing, Acta Geologica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1999, 73(3): 193.[7]Guo, Z., J., Zhang, Z. C., Wang, J. J., Sm-Nd isochron age of ophiolite along northern margin of Altun Tagh Mountain and its significance, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1999, 44(5): 456.[8]Liu, L., Che, Z. C., Wang, Y. et al., The evidence of Sm-Nd isochron age for the early Paleozoic ophiolite in Mangya area, Altun Mountains, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1998, 43(15): 754.[9]Xinjiang Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Regional Geology of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (in Chinese with English abstract), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993, 555-557.[10]Gansu Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Regional Geology of Gansu Province (in Chinese with English abstract), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1989.[11]Hu, A. Q., Rogers, G., Discovery of 3.3 Ga Archean rocks in North Tarim Block of Xinjiang, Western China, Chinese Science

  12. Anti-DNA autoantibodies initiate experimental lupus nephritis by binding directly to the glomerular basement membrane in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Meera R; Wang, Congmiao; Marion, Tony N

    2012-07-01

    The strongest serological correlate for lupus nephritis is antibody to double-stranded DNA, although the mechanism by which anti-DNA antibodies initiate lupus nephritis is unresolved. Most recent reports indicate that anti-DNA must bind chromatin in the glomerular basement membrane or mesangial matrix to form glomerular deposits. Here we determined whether direct binding of anti-DNA antibody to glomerular basement membrane is critical to initiate glomerular binding of anti-DNA in experimental lupus nephritis. Mice were co-injected with IgG monoclonal antibodies or hybridomas with similar specificity for DNA and chromatin but different IgG subclass and different relative affinity for basement membrane. Only anti-DNA antibodies that bound basement membrane bound to glomeruli, activated complement, and induced proteinuria whether injected alone or co-injected with a non-basement-membrane-binding anti-DNA antibody. Basement membrane-binding anti-DNA antibodies co-localized with heparan sulfate proteoglycan in glomerular basement membrane and mesangial matrix but not with chromatin. Thus, direct binding of anti-DNA antibody to antigens in the glomerular basement membrane or mesangial matrix may be critical to initiate glomerular inflammation. This may accelerate and exacerbate glomerular immune complex formation in human and murine lupus nephritis.

  13. Biological preparation Bactocide trial in the submerged basements of residential constructions and public buildings in Dnipropetrovsk city

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. Kotliarova; N. V. Skubenko; N. A. Shokotko; T. N. Perekopskaya; E. E. Korystina

    2006-01-01

    The research of Bactocide application for the control of larval stage of Culex mosquitoes was carried out in the basements submerged by various waters – ground and domestic ones. High efficiency of the Bactocide was proved by parameters of the larval death, that allows recommending it for the control of the Culex pipiens molestus mosquitoes in submerged basements.

  14. Biological preparation Bactocide trial in the submerged basements of residential constructions and public buildings in Dnipropetrovsk city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Kotliarova

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The research of Bactocide application for the control of larval stage of Culex mosquitoes was carried out in the basements submerged by various waters – ground and domestic ones. High efficiency of the Bactocide was proved by parameters of the larval death, that allows recommending it for the control of the Culex pipiens molestus mosquitoes in submerged basements.

  15. Co-deposition of basement membrane components during the induction of murine splenic AA amyloid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, A W; Narindrasorasak, S; Young, I D

    1991-01-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that during murine AA amyloid induction there is co-deposition of the AA amyloid peptide and the basement membrane form of heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The synthesis and accumulation of heparan sulfate proteoglycan does not usually occur in the absence of other bas...

  16. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan alterations in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehara, T; Carone, F A; McCarthy, K J

    1994-01-01

    Alterations in basement membrane components, notably proteoglycans, in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease have been investigated. Rats were fed phenol II (2-amino-4-hydroxyphenyl-5-phenyl thiazole) for 4 days and then changed to normal diet for a 7-day recovery period. Marked dilation of di...

  17. Groundwater Recharge Estimation And Water Resources Assessment In A Tropical Crystalline Basement Aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyagwambo, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    While most groundwater recharge estimation methods give reasonable long-term annual average estimates very few if any methods offer guidance on monthly recharge. In crystalline basement aquifers (CBAs) the problem is compounded by the high seasonal, intra-annual and inter-annual variability. The chl

  18. Entactin: ultrastructural localization of an ubiquitous basement membrane glycoprotein in mouse skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Fine, J D; Ljubimov, A V;

    1989-01-01

    Entactin is a recently described sulfated glycoprotein component of mouse endodermal cell-derived extracellular matrix and is present in a number of basement membranes. It has been ultrastructurally localized to both lamina densa and adjacent epithelial cell membranes in rodent kidney. In the pre...

  19. The clinical utility of reticular basement membrane thickness measurements in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mastrigt, Esther; Vanlaeken, Leonie; Heida, Fardou; Caudri, Daan; de Jongste, Johan C.; Timens, Wim; Rottier, Bart L.; de Krijger, Ronald R.; Pijnenburg, Marielle W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickness is one of the pathological features of asthma and can be measured in endobronchial biopsies. We assessed the feasibility of endobronchial biopsies in a routine clinical setting and investigated the clinical value of RBM thickness measurements fo

  20. Cdc42 expression in keratinocytes is required for the maintenance of the basement membrane in skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xunwei; Quondamatteo, Fabio; Brakebusch, Cord

    2006-01-01

    , structure and number of hemidesomosomes were not significantly changed in the Cdc42 mutant skin compared with the control mice and no blister formation was observed in mutant skin. These data indicate that Cdc42 in keratinocytes is important for maintenance of the basement membrane of skin....

  1. SOME RESULTS FROM THE DEMONSTRATION OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION MEASURES IN BLOCK BASEMENT HOUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active soil ventilation techniques have been tested in 26 block-wall basement houses in eastern Pennsylvania with significantly elevated indoor radon concentrations, generally above 740 Bq/m3, and the results indicate that radon levels can be reduced substantially often below the...

  2. Peroxynitrous acid induces structural and functional modifications to basement membranes and its key component, laminin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degendorfer, Georg; Chuang, Christine Y.; Hammer, Astrid;

    2015-01-01

    Basement membranes (BM) are specialized extracellular matrices underlying endothelial cells in the artery wall. Laminin, the most abundant BM glycoprotein, is a structural and biologically active component. Peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH), a potent oxidizing and nitrating agent, is formed in vivo at s...

  3. Impact of climate changes during the last 5 million years on groundwater in basement aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, Luc; Vergnaud-Ayraud, Virginie; Les Landes, Antoine Armandine; Pauwels, Hélène; Davy, Philippe; Pételet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Labasque, Thierry; Roques, Clément; Chatton, Eliot; Bour, Olivier; Ben Maamar, Sarah; Dufresne, Alexis; Khaska, Mahmoud; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Barbecot, Florent

    2015-09-22

    Climate change is thought to have major effects on groundwater resources. There is however a limited knowledge of the impacts of past climate changes such as warm or glacial periods on groundwater although marine or glacial fluids may have circulated in basements during these periods. Geochemical investigations of groundwater at shallow depth (80-400 m) in the Armorican basement (western France) revealed three major phases of evolution: (1) Mio-Pliocene transgressions led to marine water introduction in the whole rock porosity through density and then diffusion processes, (2) intensive and rapid recharge after the glacial maximum down to several hundred meters depths, (3) a present-day regime of groundwater circulation limited to shallow depth. This work identifies important constraints regarding the mechanisms responsible for both marine and glacial fluid migrations and their preservation within a basement. It defines the first clear time scales of these processes and thus provides a unique case for understanding the effects of climate changes on hydrogeology in basements. It reveals that glacial water is supplied in significant amounts to deep aquifers even in permafrosted zones. It also emphasizes the vulnerability of modern groundwater hydrosystems to climate change as groundwater active aquifers is restricted to shallow depths.

  4. Impact of climate changes during the last 5 million years on groundwater in basement aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, Luc; Vergnaud-Ayraud, Virginie; Les Landes, Antoine Armandine; Pauwels, Hélène; Davy, Philippe; Pételet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Labasque, Thierry; Roques, Clément; Chatton, Eliot; Bour, Olivier; Ben Maamar, Sarah; Dufresne, Alexis; Khaska, Mahmoud; La Salle, Corinne Le Gal; Barbecot, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is thought to have major effects on groundwater resources. There is however a limited knowledge of the impacts of past climate changes such as warm or glacial periods on groundwater although marine or glacial fluids may have circulated in basements during these periods. Geochemical investigations of groundwater at shallow depth (80–400 m) in the Armorican basement (western France) revealed three major phases of evolution: (1) Mio-Pliocene transgressions led to marine water introduction in the whole rock porosity through density and then diffusion processes, (2) intensive and rapid recharge after the glacial maximum down to several hundred meters depths, (3) a present-day regime of groundwater circulation limited to shallow depth. This work identifies important constraints regarding the mechanisms responsible for both marine and glacial fluid migrations and their preservation within a basement. It defines the first clear time scales of these processes and thus provides a unique case for understanding the effects of climate changes on hydrogeology in basements. It reveals that glacial water is supplied in significant amounts to deep aquifers even in permafrosted zones. It also emphasizes the vulnerability of modern groundwater hydrosystems to climate change as groundwater active aquifers is restricted to shallow depths. PMID:26392383

  5. Macrophage Chemotaxis in Anti-tubular Basement Membrane-Induced Interstitial Nephritis in Guinea Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, Thomas L.; Merrow, Martha; Phillips, S. Michael; Norman, Michael; Neilson, Eric G.

    1985-01-01

    Interstitial renal lesions containing T cells and macrophages develop after 14 days in guinea pigs immunized to produce anti-tubular basement membrane-induced interstitial nephritis. We serially examined the renal venous and systemic arterial sera from such animals to determine if chemotactic factor

  6. Groundwater recharge estimation and water resources assessment in a tropical crystalline basement aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyagwambo, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    Groundwater recharge estimation in crystalline basement aquifers in semi-arid tropical areas is best estimated at monthly time scales as this best captures the dynamics of recharge processes in these areas. Whilst it is standard practice to use at least two methods to estimate the recharge it may be

  7. Drosophila laminins act as key regulators of basement membrane assembly and morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Jose M; Torgler, Catherine N; Molnar, Cristina; Tepass, Ulrich; López-Varea, Ana; Brown, Nicholas H; de Celis, Jose F; Martín-Bermudo, Maria D

    2009-12-01

    Laminins are heterotrimeric molecules found in all basement membranes. In mammals, they have been involved in diverse developmental processes, from gastrulation to tissue maintenance. The Drosophila genome encodes two laminin alpha chains, one beta and one Gamma, which form two distinct laminin trimers. So far, only mutations affecting one or other trimer have been analysed. In order to study embryonic development in the complete absence of laminins, we mutated the gene encoding the sole laminin beta chain in Drosophila, LanB1, so that no trimers can be made. We show that LanB1 mutant embryos develop until the end of embryogenesis. Electron microscopy analysis of mutant embryos reveals that the basement membranes are absent and the remaining extracellular material appears disorganised and diffuse. Accordingly, abnormal accumulation of major basement membrane components, such as Collagen IV and Perlecan, is observed in mutant tissues. In addition, we show that elimination of LanB1 prevents the normal morphogenesis of most organs and tissues, including the gut, trachea, muscles and nervous system. In spite of the above structural roles for laminins, our results unravel novel functions in cell adhesion, migration and rearrangement. We propose that while an early function of laminins in gastrulation is not conserved in Drosophila and mammals, their function in basement membrane assembly and organogenesis seems to be maintained throughout evolution.

  8. Groundwater recharge estimation and water resources assessment in a tropical crystalline basement aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyagwambo, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    Groundwater recharge estimation in crystalline basement aquifers in semi-arid tropical areas is best estimated at monthly time scales as this best captures the dynamics of recharge processes in these areas. Whilst it is standard practice to use at least two methods to estimate the recharge it may be

  9. Identification of Goodpasture target antigens in basement membranes of human glomeruli, lung, and placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M; Köhler, H; Manns, M; Baum, H P; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1987-01-01

    Collagenase-digests of human glomerular (GBM), alveolar (ABM), and placenta basement membranes (PBM) were separated by gel filtration columns and the pools rich in Goodpasture antigens (GP) were identified by an antibody inhibition-ELISA. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by immunoblotting on nitrocellulose membranes was performed with each basement membrane preparation. Sera from patients with florid GP-syndrome and antibodies to glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM antibodies) were incubated with nitrocellulose strips of GBM, ABM, and PBM. Immunoperoxidase staining revealed reactivity with target antigens of 24, 26, 44, and 50 kD in the GBM and of 44 and 50 kD in the ABM and PBM, respectively. No corresponding reactivity was observed using convalescent GP-sera, sera from patients with other immunological diseases or sera from healthy blood donors. The antigens were sensitive to reduction. We conclude, that antigens of similar molecular-weights can be identified by anti-GBM positive sera in human glomerular, alveolar and placenta basement membranes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:3608225

  10. East Mariana Basin tholeiites: Cretaceous intraplate basalts or rift basalts related to the Ontong Java plume?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, P.R.; Pringle, M.S.; Carlson, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Studies of seafloor magnetic anomaly patterns suggest the presence of Jurassic oceanic crust in a large area in the western Pacific that includes the East Mariana, Nauru and Pigafetta Basins. Sampling of the igneous crust in this area by the Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) allows direct evaluation of the age and petrogenesis of this crust. ODP Leg 129 drilled a 51 m sequence of basalt pillows and massive flows in the central East Mariana Basin. 40Ar 39Ar ages determined in this study for two Leg 129 basalts average 114.6 ?? 3.2 Ma. This age is in agreement with the Albian-late Aptian paleontologic age of the overlying sediments, but is distinctively younger than the Jurassic age predicted by magnetic anomaly patterns in the basin. Compositionally, the East Mariana Basin basalts are uniformly low-K tholeiites that are depleted in highly incompatible elements compared to moderately incompatible ones, which is typical of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) erupted near hotspots. The Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of the tholeiites ( 87Sr 86Srinit = 0.70360-0.70374; 143Nd 144Ndinit = 0.512769-0.512790; 206Pb 204Pbmeas = 18.355-18.386) also overlap with some Indian Ocean Ridge MORB, although they are distinct from the isotopic compositions of Jurassic basalts drilled in the Pigafetta Basin, the oldest Pacific MORB. The isotopic compositions of the East Mariana Basin tholeiites are also similar to those of intraplate basalts, and in particular, to the isotopic signature of basalts from the nearby Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus. The East Mariana Basin tholeiites also share many petrologic and isotopic characteristics with the oceanic basement drilled in the Nauru Basin at DSDP Site 462. In addition, the new 110.8 ?? 1.0 Ma 40Ar 39Ar age for two flows from the bottom of Site 462 in the Nauru Basin is indistinguishable from the age of the East Mariana Basin flows. Thus, while magnetic anomaly patterns predict that the igneous

  11. Paleogene palaeogeography and basin evolution of the Western Carpathians, Northern Pannonian domain and adjoining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováč, Michal; Plašienka, Dušan; Soták, Ján; Vojtko, Rastislav; Oszczypko, Nestor; Less, György; Ćosović, Vlasta; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Králiková, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    The data about the Paleogene basin evolution, palaeogeography, and geodynamics of the Western Carpathian and Northern Pannonian domains are summarized, re-evaluated, supplemented, and newly interpreted. The presented concept is illustrated by a series of palinspastic and palaeotopographic maps. The Paleogene development of external Carpathian zones reflects gradual subduction of several oceanic realms (Vahic, Iňačovce-Kričevo, Szolnok, Magura, and Silesian-Krosno) and growth of the orogenic accretionary wedge (Pieniny Klippen Belt, Iňačovce-Kričevo Unit, Szolnok Belt, and Outer Carpathian Flysch Belt). Evolution of the Central Western Carpathians is characterized by the Paleocene-Early Eocene opening of several wedge-top basins at the accretionary wedge tip, controlled by changing compressional, strike-slip, and extensional tectonic regimes. During the Lutetian, the diverging translations of the northward moving Eastern Alpine and north-east to eastward shifted Western Carpathian segment generated crustal stretching at the Alpine-Carpathian junction with foundation of relatively deep basins. These basins enabled a marine connection between the Magura oceanic realm and the Northern Pannonian domain, and later also with the Dinaridic foredeep. Afterwards, the Late Eocene compression brought about uplift and exhumation of the basement complexes at the Alpine-Carpathian junction. Simultaneously, the eastern margin of the stretched Central Western Carpathians underwent disintegration, followed by opening of a fore-arc basin - the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin. In the Northern Hungarian Paleogene retro-arc basin, turbidites covered a carbonate platform in the same time. During the Early Oligocene, the rock uplift of the Alpine-Carpathian junction area continued and the Mesozoic sequences of the Danube Basin basement were removed, along with a large part of the Eocene Hungarian Paleogene Basin fill, while the retro-arc basin depocentres migrated toward the east

  12. On the issue of the Precambrian basement of the Arctic shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Korago, Evgeny A.; Proskurnin, Vasily F.; Sobolev, Nikolay N.

    2015-04-01

    Many researchers of the geological structures of the Russian Arctic concluded that the basements of the terranes composing the Arctic shelf and continental slopes have a Precambrian age. It is assumed that these terranes are actually fragments of the ancient Arctida paleocontinent [Zonenshain, Natapov, 1987] that broke up as a result of rifting and its separate plates and terranes either were overlain by continental margins sediments or included in the fold belts in the periphery of the ocean. In the western part of the Russian Arctic, a Grenvillian and Mesoproterozoic basement was demonstrated for Svalbard, Novaya Zemlya and Taimyr Peninsula, and at least a Neoproterozoic basement was established for structures in the basement of Severnaya Zemlya archipelago. In the eastern part of the Russian Arctic, such proofs were almost nonexistent. In recent years, new information was obtained concerning the continental nature and Precambrian age of the basement crust of the New Siberian Islands and De Long archipelagos as well as probably the Mendeleev Ridge. For the New Siberian Islands and De Long archipelagos, a whole series of geochronological evidence was obtained in addition to geological data (horizontally bedding Early Paleozoic passive continental margin sediments (Cambrian, Ordovician) at Bennett Island). In magmatic and tuffaceous-sedimentary rocks of Henrietta and Zhokhov islands we discovered zircons that had formed from magmatic crystallization in the Late Neoproterozoic. New U-Pb data for zircons from rocks of these islands do not contradict isotopic dating obtained earlier by other methods - Ar/Ar and Sm/Nd in different laboratories. Considering different closure temperatures for isotopic systems, these new results complement each other. On the islands of the eastern sector of the Russian Arctic, a Neoproterozoic complex of rocks is most certainly established in the basement of the mesozoides of Vrangel Island. Here were discovered metamorphosed volcanics

  13. Radiolytic hydrogen production in basaltic basement of the South Pacific Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzaugis, M. E.; Spivack, A. J.; Dunlea, A. G.; Murray, R. W.; Kelley, K. A.; D'Hondt, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Water radiolysis is the decomposition of water molecules due to interactions with ionizing radiation from the natural decay of radioactive elements, such as uranium (238U, 235U), thorium (232Th) and potassium (40K). This abiotic process produces electron donors (e.g., H2) and acceptors (e.g., O2) that microorganisms can metabolize for energy. Although water radiolysis has been examined in deep continental crust (Lin et al., 2005) and marine sediment (Blair et al., 2007), it has not been rigorously addressed in oceanic basement. The submarine depth to which life extends on Earth, and the potential for life in basaltic aquifers of other worlds (such as Mars and Europa), may depend on radiolytic production of electron donors and acceptors. In order to quantify the extent to which water radiolysis occurs in the subseafloor basaltic basement, we (i) quantified radioactive element concentrations of basement samples from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 329 and (ii) developed a quantitative model of H2 production by water radiolysis in the basement aquifer. Modeling radiolytic production of H2 in oceanic basement is difficult because the basement is a heterogeneous environment. Microscale changes in physical properties and chemical composition cause microscale variation in water radiolysis within the basement. During radioactive decay, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays are emitted, each with a spectrum of characteristic energies. The distance over which radiation is attenuated depends on the kind of radiation (alpha, beta or gamma), initial energy, and the absorbing material. These properties and the concentration of radioactive elements provide the basis for our preliminary model. We are using inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-ES), mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation (LA ICP-MS) to map variation in radioelement concentrations from phase to phase (e.g., across successive alteration halos to unaltered rock). The

  14. Hypoplastic basement membrane of the lens anlage in the inheritable lens aplastic mouse (lap mouse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, S; Baba, R; Noda, S; Ikuno, S; Fujita, M

    2000-04-01

    Adult homozygous lap mice show various eye abnormalities such as aphakia, retinal disorganization, and dysplasia of the cornea and anterior chamber. In the fetal eye of a homozygous lap mouse, the lens placode appears to develop normally. However, the lens vesicle develops abnormally to form a mass of cells without a cavity, and the mass vanishes soon afterward. Apoptotic cell death is associated with the disappearance of the lens anlage. We examined the basement membranes of the lens anlage of this mutant by immunohistochemical methods under light microscopy using antibodies against basement membrane components of the lens anlage, type IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and entactin and by transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry showed the distribution and intensity of antibody binding to the lens anlage to be almost the same for each these antibodies regardless of the stage of gestation or whether the anlagen were from normal BALB/c or lap mice. Thus, positive continuous reactions were observed around the exterior region of the lens anlage from day 10 of gestation for type IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, heparan sulfate proteoglycan antibodies, and at least from day 11of gestation for entactin antibody. The basement membrane lamina densa of both normal and lap mice was shown by electron microscopy to be discontinuous at days 10 and 10.5 of gestation. However, by day 11 the lamina densa was continuous in the lens anlagen of normal mice but still discontinuous in the lap mice. By day 12 of gestation, the lamina densa had thickened markedly in normal mice, whereas in lap mice it remained discontinuous and its thinness indicated hypoplasia. These results indicate that, while all basement components examined are produced and deposited in the normal region of the lens anlage in the lap mouse, the basement membrane is, for some reason, imperfectly formed. The time at which hypoplasia of the basement membrane was observed

  15. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment near the boundary of the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Christina L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Langenheim, Victoria

    2017-07-19

    The increasing demands on groundwater for water supply in desert areas in California and the western United States have resulted in the need to better understand groundwater sources, availability, and sustainability. This is true for a 650-square-mile area that encompasses the Antelope Valley, El Mirage Valley, and Upper Mojave River Valley groundwater basins, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles, California, in the western part of the Mojave Desert. These basins have been adjudicated to ensure that groundwater rights are allocated according to legal judgments. In an effort to assess if the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins could be better defined, the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative study in 2014 with the Mojave Water Agency to better understand the hydrogeology in the area and investigate potential controls on groundwater flow and availability, including basement topography.Recharge is sporadic and primarily from small ephemeral washes and streams that originate in the San Gabriel Mountains to the south; estimates range from about 400 to 1,940 acre-feet per year. Lateral underflow from adjacent basins has been considered minor in previous studies; underflow from the Antelope Valley to the El Mirage Valley groundwater basin has been estimated to be between 100 and 1,900 acre-feet per year. Groundwater discharge is primarily from pumping, mostly by municipal supply wells. Between October 2013 and September 2014, the municipal pumpage in the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins was reported to be about 800 and 2,080 acre-feet, respectively.This study was motivated by the results from a previously completed regional gravity study, which suggested a northeast-trending subsurface basement ridge and saddle approximately 3.5 miles west of the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins that might influence groundwater flow. To better define potential basement

  16. Integrated geophysical studies of the Fort Worth Basin (Texas), Harney Basin (Oregon), and Snake River Plain (Idaho)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Murari

    Geophysical methods such as seismic, gravity, magnetics, electric, and electromagnetics are capable of identifying subsurface features but each has a different spatial resolution. Although, each of these methods are stand-alone tools and have produced wonderful and reliable results for decades to solve geological problems, integrating geophysical results from these different methods with geological and geospatial data, adds an extra dimension towards solving geological problems. Integration techniques also involve comparing and contrasting the structural and tectonic evolution of geological features from different tectonic and geographic provinces. I employed 3D and 2D seismic data, passive seismic data, and gravity and magnetic data in three studies and integrated these results with geological, and geospatial data. Seismic processing, and interpretation, as well as filtering techniques applied to the potential filed data produced many insightful results. Integrated forward models played an important role in the interpretation process. The three chapters in this dissertation are stand-alone separate scientific papers. Each of these chapters used integrated geophysical methods to identify the subsurface features and tectonic evolution of the study areas. The study areas lie in the southeast Fort Worth Basin, Texas, Harney Basin, Oregon, and Snake River Plain, Idaho. The Fort Worth Basin is one of the most fully developed shale gas fields in North America. With the shallow Barnett Shale play in place, the Precambrian basement remains largely unknown in many places with limited published work on the basement structures underlying the Lower Paleozoic strata. In this research, I show how the basement structures relate to overlying Paleozoic reservoirs in the Barnett Shale and Ellenburger Group. I used high quality, wide-azimuth, 3D seismic data near the southeast fringe of the Fort Worth Basin. The seismic results were integrated with gravity, magnetic, well log, and

  17. The timing of metamorphism in the Odenwald-Spessart basement, Mid-German Crystalline Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, T. M.; Schulz, B.; Schmädicke, E.

    2016-07-01

    New in situ electron microprobe monazite and white mica 40Ar/39Ar step heating ages support the proposition that the Odenwald-Spessart basement, Mid-German Crystalline Zone, consists of at least two distinct crustal terranes that experienced different geological histories prior to their juxtaposition. The monazite ages constrain tectonothermal events at 430 ± 43 Ma, 349 ± 14 Ma, 331 ± 16 Ma and 317 ± 12 Ma/316 ± 4 Ma, and the 40Ar/39Ar analyses provide white mica ages of 322 ± 3 Ma and 324 ± 3 Ma. Granulite-facies metamorphism occurred in the western Odenwald at c. 430 and 349 Ma, and amphibolite-facies metamorphism affected the eastern Odenwald and the central Spessart basements between c. 324 and 316 Ma. We interpret these data to indicate that the Otzberg-Michelbach Fault Zone, which separates the eastern Odenwald-Spessart basement from the Western Odenwald basement, is part of the Rheic Suture, which marks the position of a major Variscan plate boundary separating Gondwana- and Avalonia-derived crustal terranes. The age of the Carboniferous granulite-facies event in the western Odenwald overlaps with the minimum age of eclogite-facies metamorphism in the adjacent eastern Odenwald. The granulite- and eclogite-facies rocks experienced contrasting pressure-temperature paths but occur in close spatial proximity, being separated by the Rheic Suture. As high-pressure and high-temperature metamorphisms are of similar age, we interpret the Odenwald-Spessart basement as a paired metamorphic belt and propose that the adjacent high-pressure and high-temperature rocks were metamorphosed in the same subduction zone system. Juxtaposition of these rocks occurred during the final stages of the Variscan orogeny along the Rheic Suture.

  18. Exploitation of Groundwater in Fractured Basement of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwadare Joshua OYEBODE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the most efficient resource for meeting water demand in the basement complex areas. Basement complexes worldwide shared common hydrogeological indicators and the situation in the entire Ado Ekiti is not like to be far from that of Afe Babalola University Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State (ABUAD.This study examined groundwater exploitation in fractured basement of Ado Ekiti and environs. The scope was narrowed to groundwater supply and potential in ABUAD. Seventeen boreholes have been drilled in ABUAD and yet there is a seeming perennial water scarcity in the University. The data generated in this study could provide benchmarks to unravel the prevailing conditions on groundwater potential and exploitation in fractured basement in the whole of Ado Ekiti and environs. The study revealed that most appealing geologic sequence for good groundwater potential is overburden thickness of ≥ 25m and weathered/fractured basement having resistivity range between 20 - 100Ω-m with thickness ranging between 12 – 30m. Present daily water demand for ABUAD stands at 420,000litres/day and in a decade’s time the daily projection is expected to be 934200liters/day. If the University is experiencing water scarcity, it means that all the boreholes put altogether is currently producing below 37% efficiency. The problem probably could be attributed to poor borehole completion operation, ‘hanging borehole’ and incomplete development. Pumping test is very vital for successful borehole completion and benchmark for future operation and maintenance. Efforts should be geared towards the redevelopment of all the boreholes in ABUAD to increase their efficiencies. Pumping test should be carried out to ascertain the true status of the remaining boreholes. Efforts should only be concentrated in areas designated to have good groundwater potential for new borehole schemes. As a long term measures and also to meet up with the decade’s forecast on water demand, dam

  19. The timing of metamorphism in the Odenwald-Spessart basement, Mid-German Crystalline Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, T. M.; Schulz, B.; Schmädicke, E.

    2017-07-01

    New in situ electron microprobe monazite and white mica 40Ar/39Ar step heating ages support the proposition that the Odenwald-Spessart basement, Mid-German Crystalline Zone, consists of at least two distinct crustal terranes that experienced different geological histories prior to their juxtaposition. The monazite ages constrain tectonothermal events at 430 ± 43 Ma, 349 ± 14 Ma, 331 ± 16 Ma and 317 ± 12 Ma/316 ± 4 Ma, and the 40Ar/39Ar analyses provide white mica ages of 322 ± 3 Ma and 324 ± 3 Ma. Granulite-facies metamorphism occurred in the western Odenwald at c. 430 and 349 Ma, and amphibolite-facies metamorphism affected the eastern Odenwald and the central Spessart basements between c. 324 and 316 Ma. We interpret these data to indicate that the Otzberg-Michelbach Fault Zone, which separates the eastern Odenwald-Spessart basement from the Western Odenwald basement, is part of the Rheic Suture, which marks the position of a major Variscan plate boundary separating Gondwana- and Avalonia-derived crustal terranes. The age of the Carboniferous granulite-facies event in the western Odenwald overlaps with the minimum age of eclogite-facies metamorphism in the adjacent eastern Odenwald. The granulite- and eclogite-facies rocks experienced contrasting pressure-temperature paths but occur in close spatial proximity, being separated by the Rheic Suture. As high-pressure and high-temperature metamorphisms are of similar age, we interpret the Odenwald-Spessart basement as a paired metamorphic belt and propose that the adjacent high-pressure and high-temperature rocks were metamorphosed in the same subduction zone system. Juxtaposition of these rocks occurred during the final stages of the Variscan orogeny along the Rheic Suture.

  20. Ultrastructure of basement membranes in monkey and shark teeth at an early stage of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Takashi

    2003-12-01

    The basement membrane, which separates the inner enamel epithelium from the dental papilla in the early stages of tooth development, is known to play a significant role in odontogenesis. In this review article, this basement membrane was described in detail based on our recent findings with the use of high-resolution electron microscopy. Tooth germs of a monkey (Macaca fuscata) and a shark (Cephaloscyllium umbratile) were processed for thin-section observations. During the early stage of development, the basement membrane of the inner enamel (dental) epithelium was composed of a lamina lucida, lamina densa, and much wider lamina fibroreticularis. At higher magnification, the lamina densa in both species was made up of a fine network of cords, which are generally the main constituents of the basement membranes. In the monkey tooth, the lamina fibroreticularis was rich in fibrils, which were now characterized as basotubules, 10-nm-wide microfibril-like structures. The space between the basotubules was filled with a cord network that extended from the lamina densa. Dental papilla cell processes were inserted into the lamina fibroreticularis, and their surface was closely associated with numerous parallel basotubules via 1.5- to 3-nm-wide filaments. In the shark tooth during its early stage of development, the basotubules were absent in the lamina fibroreticularis and only narrow extensions, 60-90 nm wide and 1-2 microm long, of the cord network of the lamina densa were present. The dental papilla cells were immobilized by means of the binding of their processes to the extensions. These results indicate that basement membranes in both monkey and shark teeth at early stage of development are specialized for functions as anchoring and firm binding, which are essential for the successful differentiation of the odontoblasts.

  1. Architecture and tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the intramontane Baza Basin (Bétics, SE-Spain): Constraints from seismic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, Christian; Gibert, Luis; Jurado, María José; Stiller, Manfred; Baumann-Wilke, Maria; Scott, Gary; Mertz, Dieter F.

    2017-07-01

    The Baza basin is a large Neogene intramontane basin in the Bétic Cordillera of southern Spain that formed during the Tortonian (late Miocene). The Bétic Cordillera was produced by NW-SE oblique convergence between the Eurasian and African Plates. Three seismic reflection lines (each 18 km long; vibroseis method) were acquired across the Baza basin to reveal the architecture of the sedimentary infill and faulting during basin formation. We applied rather conventional CDP data processing followed by first arrival P-wave tomography to provide complementary structural information and establish velocity models for the post-stack migration. These images show a highly asymmetric structure for the Basin with sediments thickening westward, reaching a maximum observed thickness of > 2200 m near the governing Baza Fault zone (BFZ). Three major seismic units (including several subunits) on top of the acoustic basement could be identified. We use stratigraphic information from the uplifted block of the BFZ and other outcrops at the basin edges together with available information from neighboring Bétic basins to tentatively correlate the seismic units to the known stratigraphy in the area. Until new drilling or surface outcrop data is not available, this interpretation is preliminary. The seismic units could be associated to Tortonian marine deposits, and latest Miocene to Pleistocene continental fluvio-lacustrine sediments. Individual strands of the BFZ truncate the basin sediments. Strong fault reflections imaged in two lines are the product of the large impedance contrast between sedimentary fill and basement. In the central part of the Basin several basement faults document strong deformation related to the early stages of basin formation. Some of these faults can be traced up to the shallowest imaged depth levels indicating activity until recent times.

  2. Extension and inversion structures in the Tethys-Atlantic linkage zone, Algarve Basin, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Adrià; Fernández, Oscar; Terrinha, Pedro; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2016-07-01

    The Algarve Basin is a Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basin overlying Carboniferous basement, located in the southwestern margin of the Iberian Peninsula. Its structure reveals a protracted tectonic history comprising various pulses of Mesozoic extension followed by Cenozoic compression. This work deals with the structure along the northern margin, where the Mesozoic extensional structures and Cenozoic inversion structures crop out. The strike of the extensional structures ranges from E-W to N-S, as controlled by a shift from Tethyan-dominated extension in the east to Atlantic-dominated extension in the west. Contractional structures are inverted extensional structures, following their same trends. It is argued that the thickness of the Hettangian evaporite layer exerts a strong control on the structural style throughout the basin during the extensional and inversion episodes. The basin is affected by thick-skinned deformation along the northern margin, where salt is thin or absent, basement involved fault systems and short-cut structures. Basinward, as the Hettangian salt thickens, the margin is affected by thin-skinned deformation, with listric and down-to-the-basin growth faults, diapirism and salt-cored detachment folds. The aim was to discuss the key tectonic features, the relevance of salt, and understand the nature, timing, and significance of all these structures in the regional tectonic evolution.

  3. Evolution and palaeoenvironment of the Bauru Basin (Upper Cretaceous, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luiz Alberto; Magalhães Ribeiro, Claudia Maria

    2015-08-01

    The Bauru Basin was one of the great Cretaceous desert basins of the world, evolved in arid zone called Southern Hot Arid Belt. Its paleobiological record consists mainly of dinosaurs, crocodiles and turtles. The Bauru Basin is an extensive region of the South American continent that includes parts of the southeast and south of Brazil, covering an area of 370,000 km2. It is an interior continental basin that developed as a result of subsidence of the central-southern part of the South-American Platform during the Late Cretaceous (Coniacian-Maastrichtian). This sag basin is filled by a sandy siliciclastic sequence with a preserved maximum thickness of 480 m, deposited in semiarid to desert conditions. Its basement consists of volcanic rocks (mainly basalts) of the Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian) Serra Geral basalt flows, of the Paraná-Etendeka Continental Flood Basalt Province. The sag basin was filled by an essentially siliciclastic psammitic sequence. In lithostratigraphic terms the sequence consists of the Caiuá and Bauru groups. The northern and northeastern edges of the basin provide a record of more proximal original deposits, such as associations of conglomeratic sand facies from alluvial fans, lakes, and intertwined distributary river systems. The progressive basin filling led to the burial of the basaltic substrate by extensive blanket sand sheets, associated with deposits of small dunes and small shallow lakes that retained mud (such as loess). Also in this intermediate context between the edges (more humid) and the interior (dry), wide sand sheet areas crossed by unconfined desert rivers (wadis) occurred. In the central axis of the elliptical basin a regional drainage system formed, flowing from northeast to southwest between the edges of the basin and the hot and dry inner periphery of the Caiuá desert (southwest). Life in the Bauru Basin flourished most in the areas with the greatest water availability, in which dinosaurs, crocodiles, turtles, fish

  4. Repository site definition in basalt: Pasco Basin, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzowski, R.V.; Nimick, F.B.; Muller, A.B.

    1982-03-01

    Discussion of the regional setting, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Pasco Basin are included in this report. Pasco basin is a structural and topographic basin of approximately 2000 mi/sup 2/ (5180 km/sup 2/) located within the Yakima Fold Belt Subprovince of the Columbia Plateau. The stratigraphic sequence within the basin consists of an undetermined thickness of lower Miocene and younger flood basalts with interbedded and overlying sedimentary units. This sequence rests upon a basement of probably diverse rock types that may range in age from precambrian through early Tertiary. Although a large amount of information is available on the hydrology of the unconfined aquifer system, ground-water flow within the basin is, in general, poorly understood. Recharge areas for the Mabton interbed and the Saddle Mountains Formation are the highlands surrounding the basin with the flow for these units toward Gable Butte - Gable Mountain and Lake Wallula. Gable Butte - Gable Mountain probably is a ground-water sink, although the vertical flow direction in this zone is uncertain. The amount of upward vertical leakage from the Saddle Mountains Formation into the overlying sediments or to the Columbia River is unknown. Units underlying the Mabton interbed may have a flow scheme similar to those higher units or a flow scheme dominated by interbasin flow. Upward vertical leakage either throughout the basin, dominantly to the Columbia River, or dominantly to Lake Wallula has been proposed for the discharge of the lower units. None of these proposals is verified. The lateral and vertical distribution of major and minor ions in solution, Eh and pH, and ion exchange between basalt and ground-water are not well defined for the basin. Changes in the redox potential from the level of the subsurface facility to the higher stratigraphic levels along with the numerous other factors influencing K/sub d/, result in a poor understanding of the retardation process.

  5. Mapping folds and fractures in basement and cover rocks using UAV photogrammetry, Cape Liptrap and Cape Paterson, Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollgger, Stefan A.; Cruden, Alexander R.

    2016-04-01

    Brittle and ductile deformation of alternating layers of Devonian sandstone and mudstone at Cape Liptrap, Victoria, Australia, resulted in upright folds with associated fold accommodation faults and multiple fracture sets. Structures were mapped at the Fold Stack locality at Cape Liptrap using high-resolution aerial photographs acquired by a digital camera mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Subsequent photogrammetric modelling resulted in georeferenced spatial datasets (point cloud, digital elevation model and orthophotograph) with sub-cm resolution and cm accuracy, which were used to extract brittle and ductile structure orientation data. An extensive dataset of bedding measurements derived from the dense point cloud was used to compute a 3D implicit structural trend model to visualise along-strike changes of Devonian (Tabberabberan) folds at the Fold Stack locality and to estimate bulk shortening strain. This model and newly collected data indicate that first generation shallowly south-southwest plunging upright folds were gently refolded about a steeply plunging/subvertical fold axis during a Devonian low-strain north-south shortening event. This also led to the local tightening of first generation folds and possibly strike-slip movement along regional scale faults. In order to distinguish fractures associated with Devonian compression from those that formed during Cretaceous extension and later inversion, we compared the five fracture sets defined at Cape Liptrap to previously mapped joints and faults within the overlying sedimentary cover rocks of the Cretaceous Strzelecki Group (Gippsland Basin), which crop out nearby. An east-southeast trending fracture set that is not evident in the Strzelecki Group can be linked to the formation of Devonian folds. Additionally, hinge line traces extracted from the Fold Stack dataset are aligned parallel to a dominant fracture set within the overlying cover sediments. This suggests that basement structures (folds

  6. S-wave velocity structures of the Taipei Basin, Taiwan, using microtremor array measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huey-Chu; Wu, Cheng-Feng; Lee, Feng-Mei; Hwang, Ruey-Der

    2015-04-01

    The S-wave velocity structures of the Taipei Basin in Taiwan are investigated using the array records of microtremors at 15 sites. Dispersion curves at these sites are calculated using the frequency-wavenumber (F-K) spectrum method. The S-wave velocity structures in the Taipei Basin are then estimated by employing surface wave inversion technique. Harder strata sites have higher phase velocities than softer sites. If the S-wave velocity of the Tertiary Basement is assumed to be 1000 m/s, then the Quaternary alluvial thicknesses in the Taipei Basin are between about 100 m and 650 m. The thickness of the alluvium gradually increases from the southeast to the northwest. The inversion results are also in good agreement with well-logging data and seismic reflection studies of the Taipei Basin. The study concludes that microtremor array measurement is a useful tool for estimating S-wave velocity structure.

  7. Retrieval of the P wave reflectivity response from autocorrelation of seismic noise: Jakarta Basin, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Erdinc; Cummins, Phil R.; Lumley, David

    2017-01-01

    We autocorrelate the continuously recorded seismic wavefield across a dense network of seismometers to map the P wave reflectivity response of the Jakarta Basin, Indonesia. The proximity of this mega city to known active faults and the subduction of the Australian plate, especially when the predominance of masonry construction and thick sedimentary basin fill are considered, suggests that it is a hot spot for seismic risk. In order to understand the type of ground motion that earthquakes might cause in the basin, it is essential to obtain reliable information on its seismic velocity structure. The body wave reflections are sensitive to the sharp velocity contrasts, which makes them useful in seismic imaging. Results show autocorrelograms at different seismic stations with reflected-wave travel time variations, which reflect the variation in basement depth across the thick sedimentary basin. We also confirm the validity of the observed autocorrelation waveforms by conducting a 2-D full waveform modeling.

  8. Strong ground motion in the Taipei basin from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Joe B.; Wen, K.-L.

    2005-01-01

    The Taipei basin, located in northwest Taiwan about 160 km from the epicenter of the Chi-Chi earthquake, is a shallow, triangular-shaped basin filled with low-velocity fluvial deposits. There is a strong velocity contrast across the basement interface of about 600 m/sec at a depth of about 600-700 m in the deeper section of the basin, suggesting that ground motion should be amplified at sites in the basin. In this article, the ground-motion recordings are analyzed to determine the effect of the basin both in terms of amplifications expected from a 1D model of the sediments in the basin and in terms of the 3D structure of the basin. Residuals determined for peak acceleration from attenuation curves are more positive (amplified) in the basin (average of 5.3 cm/ sec2 compared to - 24.2 cm/sec2 for those stations outside the basin and between 75 and 110 km from the surface projection of the faulted area, a 40% increase in peak ground acceleration). Residuals for peak velocity are also significantly more positive at stations in the basin (31.8 cm/sec compared to 20.0 cm/sec out). The correlation of peak motion with depth to basement, while minor in peak acceleration, is stronger in the peak velocities. Record sections of ground motion from stations in and around the Taipei basin show that the largest long-period arrival, which is coherent across the region, is strongest on the vertical component and has a period of about 10-12 sec. This phase appears to be a Rayleigh wave, probably associated with rupture at the north end of the Chelungpu fault. Records of strong motion from stations in and near the basin have an additional, higher frequency signal: nearest the deepest point in the basin, the signal is characterized by frequencies of about 0.3 - 0.4 Hz. These frequencies are close to simple predictions using horizontal layers and the velocity structure of the basin. Polarizations of the S wave are mostly coherent across the array, although there are significant

  9. Underworld and multi-basin heat flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenette, S. M.; O'Neill, C.; Moresi, L. N.; Danis, C. R.; Mansour, J.

    2011-12-01

    We present an over arching method for non-linear heat flow assessments of large, multi-basin systems. Our example is the Sydney-, Gunnedah-, Bowen basins (Danis et al 2011), which covers an area of 800kms by 1900kms and depth of 5kms, on the east coast of Australia. It is used as a baseline towards further fluid and structural geodynamics oriented analysis. In contrast to reservoir scale geothermal models - basin, multi-basin and towards lithosphere scale models exhibit their own challenges in terms of physical/rheological behaviour and computational tractability. For instance we model a non-linear heat flow by means of temperature dependent conductivity, as indicated by Clauser and Huenges (1995), which allows crystalline basement rocks, such as granites, to show for example a significant decrease in conductivity from ambient temperature up to around 400C, dropping from around 3 mK**(units) to around 2. For this modelling, a specialisation of the geodynamics code 'Underworld' (Moresi et al 2007) called Underworld-GT is used. A toolbox is added to the otherwise un-touched Underworld code adding geothermal workflow and context to Underworld. A particular novel feature is the ability to load stratigraphic layers, and/or GoCAD or GeoModeller voxel sets as the constraining geological geometry, whilst allowing the heat assessment models to scale from 1 process to 1000s. Another is the ability to prescribe synthetic drill holes, and its use in stochastic-oriented assessments of model parameters. Following the Underworld platform's approach and its simple PDE abstraction layer, these model configurations from a baseline for further additions to the governing equations such as fluid flow and structure, enabling a bridge between reservoir and continental scale dynamics, albeit with their own computational challenges.

  10. Heat flow and thermal history of the Anadarko basin, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, L.S.; Kelley, S.A.; Blackwell, D.D.; Naeser, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    New heat-flow values for seven sites in the Anadarko basin, Oklahoma, were determined using high-precision temperature logs and thermal conductivity measurements from nearly 300 core plugs. Three of the sites are on the northern shelf, three sites are in the deep basin, and one site is in the frontal fault zone of the northern Wichita Mountains. The heat flow decreased from 55 to 64 mW/m2 in the north, and from 39 to 54 mW/m2 in the south, due to a decrease in heat generation in the underlying basement rock toward the south. Lateral lithologic changes in the basin, combined with the change in heat flow across the basin, resulted in an unusual pattern of thermal maturity. The vitrinite reflectance values of the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Woodford formation are highest 30-40 km north-northwest of the deepest part of the basin. The offset in highest reflectance values is due to the contrast in thermal conductivity between the Pennsylvanian "granite wash" section adjacent to the Wichita uplift and the Pennsylvanian shale section to the north. The geothermal gradient in the low-conductivity shale section is elevated relative to the geothermal gradient in the high-conductivity "granite wash" section, thus displacing the highest temperatures to the north of the deepest part of the basin. Apatite fission-track, vitrinite reflectance, and heat-flow data were used to constrain regional aspects of the burial history of the Anadarko basin. By combining these data sets, we infer that at least 1.5 km of denudation has occurred at two sites in the deep Anadarko basin since the early to middle Cenozoic (40 ?? 10 m.y.). The timing of the onset of denudation in the southern Anadarko basin coincides with the period of late Eocene erosion observed in the southern Rocky Mountains and in the northern Great Plains. Burial history models for two wells from the deep Anadarko basin predict that shales of the Woodford formation passed through the hydrocarbon maturity window by the

  11. Coastal marine basins as records of continental palaeoenvironments (Gulf of Guinea and Iullemmeden cretaceous and tertiary basins)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rat, P.; Lang, J.; Alzouma, K.; Dikouma, M.; Johnson, A.; Laurin, B.; Mathey, B.; Pascal, A.

    Deposits in nearshore marine basins provide data about the adjacent emerged lands. Examples are taken from the Togo coastal basin, on an ocean margin, and the Iullemmeden intracratonic basin (Niger). A continental landscape is fossilized by the onlapping layers of the transgressions: an eroded crystalline basement (Togo) or a broad and complex alluvial plain (Iullemmeden). Clastics, trapped in the marine deposits, provide information on the source area. Two types of information can be obtained from the sands: the nature of the parent rocks, and the environment at the time of genesis, storage and transportation (tectonic and climatic stability or change). The significance of clays is more complex; they can be formed or modified in the marine environment. However their elastic or chemical components originate from biochemical weathering and provide information on climate, morphology, vegetation cover and drainage of the emerged lands. In the Iullemmeden basin, the important change between Maastrichtian and Paleocene probably reflects a change to a drier climate in accordance with a slight shift of the equator to the south. The properties of marine waters are dependent on climate and morphology of the emergent lands which determines runoff. These properties may be inferred from the analysis of the clastic/carbonate conflict and indicators of salinity (mangrove). In conclusion, the Togo and Iullemmeden basins were located downstream of tectonically quiecent, large continental areas of gentle relief. Transgressions were migrations of a broad littoral system upon very flat continental surfaces caused by erosion or river-dominated deposition.

  12. Autoantibodies against Linear Epitopes of Myeloperoxidase in Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Nan; Cui, Zhao; Wang, Jia; Hu, Shui-Yi; Jia, Xiao-Yu; Guan, Zhe; Chen, Min; Xie, Can; Zhao, Ming-Hui

    2016-04-07

    Approximately 20%-30% of patients with anti-glomerular basement membrane disease present coexisting anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) autoantibodies. We previously showed the recognition of a linear fragment of the MPO heavy chain N-terminus ((1)H, MPO279-409) in plasma from most double-positive patients. Herein, we investigated the frequency of autoantibodies against overlapping (1)H-derived linear peptides in plasma from patients with anti-glomerular basement membrane disease. We synthesized 13 overlapping linear peptides ((1)H-1 to (1)H-13) covering MPO279-409. We retrospectively collected plasma samples from 67 patients with anti-glomerular basement membrane disease from 1996 to 2012, and we screened them for IgG autoantibodies by ELISA using intact human MPO and the overlapping peptides as antigens, and we further investigated the clinical significance. Autoantibody binding to the linear MPO structure was confirmed by Western blotting. We followed up the 67 patients until 2015, with a median follow-up time of 10.0 (2.3-36.0) months, and 56 ESRD events occurred among the 67 patients with follow-up data. Plasma from 23.9% (16) of the patients recognized intact human MPO, whereas 62.7% (42) plasma samples recognized MPO279-409 linear peptides. Of the 13 linear peptides, (1)H-4 (44.8%, 30 patients) and (1)H-12 (40.3%, 27 patients) exhibited the highest recognition frequencies. Patients with autoantibodies against (1)H-11 or (1)H-12 (MPO371-400) were older (46.1±18.8 versus 34.1±16.6 years; P<0.01), had higher serum creatinine upon diagnosis (median 7.8 mg/dl, interquartile range 4.9-12.6 mg/dl versus median 5.4 mg/dl, interquartile range 2.4-7.3 mg/dl; P=0.02), and had a higher probability of progressing to ESRD; however, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that (1)H-11 or 12 reaction was not an independent risk factor for renal failure (hazard ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.8 to 2.8; P=0.19). Autoantibodies against linear peptides of MPO can be

  13. U-Pb geochronology of basement rocks in central Tibet and paleogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, Jerome; Kapp, Paul; Gehrels, George E.; Ding, Lin

    2012-01-01

    The ages and paleogeographic affinities of basement rocks of Tibetan terranes are poorly known. New U-Pb zircon geochronologic data from orthogneisses of the Amdo basement better resolve Neoproterozoic and Cambro-Ordovician magmatism in central Tibet. The Amdo basement is exposed within the Bangong suture zone between the Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes and is composed of granitic orthogneisses with subordinate paragneisses and metasedimentary rocks. The intermediate-felsic orthogneisses show a bimodal distribution of Neoproterozoic (920-820 Ma) and Cambro-Ordovician (540-460 Ma) crystallization ages. These and other sparse basement ages from Tibetan terranes suggest the plateau is underlain by juvenile crust that is Neoproterozoic or younger; its young age and weaker rheology relative to cratonic blocks bounding the plateau margins likely facilitated the propagation of Indo-Asian deformation far into Asia. The Neoproterozoic ages post-date Rodinia assembly and magmatism of similar ages is documented in the Qaidaim-Kunlun terrane, South China block, the Aravalli-Delhi craton in NW India, the Eastern Ghats of India, and the Prince Charles mountains in Antarctica. The Amdo Neoproterozoic plutons cannot be unambiguously related to one of these regions, but we propose that the Yangtze block of the South China block is the most likely association, with the Amdo basement representing a terrane that possibly rifted from the active Yangtze margin in the middle Neoproterozoic. Cambro-Ordovician granitoids are ubiquitous throughout Gondwana as a product of active margin tectonics following Gondwana assembly and indicate that the Lhasa-Qiangtang terranes were involved in these tectono-magmatic events. U-Pb detrital zircon analysis of two quartzites from the Amdo basement suggest that the protoliths were Carboniferous-Permian continental margin strata widely deposited across the Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes. The detrital zircon age spectra of the upper Paleozoic Tibetan

  14. Laramide structure of the central Sangre de Cristo Mountains and adjacent Raton Basin, southern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Laramide structure of the central Sangre de Cristo Mountains (Culebra Range) is interpreted as a system of west-dipping, basement-involved thrusts and reverse faults. The Culebra thrust is the dominant structure in the central part of the range; it dips 30 -55?? west and brings Precambrian metamorphic base-ment rocks over unmetamorphosed Paleozoic rocks. East of the Culebra thrust, thrusts and reverse faults break the basement and overlying cover rocks into north-trending fault blocks; these boundary faults probably dip 40-60?? westward. The orientation of fault slickensides indicates oblique (northeast) slip on the Culebra thrust and dip-slip (ranging from eastward to northward) movement on adjacent faults. In sedimentary cover rocks, east-vergent anticlines overlie and merge with thrusts and reverse faults; these anticlines are interpreted as fault-propagation folds. Minor east-dipping thrusts and reverse faults (backthrusts) occur in both the hanging walls and footwalls of thrusts. The easternmost faults and folds of the Culebra Range form a continuous structural boundary between the Laramide Sangre de Cristo highland and the Raton Basin. Boundary structures consist of west-dipping frontal thrusts flanked on the basinward side by poorly exposed, east-dipping backthrusts. The backthrusts are interpreted to overlie structural wedges that have been emplaced above blind thrusts in the basin margin. West-dipping frontal thrusts and blind thrusts are interpreted to involve basement, but backthrusts are rooted in basin-margin cover rocks. At shallow structural levels where erosion has not exposed a frontal thrust, the structural boundary of the basin is represented by an anticline or monocline. Based on both regional and local stratigraphic evidence, Laramide deformation in the Culebra Range and accompanying synorogenic sedimentation in the western Raton Basin probably took place from latest Cretaceous through early Eocene time. The earliest evidence of uplift and

  15. Study on dynamics of tectonic evolution in the Fushun Basin, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冲龙; 汪新庆; 刘刚; 李绍虎; 毛小平; 李星

    2002-01-01

    The updated study shows that the taphrogenesis of basement of the Fushun Basin is not a kind of instantaneous process. It intensified gradually and went to extreme in the sedimentary stage of the Guchengzi formation, and then, it weakened rapidly and stopped soon afterwards; the depression did not take place after the taphrogenesis. On the contrary, it almost happened simultaneously with the taphrogenesis. The depression went at a high speed from the beginning of the sedimentary period of the Xilutian formation, and then weakened gradually in the sedimentary period of the Gengjiajie formation. The evolution course of the synsedimentary structure of the Fushun Basin can be summarized as the following six stages: slow taphrogenesis and high speed depression to accelerated taphrogenesis and high speed depression to high speed taphrogenesis and high speed depression to retarded taphrogenesis and high speed depression to gradual halt of taphrogenesis and reduced depression to slow depression and gradual halt of depression. The tectonic evolution resulted in the formation of the "lower taphrogenesis and upper depression" structure. The formation of the binary structure might be due to the suspension of taphrogenesis and the change of the regional structure stress field, but the depression kept going. The result of calculation combining the analysis of the synsedimentary structural frame, the back-stripping method of the subsidence history of the basin basement and the simulation of thermo-settlement history indicates that the great sedimentary space required by the "upper depression part" consists of two parts, namely, 40% from compaction of sediments and 60% from slow depression of the basin basement during a long period of time. Gradual halt of the depression in the Fushun Basin may be attributed to the reversal of the lithosphere hot-recession and gravity isostasy adjustment which may be the result of new hot-events in the depths and accompanied invasion of extremely

  16. Tertiary facies architecture in the Kutai Basin, Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Steve J.; Chambers, John L. C.

    1999-04-01

    The Kutai Basin occupies an area of extensive accommodation generated by Tertiary extension of an economic basement of mixed continental/oceanic affinity. The underlying crust to the basin is proposed here to be Jurassic and Cretaceous in age and is composed of ophiolitic units overlain by a younger Cretaceous turbidite fan, sourced from Indochina. A near complete Tertiary sedimentary section from Eocene to Recent is present within the Kutai Basin; much of it is exposed at the surface as a result of the Miocene and younger tectonic processes. Integration of geological and geophysical surface and subsurface data-sets has resulted in re-interpretation of the original facies distributions, relationships and arrangement of Tertiary sediments in the Kutai Basin. Although much lithostratigraphic terminology exists for the area, existing formation names can be reconciled with a simple model explaining the progressive tectonic evolution of the basin and illustrating the resulting depositional environments and their arrangements within the basin. The basin was initiated in the Middle Eocene in conjunction with rifting and likely sea floor spreading in the Makassar Straits. This produced a series of discrete fault-bounded depocentres in some parts of the basin, followed by sag phase sedimentation in response to thermal relaxation. Discrete Eocene depocentres have highly variable sedimentary fills depending upon position with respect to sediment source and palaeo water depths and geometries of the half-graben. This contrasts strongly with the more regionally uniform sedimentary styles that followed in the latter part of the Eocene and the Oligocene. Tectonic uplift documented along the southern and northern basin margins and related subsidence of the Lower Kutai Basin occurred during the Late Oligocene. This subsidence is associated with significant volumes of high-level andesitic-dacitic intrusive and associated volcanic rocks. Volcanism and uplift of the basin margins

  17. Isotropic Versus Bipolar Functionalized Biomimetic Artificial Basement Membranes and Their Evaluation in Long-Term Human Cell Co-Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Angela; Wistlich, Laura; Heffels, Karl-Heinz; Walles, Heike; Groll, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    In addition to dividing tissues into compartments, basement membranes are crucial as cell substrates and to regulate cellular behavior. The development of artificial basement membranes is indispensable for the ultimate formation of functional engineered tissues; however, pose a challenge due to their complex structure. Herein, biodegradable electrospun polyester meshes are presented, exhibiting isotropic or bipolar bioactivation as a biomimetic and biofunctional model of the natural basement membrane. In a one-step preparation process, reactive star-shaped prepolymer additives, which generate a hydrophilic fiber surface, are electrospun with cell-adhesion-mediating peptides, derived from major components of the basement membrane. Human skin cells adhere to the functionalized meshes, and long-term co-culture experiments confirm that the artificial basement membranes recapitulate and preserve tissue specific functions. Several layers of immortalized human keratinocytes grow on the membranes, differentiating toward the surface and expressing typical epithelial markers. Fibroblasts migrate into the reticular lamina mimicking part of the mesh. Both cells types begin to produce extracellular matrix proteins and to remodel the initial membrane. It is shown at the example of skin that the artificial basement membrane design provokes biomimetic responses of different cell types and can thus be used as basis for the future development of basement membrane containing tissues. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Sedimentary Basins in the Western White Nile, Sudan, as Indicated by a Gravity Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An academic geophysical research as a regional gravity survey was made during 1994 in the Western White Nile to infer the shallow crustal structures in the area. The result of the survey was compiled as a Bouguer anomaly map with a contour interval of 2 ×10-5m/s2. It is found that the negative residual anomalies are related to the Upper Cretaceous sediments (Nubian Sandstone Formation) filling all depressions in the Basement complex surface while the positive residual anomalies are attributed to the relatively shallow or outcropping Basement rocks and the steep gravity gradients are resulting from the sharp contacts between the sedimentary infill and the Basement rocks. To define the geological structures in the area, 9 profiles were studied. For each of the profiles, measured and computed Bouguer gravity anomalies, crustal density model, subsurface geology evaluation were performed. A G-model computer program was applied in the gravity modeling, which is based on the line-integral method of gravity computation. A geological/structural map was proposed showing inferred sedimentary basins, faulting troughs and uplifted Basement block and tectonic trends. The basins are believed to be fault-controlled which developed by extensional tectonics (pull-apart mechanism). As for the mechanism and cause of faulting, the area is considered as a part of the Central Sudan rift system which had been subjected to several tectonic events since Early Cambrian to Tertiary times which resulted in the formation of several fracture systems associated with block subsidence, rifting and basin formation.

  19. Hydrocarbon Potential of Pre-cenozoic Strata in the North Yellow Sea Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Feng; DAI Chunshan; CHEN Jianwen; LI Gang; SUN Ping

    2005-01-01

    The North Yellow Sea Basin ( NYSB ), which was developed on the basement of North China (Huabei) continental block, is a typical continental Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basin in the sea area. Its Mesozoic basin is a residual basin,below which there is probably a larger Paleozoic sedimentary basin. The North Yellow Sea Basin comprises four sags and three uplifts. Of them, the eastern sag is a Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary sag in NYSB and has the biggest sediment thickness; the current Korean drilling wells are concentrated in the eastern sag. This sag is comparatively rich in oil and gas resources and thus has a relatively good petroleum prospect in the sea.The central sag has also accommodated thick Mesozoic-Cenozoic sediments. The latest research results show that there are three series of hydrocarbon source rocks in the North Yellow Sea Basin, namely, black shales of the Paleogene, Jurassic and Cretaceous. The principal hydrocarbon source rocks in NYSB are the Mesozoic black shale. According to the drilling data of Korea, the black shales of the Paleogene,Jurassic and Cretaceous have all come up to the standards of good and mature source rocks. The NYSB owns an intact system of oil generation, reservoir and capping rocks that can help hydrocarbon to form in the basin and thus it has the great potential of oil and gas. The vertical distribution of the hydrocarbon resources is mainly considered to be in the Cretaceous and then in the Jurassic.

  20. Estimate of the Geothermal Energy Resource in the Major Sedimentary Basins in the United States (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, A.; Porro, C.; Augustine, C.; Roberts, B.

    2012-09-01

    Because most sedimentary basins have been explored for oil and gas, well logs, temperatures at depth, and reservoir properties such as depth to basement and formation thickness are well known. The availability of this data reduces exploration risk and allows development of geologic exploration models for each basin. This study estimates the magnitude of recoverable geothermal energy from 15 major known U.S. sedimentary basins and ranks these basins relative to their potential. The total available thermal resource for each basin was estimated using the volumetric heat-in-place method originally proposed by (Muffler, 1979). A qualitative recovery factor was determined for each basin based on data on flow volume, hydrothermal recharge, and vertical and horizontal permeability. Total sedimentary thickness maps, stratigraphic columns, cross sections, and temperature gradient information was gathered for each basin from published articles, USGS reports, and state geological survey reports. When published data were insufficient, thermal gradients and reservoir properties were derived from oil and gas well logs obtained on oil and gas commission databases. Basin stratigraphy, structural history, and groundwater circulation patterns were studied in order to develop a model that estimates resource size, temperature distribution, and a probable quantitative recovery factor.

  1. Soil inertia and shallow basement envelope impact on cellar internal temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Sakami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a three dimensional numerical study of heat transfer by conduction between the soil and the shallow basement in the city of Marrakech (Morocco. The heat transfer equation is solved by the finite difference method using the implicit alternative direction (ADI. The internal temperature of the cellar is computed by using energy balance equation in the cellar. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of the nature of the soil, the nature of the walls, the thickness of the walls of the cellar and the distance L far from the cellar on the internal temperature and the heat exchanged between the soil and the shallow basement

  2. Accelerating repaired basement membrane after bevacizumab treatment on alkali-burned mouse cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon-Ja Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand the corneal regeneration induced by bevacizumab,we investigated the structure changes of stroma andbasement membrane regeneration. A Stick soaked in 0.5 NNaOH onto the mouse cornea and 2.5 mg/ml of bevacizumabwas delivered into an alkali-burned cornea (2 μl by subconjunctivalinjections at 1 hour and 4 days after injury. At 7 daysafter injury, basement membrane regeneration was observedby transmission electron microscope. Uneven and thin epithelialbasement membrane, light density of hemidesmosomes,and edematous collagen fibril bundles are shown in thealkali-burned cornea. Injured epithelial basement membraneand hemidesmosomes and edematous collagen fibril bundlesresulting from alkali-burned mouse cornea was repaired bybevacizumab treatment. This study demonstrates that bevacizumabcan play an important role in wound healing in thecornea by accelerating the reestablishment of basementmembrane integrity that leads to barriers for scar formation.[BMB Reports 2013; 46(4: 195-200

  3. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans made by different basement-membrane-producing tumors have immunological and structural similarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R; Hassell, J R

    1985-01-01

    Using immunological assays, we determined the relationship between the heparan sulfate proteoglycans produced by two different murine basement-membrane-producing tumors, i.e., the mouse Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) tumor and the L2 rat yolk-sac tumor. Antibodies prepared against the heparan sulfate...... mainly heparan sulfate (75%) along with smaller amounts of chondroitin sulfate (19%), whereas the L2 rat yolk-sac tumor produced mainly chondroitin sulfate (76%) with smaller amounts of heparan sulfate (21%). We conclude that these two murine basement-membrane-producing tumors elaborate...... proteoglycans obtained from these two sources immunoprecipitated the same precursor protein with a molecular mass of 400,000 daltons from 35S-methionine pulse-labeled cells of both tumors. Immunohistochemistry showed the heparan sulfate proteoglycan to be distributed in the extracellular matrix and also...

  4. Deep crustal reflection results from the central Eromanga Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, S. P.

    1983-12-01

    From 1980 to 1982 deep seismic reflection profiles were recorded across the central Eromanga Basin in eastern Australia to study the regional structure, stratigraphy and geological history of the Eromanga Basin and infra-basins. The reflection data were recorded to 20 s to obtain additional information on the nature and structure of the crust below the sediments and their relationship to the development of the basins. The seismic sections show good quality reflections from the deep crust as well as from the sedimentary layers. Based on the character, strength, coherence, continuity and spatial distribution of the reflections, the sections can be divided into four zones. The tope zone between 0 and 2.5 s shows fairly uniform, coherent and continuous events which correlate with the Mesozoic and Late Palaeozoic sediments. The zone from 2.5 to 8 s (4 to 22 km) does not show any primary reflections and is interpreted as the highly-deformed metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of the Early Palaeozoic Thomson Orogen underlying the sediments. Without any recognisable reflection or diffraction patterns in this zone, it is difficult to say whether the faulting and folding observed in the sediments extend into the upper crustal basement. The deeper zone of numerous reflection segments between 8 and 12.5 s (22 to 36 km) is interpreted as thin laminae of alternating low and high velocity (intermediate and basic) rocks, and correlates with the lower crust bounded by refraction velocity discontinuities. The lowest zone of no reflections below 12.5 s corresponds with the upper mantle. The reflection character and thickness as well as the refraction velocity structure of the crust under the central Eromanga Basin area are significantly different from those of the Precambrian crust under the Georgina Basin to the northwest. It is proposed that the crust under the Eromanga Basin is extensionally attenuated crust which had been intruded by sills of basaltic melt from the underlying

  5. Transforming growth factor-beta production in anti-glomerular basement membrane disease in the rabbit.

    OpenAIRE

    Coimbra, T.; Wiggins, R.; Noh, J. W.; Merritt, S.; Phan, S. H.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assay for the presence of collagen synthesis stimulatory activity in the kidney during immune-induced renal injury that results in severe fibrosis in both glomerular and interstitial compartments. A model of antiglomerular basement (anti-GBM) disease in the rabbit was induced on day 0 by the injection of anti-GBM antibody and renal cortex tissues were then sampled at various time points. Only conditioned media prepared from diseased renal cortical samples show...

  6. Magnetic studies of basement off the coast of Bombay, West of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D

    , 175 (1990) 317-334 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam - Printed in The Netherlands 317 Magnetic studies of basement off the coast of Bombay, west of India D. GOPALA RAO National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa- 004 (India... the tectonic regime, sedimentary record and magnetic sig- D. GOPALA RAO natures of the continental margin, which are sig- nificant in any explanation of the evolution of the margin. Results are based on both the published (Sahay, 1978; Basu et al., 1980...

  7. Transpressive inversion of a Mesozoic extensional forced fold system with an intermediate décollement level in the Basque-Cantabrian Basin (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Stefano; Carola, Eloi; Granado, Pablo; Quintã, Anna; MuñOz, Josep Anton

    2013-03-01

    In the Basque-Cantabrian Basin (Spain), normal faulting and associated folding occurred during Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous rifting. Cenozoic Pyrenean thick-skinned transpressive inversion in the western parts of the basin preserved the first-order extensional architecture. Integration of geological maps and seismic profiles has permitted to fully constrain the style of extensional deformation and subsequent inversion in the western portion of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. Extensional faults offset the Paleozoic basement up to Lower Triassic rocks. The presence of an efficient décollement level represented by Triassic evaporites produced the decoupling between basement rocks and the Upper Triassic to Middle Jurassic prerift cover sequence. Extensional forced folding occurred in the cover, driven by basement faulting and the migration of evaporites toward the hanging wall of the extensional faults, with salt welds developing away from them. Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous syn-rift sediments deposited synchronously with forced folding, which led to the development of extensional growth geometries associated with both master faults and nearly-transverse faults. Syn-rift growth sequences are characterized by downlap and onlap relationships with the underlying prerift units, interpreted as the result of along-strike variations of master fault extensional displacement rate. Cenozoic Pyrenean contraction generated the right-lateral transpressive inversion of basement master faults and the almost dip-slip reactivation of transverse extensional faults.

  8. Tissue fibrocytes in patients with mild asthma: A possible link to thickness of reticular basement membrane?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjermer Leif

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myofibroblasts, proposed as being derived from circulating fibrocytes, are considered to be important cells in thickening of the basement membrane in patients with asthma. We have studied the correlation of tissue fibrocyte levels to basement membrane thickness and the presence of fibrocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF in steroid-naive patients with mild asthma and controls. Methods Patients with mild asthma (n = 9 were recruited and divided into two categories based on whether or not fibroblast-like cells could be established from BALF. Non-asthmatic healthy subjects (n = 5 were used as controls. Colocalization of the fibrocyte markers CD34, CD45RO, procollagen I, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA were identified in bronchial biopsies from patients and controls by confocal microscopy. Kruskall-Wallis method was used to calculate statistical significance and Spearman coefficient of rank correlation was used to assess the degree of association. Results In patients with BALF fibroblasts, a 14-fold increase of tissue cells expressing CD34/CD45RO/α-SMA and a 16-fold increase of tissue cells expressing CD34/procollagen I was observed when compared to controls (p Conclusion These findings indicate a correlation between recruited fibrocytes in tissue and thickness of basement membrane. Fibroblast progenitor cells may therefore be important in airway remodeling in steroid-naive patients with mild asthma.

  9. Late Riphean age of the crystalline basement of the carbonate cover of the Dzabkhan microcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozakov, I. K.; Kirnozova, T. I.; Kovach, V. P.; Terent'eva, L. B.; Tolmacheva, E. V.; Fugzan, M. M.; Erdenezhargal, Ch.

    2015-05-01

    The Dzabkhan microcontinent was earlier considered as a fragment of an ancient craton in the structure of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Deposits of the Tsagaan Oloom Formation were included in the shelf zone, under the assumption that they were related to the regional unconformity between the Early-Late Precambrian crystal formations. The carbonate sequence of the Tsagaan Oloom Formation overlaps crystalline rocks only in the eastern part of the Dzabkhan microcontinent, where dolomites lie unconformably on high-grade metamorphic rocks intruded by granitoids of the Bogdyngol massif. The latter were included in the composition of both the Early Precambrian basement and the Middle Riphean intrusive complex. We have determined the U-Pb zircon age of these granitoids at 717 ± 5 Ma and the Nd model ages of granitoids and gneisses of the basement of the Tsagaan Oloom Formation at 2.0-1.9 Ga at ɛNd = -10.0...-6.6. Recent geochronological and Nd and Pb-Pb isotopic and geochemical data indicate that intrusive and high-grade metamorphic complexes are absent in the crystalline basement of the Dzabkhan microcontinent, similar to those in ancient cratons. One can assume that the Late Riphean carbonate cover (Tsagaan Oloom Formation) deposited on the Late Precambrian continental block.

  10. Volcanic conduit migration over a basement landslide at Mount Etna (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, I; Caracciolo, F D'Ajello; Branca, S; Ventura, G; Chiappini, M

    2014-06-13

    The flanks of volcanoes may slide in response to the loading of the edifice on a weak basement, magma push, and/or to tectonic stress. However, examples of stratovolcanoes emplaced on active landslides are lacking and the possible effects on the volcano dynamics unknown. Here, we use aeromagnetic data to construct a three-dimensional model of the clay-rich basement of Etna volcano (Italy). We provide evidence for a large stratovolcano growing on a pre-existing basement landslide and show that the eastern Etna flank, which slides toward the sea irrespective of volcanic activity, moves coherently with the underlying landslide. The filling of the landslide depression by lava flows through time allows the formation of a stiffness barrier, which is responsible for the long-term migration of the magma pathways from the coast to the present-day Etna summit. These unexpected results provide a new interpretation clue on the causes of the volcanic instability processes and of the mechanisms of deflection and migration of volcanic conduits.

  11. VEGF-A/Notch-Induced Podosomes Proteolyse Basement Membrane Collagen-IV during Retinal Sprouting Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Spuul

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During angiogenic sprouting, endothelial tip cells emerge from existing vessels in a process that requires vascular basement membrane degradation. Here, we show that F-actin/cortactin/P-Src-based matrix-degrading microdomains called podosomes contribute to this step. In vitro, VEGF-A/Notch signaling regulates the formation of functional podosomes in endothelial cells. Using a retinal neovascularization model, we demonstrate that tip cells assemble podosomes during physiological angiogenesis in vivo. In the retina, podosomes are also part of an interconnected network that surrounds large microvessels and impinges on the underlying basement membrane. Consistently, collagen-IV is scarce in podosome areas. Moreover, Notch inhibition exacerbates podosome formation and collagen-IV loss. We propose that the localized proteolytic action of podosomes on basement membrane collagen-IV facilitates endothelial cell sprouting and anastomosis within the developing vasculature. The identification of podosomes as key components of the sprouting machinery provides another opportunity to target angiogenesis therapeutically.

  12. Geophysical evidence of pre-sag rifting and post-rifting fault reactivation in the Parnaíba basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes de Castro, David; Hilário Bezerra, Francisco; Adolfo Fuck, Reinhardt; Vidotti, Roberta Mary

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the rifting mechanism that preceded the prolonged subsidence of the Paleozoic Parnaíba basin in Brazil and shed light on the tectonic evolution of this large cratonic basin in the South American platform. From the analysis of aeromagnetic, aerogravity, seismic reflection and borehole data, we concluded the following: (1) large pseudo-gravity and gravity lows mimic graben structures but are associated with linear supracrustal strips in the basement. (2) Seismic data indicate that 120-200 km wide and up to 300 km long rift zones occur in other parts of the basins. These rift zones mark the early stage of the 3.5 km thick sag basin. (3) The rifting phase occurred in the early Paleozoic and had a subsidence rate of 47 m Myr-1. (4) This rifting phase was followed by a long period of sag basin subsidence at a rate of 9.5 m Myr-1 between the Silurian and the late Cretaceous, during which rift faults propagated and influenced deposition. These data interpretations support the following succession of events: (1) after the Brasiliano orogeny (740-580 Ma), brittle reactivation of ductile basement shear zones led to normal and dextral oblique-slip faulting concentrated along the Transbrasiliano Lineament, a continental-scale shear zone that marks the boundary between basement crustal blocks. (2) The post-orogenic tectonic brittle reactivation of the ductile basement shear zones led to normal faulting associated with dextral oblique-slip crustal extension. In the west, pure-shear extension induced the formation of rift zones that crosscut metamorphic foliations and shear zones within the Parnaíba block. (3) The rift faults experienced multiple reactivation phases. (4) Similar processes may have occurred in coeval basins in the Laurentia and Central African blocks of Gondwana.

  13. Syntectonic fluid flow and fluid compartmentalization in a compressive basin: Example of the Jaca basin (Southwest Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Brice; Travé, Anna; Buatier, Martine; Labaume, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    During compressive events, deformation in sedimentary basins is mainly accommodated by thrust faults emplacement and related fold growth. In such a structure, thrust faults are generally rooted in the basement and may act as conduits or barriers for crustal fluid flow. However, most of recent studies suggest that fluid flow through such discontinuities is not so evident and depends on the structural levels of the thrust inside the fold-and-thrust belt. In order to constrain the paleofluid flow through the Jaca thrust-sheet-top basin (Paleogene southwest-Pyrenean fold-and-thrust belt) we focus our study on different thrust faults located at different structural levels. The microstructures observed in the different studied fault zones are similar and consist of pervasive cleavage, calcite shear and extension veins and late dilatation veins. In order to constrain the nature and the source of fluids involved in fluid-rock interactions in fault zones, a geochemical approach, based on oxygen and carbon stable isotopes and trace elements on calcite, was adopted on the different vein generations and host rocks. The results suggest a high complexity in the paleo-hydrological behaviors of thrust faults evidencing a fluid-flow compartmentalization of the basin. North of the Jaca basin, previous studies in the southern part of the Axial Zones showed the contribution of deep metamorphic water, probably derived from the Paleozoic basement, along along fault zones related the major Gavarnie thrust. Contrarily, in the northern part of the Jaca basin, we evidence the contribution of formation water during the Monte Perdido thrust fault activity. These data suggest a closed hydrological fluid system where distance of fluid flow did not exceeded 70 m. On the other hand, the Jaca and Cotiella thrust faults, both located more to the south in the basin, are characterized by a composite fluid flow system. Indeed, stable isotopes and trace elements compositions of the first generation of

  14. Analysis of Critical Permeabilty, Capillary Pressure and Electrical Properties for Mesaverde Tight Gas Sandstones from Western U.S. Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Byrnes; Robert Cluff; John Webb; John Victorine; Ken Stalder; Daniel Osburn; Andrew Knoderer; Owen Metheny; Troy Hommertzheim; Joshua Byrnes; Daniel Krygowski; Stefani Whittaker

    2008-06-30

    Although prediction of future natural gas supply is complicated by uncertainty in such variables as demand, liquefied natural gas supply price and availability, coalbed methane and gas shale development rate, and pipeline availability, all U.S. Energy Information Administration gas supply estimates to date have predicted that Unconventional gas sources will be the dominant source of U.S. natural gas supply for at least the next two decades (Fig. 1.1; the period of estimation). Among the Unconventional gas supply sources, Tight Gas Sandstones (TGS) will represent 50-70% of the Unconventional gas supply in this time period (Fig. 1.2). Rocky Mountain TGS are estimated to be approximately 70% of the total TGS resource base (USEIA, 2005) and the Mesaverde Group (Mesaverde) sandstones represent the principal gas productive sandstone unit in the largest Western U.S. TGS basins including the basins that are the focus of this study (Washakie, Uinta, Piceance, northern Greater Green River, Wind River, Powder River). Industry assessment of the regional gas resource, projection of future gas supply, and exploration programs require an understanding of reservoir properties and accurate tools for formation evaluation. The goal of this study is to provide petrophysical formation evaluation tools related to relative permeability, capillary pressure, electrical properties and algorithms for wireline log analysis. Detailed and accurate moveable gas-in-place resource assessment is most critical in marginal gas plays and there is need for quantitative tools for definition of limits on gas producibility due to technology and rock physics and for defining water saturation. The results of this study address fundamental questions concerning: (1) gas storage; (2) gas flow; (3) capillary pressure; (4) electrical properties; (5) facies and upscaling issues; (6) wireline log interpretation algorithms; and (7) providing a web-accessible database of advanced rock properties. The following text

  15. Structure and sediment budget of Yinggehai-Song Hong basin, South China Sea: Implications for Cenozoic tectonics and river basin reorganization in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chao; Ren, Jianye; Sternai, Pietro; Fox, Matthew; Willett, Sean; Xie, Xinong; Clift, Peter D.; Liao, Jihua; Wang, Zhengfeng

    2015-08-01

    The temporal link between offshore stratigraphy and onshore topography is of key importance for understanding the long-term surface evolution of continental margins. Here we present a grid of regional, high-quality reflection seismic and well data to characterize the basin structure. We identify fast subsidence of the basin basement and a lack of brittle faulting of the offshore Red River fault in the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin since 5.5 Ma, despite dextral strike-slip movement on the onshore Red River fault. We calculate the upper-crustal, whole-crustal, and whole-lithospheric stretching factors for the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin, which show that the overall extension observed in the upper crust is substantially less than that observed for the whole crust or whole lithosphere. We suggest that fast basement subsidence after 5.5 Ma may arise from crustal to lithospheric stretching by the regional dynamic lower crustal/mantle flow originated by collision between India-Eurasia and Indian oceanic subduction below the Eurasian margin. In addition, we present a basin wide sediment budget in the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin to reconstruct the sedimentary flux from the Red River drainage constrained by high-resolution age and seismic stratigraphic data. The sediment accumulation rates show a sharp increase at 5.5 Ma, which suggests enhanced onshore erosion rates despite a slowing of tectonic processes. This high sediment supply filled the accommodation space produced by the fast subsidence since 5.5 Ma. Our data further highlight two prominent sharp decreases of the sediment accumulation at 23.3 Ma and 12.5 Ma, which could reflect a loss of drainage area following headwater capture from the Paleo-Red River. However, the low accumulation rate at 12.5 Ma also correlates with drier and therefore less erosive climatic conditions.

  16. Geochemical variability of the Yucatan basement: Constraints from crystalline clasts in Chicxulub impactites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettrup, B.; Deutsch, A.

    2003-07-01

    The 65 Ma old Chicxulub impact structure with a diameter of about 180 km is again in the focus of the geosciences because of the recently commenced drilling of the scientific well Yaxcopoil- 1. Chicxulub is buried beneath thick post-impact sediments, yet samples of basement lithologies in the drill cores provide a unique insight into age and composition of the crust beneath Yucatan. This study presents major element, Sr, and Nd isotope data for Chicxulub impact melt lithologies and clasts of basement lithologies in impact breccias from the PEMEX drill cores C-1 and Y-6, as well as data for ejecta material from the K/T boundaries at La Lajilla, Mexico, and Furlo, Italy. The impact melt lithologies have an andesitic composition with significantly varying contents of Al, Ca, and alkali elements. Their present day 87Sr/86Sr ratios cluster at about 0.7085, and 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.5123 to 0.5125. Compared to the melt lithologies that stayed inside the crater, data for ejecta material show larger variations. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7081 for chloritized spherules from La Lajilla to 0.7151 for sanidine spherules from Furlo. The 143Nd/144Nd ratio is 0.5126 for La Lajilla and 0.5120 for the Furlo spherules. In an tCHUR(Nd)-tUR(Sr) diagram, the melt lithologies plot in a field delimited by Cretaceous platform sediments, various felsic lithic clasts and a newly found mafic fragment from a suevite. Granite, gneiss, and amphibolite have been identified among the fragments from crystalline basement gneiss. Their 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7084 to 0.7141, and their 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.5121 to 0.5126. The TNdDM model ages vary from 0.7 to 1.4 Ga, pointing to different source terranes for these rocks. This leads us to believe that the geological evolution and the lithological composition of the Yucatàn basement is probably more complex than generally assumed, and Gondwanan as well as Laurentian crust may be present in the Yucatàn basement.

  17. Basement deformation during continental collision: a modelling example of the Swedish central Caledonides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Rémi; Hieronymus, Christoph; Almqvist, Bjarne

    2017-04-01

    Recent geophysical investigations (Hedin et al., 2012; Yan et al., 2015; Juhlin et al., 2015), carried out as part of the Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project, provide an improved picture of the upper crust over the central Swedish Caledonides. The geometry and lithology of the basal detachment (surface to 1-2 km depth) are relatively well constrained by various observations (Seismic reflection, magneto-telluric, field observations ...), whereas deeper structures (1-2 km depth) observed in the Precambrian autochthonous basement are more ambiguous and may be interpreted as possible deformation zones or dolerite intrusions (dykes). In this study we interpret these structures as shear zones formed during a pre- or syn-Caledonian convergence event, at the boundaries of strong layers (e.g.: dolerites dykes) intruding the basement. In this collisional context, shear zones would work as thrust sheets accommodating the shortening, while the dolerite intrusions would rotate but remain mostly undeformed. We use a two-dimensional thermal-mechanical model to test this hypothesis. Our model is set up as follows: a 200km x 30km rectangular box composed of a sedimentary cover (5-7km thick) and a weak alum shale layer (100-500 m thick), overlying a continental basement intruded by vertical dolerite dykes and horizontal sills. Shortening velocities are applied on the right and bottom boundaries while the left side is fixed and the top boundary defined as a free surface. We use a visco-elasto-plastic rheology to characterize the three layers that compose the model and use consistent thermal parameters to define the temperature field. The governing equations of momentum, energy, and mass conservation are solved using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element software. The three main objectives of this study are to: 1) Analyze the localization and distribution of deformation in the basement and in the overlying layers. 2) Quantify the amount of shortening

  18. Reservoir-forming features of abiotic origin gas in Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭占谦; 王先彬; 刘文龙

    1997-01-01

    The vertical structure of the crustal block of the Songliao Basin can be divided into upper, middle and low Earth’s crust according to density. There is an about 3-km-thick low density interval between the upper crust and the middle crust. This interval may be a magma chamber accumulated in crust by "fluid phase" which is precipitated and separated from upper mantle meltmass. The abiogenetic natural gas, other gaseous mass and hydrothermal fluids are provided to the Songliao rifted basin through crustal faults and natural earthquakes. This is a basic condition to form an abiogenetic gas reservoir in the Songliao Basin. On both flanks of the upper crust (or named basin basement) fault there are structural traps in and above the basement and unconformity surface or lateral extended sand, which contains communicated pores, as migration pathway and natural gas reservoir; up to gas reservoirs there is shale as enclosed cap rock, and the suitable arrangement of these conditions is the basic features of abioge

  19. Palaeozoic sandstone reservoirs of the Hamada Basin, NW Libya: effects of synsedimentary processes on porosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, S.H.A.; Mansouri, A.; El Ghoul, M. (Arabian Gulf Oil Co., Benghazi (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya). Exploration Div.)

    1993-07-01

    The Hamada Basin of NW Libya is an intracratonic basin in which a thick sequence of clastic rocks was deposited during the Palaeozoic. These sediments were derived from a PreCambrian basement of felsic igneous and metamorphic rocks, and include both sands and clays; almost all the clays in formations of Palaeozoic age were produced from the alteration of feldspar. Structures were developed as these sediments were draped over the surface of the basement. Reservoirs in the Lower Palaeozoic (Lower Devonian, Lower Silurian and Cambro-Ordovician Sandstones) appear to have developed as a result of synsedimentary processes, such as winnowing and washing-out of clayey material from the sand by percolating waters, and sliding and slumping on the steep depositional surface during or soon after deposition. Oil traps are independent of structural elevation, but appear to have developed on those surfaces which were sufficiently steep to have initiated the above synsedimentary processes. This theory has been successfully tested in many places in the basin, and may provide a lead for exploration in other basins in Libya that have similar geological settings. (Author)

  20. Label-free imaging of basement membranes differentiates normal, precancerous, and cancerous colonic tissues by second-harmonic generation microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Shuangmu; Yan, Jun; Chen, Gang; Shi, Hong; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Lu, Jianping; Chen, Jianxin; Xie, Shusen

    2012-01-01

    Since changes in the basement membranes are the critical indicators for differentiating normal, precancerous, and cancerous colonic tissues, direct visualization of these warning signs is essential for the early diagnosis and treatment of colonic cancer. Here, we present that second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy can probe the changes of basement membranes in different colonic cancer stages. Our results also show the capability of using the quantitative analyses of images for quantifying these changes in different cancer stages. These results suggest that SHG microscopy has the potential in label-freely imaging the changes of basement membranes for effectively distinguishing between normal, precancerous, and cancerous colonic tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the dynamics of basement membrane changes in different colonic cancer stages using entirely intrinsic source of contrast.

  1. Regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane of the planarian Dugesia japonica after total-body x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, I.

    1979-03-01

    Fresh-water planarians were studied to examine effects of x rays on regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane. During early stages of regeneration, free rhabdite-forming cells were associated with the wound epidermis and recruited it. In later stages, however, a gradual degeneration occurred in the epidermis and cells undergoing epithelization decreased in number. Eventually epidermal cells on the wound surface appeared necrotic as evidenced by pyknotic nuclei and vacuolized dense cytoplasm. The entire basement membrane could not be reconstituted in any stage after wounding though its precursor-like material was secreted in the interspace between epidermis and parenchyma. Morphological changes in extracellular products and in the cells surrounding the products suggest that epidermal cells which have covered the wound surface synthesize precursors of the basement membrane. Possible factors of a characteristic perturbation in epithelization and basement membrane formation after total-body irradiation are discussed.

  2. Human skin basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan: distinctive differences in ultrastructural localization as a function of developmental age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Fine, J D; Couchman, J R

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that skin basement membrane components are expressed within the dermo-epidermal junction in an orderly sequence during human foetal development. We have investigated the ultrastructural localization of basement membrane-related antigens in human foetal skin...... was identical to that observed in neonatal and adult human skin. These findings demonstrate that active remodelling of the dermo-epidermal junction occurs during at least the first two trimesters, and affects not only basement membrane-associated structures but also specific antigens....... at different developmental ages using two monoclonal antibodies to a well-characterized basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan. A series of foetal skin specimens (range, 54-142 gestational days) were examined using an immunoperoxidase immunoelectron microscopic technique. In specimens...

  3. Type XV collagen in human colonic adenocarcinomas has a different distribution than other basement membrane zone proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenta, P S; Briggs, K; Xu, K; Gamboa, E; Jukkola, A F; Li, D; Myers, J C

    2000-03-01

    In situ carcinomas must penetrate their own basement membrane to be classified as invasive, and subsequently infiltrate surrounding connective tissue and cross vascular basement membranes to metastasize hematogenously. Accordingly, in many studies, integral basement membrane components, including type IV collagen, laminin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan, have been localized in a spectrum of tumors to gain insight into their role in neoplasia. A number of recently identified extracellular matrix molecules and isoforms of the aforementioned proteins have been localized to the basement membrane zone, illustrating another level of biochemical heterogeneity in these structures. As the complexity of these matrices becomes more apparent, their roles in maintaining homeostasis and in tumor biology falls into question. Of the new group of collagens localized to the basement membrane zone, type XV was the first to be characterized (Cell Tissue Res, 286:493-505, 1996). This nonfibrillar collagen has a nearly ubiquitous distribution in normal human tissues via a strong association with basement membrane zones, suggesting that it functions to adhere basement membrane to the underlying stroma. To begin investigation of this protein in malignant tumors, we have localized type XV in human colonic adenocarcinomas and compared its distribution with that of type IV collagen and laminin. Collagens XV and IV and laminin were found in all normal and colonic epithelial, muscle, fat, neural, and vascular basement membrane zones, as shown previously. In moderately differentiated, invasive adenocarcinomas, laminin and type IV collagen were sometimes observed as continuous, linear deposits around some of the malignant glands, but more often they were seen in either discontinuous deposits or were completely absent. In contrast, type XV collagen was characterized as virtually absent from the basement membrane zones of malignant glandular elements in moderately differentiated tumors

  4. Organic chemistry of fluids from sediment-buried young basement: discrete sampling from ODP borehole 1301A & 1025C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.; Cowen, J. P.; Amend, J. P.; Albert, D. B.; Glazer, B. T.; Rappe, M.; Jungbluth, S.; Matzinger, M.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrothermal systems profoundly influence seawater chemistry. However, the extent to which hydrothermal systems impact the quantity and the quality of the deep ocean dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool remains unclear. To study the organic chemistry within sedimented ridge flank basement aquifers, discrete low temperature (~65°C & ~40°C) basement fluids were collected from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program boreholes via Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) observatories at 1301A (47°45N, 127°45W) and 1025C (47°53N, 128°39W) on the eastern flank of Juan de Fuca Ridge. The basement age is 1.24 Ma and 3.5 Ma at 1025C and 1301A, respectively. Basement fluids were collected using a new clean pumping system (Mobile Pump Valve Unit, or MPVU) and stored in acid-cleaned 60 L Large Volume Tedlar Bags (LVBS). A stainless steel fluid delivery line extends from the basement to the seafloor at 1301A; whereas fluids rise up the middle of the iron casing at 1025C. Here, concentration and preliminary characterization of the DOC will be presented, including labile organic components such as dissolved free and combined amino acids (DFAA & DCAA) and low molecular weight organic acids (LMW-OA). Our data show that compared to seawater levels, the DOC concentration in the younger basement fluid (1025C) was about one-half and in the older (1031A) was less than one-third. Relative to bottom seawater, the basement fluids are also depleted in SO42-, PO43-, NO3- and NO2-, but enriched in NH4+, H2S, Mn and Fe. Microbially mediated reduction of nitrate, sulfate, iron, and manganese and an array of heterotrophic metabolisms may explain these observations. Phylogenic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences from borehole 1301A fluids further support the presence of chemolithoautotrophic and heterotrophic organisms. Our preliminary results show that some dissolved free amino acids were slightly enriched in the 1301A basement fluid relative to bottom seawater. Thermodynamic calculations

  5. De novo deposition of laminin-positive basement membrane in vitro by normal hepatocytes and during hepatocarcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, R; Wewer, U M; Thorgeirsson, S S

    1988-01-01

    De novo formation of laminin-positive basement membranes was found to be a distinct morphologic feature of diethylnitrosamine/phenobarbital-induced hepatocellular carcinomas of the rat. The first appearance of extracellularly located laminin occurred in the preneoplastic liver lesions (correspond......De novo formation of laminin-positive basement membranes was found to be a distinct morphologic feature of diethylnitrosamine/phenobarbital-induced hepatocellular carcinomas of the rat. The first appearance of extracellularly located laminin occurred in the preneoplastic liver lesions...

  6. Seismic Structural Setting of Western Farallon Basin, Southern Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero-Lajas, D.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Lopez-Martinez, M.; Lonsdale, P.

    2007-05-01

    Data from a number of high resolution 2D multichannel seismic (MCS) lines were used to investigate the structure and stratigraphy of the western Farallon basin in the southern Gulf of California. A Generator-Injector air gun provided a clean seismic source shooting each 12 s at a velocity of 6 kts. Each signal was recorded during 6- 8 s, at a sampling interval of 1 ms, by a 600 m long digital streamer with 48 channels and a spacing of 12.5 m. The MCS system was installed aboard CICESE's (Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada) 28 m research vessel Francisco de Ulloa. MCS data were conventionally processed, to obtain post- stack time-migrated seismic sections. The MCS seismic sections show a very detailed image of the sub-bottom structure up to 2-3 s two-way travel time (aprox. 2 km). We present detailed images of faulting based on the high resolution and quality of these data. Our results show distributed faulting with many active and inactive faults. Our study also constrains the depth to basement near the southern Baja California eastern coast. The acoustic basement appears as a continuous feature in the western part of the study area and can be correlated with some granite outcrops located in the southern Gulf of California islands. To the East, near the center of the Farallon basin, the acoustic basement changes, it is more discontinuous, and the seismic sections show a number of diffracted waves.

  7. [Clinical consequence and significance of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positivity in anti-glomerular basement membrane disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    File, Ibolya; Pucsok, Klára; Trinn, Csilla; Ujhelyi, László; Balla, József; Mátyus, János

    2013-10-27

    Patients with renopulmonary syndrome who have both anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic and anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies have been described since 1989. The aim of the authors was to analyse the data of "double positive" patients diagnosed in their department, and compare these with previous studies. During the last 16 years, 87 anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positive and 11 anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody positive patients were diagnosed. Four patients with anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies (36%) had detectable anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, 2 patients were positive for anti-myeloperoxidase and 2 patients for anti-proteinase 3. In comparison with patients having anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies, the double-positive patients were characterized by older age (median of 46 vs. 24 years), lack of male dominance (50% vs. 71%), more frequent presence of previous extrarenal symptoms (50% vs. 0%), and lower anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody levels (<100EU/ml: 100% vs. 29%). The double-positive patients had more favourable 1-year survival (100% vs. 71%), despite their older age and similar treatment regimen (immunosuppression 100% in both groups, plasmapheresis in 75% vs. 86%), but 1-year renal survival was not different (25% vs. 14%). In agreement with literature data, about one third of patients with anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies had detectable anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, and the coexistence of the two antibodies may have clinical consequences.

  8. Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease superimposed on membranous nephropathy: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivera Noel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by pulmonary hemorrhage, crescentic glomerulonephritis and the presence of circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies. The simultaneous occurrence of both anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is rare. Case presentation A 59-year-old Hispanic man presented with acute onset of nausea and vomiting and was found to have renal insufficiency. Work-up included a kidney biopsy, which revealed anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with underlying membranous nephropathy. He was treated with emergent hemodialysis, intravenous corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, and cyclophosphamide without improvement in his renal function. Conclusion Simultaneous anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is very rare. There have been 16 previous case reports in the English language literature that have been associated with a high mortality and morbidity, and a very high rate of renal failure resulting in hemodialysis. Co-existence of membranous nephropathy and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease may be immune-mediated, although the exact mechanism is not clear.

  9. Polyphase tectonic subsidence evolution of the Vienna Basin inferred from quantitative subsidence analysis of the northern and central parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Wagreich, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The Vienna Basin is a tectonically complex Neogene basin situated at the Alpine-Carpathian transition. This study analyzes a detailed quantification of subsidence in the northern and central parts of the Vienna Basin to understand its tectonic subsidence evolution. About 200 wells were used to arrange stratigraphic setting, and wells reaching the pre-Neogene basement were analyzed for subsidence. To enhance the understanding of the regional subsidences, the wells were sorted into ten groups based on their position on major fault blocks. In the Early Miocene, subsidence was slow and along E-W to NE-SW trending axis, indicating the development of thrust-controlled piggyback basins. During the late Early Miocene data show abruptly increasing subsidence, making the initiation of the Vienna pull-apart basin system. From the Middle Miocene, the tectonic subsidence curves show regionally different patterns. The tectonic subsidence during the Middle Miocene varies laterally across the Vienna Basin, and the differential subsidence can be related to the changing tensional regime of weakening transtension and strengthening extension toward the late Middle Miocene. From the late Middle Miocene to the Late Miocene, the tectonic subsidence occurred dominantly along the regional active faults, and corresponds to the axis of E-W trending extension of the western parts of the Pannonian Basin system. In the Quaternary the Vienna Basin has been reactivated, and resulted in subsidence along the NE-SW trending Vienna Basin transfer fault system.

  10. 300 million years of basin evolution - the thermotectonic history of the Ukrainian Donbas Foldbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, C.; Danisik, M.; Sachsenhofer, R.; Frisch, W.; Privalov, V.

    2009-04-01

    The Ukrainian-Russian Pripyat-Dniepr-Donets Basin is a large intracratonic rift structure formed during the Late Devonian. It is situated at the southern margin of the Precambrian East European Craton, adjacent to the Hercynian Tethyan belt in the Black Sea area and the Alpine Caucasus orogen. With a sediment thickness of more than 20 km, it is one of the deepest sedimentary basins on earth. The eastern part of the Pripyat-Dniepr-Donets Basin - called Donbas foldbelt - is strongly folded and inverted. Proposed models of basin evolution are often controversial and numerous issues are still a matter of speculation, particularly the erosion history and the timing of basin inversion. Basin inversion may have taken place during the Permian related to the Uralian orogeny, or in response to Alpine tectonics during the Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary. We investigated the low-temperature thermal history of the Donbas Foldbelt and the adjacent Ukrainian shield by a combination of zircon fission track, apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology. Although apatite fission track ages of all sedimentary samples were reset shortly after deposition during the Carboniferous, we took advantage of the fact that samples contained kinetically variable apatites, which are sensitive to different temperatures. By using statistic-based component analysis incorporating physical properties of individual grains we identified several distinct age population, ranging from late Permian (~265 Ma) to the Late Cretaceous (70 Ma). We could thus constrain the thermal history of the Donbas Foldbelt and the adjacent basement during a ~300 Myr long time period. The Precambrian crystalline basement of the Ukrainian shield was affected by a Permo-Triassic thermal event associated with magmatic activity, which also strongly heated the sediments of the Donbas Foldbelt. The basement rocks cooled to near-surface conditions during the Early to Middle Triassic and since then was thermally

  11. Recent developments of seismic exploration in the Tannwald basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burschil, Thomas; Buness, Hermann; Gabriel, Gerald

    2016-04-01

    The ICDP proposal DOVE (Drilling Overdeepened Alpine Valleys) intends to examine the Quaternary glacial cycles in the Alpine region. The sediment succession of overdeepened valleys and basins will be analysed in a multidisciplinary way. Other objectives are related to groundwater supply and geohazards in Alpine valleys. In the context of DOVE, a DFG-funded project studies the benefit of modern multi-component reflection seismics. This project intends to characterize the structure and facies of the sedimentary fillings and to transfer methodological results to the DOVE drill sites. In 2014 and 2015 several reflection seismic surveys were carried out in the Tannwald basin, located about 50 km NE of Lake Constance. The basin constitutes a relict of one of the Rhine Glacier lobes in the Pleistocene. In total, we acquired five high-resolution profiles using P-waves, two profiles using horizontally polarized shear waves, and one profile using multi-component technique (SV- and SH-wave source, 3-component receivers) to explore the sedimentary filling of the basin. The P-wave profiles generally show strong heterogeneity and variations in the reflection pattern. Distinct reflections in depths between 100 m and 200 m are identified as basement, i.e. top Molasse, which is supported by a nearby research borehole. In particular, a ramp-like structure is prominent over a distance of 450 m and dips about 10°. Internal structures of the basin filling form discontinuous reflection segments, which are only visible in parts of the profile. The SH-wave profiles resolve both internal structures in detail and the basement. Since the location of the SH-wave profiles coincides with P-wave profiles, a detailed comparison of the structures gained from P-wave and SH-wave seismic exploration is possible. Moreover, Vp/Vs and Poisson ratio are calculated from P- and S-wave velocities received from refraction seismic tomography and the stack velocities, respectively. Further steps are

  12. Basement-driven strike-slip deformation involving a salt-stock canopy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Tim; Jackson, Martin; Hudec, Mike

    2016-04-01

    NW-striking basement-involved strike-slip zones have been reported or inferred from the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). This interpretation is uncertain, because the effects of strike-slip deformation are commonly difficult to recognize in cross sections. Recognition is doubly difficult if the strike-slip zone passes through a diapir field that complicates deformation, and an associated salt canopy that partially decouples shallow deformation from deep deformation. We use physical models to explore the effects of strike-slip deformation above and below a salt-stock canopy system. Canopies of varying maturity grew from a series of 14 feeders/diapirs located on and off the axis of a dextral basement fault. Strike-slip deformation styles in the overburden vary significantly depending on: (1) the location of the diapirs with respect to the basement fault trace, and; (2) the continuity of the canopy system. On-axis diapirs (where the diapirs lie directly above the basement fault) are typically strongly deformed and pinched shut at depth to form sharp S-shapes, whereas their shallow deformation style is that of a open-S-shaped pop-up structure in a restraining bend. The narrow diapir stem acts as a shear zone at depth. Pull-apart structures form between diapirs that are arranged in a right-stepping array tangental to the basement fault trace. These grade along strike into narrow negative flower structures. Off-axis diapirs (diapirs laterally offset from the basement fault but close enough to participate in the deformation) form zones of distributed deformation in the form of arrays of oblique faults (R shears) that converge along strike onto the narrower deformation zones associated with on-axis diapirs. Above an immature, or patchy, canopy system the strike-slip structures closely match sub canopy structures, with the exception of wrench fold formation where the supracanopy roof is thin. In contrast, the surface structures above a mature canopy system consist of a broad

  13. Reticular basement membrane in asthma and COPD: Similar thickness, yet different composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen JW Liesker

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Jeroen JW Liesker1, Nick H Ten Hacken1, Mieke Zeinstra-Smith2, Steven R Rutgers1, Dirkje S Postma1, Wim Timens21Department of Pulmonology; 2Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Background: Reticular basement membrane (RBM thickening has been variably associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Even if RBM thickness is similar in both diseases, its composition might still differ. Objective: To assess whether RBM thickness and composition differ between asthma and COPD. Methods: We investigated 24 allergic asthmatics (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] 92% predicted, and 17 nonallergic COPD patients (FEV1 60% predicted, and for each group a control group of similar age and smoking habits (12 and 10 persons, respectively. Snap-frozen sections of bronchial biopsies were stained with hematoxylin/eosin and for collagen I, III, IV, V, laminin and tenascin. RBM thickening was assessed by digital image analysis. Relative staining intensity of each matrix component was determined.Results: Mean (SD RBM thickness was not significantly different between asthma and COPD 5.5 (1.3 vs 6.0 (1.8 μm, but significantly larger than in their healthy counterparts, ie, 4.7 (0.9 and 4.8 (1.2 μm, respectively. Collagen I and laminin stained significantly stronger in asthma than in COPD. Tenascin stained stronger in asthma than in healthy controls of similar age, and stronger in COPD controls than in asthma controls (p 0.05.Conclusion: RBM thickening occurs both in asthma and COPD. We provide supportive evidence that its composition differs in asthma and COPD. Keywords: reticular basement membrane thickness, reticular basement membrane composition, asthma, biopsy, COPD, remodeling

  14. Scaffold-forming and Adhesive Contributions of Synthetic Laminin-binding Proteins to Basement Membrane Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen K; Capizzi, Stephanie; Yurchenco, Peter D

    2009-03-27

    Laminins that possess three short arms contribute to basement membrane assembly by anchoring to cell surfaces, polymerizing, and binding to nidogen and collagen IV. Although laminins containing the alpha4 and alpha5 subunits are expressed in alpha2-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy, they may be ineffective substitutes because they bind weakly to cell surfaces and/or because they lack the third arm needed for polymerization. We asked whether linker proteins engineered to bind to deficient laminins that provide such missing activities would promote basement membrane assembly in a Schwann cell model. A chimeric fusion protein (alphaLNNd) that adds a short arm terminus to laminin through the nidogen binding locus was generated and compared with the dystrophy-ameliorating protein miniagrin (mAgrin) that binds to the laminin coiled-coil dystroglycan and sulfatides. alphaLNNd was found to mediate laminin binding to collagen IV, to bind to galactosyl sulfatide, and to selectively convert alpha-short arm deletion-mutant laminins LmDeltaalphaLN and LmDeltaalphaLN-L4b into polymerizing laminins. This protein enabled polymerization-deficient laminin but not an adhesion-deficient laminin lacking LG domains (LmDeltaLG) to assemble an extracellular matrix on Schwann cell surfaces. mAgrin, on the other hand, enabled LmDeltaLG to form an extracellular matrix on cell surfaces without increasing accumulation of non-polymerizing laminins. These gain-of-function studies reveal distinct polymerization and anchorage contributions to basement membrane assembly in which the three different LN domains mediate the former, and the LG domains provide primary anchorage with secondary contributions from the alphaLN domain. These findings may be relevant for an understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of laminin deficiency states.

  15. Ore-forming material sources of the Baiyangping Cu-Co-Ag polymetallic deposit in the Lanping Basin, western Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhiming; LIU Jiajun; ZHANG Changjiang

    2008-01-01

    The ore-forming material sources of the Baiyangping copper-cobalt-silver polymetallic deposit have been studied in view of the S, Pb, C, O and H isotopic characteristics and the ratio of Co/Ni of cohaltite. The results showed that sulfur in metallic sulfides may have come from a mixed sulfur-source consisting of the sulfur-source from metamorphic rocks in the basin basement with basic volcanic rocks and the sulfur-source from basin sulfates;lead in the ores was provided by the sedimentary rocks and basement rocks; CO2 in ore-forming fluids was derived from thermolysis of altered and normal marine facies carbonates and decarboxylation of sedimentary organic matter respectively; the ore-forming fluids belong to the SO4-Cl-Na-Ca-type basin thermal brines derived from paleo-meteoric waters; cobalt in the deposit may also be derived from the metamorphic rocks in the basin basement with basic volcanic rocks.

  16. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R

    1984-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma has been purified and partially characterized. The proteoglycan has an apparent Mr of 750 000, 35% of which represents the core protein. The core protein seems to be homogeneous, whereas the heparan sulfate chains are heterogeneous w...... with an Mr of about 50 000-70 000, with 30% of the glucosamine being N-sulfated. Antibodies raised against the core protein of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan reacted with basement membranes of various rat and human tissue....

  17. IODP Expeditions 309 and 312 Drill an Intact Section of Upper Oceanic Basement into Gabbros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Wilson

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program’s (IODP Expeditions 309 and 312 successfully completed the first sampling of an intact section of upper oceanic crust, through lavas and the sheeted dikes into the uppermost gabbros. Hole 1256D, which was initiated on the Ocean Drilling Program’s (ODP Leg 206, now penetrates to >1500 mbsf and >1250 m sub-basement. The first gabbroic rocks were encountered at 1407 mbsf. Below this, the hole penetrates ~100 m into a complex zone of fractionated gabbros intruded into contact metamorphosed dikes.

  18. An unusual case of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease presenting with nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Chidi C; Balogun, Rasheed A; Bourne, David T; Alhussain, Turki O; Abdel-Rahman, E M

    2011-12-01

    Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease is a vasculitic disease characterized by acute kidney injury, oliguria, hematuria and proteinuria. Proteinuria is rarely in the nephrotic range. A case of anti-GBM disease with proteinuria of 22.5 g/day is discussed. Immunofluorescence showed strong linear IgG deposits while electron microscopy showed widespread visceral epithelial cell foot cell process effacement. No electron dense immune complex-type deposits were identified. Pathology findings were not suggestive of simultaneous presentation of anti-GBM disease and other diseases associated with nephrotic range proteinuria. Anti-GBM disease should be considered in a comprehensive differential diagnosis of severe proteinuria.

  19. Anti-glomerular basement membrane: A rare cause of renal failure in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM disease is a rare cause of acute renal failure and known to have bad prognosis regarding renal functions recovery and patient survival specially when diagnosed late and presents with severe renal failure that requires dialysis. We report a case of 11-year-old child with acute renal failure secondary to anti-GBM disease and associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitis. He was treated with plasmapheresis, steroids, and cyclophosphamide with recovery of his kidney functions.

  20. Aquifer transmissivity and basement structure determination using resistivity sounding at Jos Plateau State Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaolisa, Casmir

    2006-03-01

    A geoelectric investigation involving twenty-six vertical electrical soundings was carried out at Jos, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. The survey was aimed at determining the structure of the underlying bedrock, as well as computing the transmissivity for the aquifer in the area. The basement geometrymapproduced from the results of the survey indicates that the bedrock is undulating lying at depths between 30 m to 6.5 m. There is evidence of faulting and fracturing within the area. Computation of aquifer transmissivity values based on the results obtained made it possible to demarcate regions with good ground water potential in the area.

  1. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R

    1984-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma has been purified and partially characterized. The proteoglycan has an apparent Mr of 750 000, 35% of which represents the core protein. The core protein seems to be homogeneous, whereas the heparan sulfate chains are heterogeneous...... with an Mr of about 50 000-70 000, with 30% of the glucosamine being N-sulfated. Antibodies raised against the core protein of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan reacted with basement membranes of various rat and human tissue....

  2. Main Structural Styles and Deformation Mechanisms in the Northern Sichuan Basin, Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Liangjie; GUO Tonglou; JIN Wenzheng; YU Yixin; LI Rufeng

    2008-01-01

    The Triassic Jialingjiang Formation and Leikoupo Formation are characterized by thick salt layers. Three tectono-stratigraphic sequences can be identified according to detachment layers of Lower-Middle Triassic salt beds in the northern Sichuan Basin, i.e. the sub-salt sequence composed of Sinian to the Lower Triassic Feixianguan Formation, the salt sequence of the Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Formation and Mid-Triassic Leikoupou Formation, and the supra-salt sequence composed of continental clastics of the Upper-Triassic Xujiahe Formation, Jurassic and Cretaceous. A series of specific structural styles, such as intensively deformed belt of basement-involved imbricated thrust belt, basement-involved and salt-detached superimposed deformed belt, buried salt-related detached belt, duplex, piling triangle zone and pop-up, developed in the northern Sichuan Basin. The relatively thin salt beds, associated with the structural deformation of the northern Sichuan Basin, might act as a large decollement layer. The deformation mechanisms in the northern Sichuan Basin included regional compression and shortening, plastic flow and detachment, tectonic upwelling and erosion, gravitational sliding and spreading. The source rocks in the northern Sichuan Basin are strata underlying the salt layer, such as the Cambrian, Silurian and Permian. The structural deformation related to the Triassic salt controlled the styles of traps for hydrocarbon. The formation and development of hydrocarbon traps in the northern Sichuan Basin might have a bearing upon the Lower-Middle Triassic salt sequences which were favorable to the hydrocarbon accumulation and preservation. The salt layers in the Lower-Middle Triassic formed the main cap rocks and are favorable for the accumulation and preservation of hydrocarbon.

  3. Deformation style and controlling geodynamic processes at the eastern Guadalquivir foreland basin (Southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Lechado, C.; Pedrera, A.; Peláez, J. A.; Ruiz-Constán, A.; González-Ramón, A.; Henares, J.

    2017-06-01

    The tectonic structure of the Guadalquivir foreland basin becomes complex eastward evolving from a single depocenter to a compartmented basin. The deformation pattern within the eastern Guadalquivir foreland basin has been characterized by combining seismic reflection profiles, boreholes, and structural field data to output a 3-D model. High-dipping NNE-SSW to NE-SW trending normal and reverse fault arrays deform the Variscan basement of the basin. These faults generally affect Tortonian sediments, which show syntectonic features sealed by the latest Miocene units. Curved and S-shaped fault traces are abundant and caused by the linkage of nearby fault segments during lateral fault propagation. Preexisting faults were reactivated either as normal or reverse faults depending on their position within the foreland. At Tortonian time, reverse faults deformed the basin forebulge, while normal faults predominated within the backbulge. Along-strike variation of the Betic foreland basin geometry is supported by an increasing mechanical coupling of the two plates (Alborán Domain and Variscan basement) toward the eastern part of the cordillera. Thus, subduction would have progressed in the western Betics, while it would have failed in the eastern one. There, the initially subducted Iberian paleomargin (Nevado-Filábride Complex) was incorporated into the upper plate promoting the transmission of collision-related compressional stresses into the foreland since the middle Miocene. Nowadays, compression is still active and produces low-magnitude earthquakes likely linked to NNE-SSW to NE-SW preexiting faults reactivated with reverse oblique-slip kinematics. Seismicity is mostly concentrated around fault tips that are frequently curved in overstepping zones.

  4. An updated interpretation of the Hanö Bay Basin, Baltic Sea, based on recently re-processed vintage 2D seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nicholas; Sopher, Daniel; Juhlin, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    The Hanö Bay Basin is a relatively small, tectonically controlled, Mesozoic basin in the SW Baltic Sea, Northern Europe. In this study a new seismic interpretation has been made of the basin based on re-processed vintage 2D marine seismic data. A large dataset acquired between 1970 and 1984 by Oljeprospektering AB (OPAB) containing seismic lines across the Hanö Bay Basin has recently been made available by the Swedish Geological Survey (SGU). Seismic interpretation studies within the Hanö Bay Basin were last conducted in the mid-1990's. Since this time, computer power and seismic processing methods have advanced. Re-processing of a grid of lines across the Hanö Bay Basin has allowed updated interpretations to be made which more accurately reflect the geological history of the area. Multi channel seismic data from four surveys within the OPAB dataset: NA79, D72, W70 and EA73, along with two wells H1 and H4, were used in this study. An updated interpretation of the pre-Cambrian basement, which exhibits a distinctive, sharply undulating morphology, was undertaken. The basement horizon across parts of the Hanö Bay appears to be very rugose, containing a number of distinctive troughs and peaks that are over 50m in amplitude. Within these basement troughs a set of distinct packages of sediment is observed. These packages are discontinuous and are most prevalent in a small circular area in the central section of the study area. The age of these sediment packages is uncertain, being either early Mesozoic or the erosional remnants of older Paleozoic sediments. Interpretations of the re-processed seismic data indicate, in some areas, that basin fill has occurred in a significantly different way to previous interpretations during the Mesozoic. The model proposed in this study takes into account normal movement on the Christiansø Fault prior to Cretaceous inversion.

  5. Basement and climate controls on proximal depositional systems in continental settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventra, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823708

    2011-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation discusses the sedimentology and dynamics of selected, modern and ancient clastic depositional systems (alluvial fans and colluvial aprons) at continental basin margins. The focus on single depositional systems gave the opportunity to devote particular attention to sediment

  6. Basement and climate controls on proximal depositional systems in continental settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventra, D.

    2011-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation discusses the sedimentology and dynamics of selected, modern and ancient clastic depositional systems (alluvial fans and colluvial aprons) at continental basin margins. The focus on single depositional systems gave the opportunity to devote particular attention to sediment

  7. Basement and climate controls on proximal depositional systems in continental settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventra, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823708

    2011-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation discusses the sedimentology and dynamics of selected, modern and ancient clastic depositional systems (alluvial fans and colluvial aprons) at continental basin margins. The focus on single depositional systems gave the opportunity to devote particular attention to

  8. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of mini-basins and salt provinces of Espirito Santo Basin-Brazil; Analise da evolucao tectono sedimentar de mini-bacias e provincias de sal da Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias; Fernandes, Flavio Luis [Petroleum Geoscience Technology Ltda. (PGT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mohriak, Webster [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Espirito Santo Basin integrates the group of basins along the eastern Brazilian continental margin. It is located between 18 deg and 21 deg S, encompassing an area of approximately 220,000 km{sup 2}, onshore and offshore the Espirito Santo State. Its geological limit with the Campos Basin to the south is defined by a Precambrian basement high (Vitoria Arch), and its northern limit with the Mucuri Basin is defined by a geopolitical limit. The study of salt tectonics processes in the Espirito Santo Basin allowed the deformational analysis and interpretation of the chronological evolution of the mini-basins developed between salt diapirs. We observe an intrinsic relationship between halokinesis and creation of subsidence troughs that may be important for trapping hydrocarbon reservoirs, and consequently form oil and gas accumulations in this portion of the basin. This geodynamics evolution of these structures is marked by a strong linkage between salt movement and coeval sedimentation in the interdomal basins, forming structures and stratigraphic traps that may constitute important aspects for the petroleum geology. (author)

  9. Validation of glomerular basement membrane thickness changes with aging in minimal change disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shigeru; Sasaki, Yoshihiro; Adachi, Akiko; Ghazizadeh, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the normal range of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickness by electron microscopy is required for the diagnosis of thin basement membrane disease or diabetic nephropathy; however, this measurement is influenced by aging. The aim of this study was to introduce a simple histogram plotting method for the validation of the results of the GBM thickness measurements by the accepted arithmetic mean ± SD method. We examined renal biopsy specimens obtained from 19 patients (10 males and 9 females) with minimal change disease, ranging in age from 3 to 70 years. Renal tissue samples obtained at autopsy from a male baby (3 months old) with no renal disease were also examined. For each case, GBM thicknesses at 10-15 evenly distributed points per glomerular loop were directly measured and the arithmetic mean ± SD was calculated. Subsequently, the arithmetic mean ± SD for each group of cases classified by age into 4 groups, i.e. babyhood (3 months old), childhood (3-11 years old), adulthood (12-57 years old), and old age (60-70 years old), was determined. On the other hand, a histogram of the frequency of GBM points measured against thickness was plotted to determine the distribution pattern and the range of measurements in each age group. The histogram plot showed 4 clearly divided modes for GBM thickness. Comparison of the results obtained by the 2 methods revealed a significant correlation indicating the feasibility of the histogram plotting method as a useful adjunct to validate GBM thickness measurements.

  10. Fractured-basement reservoir modeling using continuous fracture modeling (CFM) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isniarny, Nadya; Haris, Abdul; Nurdin, Safrizal

    2016-02-01

    The challenge in oil and gas exploration has now shifted due to increasingly difficult to get back up economic value in a conventional reservoir. Explorationist are developing various drilling technology, optimizing conventional reserves and unconventional reserve in reservoirs. One of the unconventional reservoir that has been developed is the basement reservoir. This rock type has no primary porosity and the permeability of the rocks of this type are generally influenced by the naturally fracture networks. The purpose of this study is to map the fracture intensity distribution in the basement reservoir using Continuous Fracture Modeling (CFM) method. CFM method applies the basic concepts of neural network in finding a relationship between well data with seismic data in order to build a model of fracture intensity. The Formation Micro Imager (FMI) interpretation data is used to identify the presence of fracture along the well as dip angle and dip azimuth. This indicator will be laterally populated in 3D grid model. Several seismic attribute which are generated from seismic data is used as a guidance to populate fracture intensity in the model. The results from the model were validated with Drill Stem Test (DST) data. Zones of high fracture intensity on the model correlates positively with the presence of fluid in accordance with DST data.

  11. Nephritogenic lupus antibodies recognize glomerular basement membrane-associated chromatin fragments released from apoptotic intraglomerular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaaji, Manar; Mortensen, Elin; Jørgensen, Leif; Olsen, Randi; Rekvig, Ole Petter

    2006-06-01

    Antibodies to dsDNA represent a classification criterion for systemic lupus erythematosus. Subpopulations of these antibodies are involved in lupus nephritis. No known marker separates nephritogenic from non-nephritogenic anti-dsDNA antibodies. It is not clear whether specificity for glomerular target antigens or intrinsic antibody-affinity for dsDNA or nucleosomes is a critical parameter. Furthermore, it is still controversial whether glomerular target antigen(s) is constituted by nucleosomes or by non-nucleosomal glomerular structures. Previously, we have demonstrated that antibodies eluted from murine nephritic kidneys recognize nucleosomes, but not other glomerular antigens. In this study, we determined the structures that bind nephritogenic autoantibodies in vivo by transmission electron microscopy, immune electron microscopy, and colocalization immune electron microscopy using experimental antibodies to dsDNA, to histones and transcription factors, or to laminin. The data obtained are consistent and point at glomerular basement membrane-associated nucleosomes as target structures for the nephritogenic autoantibodies. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling or caspase-3 assays demonstrate that lupus nephritis is linked to intraglomerular cell apoptosis. The data suggest that nucleosomes are released by apoptosis and associate with glomerulus basement membranes, which may then be targeted by pathogenic anti-nucleosome antibodies. Thus, apoptotic nucleosomes may represent both inducer and target structures for nephritogenic autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus.

  12. TMI-2 Reactor Building source term measurements: surfaces and basement water and sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C V; Keefer, D G

    1984-10-01

    Presented in this report are the results of radiochemical and elemental analyses performed on samples collected from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building from August 1979 to December 1983. The quantities of fission products and core materials that were measured on the external surfaces in the Reactor Building or in the water and sediment in its basement are summarized. Recent analysis results for access panels removed from the air cooling assembly and for liquid and particulate samples collected from the Reactor Building sump and reactor coolant drain tank are included in the report. Measurements show that 59% of the /sup 3/H, 2.7% of the /sup 90/Sr, 15% of the /sup 129/I, 20% of the /sup 131/I, and 42% of the /sup 137/Cs originally in the core at the time of the accident could be accounted for outside the core in the Reactor Building. With the exceptions of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 144/Ce, the vast majority of each radionuclide released was found dispersed in the water and sediment in the basement.

  13. Association of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease with dermatomyositis and psoriasis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Pereira Machado

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM antibody syndrome is characterized by deposition of anti-GBM antibodies on affected tissues, associated with glomerulonephritis and/or pulmonary involvement. This syndrome has been described in association with other autoimmune disorders, but as far as we know, it has not been described in association with dermatomyositis and psoriasis. CASE REPORT: A 51-year-old man with a history of dermatomyositis and vulgar psoriasis presented with a condition of sensitive-motor polyneuropathy of the hands and feet, weight loss of 4 kg, malaise and fever. On admission, he had been making chronic use of cyclosporin and antihypertensive drugs for three months because of mild arterial hypertension. Laboratory tests showed anemia and leukocytosis, elevated serum urea and creatinine and urine presenting proteinuria, hematuria, leukocyturia and granular casts. The 24-hour proteinuria was 2.3 g. Renal biopsy showed crescentic necrotizing glomerulonephritis with linear immunoglobulin G (IgG deposits on the glomerular basement membrane by means of direct immunofluorescence, which were suggestive of anti-GBM antibodies. The patient was then treated initially with methylprednisolone and with monthly cyclophosphamide in the form of pulse therapy.

  14. OMV Yemen's experience in development drilling of the basement reservoir Habban

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klampfer, Simon [OMV Exploration and Production GmbH, Wien (Austria); Boettcher, Frank [OMV Yemen Exploration and Production (Yemen)

    2010-12-15

    In 2003 OMV AG took over the activities of PREUSSAG Energie International and became operator of the Yemeni Block S2 (Al Uqlah). Activities concentrated initially an appraising the Khulan reservoir, which was discovered by the Kharwah 1 well. Kharwah 1 was used for long-term testing of a two-meter thick Khulan layer producing a reasonably high and constant oil rate with very little decline. Al Nilam 1 was drilled to prove the economics of the discovery and also to look into the basement. The well was successful and a development plan was submitted to the Yemeni authorities including drilling some 42 wells, constructing field facilities and building an oil exporting pipeline. Up to now some 22 wells have been drilled, encountering a number of technical difficulties. A number of potential performance improvements were examined and tested, i.e. percussion drilling for the top hole section, aerated mud in the second and third section to avoid losses and stabilize the hole and the use of impregnated diamond bits in the basement section. A real breakthrough has not yet been achieved. (orig.)

  15. Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis and thrombotic microangiopathy in first degree relatives; a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idorn Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis and thrombotic microangiopathy are rare diseases with no known coherence. Case Presentation A daughter and her biological mother were diagnosed with pregnancy-induced thrombotic microangiopathy and anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis, respectively. Both developed end-stage renal disease. Exploration of a common aetiology included analyses of HLA genotypes, functional and genetic aspects of the complement system, ADAMTS13 activity and screening for autoantibodies. The daughter was heterozygous carrier of the complement factor I G261D mutation, previously described in patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome. The mother was non-carrier of this mutation. They shared the disease associated complement factor H silent polymorphism Q672Q (79602A>G. Conclusion An unequivocal functional or molecular association between these two family cases was not found suggesting that the patients probably share another, so far undiagnosed and unknown, predisposing factor. It seems highly unlikely that two infrequent immunologic diseases would occur by unrelated pathophysiological mechanisms within first degree relatives.

  16. Metasomatic tourmalinite formation along basement-cover decollements, Orobic Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, J.F.; Passchier, C.W.; Zhang, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    Cryptocrystalline tourmalinites that occur discontinuously for ???30 km along basement-cover de??collements of the Orohic Alps (Italy) formed by the metasomatism of aluminous cataclasites derived from Permian conglomerates and/or feldspathic sandstones. Using Al as an immobile element monitor, calculations show that the majority of tourmalinites in the region formed through the addition of moderate to significant amounts of B, Mg, Na, Sr, and Be, and the loss of moderate to significant Mn, Ca, K, P, Rb, Ba, and Cr; minor Si, Ti, V, light REE, and Eu also were lost. Data tor relatively immobile Al, Zr, Th, Sc, Nb, and heavy REE indicate that, on average, these tourmalinites formed through ???12% net mass loss assuming an original conglomerate protolith, or through ???7% net mass loss assuming a sandstone protolith. The B and other introduced constituents in the tourmalinites were deposited by hydrothermal fluids focused along and near basement-cover de??collements. These fluids, believed to be associated with late Hercynian felsic magmatism, probably are related to fluids that formed the tourmaline-rich U-Mo-Zn deposits at the nearby Novazza mine and the U-Zn deposits at the nearby Val Vedello mine.

  17. Seismicity on Basement Faults Induced by Simultaneous Fluid Injection-Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kyung Won; Segall, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Large-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection into geological formations increases pore pressure, potentially inducing seismicity on critically stressed faults by reducing the effective normal stress. In addition, poroelastic expansion of the reservoir alters stresses, both within and around the formation, which may trigger earthquakes without direct pore-pressure diffusion. One possible solution to mitigate injection-induced earthquakes is to simultaneously extract pre-existing pore fluids from the target reservoir. To examine the feasibility of the injection-extraction strategy, we compute the spatiotemporal change in Coulomb stress on basement normal faults, including: (1) the change in poroelastic stresses Δ τ _s+fΔ σ _n, where Δ τ _s and Δ σ _n are changes in shear and normal stress. respectively, and (2) the change in pore-pressure fΔ p. Using the model of (J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth 99(B2):2601-2618, 1994), we estimate the seismicity rate on basement fault zones. Fluid extraction reduces direct pore-pressure diffusion into conductive faults, generally reducing the risk of induced seismicity. Limited diffusion into/from sealing faults results in negligible pore pressure changes within them. However, fluid extraction can cause enhanced seismicity rates on deep normal faults near the injector as well as shallow normal faults near the producer by poroelastic stressing. Changes in seismicity rate driven by poroelastic response to fluid injection-extraction depends on fault geometry, well operations, and the background stressing rate.

  18. A method for evaluating basement exhumation histories from closure age distributions of detrital minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovera, Oscar M. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Grove, Marty [Department of Earth and Space Sciences and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Kimbrough, David L. [Department of Geological Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, California (United States); Abbott, Patrick L. [Department of Geological Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, California (United States)

    1999-12-10

    We have developed a two-dimensional, thermokinetic model that predicts the closure age distributions of detrital minerals from pervasively intruded and differentially exhumed basement. Using this model, we outline a method to determine the denudation history of orogenic regions on the basis of closure age distributions in synorogenic to postorogenic forearc strata. At relatively high mean denudation rates of 0.5 km m.y.-1 sustained over millions of years, magmatic heating events have minimal influence upon the age distributions of detrital minerals such as K-feldspar that are moderately retentive of radiogenic Ar. At lower rates, however, the effects of batholith emplacement may be substantial. We have applied the approach to detrital K-feldspars from forearc strata derived from the deeply denuded Peninsular Ranges batholith (PRB). Agreement of the denudation history deduced from the detrital K-feldspar data with thermochronologic constraints from exposed PRB basement lead us to conclude that exhumation histories of magmatic arcs should be decipherable solely from closure age distributions of detrital minerals whose depositional age is known. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union.

  19. Mechanical Stretch on Human Skin Equivalents Increases the Epidermal Thickness and Develops the Basement Membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eijiro Tokuyama

    Full Text Available All previous reports concerning the effect of stretch on cultured skin cells dealt with experiments on epidermal keratinocytes or dermal fibroblasts alone. The aim of the present study was to develop a system that allows application of stretch stimuli to human skin equivalents (HSEs, prepared by coculturing of these two types of cells. In addition, this study aimed to analyze the effect of a stretch on keratinization of the epidermis and on the basement membrane. HSEs were prepared in a gutter-like structure created with a porous silicone sheet in a silicone chamber. After 5-day stimulation with stretching, HSEs were analyzed histologically and immunohistologically. Stretch-stimulated HSEs had a thicker epidermal layer and expressed significantly greater levels of laminin 5 and collagen IV/VII in the basal layer compared with HSEs not subjected to stretch stimulation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the structure of the basement membrane was more developed in HSEs subjected to stretching. Our model may be relevant for extrapolating the effect of a stretch on the skin in a state similar to an in vivo system. This experimental system may be useful for analysis of the effects of stretch stimuli on skin properties and wound healing and is also expected to be applicable to an in vitro model of a hypertrophic scar in the future.

  20. Comparison among GPR measurements and ultrasonic tomographies with different inversion strategies applied to the basement of an ancient egyptian sculpture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambuelli, Luigi; Bohm, Gualtiero; Capizzi, Patrizia; Cardarelli, Ettore; Cosentino, Pietro; D'Onofrio, Laurent; Marchisio, Mario

    2010-05-01

    By the late 2008 one of the most important pieces of the "Museo delle Antichità Egizie" in Turin, the sculpture of the Pharaoh with god Amun, was planned to be one of the masterpieces of a travelling exhibition in Japan. The "Fondazione Museo delle Antichità Egizie di Torino", managing the museum, was concerned with the integrity of the basement of the statue which actually presents visible signs of restorations dating back to the early IXX century. The questions put by the museum managers were to estimate the internal extension of some visible fractures, to search for unknown internal ones and to provide information about the overall mechanical strength of the basement. In order to tackle the first and second questions a GPR reflection survey of the basement along three sides was performed and the results were assembled in a 3D rendering. As far as the third question is concerned, two parallel, horizontal ultrasonic 2D tomographies across the basement were made with a source-receiver layout able to acquire, for each section, 723 ultrasonic signals correspondent to different transmitter and receiver positions. The ultrasonic tomographic data were inverted using different software based upon different algorithms. The obtained velocity images were then compared with the GPR results and with the visible joints on the basement. A critical analysis of the comparisons is finally presented.

  1. UTILITY OF SHORT-TERM BASEMENT SCREENING RADON MEASUREMENTS TO PREDICT YEAR-LONG RESIDENTIAL RADON CONCENTRATIONS ON UPPER FLOORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Nirmalla; Steck, Daniel J; William Field, R

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated temporal and spatial variability between basement radon concentrations (measured for ∼7 d using electret ion chambers) and basement and upper floor radon concentrations (measured for 1 y using alpha track detectors) in 158 residences in Iowa, USA. Utility of short-term measurements to approximate a person's residential radon exposure and effect of housing/occupant factors on predictive ability were evaluated. About 60 % of basement short-term, 60 % of basement year-long and 30 % of upper floor year-long radon measurements were equal to or above the United States Environmental Protection Agency's radon action level of 148 Bq m(-3) Predictive value of a positive short-term test was 44 % given the year-long living space concentration was equal to or above this action level. Findings from this study indicate that cumulative radon-related exposure was more closely approximated by upper floor year-long measurements than short-term or year-long measurements in the basement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Geophysical research on distribution features of magnetic basements in the South China Sea%南海磁性基底分布特征的地球物理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝天珧; 徐亚; 赵百民; 张永军; 彭利丽

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the macro-distribution of magnetic basements in the South China Sea (SCS) based on the latest magnetic data and physical property analysis of rocks.The density and magnetic susceptibility structures along a profile across the SCS were inverted as the constraint to the whole region.The effects of different Reduction To Pole (RTP) methods in low-latitude areas were studied and applied to magnetic data of the study area.The Halo wavelet was used in multi-scale analysis of RTP magnetic data of the SCS.The result shows that the SCS can be divided into five zones according to the characteristics of magnetic anomalies.The northern margin of the SCS is more like a non-vocanic continental margin from the results of magnetic basement inversion and the profile inversion.In the Yinggehai area, the control effect of the magnetic basement to the sedimentary layers is obvious.The characteristics of the magnetic basements of the Zhongsha-Xisha block and Nansha block are very analogous.We infer that they might be of one block before extension of the sea basin.%利用南海最新的磁力资料,在岩石物性分析基础上,选择南海一条典型剖面拟合反演其密度与磁性结构并以拟合结果作为约束,反演全海域磁性基底的宏观分布.对南海磁力数据进行了低纬度化极处理,利用Halo小波基对化极磁异常进行了多尺度分析并依据磁力异常特征进行了磁场分区.根据剖面与全海域磁性基底反演结果认为:南海北部陆缘更倾向于非火山型的构造属性.磁性基底对浅部沉积作用的控制关系在莺歌海一带表现得非常明显.中一西沙和南沙块体的磁性基底特征十分相似,推测在海盆拉张之前,二者为同一块体.

  3. Seismic reflection and tomographic velocity model constraints on the evolution of the Tofino forearc basin, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Nathan; Calvert, Andrew J.

    2007-02-01

    The Tofino Basin is a sedimentary forearc basin that overlies the continental shelf of the Cascadia margin to the southwest of Vancouver Island. The basin, which contains up to ~4 km of marine clastic sedimentary rocks, formed following accretion in the Early Eocene of the Crescent and Pacific Rim Terranes, and subsequent accretionary wedge basement. Subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate has since been the primary tectonic driving force in the development of the basin's structure. Investigations using coincident seismic reflection profiles, tomographic velocity models and recently reassessed biostratigraphic well data show that basement composition has largely controlled deformation of the overlying Tofino Basin sediments. Anticlinal folds overlying the accretionary wedge exhibit low P-wave velocities at the apex of the fold, which may be related to fracturing of older, more lithified sediments accompanied by fluid expulsion from the accretionary wedge. In contrast the velocity variation across folds over the Crescent Terrane mimics the fold geometry, and does not appear anomalous. A sub-basin (containing up to ~3 km of Oligocene to Holocene sediment) has developed in the central part of the Tofino Basin at the boundary between the Crescent and Pacific Rim Terranes. Seismic interpretation suggests that deposition has increased more rapidly in the Late Miocene to Holocene. Subsidence within the sub-basin is likely to have been controlled by sediment loading, flexure and regional tectonic forces, localized by pre-existing zones of weakness such as the Tofino Fault. The development of the sub-basin may also have been influenced by the displacement landward of part of the lower forearc crust during subduction erosion. Diapiric structures along the axis of the sub-basin suggest that fluid expulsion into the Tofino Basin from the deeper accreted terranes is localized by the terrane-bounding fault. Further seaward, fluid expulsion from the accretionary wedge may be more

  4. Direct and indirect evidence for earthquakes; an example from the Lake Tahoe Basin, California-Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, J. M.; Noble, P. J.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kent, G.; Schmauder, G. C.

    2012-12-01

    High-resolution seismic CHIRP data can image direct evidence of earthquakes (i.e., offset strata) beneath lakes and the ocean. Nevertheless, direct evidence often is not imaged due to conditions such as gas in the sediments, or steep basement topography. In these cases, indirect evidence for earthquakes (i.e., debris flows) may provide insight into the paleoseismic record. The four sub-basins of the tectonically active Lake Tahoe Basin provide an ideal opportunity to image direct evidence for earthquake deformation and compare it to indirect earthquake proxies. We present results from high-resolution seismic CHIRP surveys in Emerald Bay, Fallen Leaf Lake, and Cascade Lake to constrain the recurrence interval on the West Tahoe Dollar Point Fault (WTDPF), which was previously identified as potentially the most hazardous fault in the Lake Tahoe Basin. Recently collected CHIRP profiles beneath Fallen Leaf Lake image slide deposits that appear synchronous with slides in other sub-basins. The temporal correlation of slides between multiple basins suggests triggering by events on the WTDPF. If correct, we postulate a recurrence interval for the WTDPF of ~3-4 k.y., indicating that the WTDPF is near its seismic recurrence cycle. In addition, CHIRP data beneath Cascade Lake image strands of the WTDPF that offset the lakefloor as much as ~7 m. The Cascade Lake data combined with onshore LiDAR allowed us to map the geometry of the WTDPF continuously across the southern Lake Tahoe Basin and yielded an improved geohazard assessment.

  5. Relationships between thrusting and joint systems in the Jaca thrust-top basin, Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J. P.; Hancock, P. L.

    The Oligo-Miocene rocks of the West Jaca thrust-top basin and adjacent parts of the Ebro basin are cut by up to eight sets of joints and allied mesofractures. The fractures belong to three groups that can be distinguished on the basis of their relative ages and geometry. An older group of joints strikes normal or subnormal to the Pyrenean mountain front and is restricted to subareas (here called front-normal joint domains) coincident with the immediate footwalls of thrusts. Joints striking parallel to a buried lateral ramp characterize a lateral ramp joint domain. Younger joints striking parallel or subparallel to the mountain front occur throughout most of the West Jaca and Ebro basins, and define front-parallel joint domains. The joint domains appear to reflect the geometry and evolution of thrust sheets. Joints in front-normal domains were formed during stretching of footwalls as a result of their loading by overriding thrust sheets. Stretching above a lateral ramp is thought to be responsible for the development of joints in the lateral ramp domain. Joints in the front-parallel domains of the West Jaca basin are related to stretching in growth folds that were amplifying during salt doming. Front-parallel joints in the Ebro basin are attributed to stretching of a foreland basin sequence above a basement flexure related to thrust loading.

  6. Tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Western Alboran Sea Basin in the last 25 Myrs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Couto, Damien; Gorini, Christian; Jolivet, Laurent; Lebret, Noëmie; Augier, Romain; Gumiaux, Charles; d'Acremont, Elia; Ammar, Abdellah; Jabour, Haddou; Auxietre, Jean-Luc

    2016-05-01

    The Western Alboran Basin (WAB) formation has always been the subject of debate and considered either as a back-arc or a forearc basin. Stratigraphic analyses of high-resolution 2D seismic profiles mostly located offshore Morocco, enabled us to clarify the tectonic and stratigraphic history of the WAB. The thick pre-rift sequence located beneath the Miocene basin is interpreted as the topmost Malaguide/Ghomaride complex composing the Alboran domain. The structural position of this unit compared with the HP-LT exhumed Alpujarride/Sebtide metamorphic basement, leads us to link the Early Miocene subsidence of the basin with an extensional detachment. Above the Early Miocene, a thick Serravallian sequence marked by siliciclastic deposits is nearly devoid of extensional structures. Its overall landward to basinward onlap geometry indicates that the WAB has behaved as a sag basin during most of its evolution from the Serravallian to the late Tortonian. Tectonic reconstructions in map view and in cross section further suggest that the basin has always represented a strongly subsiding topographic low without internal deformation that migrated westward together with the retreating slab. We propose that the subsidence of the WAB was controlled by the pull of the dipping subducting lithosphere hence explaining the considerable thickness (10 km) of the mostly undeformed sedimentary infill.

  7. Integrated remote sensing data utilization for investigating structural and tectonic history of the Ghadames Basin, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, N. M.; Zaher, M. Abdel; El-Baz, F.; Watanabe, K.

    2011-10-01

    This study was initiated to constrain the geological structure of the Ghadames Basin in northwest Libya. Detailed analysis was based on digital integration of surface data, including SRTM DEM, ETM+ and geologic maps with subsurface data, including well logs and potential field data. Integrated analysis of remotely sensed data of the SRTM and ETM+ were utilized to identify geologic lineaments in the area. Ground-based verification of the remote sensing data was achieved with field work. Interpretation and analysis of the lineaments indicate that the Ghadames Basin is controlled by four main fault systems that trend WNW, NNW, NW and ENE. Well logs and potential field data were used to delineate a detailed picture of the subsurface structure. The potential field data reveal two NE and NNE trending sedimentary basins. The depth of the basement inside the main basin ranges from 2 to 6 km. A two-dimensional (2-D) schematic model shows that the basin gradually deepens towards the southwest. The applied data integration gave new insight into the tectonic and structure patterns of the Ghadames Basin and the adjacent areas of northwest Libya.

  8. Basin amplification of seismic waves in the city of Pahrump, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Robert E.

    2005-07-01

    Sedimentary basins can increase the magnitude and extend the duration of seismic shaking. This potential for seismic amplification is investigated for Pahrump Valley, Nevada-California. The Pahrump Valley is located approximately 50 km northwest of Las Vegas and 75 km south of the Nevada Test Site. Gravity data suggest that the city of Pahrump sits atop a narrow, approximately 5 km deep sub-basin within the valley. The seismic amplification, or ''site effect'', was investigated using a combination of in situ velocity modeling and comparison of the waveforms and spectra of weak ground motion recorded in the city of Pahrump, Nevada, and those recorded in the nearby mountains. Resulting spectral ratios indicate seismic amplification factors of 3-6 over the deepest portion of Pahrump Valley. This amplification predominantly occurs at 2-2.5 Hz. Amplification over the deep sub-basin is lower than amplification at the sub-basin edge, location of the John Blume and Associates PAHA seismic station, which recorded many underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. A comprehensive analysis of basin amplification for the city of Pahrump should include 3-D basin modeling, due to the extreme basement topography of the Pahrump Valley.

  9. Few remarks on some factors in maintaining temperature of basement; Chikashitsu no hoonsei ni oyobosu shoyoin ni kansuru nisan no chiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Y. [Ehime University, Ehime (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Shimasaki, O. [Ehime University, Ehime (Japan); Ueda, T. [Takenaka Corp., Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, T. [Nissan Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sugi, G.

    1998-06-21

    Noticing on temperature maintaining effect of a basement, three types of full scale model basements were used to measure temperature change in the surrounding ground and rooms in the basement and discuss effects of ground temperature variation on the basement. Thermal property values were derived on the surrounding ground affecting the temperature maintainability of the basement, and temperature analysis was performed on a model assuming the basement to discuss effects of difference in size occupying under the ground on change in room temperatures. Then, assuming a case of using heat insulating materials in the basement, discussions were given on the consumed energy required for air conditioning. Underground temperature has its change to decrease as the ground depth increases throughout a year, and particularly at depths greater than 50 cm, no daily temperature change can be seen. Because of this effect, the greater the underground occupying size in the basement, the smaller the temperature change. Distributions of heat diffusion rate, heat capacity, and heat conductivity can be estimated by deriving water content ratio distribution. When air conditioning is carried out in the basement, applying the heat insulating materials on the inner side of a room is more effective. Energy conservation may be expected because the room temperature is stabilized. 9 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Basin evolution and deposition during the Early Paleogene in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaier, A.; Beji-Sassi, A.; Sassi, S. [Universite de Tunis II (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya). Laboratoire des Ressources Minerales; Moody, R.T.J. [Kingston University (United Kingdom). School of Geological Science

    1998-12-31

    The marine Paleocene and Ypresian deposits of Tunisia, within the El Haria Formation and the Metlaoui Group, have been intensively studied because of the commercial interest in phosphates and hydrocarbons. This paper presents the latest updates of isochron, lithofacies and palaeogeographical maps, and interprets the patterns identified in light of syn-sedimentary structures. This reveals a close association between structure, basin geometry and subsidence. Facies distribution during the Early Paleogene is thought to be structurally controlled along basement lineaments. These major fault systems were reactivated several times during Mesozoic and Tertiary, with the last movements occurring as Neogene and post-Villafranchian events. The structural control of facies is most evident during the Ypresian, particularly along the `North-South Axis` (Nosa) a sub-meridian orogenic segment of Central Tunisia. The general pattern across Tunisia throughout the period is of a number of small tectonically controlled basins. The distribution of phosphorites, organic-rich shales and evaporites can be particularly linked to the development of restricted basins during the period. (author)

  11. Terrestrial heat flow in Junggar Basin,Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on temperature logs of 117 boreholes and thermal conductivity of 119 rock samples,the first group of 35 heat flow data in the Junggar Basin are presented.The thermal gradients vary between 11.6 and 26.5℃/km ,and the thermal conductivity changes from 0.17 to 3.6 W/mK.Heat flow ranges from 23.4 to 53.7 mW/m2 with a mean of (42.3± 7.7) mW/m2.The heat flow pattern shows that heat flow is higher in the uplifts and lower in the depressions.The factors affecting the heat flow and its distribution include basin type,basement structure,sediment thickness,radioactive heat generation,etc.The overall low present-day heat flow in the Junggar Basin reflected its tectonothermal evolution characterized by lithospheric thickening,thrust and fault at shallow crust as well as consequently quick subsidence during the Late Cenozoic.

  12. Palaeoproterozoic U Pb SHRIMP zircon age from basement rocks in Bangladesh: A possible remnant of the Columbia supercontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Ismail; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Rajesh, Hariharan M.; Chen, Bin; Arakawa, Yoji

    2007-12-01

    We present new U-Pb SHRIMP zircon geochronological data for basement rocks in Bangladesh, and discuss the relationship with the formation of the Columbia supercontinent. Euhedral zircons from a diorite sample yield a concordia age of 1730 ± 11 Ma, which is interpreted as the crystallization age. The Palaeoproterozoic age of the examined basement rock and the common occurrences of similar ˜1.7-Ga geologic units in the Central Indian Tectonic Zone and Meghalaya-Shillong Plateau in Indian Shield suggest their apparent continuation. This, together with the occurrence of similar ˜1.7-Ga geologic units in the Albany-Fraser belt in Australia and East Antarctica, are used to suggest that the basement rocks in Bangladesh formed towards the final stages of the assembly of the Columbia supercontinent.

  13. Effects of radiation on the permeability of human basement membranes; Effets des radiations sur la permeabilite de membranes basales humaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, B.T. [Paris-7 Univ., ITODYS, UPRES-A 7086 CNRS, 75 (France); Achour, S. [Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France). Unite de Recheche Chimie et Pharmacologie; Simmonet, F. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). INSTN, Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires; Guerin, D. [Clinique d`Aulnay, 93 - Aulnay-sous-Bois (France)

    1999-02-01

    The influence of radiation on the permeability properties of human basement membrane was investigated by measuring the diffusion rate of several organic compounds (glycine, proline, glucose, urea and insulin) through human anterior lens capsules. The basement membranes borne an {gamma}-irradiation treatment change significantly their permeability vis-a-vis studied organic substances. This modification in physico-chemical properties is probably due to the radiation, which alters or degrades the complex structure (or architecture) of basement membranes. Moreover the change in permeability is dependent upon the diffusing compounds. An increase in diffusion has been observed for glucose, glycine and urea. However for insulin and proline, a decrease in diffusion rate was observed. (authors) 21 refs.

  14. Evaluation of Vertical Electrical Sounding Method for Groundwater Development in Basement Complex Terrain of West-Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Olawuyi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES method of groundwater development in the Basement Complex terrain of West Central Nigeria. It was aimed at verifying the reliability of VES in differentiating lithologies, predicting the depth to basement and probably, aquifer in groundwater development. In doing this, the Schlumberger electrode configuration was employed in the surveys while partial curve matching and computer iteration techniques were used to interpret the curves obtained. In all, seventy three VES were carried out and fourteen boreholes constructed. Comparison was made between the predicted depth to basement from VES and the actual depth from the drilling log. A linear relationship between the actual depth and that predicted by VES was established with coefficient of determination of 0.94 confirming the reliability of the VES method. None of the boreholes drilled was abortive.

  15. Breaches of the pial basement membrane are associated with defective dentate gyrus development in mouse models of congenital muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Yu, Miao; Feng, Gang; Hu, Huaiyu; Li, Xiaofeng

    2011-11-07

    A subset of congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) has central nervous system manifestations. There are good mouse models for these CMDs that include POMGnT1 knockout, POMT2 knockout and Large(myd) mice with all exhibiting defects in dentate gyrus. It is not known how the abnormal dentate gyrus is formed during the development. In this study, we conducted a detailed morphological examination of the dentate gyrus in adult and newborn POMGnT1 knockout, POMT2 knockout, and Large(myd) mice by immunofluorescence staining and electron microscopic analyses. We observed that the pial basement membrane overlying the dentate gyrus was disrupted and there was ectopia of granule cell precursors through the breached pial basement membrane. Besides these, the knockout dentate gyrus exhibited reactive gliosis in these mouse models. Thus, breaches in the pial basement membrane are associated with defective dentate gyrus development in mouse models of congenital muscular dystrophies.

  16. Rat mesangial cells in vitro synthesize a spectrum of proteoglycan species including those of the basement membrane and interstitium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, G J; Shewring, L; McCarthy, K J;

    1995-01-01

    Accumulation of extracellular matrix within the mesangium is an important event in the development of glomerular disease. In this report we have used indirect immunofluorescence to positively identify a number of constituents of the mesangial matrix synthesized by rat mesangial cells (RMC) in vitro...... including laminin, fibronectin, type IV collagen and the basement membrane heparan sulphate proteoglycan (BM-HSPG) known as perlecan. In addition, using Mab 2B5 we demonstrate that RMC synthesize a specific basement membrane chondroitin sulfate (BM-CSPG), a matrix component that in normal animals...... is localized in the mesangium but is not found in the pericapillary glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Further characterization of the proteoglycans synthesized by RMC in vitro revealed: (i) a second large CSPG, identified as versican; (ii) two small dermatan sulphate proteoglycans identified as biglycan...

  17. Analog modeling and kinematic restoration of inverted hangingwall synclinal basins developed above syn-kinematic salt: Application to the Lusitanian and Parentis basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Maria; Vidal-Royo, Oskar; McClay, Ken; Ferrer, Oriol; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2017-04-01

    The formation of hagingwall syncline basins is basically constrained by the geometry of the basement-involved fault, but also by salt distribution . The formation of such basins is common around the Iberian Peninsula (e.g. Lusitanian, Parentis, Basque-Cantabian, Cameros and Organyà basins) where Upper Triassic (Keuper) salt governed their polyphasic Mesozoic extension and their subsequent Alpine inversion. In this scenario, a precise interpretation of the sub-salt faults geometry and a reconstruction of the initial salt thickness are key to understand the kinematic evolution of such basins. Using an experimental approach (sandbox models) and these Mesozoic basins as natural analogues, the aim of this work is to: 1) investigate the main parameters that controlled the formation and evolution of hagingwall syncline basins analyzing the role of syn-kinematic salt during extension and subsequent inversion; and 2) quantify the deformation and salt mobilization based on restoration of analog model cross sections. The experimental results demonstrate that premature welds are developed by salt deflation with consequent upward propagation of the basal fault in salt-bearing rift systems with a large amount of extension,. In contrast, thicker salt inhibits the upward fault propagation, which results into a further salt migration and development of a hagingwall syncline basins flanked by salt walls. The inherited extensional architecture as well as salt continuity dramatically controlled subsequent inversion. Shortening initially produced the folding and the uplift of the synclinal basins. Minor reverse faults form as a consequence of overtightening of welded diapir stems. However, no trace of reverse faulting is found around diapirs stems, as ductile unit is still available for extrusion, squeezing and accommodation of shortening. Restoration of the sandbox models has demonstrated that this is a powerful tool to unravel the complex structures in the models and this may

  18. Nature of the Yucatan Block Basement as Derived From Study of Granitic Clasts in the Impact Breccias of Chicxulub Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Sanchez, P.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Perez-Cruz, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2008-05-01

    The tectonic and petrologic nature of the basement of the Yucatan Block is studied from analyses of basement clasts present in the impact suevitic breccias of Chicxulub crater. The impact breccias have been sampled as part of the drilling projects conducted in the Yucatan peninsula by Petroleos Mexicanos, the National University of Mexico and the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project. Samples analyzed come mainly from the Yaxcopoil-1, Tekax, and Santa Elena boreholes, and partly from Pemex boreholes. In this study we concentrate on clasts of the granites, granodiorites and quartzmonzonites in the impact breccias. We report major and trace element geochemical and petrological data, which are compared with data from the granitic and volcanic rocks from the Maya Mountains in Belize and from the Swannee terrane in Florida. Basement granitic clasts analyzed present intermediate to acidic sub-alkaline compositions. Plots of major oxides (e.g., Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and CaO) and trace elements (e.g., Th, Y, Hf, Nb and Zr) versus silica allow separation of samples into two major groups, which can be compared to units in the Maya Mountains and in Florida basement. The impact suevitic breccia samples have been affected by alteration likely related to the hydrothermal processes associated with the crater melt sheet. Cloritization, seritization and fenitization alterations are recognized, due to the long term hydrothermalism. Krogh et al. (1993) reported U-Pb dates on zircons from the suevitic breccias, which gave dates of 545 +/- 5 Ma and 418 +/- 6 Ma, which were interpreted in terms of the deep granitic metamorphic Yucatan basement. The younger date correlates with the age for the Osceola Granite and the St. Lucie metamorphic complex of the Swannee terrane in the Florida peninsula. The intrusive rocks in the Yucatan basement may be related to approx. 418 Ma ago collisional event in the Late Silurian.

  19. Thick-skinned Contractional Salt Structures in the Kuqa Depression, the Northern Tarim Basin: Constraints from Physical Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yixin; TANG Liangjie; YANG Wenjing; JIN Wenzheng; PENG Gengxin; LEI Ganglin

    2008-01-01

    Thick-skinned contractional salt structures are widely developed in the western Kuqa depression, northern Tarim basin. To understand the mechanisms that govern the development of these structures, physical experiments are conducted and the results show that they are largely governed by the activities of basement faults and the forming of paleo-uplifts and basement slopes. The model materials in this study are dry sand, vaseline and plasticene (or hard foam), simulating the suprasalt, salt, and subsalt layers respectively. The experiments show that, due to the activities of basement faults and the forming of the paleo-uplifts, salt bodies usually accumulate and thicken significantly on the middle top of the paleo-uplifts which are constrained by the pre-exiting boundary faults. The development of large-scale thrust faults and salt nappes is favored by the basement slops with larger dips. The experiments also conclude that differential structural deformation could occur between the subsalt and suprasalt layers because of the presence of salt layers. Their geometries and the locations of structural highs are different, despite of the great similarities in the uplifted areas. The pierced salt diapir is not observed in the experiments, which indicates that the contractional shortening does not effectively accelerate the development of the salt diapir.

  20. Geometric Reconstruction of Bedrock and Overlying Recent Deposits In An Intra-mountain Basin: The Clusone Basin (southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caielli, G.; Berra, F.

    Regione Lombardia (Direzione Generale Territorio e Urbanistica) and the National Research Council (CNR-IDPA Milano) acquired seismic reflection profiles in the Clu- sone basin (Middle Val Seriana, Southern Alps). In the study area, the bedrock is rep- resented by late Triassic carbonate units (Formazione di Castro, Dolomia Principale and coeval basinal facies, bordered northward by an important alpine fault) covered by a large amount of recent deposits that covers an area of more than 10 km2, with a maximum thickness of more than two hundreds meters, as documented by available well data. The aim of the seismic prospecting was to identify the sediments layering and the rock basement depth. The acquisition parameters were as follows: group in- terval 10 m; shot interval 5 m; geophone frequency 14 Hz; sample rate 1 ms; record length 2 s, energy source hydrapulse. The cable, with 120 channels, remained dur- ing all the experiment allowing reflection/refraction events acquisition. The data were processed by a standard procedure using PROMAX and SUNT5 processing codes. The statics were calculated starting from the refracted first arrivals using a two layer inversion based on least square optimisation. Standard seismic reflection processing was applied to obtain reflection images and it was integrated with seismic refraction data inversion. Seismic profiles allow to reconstruct both the main reflectors in the recent deposits and the geometry of the bedrock. The first results document a complex history in the drainage patterns of the Clusone basin, allowing to identify, in an intra- mountain basin, drainage directions that in some cases are different from the ones that can be observed today. The integration of well data and seismic profiles in this study of an intra-mountain basin allows on one side the identification of the bedrock geome- tries and, on the other, gives constrains for the reconstruction of the geomorphologic evolution of a sector of a mountain chain.

  1. Three-dimensional architecture of rat glomerular basement membrane by ultra-high resolution scanning electron microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamasaki,Yasushi

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated the ultrastructure of rat glomerular basement membrane (GBM by ultra-high resolution scanning electron microscopy. GBM prepared by sonication methods and conductive-staining could be observed without metal coating at magnifications as high as 400,000 times. The GBM showed an irregular meshwork structure composed of various strands and pores. The width of the strands ranged from 6 to 15 nm, and the diameter of pores ranged from 6 to 50 nm. The present study confirmed our molecular sieve theory of the basement membrane.

  2. [Relationship between the changes in ischemia/reperfusion cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury and gelatinase system in senile rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-sheng; Liu, Ke; Liu, Jing-xia; Wang, Ming-hang; Zhao, Yue-wu; Liu, Zheng-guo

    2008-11-01

    To study the relationship of cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury and gelatinase system after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in aged rats. Cerebral I/R injury model was reproduced by intraluminal silk ligature thrombosis of the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Rats were divided randomly into sham control and I/R groups in young rats [ischemia 3 hours (I 3 h) and reperfusion 6 hours (I/R 6 h), 12 hours (I/R 12 h), 24 hours (I/R 24 h), 3 days (I/R 3 d), 6 days (I/R 6 d)], and sham control group and I/R group in aged rats (I 3 h and I/R 6 h, I/R 12 h, I/R 24 h , I/R 3 d, I/R 6 d). The change in cerebro-cortex microvessel basement membrane structure, basement membrane type IV collagen (Col IV) and laminin (LN) contents, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) expression in every group were determined with immunohistochemical method and zymogram analysis. With the increase in age, Col IV and LN contents of the microvessel basement membrane were increased, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions were stronger. With prolongation of I/R, the degradation of microvessel basement membrane components (Col IV and LN) was positively correlated with the duration of cerebral I/R. MMP-2 expression was increased gradually, and MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression increased at the beginning and decreased subsequently. Col IV(I 3 h, I/R 6 h , I/R 12 h), LN (I 3 h, I/R 6-24 h), MMP-2 (I 3 h, I/R 6 h-6 d) and MMP-9 (I 3 h, I/R 6-24 h) expression level in aged rats with I/R injury were higher, and TIMP-1 (I/R 24 h) expression was lower than those in young rats (Pcerebro-microvessel basement membrane in rats is related with MMPs and TIMP. Cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury is more serious in aged rats than that of young rats. Changes in cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury in aged rats is related with gelatinase system change.

  3. The location and nature of the Telemzan High Ghadames basin boundary in southern Tunisia based on gravity and magnetic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabtni, H.; Jallouli, C.; Mickus, K. L.; Zouari, H.; Turki, M. M.

    2006-03-01

    Gravity and magnetic data were analyzed to add constraints on the location and nature of the Telemzan-Ghadames boundary (TGB) and structure of the Ghadames basin in southern Tunisia. TGB is the boundary between the thick sedimentary cover of the intracratonic Ghadames basin to the south and the thin sedimentary cover of the Saharan platform to the north. The upward continuation of the Bouguer gravity anomalies showed that the TGB is a regional geophysical feature that may have controlled the amount of sediment being deposited both north and south of the boundary and the tectonic environment in the region since Paleozoic time. To emphasize the shorter wavelength gravity and magnetic anomalies, a series of gray scale images of the directional horizontal gradients were constructed that determined a series of previously unknown east-west-trending gravity and magnetic anomalies south of 31.6°N that correspond to lineaments seen on a Landsat 7 image and the location of the TGB. Also, an edge-enhancement analysis illustrated the same linear gravity anomalies and showed the subbasins and uplifts within the Ghadames basin had source depths of between 0.5 and 3.4 km. A north-south trending gravity model showed that the TGB is a relatively gradual feature (possibly basement stepped down by relatively low-displacement faulting) controlling the subsidence of the main Ghadames basin and confirms the edge-enhancement analysis that subbasin S3 and uplift U1 are the main structural features within the Ghadames basin. The knowledge of basement architecture of the Ghadames basin is important for future petroleum exploration within this intracratonic basin.

  4. Strike slip faulting inferred from offsetting of drainages: Lower Narmada basin, western India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rachna Raj

    2007-10-01

    The detailed analysis of landforms,drainages and geology of the area between the rivers Amaravati and Karjan was carried out in order to understand the tectonic history of the lower Narmada basin. Movement along the various faults in the area was studied on the basis of the drainage offsetting. Horizontal offsetting of stream channels was found quite demonstrable along NNW –SSE trending transverse faults.Tectonic landforms including systematic de flection of stream channels and ridges, alignment of fault scarp and saddles and displacement in the basement rocks and alluvial deposits show that the area is undergoing active deformation driven by the NSF system.

  5. Thermal History of Rocks in the Shiwandashan Basin, Southern China: Evidence from Apatite Fission-Track Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xinwei; Wang Xinwen; Ma Yongsheng

    2005-01-01

    Based on interpretations of the apatite fission-track analysis data for 10 outcrop samples and forward modeling of confined fission-track length distributions, the thermal history of rocks in the Shiwandashan basin and its adjacent area, southern China, has been qualitatively and semi-quantitatively studied. The results reflect several features of the thermal history. Firstly, all the samples have experienced temperatures higher than 60-70 ℃. Secondly, the time that the basement strata (T1b) on the northwestern side of the Shiwandashan basin were uplifted and exhumed to the unannealed upper crust (with a paleogeotemperature of below 60-70 ℃) is much earlier than the basement rocks (γ15) on the southeastern side of the basin. Thirdly, the thermal history of samples from the basin can be divided into six stages, I.e., the fast burial and heating stage (220-145 Ma), the transient cooling stage (145-135 Ma), the burial and heating stage (135-70 Ma), the rapid cooling stage (70-50 Ma), the relatively stable stage (50-20 Ma) and another rapid cooling stage (20 Ma to present).

  6. New insights into lithology and hydrogeology of the northern Newark Rift Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, N. V.; Goldberg, D. S.; Olsen, P. E.; Kent, D. V.; Morgan, S.; Yang, Q.; Stute, M.; Matter, J. M.

    2016-06-01

    The marginal facies of the Triassic rift basins in the eastern United States are poorly documented, particularly on the hinge or hanging wall margins. This study presents a lithological description and multiscale petrophysical analysis of basement rocks, overlying marginal facies of the early synrift strata, and the basal contact of the Palisade Sill that were drilled and cored in the northeastern part of the Newark Basin, near its terminus. The expression of the Stockton Formation differs from that in the central basin in having thinner layers, with uncertain temporal relationship to the type area. The bottom 50 m is lithologically distinct with brick-red to dark-purple mudstones and sandstones, abundant gypsum-filled fractures, and a thin zone with anomalously high uranium concentration, not associated with organic-rich mudstones as other occurrences in the basin. The crystalline basement is apparently Fordham gneiss, overlain by a thin sandstone layer and a dark-purple hydrophilic mudstone. Despite the abundance of coarse-grained strata and multiple sets of tectonic fractures, hydraulically transmissive zones are sparse, and do not uniquely correlate to fracture and/or matrix characteristics. Enhanced transmissivity may exist along intrusion boundaries due to enhanced thermal fracturing, but more hydraulic data are needed to verify it. Comparison of petrophysical data in two boreholes ˜210 m apart shows no direct correlation of individual lithological units and their hydraulic properties, although the overall formation characteristics are similar. The results highlight challenges for outcrop correlation at the marginal edges of the rift basins and estimating reservoir properties of these heterogeneous formations.

  7. The use of subsurface thermal data, isotopic tracers and earthquake hypocenter locations to unravel deep regional flow systems within the crystalline basement beneath the Rio Grande rift, New Mexico. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M. A.; Woolsey, E.; Pepin, J.; Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Phillips, F. M.; Kelley, S.; Timmons, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Rio Grande rift in New Mexico hosts a number of low-temperature geothermal systems as well as the 19 km deep Socorro Magma Body. The presence of a mantle helium anomaly measured at San Acacia spring (3He/4He = 0.295 RA) and in an adjacent shallow well (50m system. Temperatures recorded at the base of the San Acacia well is elevated (29 oC). Published estimates of uplift rates and heat flow suggest that the magma body was emplaced about 1-3 ka and reflects a long-lived (several Ma) magmatic system. Further south near the southern terminus of the Engle Basin, much warmer temperatures (42 oC) occur at shallow depths within the spa district in the town of Truth or Consequences at shallow depths also suggesting deep-fluid circulation. 14C constrained apparent groundwater residence times in the spa district range between 6-10 ka. We have developed two 6-19 km deep crustal-scale, cross-sectional models that simulate subsurface fluid flow, heat and isotope (3He/4He) transport as well as groundwater residence times along the Rio Grande rift. The North-South oriented model of the Albuquerque Basin incorporates a high-permeability conduit 100 m wide having hydrologic properties differing from surrounding crystalline basement units. We use these models to constrain the crustal permeability structure and fluid circulation patterns beneath the Albuquerque and Engle Basins. Model results are compared to measurements of groundwater temperatures, residence times (14C), and 3He/4He data. We also use the distribution of earthquake hypocenters to constrain likely fault-crystalline basement hydraulic interactions in the seismogenic crust above the Socorro Magma Body. For the case of the southern Albuquerque Basin, conduit permeability associated with the Indian Hill conduit/fault zone must range between about 1.0E-13 to 1.0E-15 m2 in order for simulated 3He/4He, solute concentrations, and temperatures to match observed conditions. Basement permeability outside of the fault damage

  8. Tectono-stratigraphic analysis of the Malvinas Basin, offshore the southernmost Argentinean continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baristeas, N.; Anka, Z.; di Primio, R.; Rodriguez, J. F.; Marchal, D.; Dominguez, F.

    2012-04-01

    A detailed tectono-stratigraphic analysis of the Malvinas Basin development, located offshore the Argentinean margin, was carried out. This was achieved through the interpretation of around 65,000 km of 2D seismic reflection profiles, spanning a dense grid on the shelf and the upper-slope of the basin. Five main seismo-stratigraphic units and their sub-units, informally named U1 to U5 a/b, bound by major unconformities were identified and correlated with the Mesozoic to Cenozoic main tectonic phases of the basin. U1 (Pre-168 Ma) represents the seismic basement and deepens gradually southwards. U2 (168-150.5 Ma, syn rift phase) fills regional depressions, onlapping the basement, and it thickens and deepens southwards. U1 and U2 are affected by several syn-rift normal faults, which have a main NE-SW strike direction in the south of the basin and a NW-SE strike direction in the centre of the basin. This suggests that the Malvinas Basin may have been developed initially as a rift basin with two different extensional directions. (1) a NW-SE directed extension probably linked with the opening of the Weddell Sea (Early Mid-Jurassic) and (2) a NE-SW directed extension most likely linked with the opening of the South Atlantic during Mid-Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. U3 (150.5-68 Ma, sag phase) is mainly an aggradational wedge-shaped unit. Some syn-rift faults continue into the Cretaceous. Sedimentation in this unit is mainly derived from the north and during Mid-Cretaceous also from the northeast, as documented by the presence of a southwestward prograding sedimentary fan located in the northeast of the basin. U4 (68-42.5 Ma, transtensional foredeep phase) overlies unconformly U3 and thickens to the south. Sediment input decreases dramatically during that time and only a thin sedimentary succession was deposited over the entire basin. Although a regional compressional regime is established from late Cretaceous to Cenozoic due to the Andean orogenesis, an extensional regime

  9. Multiple oil families in the west Siberian basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, K.E.; Huizinga, B.J.; Lee, C.Y. [Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States); Kontorovich, A.Eh. [Siberian Scientific Research Institute for Geology, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Moldowan, J.M. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, Richmond, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Two major oil families are identified in the West Siberian basin. Twenty-six of 32 analyzed oils occur in Jurassic and cretaceous reservoirs and are derived from anoxic marine Upper Jurassic Bazhenov source rock. These oils are widely distributed both north and immediately south of the Ob River, and their biomarker ratios indicate a wide range of source rock thermal maturity from early to middle oil window (Van-Egan, Russkoye, Samotlor, Sovninsko-Sovyet, Olyenye, Ozynornoye, and Kogolym), to peak oil window (Srednekhulym, Yem-Yegov, Vostochno-Surgut, Khokhryakov, Fedorov, and Urengoi), to late oil window (Salym). Some of these oils have been mildly (e.g., Fedorov 75) to heavily (e.g., Russkoye) biodegraded in the reservoir. The Bazhenov-sourced oils show different compositions that support regional variations of organic facies in the source rock. Six nonbiodegraded, highly mature oils show geochemical characteristics that suggest they were derived from clastic-rich lacustrine or nearshore marine source rocks dominated by terrigenous higher plant input like those in the Lower to Middle Jurassic Tyumen Formation, although no correlation was observed between the oils and single rock sample (Yem-Yegov 15) from the formation. The six oils occur in the Tyumen (Taitym, Geologiche, and Cheremshan) and fractured basement/Paleozoic (Gerasimov, Yagyl Yakh, and Verchnekombar) reservoirs in positions readily accessible to any oil migrating from the Tyumen source rock. For example, at the Gerasimov locations, the Tyumen Formation lies unconformably on weathered basement-Paleozoic reservoir rocks. Most of the probable Tyumen-sourced oils are from south of the Ob River, but the occurrence of Geologiche oil to the north suggests that related oils may be widespread in the basin.

  10. Assessment of Geological Storage Potential of Carbon Dioxide in the Miocene Pohang Basin, SE Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C. W.; Son, M.; Sohn, Y. K.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study is to assess geological storage potential of CO2 in the Miocene Pohang Basin, based on the structural and stratigraphic characteristics with the hydraulic features of the basin-fill and depth distribution of the basement. The basin is a pull-apart basin extended due to NNW-trending dextral strike slip faulting. The western margin of the basin consists of a series of segmented NNE-trending normal faults divided by NNW- or NW-trending dextral strike-slip faults. The southern margin is Yeonil Tectonic Line that is a zigzag-shaped NNW-trending fault zone consisting of NNW-trending dextral strike-slip and NNE-trending normal fault segments. The line connects with the NNE-trending western border faults with an oblique 50° angle. The Ocheon Fault System (OFS), the eastern marginal fault of the basin, is a NE-trending relayed fault system composed of a number of NE or NNE-trending normal-slip and sinistral-normal oblique-slip faults, and has a scissor fault geometry decreasing in vertical offset southwestward. The OFS which acted as initially normal fault experienced clockwise rotation with change of slip sense from normal-slip to sinistral-normal oblique-slip in response to a progressive dextral simple shear. The geometry and kinematics of syndepositional structures as well as the marginal faults indicate a WNW-ESE horizontal minimum stress. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic investigations suggest that dramatic subsidence of the hanging-wall of the western border faults resulted in thick accumulation of fan-delta successions and intervening and/or overlying hemipelagic mudstones. In addition, this study reveals that there are a number of NNE-trending normal faults dipping toward the east inside the basin. Depth distribution of the basement through deep drilling boreholes also supports the existence of the normal faults. These results thus indicate that potential geologic CO2 storage sites in the Pohang basin are located on the easternmost part of

  11. Investigation of basement membrane proteins in a case of granular cell ameloblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapthanasupkul, Puangwan; Poomsawat, Sopee; Chindasombatjaroen, Jira

    2012-01-01

    Granular cell ameloblastoma is a rare, benign neoplasm of the odontogenic epithelium. A case of massive granular cell ameloblastoma in a 44-year-old Thai female is reported. Histopathological features displayed a follicular type of ameloblastoma with an accumulation of granular cells residing within the tumor follicles. After treatment by partial mandibulectomy, the patient showed a good prognosis without recurrence in a 2-year follow-up. To characterize the granular cells in ameloblastoma, we examined the expression of basement membrane (BM) proteins, including collagen type IV, laminins 1 and 5 and fibronectin using immunohistochemistry. Except for the granular cells, the tumor cells demonstrated a similar expression of BM proteins compared to follicular and plexiform ameloblastomas in our previous study, whereas the granular cells showed strong positivity to laminins 1 and 5 and fibronectin. The increased fibronectin expression in granular cells suggests a possibility of age-related transformation of granular cells in ameloblastoma. PMID:22361945

  12. Removal of heparan sulfate from the glomerular basement membrane blocks protein passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, Tessa J M; Lensen, Joost F M; Wismans, Ronnie G P; Lefeber, Dirk J; Rops, Angelique L W M M; van der Vlag, Johan; Berden, Jo H M; van den Heuvel, Lambert P W J; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

    2007-12-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) within the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is thought to play a major role in the charge-selective properties of the glomerular capillary wall. Recent data, however, raise questions regarding the direct role of HS in glomerular filtration. For example, in situ studies suggest that HS may prevent plasma macromolecules from clogging the GBM, keeping it in an "open" state. We evaluated this potential role of HS in vivo by studying the passage of protein through the glomerular capillary wall in the presence and absence of HS. Intravenous administration of neuraminidase removed neuraminic acid--but not HS--from the GBM, and this led to albuminuria. Concomitant removal of HS with heparinase III, confirmed by ultrastructural imaging, prevented the development of albuminuria in response to neuraminidase treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that HS keeps the GBM in an open state, facilitating passage of proteins through the glomerular capillary wall.

  13. Transplacental transmission of antibodies to tubular basement membrane in guinea-pigs with autoimmune tubulointerstitial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, B; Milgrom, M; Noble, B; Albini, C; Ossi, E; Andres, G A

    1984-04-01

    The offspring of female guinea-pigs with tubulo-interstitial nephritis were studied for possible passive transfer of disease. Whereas no immune deposits were seen on or before day 30 of gestation, IgG was detected in the tubular basement membrane (TBM) of fetuses at and after day 44. Serum of offspring contained antibodies to TBM, albeit in much lower titres than found in circulation of the mother guinea-pigs. No histopathological changes were seen in fetal kidneys. Thus, autoantibodies induced by heteroimmunization of pregnant guinea-pigs may be transmitted to offspring in the last third of the gestation period and can bind to fetal TBM. However, this transfer of antibodies does not cause disease.

  14. IgA-mediated anti-glomerular basement membrane disease: an uncommon mechanism of Goodpasture's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulis, Guillaume; Huart, Antoine; Guitard, Joëlle; Fortenfant, Françoise; Chauveau, Dominique

    2012-12-01

    Goodpasture's (GP) disease is usually mediated by IgG autoantibodies. We describe a case of IgA-mediated GP, in a patient presenting with isolated rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. The diagnosis was established on kidney biopsy, since routine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) targeted at IgG circulating autoantibodies failed to detect the nephritogenic antibodies. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed intense linear deposition of IgA along the glomerular capillary walls. An elevated titre (1:80) of circulating IgA anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies was retrospectively demonstrated by indirect fluorescence. Despite immunosuppressive regimen, the disease progressed to end-stage renal failure (ESRF). Transplantation was not associated with recurrence in the kidney graft. We reviewed the 11 previously reported cases of IgA-mediated GP.

  15. Antiglomerular basement membrane antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis after intranasal cocaine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Navascués, R A; Baltar, J; Seco, M; Alvarez, J

    1999-01-01

    We report a case of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis due to antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibodies that progressed to end-stage renal disease in a 35-year-old man who used intranasal cocaine on an occasional basis. In contrast to many prior reports of acute renal failure occurring with cocaine-associated rhabdomyolysis, this patient did not have any evidence of acute muscle damage and myoglobin release. Circulating anti-GBM antibodies and renal biopsy with linear IgG and C3 deposits confirmed the diagnosis of anti-GBM disease. The possibility of anti-GBM must be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute renal failure in cocaine addicts. This unusual combination raises complex questions regarding the pathogenesis of this type of renal injury.

  16. Cell invasion through basement membrane: the anchor cell breaches the barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Elliott J; Sherwood, David R

    2011-10-01

    Cell invasion through basement membrane (BM) is a specialized cellular behavior critical to many normal developmental events, immune surveillance, and cancer metastasis. A highly dynamic process, cell invasion involves a complex interplay between cell-intrinsic elements that promote the invasive phenotype, and cell-cell and cell-BM interactions that regulate the timing and targeting of BM transmigration. The intricate nature of these interactions has made it challenging to study cell invasion in vivo and model in vitro. Anchor cell invasion in Caenorhabditis elegans is emerging as an important experimental paradigm for comprehensive analysis of BM invasion, revealing the gene networks that specify invasive behavior and the interactions that occur at the cell-BM interface.

  17. Application of supporting structure combining with basement slab in soft soil excavations engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rencheng; Liu, Le

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, based on the case of a soft soil excavations project in Zhongshan and the field measured data, the ABAQUS, a finite element software for engineering simulation, analyses the system which combines steel cement-soil pile and basement plate. Moreover it can simulate the deformation results and get the supporting stress model. The results show that the supporting effect of this system is remarkable. This simplified model calculation results are conservative. But there exists the problem of varying depth of excavations. As a result, the stress characteristics and design methods of the proposed scheme are less studied and need further research and discussion. The analysis method and the design scheme can provide useful reference for similar projects.

  18. Assessment of Pollutant Spread from a Building Basement with three Ventilation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Koffi, Juslin

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation aims at providing a sufficient air renewal for ensuring a good indoor air quality (IAQ), yet building energy policies are leading to adapting various ventilation strategies minimising energy losses through air renewal. A recent IAQ evaluation campaign in French dwellings shows important pollution of living spaces by VOCs such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde or hexanal, particularly in buildings equipped with a garage. Besides, radon emission from soil is a subject of concern in many countries. Several studies are done to understand its release mode and deal with the spread of this carcinogen gas. This paper aims to experimentally assess a contaminant spread from a house basement using mechanical exhaust and balanced ventilation systems, and natural ventilation.

  19. A rapid assay for circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies in Goodpasture syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R; Isaksson, B; Bygren, P; Wieslander, J

    1989-03-10

    A rapid ELISA for the detection of circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies in Goodpasture syndrome is described. The specificity of the test was shown to be highly dependent on the antigens used. Using the purified Goodpasture antigen it was possible to shorten the incubation times to 10 min in a routine assay using alkaline phosphatase-labeled second antibodies and the total assay was complete in 30 min. 200 reference sera, 500 sera from patients with various types of glomerulonephritis and 32 sera from patients with Goodpasture syndrome were analyzed by this rapid assay. The assay was able to discriminate between Goodpasture syndrome and other forms of glomerulonephritis. Using enzyme amplification it was possible to further shorten the incubation times to 1 min and the total time of the assay to 6 min.

  20. Goodpasture’s Syndrome with Negative Anti-glomerular Basement Membrane Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjitske Berends-De Vries

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A young male patient with rapidly progressive and life-threatening pulmonary haemorrhage due to anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM antibody disease without renal involvement repeatedly tested negative for serum anti-GBM antibodies. Although rare, anti-GBM antibody disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with life-threatening pulmonary haemorrhage due to isolated diffuse alveolar haemorrhage. Enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA testing for anti-GBM antibodies in anti-GBM antibody disease can give false-negative results. A negative serum anti-GBM antibody test is therefore insufficient to exclude the diagnosis. Thus, a kidney or lung biopsy should be considered in any case with a high clinical suspicion but negative anti-GBM antibody test to confirm or rule out the diagnosis.

  1. Isolation of the specific glomerular basement membrane antigen involved in Goodpasture syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieslander, J; Bygren, P; Heinegård, D

    1984-01-01

    The antigen involved in the glomerulonephritis associated with antibodies to glomerular basement membrane (GBM) was purified from human GBM digested with highly purified clostridial collagenase. The purified nonreduced sample contained two components with closely similar mobilities on sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After reduction they moved as one, nonantigenic, component, corresponding to a molecular weight of 26,000. Immunologically identical aggregates of higher molecular weight (i.e., 48,000) were also identified in the crude digest. Reduction of such aggregates after purification released some protein with a molecular weight of 26,000, but a large proportion was insensitive to reduction. Seven patients with Goodpasture syndrome all had circulating anti-GBM antibodies directed only against the purified antigen. Images PMID:6324201

  2. Gravity and magnetic modelling of North Sea basins[Marine and Onshore North Sea Acquisition for Lithospheric Seismic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyngsie, S.B.; Thybo, H. [Copenhagen Univ., Geological Inst. (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    One of the primary sources of information for interpretation of subsurface geology and large scale tectonic features is potential field data. Gravity and magnetic data may reveal large and small scale features such as basement type, intrusions into the crust, volcanic roks, basement furface, faults and salt structures. As such, this type of data provides an invaluable source of information, which is cimplimentary to seismic data. We are currently conducting a project on interpretation of basins in the North Sea Based on potential field data, constrained by the wealth of existing seismic data. High resolution modelling of gravimetric and magnetic anomalies constrained by seismic P-wave velocity models and normal incidence reflection seismic data may reveal intrinsic details of upper- and lower Palaeozoic basin formation and changes in crustal domains in the Danish North Sea area. The MONA LISA (Marine and Onshore North Sea Acquisition for Lithospheric Seismic Analysis) data set from the south-eastern North Sea (MONA LISA Working Group, 1997) consists of four deep seismic normal incidence reflection profiles recorded to 26 s (twt) and coincident wide-angle reflection/refraction data recorded on 26 onshore mobile seismometers and 29 ocean bottom hydrophones (OBH's) placed along profiles 1,2 and 3. The east-west trending MONA LISA profile 3 traverses the basement high of the Mid North Sea - Ringkoebing Fyn High (MSRFH) and crosses the N-S striking Central Graben (CG) and Horn Graven (HG). (au)

  3. Integrating aeromagnetic and Landsat™ 8 data into subsurface structural mapping of Precambrian basement complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayode, John Stephen; Nawawi, M. N. M.; Abdullah, Khiruddin B.; Khalil, Amin E.

    2017-01-01

    The integration of Aeromagnetic data and remotely sensed imagery with the intents of mapping the subsurface geological structures in part of the South-western basement complex of Nigeria was developed using the PCI Geomatica Software. 2013. The data obtained from the Nigerian Geological Survey Agency; was corrected using Regional Residual Separation of the Total Magnetic field anomalies enhanced, and International Geomagnetic Reference Field removed. The principal objective of this study is, therefore, to introduce a rapid and efficient method of subsurface structural depth estimate and structural index evaluation through the incorporation of the Euler Deconvolution technique into PCI Geomatica 2013 to prospect for subsurface geological structures. The shape and depth of burial helped to define these structures from the regional aeromagnetic map. The method enabled various structural indices to be automatically delineated for an index of between 0.5 SI and 3.0 SI at a maximum depth of 1.1 km that clearly showed the best depths estimate for all the structural indices. The results delineate two major magnetic belts in the area; the first belt shows an elongated ridge-like structure trending mostly along the NorthNortheast-SouthSouthwest and the other anomalies trends primarily in the Northeast, Northwest, Northeast-Southwest parts of the study area that could be attributed to basement complex granitic intrusions from the tectonic history of the area. The majority of the second structures showed various linear structures different from the first structure. Basically, a significant offset was delineated at the core segment of the study area, suggesting a major subsurface geological feature that controls mineralisation in this area.

  4. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavan, L.A.; Davies, M.; Couchman, J.R.; Williams, M.A.; Mason, R.M.

    1989-03-01

    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium (35S)sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently at defined times (0-163 h) the kidneys were perfused in situ with 0.01% cetylpyridinium chloride in phosphate-buffered saline to maximize the recovery of 35S-proteoglycans. Glomeruli were isolated from the renal cortex and analyzed for 35S-proteoglycans by autoradiographic, biochemical, and immunochemical methods. Grain counting of autoradiographs revealed a complex turnover pattern of 35S-labeled macromolecules, commencing with a rapid phase followed by a slower phase. Biochemical analysis confirmed the biphasic pattern and showed that the total population of (35S)heparan sulfate proteoglycans had a metabolic half-life (t1/2) of 20 and 60 h in the early and late phases, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans accounted for 80% of total 35S-proteoglycans, the remainder being chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans. Whole glomeruli were extracted with 4% 3-((cholamidopropyl)dimethy-lammonio)-1-propanesulfonate-4 M guanidine hydrochloride, a procedure which solubilized greater than 95% of the 35S-labeled macromolecules. Of these 11-13% was immunoprecipitated by an antiserum against heparan sulfate proteoglycan which, in immunolocalization experiments, showed specificity for staining the basement membrane of rat glomeruli. Autoradiographic analysis showed that 18% of total radioactivity present at the end of the labeling period was associated with the glomerular basement membrane.

  5. Structural Controls on Groundwater Flow in Basement Terrains: Geophysical, Remote Sensing, and Field Investigations in Sinai

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Lamees

    2015-07-09

    An integrated [very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic, magnetic, remote sensing, field, and geographic information system (GIS)] study was conducted over the basement complex in southern Sinai (Feiran watershed) for a better understanding of the structural controls on the groundwater flow. The increase in satellite-based radar backscattering values following a large precipitation event (34 mm on 17–18 January 2010) was used to identify water-bearing features, here interpreted as preferred pathways for surface water infiltration. Findings include: (1) spatial analysis in a GIS environment revealed that the distribution of the water-bearing features (conductive features) corresponds to that of fractures, faults, shear zones, dike swarms, and wadi networks; (2) using VLF (43 profiles), magnetic (7 profiles) techniques, and field observations, the majority (85 %) of the investigated conductive features were determined to be preferred pathways for groundwater flow; (3) northwest–southeast- to north–south-trending conductive features that intersect the groundwater flow (southeast to northwest) at low angles capture groundwater flow, whereas northeast–southwest to east–west features that intersect the flow at high angles impound groundwater upstream and could provide potential productive well locations; and (4) similar findings are observed in central Sinai: east–west-trending dextral shear zones (Themed and Sinai Hinge Belt) impede south to north groundwater flow as evidenced by the significant drop in hydraulic head (from 467 to 248 m above mean sea level) across shear zones and by reorientation of regional flow (south–north to southwest–northeast). The adopted integrated methodologies could be readily applied to similar highly fractured basement arid terrains elsewhere. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  6. Can the Metamorphic Basement of Northwestern Guatemala be Correlated with the Chuacús Complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao, N.; Martens, U.

    2007-05-01

    The Chuacús complex constitutes a northward concave metamorphic belt that stretches ca. 150 km south of the Cuilco-Chixoy-Polochic (CCP) fault system in central and central-eastern Guatemala. It represents the basement of the southern edge of the Maya block, being well exposed in the sierra de Chuacús and the sierra de Las Minas. It is composed of high-Al metapelites, amphibolites, quartzofeldspathic gneisses, and migmatites. In central Guatemala the Chuacús complex contains ubiquitous epidote-amphibolite mineral associations, and local relics of eclogite reveal a previous high-pressure metamorphic event. North of the CCP, in the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes area of western Guatemala, metamorphic rocks have been considered the equivalent of the Chuacús complex and hence been given the name Western Chuacús group, These rocks, which were intruded by granitic rocks and later mylonitized, include chloritic schist and gneiss, biotite-garnet schist, migmatites, and amphibolites. No eclogitic relics have been found within metamorphic rocks in northwestern Guatemala. Petrographic analyses of garnet-biotite schist reveal abundant retrogression and the formation of abundant zeolite-bearing veins associated with intrusion. Although metamorphic conditions in the greenschist and amphibolite facies are similar to those in the sierra de Chuacús, the association with deformed intrusive granites is unique for western Guatemala. Hence a correlation with metasediments intruded by the Rabinal granite in the San Gabriel area of Baja Verapaz seems more feasible than a correlation with the Chuacús complex. This idea is supported by reintegration of the Cenozoic left-lateral displacement along the CCP, which would place the metamorphic basement of western Guatemala north of Baja Verapaz, adjacent to metasediments intruded by granites in the San Gabriel-Rabinal area.

  7. Applications of aeromagnetic data to detect the Basement Tectonics of Eastern Yemen region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Abu El-Ata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to throw light on the tectonic implications concerned with the distribution of the sedimentary sequence belts and the related basement complex zones, as well as to differentiate between the causative sources (contacts, dykes and faults of Eastern Yemen region. The total intensity aeromagnetic map of the study area was first corrected by the application of the Reduction To the magnetic pole (for low latitude areas. The visual inspection of the RTP magnetic map defines a rapid change in the subsurface geologic conditions in the form of lithologic characters and tectonic inferences. On the other hand, this map showed different anomalies of varying frequencies and amplitudes that revealed various causative sources, as well as varying compositions and depths. At the interpretation stage, various techniques and software tools are available for extracting the geologic information from the data concerned. The magnetic fields of shallow sources can be separated from those of deeper causatives, using two processes known as power spectrum transformation and matched band pass filtering. Three methods for locating magnetic sources (Magnitude of Horizontal Gradients (HGM, the analytical signals (AS and the local wavenumbers (LW in three dimensions and identifying the properties of their sources indicated that, the area was affected by some intrusions at various depths in sill or dyke forms, almost oriented in the NW–SE, NE–SW, E–W and N–S trends. Tectonically, the area is highly affected by the tectonics related to the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden and Red Sea. It is affecting both the basement and sedimentary rocks, dividing the study area into several faulted blocks.

  8. Comparison of radon levels in building basements and above- ground floors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazula, C.; Campos, M.; Mazzilli, B. [IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Radon-222, a decay product of Ra-226, is a natural radioactive noble gas that can be found in soil, water and air. Radon and its short-lived decay products in the atmosphere are the most important contributors to human exposure from natural sources. Radon is recognized as the second most significant risk for lung cancer after tobacco smoking. The World Health Organization established a concentration of 100 Bq m{sup -3} for radon in air, in order to limit its hazards. The main source of radon exposition indoors comes from Ra-226, a decay product of the U-238 natural series, present in rocks and soils underneath the building and, to a lesser extent, in the building materials. The dynamics of radon production in rocks and soil and its subsequent indoors emanation is quite complex. It is controlled by factors such as soil permeability and water content, meteorological variability, building foundation characteristics and the usual positive differential pressure between the soil and the indoor environment. This is normally sufficient to bring soil gas from the ground into the building. Radon gas can enter a building by several mechanisms, but the most significant ones are diffusion and pressure-driven flow from the ground. Usually, cracks and holes in the floor and walls and gaps around service pipes are the main entrance for the radon gas. Studies indicated that indoor radon concentration present significant variation on the basement, ground floor and upper floors. The aim of this study is to determine the radon levels in building basements and above- ground floors in the city of Sao Paulo. Radon measurements were carried out through the passive method with solid-state nuclear- track detectors (CR-39), because of their simplicity and long-term integrated read-out. The exposure period was, at least, three months, covering one year minimum, in order to determine the seasonal variation of indoor radon concentration. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  9. Analysis of a conjugate normal fault system caused by subsidence and bulge development within the alpine foreland basin in Bavaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hartmann, Hartwig; Schumacher, Sandra; Tanner, David C.

    2014-05-01

    The Upper Jurassic carbonate platform of the Bavarian Molasse Basin is one of the main targets for the exploration of hydrogeothermal reservoirs in Germany. A 120 sq km large seismic survey was interpreted to map the fault system that is fundamental for the characterization and evaluation of the reservoir. The carbonate platform shows a complex pattern of faults that strike southwest - northeast and west - east, the latter approximately parallel to the Alps front. Faults within the Tertiary infill are more sparsely distributed and form a series of conjugate normal faults with alternating polarity that run across the whole survey. Within the western part of this fault system the main basement fault and the conjugate faults meet near the top of the carbonate platform, thus forming rotated blocks above the crossing. The analysis of fault juxtapostion diagrams show that throw diminishes up- and downwards on the fault planes of the conjugate normal fault. The basal fault tips are offset by more than hundred meters from the corresponding faults within the carbonate platform. Two tectonic phases can be distinguished: The breakup of the platform due to basement subsidence and the formation of the large conjugate normal faults afterwards. The latter maybe the result of intracontinental plate bending that formed a foreland bulge during the collision of the European and the African plate. Such bulge formation is also known i.e. from the collision of the Indian and the Asian plate. The fault pattern of the Upper Jurassic carbonate platform probably triggered the formation of later faults, but their geometry was caused by a different stress field and different rheologies of the Molasse Basin (compared to the carbonate platform). Consequently the fault members of both systems are offset to each other. The interpretation shows a detailed insight into the formation of a fault system within a foreland molasse basin. The decoupling of the covering Molasse sediments and the basement

  10. Tectonic controls on the hydrocarbon habitats of the Barito, Kutei, and Tarakan Basins, Eastern Kalimantan, Indonesia: major dissimilarities in adjoining basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyana, Awang Harun; Nugroho, Djoko; Surantoko, Imanhardjo

    1999-04-01

    The Barito, Kutei, and Tarakan Basins are located in the eastern half of Kalimantan (Borneo) Island, Indonesia. The basins are distinguished by their different tectonic styles during Tertiary and Pleistocene times. In the Barito Basin, the deformation is a consequence of two distinct, separate, regimes. Firstly, an initial transtensional regime during which sinistral shear resulted in the formation of a series of wrench-related rifts, and secondly, a subsequent transpressional regime involving convergent uplift, reactivating old structures and resulting in wrenching, reverse faulting and folding within the basin. Presently, NNE-SSW and E-W trending structures are concentrated in the northeastern and northern parts of the basin, respectively. In the northeastern part, the structures become increasingly imbricated towards the Meratus Mountains and involve the basement. The western and southern parts of the Barito Basin are only weakly deformed. In the Kutei Basin, the present day dominant structural trend is a series of tightly folded, NNE-SSW trending anticlines and synclines forming the Samarinda Anticlinorium which is dominant in the eastern part of the basin. Deformation is less intense offshore. Middle Miocene to Recent structural growth is suggested by depositional thinning over the structures. The western basin area is uplifted, large structures are evident in several places. The origin of the Kutei structures is still in question and proposed mechanisms include vertical diapirism, gravitational gliding, inversion through regional wrenching, detachment folds over inverted structures, and inverted delta growth-fault system. In the Tarakan Basin, the present structural grain is typified by NNE-SSW normal faults which are mostly developed in the marginal and offshore areas. These structures formed on older NW-SE trending folds and are normal to the direction of the basin sedimentary thickening suggesting that they developed contemporaneously with deposition, as

  11. Provenance for the Chang 6 and Chang 8 Member of the Yanchang Formation in the Xifeng area and in the periphery Ordos Basin: Evidence from petrologic geochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO; JingLan; LI; Jian; YANG; BingHu

    2007-01-01

    Study indicates that the major paleocurrent and source direction for the Chang 8 Member of the Yangchang Formation, Upper Triassic in the Xifeng area of the southwestern Ordos Basin derived from the southwest direction with the southeast source as the subordinate one. While the Chang 6 Member was influenced not only by the same source as that of the Chang 8 Member from the southwest and the southeast direction, but also affected by the northeast and the east provenance around the Ordos Basin, based upon measurement of paleocurrents on outcrops located in the periphery Ordos Basin, analysis of framework grains and heavy mineral