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Sample records for pi-3 kinase signaling

  1. Distinct Roles of PI(3,4,5)P3 during Chemoattractant Signaling in Dictyostelium : A Quantitative In Vivo Analysis by Inhibition of PI3-Kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loovers, Harriet; Postma, Marten; Keizer-Gunnink, Ineke; Huang, Yi Elaine; Devreotes, Peter N.; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    2006-01-01

    The role of PI(3,4,5)P3 in Dictyostelium signal transduction and chemotaxis was investigated using the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 and pi3k-null cells. The increase of PI(3,4,5)P3 levels after stimulation with the chemoattractant cAMP was blocked >95% by 60 µM LY294002 with half-maximal effect at

  2. Regulation of PI3-kinase/Akt signaling by muscle-enriched microRNA-486

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Eric M.; O’Rourke, Jason R.; Moresi, Viviana; Sutherland, Lillian B.; McAnally, John; Gerard, Robert D.; Richardson, James A.; Olson, Eric N.

    2010-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in modulating a variety of cellular processes through repression of mRNA targets. In a screen for miRNAs regulated by myocardin-related transcription factor-A (MRTF-A), a coactivator of serum response factor (SRF), we discovered a muscle-enriched miRNA, miR-486, controlled by an alternative promoter within intron 40 of the Ankyrin-1 gene. Transcription of miR-486 is directly controlled by SRF and MRTF-A, as well as by MyoD. Among the most strongly predicted targets of miR-486 are phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and Foxo1a, which negatively affect phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. Accordingly, PTEN and Foxo1a protein levels are reduced by miR-486 overexpression, which, in turn, enhances PI3K/Akt signaling. Similarly, we show that MRTF-A promotes PI3K/Akt signaling by up-regulating miR-486 expression. Conversely, inhibition of miR-486 expression enhances the expression of PTEN and Foxo1a and dampens signaling through the PI3K/Akt-signaling pathway. Our findings implicate miR-486 as a downstream mediator of the actions of SRF/MRTF-A and MyoD in muscle cells and as a potential modulator of PI3K/Akt signaling. PMID:20142475

  3. Functional studies of the PI(3)-kinase signalling pathway employing synthetic and expressed siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czauderna, Frank; Fechtner, Melanie; Aygün, Hüseyin; Arnold, Wolfgang; Klippel, Anke; Giese, Klaus; Kaufmann, Jörg

    2003-01-15

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a RNA-mediated sequence-specific gene silencing mechanism. Recently, this mechanism has been used to down-regulate protein expression in mammalian cells by applying synthetic- or vector-generated small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). However, for the evaluation of this new knockdown technology, it is crucial to demonstrate biological consequences beyond protein level reduction. Here, we demonstrate that this new siRNA-based technology is suitable to analyse protein functions using the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase signal transduction pathway as a model system. We demonstrate stable and transient siRNA-mediated knockdown of one of the PI 3-kinase catalytic subunits, p110beta, which leads to inhibition of invasive cell growth in vitro as well as in a tumour model system. Importantly, this result is consistent with loss-of-function phenotypes induced by conventional RNase H-dependent antisense molecules or treatment with the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. RNAi knockdown of the downstream kinases Akt1 and Akt2 does not reduce cell growth on extracellular matrix. Our data show that synthetic siRNAs, as well as vector-based expression of siRNAs, are a powerful new tool to interfere with signal transduction processes for the elucidation of gene function in mammalian cells.

  4. Targeting Glutamatergic Signaling and the PI3 Kinase Pathway to Halt Melanoma Progression

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    Stephen A. Rosenberg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Our group has previously reported that the majority of human melanomas (>60% express the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (GRM1 and that the glutamate release inhibitor riluzole, a drug currently used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, can induce apoptosis in GRM1-expressing melanoma cells. Our group previously reported that in vitro riluzole treatment reduces cell growth in three-dimensional (3D soft agar colony assays by 80% in cells with wildtype phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K pathway activation. However, melanoma cell lines harboring constitutive activating mutations of the PI3K pathway (PTEN and NRAS mutations showed only a 35% to 40% decrease in colony formation in soft agar in the presence of riluzole. In this study, we have continued our preclinical studies of riluzole and its effect on melanoma cells alone and in combination with inhibitors of the PI3 kinase pathway: the AKT inhibitor, API-2, and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin. We modeled these combinatorial therapies on various melanoma cell lines in 3D and 2D systems and in vivo. Riluzole combined with mTOR inhibition is more effective at halting melanoma anchorage-independent growth and xenograft tumor progression than either agent alone. PI3K signaling changes associated with this combinatorial treatment shows that 3D (nanoculture modeling of cell signaling more closely resembles in vivo signaling than monolayer models. Riluzole combined with mTOR inhibition is effective at halting tumor cell progression independent of BRAF mutational status. This makes this combinatorial therapy a potentially viable alternative for metastatic melanoma patients who are BRAF WT and are therefore ineligible for vemurafenib therapy.

  5. Icaritin requires Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling to counteract skeletal muscle atrophy following mechanical unloading

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, Zong-Kang; Li, Jie; Liu, Jin; Baosheng GUO; Leung, Albert; Zhang, Ge; Zhang, Bao-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Counteracting muscle atrophy induced by mechanical unloading/inactivity is of great clinical need and challenge. A therapeutic agent that could counteract muscle atrophy following mechanical unloading in safety is desired. This study showed that natural product Icaritin (ICT) could increase the phosphorylation level of Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) at p110 catalytic subunit and promote PI3K/Akt signaling markers in C2C12 cells. This study further showed that the high dose ICT treatment...

  6. Targeting PI3 kinase in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Todd M; Patel, Manish R; Infante, Jeffrey R

    2015-02-01

    The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is the most frequently known activated aberrant pathway in human cancers. Pathologic activation can occur at multiple levels along the signaling pathway by a variety of mechanisms, including point mutations, amplifications, and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. This pathway is also a known resistance pathway, as it can be activated by both receptor tyrosine kinases and other oncogenes. mTOR inhibitors were the first targeted molecules in this pathway, and have already been FDA-approved in multiple indications. Because of the broad potential applications of inhibiting this pathway upstream of mTOR, multiple compounds targeting PI3K are in development. In this review, we discuss the clinical development of these inhibitors, including dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors, pan-PI3K inhibitors, and isoform-selective PI3K inhibitors. Common adverse events, including rash, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and hyperglycemia, have created a narrow therapeutic window for all classes of PI3K inhibitors. Furthermore, single agent clinical activity has also been limited, with the exception of isoform-selective inhibitors, particularly the PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ inhibitors in hematologic malignancies. The future role of inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in the clinical practice of oncology likely depends on the development of patient selection strategies and the results of combination trials that are currently ongoing.

  7. A novel signaling pathway associated with Lyn, PI 3-kinase and Akt supports the proliferation of myeloma cells

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    Iqbal, Mohd S. [Department of Bio-Signal Analysis, Applied Medical Engineering Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Enteric and Food Microbiology Laboratory, Laboratory Sciences Division, International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Tsuyama, Naohiro [Department of Analytical Molecular Medicine and Devices, Division of Frontier Medical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Obata, Masanori [Department of Bio-Signal Analysis, Applied Medical Engineering Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Ishikawa, Hideaki, E-mail: hishika@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Bio-Signal Analysis, Applied Medical Engineering Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2010-02-12

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a growth factor for human myeloma cells. We have recently found that in myeloma cells the activation of both signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 is not sufficient for the IL-6-induced proliferation, which further requires the activation of the src family kinases, such as Lyn. Here we showed that the Lyn-overexpressed myeloma cell lines had the higher proliferative rate with IL-6 and the enhanced activation of the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and Akt. The IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 was not up-regulated in the Lyn-overexpressed cells, indicating that the Lyn-PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway is independent of these pathways. The PI 3-kinase was co-precipitated with Lyn in the Lyn-overexpressed cells of which proliferation with IL-6 was abrogated by the specific inhibitors for PI 3-kinase or Akt, suggesting that the activation of the PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway associated with Lyn is indeed related to the concomitant augmentation of myeloma cell growth. Furthermore, the decreased expression of p53 and p21{sup Cip1} proteins was observed in the Lyn-overexpressed cells, implicating a possible downstream target of Akt. This study identifies a novel IL-6-mediated signaling pathway that certainly plays a role in the proliferation of myeloma cells and this novel mechanism of MM tumor cell growth associated with Lyn would eventually contribute to the development of MM treatment.

  8. Dysregulated Expression of Tensin 2 and Components of the PI3 Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway in Human Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrollah Erfani; Mohammad Javad Fattahi; Mohammad Hossein Dabbaghmanesh; Mohammad Mehrazmay; Ahmad Monabati; Akbar Rasekhi Kazerouni; Sassan Hafizi; Abbas Ghaderi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway is recognized as a key driver of cancer cell survival and proliferation, and is often contingent upon an impairment of expression/function of the PTEN tumor suppressor, a negative regulator of this pathway. In addition, the cytoskeletal signaling protein Tensin 2 has also been implicated as a negative regulator of this pathway. However, the PI3K pathway remains to be fully characterized in clinical thyroid carc...

  9. PTEN and PI-3 kinase inhibitors control LPS signaling and the lymphoproliferative response in the CD19+ B cell compartment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Alok R. [UCSD Department of Pediatrics, Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Peirce, Susan K. [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Joshi, Shweta [UCSD Department of Pediatrics, Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Durden, Donald L., E-mail: ddurden@ucsd.edu [UCSD Department of Pediatrics, Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, UCSD Rady Children' s Hospital, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-09-10

    -3 kinase inhibitors reverse the lymphoproliferative phenotype in vivo. - Highlights: • First genetic evidence that PTEN controls LPS/TLR4 signaling in B lymphocytes. • Evidence that PTEN regulates LPS induced lymphoproliferation in vivo. • PI-3 kinase inhibitors block LPS induced lymphoproliferation in vivo.

  10. Abnormal Wnt and PI3Kinase signaling in the malformed intestine of lama5 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Ritié

    Full Text Available Laminins are major constituents of basement membranes and are essential for tissue homeostasis. Laminin-511 is highly expressed in the intestine and its absence causes severe malformation of the intestine and embryonic lethality. To understand the mechanistic role of laminin-511 in tissue homeostasis, we used RNA profiling of embryonic intestinal tissue of lama5 knockout mice and identified a lama5 specific gene expression signature. By combining cell culture experiments with mediated knockdown approaches, we provide a mechanistic link between laminin α5 gene deficiency and the physiological phenotype. We show that laminin α5 plays a crucial role in both epithelial and mesenchymal cell behavior by inhibiting Wnt and activating PI3K signaling. We conclude that conflicting signals are elicited in the absence of lama5, which alter cell adhesion, migration as well as epithelial and muscle differentiation. Conversely, adhesion to laminin-511 may serve as a potent regulator of known interconnected PI3K/Akt and Wnt signaling pathways. Thus deregulated adhesion to laminin-511 may be instrumental in diseases such as human pathologies of the gut where laminin-511 is abnormally expressed as it is shown here.

  11. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) inhibitor GS-1101 synergistically potentiates histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis through the inactivation of PI3K and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, Juraj; Zhao, Xiaoxian; Sharma, Arishya; Hill, Brian T; Portell, Craig A; Lannutti, Brian J; Almasan, Alexandru; Hsi, Eric D

    2013-10-01

    Previously, we showed that inhibition of the protein kinase C β (PKCβ)/AKT pathway augments engagement of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDI)-induced apoptosis in lymphoma cells. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and mechanisms of cell death induced by the delta isoform-specific phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, GS-1101, in combination with the HDI, panobinostat (LBH589) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Lymphoma cell lines, primary non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells were simultaneously treated with the HDI, LBH589 and GS-1101. An interaction of the LBH589/GS-1101 combination was formally examined by using various concentrations of LBH589 and GS-1101. Combined treatment resulted in a synergistic inhibition of proliferation and showed synergistic effect on apoptotic induction in all tested cell lines and primary NHL and CLL cells. This study indicates that interference with PI3K signalling dramatically increases HDI-mediated apoptosis in malignant haematopoietic cells, possibly through both AKT-dependent or AKT- independent mechanisms. Moreover, the increase in HDI-related apoptosis observed in PI3K inhibitor-treated cells appears to be related to the disruption of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway. This study provides a strong rational for testing the combination of PI3K inhibitors and HDI in the clinic.

  12. PSM/SH2-B distributes selected mitogenic receptor signals to distinct components in the PI3-kinase and MAP kinase signaling pathways.

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    Deng, Youping; Xu, Hu; Riedel, Heimo

    2007-02-15

    The Pro-rich, PH, and SH2 domain containing mitogenic signaling adapter PSM/SH2-B has been implicated as a cellular partner of various mitogenic receptor tyrosine kinases and related signaling mechanisms. Here, we report in a direct comparison of three peptide hormones, that PSM participates in the assembly of distinct mitogenic signaling complexes in response to insulin or IGF-I when compared to PDGF in cultured normal fibroblasts. The complex formed in response to insulin or IGF-I involves the respective peptide hormone receptor and presumably the established components leading to MAP kinase activation. However, our data suggest an alternative link from the PDGF receptor via PSM directly to MEK1/2 and consequently also to p44/42 activation, possibly through a scaffold protein. At least two PSM domains participate, the SH2 domain anticipated to link PSM to the respective receptor and the Pro-rich region in an association with an unidentified downstream component resulting in direct MEK1/2 and p44/42 regulation. The PDGF receptor signaling complex formed in response to PDGF involves PI 3-kinase in addition to the same components and interactions as described for insulin or IGF-I. PSM associates with PI 3-kinase via p85 and in addition the PSM PH domain participates in the regulation of PI 3-kinase activity, presumably through membrane interaction. In contrast, the PSM Pro-rich region appears to participate only in the MAP kinase signal. Both pathways contribute to the mitogenic response as shown by cell proliferation, survival, and focus formation. PSM regulates p38 MAP kinase activity in a pathway unrelated to the mitogenic response.

  13. Neuroprotection of geniposide against hydrogen peroxide induced PC12 cells injury: involvement of PI3 kinase signal pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui LIU; Fei YIN; Lixia GUO; Xiaohong DENG; Yinhe HU

    2009-01-01

    Aim:Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenic cascade leading to neuronal degeneration in AD.Consequently,the induction of endogenous antioxidative proteins by antioxidants seems to be a very reasonable strategy for delaying the disease's progression.In previous work,we identified the neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of geniposide,which result from the activation of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R).In this study,we explore the role of PI3 kinase sig-naling pathway in the neuroprotection of geniposide in PC12 cells.Methods: Cell viability was determined by MTr assay.Apoptosis was detected by Hoechst and PI double staining.The protein expression of Bcl-2 and phosphorylation of Akt308,Akt473,GSK-3β,and PDK1 was measured by Western blot.Results: Geniposide induced the expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2,which inhibited apoptosis in PC12 cells induced by H2O2,and this effect could be inhibited by preincubation with LY294002,a selective inhibitor of PI3K.Further-more,geniposide enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt308,Akt473,GSK-3β and PDK1 under conditions of oxidative stress.Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the PI3K signaling pathway is involved in the neuroprotection of geniposide in PC12 cells against the oxidative damage induced by H202 in PC12 cells.

  14. Signaling via class IA Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K in human, breast-derived cell lines.

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    Veronique Juvin

    Full Text Available We have addressed the differential roles of class I Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K in human breast-derived MCF10a (and iso-genetic derivatives and MDA-MB 231 and 468 cells. Class I PI3Ks are heterodimers of p110 catalytic (α, β, δ and γ and p50-101 regulatory subunits and make the signaling lipid, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5P3 that can activate effectors, eg protein kinase B (PKB, and responses, eg migration. The PtdIns(3,4,5P3-3-phosphatase and tumour-suppressor, PTEN inhibits this pathway. p110α, but not other p110s, has a number of onco-mutant variants that are commonly found in cancers. mRNA-seq data shows that MCF10a cells express p110β>>α>δ with undetectable p110γ. Despite this, EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of PKB depended upon p110α-, but not β- or δ- activity. EGF-stimulated chemokinesis, but not chemotaxis, was also dependent upon p110α, but not β- or δ- activity. In the presence of single, endogenous alleles of onco-mutant p110α (H1047R or E545K, basal, but not EGF-stimulated, phosphorylation of PKB was increased and the effect of EGF was fully reversed by p110α inhibitors. Cells expressing either onco-mutant displayed higher basal motility and EGF-stimulated chemokinesis.This latter effect was, however, only partially-sensitive to PI3K inhibitors. In PTEN(-/- cells, basal and EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of PKB was substantially increased, but the p110-dependency was variable between cell types. In MDA-MB 468s phosphorylation of PKB was significantly dependent on p110β, but not α- or δ- activity; in PTEN(-/- MCF10a it remained, like the parental cells, p110α-dependent. Surprisingly, loss of PTEN suppressed basal motility and EGF-stimulated chemokinesis. These results indicate that; p110α is required for EGF signaling to PKB and chemokinesis, but not chemotaxis; onco-mutant alleles of p110α augment signaling in the absence of EGF and may increase motility, in part, via acutely

  15. Dysregulated Expression of Tensin 2 and Components of the PI3 Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway in Human Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Erfani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway is recognized as a key driver of cancer cell survival and proliferation, and is often contingent upon an impairment of expression/function of the PTEN tumor suppressor, a negative regulator of this pathway. In addition, the cytoskeletal signaling protein Tensin 2 has also been implicated as a negative regulator of this pathway. However, the PI3K pathway remains to be fully characterized in clinical thyroid carcinomas. The aim of this study is to determine the expression of components of the PI3K pathway in neoplastic and normal tissue sections obtained from patients with thyroid carcinoma. Methods: Tissues from 58 cases with thyroid carcinoma underwent immunohistochemistry for activated Akt (phosphorylated Akt, pAkt, Tensin 2 and PTEN. Results: A total of 100% of thyroid cancerous tissues were positive for pAkt staining compared to 67.9% of normal tissues. In contrast, 46.8% of cancer tissues were positive for Tensin 2 compared to 61.7% of normal tissues. For PTEN, 82.8% of cancerous tissues and 67.2% of normal tissues stained positive for this protein. There were no associations between the expression levels of the molecules with the patients’ clinicopathological characteristics. Conclusion:We have found evidence for an enhanced activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in clinical thyroid carcinoma tissues. This can be coupled with concomitant downregulation of Tensin 2. Further work is required to determine the relative significance of PTEN expression versus its activity in thyroid carcinoma in order to determine its role in the observed increased Akt activity.

  16. Susi, a negative regulator of Drosophila PI3-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Franz; Jaquenoud, Malika; Brogiolo, Walter; Zarske, Marcel; Wüstemann, Philipp; Fernandez, Rafael; Stocker, Hugo; Wymann, Matthias P; Hafen, Ernst

    2005-06-01

    The Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Protein Kinase B (PI3K/PKB) signaling pathway controls growth, metabolism, and lifespan in animals, and deregulation of its activity is associated with diabetes and cancer in humans. Here, we describe Susi, a coiled-coil domain protein that acts as a negative regulator of insulin signaling in Drosophila. Whereas loss of Susi function increases body size, overexpression of Susi reduces growth. We provide genetic evidence that Susi negatively regulates dPI3K activity. Susi directly binds to dP60, the regulatory subunit of dPI3K. Since Susi has no overt similarity to known inhibitors of PI3K/PKB signaling, it defines a novel mechanism by which this signaling cascade is kept in check. The fact that Susi is expressed in a circadian rhythm, with highest levels during the night, suggests that Susi attenuates insulin signaling during the fasting period.

  17. Fine particulate matter leads to reproductive impairment in male rats by overexpressing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xi-Ning; Yan, Chao; Liu, Dong-Yao; Peng, Jin-Pu; Chen, Jin-Jun; Zhou, Yue; Long, Chun-Lan; He, Da-Wei; Lin, Tao; Shen, Lian-Ju; Wei, Guang-Hui

    2015-09-17

    Maintenance of male reproductive function depends on normal sperm generation during which process Sertoli cells play a vital role. Studies found that fine particulate matter (PM) causes decreased male sperm quality, mechanism of which unestablished. We aim to investigate the definite mechanism of PM impairment on male reproduction. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were daily exposed to normal saline (NS) or PM2.5 with the doses of 9 mg/kg.b.w and 24 mg/kg.b.w. via intratracheal instillation for seven weeks. Reproductive function was tested by mating test and semen analysis after last exposure. Testes were collected to assess changes in histomorphology, and biomarkers including connexin 43 (Cx43), superoxide dismutase (SOD), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt). Male rats exposed to PM2.5 showed noticeable decreased fertility, significantly reduced sperm count, increased sperm abnormality rate and severe testicular damage in histomorphology. After PM2.5 exposure, the levels of Cx43 was significantly downregulated, and SOD was upregulated and downregulated significantly with different dose, respectively. Protein expression of PI3K and p-Akt dramatically enhanced, and the later one being located in Sertoli cells, the upward or declining trend was in dose dependent. PM2.5 exposure leads to oxidative stress impairment via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway on male reproduction in rats.

  18. The tumor suppressor p53 fine-tunes reactive oxygen species levels and neurogenesis via PI3 kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Kirsi; Wuttke, Anja; Quadrato, Giorgia; Chumakov, Peter M; Wizenmann, Andrea; Di Giovanni, Simone

    2013-09-01

    Mounting evidence points to a role for endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell signaling, including in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation, and fate. However, the function of ROS and their molecular regulation in embryonic mouse neural progenitor cells (eNPCs) has not yet been clarified. Here, we describe that physiological ROS are required for appropriate timing of neurogenesis in the developing telencephalon in vivo and in cultured NPCs, and that the tumor suppressor p53 plays a key role in the regulation of ROS-dependent neurogenesis. p53 loss of function leads to elevated ROS and early neurogenesis, while restoration of p53 and antioxidant treatment partially reverse the phenotype associated with premature neurogenesis. Furthermore, we describe that the expression of a number of neurogenic and oxidative stress genes relies on p53 and that both p53 and ROS-dependent induction of neurogenesis depend on PI3 kinase/phospho-Akt signaling. Our results suggest that p53 fine-tunes endogenous ROS levels to ensure the appropriate timing of neurogenesis in eNPCs. This may also have implications for the generation of tumors of neurodevelopmental origin.

  19. Src kinase and Syk activation initiate PI3K signaling by a chimeric latent membrane protein 1 in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)+ B cell lymphomas.

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    Hatton, Olivia; Lambert, Stacie L; Krams, Sheri M; Martinez, Olivia M

    2012-01-01

    The B lymphotrophic γ-herpesvirus EBV is associated with a variety of lymphoid- and epithelial-derived malignancies, including B cell lymphomas in immunocompromised and immunosuppressed individuals. The primary oncogene of EBV, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), activates the PI3K/Akt pathway to induce the autocrine growth factor, IL-10, in EBV-infected B cells, but the mechanisms underlying PI3K activation remain incompletely understood. Using small molecule inhibition and siRNA strategies in human B cell lines expressing a chimeric, signaling-inducible LMP1 protein, nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR)-LMP1, we show that NGFR-LMP1 utilizes Syk to activate PI3K/Akt signaling and induce IL-10 production. NGFR-LMP1 signaling induces phosphorylation of BLNK, a marker of Syk activation. Whereas Src kinases are often required for Syk activation, we show here that PI3K/Akt activation and autocrine IL-10 production by NGFR-LMP1 involves the Src family kinase Fyn. Finally, we demonstrate that NGFR-LMP1 induces phosphorylation of c-Cbl in a Syk- and Fyn-dependent fashion. Our results indicate that the EBV protein LMP1, which lacks the canonical ITAM required for Syk activation, can nevertheless activate Syk, and the Src kinase Fyn, resulting in downstream c-Cbl and PI3K/Akt activation. Fyn, Syk, and PI3K/Akt antagonists thus may present potential new therapeutic strategies that target the oncogene LMP1 for treatment of EBV+ B cell lymphomas.

  20. Src kinase and Syk activation initiate PI3K signaling by a chimeric latent membrane protein 1 in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV+ B cell lymphomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Hatton

    Full Text Available The B lymphotrophic γ-herpesvirus EBV is associated with a variety of lymphoid- and epithelial-derived malignancies, including B cell lymphomas in immunocompromised and immunosuppressed individuals. The primary oncogene of EBV, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1, activates the PI3K/Akt pathway to induce the autocrine growth factor, IL-10, in EBV-infected B cells, but the mechanisms underlying PI3K activation remain incompletely understood. Using small molecule inhibition and siRNA strategies in human B cell lines expressing a chimeric, signaling-inducible LMP1 protein, nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR-LMP1, we show that NGFR-LMP1 utilizes Syk to activate PI3K/Akt signaling and induce IL-10 production. NGFR-LMP1 signaling induces phosphorylation of BLNK, a marker of Syk activation. Whereas Src kinases are often required for Syk activation, we show here that PI3K/Akt activation and autocrine IL-10 production by NGFR-LMP1 involves the Src family kinase Fyn. Finally, we demonstrate that NGFR-LMP1 induces phosphorylation of c-Cbl in a Syk- and Fyn-dependent fashion. Our results indicate that the EBV protein LMP1, which lacks the canonical ITAM required for Syk activation, can nevertheless activate Syk, and the Src kinase Fyn, resulting in downstream c-Cbl and PI3K/Akt activation. Fyn, Syk, and PI3K/Akt antagonists thus may present potential new therapeutic strategies that target the oncogene LMP1 for treatment of EBV+ B cell lymphomas.

  1. Altered PI3-kinase/Akt signalling in skeletal muscle of young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C.B.; Martin-Gronert, M.S.; Storgaard, H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased future risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have previously shown that young LBW men have reduced skeletal muscle expression of PI3K p85alpha...... regulatory subunit and p110beta catalytic subunit, PKCzeta and GLUT4 in the fasting state. The aim of this study was to determine whether insulin activation of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK signalling pathways is altered in skeletal muscle of young adult men with LBW. METHODS: Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were......). Expression and phosphorylation of selected proteins was determined by Western blotting. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Insulin stimulated expression of aPKCzeta (pmuscle of LBW men when compared to insulin stimulated controls. LBW was associated with increased insulin...

  2. SDF-1α/CXCR4 Signaling in Lipid Rafts Induces Platelet Aggregation via PI3 Kinase-Dependent Akt Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Hiroko; Iguchi, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Moyuru; Kaneda, Mizuho; Iida, Kazuko; Shimonaka, Motoyuki; Hara, Takahiko; Arai, Morio; Koike, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Naomasa; Kasahara, Kohji

    2017-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through its G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K). Here, we demonstrate that SDF-1α induces phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 and Ser473 in human platelets. SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 or the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. SDF-1α also induces the phosphorylation of PDK1 at Ser241 (an upstream activator of Akt), GSK3β at Ser9 (a downstream substrate of Akt), and myosin light chain at Ser19 (a downstream element of the Akt signaling pathway). SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation is inhibited by pretreatment with the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the raft-disrupting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Sucrose density gradient analysis shows that 35% of CXCR4, 93% of the heterotrimeric G proteins Gαi-1, 91% of Gαi-2, 50% of Gβ and 4.0% of PI3Kβ, and 4.5% of Akt2 are localized in the detergent-resistant membrane raft fraction. These findings suggest that SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling in lipid rafts induces platelet aggregation via PI3K-dependent Akt phosphorylation.

  3. SDF-1α/CXCR4 Signaling in Lipid Rafts Induces Platelet Aggregation via PI3 Kinase-Dependent Akt Phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Moyuru; Kaneda, Mizuho; Iida, Kazuko; Shimonaka, Motoyuki; Hara, Takahiko; Arai, Morio; Koike, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Naomasa; Kasahara, Kohji

    2017-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through its G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K). Here, we demonstrate that SDF-1α induces phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 and Ser473 in human platelets. SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 or the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. SDF-1α also induces the phosphorylation of PDK1 at Ser241 (an upstream activator of Akt), GSK3β at Ser9 (a downstream substrate of Akt), and myosin light chain at Ser19 (a downstream element of the Akt signaling pathway). SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation is inhibited by pretreatment with the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the raft-disrupting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Sucrose density gradient analysis shows that 35% of CXCR4, 93% of the heterotrimeric G proteins Gαi-1, 91% of Gαi-2, 50% of Gβ and 4.0% of PI3Kβ, and 4.5% of Akt2 are localized in the detergent-resistant membrane raft fraction. These findings suggest that SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling in lipid rafts induces platelet aggregation via PI3K-dependent Akt phosphorylation. PMID:28072855

  4. Sonic hedgehog protein promotes bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cell proliferation, migration and VEGF production via PI 3-kinase/ Akt signaling pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-rong FU; Wen-li LIU; Jian-feng ZHOU; Han-ying SUN; Hui-zhen XU; Li LUO; Heng ZHANG; Yu-feng ZHOU

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of Sonic hedgehog (shh) protein on bone marrowderived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPC) proliferation, migration and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, and the potential signaling pathways involved in these effects. Methods: Bone marrow-derived Flk-l+ cells were enriched using the MACS system from adult Kunming mice and then BM-EPC was cultured in gelatin-coated culture dishes. The effects of shh N-terminal peptide on BM-EPC proliferation were evaluated using the MTT colorimetric assay. Cell migration was assayed using a modified Boyden chamber technique. The production of VEGF was determined by ELIS A and immunofluorescence analysis. The potential involvement of PKC and PI3K signaling pathways was explored using selective inhibitor or Western blot. Results: The proliferation, migration and VEGF production in BM-EPC could be promoted by endogenous shh Nterminal peptide at concentrations of 0.1 μg/mL to 10 ug/mL, and could be inhibited by anti-shh antibodies. Shh-mediated proliferation and migration in BM-EPC could be partly attenuated by anti-VEGF. Phospho-PI3-kinase expression in newly separated BM-EPC was low, and it increased significantly when exogenous shh N-terminal peptide was added, but could be attenuated by anti-human/mouse shh N-terminal peptide antibody. Moreover, the inhibitor of the PI3-kinase, but not the inhibitor of the PKC, significantly inhibited the shh-mediated proliferation, migration and VEGF production. Conclusion: Shh protein can stimulate bone marrow-derived BM-EPC proliferation, migration and VEGF production, which may promote neovascularization to ischemic tissues. This results also suggests that the PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways are involved in the angiogenic effects of shh.

  5. Endothelial PI 3-kinase activity regulates lymphocyte diapedesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaei-Nejad, Maryam; Hussain, Amer M; Zhang, Qiu-Xia; Murray, Allan G

    2007-12-01

    Lymphocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation involves a bidirectional series of cues between the endothelial cell (EC) and the leukocyte that culminate in lymphocyte migration into the tissue. Remodeling of the EC F-actin cytoskeleton has been observed after leukocyte adhesion, but the signals to the EC remain poorly defined. We studied the dependence of peripheral blood lymphocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) through an EC monolayer in vitro on EC phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity. Lymphocytes were perfused over cytokine-activated EC using a parallel-plate laminar flow chamber. Inhibition of EC PI 3-kinase activity using LY-294002 or wortmannin decreased lymphocyte TEM (48 +/- 6 or 34 +/- 7%, respectively, vs. control; mean +/- SE; P structure" after intercellular adhesion molecule-1 ligation, whereas this was inhibited by jasplakinolide treatment. A similar fraction of lymphocytes migrated on control or LY-294002-treated EC and localized to interendothelial junctions. However, lymphocytes failed to extend processes below the level of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin on LY-294002-treated EC. Together these observations indicate that EC PI 3-kinase activity and F-actin remodeling are required during lymphocyte diapedesis and identify a PI 3-kinase-dependent step following initial separation of the VE-cadherin barrier.

  6. Andrographolide inhibits osteopontin expression and breast tumor growth through down regulation of PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Patil, H S; Sharma, P; Kumar, D; Dasari, S; Puranik, V G; Thulasiram, H V; Kundu, G C

    2012-09-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women in India and around the world. Despite recent advancement in the treatment of breast cancer, the results of chemotherapy to date remain unsatisfactory, prompting a need to identify natural agents that could target cancer efficiently with least side effects. Andrographolide (Andro) is one such molecule which has been shown to possess inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth. In this study, Andro, a natural diterpenoid lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata has been shown to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and arrest cell cycle at G2/M phase and induces apoptosis through caspase independent pathway. Our experimental evidences suggest that Andro attenuates endothelial cell motility and tumor-endothelial cell interaction. Moreover, Andro suppresses breast tumor growth in orthotopic NOD/SCID mice model. The anti-tumor activity of Andro in both in vitro and in vivo model was correlated with down regulation of PI3 kinase/Akt activation and inhibition of pro-angiogenic molecules such as OPN and VEGF expressions. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Andro may act as an effective anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

  7. {delta}-Opioid receptor-stimulated Akt signaling in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells involves receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated PI3K activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiss, Anika; Ammer, Hermann [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Koeniginstrasse 16 80539 Muenchen Federal Republic of Germany (Germany); Eisinger, Daniela A., E-mail: eisinger@pharmtox.vetmed.uni-muenchen.de [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Koeniginstrasse 16 80539 Muenchen Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    {delta}-Opioid receptor (DOR) agonists possess cytoprotective properties, an effect associated with activation of the 'pro-survival' kinase Akt. Here we delineate the signal transduction pathway by which opioids induce Akt activation in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells. Exposure of the cells to both [D-Pen{sup 2,5}]enkephalin and etorphine resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in Akt activity, as measured by means of an activation-specific antibody recognizing phosphoserine-473. DOR-mediated Akt signaling is blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone and involves inhibitory G{sub i/o} proteins, because pre-treatment with pertussis toxin, but not over-expression of the G{sub q/11} scavengers EBP50 and GRK2-K220R, prevented this effect. Further studies with Wortmannin and LY294002 revealed that phophoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in opioid-induced Akt activation. Opioids stimulate Akt activity through transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), because pre-treatment of the cells with inhibitors for neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (AG879) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1 (AG1024), but not over-expression of the G{beta}{gamma} scavenger phosducin, abolished this effect. Activated Akt translocates to the nuclear membrane, where it promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and prevents caspase-3 cleavage, two key events mediating inhibition of cell apoptosis and enhancement of cell survival. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in NG108-15 hybrid cells DOR agonists possess cytoprotective properties mediated by activation of the RTK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  8. Migration of Th1 lymphocytes is regulated by CD152 (CTLA-4-mediated signaling via PI3 kinase-dependent Akt activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Knieke

    Full Text Available Efficient adaptive immune responses require the localization of T lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid organs and inflamed tissues. To achieve correct localization of T lymphocytes, the migration of these cells is initiated and directed by adhesion molecules and chemokines. It has recently been shown that the inhibitory surface molecule CD152 (CTLA-4 initiates Th cell migration, but the molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains to be elucidated. Using CD4 T lymphocytes derived from OVA-specific TCR transgenic CD152-deficient and CD152-competent mice, we demonstrate that chemokine-triggered signal transduction is differentially regulated by CD152 via phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K-dependent activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt. In the presence of CD152 signaling, the chemoattractant CCL4 selectively induces the full activation of Akt via phosphorylation at threonine 308 and serine 473 in pro-inflammatory Th lymphocytes expressing the cognate chemokine receptor CCR5. Akt signals lead to cytoskeleton rearrangements, which are indispensable for migration. Therefore, this novel Akt-modulating function of CD152 signals affecting T cell migration demonstrates that boosting CD152 or its down-stream signal transduction could aid therapies aimed at sensitizing T lymphocytes for optimal migration, thus contributing to a precise and effective immune response.

  9. PI3K signaling supports amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lute, Brandon J; Khoshbouei, Habibeh; Saunders, Christine; Sen, Namita; Lin, Richard Z; Javitch, Jonathan A; Galli, Aurelio

    2008-08-01

    The dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) is a major molecular target of the psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH). AMPH, as a result of its ability to reverse DAT-mediated inward transport of DA, induces DA efflux thereby increasing extracellular DA levels. This increase is thought to underlie the behavioral effects of AMPH. We have demonstrated previously that insulin, through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, regulates DA clearance by fine-tuning DAT plasma membrane expression. PI3K signaling may represent a novel mechanism for regulating DA efflux evoked by AMPH, since only active DAT at the plasma membrane can efflux DA. Here, we show in both a heterologous expression system and DA neurons that inhibition of PI3K decreases DAT cell surface expression and, as a consequence, AMPH-induced DA efflux.

  10. PI3Kγ-Dependent Signaling in Mouse Olfactory Receptor Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Katharina; Corey, Elizabeth A.; Ache, Barry W.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent signaling couples to receptors for many different ligands in diverse cellular systems. Recent findings suggest that PI3K-dependent signaling also mediates inhibition of odorant responses in rat olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). Here, we present evidence that murine ORNs show PI3K-dependent calcium responses to odorant stimulation, they express 2 G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-activated isoforms of PI3K, PI3Kβ and PI3Kγ, and they exhibit odorant-induced PI3K activity. These findings support our use of a transgenic mouse model to begin to investigate the mechanisms underlying PI3K-mediated inhibition of odorant responses in mammalian ORNs. Mice deficient in PI3Kγ, a class IB PI3K that is activated via GPCRs, lack detectable odorant-induced PI3K activity in their olfactory epithelium and their ORNs are less sensitive to PI3K inhibition. We conclude that odorant-dependent PI3K signaling generalizes to the murine olfactory system and that PI3Kγ plays a role in mediating inhibition of odorant responses in mammalian ORNs. PMID:20190008

  11. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kgamma) inhibitors for the treatment of inflammation and autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Jennifer D; Ameriks, Michael K; Blevitt, Jonathan M; Thurmond, Robin L; Fung-Leung, Wai-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kgamma) is a lipid kinase in leukocytes that generates phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate to recruit and activate downstream signaling molecules. Distinct from other members in the PI3K family, PI3Kgamma is activated by G-protein coupled-receptors responding to chemotactic ligands. PI3Kgamma plays an important role in migration of both myeloid and lymphoid cells. It is also required for other leukocyte functions such as neutrophil oxidative burst, T cell proliferation and mast degranulation. Mice with PI3Kgamma inactivated by genetic or pharmacological approaches are protected from disease development in a number of inflammation and autoimmune disease models. The function of PI3Kgamma depends on its kinase activity and therefore it has been suggested by many reports that small molecules inhibiting its kinase activity could be promising for the treatment of inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Over the last five years, a number of pharmaceutical companies have reported a wide variety of PI3Kgamma inhibitors, of which several x-ray crystal structures with PI3Kgamma have been elucidated. The structural characteristics and selectivity profiles of these inhibitors, in particular thiazolidinones and 2-aminoheterocycles, and those disclosed in related patent applications are summarized in this review.

  12. DNA-hypomethylating agent, 5'-azacytidine, induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression via the PI3-kinase/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 pathways in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seon-Mi; Kim, Song-Ja

    2015-10-01

    The cytosine analogue 5'-azacytidine (5'-aza) induces DNA hypomethylation by inhibiting DNA methyltransferase. In clinical trials, 5'-aza is widely used in epigenetic anticancer treatments. Accumulated evidence shows that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in various cancers, indicating that it may play a critical role in carcinogenesis. However, few studies have been performed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying the increased COX-2 expression. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that 5'-aza regulates COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080, was treated with various concentrations of 5'-aza for different time periods. Protein expressions of COX-2, DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), pAkt, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and phosphorylated ERK (pERK) were determined using western blot analysis, and COX-2 mRNA expression was determined using RT-PCR. PGE2 production was evaluated using the PGE2 assay kit. The localization and expression of COX-2 were determined using immunofluorescence staining. Treatment with 5'-aza induces protein and mRNA expression of COX-2. We also observed that 5'-aza-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production were inhibited by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a methyl donor. Treatment with 5'-aza phosphorylates PI3-kinase/Akt and ERK-1/2; inhibition of these pathways by LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3-kinase/Akt, or PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK-1/2, respectively, prevents 5'-aza-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. Overall, these observations indicate that the hypomethylating agent 5'-aza modulates COX-2 expression via the PI3-kinase/Akt and ERK-1/2 pathways in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells.

  13. Microfluidic generated EGF-gradients induce chemokinesis of transplantable retinal progenitor cells via the JAK/STAT and PI3kinase signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchenna J Unachukwu

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies are evaluating retinal progenitor cell (RPC transplantation as an approach to repair retinal degeneration and restore visual function. To advance cell-replacement strategies for a practical retinal therapy, it is important to define the molecular and biochemical mechanisms guiding RPC motility. We have analyzed RPC expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and evaluated whether exposure to epidermal growth factor (EGF can coordinate motogenic activity in vitro. Using Boyden chamber analysis as an initial high-throughput screen, we determined that RPC motility was optimally stimulated by EGF concentrations in the range of 20-400 ng/ml, with decreased stimulation at higher concentrations, suggesting concentration-dependence of EGF-induced motility. Using bioinformatics analysis of the EGF ligand in a retina-specific gene network pathway, we predicted a chemotactic function for EGF involving the MAPK and JAK-STAT intracellular signaling pathways. Based on targeted inhibition studies, we show that ligand binding, phosphorylation of EGFR and activation of the intracellular STAT3 and PI3kinase signaling pathways are necessary to drive RPC motility. Using engineered microfluidic devices to generate quantifiable steady-state gradients of EGF coupled with live-cell tracking, we analyzed the dynamics of individual RPC motility. Microfluidic analysis, including center of mass and maximum accumulated distance, revealed that EGF induced motility is chemokinetic with optimal activity observed in response to low concentration gradients. Our combined results show that EGFR expressing RPCs exhibit enhanced chemokinetic motility in the presence of low nanomole levels of EGF. These findings may serve to inform further studies evaluating the extent to which EGFR activity, in response to endogenous ligand, drives motility and migration of RPCs in retinal transplantation paradigms.

  14. ERK kinases modulate the activation of PI3 kinase related kinases (PIKKs) in DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaozeng; Yan, Judy; Tang, Damu

    2013-12-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) is the critical surveillance mechanism in maintaining genome integrity. The mechanism activates checkpoints to prevent cell cycle progression in the presence of DNA lesions, and mediates lesion repair. DDR is coordinated by three apical PI3 kinase related kinases (PIKKs), including ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), and DNA-PKcs (the catalytic subunit of the DNA dependent protein kinase). These kinases are activated in response to specific DNA damage or lesions, resulting in checkpoint activation and DNA lesion repair. While it is clear that the pathways of ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK are the core components of DDR, there is accumulating evidence revealing the involvement of other cellular pathways in regulating DDR; this is in line with the concept that in addition to being a nuclear event DDR is also a cellular process. One of these pathways is the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. ERK is a converging point of multiple signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Adding to this list of pathways is the recent development of ERK in DDR. The ERK kinases (ERK1 and ERK2) contribute to the proper execution of DDR in terms of checkpoint activation and the repair of DNA lesions. This review summarizes the contributions of ERK to DDR with emphasis on the relationship of ERK kinases with the activation of ATM, ATR, and DNA-PKcs.

  15. Combining trail with PI3 kinase or HSP90 inhibitors enhances apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells via suppression of survival signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturno, Grazia; Valenti, Melanie; De Haven Brandon, Alexis; Thomas, George V; Eccles, Suzanne; Clarke, Paul A; Workman, Paul

    2013-08-01

    TRAIL has been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, but in some cases they fail to respond to this ligand. We explored the ability of representative phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3 Kinase)/mTOR and HSP90 inhibitors to overcome TRAIL resistance by increasing apoptosis in colorectal cancer models. We determined the sensitivity of 27 human colorectal cancer and 2 non-transformed colon epithelial cell lines to TRAIL treatment. A subset of the cancer cell lines with a range of responses to TRAIL was selected from the panel for treatment with TRAIL combined with the PI3 Kinase/mTOR inhibitor PI-103 or the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG (tanespimycin). Two TRAIL-resistant cell lines were selected for in vivo combination studies with TRAIL and 17-AAG. We found that 13 colorectal cancer cell lines and the 2 non-transformed colon epithelial cell lines were resistant to TRAIL. We demonstrated that co-treatment of TRAIL and PI-103 or 17-AAG was synergistic or additive and significantly enhanced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. This was associated with decreased expression or activity of survival protein biomarkers such as ERBB2, AKT, IKKα and XIAP. In contrast, the effect of the combination treatments in non-transformed colon cells was minimal. We show here for the first time that co-treatment in vivo with TRAIL and 17-AAG in two TRAIL-resistant human colorectal cancer xenograft models resulted in significantly greater tumor growth inhibition compared to single treatments. We propose that combining TRAIL with PI3 Kinase/mTOR or HSP90 inhibitors has therapeutic potential in the treatment of TRAIL-resistant colorectal cancers.

  16. The influence of the stem cell marker ALDH and the EGFR-PI3 kinase act signaling pathway on the radiation resistance of human tumor cell lines; Der Einfluss des Stammzellmarkers ALDH und des EGFR-PI3 Kinase-Akt Signalwegs auf die Strahlenresistenz humaner Tumorzelllinien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihatsch, Julia

    2014-07-14

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in industriated nations. Besides surgery and chemotherapy, radiotherapy (RT) is an important approach by which about 60% of patients are treated. The response of these patients to RT is very heterogenous. On the one hand, there are patients with tumors which are radiosensitive and can be cured, but on the other hand patients bear tumors which are quite resistant to radiotherapy. A Radioresistant phenotype of tumor cells causes treatment failure consequently leading to a limited response to radiotherapy. It is proposed, that radiotherapy outcome mainly depends on the potential of radiation on controlling growth, proliferation and survival of a specific population of tumor cells called cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells. Based on experimental studies so far reported it is assumed that the population of CSC varies in tumors from different entities and is relatively low compared to the tumor bulk cells in general. According to the CSC hypothesis, it might be concluded that the differential response of tumors to radiotherapy depends on CSC populations, since these supposedly slow replicating cells are able to initiate a tumor, to self renew indefinitely and to generate the differentiated progeny of a tumor. Besides the role of cancer stem cells in radiotherapy response, ionizing radiation (IR) activates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream signaling pathways such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Janus kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) pathways. Among these pathways, PI3K/Akt is one of the most important pathways involved in post-irradiation survival: Activation of Akt results in activation of DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs). DNA-PKcs is a core enzyme involved in repair of IR-induced DNA-double strand breaks (DNA-DSB) through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The aim of the

  17. A Potent Inhibitor of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K) and Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Signalling, Quercetin (3, 3', 4', 5, 7-Pentahydroxyflavone) Promotes Cell Death in Ultraviolet (UV)-B-Irradiated B16F10 Melanoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Rather A.; Quadri, Afnan; Nazir, Lone A.; Peerzada, Kaiser; Ganai, Bashir A.; Tasduq, Sheikh A.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation–induced skin damage contributes strongly to the formation of melanoma, a highly lethal form of skin cancer. Quercetin (Qu), the most widely consumed dietary bioflavonoid and well known inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signalling, has been reported to be chemopreventive in several forms of non-melanoma skin cancers. Here, we report that the treatment of ultraviolet (UV)-B-irradiated B16F10 melanoma cells with quercetin resulted in a dose dependent reduction in cell viability and increased apoptosis. The present study has brought out that the pro-apoptotic effects of quercetin in UVB-irradiated B16F10 cells are mediated through the elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, calcium homeostasis imbalance, modulation of anti-oxidant defence response and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨM). Promotion of UVB-induced cell death by quercetin was further revealed by cleavage of chromosomal DNA, caspase activation, poly (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and an increase in sub-G1 cells. Quercetin markedly attenuated MEK-ERK signalling, influenced PI3K/Akt pathway, and potentially enhanced the UVB-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation. Furthermore, combined UVB and quercetin treatment decreased the ratio of Bcl-2 to that of Bax, and upregulated the expression of Bim and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). Overall, these results suggest the possibility of using quercetin in combination with UVB as a possible treatment option for melanoma in future. PMID:26148186

  18. A Potent Inhibitor of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K and Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP Kinase Signalling, Quercetin (3, 3', 4', 5, 7-Pentahydroxyflavone Promotes Cell Death in Ultraviolet (UV-B-Irradiated B16F10 Melanoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rather A Rafiq

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation-induced skin damage contributes strongly to the formation of melanoma, a highly lethal form of skin cancer. Quercetin (Qu, the most widely consumed dietary bioflavonoid and well known inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K and mitogen activated protein (MAP kinase signalling, has been reported to be chemopreventive in several forms of non-melanoma skin cancers. Here, we report that the treatment of ultraviolet (UV-B-irradiated B16F10 melanoma cells with quercetin resulted in a dose dependent reduction in cell viability and increased apoptosis. The present study has brought out that the pro-apoptotic effects of quercetin in UVB-irradiated B16F10 cells are mediated through the elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, calcium homeostasis imbalance, modulation of anti-oxidant defence response and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨM. Promotion of UVB-induced cell death by quercetin was further revealed by cleavage of chromosomal DNA, caspase activation, poly (ADP ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage, and an increase in sub-G1 cells. Quercetin markedly attenuated MEK-ERK signalling, influenced PI3K/Akt pathway, and potentially enhanced the UVB-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation. Furthermore, combined UVB and quercetin treatment decreased the ratio of Bcl-2 to that of Bax, and upregulated the expression of Bim and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF. Overall, these results suggest the possibility of using quercetin in combination with UVB as a possible treatment option for melanoma in future.

  19. Protective Role of PI3-kinase/Akt/eNOS Signaling in Mechanical Stress Through Inhibition of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Mouse Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Materials and methods Materials CMRL 1066 medium was purchased from Invitrogen (Carls- bad, CAl, and fetal bovine serum was obtained from Hyclone... endotoxin -induced inflammatory lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004; 169: 1245-51. 3 Miyahara T. Hamanaka K. Weber OS. Drake DA. Anghelescu...kinase up-regulates LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation in the development of lung injury and RAW 264.7 macrophages. Toxicology 2006; 225: 36-47. 15

  20. PI3 kinase enzymology on fluid lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debjit; Pulsipher, Abigail; Luo, Wei; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2014-10-21

    We report the use of fluid lipid bilayer membrane as a model platform to study the influence of the bilayer microenvironment and composition on the enzymology in membrane. As a model system we determined the enzyme kinetics on membranes for the transformation of bilayers containing phosphoinositol(4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) to phosphoinositol(3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) by the enzyme phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) using radiolabeled ATP. The activity of the enzyme was monitored as a function of the radioactivity incorporated within the bilayer. The transformation of PI(4,5)P2 to PI(3,4,5)P3 was determined using a mass strip assay. The fluidity of the bilayer was confirmed by Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) experiments. Kinetic simulations were performed based on Langmuir adsorption and Michaelis-Menton kinetics equations to generate the rate constants for the enzymatic reaction. The effect of cholesterol on the enzyme kinetics was studied by doping the bilayer with 1% cholesterol. This leads to significant reduction in reaction rate due to change in membrane microenvironment. This strategy provides a method to study the enzymology of various kinases and phosphatases occurring at the membrane and also how these reactions are affected by the membrane composition and surface microenvironment.

  1. Regular exercise enhances insulin activation of IRS-1-associated PI3-kinase in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, J P; del Aguila, L F; Hernandez, J M; Williamson, D L; O'Gorman, D J; Lewis, R; Krishnan, R K

    2000-02-01

    Insulin action in skeletal muscle is enhanced by regular exercise. Whether insulin signaling in human skeletal muscle is affected by habitual exercise is not well understood. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activation is an important step in the insulin-signaling pathway and appears to regulate glucose metabolism via GLUT-4 translocation in skeletal muscle. To examine the effects of regular exercise on PI3-kinase activation, 2-h hyperinsulinemic (40 mU. m(-2). min(-1))-euglycemic (5.0 mM) clamps were performed on eight healthy exercise-trained [24 +/- 1 yr, 71.8 +/- 2.0 kg, maximal O(2) uptake (VO(2 max)) of 56.1 +/- 2.5 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)] and eight healthy sedentary men and women (24 +/- 1 yr, 64.7 +/- 4.4 kg, VO(2 max) of 44.4 +/- 2.7 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)). A [6, 6-(2)H]glucose tracer was used to measure hepatic glucose output. A muscle biopsy was obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle at basal and at 2 h of hyperinsulinemia to measure insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1)-associated PI3-kinase activation. Insulin concentrations during hyperinsulinemia were similar for both groups (293 +/- 22 and 311 +/- 22 pM for trained and sedentary, respectively). Insulin-mediated glucose disposal rates (GDR) were greater (P exercise-trained compared with the sedentary control group (9.22 +/- 0.95 vs. 6.36 +/- 0.57 mg. kg fat-free mass(-1). min(-1)). Insulin-stimulated PI3-kinase activation was also greater (P < 0.004) in the trained compared with the sedentary group (3.8 +/- 0.5- vs. 1.8 +/- 0.2-fold increase from basal). Endurance capacity (VO(2 max)) was positively correlated with PI3-kinase activation (r = 0.53, P < 0.04). There was no correlation between PI3-kinase and muscle morphology. However, increases in GDR were positively related to PI3-kinase activation (r = 0.60, P < 0.02). We conclude that regular exercise leads to greater insulin-stimulated IRS-1-associated PI3-kinase activation in human skeletal muscle, thus facilitating enhanced insulin

  2. Class III PI 3-kinase is the main source of PtdIns3P substrate and membrane recruitment signal for PIKfyve constitutive function in podocyte endomembrane homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonomov, Ognian C; Sbrissa, Diego; Venkatareddy, Madhusudan; Tisdale, Ellen; Garg, Puneet; Shisheva, Assia

    2015-05-01

    The evolutionarily conserved PIKfyve, which synthesizes PtdIns5P from PtdIns, and PtdIns(3,5)P2 from PtdIns3P, requires PtdIns3P as both an enzyme substrate and a membrane recruitment signal. Whereas the PtdIns3P source is undetermined, class III PI3K (Vps34), the only evolutionarily conserved of the eight mammalian PI3Ks, is presumed as a main candidate. A hallmark of PIKfyve deficiency is formation of multiple translucent cytoplasmic vacuoles seen by light microscopy in cells cultured in complete media. Such an aberrant phenotype is often observed in cells from conditional Vps34 knockout (KO) mice. To clarify the mechanism of Vps34 KO-triggered vacuolation and the PtdIns3P source for PIKfyve functionality, here we have characterized a podocyte cell type derived from Vps34fl/fl mice, which, upon Cre-mediated gene KO, robustly formed cytoplasmic vacuoles resembling those in PikfyveKO MEFs. Vps34wt, expressed in Vps34KO podocytes restored the normal morphology, but only if the endogenous PIKfyve activity was intact. Conversely, expressed PIKfyvewt rescued completely the vacuolation only in PikfyveKO MEFs but not in Vps34KO podocytes. Analyses of phosphoinositide profiles by HPLC and localization patterns by a PtdIns3P biosensor revealed that Vps34 is the main supplier of localized PtdIns3P not only for PIKfyve activity but also for membrane recruitment. Concordantly, Vps34KO podocytes had severely reduced steady-state levels of both PtdIns(3,5)P2 and PtdIns5P, along with PtdIns3P. We further revealed a plausible physiologically-relevant Vps34-independent PtdIns3P supply for PIKfyve, operating through activated class I PI3Ks. Our data provide the first evidence that the vacuolation phenotype in Vps34KO podocytes is due to PIKfyve dysfunction and that Vps34 is a main PtdIns3P source for constitutive PIKfyve functionality.

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyocyanin activates NRF2-ARE-mediated transcriptional response via the ROS-EGFR-PI3K-AKT/MEK-ERK MAP kinase signaling in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Duan, Chaohui; Kuang, Zhizhou; Hao, Yonghua; Jeffries, Jayme L; Lau, Gee W

    2013-01-01

    The redox-active pyocyanin (PCN) secreted by the respiratory pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and causes oxidative stress to pulmonary epithelial cells. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) confers protection against ROS-mediated cell death by inducing the expression of detoxifying enzymes and proteins via its binding to the cis-acting antioxidant response element (ARE). However, a clear relationship between NRF2 and PCN-mediated oxidative stress has not been established experimentally. In this study, we investigated the induction of NRF2-ARE response by PCN in the pulmonary epithelial cells. We analyzed the effect of PCN on NRF2 expression and nuclear translocation in cultured human airway epithelial cells, and in a mouse model of chronic PCN exposure. NRF2-dependent transcription of antioxidative enzymes was also assessed. Furthermore, we used inhibitors to examine the involvement of EGFR and its downstream signaling components that mediate NRF2-ARE-activation in response to PCN. PCN enhances the nuclear NRF2 accumulation and activates the transcription of ARE-mediated antioxidant genes. Furthermore, PCN activates NRF2 by inducing the EGFR-phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway and its main downstream effectors, AKT and MEK1/2-ERK1/2 MAP kinases. Inhibition of the EGFR-PI3K signaling markedly attenuates PCN-stimulated NRF2 accumulation in the nucleus. We demonstrate for the first time that PCN-mediated oxidative stress activates the EGFR-PI3K-AKT/MEK1/2-ERK1/2 MAP kinase signaling pathway, leading to nuclear NRF2 translocation and ARE responsiveness in pulmonary epithelial cells.

  4. Direct association of heat shock protein 20 (HSPB6 with phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K in human hepatocellular carcinoma: regulation of the PI3K activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Matsushima-Nishiwaki

    Full Text Available HSP20 (HSPB6, one of small heat shock proteins (HSPs, is constitutively expressed in various tissues and has several functions. We previously reported that the expression levels of HSP20 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cells inversely correlated with the progression of HCC, and that HSP20 suppresses the growth of HCC cells via the AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. However, the exact mechanism underlying the effect of HSP20 on the regulation of these signaling pathways remains to be elucidated. To clarify the details of this effect in HCC, we explored the direct targets of HSP20 in HCC using human HCC-derived HuH7 cells with HSP20 overexpression. HSP20 proteins in the HuH7 cells were coimmunoprecipitated with the p85 regulatory subunit and p110 catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, an upstream kinase of AKT. Although HSP20 overexpression in HCC cells failed to affect the expression levels of PI3K, the activity of PI3K in the unstimulated cells and even in the transforming growth factor-α stimulated cells were downregulated by HSP20 overexpression. The association of HSP20 with PI3K was also observed in human HCC tissues in vivo. These findings strongly suggest that HSP20 directly associates with PI3K and suppresses its activity in HCC, resulting in the inhibition of the AKT pathway, and subsequently decreasing the growth of HCC.

  5. Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Interacting Protein Deficiency Uncovers the Role of the Co-receptor CD19 as a Generic Hub for PI3 Kinase Signaling in B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, Selina Jessica; Gasparrini, Francesca; Burbage, Marianne; Aggarwal, Shweta; Frederico, Bruno; Geha, Raif S; Way, Michael; Bruckbauer, Andreas; Batista, Facundo D

    2015-10-20

    Humans with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome display a progressive immunological disorder associated with compromised Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Interacting Protein (WIP) function. Mice deficient in WIP recapitulate such an immunodeficiency that has been attributed to T cell dysfunction; however, any contribution of B cells is as yet undefined. Here we have shown that WIP deficiency resulted in defects in B cell homing, chemotaxis, survival, and differentiation, ultimately leading to diminished germinal center formation and antibody production. Furthermore, in the absence of WIP, several receptors, namely the BCR, BAFFR, CXCR4, CXCR5, CD40, and TLR4, were impaired in promoting CD19 co-receptor activation and subsequent PI3 kinase (PI3K) signaling. The underlying mechanism was due to a distortion in the actin and tetraspanin networks that lead to altered CD19 cell surface dynamics. In conclusion, our findings suggest that, by regulating the cortical actin cytoskeleton, WIP influences the function of CD19 as a general hub for PI3K signaling.

  6. PKN3 is required for malignant prostate cell growth downstream of activated PI 3-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Frauke; Möpert, Kristin; Schmiedeknecht, Anett; Santel, Ansgar; Czauderna, Frank; Aleku, Manuela; Penschuck, Silke; Dames, Sibylle; Sternberger, Maria; Röhl, Thomas; Wellmann, Axel; Arnold, Wolfgang; Giese, Klaus; Kaufmann, Jörg; Klippel, Anke

    2004-08-18

    Chronic activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/PTEN signal transduction pathway contributes to metastatic cell growth, but up to now effectors mediating this response are poorly defined. By simulating chronic activation of PI3K signaling experimentally, combined with three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions and gene expression profiling, we aimed to identify novel effectors that contribute to malignant cell growth. Using this approach we identified and validated PKN3, a barely characterized protein kinase C-related molecule, as a novel effector mediating malignant cell growth downstream of activated PI3K. PKN3 is required for invasive prostate cell growth as assessed by 3D cell culture assays and in an orthotopic mouse tumor model by inducible expression of short hairpin RNA (shRNA). We demonstrate that PKN3 is regulated by PI3K at both the expression level and the catalytic activity level. Therefore, PKN3 might represent a preferred target for therapeutic intervention in cancers that lack tumor suppressor PTEN function or depend on chronic activation of PI3K.

  7. PI3K/PKB signaling in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick embryo cell line BME26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, L.; Fabres, A.; Logullo, C. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia. Lab. de Quimica e Funcao de Proteinas e Peptideos (LQFPP)]. E-mail: leoabreu@uenf.br; Esteves, E.; Daffre, S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Bioquimica

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Ticks are obligatory blood-sucking arthropods and important vectors of both human and animal diseases. In order to study the insulin triggered pathway and its possible roles during embryogenesis we are using a culture of embryonic Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) micro plus cells (BME26). Besides its metabolic role, insulin signaling pathway (ISP) is widely described as crucial for vertebrate and invertebrate embryogenesis and development. In such cascade Phosphatidylinositol 3-OH Kinase (PI3K) is hierarchically located upstream Protein Kinase B (PKB). Exogenous insulin is able to increase the expression level of PI3K's regulatory sub unity (p85), as determined by Real Time RT-PCR. In the presence of PI3K inhibitors (Wortmannin or LY294002) these effects were reversed. This correlates well with the activation of PKB by phosphorylation, as it appears to be PI3K-dependent. Additionally, PI3K inhibition increased the expression level of two insulin-regulated downstream targets from glycogen metabolism (GSK3b) and gluneogenesis (PEPCK) pathways. GSK3b inhibition by phosphorylation diminished in cells treated with PI3K inhibitors. These results strongly suggest the presence of an insulin sensitive PI3K-PKB axis in BME26 cells. The further study of PI3K and PKB activity in egg homogenates during embryogenesis may help us to understand the role of ISP for R. micro plus development.

  8. CAL-101, a p110delta selective phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor for the treatment of B-cell malignancies, inhibits PI3K signaling and cellular viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannutti, Brian J; Meadows, Sarah A; Herman, Sarah E M; Kashishian, Adam; Steiner, Bart; Johnson, Amy J; Byrd, John C; Tyner, Jeffrey W; Loriaux, Marc M; Deininger, Mike; Druker, Brian J; Puri, Kamal D; Ulrich, Roger G; Giese, Neill A

    2011-01-13

    Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase p110δ serves as a central integration point for signaling from cell surface receptors known to promote malignant B-cell proliferation and survival. This provides a rationale for the development of small molecule inhibitors that selectively target p110δ as a treatment approach for patients with B-cell malignancies. We thus identified 5-fluoro-3-phenyl-2-[(S)-1-(9H-purin-6-ylamino)-propyl]-3H-quinazolin-4-one (CAL-101), a highly selective and potent p110δ small molecule inhibitor (half-maximal effective concentration [EC(50)] = 8nM). Using tumor cell lines and primary patient samples representing multiple B-cell malignancies, we have demonstrated that constitutive phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway activation is p110δ-dependent. CAL-101 blocked constitutive phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling, resulting in decreased phosphorylation of Akt and other downstream effectors, an increase in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase cleavage and an induction of apoptosis. These effects have been observed across a broad range of immature and mature B-cell malignancies, thereby providing a rationale for the ongoing clinical evaluation of CAL-101.

  9. CAL-101, a p110δ selective phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor for the treatment of B-cell malignancies, inhibits PI3K signaling and cellular viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Sarah A.; Herman, Sarah E. M.; Kashishian, Adam; Steiner, Bart; Johnson, Amy J.; Byrd, John C.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Deininger, Mike; Druker, Brian J.; Puri, Kamal D.; Ulrich, Roger G.; Giese, Neill A.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase p110δ serves as a central integration point for signaling from cell surface receptors known to promote malignant B-cell proliferation and survival. This provides a rationale for the development of small molecule inhibitors that selectively target p110δ as a treatment approach for patients with B-cell malignancies. We thus identified 5-fluoro-3-phenyl-2-[(S)-1-(9H-purin-6-ylamino)-propyl]-3H-quinazolin-4-one (CAL-101), a highly selective and potent p110δ small molecule inhibitor (half-maximal effective concentration [EC50] = 8nM). Using tumor cell lines and primary patient samples representing multiple B-cell malignancies, we have demonstrated that constitutive phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway activation is p110δ-dependent. CAL-101 blocked constitutive phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling, resulting in decreased phosphorylation of Akt and other downstream effectors, an increase in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase cleavage and an induction of apoptosis. These effects have been observed across a broad range of immature and mature B-cell malignancies, thereby providing a rationale for the ongoing clinical evaluation of CAL-101. PMID:20959606

  10. Advancement of PI3K-mTOR signaling pathway%PI3K-mTOR信号通路的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周虹; 文富强; 黄向阳

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that phosphoinositide-3-kinase/tbe mammalian target of rapamycin(PI3K-mTOR) signaling pathway can be involved in a number of cellular processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and tumor growth. This review describs the recent advances in understanding the PI3K-mTOR signaling pathway, the PI3K-mTOR inhibitors, and also the regulation and the role of PI3K-mTOR pathway. Also it sheds light on investigations between interferon-alpha and PI3KmTOR pathway.%PI3K-mTOR(phosphoinositide-3一kinase/the mammalian target of rapamycin)信号通路在细胞的生长、分化、凋亡等方面都发挥着重要作用,文章对该通路的组成、调节、效应、抑制剂及其应用等方面作了介绍,并阐述了干扰素α通过该信号通路刺激基因表达的研究现况.

  11. Two PI 3-kinases and one PI 3-phosphatase together establish the cyclic waves of phagosomal PtdIns(3P critical for the degradation of apoptotic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3P is a signaling molecule important for many membrane trafficking events, including phagosome maturation. The level of PtdIns(3P on phagosomes oscillates in two waves during phagosome maturation. However, the physiological significance of such oscillation remains unknown. Currently, the Class III PI 3-kinase (PI3K Vps34 is regarded as the only kinase that produces PtdIns(3P in phagosomal membranes. We report here that, in the nematode C. elegans, the Class II PI3K PIKI-1 plays a novel and crucial role in producing phagosomal PtdIns(3P. PIKI-1 is recruited to extending pseudopods and nascent phagosomes prior to the appearance of PtdIns(3P in a manner dependent on the large GTPase dynamin (DYN-1. PIKI-1 and VPS-34 act in sequence to provide overlapping pools of PtdIns(3P on phagosomes. Inactivating both piki-1 and vps-34 completely abolishes the production of phagosomal PtdIns(3P and disables phagosomes from recruiting multiple essential maturation factors, resulting in a complete arrest of apoptotic-cell degradation. We have further identified MTM-1, a PI 3-phosphatase that antagonizes the activities of PIKI-1 and VPS-34 by down-regulating PtdIns(3P on phagosomes. Remarkably, persistent appearance of phagosomal PtdIns(3P, as a result of inactivating mtm-1, blocks phagosome maturation. Our findings demonstrate that the proper oscillation pattern of PtdIns(3P on phagosomes, programmed by the coordinated activities of two PI3Ks and one PI 3-phosphatase, is critical for phagosome maturation. They further shed light on how the temporally controlled reversible phosphorylation of phosphoinositides regulates the progression of multi-step cellular events.

  12. Polarization of migrating monocytic cells is independent of PI 3-kinase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Volpe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migration of mammalian cells is a complex cell type and environment specific process. Migrating hematopoietic cells assume a rapid amoeboid like movement when exposed to gradients of chemoattractants. The underlying signaling mechanisms remain controversial with respect to localization and distribution of chemotactic receptors within the plasma membrane and the role of PI 3-kinase activity in cell polarization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a novel model for the investigation of human leukocyte migration. Monocytic THP-1 cells transfected with the alpha(2A-adrenoceptor (alpha(2AAR display comparable signal transduction responses, such as calcium mobilization, MAP-kinase activation and chemotaxis, to the noradrenaline homologue UK 14'304 as when stimulated with CCL2, which binds to the endogenous chemokine receptor CCR2. Time-lapse video microscopy reveals that chemotactic receptors remain evenly distributed over the plasma membrane and that their internalization is not required for migration. Measurements of intramolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET of alpha(2AAR-YFP/CFP suggest a uniform activation of the receptors over the entire plasma membrane. Nevertheless, PI 3-kinase activation is confined to the leading edge. When reverting the gradient of chemoattractant by moving the dispensing micropipette, polarized monocytes--in contrast to neutrophils--rapidly flip their polarization axis by developing a new leading edge at the previous posterior side. Flipping of the polarization axis is accompanied by re-localization of PI-3-kinase activity to the new leading edge. However, reversal of the polarization axis occurs in the absence of PI 3-kinase activation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Accumulation and internalization of chemotactic receptors at the leading edge is dispensable for cell migration. Furthermore, uniformly distributed receptors allow the cells to rapidly reorient and adapt to changes in the

  13. Small molecule inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) delta and gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameriks, Michael K; Venable, Jennifer D

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, pharmaceutical companies have increasingly focused on phosphoinositide 3-kinases delta (PI3Kdelta) and gamma (PI3Kgamma) as therapeutic targets for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. All class 1 PI3-kinases (alpha/beta/gamma/delta) generate phospholipid second messengers that help govern cellular processes such as migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. PI3K delta/ gamma lipid kinases are mainly restricted to the hematopoetic system whereas PI3K alpha/beta are ubiquitously expressed, thus raising potential toxicity concerns for chronic indications such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, the challenge in developing a small molecule inhibitor of PI3K is to define and attain the appropriate isoform selectivity profile. Significant advances in the design of such compounds have been achieved by utilizing x-ray crystal structures of various inhibitors bound to PI3Kgamma in conjunction with pharmacophore modeling and high-throughput screening. Herein, we review the history and challenges involved with the discovery of small molecule isoform-specific PI3K inhibitors. Recent progress in the design of selective PI3Kdelta, PI3Kgamma, and PI3Kdelta/gamma dual inhibitors will be presented.

  14. The Role of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling in Gastric Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Tasuku [Department of Surgical Oncology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Yashiro, Masakazu, E-mail: m9312510@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Surgical Oncology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Oncology Institute of Geriatrics and Medical Science, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

    2014-07-07

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is one of the key signaling pathways induced by various receptor-tyrosine kinases. Accumulating evidence shows that this pathway is an important promoter of cell growth, metabolism, survival, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy. Genetic alterations in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in gastric carcinoma have often been demonstrated. Many kinds of molecular targeting therapies are currently undergoing clinical testing in patients with solid tumors. However, with the exception of the ErbB2-targeting antibody, targeting agents, including PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors, have not been approved for treatment of patients with gastric carcinoma. This review summarizes the current knowledge on PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in the pathogenesis of gastric carcinoma and the possible therapeutic targets for gastric carcinoma. Improved knowledge of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in gastric carcinoma will be useful in understanding the mechanisms of tumor development and for identifying ideal targets of anticancer therapy for gastric carcinoma.

  15. The Role of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling in Gastric Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Tasuku; Yashiro, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is one of the key signaling pathways induced by various receptor-tyrosine kinases. Accumulating evidence shows that this pathway is an important promoter of cell growth, metabolism, survival, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy. Genetic alterations in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in gastric carcinoma have often been demonstrated. Many kinds of molecular targeting therapies are currently undergoing clinical testing in patients with solid tumors. However, with the exception of the ErbB2-targeting antibody, targeting agents, including PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors, have not been approved for treatment of patients with gastric carcinoma. This review summarizes the current knowledge on PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in the pathogenesis of gastric carcinoma and the possible therapeutic targets for gastric carcinoma. Improved knowledge of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in gastric carcinoma will be useful in understanding the mechanisms of tumor development and for identifying ideal targets of anticancer therapy for gastric carcinoma. PMID:25003395

  16. Activity-dependent survival of developing neocortical neurons depends on PI3K signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Golbs, Antje; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2012-02-01

    Spontaneous electrical network activity plays a major role in the control of cell survival in the developing brain. Several intracellular pathways are implicated in transducing electrical activity into gene expression dependent and independent survival signals. These include activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream effector Akt, activation of Ras and subsequently MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase and signalling via calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK). In the present study, we analyzed the role of these pathways for the control of neuronal survival in different extracellular potassium concentrations ([K(+) ](ex) ). Organotypic neocortical slice cultures prepared from newborn mice were kept in 5.3, 8.0 and 25.0mM [K(+) ](ex) and treated with specific inhibitors of PI3K, MEK1, CaMKK and a broad spectrum CaMK inhibitor. After 6h of incubation, slices were immunostained for activated caspase 3 (a-caspase 3) and the number of apoptotic cells was quantified by computer based analysis. We found that in 5.3 and 8.0mM [K(+) ](ex) only PI3K was important for neuronal survival. When [K(+) ](ex) was raised to 25.0mM, a concentration above the depolarization block, we found no influence of PI3K on neuronal survival. Our data demonstrate that only the PI3K pathway, and not the MEK1, CaMKK or CaMKs pathway, plays a central role in the regulation of activity-dependent neuronal survival in the developing cerebral cortex.

  17. Detecting PTEN and PI3K signaling in brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guo; Baker, Suzanne J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The central nervous system is comprised of multiple cell types including neurons, glia and other supporting cells that may differ dramatically in levels of signaling pathway activation. Immunohistochemistry in conjunction with drug interference are powerful tools that allow evaluation of signaling pathways in different cell types of the mouse central nervous system in vivo. Here we provide detailed protocols for immunohistochemistry to evaluate three essential components in the PI3K pathway in mouse brain: Pten, p-Akt and p-4ebp1, and for rapamycin treatment to modulate mTOR signaling in vivo. PMID:27033070

  18. Following the trail of lipids: Signals initiated by PI3K function at multiple cellular membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Adam

    2016-05-17

    Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] is the signaling currency of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway; transduction through this axis depends on this signaling lipid. Formation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is dictated not only by PI3K activation but also by the localization and access of PI3K to its substrate PtdIns(4,5)P2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate). PI3K/AKT-mediated signaling is antagonized by PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 dephosphorylation. Although previously typically considered an event associated with the plasma membrane, it is now appreciated that the formation and metabolism of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 occur on multiple membranes with distinct kinetics. Modulated activity of phosphatidylinositol lipid kinases and phosphatases contributes to intricately orchestrated lipid gradients that define the signaling status of the pathway at multiple sites within the cell.

  19. Differential aetiology and impact of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt signalling in skeletal muscle on in vivo insulin action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, Martin; Poulsen, P.; Richter, Erik

    2010-01-01

    ' modifiers of insulin action, including genetics, age, sex, obesity and [Formula: see text], do not seem to mediate their most central effects on whole-body insulin sensitivity through modulation of proximal insulin signalling in skeletal muscle. We also demonstrated an association between Akt activity...... and in vivo insulin sensitivity, suggesting a role of Akt in control of in vivo insulin resistance and potentially in type 2 diabetes....

  20. Coordinate activation of Shh and PI3K signaling in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma: new therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filbin, Mariella Gruber; Dabral, Sukriti K; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F; Ramkissoon, Shakti; Kung, Andrew L; Pak, Ekaterina; Chung, Jarom; Theisen, Matthew A; Sun, Yanping; Franchetti, Yoko; Sun, Yu; Shulman, David S; Redjal, Navid; Tabak, Barbara; Beroukhim, Rameen; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Jean; Dorsch, Marion; Buonamici, Silvia; Ligon, Keith L; Kelleher, Joseph F; Segal, Rosalind A

    2013-11-01

    In glioblastoma, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling is frequently activated by loss of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). However, it is not known whether inhibiting PI3K represents a selective and effective approach for treatment. We interrogated large databases and found that sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling is activated in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma. We demonstrate that the SHH and PI3K pathways synergize to promote tumor growth and viability in human PTEN-deficient glioblastomas. A combination of PI3K and SHH signaling inhibitors not only suppressed the activation of both pathways but also abrogated S6 kinase (S6K) signaling. Accordingly, targeting both pathways simultaneously resulted in mitotic catastrophe and tumor apoptosis and markedly reduced the growth of PTEN-deficient glioblastomas in vitro and in vivo. The drugs tested here appear to be safe in humans; therefore, this combination may provide a new targeted treatment for glioblastoma.

  1. PI 3-kinase pathway is responsible for antiapoptotic effects of atrial natriuretic peptidein rat liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uwe Grutzner; Melanie Keller; Michael Bach; Alexandra K Kiemer; Herbert Meissner; Manfred Bilzer; Stefan Zahler; Alexander L Gerbes; Angelika M Vollmar

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the in vivo effect of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and its signaling pathway during orthotopic rat liver transplantation.METHODS: Rats were infused with NaCl, ANP (5 μg/kg), wortmannin (WM, 16 μg/kg), or a combination of both for 20 min. Livers were stored in UW solution (4°C) for 24 h, transplanted and reperfused. Apoptosis was examined by caspase-3 activity and TUNEL staining.Phosphorylation of Akt and Bad was visualized by Western blotting and phospho-Akt-localization by confocai microscopy.RESULTS: ANP-pretreatment decreased caspase-3activity and TUNEL-positive cells after cold ischemia,indicating antiapoptotic effects of ANP in vivo. The antiapoptotic signaling of ANP was most likely caused by phosphorylation of Akt and Bad, since pretreatment with PI 3-kinase inhibitor WM abrogated the ANP-induced reduction of caspase-3 activity. Interestingly, analysis of liver tissue by confocal microscopy showed translocation of phosphorylated Akt to the plasma membrane of hepatocytes evoked by ANP.CONCLUSION: ANP activates the PI-3-kinase pathway in the liver in vivo leading to phosphorylation of Bad,an event triggering antiapoptotic signaling cascade in ischemic liver.

  2. Roxarsone induces angiogenesis via PI3K/Akt signaling

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background 3-Nitro-4-hydroxy phenyl arsenic acid, roxarsone, is widely used as an organic arsenic feed additive for livestock and poultry, which may increase the level of arsenic in the environment and the risk of exposure to arsenic in human. Little information is focused on the angiogenesis roxarsone-induced and its mechanism at present. This paper aims to study the role of PI3K/Akt signaling in roxarsone-induced angiogenesis in rat vascular endothelial cells and a mouse B16–F10 melanoma xe...

  3. Maternal and fetal genomes interplay through phosphoinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)-p110α signaling to modify placental resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N; López-Tello, Jorge; Fowden, Abigail L; Constancia, Miguel

    2016-10-04

    Pregnancy success and life-long health depend on a cooperative interaction between the mother and the fetus in the allocation of resources. As the site of materno-fetal nutrient transfer, the placenta is central to this interplay; however, the relative importance of the maternal versus fetal genotypes in modifying the allocation of resources to the fetus is unknown. Using genetic inactivation of the growth and metabolism regulator, Pik3ca (encoding PIK3CA also known as p110α, α/+), we examined the interplay between the maternal genome and the fetal genome on placental phenotype in litters of mixed genotype generated through reciprocal crosses of WT and α/+ mice. We demonstrate that placental growth and structure were impaired and associated with reduced growth of α/+ fetuses. Despite its defective development, the α/+ placenta adapted functionally to increase the supply of maternal glucose and amino acid to the fetus. The specific nature of these changes, however, depended on whether the mother was α/+ or WT and related to alterations in endocrine and metabolic profile induced by maternal p110α deficiency. Our findings thus show that the maternal genotype and environment programs placental growth and function and identify the placenta as critical in integrating both intrinsic and extrinsic signals governing materno-fetal resource allocation.

  4. DMPD: PI3K and negative regulation of TLR signaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12860525 PI3K and negative regulation of TLR signaling. Fukao T, Koyasu S. Trends I...mmunol. 2003 Jul;24(7):358-63. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show PI3K and negative regulation of TLR signal...ing. PubmedID 12860525 Title PI3K and negative regulation of TLR signaling. Authors Fukao T, Koyasu S. Publi

  5. Involvement of PI3 kinase and MAP kinase in IGF-I and insulin-induced ovarian steroidogenesis in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sudipta; Pramanick, Kousik; Kundu, Sourav; Roy Moulik, Sujata; Pal, Puja; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2013-01-15

    Previously, we observed that in vitro steroidogenesis in intact ovarian follicles of common carp Cyprinus carpio can alone be induced by recombinant human insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and bovine insulin (b-insulin) and this induction was gonadotropin-independent. To investigate early signal transduction components involved in this process, the possible role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 kinase) during ovarian steroidogenesis was examined. IGF-I and b-insulin induced testosterone and 17β-estradiol production in carp ovarian theca and granulosa cells in short-term coincubation and this induction was significantly inhibited by Wortmannin and LY294002, two mechanistically different specific inhibitors of PI3 kinase. IGF-I and b-insulin were shown to activate PI3 kinase from 30 min onwards with a maximum at 90 min. In this study, we found the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) in the regulation of IGF-I- and b-insulin-induced steroidogenesis in carp ovary. An antagonist of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase1/2 (MEK1/2) markedly attenuated IGF-I- and b-insulin-induced steroid production. Cells treated with IGF-I and b-insulin stimulated ERK1/2-dependent phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated protein kinase1/2 (ERKs1/2) in a time-dependent manner, which was significantly attenuated in presence of MEK1/2 inhibitor. PI3 kinase inhibitors strongly attenuated phosphorylation and activation of MAP kinase, which was increased during IGF-I and b-insulin-induced steroidogenesis. Taken together, these results suggest that PI3 kinase is an initial component of the signal transduction pathway which precedes the MAP kinase during IGF-I- and b-insulin-induced steroidogenesis in C. carpio ovarian follicles.

  6. PI3K / Akt signaling regulates epithelialmesenchymal transition of peritoneal mesothelial cells in peritoneal dialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭翔

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of PI3K/Akt signaling in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT)of peritoneal mesothelial cells(PMCs)in peritoneal dialysis in vitro and in vivo.Methods The level of phosphorylated serine/threonine kinase Akt and the expression of EMT associated gene and protein,including ZO-1,Vimentin and FN,were measured in mice EMT model.In vitro study,phosphorylation level and

  7. Both mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 and phosphatidylinositide-3-OH kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways regulate activation of E-twenty-six (ETS)-like transcription factor 1 (Elk-1) in U138 glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mut, Melike; Lule, Sevda; Demir, Ozlem; Kurnaz, Isil Aksan; Vural, Imran

    2012-02-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGFR) have been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of glioblastoma. In our study, the EGFR was stimulated with EGF in human U138 glioblastoma cells. We show that the activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 pathway phosphorylated the E twenty-six (ETS)-like transcription factor 1 (Elk-1) mainly at serine 383 residue. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, UO126 and ERK inhibitor II, FR180204 blocked the Elk-1 phosphorylation and activation. The phosphatidylinositide-3-OH kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway was also involved in the Elk-1 activation. Activation of the Elk-1 led to an increased survival and a proliferative response with the EGF stimulation in the U138 glioblastoma cells. Knocking-down the Elk-1 using an RNA interference technique caused a decrease in survival of the unstimulated U138 glioblastoma cells and also decreased the proliferative response to the EGF stimulation. The Elk-1 transcription factor was important for the survival and proliferation of U138 glioblastoma cells upon the stimulation of EGFR with EGF. The MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways regulated this response via activation of the Elk-1 transcription factor. The Elk-1 may be one of the convergence points for pathways located downstream of EGFR in glioblastoma cells. Utilization of the Elk-1 as a therapeutic target may lead to a novel strategy in treatment of glioblastoma.

  8. The Bmx tyrosine kinase is activated by IL-3 and G-CSF in a PI-3K dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, N; Arighi, E; Rajantie, I; Saharinen, P; Ristimäki, A; Silvennoinen, O; Alitalo, K

    2000-08-24

    Cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases play crucial roles in signaling via a variety of cell surface receptors. The Bmx tyrosine kinase, a member of the Tec family, is expressed in hematopoietic cells of the granulocytic and monocytic lineages. Here we show that Bmx is catalytically activated by interleukin-3 (IL-3) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptors. Activation of Bmx required phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K) as demonstrated by the ability of PI-3K inhibitors to block the activation signal. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged Bmx was translocated to cellular membranes upon co-expression of a constitutively active form of PI-3K, further indicating a role for PI-3K in signaling upstream of Bmx. The expression of wild type Bmx in 32D myeloid progenitor cells resulted in apoptosis in the presence of G-CSF, while cells expressing a kinase dead mutant of Bmx differentiated into mature granulocytes. However, Bmx did not modulate IL-3-dependent proliferation of the cells. These results demonstrate distinct effects of Bmx in cytokine induced proliferation and differentiation of myeloid cells, and suggest that the stage specific expression of Bmx is critical for the differentiation of myeloid cells. Oncogene (2000) 19, 4151 - 4158

  9. The Essential Role of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinases (PI3Ks) in Regulating Pro-Inflammatory Responses and the Progression of Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keqiang Chen; Pablo Iribarren; Wanghua Gong; Ji-Ming Wang

    2005-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-Kinases (PI3Ks) are proteins coupled to a variety of cell surface receptors and play a key role in signal transduction cascade regulating fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, proliferation, and survival. PI3Ks also are important in disease processes such as inflammation and cancer. The aim of this review is to outline current understandings of the PI3K family, mechanism of their activation, their role in inflammatory responses and the development of malignant tumors.

  10. Thyroid hormone inhibits the proliferation of piglet Sertoli cell via PI3K signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Yang, WeiRong; Luo, HongLin; Wang, XianZhong; Chen, ZhongQiong; Zhang, JiaoJiao; Wang, Yi; Li, XiaoMin

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating researches show that thyroid hormone (TH) inhibits Sertoli cells (SCs) proliferation and stimulates their functional maturation in prepubertal rat testis, confirming that TH plays a key role in testicular development. However, the mechanism under the T3 regulation of piglet SC proliferation remains unclear. In the present study, in order to investigate the possible mechanism of T3 on the suppression of SC proliferation, the expression pattern of TRα1 and cell cycle-related molecules, effect of T3 on SC proliferation, and the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway on the T3-mediated SC proliferation in piglet testis were explored. Our results demonstrated that TRα1 was expressed in all tested stages of SCs and decreased along with the ages. T3 inhibited the proliferation of SCs in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and T3 treatment downregulated the expressions of cell cycling molecules, such as cyclinA2, cyclinD1, cyclinE1, PCNA, and Skp2, but upregulated the p27 expression in SCs. Most importantly, the suppressive effects of T3 on SC proliferation seemed dependent on the inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and pre-stimulation of PI3K could enhance such suppressive effects. Together, our findings demonstrate that TH inhibits the proliferation of piglet SCs via the suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  11. Adenovirus Protein E4-ORF1 Activation of PI3 Kinase Reveals Differential Regulation of Downstream Effector Pathways in Adipocytes

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    Natasha Chaudhary

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K regulates metabolism, including the translocation of the Glut4 glucose transporter to the plasma membrane and inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor. Adenoviral protein E4-ORF1 stimulates cellular glucose metabolism by mimicking growth-factor activation of PI3K. We have used E4-ORF1 as a tool to dissect PI3K-mediated signaling in adipocytes. E4-ORF1 activation of PI3K in adipocytes recapitulates insulin regulation of FoxO1 but not regulation of Glut4. This uncoupling of PI3K effects occurs despite E4-ORF1 activating PI3K and downstream signaling to levels achieved by insulin. Although E4-ORF1 does not fully recapitulate insulin’s effects on Glut4, it enhances insulin-stimulated insertion of Glut4-containing vesicles to the plasma membrane independent of Rab10, a key regulator of Glut4 trafficking. E4-ORF1 also stimulates plasma membrane translocation of ubiquitously expressed Glut1 glucose transporter, an effect that is likely essential for E4-ORF1 to promote an anabolic metabolism in a broad range of cell types.

  12. Advance of progesterone and the signal pathway of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B in hypoxic ischemic brian damage%孕酮和 PI3 K/Akt信号通路在缺氧缺血性脑损伤中的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐之良; 陈卫萍; 钟森

    2015-01-01

    磷酸肌醇-3羟激酶/蛋白激酶B( PI3K/Akt)是一种经典的抗凋亡、促存活信号传导通路,在脑梗死、帕金森病、癫痫等神经系统疾病中发挥调节作用。孕酮是一种脂溶性甾体激素,对创伤性脑损伤、卒中、阿尔茨海默病等患者的神经保护有重要作用,其与p-Akt上调有关。本文通过收集讨论新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病( HIE)、孕酮和PI3K/Akt的研究报道,以期为进一步探讨孕酮在HIE中的神经保护作用与 PI3 K/Akt信号通路的关系提供一定的理论依据。%Phosphatidylinositol 3 -kinase /protein kinase B ( PI3 K/Akt) is a classic anti -apoptotic and pro -survival signaling pathway, which plays a role in the regulation of cerebral infarction, Parkinson's dis-ease , epilepsy and other neurological diseases.Progesterone is one of the fat-soluble sex hormones, which has been proved to have neuro-pro-tective effect on nerological disease, such as brain injury, stroke and Alzheimer's disease, and it′s relevant to the up-regulation of p-Akt. Studies about the advance of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy ( HIE) , progesterone and PI3K/Akt were collected and reviewed, antici-pating that it will provide theoretical basis for the further research of the relationship between progesterone and the signal pathway of PI3K/Akt in HIE.

  13. Transmembrane collagen XVII modulates integrin dependent keratinocyte migration via PI3K/Rac1 signaling.

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    Stefanie Löffek

    Full Text Available The hemidesmosomal transmembrane component collagen XVII (ColXVII plays an important role in the anchorage of the epidermis to the underlying basement membrane. However, this adhesion protein seems to be also involved in the regulation of keratinocyte migration, since its expression in these cells is strongly elevated during reepithelialization of acute wounds and in the invasive front of squamous cell carcinoma, while its absence in ColXVII-deficient keratinocytes leads to altered cell motility. Using a genetic model of murine Col17a1⁻/⁻ keratinocytes we elucidated ColXVII mediated signaling pathways in cell adhesion and migration. Col17a1⁻/⁻ keratinocytes exhibited increased spreading on laminin 332 and accelerated, but less directed cell motility. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of the integrin subunits β4 and β1. The migratory phenotype, as evidenced by formation of multiple unstable lamellipodia, was associated with enhanced phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K activity. Dissection of the signaling pathway uncovered enhanced phosphorylation of the β4 integrin subunit and the focal adhesion kinase (FAK as activators of PI3K. This resulted in elevated Rac1 activity as a downstream consequence. These results provide mechanistic evidence that ColXVII coordinates keratinocyte adhesion and directed motility by interfering integrin dependent PI3K activation and by stabilizing lamellipodia at the leading edge of reepithelializing wounds and in invasive squamous cell carcinoma.

  14. Transmembrane Collagen XVII Modulates Integrin Dependent Keratinocyte Migration via PI3K/Rac1 Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffek, Stefanie; Sigloch, Florian Christoph; Schilling, Oliver; Tasanen, Kaisa; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Franzke, Claus-Werner

    2014-01-01

    The hemidesmosomal transmembrane component collagen XVII (ColXVII) plays an important role in the anchorage of the epidermis to the underlying basement membrane. However, this adhesion protein seems to be also involved in the regulation of keratinocyte migration, since its expression in these cells is strongly elevated during reepithelialization of acute wounds and in the invasive front of squamous cell carcinoma, while its absence in ColXVII-deficient keratinocytes leads to altered cell motility. Using a genetic model of murine Col17a1−/− keratinocytes we elucidated ColXVII mediated signaling pathways in cell adhesion and migration. Col17a1−/− keratinocytes exhibited increased spreading on laminin 332 and accelerated, but less directed cell motility. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of the integrin subunits β4 and β1. The migratory phenotype, as evidenced by formation of multiple unstable lamellipodia, was associated with enhanced phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity. Dissection of the signaling pathway uncovered enhanced phosphorylation of the β4 integrin subunit and the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as activators of PI3K. This resulted in elevated Rac1 activity as a downstream consequence. These results provide mechanistic evidence that ColXVII coordinates keratinocyte adhesion and directed motility by interfering integrin dependent PI3K activation and by stabilizing lamellipodia at the leading edge of reepithelializing wounds and in invasive squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24505282

  15. K-ras/PI3K-Akt signaling is essential for zebrafish hematopoiesis and angiogenesis.

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    Lihui Liu

    Full Text Available The RAS small GTPases orchestrate multiple cellular processes. Studies on knock-out mice showed the essential and sufficient role of K-RAS, but not N-RAS and H-RAS in embryonic development. However, many physiological functions of K-RAS in vivo remain unclear. Using wild-type and fli1:GFP transgenic zebrafish, we showed that K-ras-knockdown resulted in specific hematopoietic and angiogenic defects, including the impaired expression of erythroid-specific gene gata1 and sse3-hemoglobin, reduced blood circulation and disorganized blood vessels. Expression of either K-rasC40 that links to phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K activation, or Akt2 that acts downstream of PI3K, could rescue both hematopoietic and angiogenic defects in the K-ras knockdown. Consistently, the functional rescue by k-ras mRNA was significantly suppressed by wortmannin, a PI3K-specific inhibitor. Our results provide direct evidence that PI3K-Akt plays a crucial role in mediating K-ras signaling during hematopoiesis and angiogenesis in vivo, thus offering new targets and alternative vertebrate model for studying these processes and their related diseases.

  16. Insulin utilizes the PI 3-kinase pathway to inhibit SP-A gene expression in lung epithelial cells

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    Snyder Jeanne M

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that high insulin levels may cause delayed lung development in the fetuses of diabetic mothers. A key event in lung development is the production of adequate amounts of pulmonary surfactant. Insulin inhibits the expression of surfactant protein A (SP-A, the major surfactant-associated protein, in lung epithelial cells. In the present study, we investigated the signal transduction pathways involved in insulin inhibition of SP-A gene expression. Methods H441 cells, a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, or human fetal lung explants were incubated with or without insulin. Transcription run-on assays were used to determine SP-A gene transcription rates. Northern blot analysis was used to examine the effect of various signal transduction inhibitors on SP-A gene expression. Immunoblot analysis was used to evaluate the levels and phosphorylation states of signal transduction protein kinases. Results Insulin decreased SP-A gene transcription in human lung epithelial cells within 1 hour. Insulin did not affect p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphorylation and the insulin inhibition of SP-A mRNA levels was not affected by PD98059, an inhibitor of the p44/42 MAPK pathway. In contrast, insulin increased p70 S6 kinase Thr389 phosphorylation within 15 minutes. Wortmannin or LY294002, both inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase, or rapamycin, an inhibitor of the activation of p70 S6 kinase, a downstream effector in the PI 3-kinase pathway, abolished or attenuated the insulin-induced inhibition of SP-A mRNA levels. Conclusion Insulin inhibition of SP-A gene expression in lung epithelial cells probably occurs via the rapamycin-sensitive PI 3-kinase signaling pathway.

  17. AKTivation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway by KSHV

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    Aadra P Bhatt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As an obligate intracellular parasite, the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV relies on host cell machinery to meet its needs for survival, viral replication, production, and dissemination of progeny virions. KSHV is a ɣ-herpesvirus that is associated with three different malignancies: Kaposi sarcoma (KS, and two B cell lymphoproliferative disorders, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD. KSHV viral proteins modulate cellular phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway, which is a ubiquitous pathway that also controls B lymphocyte proliferation and development. We review the mechanisms by which KSHV manipulates the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, with a specific focus on B cells.

  18. Trim32 reduces PI3K–Akt–FoxO signaling in muscle atrophy by promoting plakoglobin–PI3K dissociation

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Shenhav; Lee, Donghoon; Zhai, Bo; Gygi, Steven P.; Goldberg, Alfred L

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the PI3K–Akt–FoxO pathway induces cell growth, whereas its inhibition reduces cell survival and, in muscle, causes atrophy. Here, we report a novel mechanism that suppresses PI3K–Akt–FoxO signaling. Although skeletal muscle lacks desmosomes, it contains multiple desmosomal components, including plakoglobin. In normal muscle plakoglobin binds the insulin receptor and PI3K subunit p85 and promotes PI3K–Akt–FoxO signaling. During atrophy, however, its interaction with PI3K–p85 is r...

  19. ErbB3 ablation impairs phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT-dependent mammary tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rebecca S.; Garrett, Joan T.; Sánchez, Violeta; Stanford, Jamie C.; Young, Christian; Chakravarty, Anindita; Rinehart, Cammie; Zhang, Yixian; Wu, Yaming; Greenberger, Lee; Horak, Ivan D.; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The ErbB receptor family member ErbB3 has been implicated in breast cancer growth but it has yet to be determined whether its disruption is therapeutically valuable. In a mouse model of mammary carcinoma driven by the polyomavirus middle T (PyVmT) oncogene, the ErbB2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib reduced the activation of ErbB3 and Akt along with tumor cell growth. In this phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)-dependent tumor model, ErbB2 is part of a complex containing PyVmT, p85 (PI3K), ErbB3, and Src, that is disrupted by treatment with lapatinib. Thus, full engagement of PI3K/Akt by ErbB2 in this oncogene-induced mouse tumor model may involve its ability to dimerize with and phosphorylate ErbB3, which itself directly binds PI3K. Here we report that ErbB3 is critical for PI3K/AKT-driven tumor formation triggered by the PyVmT oncogene. Tissue-specific, Cre-mediated deletion of ErbB3 reduced Akt phosphorylation, primary tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis. Further EZN-3920, a chemically stabilized antisense oligonucleotide that targets the ErbB3 mRNA in vivo, produced similar effects while causing no mouse toxicity. Our findings offer further preclinical evidence that ErbB3 ablation may be therapeutically effective in tumors where ErbB3 engages PI3K/Akt signaling. PMID:21482676

  20. Emerging evidence of signalling roles for PI(3,4)P2 in Class I and II PI3K-regulated pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Phillip T; Stephens, Len R

    2016-02-01

    There are eight members of the phosphoinositide family of phospholipids in eukaryotes; PI, PI3P, PI4P, PI5P, PI(4,5)P2, PI(3,4)P2, PI(3,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3. Receptor activation of Class I PI3Ks stimulates the phosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2 to form PI(3,4,5)P3. PI(3,4,5)P3 is an important messenger molecule that is part of a complex signalling network controlling cell growth and division. PI(3,4,5)P3 can be dephosphorylated by both 3- and 5-phosphatases, producing PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4)P2, respectively. There is now strong evidence that PI(3,4)P2 generated by this route does not merely represent another pathway for removal of PI(3,4,5)P3, but can act as a signalling molecule in its own right, regulating macropinocytosis, fast endophilin-mediated endocytosis (FEME), membrane ruffling, lamellipodia and invadopodia. PI(3,4)P2 can also be synthesized directly from PI4P by Class II PI3Ks and this is important for the maturation of clathrin-coated pits [clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME)] and signalling in early endosomes. Thus PI(3,4)P2 is emerging as an important signalling molecule involved in the coordination of several specific membrane and cytoskeletal responses. Further, its inappropriate accumulation contributes to pathology caused by mutations in genes encoding enzymes responsible for its degradation, e.g. Inpp4B.

  1. PI3K-GSK3 signalling regulates mammalian axon regeneration by inducing the expression of Smad1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijilafu; Hur, Eun-Mi; Liu, Chang-Mei; Jiao, Zhongxian; Xu, Wen-Lin; Zhou, Feng-Quan

    2013-10-01

    In contrast to neurons in the central nervous system, mature neurons in the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS) can regenerate axons after injury, in part, by enhancing intrinsic growth competence. However, the signalling pathways that enhance the growth potential and induce spontaneous axon regeneration remain poorly understood. Here we reveal that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling is activated in response to peripheral axotomy and that PI3K pathway is required for sensory axon regeneration. Moreover, we show that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), rather than mammalian target of rapamycin, mediates PI3K-dependent augmentation of the growth potential in the PNS. Furthermore, we show that PI3K-GSK3 signal is conveyed by the induction of a transcription factor Smad1 and that acute depletion of Smad1 in adult mice prevents axon regeneration in vivo. Together, these results suggest PI3K-GSK3-Smad1 signalling as a central module for promoting sensory axon regeneration in the mammalian nervous system.

  2. Adiponectin Induces Oncostatin M Expression in Osteoblasts through the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

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    Chen-Ming Su

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, a common autoimmune disorder, is associated with a chronic inflammatory response and unbalanced bone metabolism within the articular microenvironment. Adiponectin, an adipokine secreted by adipocytes, is involved in multiple functions, including lipid metabolism and pro-inflammatory activity. However, the mechanism of adiponectin performance within arthritic inflammation remains unclear. In this study, we observed the effect of adiponectin on the expression of oncostatin M (OSM, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in human osteoblastic cells. Pretreatment of cells with inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K, Akt, and nuclear factor (NF-κB reduced the adiponectin-induced OSM expression in osteoblasts. Stimulation of the cells with adiponectin increased phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and p65. Adiponectin treatment of osteoblasts increased OSM-luciferase activity and p65 binding to NF-κB on the OSM promoter. Our results indicate that adiponectin increased OSM expression via the PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB signaling pathways in osteoblastic cells, suggesting that adiponectin is a novel target for arthritis treatment.

  3. Down-regulation of ubiquitin ligase Cbl induced by twist haploinsufficiency in Saethre-Chotzen syndrome results in increased PI3K/Akt signaling and osteoblast proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenou, Hind; Kaabeche, Karim; Dufour, Cécilie; Miraoui, Hichem; Marie, Pierre J

    2006-10-01

    Genetic mutations of Twist, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, induce premature fusion of cranial sutures in Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS). We report here a previously undescribed mechanism involved in the altered osteoblastogenesis in SCS. Cranial osteoblasts from an SCS patient with a Twist mutation causing basic helix-loop-helix deletion exhibited decreased expression of E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl compared with wild-type osteoblasts. This was associated with decreased ubiquitin-mediated degradation of phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and increased PI3K expression and PI3K/Akt signaling. Increased PI3K immunoreactivity was also found in osteoblasts in histological sections of affected cranial sutures from SCS patients. Transfection with Twist or Cbl abolished the increased PI3K/Akt signaling in Twist mutant osteoblasts. Forced overexpression of Cbl did not correct the altered expression of osteoblast differentiation markers in Twist mutant cells. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of PI3K/Akt, but not ERK signaling, corrected the increased cell growth in Twist mutant osteoblasts. The results show that Twist haploinsufficiency results in decreased Cbl-mediated PI3K degradation in osteoblasts, causing PI3K accumulation and activation of PI3K/Akt-dependent osteoblast growth. This provides genetic and biochemical evidence for a role for Cbl-mediated PI3K signaling in the altered osteoblast phenotype induced by Twist haploinsufficiency in SCS.

  4. Effects of AFP-activated PI3K/Akt signaling pathway on cell proliferation of liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lu; Gong, Wei; Liang, Ping; Huang, XiaoBing; You, Nan; Han, Ke Qiang; Li, Yu Ming; Li, Jing

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to investigate effects of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway on hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation. Active cirrhosis patients after hepatitis B infection (n = 20) and viral hepatitis patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (n = 20) were selected as the subjects of the present study. Another 20 healthy subjects were selected as the control group. The serum AFP expression and liver tissue PI3K and Akt gene mRNA expression were detected. The hepatoma cell model HepG2 which had a stable expression of AFP gene was used. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot and other methods were used to analyze the intracellular PI3K and Akt protein levels. Compared with control group and cirrhosis group, the serum AFP levels in HCC group significantly increased, and the tissue PI3K and Akt mRNA expression also significantly increased. HepG2 cells were intervened using AFP, in which the PIK and Akt protein expression significantly increased. After intervention by use of AFP monoclonal antibodies or LY294002 inhibitor, the PIK and Akt protein expression in HepG2 cell was significantly decreased (P AFP can promote the proliferation of hepatoma cells via activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  5. PI3K-Akt signaling pathway upregulates hepatitis C virus RNA translation through the activation of SREBPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qing; Hoffman, Brett; Liu, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) activates PI3K-Akt signaling to enhance entry and replication. Here, we found that this pathway also increased HCV translation. Knocking down the three Akt isoforms significantly decreased, whereas ectopic expression increased HCV translation. HCV translation upregulation by Akt required their kinase activities because Akt kinase-dead mutants downregulated HCV translation; and was dependent on PI3K activity since it was sensitive to PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. The viral 3'UTR was not involved in translation upregulation by Akt. HCV NS5A increased Akt phosphorylation/activity and HCV translation in the absence of the viral 3'UTR. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) were the downstream effectors of the PI3K-Akt pathway in regulating HCV translation because Akt1 and Akt2 activated both SREBP-1 and SREBP-2, whereas Akt3 upregulated SREBP-1. Knocking down SREBPs significantly decreased, while ectopic expression of SREBPs increased HCV translation. Taken together, we showed that the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway positively regulates HCV translation through SREBPs.

  6. TDRG1 functions in testicular seminoma are dependent on the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yong Wang,1 Yu Gan,1 Zhengyu Tan,1 Jun Zhou,1 Riko Kitazawa,2 Xianzhen Jiang,1 Yuxin Tang,1 Jianfu Yang11Department of Urology, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Ehime University Hospital, Shitsukawa, Tōon, Ehime Perfecture, JapanAbstract: Human testis development-related gene 1 (TDRG1 is a recently identified gene that is expressed exclusively in the testes and promotes the development of testicular germ cell tumors. In this study, the role of TDRG1 in the development of testicular seminoma, which is the most common testicular germ cell tumor, was further investigated. Based on polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry tests, both gene and protein expression levels of TDRG1 were significantly upregulated in testicular seminoma tissues compared with normal testicular tissues. Additionally, the levels of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K/p110 and Akt phosphorylation were dramatically upregulated in testicular seminoma tissues. Accordingly, in our cell experiment, seminoma TCam-2 cells were subjected to different treatments: the TDRG1 knockout, TDRG1 overexpression, PI3K inhibition (LY294002 administration, or PI3K activation (insulin-like growth factor-1 administration. Cell proliferation, the proliferation index, apoptosis rate, cell adhesive capacity, and cell invasion capability were assessed. Cells with both TDRG1 knockout and PI3K inhibition exhibited decreased cell proliferation, proliferation indexes, cell adhesion capacity, and cell invasion capability and increased apoptosis rates. Most of these effects were reversed by TDRG1 overexpression or PI3K activation, indicating that both TDRG1- and PI3K-mediated signaling promote proliferation and invasion of testicular seminoma cells. The knockout of TDRG1 significantly decreased the phosphorylation levels of PI3K/p85, PI3K/p110, Akt, and mammalian target of rapamycin

  7. Breast tumor cells with PI3K mutation or HER2 amplification are selectively addicted to Akt signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Bai She

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling occurs commonly in breast cancers and is due to HER2 amplification, PI3K mutation or PTEN inactivation. The objective of this study was to determine the role of Akt activation in breast cancer as a function of mechanism of activation and whether inhibition of Akt signaling is a feasible approach to therapy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A selective allosteric inhibitor of Akt kinase was used to interrogate a panel of breast cancer cell lines characterized for genetic lesions that activate PI3K/Akt signaling: HER2 amplification or PI3K or PTEN mutations in order to determine the biochemical and biologic consequences of inhibition of this pathway. A variety of molecular techniques and tissue culture and in vivo xenograft models revealed that tumors with mutational activation of Akt signaling were selectively dependent on the pathway. In sensitive cells, pathway inhibition resulted in D-cyclin loss, G1 arrest and induction of apoptosis, whereas cells without pathway activation were unaffected. Most importantly, the drug effectively inhibited Akt kinase and its downstream effectors in vivo and caused complete suppression of the growth of breast cancer xenografts with PI3K mutation or HER2 amplification, including models of the latter selected for resistance to Herceptin. Furthermore, chronic administration of the drug was well-tolerated, causing only transient hyperglycemia without gross toxicity to the host despite the pleiotropic normal functions of Akt. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that breast cancers with PI3K mutation or HER2 amplification are selectively dependent on Akt signaling, and that effective inhibition of Akt in tumors is feasible and effective in vivo. These findings suggest that direct inhibition of Akt may represent a therapeutic strategy for breast and other cancers that are addicted to the pathway including tumors with resistant to Herceptin.

  8. Closing escape routes: inhibition of IL-8 signaling enhances the anti-tumor efficacy of PI3K inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvekar, Ashish; Wulf, Gerburg M

    2013-04-08

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway serves as a relay where signals that emanate from the cell membrane are received and converted into intracellular signals that promote proliferation and survival. Inhibitors of PI3K hold promise for the treatment of breast cancer because activation of this pathway is highly prevalent. However, as is increasingly observed with inhibitors of cell signaling, there appear to be mechanisms of primary and secondary resistance. Britschgi and colleagues report that compensatory activation of the IL-8 signaling axis is a mechanism of primary resistance to PI3K inhibitors in some triple-negative breast cancers. In a set of experiments that carefully emulate the clinical scenario in a mouse model, they show that simultaneous inhibition of Janus kinase 2 enhances the efficacy of PI3K/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition. Their paper lends further support to the concept that successful design of treatments with signal transduction inhibitors must anticipate potential escape routes - and include agents to simultaneously block them.

  9. Salinomycin causes migration and invasion of human fibrosarcoma cells by inducing MMP-2 expression via PI3-kinase, ERK-1/2 and p38 kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seon-Mi; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-06-01

    Salinomycin (SAL) is a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to regulate a variety of cellular responses in various human cancer cells. However, the effects of SAL on metastatic capacity of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells have not been elucidated. We investigated the effect of SAL on migration and invasion, with emphasis on the expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Treatment of SAL promoted the expression and activation of MMP-2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as detected by western blot analysis, gelatin zymography, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. SAL also increased metastatic capacities, as determined by an increase in the migration and invasion of cells using the wound healing assay and the invasion assay, respectively. To confirm the detailed molecular mechanisms of these effects, we measured the activation of phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3-kinase) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)s (ERK-1/2 and p38 kinase), as detected by the phosphorylated proteins through western blot analysis. SAL treatment increased the phosphorylation of Akt and MAPKs. Inhibition of PI3-kinase, ERK-1/2, and p38 kinase with LY294002, PD98059, and SB203580, respectively, in the presence of SAL suppressed the metastatic capacity by reducing MMP-2 expression, as determined by gelatin zymography. Our results indicate that the PI3-kinase and MAPK signaling pathways are involved in migration and invasion of HT1080 through induction of MMP-2 expression and activation. In conclusion, SAL significantly increases the metastatic capacity of HT1080 cells by inducing MMP-2 expression via PI3-kinase and MAPK pathways. Our results suggest that SAL may be a potential agent for the study of cancer metastatic capacities.

  10. Curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles induces human cervical carcinoma cell line Caski cells growth inhibition by suppressing phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B signaling%固体脂质纳米姜黄素通过PI3K/AKT通路对宫颈癌Caski细胞增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁书军; 黄宁; 黄丽霞

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (Cur-SLN) on apoptosis and growth of human cervical carcinoma cell line Caski cells. Methods Preparing Cur-SLN by Solution diffusion method. Caski cells in logarithmic growth phase were treated with different concentrations of Cur-SLN (0、10、20、40、60umol/L) for 24h. MTT and flow cytometric analysis were used to evaluate the proliferation and apoptosis of Caski cells. The expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 ki-nase (PI3K),p-protein kinase B(p-AKT) and AKT in Caski cells was detected by Western blot. Results Cur-SLN treatment sig-nificantly increased cell apoptosis and decreased the cell proliferation and the expression of PI3K and p-AKT in Caski cells. However,Cur-SLN treatment had no significant influence on the expression of AKT. Conclusion Cur-SLN induces cell apoptosis and growth inhibition in the human cervical carcinoma cell line Caski cells possibly by suppressing PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.%目的:探讨固体脂质纳米姜黄素对宫颈癌Caski细胞增殖的影响。方法采用溶液扩散法制备Cur-SLN,设置Cur-SLN药物组(药物浓度分别为10、20、40、60μmol/L)、阴性对照组(不加Cur-SLN,仅含正常的Caski细胞)及空白对照组(不含细胞仅加培养液)。分别用MTT法测定细胞生长抑制率,流式细胞术检测细胞凋亡,Western-blot检测各组细胞PI3K、AKT和p-AKT蛋白表达。结果随着Cur-SLN浓度的增加,Caski细胞的抑制率与细胞凋亡明显上升,Caski细胞PI3K、p-AKT蛋白则呈现Cur-SLN浓度依赖性下调表达,AKT蛋白表达无明显变化。10、20、40、60umol/L Cur-SLN处理组、阴性对照组,组间差异均有统计学意义,P<0.05。结论 Cur-SLN抑制PI3K/AKT信号通路激活,诱发细胞凋亡,进而导致Caski细胞增殖抑制,为宫颈癌的临床治疗提供了新的理论依据。

  11. TLR-induced activation of neutrophils promotes histamine production via a PI3 kinase dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuda, Craig; Wechsler, Joshua B; Bryce, Paul J

    2011-12-30

    Histamine is a bioactive amine that exerts immunomodulatory functions, including many allergic symptoms. It is preformed and stored in mast cells and basophils but recent evidence suggests that other cell types produce histamine in an inducible fashion. During infection, it has been suggested that neutrophils may produce histamine. We also observed that histamine is released in a neutrophil-mediated LPS-induced model of acute lung injury. Therefore, we sought to examine whether innate signals promote histamine production by neutrophils. Bone marrow-derived neutrophils stimulated with a range of TLR agonists secreted histamine in response to LPS or R837, suggesting TLR4 or TLR7 are important. LPS-driven histamine was enhanced by coculture with GM-CSF and led to a transient release of histamine that peaked at 8h post stimulation. This was dependent upon de novo synthesis of histamine, since cells derived from histidine decarboxylase (HDC) deficient mice were unable to produce histamine but did generate reactive oxygen species upon stimulation. Using pharmacological inhibitors, we show that histamine production requires PI3 kinase, which has been shown to regulate other neutrophil functions, including activation and selective granule release. However, unlike mast cells, HDC deficiency did not alter the granule structure of neutrophils, suggesting that histamine does not participate in granule integrity in these cells. Consequently, our findings establish that neutrophils generate histamine in response to a select panel of innate immune triggers and that this might contribute to acute lung injury responses.

  12. TDRG1 functions in testicular seminoma are dependent on the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Gan, Yu; Tan, Zhengyu; Zhou, Jun; Kitazawa, Riko; Jiang, Xianzhen; Tang, Yuxin; Yang, Jianfu

    2016-01-01

    Human testis development-related gene 1 (TDRG1) is a recently identified gene that is expressed exclusively in the testes and promotes the development of testicular germ cell tumors. In this study, the role of TDRG1 in the development of testicular seminoma, which is the most common testicular germ cell tumor, was further investigated. Based on polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry tests, both gene and protein expression levels of TDRG1 were significantly upregulated in testicular seminoma tissues compared with normal testicular tissues. Additionally, the levels of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/p110 and Akt phosphorylation were dramatically upregulated in testicular seminoma tissues. Accordingly, in our cell experiment, seminoma TCam-2 cells were subjected to different treatments: the TDRG1 knockout, TDRG1 overexpression, PI3K inhibition (LY294002 administration), or PI3K activation (insulin-like growth factor-1 administration). Cell proliferation, the proliferation index, apoptosis rate, cell adhesive capacity, and cell invasion capability were assessed. Cells with both TDRG1 knockout and PI3K inhibition exhibited decreased cell proliferation, proliferation indexes, cell adhesion capacity, and cell invasion capability and increased apoptosis rates. Most of these effects were reversed by TDRG1 overexpression or PI3K activation, indicating that both TDRG1- and PI3K-mediated signaling promote proliferation and invasion of testicular seminoma cells. The knockout of TDRG1 significantly decreased the phosphorylation levels of PI3K/p85, PI3K/p110, Akt, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; Ser2448). Except for PI3K/p110, TDRG1 overexpression had the opposite effects on phosphorylation levels. Phosphorylated mTOR at Ser2481 and Thr2446 was not affected by TDRG1 or PI3K in our tests. Thus, these results indicate that TDRG1 promotes the development and migration of seminoma cells via the regulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

  13. Increased persistent sodium current due to decreased PI3K signaling contributes to QT prolongation in the diabetic heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongju; Jiang, Ya-Ping; Wu, Chia-Yen C; Ballou, Lisa M; Liu, Shengnan; Carpenter, Eileen S; Rosen, Michael R; Cohen, Ira S; Lin, Richard Z

    2013-12-01

    Diabetes is an independent risk factor for sudden cardiac death and ventricular arrhythmia complications of acute coronary syndrome. Prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram is also a risk factor for arrhythmias and sudden death, and the increased prevalence of QT prolongation is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular death in diabetic patients. The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for this lethal complication are poorly understood. Diabetes is associated with a reduction in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, which regulates the action potential duration (APD) of individual myocytes and thus the QT interval by altering multiple ion currents, including the persistent sodium current INaP. Here, we report a mechanism for diabetes-induced QT prolongation that involves an increase in INaP caused by defective PI3K signaling. Cardiac myocytes of mice with type 1 or type 2 diabetes exhibited an increase in APD that was reversed by expression of constitutively active PI3K or intracellular infusion of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), the second messenger produced by PI3K. The diabetic myocytes also showed an increase in INaP that was reversed by activated PI3K or PIP3. The increases in APD and INaP in myocytes translated into QT interval prolongation for both types of diabetic mice. The long QT interval of type 1 diabetic hearts was shortened by insulin treatment ex vivo, and this effect was blocked by a PI3K inhibitor. Treatment of both types of diabetic mouse hearts with an INaP blocker also shortened the QT interval. These results indicate that downregulation of cardiac PI3K signaling in diabetes prolongs the QT interval at least in part by causing an increase in INaP. This mechanism may explain why the diabetic population has an increased risk of life-threatening arrhythmias.

  14. Omentin-1 Stimulates Human Osteoblast Proliferation through PI3K/Akt Signal Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been presumed that adipokines deriving from adipose tissue may play important roles in bone metabolism. Omentin-1, a novel adipokine, which is selectively expressed in visceral adipose tissue, has been reported to stimulate proliferation and inhibit differentiation of mouse osteoblast. However, little information refers to the effect of omentin-1 on human osteoblast (hOB proliferation. The current study examined the potential effects of omentin-1 on proliferation in hOB and the signal pathway involved. Omentin-1 promoted hOB proliferation in a dose-dependent manner as determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Western blot analysis revealed that omentin-1 induced activation of Akt (phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase downstream effector and such effect was impeded by transfection of hOB with Akt-siRNA. Furthermore, LY294002 (a selective PI3K inhibitor and HIMO (a selective Akt inhibitor abolished the omentin-1-induced hOB proliferation. These findings indicate that omentin-1 induces hOB proliferation via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and suggest that osteoblast is a direct target of omentin-1.

  15. Involvement of PI 3 kinase/Akt-dependent Bad phosphorylation in Toxoplasma gondii-mediated inhibition of host cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Juan-Hua; Cha, Guang-Ho; Zhou, Wei; Chu, Jia-Qi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Lee, Young-Ha

    2013-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii-infected cells are resistant to various apoptotic stimuli, however, the role of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only Bad protein in T. gondii-imposed inhibition of host cell apoptosis in connection with the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-PKB/Akt pathway was not well delineated. Here, we investigated the signaling patterns of Bad, Bax and PKB/Akt in T. gondii-infected and uninfected THP-1 cells treated with staurosporine (STS) or PI3K inhibitors. STS treatment, without T. gondii infection, reduced the viability of THP-1 cells in proportion to STS concentration and triggered many cellular death events such as caspase-3 and -9 activation, Bax translocation, cytochrome c release from host cell mitochondria into cytosol, and PARP cleavage in the host cell. However, T. gondii infection eliminated the STS-triggered mitochondrial apoptotic events described above. Additionally, T. gondii infection in vitro and in vivo induced the phosphorylation of PKB/Akt and Bad in a parasite-load-dependent manner which subsequently inhibited Bax translocation. The PI3K inhibitors, LY294002 and Wortmannin, both blocked parasite-induced phosphorylation of PKB/Akt and Bad. Furthermore, THP-1 cells pretreated with these PI3K inhibitors showed reduced phosphorylation of Bad in a dose-dependent manner and subsequently failed to inhibit the Bax translocation, also these cells also failed to overcome the T. gondii-imposed inhibition of host cell apoptosis. These data demonstrate that the PI3K-PKB/Akt pathway may be one of the major route for T. gondii in the prevention of host cell apoptosis and T. gondii phosphorylates the pro-apoptotic Bad protein to prevent apoptosis.

  16. Role of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in the cell cycle progression of human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ning; Zhang, Zhuo; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Shi, Xianglin

    2003-10-31

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men. Recent studies demonstrated that PI3K signaling is an important intracellular mediator which is involved in multiple cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, anti-apoptosis, tumorigenesis, and angiogenesis. In the present study, we demonstrate that the inhibition of PI3K activity by LY294002, inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation and induced the G(1) cell cycle arrest. This effect was accompanied by the decreased expression of G(1)-associated proteins including cyclin D1, CDK4, and Rb phosphorylation at Ser780, Ser795, and Ser807/811, whereas expression of CDK6 and beta-actin was not affected by LY294002. The expression of cyclin kinase inhibitor, p21(CIP1/WAF1), was induced by LY294002, while levels of p16(INK4) were decreased in the same experiment. The inhibition of PI3K activity also inhibited the phosphorylation and p70(S6K), but not MAPK. PI3K regulates cell cycle through AKT, mTOR to p70(S6K). The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin has similar inhibitory effects on G(1) cell cycle progression and expression of cyclin D1, CDK4, and Rb phosphorylation. These results suggest that PI3K mediates G(1) cell cycle progression and cyclin expression through the activation of AKT/mTOR/p70(S6K) signaling pathway in the prostate cancer cells.

  17. PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway Is Essential for Survival of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir M Hossini

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a highly conserved biochemical mechanism which is tightly controlled in cells. It contributes to maintenance of tissue homeostasis and normally eliminates highly proliferative cells with malignant properties. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have recently been described with significant functional and morphological similarities to embryonic stem cells. Human iPSCs are of great hope for regenerative medicine due to their broad potential to differentiate into specialized cell types in culture. They may be useful for exploring disease mechanisms and may provide the basis for future cell-based replacement therapies. However, there is only poor insight into iPSCs cell signaling as the regulation of apoptosis. In this study, we focused our attention on the apoptotic response of Alzheimer fibroblast-derived iPSCs and two other Alzheimer free iPSCs to five biologically relevant kinase inhibitors as well as to the death ligand TRAIL. To our knowledge, we are the first to report that the relatively high basal apoptotic rate of iPSCs is strongly suppressed by the pancaspase inhibitor QVD-Oph, thus underlining the dependency on proapoptotic caspase cascades. Furthermore, wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositid-3 kinase / Akt signaling (PI3K-AKT, dramatically and rapidly induced apoptosis in iPSCs. In contrast, parental fibroblasts as well as iPSC-derived neuronal cells were not responsive. The resulting condensation and fragmentation of DNA and decrease of the membrane potential are typical features of apoptosis. Comparable effects were observed with an AKT inhibitor (MK-2206. Wortmannin resulted in disappearance of phosphorylated AKT and activation of the main effector caspase-3 in iPSCs. These results clearly demonstrate for the first time that PI3K-AKT represents a highly essential survival signaling pathway in iPSCs. The findings provide improved understanding on the underlying mechanisms of apoptosis regulation in iPSCs.

  18. PI3K pathway in NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eMartínez Martí

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks are members of a family of intracellular lipid kinases that phosphorylate the 3’-hydroxyl group of phosphatidylinositol and phosphoinositides. PI3K regulate signaling pathways for neoplasia, including cell proliferation, adhesion, survival and motility. Different classes of PI3K have distinct roles in cellular signal transduction. PI3K pathway is activated by several different mechanisms in cancers, including, somatic mutation and gene amplification. In this review, we examine the literature addressing PI3K mutation status and gene amplification, with an emphasis on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.

  19. ERK 1/2 and PI-3 kinase pathways as a potential mechanism of ghrelin action on cell proliferation and apoptosis in the porcine ovarian follicular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak-Mardyla, A; Gregoraszczuk, E L

    2010-08-01

    Recently, we reported the stimulatory effect of ghrelin on ovarian cell proliferation in parallel with the inhibitory action of ghrelin on cell apoptosis. The aim of the presented data propose local activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2) and phosphoinositide-3 (PI-3) kinase pathways as a mechanism of ghrelin effect in the porcine ovary. To test this hypothesis, action of ghrelin on levels of ERK 1/2 with PI-3 kinase activity and protein expression using ELISA and western blot analysis, respectively, was examined. Additionally, to determine which pathways (ERK 1/2 or PI-3 kinase) are the potential signals of ghrelin-mediated cell proliferation and apoptosis in ovarian cells, we used PD098059 (50 microM) and wortmannin (200 microM), well-known inhibitors of these kinases. Treatment of ovarian coculture cells with ghrelin (100, 250, 500 and 1000 pg/ml) showed stimulation of phospho-ERK 1/2 levels and PI-3 kinase activity, with the maximum effect observed after 15 min of cell incubation. Additionally, western blot analysis indicated that ghrelin increased expression of both kinases. Moreover, ghrelin used in combination with PD098059 or wortmannin significantly decreased cell proliferation, which was measured by the Alamar Blue assay and increased apoptosis, which was measured by caspase - 3 activity and DNA fragmentation. In conclusion, these results suggest that the ERK 1/2 and PI-3 kinase pathways may be potential signals of ghrelin mediate the cell proliferation and apoptosis of ovary cells.

  20. CpG-ODN attenuates pathological cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure by activation of PI3Kα-Akt signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yang

    Full Text Available Phosphoinositide-3-kinase α (PI3Kα represents a potential novel drug target for pathological cardiac hypertrophy (PCH and heart failure. Oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG-ODN are classic agonists of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9, which typically activates PI3K-Akt signaling in immune cells; however, the role of the nucleotide TLR9 agonists in cardiac myocytes is largely unknown. Here we report that CpG-ODN C274 could both attenuate PCH and improve cardiac dysfunction by activating PI3Kα-Akt signaling cascade. In vitro studies indicated that C274 could blunt reactivation of fetal cardiac genes and cell enlargement induced by a hypertrophic agent, isoproterenol. The anti-hypertrophic effect of C274 was suppressed by a pan-PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, or a small interfering RNA targeting PI3Kα. In vivo studies demonstrated that PCH, as marked by increased heart weight (HW and cardiac ANF mRNA, was normalized by pre-administration with C274. In addition, Doppler echocardiography detected cardiac ventricular dilation, and contractile dysfunction in isoproterenol-treated animals, consistent with massive replacement fibrosis, reflecting cardiac cell death. As expected, pre-treatment of mice with C274 could prevent cardiac dysfunction associated with diminished cardiac cell death and fibrosis. In conclusion, CpG-ODNs are novel cardioprotective agents possessing antihypertrophic and anti-cell death activity afforded by engagement of the PI3Kα-Akt signaling. CpG-ODNs may have clinical use curbing the progression of PCH and preventing heart failure.

  1. Insulin/PI3K signaling protects dentate neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation in organotypic slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolu; Yao, Hang; Douglas, Robert M; Gu, Xiang Q; Wang, Juan; Haddad, Gabriel G

    2010-01-01

    It is known that ischemia/reperfusion induces neurodegeneration in the hippocampus in a subregion-dependent manner. This study investigated the mechanism of selective resistance/vulnerability to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) using mouse organotypic hippocampal cultures. Analysis of propidium iodide uptake showed that OGD-induced duration- and subregion-dependent neuronal injury. When compared with the CA1-3 subregions, dentate neuronal survival was more sensitive to inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling under basal conditions. Dentate neuronal sensitivity to PI3K/Akt signaling activation was inversely related to its vulnerability to OGD-induced injury; insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 pre-treatment conferred neuroprotection to dentate neurons via activation of PI3K/Akt signaling. In contrast, CA1 and CA3 neurons were less sensitive to disruptions of endogenous PI3K/Akt signaling and protective effects of insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1, but more vulnerable to OGD. OGD-induced injury in CA1 was reduced by inhibition of NMDA receptor or mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and was prevented by blocking NMDA receptor in the presence of insulin. The CA2 subregion was distinctive in its response to glutamate, OGD, and insulin, compared with other CA subregions. CA2 neurons were sensitive to the protective effects of insulin against OGD-induced injury, but more resistant to glutamate. Distinctive distribution of insulin receptor beta and basal phospho-Akt was detected in our slice cultures. Our results suggest a role for insulin signaling in subregional resistance/vulnerability to cerebral ischemia.

  2. PI3K-mTOR信号通路抑制剂抗肿瘤研究新进展%Research new progress on inhibitors antitumor of PI3K-mTOR signaling pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴松; 虞桂平; 薛涛

    2015-01-01

    PI3K is a kind of lipid kinase, controlling the cell growth, proliferation, migration, survival, angiogenesis and by activating PI3K, and AKT and mTOR to promote the development of tumor. mTOR for mammals rapamycin tar-gets is a serine/threonine protein kinase, which is widely expressed in the cell, is a kind of targeted target for the treat-ment of cancer. This paper mainly shows PI3K cancer cell line-the change of the mTOR signaling pathways, including the mechanism of action of breast cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, etc.. PI3K-mTOR is promising targeting tumor treatment goals. Multiple targets for inhibiting tumor is the most effective method of treatment, by discussing research in clinical trials of PI3K-mTOR inhibitor drugs, for the future clinical antitumor drug research and development to provide a new way.%PI3K是一种脂质激酶,控制着细胞生长、增殖、迁移、存活和血管生成,以及通过激活磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶(PI3K)、AKT和雷帕霉素靶蛋白(mTOR)促进肿瘤发展。哺乳动物mTOR的作用靶点是一种丝氨酸/苏氨酸蛋白激酶,它在细胞中广泛地表达,是一种治疗癌症的靶向目标。本文将主要论述癌症细胞系PI3K-mTOR信号通路的改变,包括乳腺癌、前列腺癌、肺癌、胰腺癌、肝癌等的作用机制。 PI3K-mTOR是肿瘤治疗的有前途的靶向目标。多靶点抑制是肿瘤治疗最有效的方法,通过讨论临床试验中研究的PI3K-mTOR抑制剂药物,为将来临床抗肿瘤药物的研发提供新途径。

  3. Asymmetric PI3K Signaling Driving Developmental and Regenerative Cell Fate Bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsuan W. Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Metazoan sibling cells often diverge in activity and identity, suggesting links between growth signals and cell fate. We show that unequal transduction of nutrient-sensitive PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling during cell division bifurcates transcriptional networks and fates of kindred cells. A sibling B lymphocyte with stronger signaling, indexed by FoxO1 inactivation and IRF4 induction, undergoes PI3K-driven Pax5 repression and plasma cell determination, while its sibling with weaker PI3K activity renews a memory or germinal center B cell fate. PI3K-driven effector T cell determination silences TCF1 in one sibling cell, while its PI3K-attenuated sibling self-renews in tandem. Prior to bifurcations achieving irreversible plasma or effector cell fate determination, asymmetric signaling during initial divisions specifies a more proliferative, differentiation-prone lymphocyte in tandem with a more quiescent memory cell sibling. By triggering cell division but transmitting unequal intensity between sibling cells, nutrient-sensitive signaling may be a frequent arbiter of cell fate bifurcations during development and repair.

  4. PI3 kinase/Akt activation mediates estrogen and IGF-1 nigral DA neuronal neuroprotection against a unilateral rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Arnulfo; Lee, Becky Y; Micevych, Paul E

    2008-04-01

    Recently, using the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) 6-hydroxydopmaine (6-OHDA) lesion rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD), we have demonstrated that blockade of central IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1R) attenuated estrogen neuroprotection of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) DA neurons, but exacerbated 6-OHDA lesions in IGF-1 only treated rats (Quesada and Micevych [2004]: J Neurosci Res 75:107-116). This suggested that the IGF-1 system is a central mechanism through which estrogen acts to protect the nigrostriatal DA system. Moreover, these results also suggest that IGF-1R-induced intracellular signaling pathways are involved in the estrogen mechanism that promotes neuronal survival. In vitro, two convergent intracellular signaling pathways used by estrogen and IGF-1, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK), and phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt), have been demonstrated to be neuroprotective. Continuous central infusions of MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt inhibitors were used to test the hypothesis that one or both of these signal transduction pathways mediates estrogen and/or IGF-1 neuroprotection of SNpc DA neurons after a unilateral administration of 6-OHDA into the MFB of rats. Motor behavior tests and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity revealed that the inhibitor of the PI3K/Akt pathway (LY294002) blocked the survival effects of both estrogen and IGF-1, while an inhibitor of the MAPK/ERK signaling (PD98059) was ineffective. Western blot analyses showed that estrogen and IGF-1 treatments increased PI3K/Akt activation in the SN; however, MAPK/ERK activation was decreased in the SN. Indeed, continuous infusions of inhibitors blocked phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK. These findings indicate that estrogen and IGF-1-mediated SNpc DA neuronal protection is dependent on PI3K/Akt signaling, but not on the MAPK/ERK pathway.

  5. Leptin regulates proliferation and apoptosis of colorectal carcinoma through PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Di Wang; Jian Chen; Hui Chen; Zhi Duan; Qimei Xu; Meiyan Wei; Lianghua Wang; Meizuo Zhong

    2012-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that obesity is associated with colorectal cancer. The obesity hormone leptin is considered as a key mediator for cancer development and progression. The present study aims to investigate regulatory effects of leptin on colorectal carcinoma. The expression of leptin and its receptor Ob-R was examined by immunohistochemistry in 108 Chinese patients with colorectal carcinoma. The results showed that leptin/Ob-R expression was significantly associated with T stage, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, differentiation and expression of p-mTOR, p-70S6 kinase, and p-Akt. Furthermore, the effects of leptin on proliferation and apoptosis of HCT-116 colon carcinoma cells were determined. The results showed that leptin could stimulate the proliferation and inhibit the apoptosis of HCT-116 colon cells through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Ly294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) and rapamycin (an mTOR inhibitor) could prevent the regulatory effects of leptin on the proliferation and apoptosis of HCT-116 cells via abrogating leptin-mediated PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. All these results indicated that leptin could regulate proliferation and apoptosis of colorectal carcinoma through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway.

  6. Puerarin activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and calcium-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Kim, Hyung Gyun [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hien, Tran Thi [College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Myung Ho [Heart Research Center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Tae Cheon, E-mail: taecheon@ynu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyungsan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    The cardioprotective properties of puerarin, a natural product, have been attributed to the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. However, the mechanism by which puerarin activates eNOS remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the intracellular pathways underlying eNOS activation by puerarin. Puerarin induced the activating phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1177 and the production of NO in EA.hy926 cells. Puerarin-induced eNOS phosphorylation required estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and was reversed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition. Importantly, puerarin inhibited the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-stimulated monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF-{alpha} induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1. Puerarin also inhibited the TNF-{alpha}-induced nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation, which was attenuated by pretreatment with N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NOS inhibitor. These results indicate that puerarin stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via activation of an estrogen receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt- and CaMKII/AMPK-dependent pathway. Puerarin may be useful for the treatment or prevention of endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin induced the phosphorylation of eNOS and the production of NO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin activated eNOS through ER-dependent PI3-kinase and Ca{sup 2+}-dependent AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin-induced NO was involved in the inhibition of NF-kB activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin may help for prevention of vascular dysfunction and diabetes.

  7. Prostaglandin F2α stimulates PI3K/ERK/mTOR signaling and skeletal myotube hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, James F; Cameron-Smith, David

    2011-03-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes mediate the synthesis of proinflammatory prostaglandin (PG) species from cellular arachidonic acid. COX/PGs have been implicated in skeletal muscle growth/regeneration; however, the mechanisms by which PGs influence skeletal muscle adaptation are poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate PGF(2α) signaling and its role in skeletal myotube hypertrophy. PGF(2α) or the FP receptor agonist fluprostenol increased C2C12 myotube diameter. This effect was abolished by the FP receptor antagonist AL8810 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition. PGF(2α) stimulated time- and dose-dependent increases in the phosphorylation of extracellular receptor kinase (ERK)1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204), p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) (Thr389 and Thr421/Ser424), and eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) (Ser1108) without influencing Akt (Ser473). Pretreatment with the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 and the ERK inhibitor PD98059 blocked F prostanoid receptor signaling responses, whereas rapamycin blocked heightened p70S6K/eIF4G phosphorylation without influencing ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These data suggest that activation of the F prostanoid receptor is coupled to C2C12 myotube growth and intracellular signaling via a PI3K/ERK/mTOR-dependent pathway.

  8. MicroRNA-21 accelerates hepatocyte proliferation in vitro via PI3K/Akt signaling by targeting PTEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan-nan, Bai [Department of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province (China); Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Provincial Clinical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350001, Fujian Province (China); Zhao-yan, Yu; Li-xi, Luo; Jiang, Yi [Department of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province (China); Qing-jie, Xia [Translational Neuroscience Center, West China Hospital/West China Medical School of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province (China); Yong, Zeng, E-mail: yongzengmd@gmail.com [Department of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province (China)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •miRNAs-expression patterns of primary hepatocytes under proliferative status. •miR-21 expression level peaked at 12 h after stimulated by EGF. •miR-21 drive rapid S phase entry of primary hepatocytes. •PI3K/Akt signaling was modulated via targeting PTEN by miR-21. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in controlling hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration. In this study, we established the miRNAs-expression patterns of primary hepatocytes in vitro under stimulation of epidermal growth factor (EGF), and found that microRNA-21 (miR-21) was appreciably up-regulated and peaked at 12 h. In addition, we further presented evidences indicating that miR-21 promotes primary hepatocyte proliferation through in vitro transfecting with miR-21 mimics or inhibitor. We further demonstrated that phosphatidylinositol 3′-OH kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling was altered accordingly, it is, by targeting phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10, PI3K/Akt signaling is activated by miR-21 to accelerate hepatocyte rapid S-phase entry and proliferation in vitro.

  9. Epicatechin induces NF-kappaB, activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear transcription factor erythroid 2p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2) via phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) signalling in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Martín, María Angeles; Haegeman, Guy; Goya, Luis; Bravo, Laura; Ramos, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    The dietary flavonoid epicatechin has been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities. The objective of the present study was to investigate the time-dependent regulation by epicatechin on the activity of the main transcription factors (NF-kappaB, activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear transcription factor erythroid 2p45-related factor (Nrf2)) related to antioxidant defence and survival and proliferation pathways in HepG2 cells. Treatment of cells with 10 microm-epicatechin induced the NF-kappaB pathway in a time-dependent manner characterised by increased levels of IkappaB kinase (IKK) and phosphorylated inhibitor of kappaB subunit-alpha (p-IkappaBalpha) and proteolytic degradation of IkappaB, which was consistent with an up-regulation of the NF-kappaB-binding activity. Time-dependent activation of the AP-1 pathway, in concert with enhanced c-Jun nuclear levels and induction of Nrf2 translocation and phosphorylation were also demonstrated. Additionally, epicatechin-induced NF-kappaB and Nrf2 were connected to reactive oxygen species intracellular levels and to the activation of cell survival and proliferation pathways, being phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) associated to Nrf2 modulation and ERK to NF-kappaB induction. These data suggest that the epicatechin-induced survival effect occurs by the induction of redox-sensitive transcription factors through a tight regulation of survival and proliferation pathways.

  10. Danusertib, a potent pan-Aurora kinase and ABL kinase inhibitor, induces cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death and inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition involving the PI3K/Akt/mTOR-mediated signaling pathway in human gastric cancer AGS and NCI-N78 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan CX

    2015-03-01

    autophagy-inducing effects on AGS and NCI-N78 cells. Danusertib arrested AGS and NCI-N78 cells in G2/M phase, with downregulation of expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and upregulation of expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. Danusertib induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, with an increase in expression of proapoptotic protein and a decrease in antiapoptotic proteins in both cell lines. Danusertib induced release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol and triggered activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. Further, danusertib induced autophagy, with an increase in expression of beclin 1 and conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-I to LC3-II in both cell lines. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways as well as activation of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase contributed to the proautophagic effect of danusertib in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. SB202191 and wortmannin enhanced the autophagy-inducing effect of danusertib in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. In addition, danusertib inhibited epithelial to mesenchymal transition with an increase in expression of E-cadherin and a decrease in expression of N-cadherin in both cell lines. Taken together, danusertib has potent inducing effects on cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy, but has an inhibitory effect on epithelial to mesenchymal transition, with involvement of signaling pathways mediated by PI3K/Akt/mTOR, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and 5' AMP-activated protein kinase in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. Keywords: danusertib, gastric cancer, Aurora kinase, apoptosis, autophagy, epithelial to mesenchymal transition

  11. Shiga toxin type-2 (Stx2 induces glutamate release via phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K pathway in murine neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko eObata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC can cause central nervous system (CNS damage resulting in paralysis, seizures, and coma. The key STEC virulence factors associated with systemic illness resulting in CNS impairment are Shiga toxins (Stx. While neurons express the Stx receptor globotriaosylceramide (Gb3 in vivo, direct toxicity to neurons by Stx has not been studied. We used murine neonatal neuron cultures to study the interaction of Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2 with cell surface expressed Gb3. Single molecule imaging three dimensional STochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy - Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (3D STORM-TIRF allowed visualization and quantification of Stx2-Gb3 interactions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Stx2 increases neuronal cytosolic Ca2+, and NMDA-receptor inhibition blocks Stx2-induced Ca2+ influx, suggesting that Stx2-mediates glutamate release. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K-specific inhibition by Wortmannin reduces Stx2-induced intracellular Ca2+ indicating that the PI3K signaling pathway may be involved in Stx2-associated glutamate release, and that these pathways may contribute to CNS impairment associated with STEC infection.

  12. β-Adrenergic receptor-PI3K signaling crosstalk in mouse heart: elucidation of immediate downstream signaling cascades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhi Zhang

    Full Text Available Sustained β-adrenergic receptors (βAR activation leads to cardiac hypertrophy and prevents left ventricular (LV atrophy during LV unloading. The immediate signaling pathways downstream from βAR stimulation, however, have not been well investigated. The current study was to examine the early cardiac signaling mechanism(s following βAR stimulation. In adult C57BL/6 mice, acute βAR stimulation induced significant increases in PI3K activity and activation of Akt and ERK1/2 in the heart, but not in lungs or livers. In contrast, the same treatment did not elicit these changes in β(1/β(2AR double knockout mice. We further showed the specificity of β(2AR in this crosstalk as treatment with formoterol, a β(2AR-selective agonist, but not dobutamine, a predominantly β(1AR agonist, activated cardiac Akt and ERK1/2. Acute βAR stimulation also significantly increased the phosphorylation of mTOR (the mammalian target of rapamycin, P70S6K, ribosomal protein S6, GSK-3α/β (glycogen synthase kinase-3α/β, and FOXO1/3a (the forkhead box family of transcription factors 1 and 3a. Moreover, acute βAR stimulation time-dependently decreased the mRNA levels of the muscle-specific E3 ligases atrogin-1 and muscle ring finger protein-1 (MuRF1 in mouse heart. Our results indicate that acute βAR stimulation in vivo affects multiple cardiac signaling cascades, including the PI3K signaling pathway, ERK1/2, atrogin-1 and MuRF1. These data 1 provide convincing evidence for the crosstalk between βAR and PI3K signaling pathways; 2 confirm the β(2AR specificity in this crosstalk in vivo; and 3 identify novel signaling factors involved in cardiac hypertrophy and LV unloading. Understanding of the intricate interplay between β(2AR activation and these signaling cascades should provide critical clues to the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and enable identification of targets for early clinical interaction of cardiac lesions.

  13. Differential sensitivities of trastuzumab (Herceptin)-resistant human breast cancer cells to phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3K) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Carmel T; Metz, Marianne Z; Kane, Susan E

    2005-05-01

    Her2 (erbB2/neu) is overexpressed in 25-30% of human breast cancers. Herceptin is a recombinant humanized Her2 antibody used to treat breast cancer patients with Her2 overexpression. Over a 5-month selection process, we isolated clones of BT474 (BT) human breast carcinoma cells (BT/Her(R)) that were resistant to Herceptin in vitro. In BT/Her(R) subclones, cell-surface, phosphorylated and total cellular Her2 protein remained high in the continuous presence of Herceptin. Likewise, the levels of cell-surface, phosphorylated, and total cellular Her3 and EGFR were either unchanged or only slightly elevated in BT/Her(R) subclones relative to BT cells. One BT/Her(R) subclone had substantially upregulated cell-surface EGFR, but this did not correlate with a higher relative resistance to Herceptin. In looking at the downstream PI-3K/Akt signaling pathway, phosphorylated and total Akt levels and Akt kinase activities were all sustained in BT/Her(R) subclones in the presence of Herceptin, but significantly downregulated in BT cells exposed to Herceptin. Whereas BT cells lost sensitivity to the PI-3K inhibitor LY294002 in the presence of Herceptin, BT/Her(R) subclones were equally sensitive to this agent in the presence and absence of Herceptin. This suggests that BT/Her(R) subclones acquired a Herceptin-resistant mechanism of PI-3K signaling. BT/Her(R) subclones were also sensitive to the EGFR kinase inhibitor AG1478 in the presence of Herceptin, to the same extent as BT cells. The BT/Her(R) subclones provide new insights into mechanisms of Herceptin resistance and suggest new treatment strategies in combination with other inhibitors targeted to signal transduction pathways.

  14. mTORC1 signalling mediates PI3K-dependent large lipid droplet accumulation in Drosophila ovarian nurse cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence B. Mensah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Insulin and insulin-like growth factor signalling (IIS, which is primarily mediated by the PI3-kinase (PI3K/PTEN/Akt kinase signalling cassette, is a highly evolutionarily conserved pathway involved in co-ordinating growth, development, ageing and nutrient homeostasis with dietary intake. It controls transcriptional regulators, in addition to promoting signalling by mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1, which stimulates biosynthesis of proteins and other macromolecules, and drives organismal growth. Previous studies in nutrient-storing germline nurse cells of the Drosophila ovary showed that a cytoplasmic pool of activated phosphorylated Akt (pAkt controlled by Pten, an antagonist of IIS, cell-autonomously regulates accumulation of large lipid droplets in these cells at late stages of oogenesis. Here, we show that the large lipid droplet phenotype induced by Pten mutation is strongly suppressed when mTor function is removed. Furthermore, nurse cells lacking either Tsc1 or Tsc2, which negatively regulate mTORC1 activity, also accumulate large lipid droplets via a mechanism involving Rheb, the downstream G-protein target of TSC2, which positively regulates mTORC1. We conclude that elevated IIS/mTORC1 signalling is both necessary and sufficient to induce large lipid droplet formation in late-stage nurse cells, suggesting roles for this pathway in aspects of lipid droplet biogenesis, in addition to control of lipid metabolism.

  15. PI3K signaling in the pathogenesis of obesity: The cause and the cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Martina; Bauer, Michael; Hirsch, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    With the steady rise in the incidence of obesity and its associated comorbidities, in the last decades research aimed at understanding molecular mechanisms that control body weight has gained new interest. Fat gain is frequently associated with chronic adipose tissue inflammation and with peripheral as well as central metabolic derangements, resulting in an impaired hypothalamic regulation of energy homeostasis. Recent attention has focused on the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in both immune and metabolic response pathways, being involved in the pathophysiology of obesity and its associated metabolic diseases. In this review, we focus on distinct PI3K isoforms, especially class I PI3Ks, mediating inflammatory cells recruitment to the enlarged fat as well as intracellular responses to key hormonal regulators of fat storage, both in adipocytes and in the central nervous system. This integrated view of PI3K functions may ultimately help to develop new therapeutic interventions for the treatment of obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ursolic acid increases glucose uptake through the PI3K signaling pathway in adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghan He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ursolic acid (UA, a triterpenoid compound, is reported to have a glucose-lowering effect. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Adipose tissue is one of peripheral tissues that collectively control the circulating glucose levels. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to determine the effect and further the mechanism of action of UA in adipocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate and treated with different concentrations of UA. NBD-fluorescent glucose was used as the tracer to measure glucose uptake and Western blotting used to determine the expression and activity of proteins involved in glucose transport. It was found that 2.5, 5 and 10 µM of UA promoted glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner (17%, 29% and 35%, respectively. 10 µM UA-induced glucose uptake with insulin stimulation was completely blocked by the phosphatidylinositol (PI 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitor wortmannin (1 µM, but not by SB203580 (10 µM, the inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, or compound C (2.5 µM, the inhibitor of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK inhibitor. Furthermore, the downstream protein activities of the PI3K pathway, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK and phosphoinositide-dependent serine/threoninekinase (AKT were increased by 10 µM of UA in the presence of insulin. Interestingly, the activity of AS160 and protein kinase C (PKC and the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 were stimulated by 10 µM of UA under either the basal or insulin-stimulated status. Moreover, the translocation of GLUT4 from cytoplasm to cell membrane was increased by UA but decreased when the PI3K inhibitor was applied. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that UA stimulates glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the PI3K pathway, providing important information regarding the mechanism of action of UA for its anti-diabetic effect.

  17. A frequent kinase domain mutation that changes the interaction between PI3K[alpha] and the membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandelker, Diana; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Schmidt-Kittler, Oleg; Zhu, Jiuxiang; Cheong, Ian; Huang, Chuan-Hsiang; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Amzel, L. Mario; (JHU-MED); (HHMI)

    2009-12-01

    Mutations in oncogenes often promote tumorigenesis by changing the conformation of the encoded proteins, thereby altering enzymatic activity. The PIK3CA oncogene, which encodes p110{alpha}, the catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase alpha (PI3K{alpha}), is one of the two most frequently mutated oncogenes in human cancers. We report the structure of the most common mutant of p110{alpha} in complex with two interacting domains of its regulatory partner (p85{alpha}), both free and bound to an inhibitor (wortmannin). The N-terminal SH2 (nSH2) domain of p85{alpha} is shown to form a scaffold for the entire enzyme complex, strategically positioned to communicate extrinsic signals from phosphopeptides to three distinct regions of p110{alpha}. Moreover, we found that Arg-1047 points toward the cell membrane, perpendicular to the orientation of His-1047 in the WT enzyme. Surprisingly, two loops of the kinase domain that contact the cell membrane shift conformation in the oncogenic mutant. Biochemical assays revealed that the enzymatic activity of the p110{alpha} His1047Arg mutant is differentially regulated by lipid membrane composition. These structural and biochemical data suggest a previously undescribed mechanism for mutational activation of a kinase that involves perturbation of its interaction with the cellular membrane.

  18. Berberine protects endothelial progenitor cell from damage of TNF-α via the PI3K/AKT/eNOS signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Min; Men, Li Na; Xu, Ming Guo; Wang, Guo Bing; Lv, Hai Tao; Liu, Cong

    2014-11-15

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) dysfunction is closely correlated with the coronary artery injury induced by Kawasaki disease (KD). The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) elevated significantly in acute phase of KD which can damage the functions of EPCs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether berberine (BBR) can protect EPCs from the inhibition caused by TNF-α via the PI3K (Phosphatidyl Inositol 3-kinase) /AKT (Serine/threonine protein kinase B) /eNOS (endothelial Nitric Oxide synthase) signaling pathway. The cell proliferative ability of EPCs was determined by MTT (methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium) assays. Nitric oxide (NO) level was determined in supernatants. The mRNA level of eNOS, PI3K and AKT were measured by Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), and the protein levels of eNOS, phospho-eNOS (p-eNOS), Akt, phospho-Akt (p-Akt) and PI3K were analyzed using Western-blot. The results demonstrated that TNF-α inhibits the proliferative ability of EPCs. However, BBR improves the proliferative activity of EPCs inhibited by TNF-α. Blockade of PI3K by 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (Ly294002) and blockade of eNOS by l-NAME (NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester) attenuates the effect of BBR. BBR can increase the level of PI3K/Akt/eNOS mRNA and the protein level of PI3K, p-Akt, eNOS and p-eNOS, which can be blocked by PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) and eNOS inhibitor (l-NAME). Therefore, we concluded that impaired EPCs proliferation could be reversed by BBR via the PI3K/AKT/eNOS signaling pathway.

  19. Targeting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway: an emerging treatment strategy for squamous cell lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Joseph Thaddeus; Ismail, Amen; Tolomeo, Christina

    2014-09-01

    Squamous cell lung carcinoma accounts for approximately 30% of all non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Despite progress in the understanding of the biology of cancer, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the standard of care for patients with squamous cell lung carcinoma, but the prognosis is generally poor. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is one of the most commonly activated signaling pathways in cancer, leading to cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. It has therefore become a major focus of clinical research. Various alterations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway have been identified in squamous cell lung carcinoma and a number of agents targeting these alterations are in clinical development for use as single agents and in combination with other targeted and conventional treatments. These include pan-PI3K inhibitors, isoform-specific PI3K inhibitors, AKT inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors, and dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors. These agents have demonstrated antitumor activity in preclinical models of NSCLC and preliminary clinical evidence is also available for some agents. This review will discuss the role of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in cancer and how the discovery of genetic alterations in this pathway in patients with squamous cell lung carcinoma can inform the development of targeted therapies for this disease. An overview of ongoing clinical trials investigating PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors in squamous cell lung carcinoma will also be included.

  20. Zinc promotes proliferation and activation of myogenic cells via the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Kazuya, E-mail: asuno10k@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Nagata, Yosuke, E-mail: cynagata@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Wada, Eiji, E-mail: gacchu1@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Zammit, Peter S., E-mail: peter.zammit@kcl.ac.uk [Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King' s College London, London SE1 1UL (United Kingdom); Shiozuka, Masataka, E-mail: cmuscle@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Matsuda, Ryoichi, E-mail: cmatsuda@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cells named muscle satellite cells are normally quiescent but are activated in response to various stimuli, such as injury and overload. Activated satellite cells enter the cell cycle and proliferate to produce a large number of myogenic progenitor cells, and these cells then differentiate and fuse to form myofibers. Zinc is one of the essential elements in the human body, and has multiple roles, including cell growth and DNA synthesis. However, the role of zinc in myogenic cells is not well understood, and is the focus of this study. We first examined the effects of zinc on differentiation of murine C2C12 myoblasts and found that zinc promoted proliferation, with an increased number of cells incorporating EdU, but inhibited differentiation with reduced myogenin expression and myotube formation. Furthermore, we used the C2C12 reserve cell model of myogenic quiescence to investigate the role of zinc on activation of myogenic cells. The number of reserve cells incorporating BrdU was increased by zinc in a dose dependent manner, with the number dramatically further increased using a combination of zinc and insulin. Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) are downstream of insulin signaling, and both were phosphorylated after zinc treatment. The zinc/insulin combination-induced activation involved the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and ERK cascade. We conclude that zinc promotes activation and proliferation of myogenic cells, and this activation requires phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and ERK as part of the signaling cascade. - Highlights: • Zinc has roles for promoting proliferation and inhibition differentiation of C2C12. • Zinc promotes activation of reserve cells. • Insulin and zinc synergize activation of reserve cells. • PI3K/Akt and ERK cascade affect zinc/insulin-mediated activation of reserve cells.

  1. Arctigenin Increases Hemeoxygenase-1 Gene Expression by Modulating PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway in Rat Primary Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeon-Hui; Park, Jin-Sun; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Sun

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we found that the natural compound arctigenin inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in rat primary astrocytes. Since hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a critical role as an antioxidant defense factor in the brain, we examined the effect of arctigenin on HO-1 expression in rat primary astrocytes. We found that arctigenin increased HO-1 mRNA and protein levels. Arctigenin also increases the nuclear translocation and DNA binding of Nrf2/c-Jun to the antioxidant response element (ARE) on HO-1 promoter. In addition, arctigenin increased ARE-mediated transcriptional activities in rat primary astrocytes. Further mechanistic studies revealed that arctigenin increased the phosphorylation of AKT, a downstream substrate of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Treatment of cells with a PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, suppressed the HO-1 expression, Nrf2 DNA binding and ARE-mediated transcriptional activities in arctigenin-treated astrocyte cells. The results collectively suggest that PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is at least partly involved in HO-1 expression by arctigenin via modulation of Nrf2/ARE axis in rat primary astrocytes.

  2. Low-Dose Endothelial Monocyte-Activating Polypeptide-II Increases Blood-Tumor Barrier Permeability by Activating the RhoA/ROCK/PI3K Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Liu, Xiao-Bai; Liu, Yun-Hui; Xue, Yi-Xue; Liu, Jing; Teng, Hao; Xi, Zhuo; Yao, Yi-Long

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that low-dose endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II) can increase blood-tumor barrier (BTB) permeability via both paracellular and transcellular pathways. In addition, we revealed that the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway is involved in EMAP-II-induced BTB opening. This study further investigated the exact mechanisms by which the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway affects EMAP-II-induced BTB hyperpermeability. In an in vitro BTB model, low-dose EMAP-II significantly activated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) in rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (RBMECs) at 0.75 h. Pretreatment with RhoA inhibitor C3 exoenzyme or ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 completely blocked EMAP-II-induced activation of PI3K. PKC-α/β inhibitor GÖ6976 pretreatment caused no change in EMAP-II-induced activation of PI3K. Besides, pretreatment with LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3K, did not affect EMAP-II-induced activation of PKC-α/β. Furthermore, LY294002 pretreatment significantly diminished EMAP-II-induced changes in BTB permeability, phosphorylation of myosin light chain and cofilin, expression and distribution of tight junction-associated protein ZO-1, and actin cytoskeleton arrangement in RBMECs. In summary, this study demonstrates that low-dose EMAP-II can increase BTB permeability by activating the RhoA/ROCK/PI3K signaling pathway.

  3. Signaling through the PI 3-K, Akt and SGK Pathway in Breast Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    EGF (R&D Systems; Minneapolis, MN), and 100 ng/ml cholera 120 toxin (List Biological Labs; Campbell, CA); T47D and ZR-75-30 in RPMI 1640 121...Tween 20) containing 5% (w/ v ) non-fat dry milk for 30 min and then incubated with the 216 specific primary antibody diluted in blocking buffer at 4...Kinase AKT pathway in human 519 cancer. Nat. Rev. Cancer. 2002;2:489–501. 520 5. Rodon J, Dienstmann R, Serra V , Tabernero J. Development of PI3K

  4. Signaling intermediates (MAPK and PI3K) as therapeutic targets in NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffreda, Ludovica; Incani, Ursula Cesta; Steelman, Linda S; Abrams, Stephen L; Falcone, Italia; Curatolo, Anais Del; Chappell, William H; Franklin, Richard A; Vari, Sabrina; Cognetti, Francesco; McCubrey, James A; Milella, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The RAS/RAF/MEK/ ERK and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways govern fundamental physiological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, cytoskeleton reorganization and cell death and survival. Constitutive activation of these signal transduction pathways is a required hallmark of cancer and dysregulation, on either genetic or epigenetic grounds, of these pathways has been implicated in the initiation, progression and metastastic spread of lung cances. Targeting components of the MAPK and PI3K cascades is thus an attractive strategy in the development of novel therapeutic approaches to treat lung cancer, although the use of single pathway inhibitors has met with limited clinical success so far. Indeed, the presence of intra- and inter-pathway compensatory loops that re-activate the very same cascade, either upstream or downstream the point of pharmacological blockade, or activate the alternate pathway following the blockade of one signaling cascade has been demonstrated, potentially driving preclinical (and possibly clinical) resistance. Therefore, the blockade of both pathways with combinations of signaling inhibitors might result in a more efficient anti-tumor effect, and thus potentially overcome and/or delay clinical resistance, as compared with single agent. The current review aims at summarizing the current status of preclinical and clinical research with regard to pathway crosstalks between the MAPK and PI3K cascades in NSCLC and the rationale for combined therapeutic pathway targeting.

  5. Salidroside attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mao-Chun; Shi, Hai-Ming; Gao, Xiu-Fang; Wang, Hao

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the cardioprotective effects of salidroside on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rabbits and the underlying action mechanisms in PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, a rabbit ischemia/reperfusion model was created by ligating the left anterior descending coronary arterial branch for 30 min and by releasing the ligature to allow reperfusion for 120 min. Salidroside or salidroside+PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) was administered via intracoronary injections at the onset of reperfusion. Apoptosis of cardiomyocytes was assessed by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling assay, and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins was observed by immunohistochemistry. The expressions of total Akt and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) were detected by western blot analysis. The results showed that intracoronary injection of salidroside at the onset of reperfusion markedly reduced the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, significantly increasing Bcl-2 and p-Akt proteins expressions and decreasing Bax and caspase-3 expressions in the hearts subjected to ischemia followed by 120-min reperfusion. However, the anti-apoptotic effect induced by salidroside was inhibited by LY294002, which blocked the activation of Akt. These results suggested that intracoronary administration of salidroside at the onset of reperfusion could significantly reduce the IRI-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, and this protective mechanism seemed to be mediated by the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.

  6. miR-218 inhibits the invasion and migration of colon cancer cells by targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangliang; Shi, Huijuan; Tang, Hongsheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Jiping; Cui, Shuzhong

    2015-05-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most common and lethal malignancies worldwide. Despite major advances in the treatment of colon cancer, the prognosis remains very poor. Thus, novel and effective therapies for colon cancer are urgently needed. In the present study, the expression status of miR-218 and the role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway were investigated in colon cancer samples. Firstly, we observed that miR-218 expression was significantly reduced, while PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway activity was enhanced. The overexpression of miR-218 suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of LoVo colon cancer cells, whereas the inhibition of miR-218 promoted these processes. Furthermore, the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway was identified as a direct target of miR-218. The upregulation of miR-218 inhibited the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, as well as the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)9. The downregulation of miR-218 activated the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and promoted MMP9 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that miR-218 suppresses the proliferation, migration and invasion of LoVo colon cancer cells by targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and MMP9. Our data indicate that miR-218 is a potential target in the treatment of colon cancer.

  7. Panaxatriol Saponins Attenuated Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation Injury in PC12 Cells via Activation of PI3K/Akt and Nrf2 Signaling Pathway

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    Yongliang Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Panaxatriol saponins (PTS, the main components extracted from Panax notoginseng, have been shown to be efficacious in the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases in China. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, a transcription factor regulating antioxidant and cytoprotective responses to oxidative stress, has received particular attention as a molecular target for pharmacological intervention of ischemic diseases. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of PTS on the activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway and the potential role in its protective effect. We found that PTS induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 expression in PC12 cells via activating Nrf2 signaling pathway. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt kinase was involved in the upstream of this PTS activated pathway. Moreover, combination of the main components in PTS significantly enhanced the expression of Nrf2 mediated phase II enzymes. Importantly, the protective effect of PTS against oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion (OGD-Rep induced cell death was significantly attenuated by PI3K inhibitor and antioxidant response element (ARE decoy oligonucleotides, suggesting that both PI3K/Akt and Nrf2 signaling pathway are essential during this protective process. Taken together, our results suggest that PTS may activate endogenous cytoprotective mechanism against OGD-Rep induced oxidative injury via the activation of PI3K/Akt and Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  8. Activation of PI3K signaling prevents aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death in the murine cochlea

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    Azadeh Jadali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss of sensory hair cells of the inner ear due to aminoglycoside exposure is a major cause of hearing loss. Using an immortalized multipotent otic progenitor (iMOP cell line, specific signaling pathways that promote otic cell survival were identified. Of the signaling pathways identified, the PI3K pathway emerged as a strong candidate for promoting hair cell survival. In aging animals, components for active PI3K signaling are present but decrease in hair cells. In this study, we determined whether activated PI3K signaling in hair cells promotes survival. To activate PI3K signaling in hair cells, we used a small molecule inhibitor of PTEN or genetically ablated PTEN using a conditional knockout animal. Hair cell survival was challenged by addition of gentamicin to cochlear cultures. Hair cells with activated PI3K signaling were more resistant to aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death. These results indicate that increased PI3K signaling in hair cells promote survival and the PI3K signaling pathway is a target for preventing aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss.

  9. Optimal targeting of HER2-PI3K signaling in breast cancer: mechanistic insights and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexer, Brent N; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-07-01

    The combination of a PI3K inhibitor with trastuzumab has been shown to be effective at overcoming trastuzumab resistance in models of HER2(+) breast cancer by inhibiting HER2-PI3K-FOXO-survivin signaling. In this review the potential clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. The effect of Liuwei Dihuang decoction on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in liver of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bing; Wu, Qinxuan; Zeng, Chengxi; Zhang, Jiani; Cao, Luting; Xiao, Zizeng; Yang, Menglin

    2016-11-04

    Liuwei Dihaung decoction (LWDHT) is a well-known classic traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of six herbs including Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.(family: Scrophulariaceae), Cornus officinalis Sieb.(family: Cornaceae), Dioscorea opposite Thunb.(family: Dioscoreaceae), Alisma orientale(G. Samuelsson) Juz (family: Alismataceae), Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf (family: Polyporaceae) and Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews (family: Paeoniaceae). It has been used in the treatment of many types of diseases with signs of deficiency of Yin in the kidneys in China clinically. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of Liuwei dihuang decoction on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in liver of T2DM rats with insulin resistance. T2DM model was induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by high sugar and high fat diets combined with small dose of streptozocin (STZ) injection. The successful T2DM rats were randomly allocated three group--vehicle group, positive control group and Liuwei Dihuang decoction group. After 12-weeks treatment with distilled water, rosiglitazone and LWDHT by intragastric administration respectively, the rats were put to death in batches. The variance of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fasting insulin (FINS) in serum were determined, the pathological changes of each rats' liver were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, the expression of insulin receptor substrate 2(IRS2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinas B (Akt) involving the canonical PI3K/Akt signaling pathway were detected by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-PCR), and the expression level of IRS2, PI3K, Akt protein and phosphorylated IRS2, PI3K, Akt protein were evaluated by Western Blot. All the data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0. Four weeks of treatment with LWDHT could significantly decrease the level of FBG and FINS in serum, improve the cellular morphology of liver, kidney, pancreas tissue, and the expression of IRS2, PI3K, Akt mRNA and phosphorylated IRS2, PI3K, Akt

  11. Transcriptional Regulatory Networks Activated by PI3K and ERK Transduced Growth Signals in Human Glioblastoma Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter M. Haverty; Zhi-Ping Weng; Ulla Hansen

    2005-01-01

    Determining how cells regulate their transcriptional response to extracellular signals is key to the understanding of complex eukaryotic systems. This study was initiated with the goals of furthering the study of mammalian transcriptional regulation and analyzing the relative benefits of related computational methodologies. One dataset available for such an analysis involved gene expression profiling of the early growth factor response to platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)in a human glioblastoma cell line; this study differentiated genes whose expression was regulated by signaling through the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) versus the extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) pathways. We have compared the inferred transcription factors from this previous study with additional predictions of regulatory transcription factors using two alternative promoter sequence analysis techniques. This comparative analysis, in which the algorithms predict overlapping,although not identical, sets of factors, argues for meticulous benchmarking of promoter sequence analysis methods to determine the positive and negative attributes that contribute to their varying results. Finally, we inferred transcriptional regulatory networks deriving from various signaling pathways using the CARRIE program suite. These networks not only included previously described transcriptional features of the response to growth signals, but also predicted new regulatory features for the propagation and modulation of the growth signal.

  12. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs modulate cellular glycosaminoglycan synthesis by affecting EGFR and PI3K signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozolewski, Paweł; Moskot, Marta; Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Bocheńska, Katarzyna; Banecki, Bogdan; Gabig-Cimińska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    In this report, selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), indomethacin and nimesulide, and analgesics acetaminophen, alone, as well as in combination with isoflavone genistein as potential glycosaminoglycan (GAG) metabolism modulators were considered for the treatment of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) with neurological symptoms due to the effective blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration properties of these compounds. We found that indomethacin and nimesulide, but not acetaminophen, inhibited GAG synthesis in fibroblasts significantly, while the most pronounced impairment of glycosaminoglycan production was observed after exposure to the mixture of nimesulide and genistein. Phosphorylation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) was inhibited even more effective in the presence of indomethacin and nimesulide than in the presence of genistein. When examined the activity of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) production, we observed its most significant decrease in the case of fibroblast exposition to nimesulide, and afterwards to indomethacin and genistein mix, rather than indomethacin used alone. Some effects on expression of individual GAG metabolism-related and lysosomal function genes, and significant activity modulation of a number of genes involved in intracellular signal transduction pathways and metabolism of DNA and proteins were detected. This study documents that NSAIDs, and their mixtures with genistein modulate cellular glycosaminoglycan synthesis by affecting EGFR and PI3K signaling pathways. PMID:28240227

  13. Tripeptide SQL Inhibits Platelet Aggregation and Thrombus Formation by Affecting PI3K/Akt Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xing-li; Su, Wen; He, Zhi-long; Ming, Xin; Kong, Yi

    2015-09-01

    Centipede has been prescribed for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries for several hundred years. Previously, a new antiplatelet tripeptide SQL (H-Ser-Gln-Leu-OH) was isolated and characterized from centipede. In this study, we investigated its antithrombotic activities in vivo and underlying mechanism. It was found that SQL inhibited platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate, thrombin, epinephrine, and collagen and attenuated thrombus formation in both the ferric chloride-induced arterial thrombosis model and arteriovenous shunt thrombosis model in rats. It did not prolong the bleeding time in mice even at the dose of 10 mg/kg that showed potent antithrombosis effects. Molecular docking revealed that SQL binds PI3Kβ with the binding free energy of -24.341 kcal/mol, which is close to that of cocrystallized ligand (-24.220 kcal/mol). Additionally, SQL displayed inhibition on the late (180 seconds) but did not influence the early (60 seconds) Akt Ser473 phosphorylation in the immunoblot assay. These results suggest that SQL inhibits thrombus formation in vivo and that SQL inhibits PI3K-mediated signaling or even the PI3K itself in platelets. This study may help elucidate the mechanism for centipede treating cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Dynamic changes of connexin-43, gap junctional protein, in outer layers of cumulus cells are regulated by PKC and PI 3-kinase during meiotic resumption in porcine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, M; Maeda, T; Terada, T

    2001-04-01

    Mammalian oocytes are surrounded by numerous layers of cumulus cells, and the loss of gap junctional communication in the outer layers of cumulus cells induces meiotic resumption in oocytes. In this study, we investigated the dynamic changes in the gap junctional protein connexin-43 in cumulus cells during the meiotic resumption of porcine oocytes. The amount of connexin-43 in all layers of cumulus cells recovered from cumulus-oocyte complexes was increased after 4-h cultivation. However, at 12-h cultivation, the positive signal for connexin-43 immunoreactivity was markedly reduced in the outer layers of cumulus cells. When these reductions of connexin-43 were blocked by protein kinase C (PKC) or phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase inhibitor, networks of filamentous bivalents (i.e., advanced chromosomal status) were undetectable in the germinal vesicle of the oocyte. After 28-h cultivation, when the majority of oocytes were reaching the metaphase I (MI) stage, the connexin-43 in the inner layers of cumulus cells was phosphorylated, regardless of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation. These results suggest that the initiation of meiotic resumption, namely, the formation of networks of filamentous bivalents in germinal vesicle, is associated with the reduction of gap junctional protein connexin-43 in the outer layers of cumulus cells via the PKC and/or PI 3-kinase pathway. Moreover, the connexin-43 in the inner layers of cumulus cells is phosphorylated during meiotic progression beyond the MI stage, regardless of MAP kinase activation in cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte.

  15. Over-expression of PDGFR-β promotes PDGF-induced proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of EPCs through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

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    Hang Wang

    Full Text Available The proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs play critical roles in postnatal neovascularization and re-endothelialization following vascular injury. Here we evaluated whether the over-expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β can enhance the PDGF-BB-stimulated biological functions of EPCs through the PDGFR-β/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. We first confirmed the expression of endogenous PDGFR-β and its plasma membrane localization in spleen-derived EPCs. We then demonstrated that the PDGFR-β over-expression in EPCs enhanced the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of EPCs. Using AG1295 (a PDGFR kinase inhibitor, LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor, and sc-221226 (an Akt inhibitor, we further showed that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway participates in the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of EPCs. In addition, the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is required for PDGFR-β over-expression to enhance these PDGF-BB-induced phenotypes.

  16. Over-Expression of PDGFR-β Promotes PDGF-Induced Proliferation, Migration, and Angiogenesis of EPCs through PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Xiaohui; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Jinkun; Qin, Zhexue; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Kui; Lu, Wei; Liu, Jie; Huang, Lan

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play critical roles in postnatal neovascularization and re-endothelialization following vascular injury. Here we evaluated whether the over-expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β) can enhance the PDGF-BB-stimulated biological functions of EPCs through the PDGFR-β/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. We first confirmed the expression of endogenous PDGFR-β and its plasma membrane localization in spleen-derived EPCs. We then demonstrated that the PDGFR-β over-expression in EPCs enhanced the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of EPCs. Using AG1295 (a PDGFR kinase inhibitor), LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor), and sc-221226 (an Akt inhibitor), we further showed that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway participates in the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of EPCs. In addition, the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is required for PDGFR-β over-expression to enhance these PDGF-BB-induced phenotypes. PMID:22355314

  17. Contribution of Natural Inhibitors to the Understanding of the PI3K/PDK1/PKB Pathway in the Insulin-mediated Intracellular Signaling Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Youl Cho

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The critical initial steps in insulin action include phosphorylation of adapter proteins and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K. One of important components in this process is a protein called Akt/protein kinase B (PKB. The work of numerous different researchers indicates a role of PKB in regulating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. The crucial role of lipid second messengers in PKB activation has been dissected through the use of the PI3K-specific inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. Receptor-activated PI3K synthesizes the lipid second messenger PtdIns[3,4,5]-trisphosphate, leading to the recruitment of PKB to the membrane. Membrane attachment of PKB is mediated by its pleckstrin homology domain binding to PtdIns[3,4,5]-trisphosphate or PtdIns[3,4]-bisphosphate with high affinity. Activation of PKB alpha is then achieved at the plasma membrane by phosphorylation of Thr308 in the activation-loop of the kinase domain and Ser473 in the carboxy-terminal regulatory region, respectively. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1 is responsible for T308 phosphorylation. The usage of specific inhibitors and natural compound has significantly contributed to investigate the molecular mechanism of PI3K/PDK1/PKB signaling pathway, leading to the putative therapeutics benefits of patients. This review focuses on the contribution of natural inhibitor or compound in our understanding of the mechanism by which insulin induces, especially in PI3K/ PDK1/PKB signaling.

  18. Blockage of PI3K/PKB/P27kip1 signaling pathway can antagonize 17β-estradiol-induced Ishikawa proliferation and cell cycle progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ It is well-known that risk for endometrial adenocar- cinoma increases in patients with high level of estrogen that is unopposed by progestin. And activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/PKB) pathway are responsible for hormone-dependent cell growth in endometrial carcinoma.2-4 PI3K produces phosphatidylinositol- 3-phosphates by phosphory- lating the D3 hydroxyl of phosphoinositides, leading to membrane translocation of PKB, on which PKB is phosphorylated and activated. Then the activated PKB can stimulate antiapoptotic cellular responses and block apoptotic functions of the cells, thus regulate the apoptosis and proliferation of cell, cell cycle progression, glucose usage, and angiogenesis.

  19. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulates crosstalk between Trk A tyrosine kinase and p75(NTR)-dependent sphingolipid signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilderback, T R; Gazula, V R; Dobrowsky, R T

    2001-03-01

    The mechanism of crosstalk between signaling pathways coupled to the Trk A and p75(NTR) neurotrophin receptors in PC12 cells was examined. In response to nerve growth factor (NGF), Trk A activation inhibited p75(NTR)-dependent sphingomyelin (SM) hydrolysis. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) inhibitor, LY294002, reversed this inhibition suggesting that Trk A activation of PI 3-kinase is necessary to inhibit sphingolipid signaling by p75(NTR). In contrast, SM hydrolysis induced by neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), which did not activate PI-3 kinase, was uneffected by LY294002. However, transient expression of a constituitively active PI 3-kinase inhibited p75(NTR)-dependent SM hydrolysis by both NGF and NT-3. Intriguingly, NGF induced an association of activated PI 3-kinase with acid sphingomyelinase (SMase). This interaction localized to caveolae-related domains and correlated with a 50% decrease in immunoprecipitated acid SMase activity. NGF-stimulated PI 3-kinase activity was necessary for inhibition of acid SMase but was not required for ligand-induced association of the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase with the phospholipase. Finally, this interaction was specific for NGF since EGF did not induce an association of PI 3-kinase with acid SMase. In summary, our data suggest that PI 3-kinase regulates the inhibitory crosstalk between Trk A tyrosine kinase and p75(NTR)-dependent sphingolipid signaling pathways and that this interaction localizes to caveolae-related domains.

  20. PI3K/Akt signal pathway involved in the cognitive impairment caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Shu

    Full Text Available Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH is a common pathophysiological state that usually occurs in conditions such as vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease, both of which are characterized by cognitive impairment. In previous studies we found that learning capacity and memory were gradually impaired with CCH, which altered the expression of synaptophysin, microtubule associated protein-2, growth associated protein-43, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1, cAMP response element-binding protein and tau hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus. However, the molecular basis of cognitive impairment in CCH remains obscure. Here we explore the hypothesis that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt signal pathway is involved in this type of cognitive impairment. In order to determine if the expression of PI3K, Akt and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt proteins are altered at different stages of CCH with differing levels of cognitive impairment. we performed permanent, bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2-VO to induce CCH. Adult male SD rats were randomly divided into sham-operated group, 2-VO 1 week group, 2-VO 4 weeks group and 2-VO 8 weeks group. Behavior tests were utilized to assess cognitive abilities, while western blots were utilized to evaluate protein expression. Rats in the 2-VO groups spent less time exploring novel objects than those in the sham-operated group, and the discrimination ratio of the 2-VO 8 weeks group and the sham-operated group were higher than chance (0.50. Escape latencies in the Morris water maze task in the 2-VO 1 week group were longer than those in the sham-operated group on day 4 and day 5, while escape latencies in the 2-VO 4 weeks group were longer than those in the sham-operated group from day 3 to day 5. Escape latencies in 2-VO 8 weeks group were longer than those in the sham-operated group from day 2 to day 5. NE (northeast

  1. PI3K-mTOR-S6K Signaling Mediates Neuronal Viability via Collapsin Response Mediator Protein-2 Expression

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    Eun J. Na

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP-2 and the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 signaling pathway are associated with common physiological functions such as neuronal polarity, axonal outgrowth and synaptic strength, as well as various brain disorders including epilepsy. But, their regulatory and functional links are unclear. Alterations in CRMP-2 expression that lead to its functional changes are implicated in brain disorders such as epilepsy. Here, we investigate whether changes in CRMP-2 expression, possibly regulated by mTOR-related signaling, correlates with neuronal growth and viability. Inhibition of mTOR and/or phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K led to deceased p-S6K, and p-S6 signals also reduced CRMP-2 expression. These changes corresponded to inhibition of neuronal viability and proliferation in cultured hippocampal HT-22 cells under both basal serum-free and serum- or insulin-induced mTOR pathway-activated conditions. CRMP-2 expression tended to be increased by mTOR activation, indicated by an increase in p-S6/S6 level, in pentylentetrazole (PTZ-induced epileptic rat hippocampal tissues was also significantly reduced by mTOR inhibition. Knockdown of CRMP-2 by si-RNA reduced the neuronal viability without changes in mTOR signaling, and overexpression of CRMP-2 recovered the glutamate-induced neurotoxicity and decrease of mTOR signaling in HT-22 cells. In conclusion, CRMP-2 protein expression controlled by the PI3K-mTOR-S6K signaling axis exerts its important functional roles in neuronal growth and survival.

  2. [Effects of acupuncture on PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in rats with premature ovarian failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Yu, Bin; Chen, Jia; Zhao, Zhisheng; Wang Jiali; Huang, Fasen; Lin, Yuee; Wang, Mengwei; Zhang, Yupei; Wei, Bo

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects of acupuncture and medication on PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in rats with premature ovarian failure. Ten of fifty SPF-grade female SD rats were randomly selected into a normal group, and the remaining 40 rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of cyclophospha mide (30 mg/kg) for consecutive 5 days to establish rat model of premature ovarian failure. Thirty five successful rat models were randomly divided into a model group (9 cases), a medication group (9 cases), an acupuncture group A (9 cases) and an acupuncture group B (8 cases). The rats in the model group and normal group did not receive any treatment. The rats in the medication group were treated with intragastric administration of diethylstil bestrol, once a day. The rats in the acupuncture group A and acupuncture group B were respectively treated with acupuncture at different acupoints, twice a day. All the treatment was given for 4 weeks. After the treatment, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to test the levels of estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteotropic hormone (LH). The ovarian tissue sample was processed with hematoxylin eosin (HE) staining as well as RNA and protein extraction to test the mRNA expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), estrogen receptor beta (ERP), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/serine/threonine kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). High-dose short-term in- tervention of cyclophosphamide could establish rat model of premature ovarian failure with a successful rate of 87.5%. Compared with the normal group, the vaginal smear in the model group was featured with signs of estro gen deficiency, early-follicle reduction, structural damage to the follicle, and reducing number of mature follicles; the level of E2 was significantly reduced (Pacupuncture groups, the levels of E2 was obviously increased (all Pacupuncture groups and medication group

  3. Investigation into the Role of PI3K and JAK3 Kinase Inhibitors in Murine Models of Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Akshaya D.; Sharma, Manoranjan; Mahapatra, Jogeshwar; Chatterjee, Abhijeet; Jain, Mukul; Addepalli, Veeranjaneyulu

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is a clinical disorder commonly characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation, remodeling and hyper responsiveness of the airways. However, the kinases like Phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) are involved in mast cell proliferation, activation, recruitment, migration, and prolonged survival of inflammatory cells. The present study was designed to evaluate the in-vivo comparative effects of two kinase inhibitors on airway inflammation and airway remodeling in acute and chronic models of asthma. Mice were sensitized twice intra-peritoneally and then challenged by inhalation with ovalbumin (OVA). They developed an extensive inflammatory response, goblet cell hyperplasia, collagen deposition, airway smooth muscle thickening similar to pathologies observed in human asthma. The effects of PI3K inhibitor (30 mg/kg, p.o), JAK3 inhibitor (30 mg/kg, p.o) and Dexamethasone (0.3 mg/kg) on airway inflammation and remodeling in OVA sensitized/challenged BALB/c mice were evaluated. Twenty-four hours after the final antigen challenge, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histological examinations were carried out. It was observed that kinase inhibitors significantly reduced airway inflammation as evidenced by the decrease in pro inflammatory cytokines in BALF and lung homogenate and inflammatory cell count in sensitized mice after allergen challenge. Lung histological analysis showed increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, hyperplasia of goblet cells and the collagen deposition, which were significantly reduced with kinase inhibitor. In conclusion, our data suggest that PI3K and JAK3 inhibitors showed promising alternative therapeutic activity in asthma, which might significantly counteract the airway inflammation in patients with allergic asthma. PMID:28293189

  4. Biphasic activation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways in bovine herpesvirus type 1 infection of MDBK cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Liqian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many viruses have been known to control key cellular signaling pathways to facilitate the virus infection. The possible involvement of signaling pathways in bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 infection is unknown. This study indicated that infection of MDBK cells with BoHV-1 induced an early-stage transient and a late-stage sustained activation of both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt and mitogen activated protein kinases/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways. Analysis with the stimulation of UV-irradiated virus indicated that the virus binding and/or entry process was enough to trigger the early phase activations, while the late phase activations were viral protein expression dependent. Biphasic activation of both pathways was suppressed by the selective inhibitor, Ly294002 for PI3K and U0126 for MAPK kinase (MEK1/2, respectively. Furthermore, treatment of MDBK cells with Ly294002 caused a 1.5-log reduction in virus titer, while U0126 had little effect on the virus production. In addition, the inhibition effect of Ly294002 mainly occurred at the post-entry stage of the virus replication cycle. This revealed for the first time that BoHV-1 actively induced both PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways, and the activation of PI3K was important for fully efficient replication, especially for the post-entry stage.

  5. The PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway Mediates the High Glucose-Induced Expression of Extracellular Matrix Molecules in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged hyperglycemia is an important risk factor of the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR. Extracellular matrix molecules, such as fibronectin, collagen IV, and laminin, are associated with fibrotic membranes. In this study, we investigated the expression of fibronectin, collagen IV, and laminin in RPE cells under high glucose conditions. Furthermore, we also detected the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt under high glucose conditions in RPE cells. Our results showed that high glucose upregulated fibronectin, collagen IV, and laminin expression, and activated Akt in RPE cells. We also found that pretreatment with LY294002 (an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase abolished high glucose-induced expression of fibronectin, collagen IV, and laminin in RPE cells. Thus, high glucose induced the expression of fibronectin, collagen IV, and laminin through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in RPE cells, and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway may contribute to the formation of fibrotic membrane during the development of DR.

  6. Pro-apoptotic and pro-autophagic effects of the Aurora kinase A inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237 on human osteosarcoma U-2 OS and MG-63 cells through the activation of mitochondria-mediated pathway and inhibition of p38 MAPK/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

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    Niu NK

    2015-03-01

    mesenchymal transition (EMT and the underlying mechanisms in two human OS cell lines U-2 OS and MG-63. The results showed that ALS had potent growth inhibitory, pro-apoptotic, pro-autophagic, and EMT inhibitory effects on U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS remarkably induced G2/M arrest and down-regulated the expression levels of cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2 and cyclin B1 in both U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS markedly induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis with a significant increase in the expression of key pro-apoptotic proteins and a decrease in main anti-apoptotic proteins. Furthermore, ALS promoted autophagic cell death via the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK signaling pathways, and activation of 5'-AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK signaling pathway. Inducers or inhibitors of apoptosis or autophagy simultaneously altered ALS-induced apoptotic and autophagic death in both U-2 OS and MG-63 cells, suggesting a crosstalk between these two primary modes of programmed cell death. Moreover, ALS suppressed EMT-like phenotypes with a marked increase in the expression of E-cadherin but a decrease in N-cadherin in U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS treatment also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation but inhibited the expression levels of sirtuin 1 and nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 in both cell lines. Taken together, these findings show that ALS promotes apoptosis and autophagy but inhibits EMT via PI3K/Akt/mTOR, p38 MAPK, and AMPK signaling pathways with involvement of ROS- and sirtuin 1-associated pathways in U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS is a promising anticancer agent in OS treatment and further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy and safety in OS chemotherapy. Keywords: ALS, autophagy, apoptosis, osteosarcoma, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, EMT

  7. Upstream and Downstream Co-inhibition of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathways in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

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    Matthew H. Wong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extensive cross talk exists between PI3K/Akt/mTOR and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways, and both are upregulated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. Our previous study suggested that epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib which acts upstream of these pathways acts synergistically with PI3K inhibitors in PDAC. Horizontal combined blockade upstream and downstream of these two pathways is therefore explored. METHODS: Erlotinib paired with PI3K inhibitor (BYL719 was tested against erlotinib plus dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ-235, and MEK inhibitor (PD98059 plus BEZ235, on five primary PDAC cell lines and on two pairs of parent and erlotinib-resistant (ER cell lines. A range of in vitro assays including cell proliferation, Western blotting, migration, clonogenic, cell cycle, and apopotic assays was used to test for the efficacy of combined blockade. RESULTS: Dual downstream blockade of the MAPK and PAM pathways was more effective in attenuating downstream molecular signals. Synergy was demonstrated for erlotinib and BEZ235 and for PD-98059 and BEZ-235. This resulted in a trend of increased growth cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and colony and migration suppression. This combination showed more efficacy in cell lines with acquired resistance to erlotinib. CONCLUSIONS: The additional mTOR blockade provided by BEZ235 in combined blockade resulted in increased anticancer effect. The hypersensitivity of ER cell lines to additional mTOR blockade suggested PAM pathway oncogenic dependence via mTOR. Dual downstream combined blockade of MAPK and PAM pathways with MEK and PI3K/mTOR inhibitor appeared most effective and represents an attractive therapeutic strategy against pancreatic cancer and its associated drug resistance.

  8. PI3K/Akt signaling pathway involved in regulation of T lymphocyte activation and apoptosis mediated by CD3e

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To study the expression and kinase activity of phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB or Akt) during activation and apoptosis of human Jurkat T lymphocytes (TJK) with stable expression of CD8e chimera fused human CD8a extracellular and transmembra-ne domains to intracellular domain of mouse CD3e, Western blot, kinase activities detection and immunoprecipitation were carried out. It was shown that Jurkat cells with expres-sion of wild type chimera CD8e died by apoptosis after con-tinuous stimulation of anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody. The expressions of PI3K and Akt, and the kinase activity of Akt remarkably increased during the process. However, this phenomenon did not occur in the Jurkat cells (T1JK) with expression of the mutant of CD8e chimera (Y170F), sug-gesting that PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in acti-vation and apoptosis of T lymphocyte mediated by CD3e.

  9. Francisella subverts innate immune signaling: Focus on PI3K/Akt

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    Thomas John Cremer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacterial pathogens exploit host cells as a part of their lifecycle, and they do so by manipulating host cell signaling events. Many such bacteria are known to produce effector proteins that promote cell invasion, alter membrane trafficking and disrupt signaling cascades. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of signaling pathways involved in host cell responses to Francisella tularensis, a facultative Gram-negative intracellular pathogen that causes tularemia. We highlight several key pathways that are targeted by Francisella, with a focus on the PI3K/Akt pathway. Lastly, we discuss the emerging role of microRNAs, specifically miR-155, as a key regulator of host signaling and defense.

  10. PI3K/mTOR/S6K signaling pathway – new players and new functional links

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    Filonenko V. V.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes experimental data related to the studies of PI3K/mTOR/S6K signaling conducted at the department of cell signaling. Analysis of novel S6Ks protein-protein interactions provided valuable information for understanding molecular mechanisms of regulation of S6Ks functional activity and subcellular localization mediated by PKC, CK2 and ROC1 ubiquitin ligase. We discuss the identification and functional analysis of novel isoform of ribosomal protein S6 kinase – S6K2 and of mTOR kinase – mTOR, as well as their oncogenic properties. Identification of CoA synthase responsible for last two steps in CoA biosynthesis and characterization of its interactions with S6K1 and other signaling molecules uncovere a potential link between mTOR/S6K signaling pathway and energy metabolism through regulation of CoA biosynthesis. The data concerning new molecular mechanisms of CoA synthase regulation are presented.

  11. Exendin-4 Promotes Beta Cell Proliferation via PI3k/Akt Signalling Pathway

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    Chaoxun Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Prevention of diabetes requires maintenance of a functional beta-cell mass, the postnatal growth of which depends on beta cell proliferation. Past studies have shown evidence of an effect of an incretin analogue, Exendin-4, in promoting beta cell proliferation, whereas the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Methods: Here we studied the effects of Exendin-4 on beta cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo through analysing BrdU-incorporated beta cells. We also analysed the effects of Exendin-4 on beta cell mass in vivo, and on beta cell number in vitro. Then, we applied specific inhibitors of different signalling pathways and analysed their effects on Exendin-4-induced beta cell proliferation. Results: Exendin-4 increased beta cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, resulting in significant increases in beta cell mass and beta cell number, respectively. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt signalling, but not inhibition of either ERK/MAPK pathway, or JNK pathway, significantly abolished the effects of Exendin-4 in promoting beta cell proliferation. Conclusion: Exendin-4 promotes beta cell proliferation via PI3k/Akt signaling pathway.

  12. Targeting the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling network in cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khurum H.Khan; Timothy A.Yap; Li Yan; David Cunningham

    2013-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K-AKT-mTOR) pathway is a frequently hyperactivated pathway in cancer and is important for tumor cell growth and survival.The development of targeted therapies against mTOR,a vital substrate along this pathway,led to the approval of allosteric inhibitors,including everolimus and temsirolimus,for the treatment of breast,renal,and pancreatic cancers.However,the suboptimal duration of response in unselected patients remains an unresolved issue.Numerous novel therapies against critical nodes of this pathway are therefore being actively investigated in the clinic in multiple tumour types.In this review,we focus on the progress of these agents in clinical development along with their biological rationale,the need of predictive biomarkers and various combination strategies,which will be useful in counteracting the mechanisms of resistance to this class of drugs.

  13. PAR1- and PAR2-induced innate immune markers are negatively regulated by PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in oral keratinocytes

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    Dale Beverly A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protease-Activated Receptors (PARs, members of G-protein-coupled receptors, are activated by proteolytic activity of various proteases. Activation of PAR1 and PAR2 triggers innate immune responses in human oral keratinocytes (HOKs, but the signaling pathways downstream of PAR activation in HOKs have not been clearly defined. In this study, we aimed to determine if PAR1- and PAR2-mediated signaling differs in the induction of innate immune markers CXCL3, CXCL5 and CCL20 via ERK, p38 and PI3K/Akt. Results Our data show the induction of innate immunity by PAR1 requires both p38 and ERK MAP kinases, while PAR2 prominently signals via p38. However, inhibition of PI3K enhances expression of innate immune markers predominantly via suppressing p38 phosphorylation signaled by PAR activation. Conclusion Our data indicate that proteases mediating PAR1 and PAR2 activation differentially signal via MAP kinase cascades. In addition, the production of chemokines induced by PAR1 and PAR2 is suppressed by PI3K/Akt, thus keeping the innate immune responses of HOK in balance. The results of our study provide a novel insight into signaling pathways involved in PAR activation.

  14. Regulatory role of PI3K-protein kinase B on the release of interleukin-1β in peritoneal macrophages from the ascites of cirrhotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Abellán, A; Ruiz-Alcaraz, A J; Antón, G; Miras-López, M; Francés, R; Such, J; Martínez-Esparza, M; García-Peñarrubia, P

    2014-12-01

    Great effort has been paid to identify novel targets for pharmaceutical intervention to control inflammation associated with different diseases. We have studied the effect of signalling inhibitors in the secretion of the proinflammatory and profibrogenic cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β in monocyte-derived macrophages (M-DM) obtained from the ascites of cirrhotic patients and compared with those obtained from the blood of healthy donors. Peritoneal M-DM were isolated from non-infected ascites of cirrhotic patients and stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and heat-killed Candida albicans in the presence or absence of inhibitors for c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K). The IL1B and CASP1 gene expression were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The expression of IL-1β and caspase-1 were determined by Western blot. IL-1β was also assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in cell culture supernatants. Results revealed that MEK1 and JNK inhibition significantly reduced the basal and stimulated IL-1β secretion, while the p38 MAPK inhibitor had no effect on IL-1β levels. On the contrary, inhibition of PI3K increased the secretion of IL-1β from stimulated M-DM. The activating effect of PI3K inhibitor on IL-1β release was mediated mainly by the enhancement of the intracellular IL-1β and caspase-1 content release to the extracellular medium and not by increasing the corresponding mRNA and protein expression levels. These data point towards the role of MEK1 and JNK inhibitors, in contrast to the PI3K-protein kinase B inhibitors, as potential therapeutic tools for pharmaceutical intervention to diminish hepatic damage by reducing the inflammatory response mediated by IL-1β associated with liver failure.

  15. Cell type-specific dependency on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway for the endogenous Epo and VEGF induction by baicalein in neurons versus astrocytes.

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    Yu-Yo Sun

    Full Text Available The neuroprotective effect of baicalein is generally attributed to inhibition of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX and suppression of oxidative stress, but recent studies showed that baicalein also activates hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF1α through inhibition of prolyl hydrolase 2 (PHD2 and activation of the phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Yet, the significance and regulation of prosurvival cytokines erythropoietin (Epo and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, two transcriptional targets of HIF1α, in baicalein-mediated neuroprotection in neurons and astrocytes remains unknown. Here we investigated the causal relationship between the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and Epo/VEGF expression in baicalein-mediated neuroprotection in primary rat cortical neurons and astrocytes. Our results show that baicalein induced Epo and VEGF expression in a HIF1α- and PI3K/Akt-dependent manner in neurons. Baicalein also protected neurons against excitotoxicity in a PI3K- and Epo/VEGF-dependent manner without affecting neuronal excitability. In contrast, at least a 10-fold higher concentration of baicalein was needed to induce Epo/VEGF production and PI3K/Akt activity in astrocytes for protection of neurons. Moreover, only baicalein-induced astrocytic VEGF, but not Epo expression requires HIF1α, while PI3K/Akt signaling had little role in baicalein-induced astrocytic Epo/VEGF expression. These results suggest distinct mechanisms of baicalein-mediated Epo/VEGF production in neurons and astrocytes for neuroprotection, and provide new insights into the mechanisms and potential of baicalein in treating brain injury in vivo.

  16. Cell type-specific dependency on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway for the endogenous Epo and VEGF induction by baicalein in neurons versus astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Yo; Lin, Shang-Hsuan; Lin, Hung-Cheng; Hung, Chia-Chi; Wang, Chen-Yu; Lin, Yen-Chu; Hung, Kuo-Sheng; Lien, Cheng-Chang; Kuan, Chia-Yi; Lee, Yi-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    The neuroprotective effect of baicalein is generally attributed to inhibition of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) and suppression of oxidative stress, but recent studies showed that baicalein also activates hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF1α) through inhibition of prolyl hydrolase 2 (PHD2) and activation of the phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Yet, the significance and regulation of prosurvival cytokines erythropoietin (Epo) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), two transcriptional targets of HIF1α, in baicalein-mediated neuroprotection in neurons and astrocytes remains unknown. Here we investigated the causal relationship between the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and Epo/VEGF expression in baicalein-mediated neuroprotection in primary rat cortical neurons and astrocytes. Our results show that baicalein induced Epo and VEGF expression in a HIF1α- and PI3K/Akt-dependent manner in neurons. Baicalein also protected neurons against excitotoxicity in a PI3K- and Epo/VEGF-dependent manner without affecting neuronal excitability. In contrast, at least a 10-fold higher concentration of baicalein was needed to induce Epo/VEGF production and PI3K/Akt activity in astrocytes for protection of neurons. Moreover, only baicalein-induced astrocytic VEGF, but not Epo expression requires HIF1α, while PI3K/Akt signaling had little role in baicalein-induced astrocytic Epo/VEGF expression. These results suggest distinct mechanisms of baicalein-mediated Epo/VEGF production in neurons and astrocytes for neuroprotection, and provide new insights into the mechanisms and potential of baicalein in treating brain injury in vivo.

  17. PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway Activates the WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC Phosphorylation Cascade in Hyperinsulinemic db/db Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Hidenori; Sohara, Eisei; Nomura, Naohiro; Chiga, Motoko; Alessi, Dario R; Rai, Tatemitsu; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinichi

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome patients have insulin resistance, which causes hyperinsulinemia, which in turn causes aberrant increased renal sodium reabsorption. The precise mechanisms underlying this greater salt-sensitivity of hyperinsulinemic patients remain unclear. Abnormal activation of the recently-identified WNK kinase-OSR1/SPAK kinases-NCC transporter phosphorylation cascade results in the salt-sensitive hypertension of pseudohypoaldosteronism type II. Here, we report a study of renal WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC cascade activation in the db/db mouse model of hyperinsulinemic metabolic syndrome. Thiazide sensitivity was increased, suggesting greater activity of NCC in db/db mice. In fact, increased phosphorylation of OSR1/SPAK and NCC was observed. In both SpakT243A/+ and Osr1T185A/+ knock-in db/db mice, which carry mutations that disrupt the signal from WNK kinases, increased phosphorylation of NCC and elevated blood pressure were completely corrected, indicating that phosphorylation of SPAK and OSR1 by WNK kinases is required for the increased activation and phosphorylation of NCC in this model. Renal phosphorylated Akt was increased in db/db mice, suggesting that increased NCC phosphorylation is regulated by the PI3K/Akt signaling cascade in the kidney in response to hyperinsulinemia. A PI3K inhibitor (NVP-BEZ235) corrected the increased OSR1/SPAK-NCC phosphorylation. Another more specific PI3K inhibitor (GDC-0941) and an Akt inhibitor (MK-2206) also inhibited increased NCC phosphorylation. These results indicate that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activates the WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC phosphorylation cascade in db/db mice. This mechanism may play a role in the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension in human hyperinsulinemic conditions such as the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22949526

  18. Receptor for advanced glycation end products inhibits proliferation in osteoblast through suppression of Wnt, PI3K and ERK signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guofeng [Department of Emergency Surgery, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120 (China); Xu, Jingren [Department of Traditional Chinese Orthopaedics, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120 (China); Li, Zengchun, E-mail: lizc.2007@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Emergency Surgery, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120 (China)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RAGE overexpression suppresses cell proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RAGE overexpression decreases Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RAGE overexpression decreases ERK and PI3K signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of Wnt signaling abolishes PI3K signaling restored by RAGE blockade. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of Wnt signaling abolishes ERK signaling restored by RAGE blockade. -- Abstract: Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays a crucial role in bone metabolism. However, the role of RAGE in the control of osteoblast proliferation is not yet evaluated. In the present study, we demonstrate that RAGE overexpression inhibits osteoblast proliferation in vitro. The negative regulation of RAGE on cell proliferation results from suppression of Wnt, PI3K and ERK signaling, and is restored by RAGE neutralizing antibody. Prevention of Wnt signaling using Sfrp1 or DKK1 rescues RAGE-decreased PI3K and ERK signaling and cell proliferation, indicating that the altered cell growth in RAGE overexpressing cells is in part secondary to alterations in Wnt signaling. Consistently, RAGE overexpression inhibits the expression of Wnt targets cyclin D1 and c-myc, which is partially reversed by RAGE blockade. Overall, these results suggest that RAGE inhibits osteoblast proliferation via suppression of Wnt, PI3K and ERK signaling, which provides novel mechanisms by which RAGE regulates osteoblast growth.

  19. RSC96 Schwann Cell Proliferation and Survival Induced by Dilong through PI3K/Akt Signaling Mediated by IGF-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Ming Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cell proliferation is critical for the regeneration of injured nerves. Dilongs are widely used in Chinese herbal medicine to remove stasis and stimulate wound-healing functions. Exactly how this Chinese herbal medicine promotes tissue survival remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which Dilong promote neuron regeneration. Our results show that treatment with extract of Dilong induces the phosphorylation of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/serine-threonine kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway, and activates protein expression of cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in a time-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis showed that G1 transits into the S phase in 12–16 h, and S transits into the G2 phase 20 h after exposure to earthworm extract. Strong expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E and cyclin A occurs in a time-dependent manner. Small interfering RNA (siRNA-mediated knockdown of PI3K significantly reduced PI3K protein expression levels, resulting in Bcl2 survival factor reduction and a marked blockage of G1 to S transition in proliferating cells. These results demonstrate that Dilong promotes the proliferation and survival of RSC96 cells via IGF-I signaling. The mechanism is mainly dependent on the PI3K protein.

  20. Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation Effect of Apocynum venetum Leaf Extract via Src/PI3K/Akt Signalling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Siang Lau

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Botanical herbs are consumed globally not only as an essential diet but also as medicines or as functional/recreational food supplements. The extract of the Apocynum venetum leaves (AVLE, also known as Luobuma, exerts its antihypertensive effect via dilating the blood vessels in an endothelium- and concentration-dependent manner with optimal effect seen at as low as 10 µg/mL. A commercial Luoboma “antihypertensive tea” is available commercially in the western province of China. The present study seeks to investigate the underlying cellular mechanisms of the nitric oxide (NO-releasing property of AVLE in rat aortas and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by AVLE was assessed in organ chambers in the presence or absence of polyethyleneglycol catalase (PP2, 20 µM; inhibitor of Src kinase, wortmannin (30 nM and LY294002 (20 µM; PI3 (phosphatidylinositol3-Kinase inhibitor, NG-nitro-l-arginine (L-NAME, 100 µM; endothelial NO synthase inhibitor (eNOS and ODQ (1 µM; soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. Total nitrite and nitrate (NOx level and protein expression of p-Akt and p-eNOS were measured. AVLE-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was reduced by PP2, wortmannin and LY294002 and abolished by L-NAME and ODQ. AVLE significantly increased total NOx level in rat aortas and in HUVECs compared to control. It also instigated phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS in cultured HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner and this was markedly suppressed by PP2, wortmannin and LY294002. AVLE also inhibited superoxide generated from both NADPH oxidase and xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. Taken together, AVLE causes endothelium-dependent NO mediated relaxations of rat aortas through Src/PI3K/Akt dependent NO signalling pathway and possesses superoxide scavenging activity.

  1. Salidroside Inhibits Inflammation Through PI3K/Akt/HIF Signaling After Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yicong; Hong, Haimian; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Lai, Wenfang; Wang, Yingzheng; Chu, Kedan; Brown, John; Hong, Guizhu; Chen, Lidian

    2017-08-01

    Salidroside is being investigated for its therapeutic potential in stroke because it is neuroprotective over an extended therapeutic window of time. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of salidroside (50 mg/kg intraperitoneally) in rats, given 1 h after reperfusion of a middle cerebral artery that had been occluded for 2 h. After 24 h, we found that salidroside increased the neuronal nuclear protein NeuN and reduced the marker of microglia and macrophages CD11b in the peri-infarct area of the brain. Salidroside also decreased IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, CD14, CD44, and iNOs mRNAs. At the same time, salidroside increased the ratio of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) to total Akt. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 prevented this increase in p-Akt and reversed the inhibitory effects of salidroside on CD11b and inflammatory mediators. Salidroside also elevated the protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) subunits HIF1α, HIF2α, HIF3α, and of erythropoietin (EPO). The stimulatory effects of salidroside on HIFα subunits were blocked by LY294002. Moreover, YC-1, a HIF inhibitor, abolished salidroside-mediated increase of HIF1α and prevented the inhibitory effects of salidroside on CD11b and inflammatory mediators. Taken together, our results provide evidence for the first time that all three HIFα subunits and EPO can be regulated by PI3K/Akt in cerebral tissue, and that salidroside entrains this signaling pathway to induce production of HIFα subunits and EPO, one or more of which mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of salidroside after cerebral IRI.

  2. Stathmin in pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: a marker of proliferation and PI3K signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmack, Simon; Taylor, Andrew; Lawrence, Ben; Schmitz-Winnenthal, Hubertus; Fischer, Lars; Büchler, Markus W; Modlin, Irvin M; Kidd, Mark; Tang, Laura H

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 1p35-36, which encodes tumor suppressors and mitotic checkpoint control genes, is commonly altered in human malignancies. One gene at this locus, stathmin 1 (STMN1), is involved in cell cycle progression and metastasis. We hypothesized that increased STMN1 expression may play a role in pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm (pNEN) malignancy. We investigated stathmin copy number variation, mRNA, and protein expression using PCR-Taqman Copy Number Assays, Q-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. A mechanistic role for stathmin in proliferation was assessed in the BON cell line under growth-restrictive conditions and siRNA silencing. Furthermore, its role in PI3K signaling pathway activation was evaluated using pharmacological inhibitors. mRNA (p = 0.0001) and protein (p stathmin inactivation (dephosphorylation p stathmin was overexpressed and associated with pathological parameters in pancreatic NENs. We postulate that STMN1 overexpression and phosphorylation result in a loss of cell cycle mitotic checkpoint control and may render tumors amenable to PI3K inhibitory therapy.

  3. MAPK/ERK和PI3K/Akt信号通道的基因变异与甲状腺癌的发生发展及诊治%Genetic Alterations in MAPK and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways and the Generation, Progression, Diagnosis and Therapy of Thyroid Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌

    2012-01-01

    通过将细胞外信号转导至细胞核内,丝裂原活化蛋白激酶(MAPK)和磷脂酰肌醇-3羟基激酶/蛋白激酶B(PI3K/Akt)信号通道在细胞的生长、增殖及凋亡等活动中发挥着重要的调节作用.甲状腺癌细胞MAPK/ERK和PI3K/Akt信号通道蛋白的编码基因多异常表达.基因变异致MAPK/ERK和PI3K/Akt信号通道的过度活化及相互作用,与甲状腺癌的发生及进展密切相关.本文主要就MAPK和PI3K/Akt信号通道的基因变异在甲状腺癌发生、进展及诊断中的作用作一综述.此外,本文还将探讨同步抑制MAPK和PI3K/Akt信号通道,恢复细胞的摄碘能力,介导放射性核素靶向治疗甲状腺癌的治疗潜力.%The mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase ( MAPK/ERK ) and phoshoinositide-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathways play a major role in regulating cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis, via transmission of cell signals to cell nucleus. The genes, coding the MAPK/ ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling cascade proteins, are significantly mutated in thyroid cancer. Genetic alternations contribute to aberrant activations and interaction of MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in consequence of malignant follicular cell transformation and progression. This review focuses mainly on the role of genetic alterations in coding MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway proteins in generation, progression and diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Moreover, it additionally points out a therapeutic potential in restoring iodine avidity of thyroid cancer cells for radionuclide targeted treatment, by synergistically inhibiting activity of signaling pathways.

  4. Apelin-13 upregulates Egr-1 expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi-Feng [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China); Yu, Hong-Wei [Department of Cardiology, Jinzhou Central Hospital, Jinzhou 121001 (China); Sun, Li-Li [Department of Ophthalmology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China); You, Lu; Tao, Gui-Zhou [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China); Qu, Bao-Ze, E-mail: qubaoze1971@hotmail.com [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China)

    2015-12-25

    Previous studies have shown that Apelin-13 upregulates early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) via the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. Apelin-13 induces proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as the upregulation of osteopontin (OPN) via the upregulation of Egr-1. This study was designed to further explore the activity of Apelin-13 in VSMCs by investigating members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, in particular Jun kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38). We also examined whether the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways were involved in the regulation of Egr-1 by Apelin-13. We treated rat aortic VSMCs with Apelin-13 and examined the expression of JNK, p-JNK, P38, and p-P38 to investigate whether Apelin-13-mediated increases in Egr-1 occurred through the JNK and P38 signaling pathways. We then pretreated VSMCs with the Gi protein inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) and the Gq inhibitor YM254890, added Apelin-13 and looked for changes in Egr-1 expression. Finally, we pretreated with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, and treated with Apelin-13. Our results showed that JNK and P38 did not participate in Apelin-13-mediated increase in Egr-1. Instead, Apelin-13 upregulation of Egr-1 was mediated by a PTX-sensitive Gi protein. Apelin-13 did increase ERK phosphorylation through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways, resulting in changes in Egr-1 expression. These data provide important targets for future studies to modulate vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • Apelin-13 mediates Egr-1 upregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells via ERK1/2. • The underlying mechanisms are unknown, but exclude Jnk or p38 pathway activation. • Apelin-13 binds to Gi, activating the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling cascades. • Consequent ERK phosphorylation results in increased Egr-1

  5. Identification and Targeting of Upstream Tyrosine Kinases Mediating PI3 Kinase Activation in PTEN Deficient Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    pAkt, phospho-Akt; Ab, antibody ; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase; GPCR , G protein-coupled receptor...tyrosine phosphorylated proteins, but they were not recognized by an anti-pYxxM motif antibody and were not found in PTEN deficient PC3 PCa cells. LC/MS/MS...immunoblotted the p85 immunoprecipitates with a pYxxM motif specific antibody . This antibody weakly detected several discrete p85 associated proteins

  6. Mechanical Stress Regulates Osteogenesis and Adipogenesis of Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells through PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanglong Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis and adipogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs are regarded as being of great importance in the regulation of bone remodeling. In this study, rat BMSCs were exposed to different levels of cyclic mechanical stress generated by liquid drops and cultured in general medium or adipogenic medium. Markers of osteogenic (Runx2 and Collagen I and adipogenic (C/EBPα, PPARγ, and lipid droplets differentiation were detected using Western blot and histological staining. The protein levels of members of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway were also examined. Results showed that small-magnitude stress significantly upregulated Runx2 and Collagen I and downregulated PPARγ and C/EBPα expression in BMSCs cultured in adipogenic medium, while large-magnitude stress reversed the effect when compared with unloading groups. The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway could be strongly activated by mechanical stimulation; however, large-magnitude stress led to decreased activation of the signaling pathway when compared with small-magnitude stress. Activation of β-catenin with LiCl led to increased expression of Runx2 and Collagen I and reduction of C/EBPα and PPARγ expression in BMSCs. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling partially blocked the expression of β-catenin. Taken together, our results indicate that mechanical stress-regulated osteogenesis and adipogenesis of rat BMSCs are mediated, at least in part, by the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  7. The crossregulation between ERK and PI3K signaling pathways determines the tumoricidal efficacy of MEK inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae-Kyung Won; Hee Won Yang; Sung-Young Shin; Jong Hoon Lee; Won Do Heo; Kwang-Hyun Cho

    2012-01-01

    MEK inhibitor has been highlighted as a promising anti-tumor drug but its effect has been reported as varying over a wide range depending on patho-physiological conditions.In this study,we employed a systems approach by combining biochemical experimentation with in silico simulations to investigate the resistance mechanism and functional consequences of MEK inhibitor.To this end,we have developed an extended integrative model of ERK and PI3K signaling pathways by considering the crosstalk between Ras and PI3K,and analyzed the resistance mechanism to the MEK inhibitor under various mutational conditions.We found that the phospho-Akt level under the Raf mutation was remarkably augmented by MEK inhibitor,while the phospho-ERK level was almost completely repressed.These results suggest that bypassing of the ERK signal to the PI3K signal causes the resistance to the MEK inhibitor in a complex oncogenic signaling network.We further investigated the underlying mechanism of the drug resistance and revealed that the MEK inhibitor disrupts the negative feedback loops from ERK to SOS and GAB1,but activates the positive feedback loop composed of GAB1,Ras,and PI3K,which induces the bypass of the ERK signal to the PI3K signal.Based on these core feedback circuits,we suggested promising candidates for combination therapy and examined the improved inhibitory effects.

  8. PI3K-Akt-mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways in polycystic ovarian syndrome, uterine leiomyomas and endometriosis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Annu; Goel, Madhu Mati; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo

    2012-03-01

    PI3K-Akt-mTOR and MAP kinase are two important cell signaling pathways that are activated by steroid hormones and growth factors leading to cellular events including gene expression, cell proliferation and survival. These pathways are considered as an attractive target for the development of novel anticancer molecules, and selective inhibitors specifically targeting different components of these cascades have been developed. This review summarizes the current available knowledge on the PI3K-Akt-mTOR and MAPK pathways and their targeting in estrogen-dependent benign gynecological disorders viz. polycystic ovarian syndrome, uterine leiomyomas and endometriosis, which are a significant cause of high morbidity in women of reproductive age group. Increasing knowledge about the role of the two growth regulatory pathways in the pathogenesis of these disorders may give the opportunity to use specific signal transduction inhibitors for management of these patients in future.

  9. Shikonin promotes autophagy in BXPC-3 human pancreatic cancer cells through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    OpenAIRE

    SHI, SHUQING; CAO, HAIMEI

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of shikonin on autophagy in BXPC-3 human pancreatic cancer cells and its underlying mechanism. Cell viability was assessed using the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and the expression of light chain (LC) 3, p62, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, phosphorylated (p)-PI3K and p-Akt was analyzed using western blot analysis. Following treatment with 1 μmol/l shikonin for 48 h and 2.5 and 5 μmol/l shikonin for 24 and 48 h, the viability of the BXPC-3...

  10. A single ataxia telangiectasia gene with a product similar to PI-3 kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savitsky, K.; Bar-Shira, A.; Gilad, S.; Rotman, G.; Ziv, Y.; Vanagaite, L.; Smith, S.; Uziel, T.; Sfez, S.; Ashkenazi, M. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)] [and others

    1995-06-23

    A gene, ATM, that is mutated in the autosomal recessive disorder ataxia telangiectasia (AT) was identified by positional cloning on chromosome 11q22-23. AT is characterized by cerebellar degeneration, immunodeficiency, chromosomal instability, cancer predisposition, radiation sensitivity, and cell cycle abnormalities. The disease is genetically heterogeneous, with four complementation groups that have been suspected to represent different genes. ATM, which has a transcript of 12 kilobases, was found to be mutated in AT patients from all complementation groups, indicating that it is probably the sole gene responsible for this disorder. A partial ATM complementary DNA clone of 5.9 kilobases encoded a putative protein that is similar to several yeast and mammalian phosphatidylinositol-3{prime} kinases that are involved in mitogenic signal transduction, meiotic recombination, and cell cycle control. The discovery of ATM should enhance understanding of AT and related syndromes and may allow the identification of AT heterozygotes, who are at increased risk of cancer. 54 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. PI3K/Akt1 signalling specifies foregut precursors by generating regionalized extra-cellular matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villegas, S Nahuel; Rothová, Michaela; Barrios-Llerena, Martin E

    2013-01-01

    During embryonic development signalling pathways act repeatedly in different contexts to pattern the emerging germ layers. Understanding how these different responses are regulated is a central question for developmental biology. In this study, we used mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) differentia......During embryonic development signalling pathways act repeatedly in different contexts to pattern the emerging germ layers. Understanding how these different responses are regulated is a central question for developmental biology. In this study, we used mouse embryonic stem cell (m......ESC) differentiation to uncover a new mechanism for PI3K signalling that is required for endoderm specification. We found that PI3K signalling promotes the transition from naïve endoderm precursors into committed anterior endoderm. PI3K promoted commitment via an atypical activity that delimited epithelial......-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Akt1 transduced this activity via modifications to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and appropriate ECM could itself induce anterior endodermal identity in the absence of PI3K signalling. PI3K/Akt1-modified ECM contained low levels of Fibronectin (Fn1) and we found that Fn1 dose was key...

  12. Nontranscriptional activation of PI3K/Akt signaling mediates hypotensive effect following activation of estrogen receptor β in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Kay LH

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen acts on the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, where sympathetic premotor neurons are located, to elicit vasodepressor effects via an estrogen receptor (ERβ-dependent mechanism. We investigated in the present study nontranscriptional mechanism on cardiovascular effects following activation of ERβ in the RVLM, and delineated the involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/serine/threonine kinase (Akt signaling pathway in the effects. Methods In male Sprague–Dawley rats maintained under propofol anesthesia, changes in arterial pressure, heart rate and sympathetic neurogenic vasomotor tone were examined after microinjection bilaterally into RVLM of 17β-estradiol (E2β or a selective ERα or ERβ agonist. Involvement of ER subtypes and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the induced cardiovascular effects were studied using pharmacological tools of antagonists or inhibitors, gene manipulation with antisense oligonucleotide (ASON or adenovirus-mediated gene transfection. Results Similar to E2β (1 pmol, microinjection of ERβ agonist, diarylpropionitrile (DPN, 1, 2 or 5 pmol, into bilateral RVLM evoked dose-dependent hypotension and reduction in sympathetic neurogenic vasomotor tone. These vasodepressive effects of DPN (2 pmol were inhibited by ERβ antagonist, R,R-tetrahydrochrysene (50 pmol, ASON against ERβ mRNA (250 pmol, PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (5 pmol, or Akt inhibitor (250 pmol, but not by ERα inhibitor, methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (1 nmol, or transcription inhibitor, actinomycin D (5 or 10 nmol. Gene transfer by microinjection into bilateral RVLM of adenovirus encoding phosphatase and tensin homologues deleted on chromosome 10 (5 × 108 pfu reversed the vasodepressive effects of DPN. Conclusions Our results indicate that vasodepressive effects following activation of ERβ in RVLM are mediated by nongenomic activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study provides new insight in the

  13. Hedgehog/GLI and PI3K signaling in the initiation and maintenance of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, D; Regl, G; Hofbauer, S W; Altenhofer, P; Achatz, G; Dlugosz, A; Schnidar, H; Greil, R; Hartmann, T N; Aberger, F

    2015-10-16

    The initiation and maintenance of a malignant phenotype requires complex and synergistic interactions of multiple oncogenic signals. The Hedgehog (HH)/GLI pathway has been implicated in a variety of cancer entities and targeted pathway inhibition is of therapeutic relevance. Signal cross-talk with other cancer pathways including PI3K/AKT modulates HH/GLI signal strength and its oncogenicity. In this study, we addressed the role of HH/GLI and its putative interaction with the PI3K/AKT cascade in the initiation and maintenance of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Using transgenic mouse models, we show that B-cell-specific constitutive activation of HH/GLI signaling either at the level of the HH effector and drug target Smoothened or at the level of the GLI transcription factors does not suffice to initiate a CLL-like phenotype characterized by the accumulation of CD5(+) B cells in the lymphatic system and peripheral blood. Furthermore, Hh/Gli activation in Pten-deficient B cells with activated Pi3K/Akt signaling failed to enhance the expansion of leukemic CD5(+) B cells, suggesting that genetic or epigenetic alterations leading to aberrant HH/GLI signaling in B cells do not suffice to elicit a CLL-like phenotype in mice. By contrast, we identify a critical role of GLI and PI3K signaling for the survival of human primary CLL cells. We show that combined targeting of GLI and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling can have a synergistic therapeutic effect in cells from a subgroup of CLL patients, thereby providing a basis for the evaluation of future combination therapies targeting HH/GLI and PI3K signaling in this common hematopoietic malignancy.

  14. Major vault protein supports glioblastoma survival and migration by upregulating the EGFR/PI3K signalling axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Daniela; Steiner, Elisabeth; Holzmann, Klaus; Spiegl-Kreinecker, Sabine; Pirker, Christine; Hlavaty, Juraj; Petznek, Helga; Hegedus, Balazs; Garay, Tamas; Mohr, Thomas; Sommergruber, Wolfgang; Grusch, Michael; Berger, Walter

    2013-11-01

    Despite their ubiquitous expression and high conservation during evolution, precise cellular functions of vault ribonucleoparticles, mainly built of multiple major vault protein (MVP) copies, are still enigmatic. With regard to cancer, vaults were shown to be upregulated during drug resistance development as well as malignant transformation and progression. Such in a previous study we demonstrated that human astrocytic brain tumours including glioblastoma are generally high in vault levels while MVP expression in normal brain is comparably low. However a direct contribution to the malignant phenotype in general and that of glioblastoma in particular has not been established so far. Thus we address the questions whether MVP itself has a pro-tumorigenic function in glioblastoma. Based on a large tissue collection, we re-confirm strong MVP expression in gliomas as compared to healthy brain. Further, the impact of MVP on human glioblastoma aggressiveness was analysed by using gene transfection, siRNA knock-down and dominant-negative genetic approaches. Our results demonstrate that MVP/vaults significantly support migratory and invasive competence as well as starvation resistance of glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. The enhanced aggressiveness was based on MVP-mediated stabilization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signalling axis. Consequently, MVP overexpression resulted in enhanced growth and brain invasion in human glioblastoma xenograft models. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, that vaults have a tumour-promoting potential by stabilizing EGFR/PI3K-mediated migration and survival pathways in human glioblastoma.

  15. Skin Aging-Dependent Activation of the PI3K Signaling Pathway via Downregulation of PTEN Increases Intracellular ROS in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Mi Noh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a major role in both chronological aging and photoaging. ROS induce skin aging through their damaging effect on cellular constituents. However, the origins of ROS have not been fully elucidated. We investigated that ROS generation of replicative senescent fibroblasts is generated by the modulation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3 metabolism. Reduction of the PTEN protein, which dephosphorylates PIP3, was responsible for maintaining a high level of PIP3 in replicative cells and consequently mediated the activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway. Increased ROS production was blocked by inhibition of PI3K or protein kinase C (PKC or by NADPH oxidase activating in replicative senescent cells. These data indicate that the signal pathway to ROS generation in replicative aged skin cells can be stimulated by reduced PTEN level. Our results provide new insights into skin aging-associated modification of the PI3K/NADPH oxidase signaling pathway and its relationship with a skin aging-dependent increase of ROS in human dermal fibroblasts.

  16. PI3K/Akt signaling mediated Hexokinase-2 expression inhibits cell apoptosis and promotes tumor growth in pediatric osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuo, Baobiao; Li, Yuan; Li, Zhengwei; Qin, Haihui; Sun, Qingzeng; Zhang, Fengfei; Shen, Yang; Shi, Yingchun [Department of Surgery, The Children' s Hospital of Xuzhou, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province 221006 (China); Wang, Rong, E-mail: wangrong2008163@163.com [Department of Ultrasonography, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province 221006 (China)

    2015-08-21

    Accumulating evidence has shown that PI3K/Akt pathway is frequently hyperactivated in osteosarcoma (OS) and contributes to tumor initiation and progression. Altered phenotype of glucose metabolism is a key hallmark of cancer cells including OS. However, the relationship between PI3K/Akt pathway and glucose metabolism in OS remains largely unexplored. In this study, we showed that elevated Hexokinase-2 (HK2) expression, which catalyzes the first essential step of glucose metabolism by conversion of glucose into glucose-6-phosphate, was induced by activated PI3K/Akt signaling. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that HK2 was overexpressed in 83.3% (25/30) specimens detected and was closely correlated with Ki67, a cell proliferation index. Silencing of endogenous HK2 resulted in decreased aerobic glycolysis as demonstrated by reduced glucose consumption and lactate production. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling also suppressed aerobic glycolysis and this effect can be reversed by reintroduction of HK2. Furthermore, knockdown of HK2 led to increased cell apoptosis and reduced ability of colony formation; meanwhile, these effects were blocked by 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a glycolysis inhibitor through its actions on hexokinase, indicating that HK2 functions in cell apoptosis and growth were mediated by altered aerobic glycolysis. Taken together, our study reveals a novel relationship between PI3K/Akt signaling and aerobic glycolysis and indicates that PI3K/Akt/HK2 might be potential therapeutic approaches for OS. - Highlights: • PI3K/Akt signaling contributes to elevated expression of HK2 in osteosarcoma. • HK2 inhibits cell apoptosis and promotes tumor growth through enhanced Warburg effect. • Inhibition of glycolysis blocks the oncogenic activity of HK2.

  17. GDNF-independent ureteric budding: role of PI3K-independent activation of AKT and FOSB/JUN/AP-1 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Tee

    2013-07-01

    A significant fraction of mice deficient in either glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF or its co-receptors (Gfrα1, Ret, undergoes ureteric bud (UB outgrowth leading to the formation of a rudimentary kidney. Previous studies using the isolated Wolffian duct (WD culture indicate that activation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF receptor signaling, together with suppression of BMP/Activin signaling, is critical for GDNF-independent WD budding (Maeshima et al., 2007. By expression analysis of embryonic kidney from Ret(−/− mice, we found the upregulation of several FGFs, including FGF7. To examine the intracellular pathways, we then analyzed GDNF-dependent and GDNF-independent budding in the isolated WD culture. In both conditions, Akt activation was found to be important; however, whereas this occurred through PI3-kinase in GDNF-dependent budding, in the case of GDNF-independent budding, Akt activation was apparently via a PI3-kinase independent mechanism. Jnk signaling and the AP-1 transcription factor complex were also implicated in GDNF-independent budding. FosB, a binding partner of c-Jun in the formation of AP-1, was the most highly upregulated gene in the ret knockout kidney (in which budding had still occurred, and we found that its siRNA-mediated knockdown in isolated WDs also blocked GDNF-independent budding. Taken together with the finding that inhibition of Jnk signaling does not block Akt activation/phosphorylation in GDNF-independent budding, the data support necessary roles for both FosB/Jun/AP-1 signaling and PI3-kinase-independent activation of Akt in GDNF-independent budding. A model is proposed for signaling events that involve Akt and JNK working to regulate GDNF-independent WD budding.

  18. Stathmin is involved in arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell lines via PI3K linked signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Ren, Ji-Hong; Lin, Fang; Wei, Jun-Xia; Long, Min; Yan, Lin; Zhang, Hui-Zhong

    2010-09-15

    Although the mechanisms of arsenic trioxide (As2O3)-induced apoptosis have been elucidated extensively in hematologic cancers, those in solid tumors have yet to be clearly defined. In the present study, we show that As2O3 triggers apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway and significantly downregulates stathmin expression. Decreased stathmin expression is necessary for the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δ ψm), the translocation of cytochrome C from the mitochondria to the cytosol, and subsequent cell death. Overexpression of wild type stathmin effectively delays As2O3-mediated mitochondrial events. Conversely, expression of a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting stathmin enhances As2O3-triggered apoptosis in cell culture and in mouse models. Furthermore, we demonstrate that As2O3-induced stathmin downregulation is mediated through the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway, and that a PI3K inhibitor effectively attenuated stathmin downregulation and cell apoptosis upon As2O3-treatment. These data support a stathmin-dependent pathway of As2O3-mediated cell death in solid tumor cells, and indicate that stathmin is a target of the PI3K/Akt pathway in cervical cancer cells. All these results may provide a rationale for improving the efficacy of As2O3 as a therapeutic agent through combination treatment with stathmin inhibition or PI3K/Akt inhibitors.

  19. Protective Effect of Tempol on Acute Kidney Injury Through PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gensheng Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Tempol is a protective antioxidant against ischemic injury in many animal models. The molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2 is a master transcription factor during oxidative stress, which is enhanced by activation of protein kinase C (PKC pathway. Another factor, tubular epithelial apoptosis, is mediated by activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (PKB, Akt signaling pathway during renal ischemic injury. We tested the hypothesis that tempol activates PKC or PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 pathways to transcribe many genes that coordinate endogenous antioxidant defense. Methods: The right renal pedicle was clamped for 45 minutes and the left kidney was removed to study renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury in C57BL/6 mice. The response was assessed from serum parameters, renal morphology and renal expression of PKC, phosphorylated-PKC (p-PKC, Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, Akt, phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt, pro-caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3 in groups of sham and I/R mice given vehicle, or tempol (50 or 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection. Results: The serum malondialdehyde (MDA, marker of reactive oxygen species doubled and the BUN and creatinine increased 5- to 10-fold after I/R injury. Tempol (50 or 100 mg/kg prevented the increases in MDA but only tempol (50 mg/kg lessened the increases in BUN and creatinine and moderated the acute tubular necrosis. I/R did not change expression of PKC or p-PKC but reduced renal expression of Nrf2, p-Akt, HO-1 and pro-caspase-3 and increased cleaved caspase-3. Tempol (50 mg/kg prevented these changes produced by I/R whereas tempol (100 mg/kg had lesser or inconsistent effects. Conclusion: Tempol (50 mg/kg prevents lipid peroxidation and attenuates renal damage after I/R injury. The beneficial pathway apparently is not dependent on upregulation or phosphorylation of PKC, at lower tempol doses, does implicate upregulation of Akt with

  20. Inhibition of protein kinase C delta attenuates allergic airway inflammation through suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/HIF-1 alpha/VEGF pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ho Choi

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is supposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic airway disease. VEGF expression is regulated by a variety of stimuli such as nitric oxide, growth factors, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α. Recently, inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR has been shown to alleviate cardinal asthmatic features, including airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilic inflammation, and increased vascular permeability in asthma models. Based on these observations, we have investigated whether mTOR is associated with HIF-1α-mediated VEGF expression in allergic asthma. In studies with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, we have elucidated the stimulatory role of a mTOR-HIF-1α-VEGF axis in allergic response. Next, the mechanisms by which mTOR is activated to modulate this response have been evaluated. mTOR is known to be regulated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt or protein kinase C-delta (PKC δ in various cell types. Consistent with these, our results have revealed that suppression of PKC δ by rottlerin leads to the inhibition of PI3K/Akt activity and the subsequent blockade of a mTOR-HIF-1α-VEGF module, thereby attenuating typical asthmatic attack in a murine model. Thus, the present data indicate that PKC δ is necessary for the modulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling cascade, resulting in a tight regulation of HIF-1α activity and VEGF expression. In conclusion, PKC δ may represent a valuable target for innovative therapeutic treatment of allergic airway disease.

  1. Ischemic postconditioning alleviates rat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway%缺血后处理通过PI3K信号通路抑制脑缺血再灌注损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫利; 王志; 肖松华; 刘运林; 周海红; 邢诒刚

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the neuroprotective effect of ischcmic posteonditioning (IP)against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase(P13K)signaling pathway in the neuroprotection. Methods Focal cerebral ischernia was induced in 24 SD rats by permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion and transient bilateral comlllOn carotid artery occlusion.The rats were then randomized into 4 groups for treatment with IP,LY294002+IP,DMSO+IP,or without IP.In LY294002+IP and DMSO+IP groups,LY294002 or DMSO was injcoted into the ventricular space on the ischemic side 1 h before ischemia.The cerebral infarct sizes wgre measured in all the 4 groups at 48h after the reperfusion.Results Cerebral infarcts were observed in all the groups on theischemic side,all locating in the left neocortex and the middle cerebral artery territory.At48h after reperfusion,the infarct size was significantly smaller in rats with IP(34.02%±7.17%)than in those without IP(57.05%±10.05%)(P<0.05),and significantly larger in LY294002+IP group(73.41%±2.06%)than in DMSO+IP group(35.76%±1.51%)(P<0.05).No significant difference was found in the infarctsize between DMSO+IP group and IP group(P>0.05).Conclusion IP ameliorates cerebral reperfusion mjury in rats,and the mechanism of this neuroprotective effect involves the preservation of PI3K activity.%目的 研究缺血后处理(IP)对脑缺血再灌注损伤的影响及其机制.方法 采用开颅机械闭塞法建立SD大鼠局灶性脑缺血模型,通过开放/夹闭双侧颈总动脉实现IP.24只大鼠按照随机数字表法分为IP组、非IP组、LY294002+IP组、DMSO+IP组,每组6只,再灌注48 h后测脑梗死面积;其中LY294002、DMSO于建模前1 h侧脑室注入.结果 各组左侧大脑皮层均可见清晰梗死灶,符合血管分布范围.其中IP组腩梗死面积(34.02%±7.17%)明显小于非IP组(57.05%±10.05%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);LY294002+IP组脑梗死面积(73.41%±2.06%)

  2. JNK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in diabetic rats: effects of salvianolic acid A intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiuping; Xu, Tongda; Li, Dongye; Pan, Defeng; Wu, Pei; Luo, Yuanyuan; Ma, Yanfeng; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that diabetes impairs the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway, while insulin resistance syndrome has been associated with alterations of this pathway in diabetic rats after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), and activation of C-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is involved. The present study was designed to investigate whether inhibiting JNK activity would partially restore the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and protect against myocardial I/R injury in diabetic rats, and to explore the effect of intervention with salvianolic acid A (Sal A). The inhibitor of JNK (SP600125) and Sal A were used in type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats, outcome measures included heart hemodynamic data, myocardial infarct size, the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), SERCA2a activity, cardiomyocyte apotosis, expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax and cleaved caspase-3, and the phosphorylation status of Akt and JNK. The p-Akt levels were increased after myocardial I/R in non-diabetic rats, while there was no change in diabetic rats. Pretreatment with the SP600125 and Sal A decreased the p-JNK levels and increased the p-Akt levels in diabetic rats with I/R, and heart hemodynamic data improved, infarct size and LDH release decreased, SERCA2a activity increased, Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression levels decreased, and the expression of Bcl-2 and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio increased. Our results suggest that the JNK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in myocardial I/R injury in diabetic rats and Sal A exerts an anti-apoptotic effect and improves cardiac function following I/R injury through the JNK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in this model.

  3. Salidroside improves behavioral and histological outcomes and reduces apoptosis via PI3K/Akt signaling after experimental traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Fu; Tsai, Hsin-Ju; Hung, Tai-Ho; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Lee, Chao Yu; Wu, Chun-Hu; Wang, Pei-Yi; Liao, Nien-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a complex sequence of apopototic cascades that contribute to secondary tissue damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of salidroside, a phenolic glycoside with potent anti-apoptotic properties, on behavioral and histological outcomes, brain edema, and apoptosis following experimental TBI and the possible involvement of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Mice subjected to controlled cortical impact injury received intraperitoneal salidroside (20, or 50 mg/kg) or vehicle injection 10 min after injury. Behavioral studies, histology analysis and brain water content assessment were performed. Levels of PI3K/Akt signaling-related molecules, apoptosis-related proteins, cytochrome C (CytoC), and Smac/DIABLO were also analyzed. LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, was administered to examine the mechanism of protection. The protective effect of salidroside was also investigated in primary cultured neurons subjected to stretch injury. Treatment with 20 mg/kg salidroside significantly improved functional recovery and reduced brain tissue damage up to post-injury day 28. Salidroside also significantly reduced neuronal death, apoptosis, and brain edema at day 1. These changes were associated with significant decreases in cleaved caspase-3, CytoC, and Smac/DIABLO at days 1 and 3. Salidroside increased phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 and the mitochondrial Bcl-2/Bax ratio at day 1, and enhanced phosphorylation of Akt on Thr308 at day 3. This beneficial effect was abolished by pre-injection of LY294002. Moreover, delayed administration of salidroside at 3 or 6 h post-injury reduced neuronal damage at day 1. Salidroside treatment also decreased neuronal vulnerability to stretch-induced injury in vitro. Post-injury salidroside improved long-term behavioral and histological outcomes and reduced brain edema and apoptosis following TBI, at least partially via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  4. The pyrrolidinoindoline alkaloid Psm2 inhibits platelet aggregation and thrombus formation by affecting PI3K/Akt signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xing-li; Su, Wen; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yue-hu; Ming, Xin; Kong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Psm2, one of the pyrrolidinoindoline alkaloids isolated from whole Selaginella moellendorffii plants, has shown a potent antiplatelet activity. In this study, we further evaluated the antiplatelet effects of Psm2, and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Human platelet aggregation in vitro and rat platelet aggregation ex vivo were investigated. Agonist-induced platelet aggregation was measured using a light transmission aggregometer. The antithrombotic effects of Psm2 were evaluated in arteriovenous shunt thrombosis model in rats. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the antiplatelet activity of Psm2, ELISAs, Western blotting and molecular docking were performed. The bleeding risk of Psm2 administration was assessed in a mouse tail cutting model, and the cytotoxicity of Psm2 was measured with MTT assay in EA.hy926 cells. Results: Psm2 dose-dependently inhibited human platelet aggregation induced by ADP, U4619, thrombin and collagen with IC50 values of 0.64, 0.37, 0.35 and 0.87 mg/mL, respectively. Psm2 (1, 3, 10 mg/kg) administered to rats significantly inhibited platelet aggregation ex vivo induced by ADP. Psm2 (1, 3, 10 mg/mL, iv) administered to rats with the A–V shunt dose-dependently decreased the thrombus formation. Psm2 inhibited platelet adhesion to fibrinogen and collagen with IC50 values of 84.5 and 96.5 mg/mL, respectively, but did not affect the binding of fibrinogen to GPIIb/IIIa. Furthermore, Psm2 inhibited AktSer473 phosphorylation, but did not affect MAPK signaling and Src kinase activation. Molecular docking showed that Psm2 bound to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase β (PI3Kβ) with a binding free energy of −13.265 kcal/mol. In addition, Psm2 did not cause toxicity in EA.hy926 cells and produced only slight bleeding in a mouse tail cutting model. Conclusion: Psm2 inhibits platelet aggregation and thrombus formation by affecting PI3K/Akt signaling. Psm2 may be a lead compound or drug candidate that could be developed for the

  5. Hyperbaric oxygen protects mandibular condylar chondrocytes from interleukin-1β-induced apoptosis via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hang; Wu, Gaoyi; Sun, Qi; Dong, Yabing; Zhao, Huaqiang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Mandibular condylar chondrocyte apoptosis is mainly responsible for the development and progression of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) generally serves an agent that induces chondrocyte apoptosis. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment increases proteoglycan synthesis in vivo. We explore the protective effect of HBO on IL-1β-induced mandibular condylar chondrocyte apoptosis in rats and the potential molecular mechanisms. Methods: Chondrocytes were isolated from the TMJ of 3-4-week old Sprague-Dawley rats. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to determine cell viability. The phosphorylated phosphoinositide-3 kinase (p-PI3K), phosphorylated AKT (p-Akt), type II collagen (COL2), and aggrecan (AGG) content was detected by immunofluorescence, immunocytochemistry and western blotting. The expression of Pi3k, Akt, Col2 and Agg mRNA was measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Results: HBO inhibited the cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by IL-1β (10 ng/mL) in the mandibular condylar chondrocytes. HBO also decreased the IL-1β activity that decreased p-PI3K and p-AKT levels, and increased COL2 and AGG expression, with the net effect of suppressing extracellular matrix degradation. Conclusions: These data suggest that HBO may protect mandibular condylar chondrocytes against IL-1β-induced apoptosis via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and that it may promote the expression of mandibular condylar chondrocyte extracellular matrix through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:27904712

  6. PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling in prostate cancer progression and androgen deprivation therapy resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Merritt P Edlind; Andrew C Hsieh

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common malignancy among men in the world. Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is the lethal form of the disease, which develops upon resistance to ifrst line androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Emerging evidence demonstrates a key role for the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling axis in the development and maintenance of CRPC. This pathway, which is deregulated in the majority of advanced PCas, serves as a critical nexus for the integration of growth signals with downstream cellular processes such as protein synthesis, proliferation, survival, metabolism and differentiation, thus providing mechanisms for cancer cells to overcome the stress associated with androgen deprivation. Furthermore, preclinical studies have elucidated a direct connection between the PI3K-AKT-mTOR and androgen receptor (AR) signaling axes, revealing a dynamic interplay between these pathways during the development of ADT resistance. Thus, there is a clear rationale for the continued clinical development of a number of novel inhibitors of the PI3K pathway, which offer the potential of blocking CRPC growth and survival. In this review, we will explore the relevance of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway in PCa progression and castration resistance in order to inform the clinical development of speciifc pathway inhibitors in advanced PCa. In addition, we will highlight current deifciencies in our clinical knowledge, most notably the need for biomarkers that can accurately predict for response to PI3K pathway inhibitors.

  7. Sinulariolide Suppresses Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Migration and Invasion by Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinase-2/-9 through MAPKs and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways.

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    Wu, Yu-Jen; Neoh, Choo-Aun; Tsao, Chia-Yu; Su, Jui-Hsin; Li, Hsing-Hui

    2015-07-20

    Sinulariolide is an active compound isolated from the cultured soft coral Sinularia flexibilis. In this study, we investigate the migration and invasion effects of sinulariolide in hepatocellular carcinoma cell HA22T. Sinulariolide inhibited the migration and invasion effects of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The results of zymography assay showed that sinulariolide suppressed the activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Moreover, protein levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) were reduced by sinulariolide in a concentration-dependent manner. Sinulariolide also exerted an inhibitory effect on phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2). Taken together, these results demonstrated that sinulariolide could inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration and invasion and alter HA22T cell metastasis by reduction of MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA expression through the suppression of MAPKs, PI3K/Akt, and the FAK/GRB2 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that sinulariolide merits further evaluation as a chemotherapeutic agent for human hepatocellular carcinoma.

  8. Evidence that insulin-like growth factor-1 requires protein kinase C-epsilon, PI3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways to protect human vascular smooth muscle cells from apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Todd R; Krueger, Kristopher D; Hunter, William J; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2005-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 has been implicated in the development of occlusive vascular lesions. Although its role in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth and migration are fairly well characterized, anti-apoptotic signals of IGF-1 in human VSMC remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined IGF-1 signals that protect human and rat VSMC from staurosporine (STAU)- and c-myc- induced apoptosis, respectively. Treatment with STAU resulted in apoptotic DNA fragmentation, phosphatidylserine externalization and cell shrinkage, but only occasional VSMC 'blebbing'. STAU-induced death and IGF-1-mediated survival were concentration dependent, while time-lapse video microscopy showed that IGF-1 inhibited c-myc-induced apoptosis by 90%. Pretreatment with mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors UO126 and PD098059, or with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor wortmannin, reversed IGF-1-mediated human VSMC survival by 25-27% and 66%, respectively. Translocation studies showed that IGF-1 activated protein kinase C (PKC)-epsilon, but not PKC-alpha or PKC-delta, even in the presence of STAU, while pharmacological PKC inhibition (Ro-318220 or Go6976) implicated PKC-zeta or a novel PKC isozyme in IGF-1-mediated survival. Transient expression of activated PKC-epsilon but not activated PKC-zeta decreased myc-induced apoptosis in rat VSMC. In human VSMC, antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to PKC-epsilon partially reversed IGF-1-induced survival. In addition, IGF-1 elicited a mild but sustained activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in human VSMC that was abolished after 1 h in the presence of STAU. PKC downregulation reversed both IGF-1- and PMA-induced ERK activity, but platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced activity was unchanged. These results indicate for the first time that IGF-1 can protect human VSMC via multiple signals, including PKC-epsilon, PI3-K and mitogen

  9. PI3K is an upstream regulator of the PDE3B pathway of leptin signaling that may not involve activation of Akt in the rat hypothalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Abhiram; Koshinaka, Keiichi; Sahu, Maitrayee

    2012-01-01

    Leptin, the product of the obese gene, regulates energy homeostasis by acting primarily at the level of the hypothalamus. Leptin action through its receptor involves various pathways including the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B)-cAMP signaling in the CNS and peripheral tissues. In the hypothalamus, leptin stimulates STAT3 activation, and induces PI3K and PDE3B activities, among others. We have previously demonstrated that PDE3B activation in the hypothalamus is critical for transducing anorectic and body weight reducing effects of leptin. Similarly, PI3K has been implicated toplay a critical role in leptin signaling in the hypothalamus. Whereas in insulin signaling pathway, PI3K is known to be an upstream regulator of PDE3B in non-neuronal tissues, it is still unknown whether this is also the case for leptin signaling in the hypothalamus. To address this possibility, the effect of wortmannin, a specific PI3K inhibitor, was examined on the leptin-induced PDE3B activity in the hypothalamus of male rats. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of leptin (4 μg) significantly increased PDE3B activity by 2-fold in the hypothalamus as expected. However, prior administration of wortmannin completely reversed the stimulatory effect of leptin on PDE3B activity in the hypothalamus. To demonstrate whether leptin stimulates p-Akt levels and there by a possible upstream regulator of PDE3B, we examined the effects of icv leptin on p-Akt levels in the hypothalamus and compared that with the known stimulatory effect of insulin on p-Akt. We observed that insulin increased p-Akt levels but leptin failed to do so although it increased p-STAT3 levels in the rat hypothalamus. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the biochemical finding in that leptin failed but insulin increased the number of p-Akt positive cells in various hypothalamic nuclei. Altogether these results implicate PI3K but not Akt

  10. Novel Role for p110β PI 3-Kinase in Male Fertility through Regulation of Androgen Receptor Activity in Sertoli Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermet-Guibert, Julie; Smith, Lee B.; Halet, Guillaume; Whitehead, Maria A.; Pearce, Wayne; Rebourcet, Diane; León, Kelly; Crépieux, Pascale; Nock, Gemma; Strömstedt, Maria; Enerback, Malin; Chelala, Claude; Graupera, Mariona; Carroll, John; Cosulich, Sabina; Saunders, Philippa T. K.; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart

    2015-01-01

    The organismal roles of the ubiquitously expressed class I PI3K isoform p110β remain largely unknown. Using a new kinase-dead knockin mouse model that mimics constitutive pharmacological inactivation of p110β, we document that full inactivation of p110β leads to embryonic lethality in a substantial fraction of mice. Interestingly, the homozygous p110β kinase-dead mice that survive into adulthood (maximum ~26% on a mixed genetic background) have no apparent phenotypes, other than subfertility in females and complete infertility in males. Systemic inhibition of p110β results in a highly specific blockade in the maturation of spermatogonia to spermatocytes. p110β was previously suggested to signal downstream of the c-kit tyrosine kinase receptor in germ cells to regulate their proliferation and survival. We now report that p110β also plays a germ cell-extrinsic role in the Sertoli cells (SCs) that support the developing sperm, with p110β inactivation dampening expression of the SC-specific Androgen Receptor (AR) target gene Rhox5, a homeobox gene critical for spermatogenesis. All extragonadal androgen-dependent functions remain unaffected by global p110β inactivation. In line with a crucial role for p110β in SCs, selective inactivation of p110β in these cells results in male infertility. Our study is the first documentation of the involvement of a signalling enzyme, PI3K, in the regulation of AR activity during spermatogenesis. This developmental pathway may become active in prostate cancer where p110β and AR have previously been reported to functionally interact. PMID:26132308

  11. Novel Role for p110β PI 3-Kinase in Male Fertility through Regulation of Androgen Receptor Activity in Sertoli Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Guillermet-Guibert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The organismal roles of the ubiquitously expressed class I PI3K isoform p110β remain largely unknown. Using a new kinase-dead knockin mouse model that mimics constitutive pharmacological inactivation of p110β, we document that full inactivation of p110β leads to embryonic lethality in a substantial fraction of mice. Interestingly, the homozygous p110β kinase-dead mice that survive into adulthood (maximum ~26% on a mixed genetic background have no apparent phenotypes, other than subfertility in females and complete infertility in males. Systemic inhibition of p110β results in a highly specific blockade in the maturation of spermatogonia to spermatocytes. p110β was previously suggested to signal downstream of the c-kit tyrosine kinase receptor in germ cells to regulate their proliferation and survival. We now report that p110β also plays a germ cell-extrinsic role in the Sertoli cells (SCs that support the developing sperm, with p110β inactivation dampening expression of the SC-specific Androgen Receptor (AR target gene Rhox5, a homeobox gene critical for spermatogenesis. All extragonadal androgen-dependent functions remain unaffected by global p110β inactivation. In line with a crucial role for p110β in SCs, selective inactivation of p110β in these cells results in male infertility. Our study is the first documentation of the involvement of a signalling enzyme, PI3K, in the regulation of AR activity during spermatogenesis. This developmental pathway may become active in prostate cancer where p110β and AR have previously been reported to functionally interact.

  12. PI3-kinase-dependent activation of apoptotic machinery oc-curs on commitment of epidermal keratinocytes to terminal differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sam M Janes; Tyler A Ofstad; Douglas H Campbell; Ayad Eddaoudi; Gary Warnes; Derek Davies; Fiona M Watt

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the earliest events in commitment of human epidermal keratinocytes to terminal differen-tiation. Phosphorylated Akt and caspase activation were detected in cells exiting the basal layer of the epidermis. Activation of Akt by retroviral transduction of primary cultures of human keratinocytes resulted in an increase in abortive clones founded by transit amplifying cells, while inhibition of the upstream kinase, Pl3-kinase, inhibited suspension-induced terminal differentiation. Caspase inhibition also blocked differentiation, the primary mediator being caspase 8. Caspase activation was initiated by 2 h in suspension, preceding the onset of expression of the termi-nal differentiation marker involucrin by several hours. Incubation of suspended cells with fibronectin or inhibition of PI3-kinase prevented caspase induction. At 2 h in suspension, keratinocytes that had become committed to terminal differentiation had increased side scatter, were 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) positive and annexin V negative; they exhibited loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased cardiolipin oxidation, but with no increase in reac-tive oxygen species. These properties indicate that the onset of terminal differentiation, while regulated by Pl3-kinase and caspases, is not a classical apoptotic process.

  13. Fluid shear stress inhibits TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis in osteoblasts: a role for fluid shear stress-induced activation of PI3-kinase and inhibition of caspase-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavalko, Fredrick M.; Gerard, Rita L.; Ponik, Suzanne M.; Gallagher, Patricia J.; Jin, Yijun; Norvell, Suzanne M.

    2003-01-01

    In bone, a large proportion of osteoblasts, the cells responsible for deposition of new bone, normally undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis). Because mechanical loading of bone increases the rate of new bone formation, we hypothesized that mechanical stimulation of osteoblasts might increase their survival. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of fluid shear stress (FSS) on osteoblast apoptosis using three osteoblast cell types: primary rat calvarial osteoblasts (RCOB), MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells, and UMR106 osteosarcoma cells. Cells were treated with TNF-alpha in the presence of cyclohexamide (CHX) to rapidly induce apoptosis. Osteoblasts showed significant signs of apoptosis within 4-6 h of exposure to TNF-alpha and CHX, and application of FSS (12 dyne/cm(2)) significantly attenuated this TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. FSS activated PI3-kinase signaling, induced phosphorylation of Akt, and inhibited TNF-alpha-induced activation of caspase-3. Inhibition of PI3-kinase, using LY294002, blocked the ability of FSS to rescue osteoblasts from TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis and blocked FSS-induced inhibition of caspase-3 activation in osteoblasts treated with TNF-alpha. LY294002 did not, however, prevent FSS-induced phosphorylation of Akt suggesting that activation of Akt alone is not sufficient to rescue cells from apoptosis. This result also suggests that FSS can activate Akt via a PI3-kinase-independent pathway. These studies demonstrate for the first time that application of FSS to osteoblasts in vitro results in inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis through a mechanism involving activation of PI3-kinase signaling and inhibition of caspases. FSS-induced activation of PI3-kinase may promote cell survival through a mechanism that is distinct from the Akt-mediated survival pathway. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Arctigenin, a Natural Lignan Compound, Induces Apoptotic Death of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells via Suppression of PI3-K/Akt Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoxin; Zeng, Leping; Huang, Jufang; Zhou, Hui; Liu, Yubin

    2015-04-28

    In this study, we explored the cytotoxic effects of arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and check the involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt signaling. HCC cells were treated with different concentrations of arctigenin and cell viability and apoptosis were assessed. Manipulating Akt signaling was used to determine its role in the action of arctigenin. Arctigenin significantly inhibited the viability of HCC cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Arctigenin induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-9 and -3. Overexpression of a constitutively active Akt mutant blocked arctigenin-induced apoptosis. Combinational treatment with arctigenin and the PI3-K inhibitor LY294002 significantly enhanced apoptosis. Arctigenin reduced the expression of Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, and survivin and the phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K, which were significantly reversed by overexpression of constitutively active Akt. This is the first report about the anticancer activity of arctigenin in HCC cells, which is mediated by inactivation of PI3-K/Akt signaling.

  15. PTEN/PI3K/Akt/VEGF signaling and the cross talk to KRIT1, CCM2, and PDCD10 proteins in cerebral cavernous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Souvik; Samii, Amir; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are common vascular malformation of the brain and are associated with abnormal angiogenesis. Although the exact etiology and the underlying molecular mechanism are still under investigation, recent advances in the identification of the mutations in three genes and their interactions with different signaling pathways have shed light on our understanding of CCM pathogenesis. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is known to play a major role in angiogenesis. Studies have shown that the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), a tumor suppressor, is an antagonist regulator of the PI3K/Akt pathway and mediates angiogenesis by activating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Here, we provide an update literature review on the current knowledge of the PTEN/PI3K/Akt/VEGF signaling in angiogenesis, more importantly in CCM pathogenesis. In addition to reviewing the current literatures, this article will also focus on the structural domain of the three CCM proteins and their interacting partners. Understanding the biology of these proteins with respect to their signaling counterpart will help to guide future research towards new therapeutic targets applicable for CCM treatment.

  16. Apoptosis Induction of Human Prostate Carcinoma DU145 Cells by Diallyl Disulfide via Modulation of JNK and PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hyun Yoo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Diallyl disulfide (DADS, a sulfur compound derived from garlic, has various biological properties, such as anticancer, antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanisms of action underlying the compound's anticancer activity have not been fully elucidated. In this study, the apoptotic effects of DADS were investigated in DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells. Our results showed that DADS markedly inhibited the growth of the DU145 cells by induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis was accompanied by modulation of Bcl-2 and inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP family proteins, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm and proteolytic activation of caspases. We also found that the expression of death-receptor 4 (DR4 and Fas ligand (FasL proteins was increased and that the level of intact Bid proteins was down-regulated by DADS. Moreover, treatment with DADS induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, including extracellular-signal regulating kinase (ERK, p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. A specific JNK inhibitor, SP600125, significantly blocked DADS-induced-apoptosis, whereas inhibitors of the ERK (PD98059 and p38 MAPK (SB203580 had no effect. The induction of apoptosis was also accompanied by inactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt and the PI3K inhibitor LY29004 significantly increased DADS-induced cell death. These findings provide evidence demonstrating that the proapoptotic effect of DADS is mediated through the activation of JNK and the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in DU145 cells.

  17. Silica nanoparticles induce autophagy and endothelial dysfunction via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Junchao Duan,1,2 Yongbo Yu,1,2 Yang Yu,1,2 Yang Li,1,2 Ji Wang,1,2 Weijia Geng,1,2 Lizhen Jiang,1,2 Qiuling Li,1,2 Xianqing Zhou,1,2 Zhiwei Sun1,2 1School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 2Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Although nanoparticles have a great potential for biomedical applications, there is still a lack of a correlative safety evaluation on the cardiovascular system. This study is aimed to clarify the biological behavior and influence of silica nanoparticles (Nano-SiO2 on endothelial cell function. The results showed that the Nano-SiO2 were internalized into endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Monodansylcadaverine staining, autophagic ultrastructural observation, and LC3-I/LC3-II conversion were employed to verify autophagy activation induced by Nano-SiO2, and the whole autophagic process was also observed in endothelial cells. In addition, the level of nitric oxide (NO, the activities of NO synthase (NOS and endothelial (eNOS were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent way, while the activity of inducible (iNOS was markedly increased. The expression of C-reactive protein, as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6 were significantly elevated. Moreover, Nano-SiO2 had an inhibitory effect on the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway. Our findings demonstrated that Nano-SiO2 could disturb the NO/NOS system, induce inflammatory response, activate autophagy, and eventually lead to endothelial dysfunction via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. This indicates that exposure to Nano-SiO2 is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Keywords: silica nanoparticles, endothelial dysfunction, autophagy, nitric oxide, inflammation

  18. DNA Synthesis during Endomitosis Is Stimulated by Insulin via the PI3K/Akt and TOR Signaling Pathways in the Silk Gland Cells of Bombyx mori

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    Yaofeng Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Silk gland cells undergo multiple endomitotic cell cycles during silkworm larval ontogeny. Our previous study demonstrated that feeding is required for continued endomitosis in the silk gland cells of silkworm larvae. Furthermore, the insulin signaling pathway is closely related to nutritional signals. To investigate whether the insulin signaling pathway is involved in endomitosis in silk gland cells, in this study, we initially analyzed the effects of bovine insulin on DNA synthesis in endomitotic silk gland cells using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU labeling technology, and found that bovine insulin can stimulate DNA synthesis. Insulin signal transduction is mainly mediated via phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt, the target of rapamycin (TOR and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK pathways in vertebrates. We ascertained that these three pathways are involved in DNA synthesis in endomitotic silk gland cells using specific inhibitors against each pathway. Moreover, we investigated whether these three pathways are involved in insulin-stimulated DNA synthesis in endomitotic silk gland cells, and found that the PI3K/Akt and TOR pathways, but not the ERK pathway, are involved in this process. These results provide an important theoretical foundation for the further investigations of the mechanism underlying efficient endomitosis in silk gland cells.

  19. Distinctive and selective route of PI3K/PKCα-PKCδ/RhoA-Rac1 signaling in osteoclastic cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Mi Yeong; Lee, Kyunghee; Jeong, Daewon

    2016-12-05

    Cell migration during specialized stages of osteoclast precursors, mononuclear preosteoclasts, and multinucleated mature osteoclasts remain uncertain. M-CSF- and osteopontin-induced osteoclastic cell migration was inhibited by function-blocking monoclonal antibodies specific to the integrin αv and β3 subunits, suggesting that integrin αvβ3 mediates migratory signaling induced by M-CSF and osteopontin. M-CSF and osteopontin stimulation was shown to regulate two branched signaling processes, PI3K/PKCα/RhoA axis and PI3K/PKCδ/Rac1 axis. Interestingly, inactivation of RhoA or Rac1 blocked preosteoclast and mature osteoclast migration but not osteoclast precursor migration in a transwell-based cell migration assay. Moreover, the inhibitory effect on preosteoclast and mature osteoclast migration induced by Rac1 inactivation was more effective than that by RhoA inactivation. Collectively, our findings suggest that osteoclast precursor migration depends on PI3K/PKCα-PKCδ signaling mediated via integrin αvβ3 bypassing RhoA and Rac1, whereas preosteoclast and mature osteoclast migration relies on PI3K/PKCα-PKCδ/RhoA-Rac1 axis signaling mediated via integrin αvβ3 with increased dependency on PKCδ/Rac1 signaling route as differentiation progresses.

  20. Anger Emotional Stress Influences VEGF/VEGFR2 and Its Induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway

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    Peng Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We discuss the influence of anger emotional stress upon VEGF/VEGFR2 and its induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Methods. We created a rat model of induced anger (anger-out and anger-in emotional response using social isolation and resident-intruder paradigms and assessed changes in hippocampus’ VEGF content, neuroplasticity, and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Results. The resident-intruder method successfully generated anger-out and anger-in models that differed significantly in composite aggression score, aggression incubation, open field behavior, sucrose preference, and weight gain. Anger emotional stress decreased synaptic connections and VEGFR2 expression. Anger emotional stress led to abnormal expression of VEGF/VEGFR2 mRNA and protein and disorderly expression of key factors in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Fluoxetine administration ameliorated behavioral abnormalities and damage to hippocampal neurons caused by anger emotional stress, as well as abnormal expression of some proteins in VEGF/VEGFR2 and its induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Conclusion. This research provides a detailed classification of anger emotion and verifies its influence upon VEGF and the VEGF-induced signaling pathway, thus providing circumstantial evidence of mechanisms by which anger emotion damages neurogenesis. As VEGFR2 can promote neurogenesis and vasculogenesis in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, these results suggest that anger emotional stress can result in decreased neurogenesis.

  1. Effects of exercise on AMPK signaling and downstream components to PI3K in rat with type 2 diabetes.

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    Shicheng Cao

    Full Text Available Exercise can increase skeletal muscle sensitivity to insulin, improve insulin resistance and regulate glucose homeostasis in rat models of type 2 diabetes. However, the potential mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we established a male Sprague-Dawley rat model of type 2 diabetes, with insulin resistance and β cell dysfunction, which was induced by a high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin to replicate the pathogenesis and metabolic characteristics of type 2 diabetes in humans. We also investigated the possible mechanism by which chronic and acute exercise improves metabolism, and the phosphorylation and expression of components of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and downstream components of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K signaling pathways in the soleus. As a result, blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and free fatty acid were significantly increased, whereas insulin level progressively declined in diabetic rats. Interestingly, chronic and acute exercise reduced blood glucose, increased phosphorylation and expression of AMPKα1/2 and the isoforms AMPKα1 and AMPKα2, and decreased phosphorylation and expression of AMPK substrate, acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC. Chronic exercise upregulated phosphorylation and expression of AMPK upstream kinase, LKB1. But acute exercise only increased LKB1 expression. In particular, exercise reversed the changes in protein kinase C (PKCζ/λ phosphorylation, and PKCζ phosphorylation and expression. Additionally, exercise also increased protein kinase B (PKB/Akt1, Akt2 and GLUT4 expression, but AS160 protein expression was unchanged. Chronic exercise elevated Akt (Thr(308 and (Ser(473 and AS160 phosphorylation. Finally, we found that exercise increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1 (PGC1 mRNA expression in the soleus of diabetic rats. These results indicate that both chronic and acute exercise influence the phosphorylation and expression of

  2. Egr-1 decreases adipocyte insulin sensitivity by tilting PI3K/Akt and MAPK signal balance in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Shen, Ning; Zhang, Ming-Liang; Pan, Fei-Yan; Wang, Chen; Jia, Wei-Ping; Liu, Chang; Gao, Qian; Gao, Xiang; Xue, Bin; Li, Chao-Jun

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that insulin can activate both PI3K/Akt pathway, which is responsible for glucose uptake, and MAPK pathway, which is crucial for insulin resistance formation. But, it is unclear exactly how the two pathways coordinate to regulate insulin sensitivity upon hyperinsulinism stress of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we show that an early response transcription factor Egr-1 could tilt the signalling balance by blocking PI3K/Akt signalling through PTEN and augmenting Erk/MAPK signalling through GGPPS, resulting in insulin resistance in adipocytes. Egr-1, PTEN and GGPPS are upregulated in the fat tissue of T2DM patients and db/db mice. Egr-1 overexpression in epididymal fat induced systematic insulin resistance in wild-type mice, and loss of Egr-1 function improved whole-body insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice, which is mediated by Egr-1 controlled PI3K/Akt and Erk/MAPK signalling balance. Therefore, we have revealed, for the first time, the mechanism by which Egr-1 induces insulin resistance under hyperinsulinism stress, which provides an ideal pharmacological target since inhibiting Egr-1 can simultaneously block MAPK and augment PI3K/Akt activation during insulin stimulation. PMID:21829168

  3. PI3K/mTOR-dependent signaling pathway as a possible regulator of processing bodies’ assembly

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    Filonenko V. V.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the role of PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway in regulation of processing body (PB assembly. Methods. During this study we employed cell imaging technique and Western blot analysis. Results. It was shown that treatment of cells with the specific inhibitors of PI3K/mTOR pathway leads to changes of PBs’ number and size within cells as well as proteasomal degradation of their scaffold protein RCD-8. Conclusions. We speculate that mTOR/PI3K pathway may regulate in part the dynamic of PB formation in the cell by affecting the stability of RCD-8 protein and therefore controle mRNA metabolism

  4. PI3K p110α/Akt signaling negatively regulates secretion of the intestinal peptide neurotensin through interference of granule transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Song, Jun; Cassidy, Margaret G; Rychahou, Piotr; Starr, Marlene E; Liu, Jianyu; Li, Xin; Epperly, Garretson; Weiss, Heidi L; Townsend, Courtney M; Gao, Tianyan; Evers, B Mark

    2012-08-01

    Neurotensin (NT), an intestinal peptide secreted from N cells in the small bowel, regulates a variety of physiological functions of the gastrointestinal tract, including secretion, gut motility, and intestinal growth. The class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) family, which comprised of p110 catalytic (α, β and δ) and p85 regulatory subunits, has been implicated in the regulation of hormone secretion from endocrine cells. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In particular, the role of PI3K in intestinal peptide secretion is not known. Here, we show that PI3K catalytic subunit, p110α, negatively regulates NT secretion in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that inhibition of p110α, but not p110β, induces NT release in BON, a human endocrine cell line, which expresses NT mRNA and produces NT peptide in a manner analogous to N cells, and QGP-1, a pancreatic endocrine cell line that produces NT peptide. In contrast, overexpression of p110α decreases NT secretion. Consistently, p110α-inhibition increases plasma NT levels in mice. To further delineate the mechanisms contributing to this effect, we demonstrate that inhibition of p110α increases NT granule trafficking by up-regulating α-tubulin acetylation; NT secretion is prevented by overexpression of HDAC6, an α-tubulin deacetylase. Moreover, ras-related protein Rab27A (a small G protein) and kinase D-interacting substrate of 220 kDa (Kidins220), which are associated with NT granules, play a negative and positive role, respectively, in p110α-inhibition-induced NT secretion. Our findings identify the critical role and novel mechanisms for the PI3K signaling pathway in the control of intestinal hormone granule transport and release.

  5. MiR-20a Induces Cell Radioresistance by Activating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Zhang, Yuqin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Zheng, Lin [Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Department of Pathology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Ding, Yi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Li, Qi [Department of Gastroenterology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Wang, Rong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Liu, Tongxin; Sun, Quanquan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Yang, Hua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanhai Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Peng, Shunli [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Wang, Wei, E-mail: wangwei9500@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Chen, Longhua, E-mail: chenlhsmu@126.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of miR-20a in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell radioresistance, which may reveal potential strategies to improve treatment. Methods and Materials: The expression of miR-20a and PTEN were detected in HCC cell lines and paired primary tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell radiation combined with colony formation assays was administrated to discover the effect of miR-20a on radiosensitivity. Bioinformatics prediction and luciferase assay were used to identify the target of miR-20a. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 was used to inhibit phosphorylation of Akt, to verify whether miR-20a affects HCC cell radioresistance through activating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway. Results: MiR-20a levels were increased in HCC cell lines and tissues, whereas PTEN was inversely correlated with it. Overexpression of miR-20a in Bel-7402 and SMMC-7721 cells enhances their resistance to the effect of ionizing radiation, and the inhibition of miR-20a in HCCLM3 and QGY-7701 cells sensitizes them to it. PTEN was identified as a direct functional target of miR-20a for the induction of radioresistance. Overexpression of miR-20a activated the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Additionally, the kinase inhibitor LY294002 could reverse the effect of miR-20a–induced radioresistance. Conclusion: MiR-20a induces HCC cell radioresistance by activating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway, which suggests that miR-20a/PTEN/PI3K/Akt might represent a target of investigation for developing effective therapeutic strategies against HCC.

  6. Increased Osteogenic Differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells on Polydopamine Film Occurs via Activation of Integrin and PI3K Signaling Pathways

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    Jeong Seok Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA is known to be an effective bioadhesive and bioactive material for controlling stem cell fate, which is important in stem cell-based regenerative medicine; however, the effect of PDA on osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the osteoinductive effect of PDA on PDLSCs and examined how this phenomenon is encouraged. Methods: Osteogenic induction of PDLSCs was established by culturing cells on PDA film or on an uncoated polystyrene surface as a control. Osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs was assessed by measurement of intracellular calcium levels and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity as well as by evaluation of protein expression of osteocalcin (OCN, osterix (OSX, and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2. Results: The PDLSCs cultured on PDA film showed higher osteogenic activity than those on the control surface. Moreover, PDLSCs on PDA film expressed increased levels of the integrin adhesion receptors integrin α5 and β1 compared to control cells. Expression of one isoform of the intracellular signaling protein phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K, p110γ, was increased in PDLSCs on PDA film in a PDA dose-dependent manner. This signaling protein was found to interact with integrin β1, demonstrating integrin-linked PI3K activation in response to PDA. Finally, the blockage of PI3K reduced the PDA-induced osteogenic activity of PDLSCs. Conclusion: our findings suggest that the bioadhesive PDA stimulates osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs via activation of the integrin α5/β1 and PI3K signaling pathways.

  7. Synaptically Driven Phosphorylation of Ribosomal Protein S6 Is Differentially Regulated at Active Synapses versus Dendrites and Cell Bodies by MAPK and PI3K/mTOR Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbhoy, Patricia Salgado; Farris, Shannon; Steward, Oswald

    2017-01-01

    High-frequency stimulation of the medial perforant path triggers robust phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) in activated dendritic domains and granule cell bodies. Here we dissect the signaling pathways responsible for synaptically driven rpS6 phosphorylation in the dentate gyrus using pharmacological agents to inhibit PI3-kinase/mTOR…

  8. Intestinal trefoil factor activates the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway to protect gastric mucosal epithelium from damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaorui; Liu, Hongmei; Yang, Zhizhou; Shao, Danbing; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Yi; Sun, Baodi; Lin, Jinfeng; Xu, Min; Nie, Shinan

    2014-09-01

    Intestinal trefoil factor (ITF, also named as trefoil factor 3, TFF3) is a member of the TFF-domain peptide family, which plays an essential role in the regulation of cell survival, cell migration and maintains mucosal epithelial integrity in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the underlying mechanisms and associated molecules remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of ITF on gastric mucosal epithelium injury and its possible molecular mechanisms of action. In the present study, we show that ITF was able to promote the proliferation and migration of GES-1 cells via a mechanism that involves the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Western blot results indicated that ITF induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in the Akt signaling pathway. ITF also plays an essential role in the restitution of GES-1 cell damage induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS induced the apoptosis of GES-1 cells, decreased cell viability significantly (Pinhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ITF promotes the proliferation and migration of gastric mucosal epithelial cells and preserves gastric mucosal epithelial integrity after damage is mediated by activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study suggested that the PI3K/Akt pathway could act as a key intracellular pathway in the gastric mucosal epithelium that may serve as a therapeutic target to preserve epithelial integrity during injury.

  9. Apelin-13 inhibits large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in cerebral artery smooth muscle cells via a PI3-kinase dependent mechanism.

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    Amit Modgil

    Full Text Available Apelin-13 causes vasoconstriction by acting directly on APJ receptors in vascular smooth muscle (VSM cells; however, the ionic mechanisms underlying this action at the cellular level remain unclear. Large-conductance Ca(2+-activated K(+ (BKCa channels in VSM cells are critical regulators of membrane potential and vascular tone. In the present study, we examined the effect of apelin-13 on BK(Ca channel activity in VSM cells, freshly isolated from rat middle cerebral arteries. In whole-cell patch clamp mode, apelin-13 (0.001-1 μM caused concentration-dependent inhibition of BK(Ca in VSM cells. Apelin-13 (0.1 µM significantly decreased BK(Ca current density from 71.25 ± 8.14 pA/pF to 44.52 ± 7.10 pA/pF (n=14 cells, P<0.05. This inhibitory effect of apelin-13 was confirmed by single channel recording in cell-attached patches, in which extracellular application of apelin-13 (0.1 µM decreased the open-state probability (NPo of BK(Ca channels in freshly isolated VSM cells. However, in inside-out patches, extracellular application of apelin-13 (0.1 µM did not alter the NPo of BK(Ca channels, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of apelin-13 on BKCa is not mediated by a direct action on BK(Ca. In whole cell patches, pretreatment of VSM cells with LY-294002, a PI3-kinase inhibitor, markedly attenuated the apelin-13-induced decrease in BK(Ca current density. In addition, treatment of arteries with apelin-13 (0.1 µM significantly increased the ratio of phosphorylated-Akt/total Akt, indicating that apelin-13 significantly increases PI3-kinase activity. Taken together, the data suggest that apelin-13 inhibits BK(Ca channel via a PI3-kinase-dependent signaling pathway in cerebral artery VSM cells, which may contribute to its regulatory action in the control of vascular tone.

  10. Cyclic mechanical strain maintains Nanog expression through PI3K/Akt signaling in mouse embryonic stem cells

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    Horiuchi, Rie [Division of Regenerative Medical Engineering, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Akimoto, Takayuki, E-mail: akimoto@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Regenerative Medical Engineering, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, 513 Waseda-tsurumaki, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan); Hong, Zhang [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, 513 Waseda-tsurumaki, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan); Ushida, Takashi [Division of Regenerative Medical Engineering, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Mechanical strain has been reported to affect the proliferation/differentiation of many cell types; however, the effects of mechanotransduction on self-renewal as well as pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells remains unknown. To investigate the effects of mechanical strain on mouse ES cell fate, we examined the expression of Nanog, which is an essential regulator of self-renewal and pluripotency as well as Nanog-associated intracellular signaling during uniaxial cyclic mechanical strain. The mouse ES cell line, CCE was plated onto elastic membranes, and we applied 10% strain at 0.17 Hz. The expression of Nanog was reduced during ES cell differentiation in response to the withdrawal of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF); however, two days of cyclic mechanical strain attenuated this reduction of Nanog expression. On the other hand, the cyclic mechanical strain promoted PI3K-Akt signaling, which is reported as an upstream of Nanog transcription. The cyclic mechanical strain-induced Akt phosphorylation was blunted by the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. Furthermore, cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, also inhibited the mechanical strain-induced increase in phospho-Akt. These findings imply that mechanical force plays a role in regulating Nanog expression in ES cells through the actin cytoskeleton-PI3K-Akt signaling. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression of Nanog, which is an essential regulator of 'stemness' was reduced during embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyclic mechanical strain attenuated the reduction of Nanog expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyclic mechanical strain promoted PI3K-Akt signaling and mechanical strain-induced Akt phosphorylation was blunted by the PI3K inhibitor and an inhibitor of actin polymerization.

  11. Salvianolic Acid B Inhibits Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Endothelial Cell Apoptosis through Regulating PI3K/Akt Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-Li; Xie, Li-Xia; Li, Min; Durairajan, Siva Sundara Kumar; Goto, Shinya; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2007-01-01

    Background Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is one of the most bioactive components of Salvia miltiorrhiza, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been commonly used for prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular disorders. However, the mechanism responsible for such protective effects remains largely unknown. It has been considered that cerebral endothelium apoptosis caused by reactive oxygen species including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular disorders. Methodology and Principal Findings By examining the effect of Sal B on H2O2-induced apoptosis in rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (rCMECs), we found that Sal B pretreatment significantly attenuated H2O2-induced apoptosis in rCMECs. We next examined the signaling cascade(s) involved in Sal B-mediated anti-apoptotic effects. We showed that H2O2 induces rCMECs apoptosis mainly through the PI3K/ERK pathway, since a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) blocked ERK activation caused by H2O2 and a specific inhibitor of MEK (U0126) protected cells from apoptosis. On the other hand, blockage of the PI3K/Akt pathway abrogated the protective effect conferred by Sal B and potentated H2O2-induced apoptosis, suggesting that Sal B prevents H2O2-induced apoptosis predominantly through the PI3K/Akt (upstream of ERK) pathway. Significance Our findings provide the first evidence that H2O2 induces rCMECs apoptosis via the PI3K/MEK/ERK pathway and that Sal B protects rCMECs against H2O2-induced apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway. PMID:18091994

  12. Salvianolic acid B inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced endothelial cell apoptosis through regulating PI3K/Akt signaling.

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    Chen-Li Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salvianolic acid B (Sal B is one of the most bioactive components of Salvia miltiorrhiza, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been commonly used for prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular disorders. However, the mechanism responsible for such protective effects remains largely unknown. It has been considered that cerebral endothelium apoptosis caused by reactive oxygen species including hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 is implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular disorders. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By examining the effect of Sal B on H(2O(2-induced apoptosis in rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (rCMECs, we found that Sal B pretreatment significantly attenuated H(2O(2-induced apoptosis in rCMECs. We next examined the signaling cascade(s involved in Sal B-mediated anti-apoptotic effects. We showed that H(2O(2 induces rCMECs apoptosis mainly through the PI3K/ERK pathway, since a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002 blocked ERK activation caused by H(2O(2 and a specific inhibitor of MEK (U0126 protected cells from apoptosis. On the other hand, blockage of the PI3K/Akt pathway abrogated the protective effect conferred by Sal B and potentated H(2O(2-induced apoptosis, suggesting that Sal B prevents H(2O(2-induced apoptosis predominantly through the PI3K/Akt (upstream of ERK pathway. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings provide the first evidence that H(2O(2 induces rCMECs apoptosis via the PI3K/MEK/ERK pathway and that Sal B protects rCMECs against H(2O(2-induced apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway.

  13. The PI3K signaling-mediated nitric oxide contributes to cardiovascular effects of angiotensin-(1-7) in the nucleus tractus solitarii of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhao-Tang; Ren, Chang-Zhen; Yang, Ya-Hong; Zhang, Ru-Wen; Sun, Jia-Cen; Wang, Yang-Kai; Su, Ding-Feng; Wang, Wei-Zhong

    2016-01-30

    Angiotensin-1-7 [Ang-(1-7)], acting via the Mas receptor in the central nervous system, is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity. Nitric oxide (NO) is implicated as an important modulator in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), a key region involved in control of cardiovascular activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in mediating the effect of Ang-(1-7) on NO generation in the NTS. In Sprague-Dawley rats, acute injection of Ang-(1-7) into the NTS significantly increased NO generation and neuronal/endothelial NO synthase (n/eNOS) activity, which were abolished by the selective Mas receptor antagonist d-Alanine-[Ang-(1-7)] (A-779), the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, or the Akt inhibitor triciribine (TCN). Western blotting analysis further demonstrated that Ang-(1-7) significantly increased levels of Akt/NOS phosphorylation in the NTS, and Ang-(1-7)-induced e/nNOS phosphorylation was antagonized by LY294002 or TCN. Furthermore, gene knockdown of PI3K by lentivirus containing small hairpin RNA in the NTS prevented the Ang-(1-7)-induced increases in NOS/Akt phosphorylation and NO production. The physiological (in vivo) experiments showed that pretreatment with the NOS inhibitor l-NAME, LY294002, or TCN abolished the decreases in blood pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity induced by Ang-(1-7) injected into the NTS. Our findings suggest that nitric oxide release meditated by the Mas-PI3K-NOS signaling pathway is involved in the cardiovascular effects of Ang-(1-7) in the NTS.

  14. Effects of D-Pinitol on Insulin Resistance through the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Rats.

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    Gao, Yunfeng; Zhang, Mengna; Wu, Tianchen; Xu, Mengying; Cai, Haonan; Zhang, Zesheng

    2015-07-08

    D-pinitol, a compound isolated from Pinaceae and Leguminosae plants, has been reported to possess insulin-like properties. Although the hypoglycemic activity of D-pinitol was recognized in recent years, the molecular mechanism of D-pinitol in the treatment of diabetes mellitus remains unclear. In this investigation, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with insulin resistance was established by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) and injecting streptozocin (STZ) to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, targeting the exploration of more details of the mechanism in the therapy of T2DM. D-pinitol was administrated to the diabetic rats as two doses [30, 60 mg/(kg·body weight·day)]. The level of fasting blood glucose (FBG) was decreased 12.63% in the high-dosage group, and the ability of oral glucose tolerance was improved in D-pinitol-treated groups. The biochemical indices revealed that D-pinitol had a positive effect on hypoglycemic activity. Western boltting suggested that D-pinitol could promote the expression of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) p85, PI3Kp110, as well as the downstream target protein kinase B/Akt (at Ser473). Besides, D-pinitol inhibited the expression of glycogen synthesis kinase-3β (GSK-3β) protein and regulated the expression of glycogen synthesis (GS) protein and then accelerated the glycogen synthesis. Above all, D-pinitol played a positive role in regulating insulin-mediated glucose uptake in the liver through translocation and activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in T2DM rats.

  15. Antitumor activity of pimasertib, a selective MEK 1/2 inhibitor, in combination with PI3K/mTOR inhibitors or with multi-targeted kinase inhibitors in pimasertib-resistant human lung and colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Erika; Troiani, Teresa; D'Aiuto, Elena; Morgillo, Floriana; Vitagliano, Donata; Capasso, Anna; Costantino, Sarah; Ciuffreda, Loreta Pia; Merolla, Francesco; Vecchione, Loredana; De Vriendt, Veerle; Tejpar, Sabine; Nappi, Anna; Sforza, Vincenzo; Martini, Giulia; Berrino, Liberato; De Palma, Raffaele; Ciardiello, Fortunato

    2013-11-01

    The RAS/RAF/MEK/MAPK and the PTEN/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways are key regulators of proliferation and survival in human cancer cells. Selective inhibitors of different transducer molecules in these pathways have been developed as molecular targeted anti-cancer therapies. The in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity of pimasertib, a selective MEK 1/2 inhibitor, alone or in combination with a PI3K inhibitor (PI3Ki), a mTOR inhibitor (everolimus), or with multi-targeted kinase inhibitors (sorafenib and regorafenib), that block also BRAF and CRAF, were tested in a panel of eight human lung and colon cancer cell lines. Following pimasertib treatment, cancer cell lines were classified as pimasertib-sensitive (IC50 for cell growth inhibition of 0.001 µM) or pimasertib-resistant. Evaluation of basal gene expression profiles by microarrays identified several genes that were up-regulated in pimasertib-resistant cancer cells and that were involved in both RAS/RAF/MEK/MAPK and PTEN/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways. Therefore, a series of combination experiments with pimasertib and either PI3Ki, everolimus, sorafenib or regorafenib were conducted, demonstrating a synergistic effect in cell growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis with sustained blockade in MAPK- and AKT-dependent signaling pathways in pimasertib-resistant human colon carcinoma (HCT15) and lung adenocarcinoma (H1975) cells. Finally, in nude mice bearing established HCT15 and H1975 subcutaneous tumor xenografts, the combined treatment with pimasertib and BEZ235 (a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor) or with sorafenib caused significant tumor growth delays and increase in mice survival as compared to single agent treatment. These results suggest that dual blockade of MAPK and PI3K pathways could overcome intrinsic resistance to MEK inhibition.

  16. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: current knowledge and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Agata; Witkowska, Magdalena; Smolewski, Piotr

    2014-09-11

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is one of the most common non-Hodgkin lymphomas in adults. The disease is very heterogeneous in its presentation, that is DLBCL patients may differ from each other not only in regard to histology of tissue infiltration, clinical course or response to treatment, but also in respect to diversity in gene expression profiling. A growing body of knowledge on the biology of DLBCL, including abnormalities in intracellular signaling, has allowed the development of new treatment strategies, specifically directed against lymphoma cells. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway plays an important role in controlling proliferation and survival of tumor cells in various types of malignancies, including DLBCL, and therefore it may be a promising target for therapeutic intervention. Currently, novel anticancer drugs are undergoing assessment in different phases of clinical trials in aggressive lymphomas, with promising outcomes. In this review we present a state of art review on various classes of small molecule inhibitors selectively involving PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and their clinical potential in this disease.

  17. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Current Knowledge and Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Majchrzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is one of the most common non-Hodgkin lymphomas in adults. The disease is very heterogeneous in its presentation, that is DLBCL patients may differ from each other not only in regard to histology of tissue infiltration, clinical course or response to treatment, but also in respect to diversity in gene expression profiling. A growing body of knowledge on the biology of DLBCL, including abnormalities in intracellular signaling, has allowed the development of new treatment strategies, specifically directed against lymphoma cells. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway plays an important role in controlling proliferation and survival of tumor cells in various types of malignancies, including DLBCL, and therefore it may be a promising target for therapeutic intervention. Currently, novel anticancer drugs are undergoing assessment in different phases of clinical trials in aggressive lymphomas, with promising outcomes. In this review we present a state of art review on various classes of small molecule inhibitors selectively involving PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and their clinical potential in this disease.

  18. Hyperactive RAS/PI3-K/MAPK Signaling Cascade in Migration and Adhesion of Nf1 Haploinsufficient Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; He, Yongzheng; Sharma, Richa; Xing, Wen; Estwick, Selina A; Wu, Xiaohua; Rhodes, Steven D; Xu, Mingjiang; Yang, Feng-Chun

    2015-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene, which affect approximately 1 out of 3000 individuals. Patients with NF1 suffer from a range of malignant and nonmalignant manifestations such as plexiform neurofibromas and skeletal abnormalities. We previously demonstrated that Nf1 haploinsufficiency in mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs) results in impaired osteoblastic differentiation, which may be associated with the skeletal manifestations in NF1 patients. Here we sought to further ascertain the role of Nf1 in modulating the migration and adhesion of MSPCs of the Nf1 haploinsufficient (Nf1(+/-)) mice. Nf1(+/-) MSPCs demonstrated increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, increased migration, and increased actin polymerization as compared to wild-type (WT) MSPCs. Additionally, Nf1(+/-) MSPCs were noted to have significantly enhanced cell adhesion to fibronectin with selective affinity for CH271 with an overexpression of its complimentary receptor, CD49e. Nf1(+/-) MSPCs also showed hyperactivation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways when compared to WT MSPCs, which were both significantly reduced in the presence of their pharmacologic inhibitors, LY294002 and PD0325901, respectively. Collectively, our study suggests that both PI3-K and MAPK signaling pathways play a significant role in enhanced migration and adhesion of Nf1 haploinsufficient MSPCs.

  19. Hyperactive RAS/PI3-K/MAPK Signaling Cascade in Migration and Adhesion of Nf1 Haploinsufficient Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells

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    Yuan Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene, which affect approximately 1 out of 3000 individuals. Patients with NF1 suffer from a range of malignant and nonmalignant manifestations such as plexiform neurofibromas and skeletal abnormalities. We previously demonstrated that Nf1 haploinsufficiency in mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs results in impaired osteoblastic differentiation, which may be associated with the skeletal manifestations in NF1 patients. Here we sought to further ascertain the role of Nf1 in modulating the migration and adhesion of MSPCs of the Nf1 haploinsufficient (Nf1+/− mice. Nf1+/− MSPCs demonstrated increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, increased migration, and increased actin polymerization as compared to wild-type (WT MSPCs. Additionally, Nf1+/− MSPCs were noted to have significantly enhanced cell adhesion to fibronectin with selective affinity for CH271 with an overexpression of its complimentary receptor, CD49e. Nf1+/− MSPCs also showed hyperactivation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways when compared to WT MSPCs, which were both significantly reduced in the presence of their pharmacologic inhibitors, LY294002 and PD0325901, respectively. Collectively, our study suggests that both PI3-K and MAPK signaling pathways play a significant role in enhanced migration and adhesion of Nf1 haploinsufficient MSPCs.

  20. Camptothecin inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells through inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

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    Park, Eun-Seok [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Division of Life Science, College of Health and Biomedical Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Shin-il [College of Pharmacy Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Kyu-dong [Hazardous Substances Analysis Division, Gwangju Regional Food and Drug Administration, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi-Yea [Department of Nursing Kyungbok University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hwan-Soo; Hong, Jin-Tae [College of Pharmacy Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hwa-Sup [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Division of Life Science, College of Health and Biomedical Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bokyung [Department of Physiology, Konkuk Medical School, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Yeo-Pyo, E-mail: ypyun@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    The abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in arterial wall is a major cause of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. In this study, we investigated not only the inhibitory effects of camptothecin (CPT) on PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation, but also its molecular mechanism of this inhibition. CPT significantly inhibited proliferation with IC50 value of 0.58 μM and the DNA synthesis of PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner (0.5–2 μM ) without any cytotoxicity. CPT induced the cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Also, CPT decreased the expressions of G0/G1-specific regulatory proteins including cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, cyclin D1 and PCNA in PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs. Pre-incubation of VSMCs with CPT significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced Akt activation, whereas CPT did not affect PDGF-receptor beta phosphorylation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation and phospholipase C (PLC)-γ1 phosphorylation in PDGF-BB signaling pathway. Our data showed that CPT pre-treatment inhibited VSMC proliferation, and that the inhibitory effect of CPT was enhanced by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, on PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation. In addition, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002 significantly enhanced the suppression of PCNA expression and Akt activation by CPT. These results suggest that the anti-proliferative activity of CPT is mediated in part by downregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. - Highlights: ► CPT inhibits proliferation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMC without cytotoxicity. ► CPT arrests the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase by downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK2. ► CPT significantly attenuates Akt phosphorylation in PDGF-BB signaling pathway. ► LY294002 enhanced the inhibitory effect of CPT on VSMC proliferation. ► Thus, CPT is mediated by downregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  1. PI3K / Akt Signaling Pathway on Expression of BACE1 mRNA in Hippocampus Neurons%胰岛素信号通路PI3K/Akt对海马神经元β-淀粉样前体蛋白裂解酶1mRNA水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国祥; 李洁颖; 晏勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) mRNA on phosphatidylinosi-tol-3 kinase / serine threohine kinase( PI3K / Akt) signaling pathway in the hippocampus neurons of rat brain. Methods Insulin and the specific inhibitor of PI3 K Wortmannin were used to activate and inhibit the signaling pathway , 20SD rats randomly divided into four group: blank control group, sham-operated group, insulin group and Wortmannin group. RT-PCR were used to analyse the proteins related to the insulin signaling Akt and BACE1 mRNA. Results The expression of signaling pathway downstream molecules Akt mRNA were up-regulated(p =0. 047, p = 0. 002) ,the expression of BACE1 mRNA significantly down-regulated(p =0. 004 ,p =0. 01 )in insulin group. The expression of BACE1 mRNA was opposite after treatment with inhibitor of PDK( p =0. 039 ,p =0. 018) ,Akt mRNA were also inhibited(p =0. 002,p =0. 039). Conclusion PI3K / Akt signaling pathway might effect the expression of BACE1, which demonstrates that impaired signaling pathway shoud make the amyloid precursor protein easy to be processed by BACE1, thus to involve the pathology of Alzheimer's disease.%目的 通过胰岛素和磷脂酰肌醇-3激酶(PI3K)抑制剂渥曼青霉素(wortmannin)对PI3K/丝氨酸苏氨酸蛋白激酶(PI3K/Akt)信号通路的激活和抑制作用,观察PI3K/Akt信号通路对海马神经元β-淀粉样前体蛋白裂解酶1(BACE1)mRNA水平表达的影响.方法 20只SD大鼠随机分为空白对照组、假手术组、胰岛素组和渥曼青霉素组,海马立体定向注射胰岛素和PI3K抑制剂渥曼青霉素.逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)检测PI3K/Akt信号传导下游蛋白Akt以及BACE1 mRNA水平.结果 注射胰岛素的海马PI3K信号通路下游信号分子:Akt mRNA表达上调(分别较空白和阴性对照组p=0.047,p =0.002),而BACE1 mRNA表达下调(分别较空白和阴性对照组p=0.004,p=0.01).渥曼青霉素组的PI3K

  2. 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether promotes human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells migration via the GPER/PI3K/Akt signal pathway.

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    Tian, P-C; Wang, H-L; Chen, G-H; Luo, Q; Chen, Z; Wang, Y; Liu, Y-F

    2016-02-01

    Neuroblastoma is the predominant tumor of early childhood. 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) has the highest concentration among all polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in human body, particularly for children. Considering that accumulating evidences showed developmental neurotoxicity of PBDE, there is an urgent need to investigate the effects of BDE-47 on the development of neuroblastoma. This study revealed that BDE-47 had limited effects on the cytotoxicity while significantly increased the in vitro migration and invasion of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. This was further confirmed by the results that BDE-47 treatment significantly downregulated the expression of E-cadherin and zona occludin-1 and upregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Silencing of MMP-9 by specific small interfering RNA significantly abolished the BDE-47-induced migration and invasion of SH-SY5Y cells. Further, the signals G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER)/phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) mediated the BDE-47-induced upregulation of MMP-9 and in vitro migration of SH-SY5Y cells since G15 (GPER inhibitor) and LY 294002 (PI3K/Akt inhibitor) significantly abolished the effects of BDE-47. Our results revealed that BDE-47 significantly triggered the metastasis of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells via upregulation of MMP-9 by the GPER/PI3K/Akt signal pathway. This study revealed for the first time that BDE-47 can promote the migration of SH-SY5Y cells. It also provided a better understanding about the metastasis of human neuroblastoma induced by environmental endocrine disruptors.

  3. Chelidonine isolated from ethanolic extract of Chelidonium majus promotes apoptosis in HeLa cells through p38-p53 and PI3K/AKT signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Avijit; Bishayee, Kausik; Ghosh, Samrat; Mukherjee, Avinaba; Sikdar, Sourav; Chakraborty, Debrup; Boujedaini, Naoual; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the role of chelidonine isolated from ethanolic extract of Chelidonium majus in inducing apoptosis in HeLa cells and to assess the main signalling pathways involved. Cells were initially treated with different concentrations of chelidonine for 48 h and the median lethal dose (LD50) value was selected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Morphological analysis of nuclear condensation and DNA damage and fragmentation were measured by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and comet assay. Further, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cell cycle arrest and change in mitochondrial membrane potential were also examined and analyzed by flow cytometry. Evaluation of interaction of drug with CT DNA was investigated by circular dichroism (CD) spectral analysis to find any possible drug-CT DNA interaction. The mRNA and protein expressions of major signal proteins like p38, p53, protein kinase B (AKT), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K), Janus kinase 3 (JAK3), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and E6 and E7 oncoproteins as well as the pro-apoptotic genes and antiapoptotic genes were also estimated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Based on LD(50) value (30 μg/mL) of chelidonine, three doses were selected, namely, 22.5 μg/mL (D1), 30.0 μg/mL (D2) and 37.5 μg/mL (D3). Results showed that chelidonine inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HeLa cells through generation of ROS, cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 and G0/G1 stage, change in mitochondrial membrane potential and fragmentation of DNA. Results of CD spectra showed effective interaction between chelidonine and calf thymus DNA. Studies of signalling pathway revealed that chelidonine could efficiently induce apoptosis through up-regulation of expressions of p38, p53 and other pro-apoptotic genes and down-regulation of expressions of AKT, PI3K, JAK3, STAT3, E6, E7 and other antiapoptotic genes

  4. Pioglitazone inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide synthase is associated with altered activity of p38 MAP kinase and PI3K/Akt

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    Hunter Randy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ-mediated neuroprotection involves inhibition of microglial activation and decreased expression and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been well established. In the present study we explored: (1 the effect of the PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced iNOS activity and nitric oxide (NO generation by microglia; (2 the differential role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK, c-Jun NH(2-terminal kinase (JNK, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K on LPS-induced NO generation; and (3 the regulation of p38 MAPK, JNK, and PI3K by pioglitazone. Methods Mesencephalic neuron-microglia mixed cultures, and microglia-enriched cultures were treated with pioglitazone and/or LPS. The protein levels of iNOS, p38 MAPK, JNK, PPAR-γ, PI3K, and protein kinase B (Akt were measured by western blot. Different specific inhibitors of iNOS, p38MAPK, JNK, PI3K, and Akt were used in our experiment, and NO generation was measured using a nitrite oxide assay kit. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-positive neurons were counted in mesencephalic neuron-microglia mixed cultures. Results Our results showed that pioglitazone inhibits LPS-induced iNOS expression and NO generation, and inhibition of iNOS is sufficient to protect dopaminergic neurons against LPS insult. In addition, inhibition of p38 MAPK, but not JNK, prevented LPS-induced NO generation. Further, and of interest, pioglitazone inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Wortmannin, a specific PI3K inhibitor, enhanced p38 MAPK phosphorylation upon LPS stimulation of microglia. Elevations of phosphorylated PPAR-γ, PI3K, and Akt levels were observed with pioglitazone treatment, and inhibition of PI3K activity enhanced LPS-induced NO production. Furthermore, wortmannin prevented the inhibitory effect of

  5. PI3-kinase γ promotes Rap1a-mediated activation of myeloid cell integrin α4β1, leading to tumor inflammation and growth.

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    Michael C Schmid

    Full Text Available Tumor inflammation, the recruitment of myeloid lineage cells into the tumor microenvironment, promotes angiogenesis, immunosuppression and metastasis. CD11b+Gr1lo monocytic lineage cells and CD11b+Gr1hi granulocytic lineage cells are recruited from the circulation by tumor-derived chemoattractants, which stimulate PI3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ-mediated integrin α4 activation and extravasation. We show here that PI3Kγ activates PLCγ, leading to RasGrp/CalDAG-GEF-I&II mediated, Rap1a-dependent activation of integrin α4β1, extravasation of monocytes and granulocytes, and inflammation-associated tumor progression. Genetic depletion of PLCγ, CalDAG-GEFI or II, Rap1a, or the Rap1 effector RIAM was sufficient to prevent integrin α4 activation by chemoattractants or activated PI3Kγ (p110γCAAX, while activated Rap (RapV12 promoted constitutive integrin activation and cell adhesion that could only be blocked by inhibition of RIAM or integrin α4β1. Similar to blockade of PI3Kγ or integrin α4β1, blockade of Rap1a suppressed both the recruitment of monocytes and granulocytes to tumors and tumor progression. These results demonstrate critical roles for a PI3Kγ-Rap1a-dependent pathway in integrin activation during tumor inflammation and suggest novel avenues for cancer therapy.

  6. Inhibitory effect of oxymatrine on hepatocyte apoptosis via TLR4/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Jiang, Wei; Zhou, Ai-Ling; Zhao, Min; Jiang, Dao-Rong

    2017-06-07

    To evaluate the effect of oxymatrine (OMT) on hepatocyte apoptosis in rats with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced acute liver failure (ALF). LPS/D-GalN was used to establish a model of ALF in rats. To evaluate the effect of OMT, we assessed apoptosis by transmission electron microscopy, and the pathological changes in the liver by light microscopy with hematoxylin and eosin staining. An automated biochemical analyzer was used to measure serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β. Western blotting was used to detect protein levels in liver tissues. Streptavidin peroxidase immunohistochemistry was used to observe expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)4, active caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2. All rats in the normal control and OMT-pretreated groups survived. The mortality rate in the model group was 30%. OMT preconditioning down-regulated apoptosis of hepatocytes and ameliorated pathological changes in liver tissue. The levels of AST, ALT, TNF-α and IL-1β in the model group increased significantly, and were significantly reduced by OMT pretreatment. OMT pretreatment down-regulated expression of TLR4 and active caspase-3 and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and up-regulated expression of P-Akt(Ser473) (Akt phosphorylated at serine 473) and P-GSK3β(Ser9) (glycogen synthase kinase 3β phosphorylated at serine 9) induced by LPS/D-GalN. OMT inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis by suppressing the TLR4/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway, which suggests that OMT is an effective candidate for ameliorating acute liver failure.

  7. PI3K/Akt/mTOR通路与急性早幼粒细胞白血病关系的研究进展%Advances on PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Network in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梅

    2011-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase ( PI3 K )/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin ( mTOR ) signaling axis is an important intracellular signal transduction pathway and plays a central role in cell proliferation,growth,and survival under physiological conditions. Aberrant activation of PI3 K/Akt/mTOR signaling due to genetic dysfunction and abnormal magnification of upstream regulatory signal results in the imbalance between cell viability and apoptosis and malignant transformation. It has been shown that the constitutive activation of PI3 K/Akt/mTOR signaling network in acute promyelocytic leukemia plays a vital role in survival, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and drug-resistance of leukemic cells. This article reviews recent progress on PI3 K/Akt/mTOR signaling axis in acute promyelocytic leukemia.%PI3K/Akt/mTOR信号途径作为细胞内重要信号转导通路之一,在维持细胞增殖、存活和凋亡中发挥关键作用.当PI3K/Akt/mTOR通路分子的基因功能失常、上游调控信号异常放大时使该信号通路异常激活,细胞生存与凋亡失衡,正常细胞发生恶性转化.研究表明,PI3K/Akt/mTOR信号通路在急性早幼粒细胞白血病存在异常激活,对肿瘤细胞的生存、增殖、分化、凋亡和耐药性中起重要作用.现就近年来在PI3K/Akt/mTOR信号通路与急性早幼粒细胞白血病关系研究领域的进展予以简要综述.

  8. PI3K/PTEN/Akt and TSC/mTOR signaling pathways, ovarian dysfunction, and infertility: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Annu; Goel, Madhu Mati; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2014-12-01

    Abnormalities in ovarian function, including defective oogenesis and folliculogenesis, represent a key female reproductive deficiency. Accumulating evidence in the literature has shown that the PI3K/PTEN/Akt and TSC/mTOR signaling pathways are critical regulators of ovarian function including quiescence, activation, and survival of primordial follicles, granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation, and meiotic maturation of oocytes. Dysregulation of these signaling pathways may contribute to infertility caused by impaired follicular development, intrafollicular oocyte development, and ovulation. This article reviews the current state of knowledge of the functional role of the PI3K/PTEN/Akt and TSC/mTOR pathways during mammalian oogenesis and folliculogenesis and their association with female infertility.

  9. [PI 3 K/Akt signaling pathway contributed to the protective effect of acupuncture intervention on epileptic seizure-induced injury of hippocampal pyramidal cells in epilepsy rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Ang, Wen-Ping; Shen, De-Kai; Liu, Xiang-Guo; Yang, Yong-Qing; Ma, Yun

    2013-02-01

    To observe the protective effect of acupuncture stimulation on pyramidal cells in hippocampal CA 1 and CA 3 regions and to analyze the involvement of phosphatidy linositol-3-kinase (PI 3 K)/protein kinase B(PKB or Akt) signaling pathway in the acupuncture effect in epilepsy rats. A total of 120 SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group, model group, LY 294002 (a specific antagonist for PI 3 K/Akt signaling) group, acupuncture+ LY 294002 group and acupuncture group (n = 24 in each group, 12 for H. E. staining, and 12 for electron microscope observation). Epilepsy model was established by intraperitoneal injection of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 5 microL). Manual acupuncture stimulation was applied to "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Dazhui" (GV 14) once daily for 5 days. Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO, 5 microL, a control solvent) was given to rats of the normal, model and acupuncture groups, and LY294002 (5 microL, dissolved in DMSO) given to rats of the LY 294002 and acupuncture+ LY 294002 groups by lateral ventricular injection. Four hours and 24 h after modeling, the hippocampus tissues were sampled for observing pathological changes of CA 1 and CA 3 regions after H. E. staining under light microscope and for checkin ultrastructural changes of the pyramidal cells under transmission electron microscope. In comparison with the normal control group, the numbers of pyramidal cells of hippocampal CA 3 region in the model group were decreased significantly 4 h and 24 h after epileptic seizure (P acupuncture group were increased considerably in the number at both 4 h and 24 h after seizure (P acupuncture+ LY 294002 and model groups in the numbers of pyramidal cells at 4 h and 24 h after seizure (P > 0.05). Findings of the light microscope and electron microscope showed that the injury severity of pyramidal cells of hippocampal CA 1 and CA 3 regions was moderate 4 h after epileptic seizure and even worse 24 h after seizure in the model group, LY 294002 group and acupuncture+ LY

  10. CHRNA7 inhibits cell invasion and metastasis of LoVo human colorectal cancer cells through PI3K/Akt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Tao; Yu, Feng; Fei, Rushan; Qian, Jing; Chen, Wenbin

    2016-02-01

    The α7 neuronal nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) is widely expressed in both the brain and periphery whereas its encoding protein of α7 neuronal acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) belongs to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor family. Considerable evidence suggests that α7nAChR plays an important role in chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain signaling and thus has been proposed as a potential target for treating cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of endogenous α7nAChR signaling in human colorectal cancer growth and metastasis. pLVX‑CHRNA7 encoding the full length of CHRNA7 was constructed and transfected into LoVo human colorectal cancer cells. Cell proliferation was measured by Cell Counting Kit‑8 (CCK‑8), and cell migration and invasion were detected by Transwell chamber assays. Expression and activity of metastasis‑related metalloproteinases (MMPs) were analyzed by western blotting and gelatin zymography, respectively. Activation of metastasis-related signaling molecules was detected by western blotting. LY294002 was used to specifically block the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase/v‑akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue (PI3K/Akt) pathway. We showed that concomitantly with an increase in α7nAChR expression after transfection, LoVo cells presented reduced abilities for migration and invasion, which was accompanied by reduced expression levels of MMP‑1 and MMP‑9 as well as activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The application of LY294002 restored the migration and invasion abilities of the LoVo cells bearing CHRNA7. Collectively, we conclude that overexpression of CHRNA7 negatively controls colorectal cancer LoVo cell invasion and metastasis via PI3K/Akt pathway activation and may serve as either a diagnostic marker or a therapeutic target for colorectal cancer metastasis.

  11. Hematopoietic cell kinase (HCK) is a potential therapeutic target for dysplastic and leukemic cells due to integration of erythropoietin/PI3K pathway and regulation of erythropoiesis: HCK in erythropoietin/PI3K pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roversi, Fernanda Marconi; Pericole, Fernando Vieira; Machado-Neto, João Agostinho; da Silva Santos Duarte, Adriana; Longhini, Ana Leda; Corrocher, Flávia Adolfo; Palodetto, Bruna; Ferro, Karla Priscila; Rosa, Renata Giardini; Baratti, Mariana Ozello; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Traina, Fabiola; Molinari, Alessio; Botta, Maurizio; Saad, Sara Teresinha Olalla

    2017-02-01

    New drug development for neoplasm treatment is nowadays based on molecular targets that participate in the disease pathogenesis and tumor phenotype. Herein, we describe a new specific pharmacological hematopoietic cell kinase (HCK) inhibitor (iHCK-37) that was able to reduce PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathways activation after erythropoietin induction in cells with high HCK expression: iHCK-37 treatment increased leukemic cells death and, very importantly, did not affect normal hematopoietic stem cells. We also present evidence that HCK, one of Src kinase family (SFK) member, regulates early-stage erythroid cell differentiation by acting as an upstream target of a frequently deregulated pathway in hematologic neoplasms, PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK. Notably, HCK levels were highly increased in stem cells from patients with some diseases, as Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) and Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), that are associated with ineffective erythropoiesis These discoveries support the exploration of the new pharmacological iHCK-37 in future preclinical and clinical studies.

  12. Roles of PI3K/AKT/GSK3/mTOR Pathway in Cell Signaling of Mental Illnesses

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    Yasuko Kitagishi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several pharmacological agents acting on monoamine neurotransmission are used for the management of mental illnesses. Regulation of PI3K/AKT and GSK3 pathways may constitute an important signaling center in the subcellular integration of the synaptic neurotransmission. The pathways also modulate neuronal cell proliferation, migration, and plasticity. There are evidences to suggest that inflammation of neuron contributes to the pathology of depression. Inflammatory activation of neuron contributes to the loss of glial elements, which are consistent with pathological findings characterizing the depression. A mechanism of anti-inflammatory reactions from antidepressant medications has been found to be associated with an enhancement of heme oxygenase-1 expression. This induction in brain is also important in neuroprotection and neuroplasticity. As enzymes involved in cell survival and neuroplasticity are relevant to neurotrophic factor dysregulation, the PI3K/AKT/GSK3 may provide an important signaling for the neuroprotection in depression. In this paper, we summarize advances on the involvement of the PI3K/AKT/GSK3 pathways in cell signaling of neuronal cells in mental illnesses.

  13. Critical role of PI3K signaling for NF-kappaB-dependent survival in a subset of activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells.

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    Kloo, Bernhard; Nagel, Daniel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Grau, Michael; Düwel, Michael; Vincendeau, Michelle; Dörken, Bernd; Lenz, Peter; Lenz, Georg; Krappmann, Daniel

    2011-01-04

    The activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) represents a very aggressive human lymphoma entity. Constitutive NF-κB activation caused by chronic active B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is common feature of many ABC DLBCL cells; however, the pathways linking BCR signaling to the NF-κB prosurvival network are largely unknown. Here we report that constitutive activity of PI3K and the downstream kinase PDK1 are essential for the viability of two ABC DLBCL cell lines that carry mutations in the BCR proximal signaling adaptor CD79B. In these cells, PI3K inhibition reduces NF-κB activity and decreases the expression of NF-κB target genes. Furthermore, PI3K and PDK1 are required for maintaining MALT1 protease activity, which promotes survival of the affected ABC DLBCL cells. These results demonstrate a critical function of PI3K-PDK1 signaling upstream of MALT1 protease and NF-κB in distinct ABC DLBCL cells and provide a rationale for the pharmacologic use of PI3K inhibitors in DLBCL therapy.

  14. Salidroside improves behavioral and histological outcomes and reduces apoptosis via PI3K/Akt signaling after experimental traumatic brain injury.

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    Szu-Fu Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI induces a complex sequence of apopototic cascades that contribute to secondary tissue damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of salidroside, a phenolic glycoside with potent anti-apoptotic properties, on behavioral and histological outcomes, brain edema, and apoptosis following experimental TBI and the possible involvement of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice subjected to controlled cortical impact injury received intraperitoneal salidroside (20, or 50 mg/kg or vehicle injection 10 min after injury. Behavioral studies, histology analysis and brain water content assessment were performed. Levels of PI3K/Akt signaling-related molecules, apoptosis-related proteins, cytochrome C (CytoC, and Smac/DIABLO were also analyzed. LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, was administered to examine the mechanism of protection. The protective effect of salidroside was also investigated in primary cultured neurons subjected to stretch injury. Treatment with 20 mg/kg salidroside significantly improved functional recovery and reduced brain tissue damage up to post-injury day 28. Salidroside also significantly reduced neuronal death, apoptosis, and brain edema at day 1. These changes were associated with significant decreases in cleaved caspase-3, CytoC, and Smac/DIABLO at days 1 and 3. Salidroside increased phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 and the mitochondrial Bcl-2/Bax ratio at day 1, and enhanced phosphorylation of Akt on Thr308 at day 3. This beneficial effect was abolished by pre-injection of LY294002. Moreover, delayed administration of salidroside at 3 or 6 h post-injury reduced neuronal damage at day 1. Salidroside treatment also decreased neuronal vulnerability to stretch-induced injury in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Post-injury salidroside improved long-term behavioral and histological outcomes and reduced brain edema and

  15. Salvianolic acid B protects against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by inducing Nrf2 and phase II detoxification gene expression via activation of the PI3K and PKC signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Musen; Zhai, Xiaohan; Wang, Guangzhi; Tian, Xiaofeng; Gao, Dongyan; Shi, Lei; Wu, Hang; Fan, Qing; Peng, Jinyong; Liu, Kexin; Yao, Jihong

    2015-02-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is used drugs worldwide for treating pain and fever. However, APAP overdose is the principal cause of acute liver failure in Western countries. Salvianolic acid B (SalB), a major water-soluble compound extracted from Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza, has well-known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. We aimed to evaluate the ability of SalB to protect against APAP-induced acute hepatotoxicity by inducing nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression. SalB pretreatment ameliorated acute liver injury caused by APAP, as indicated by blood aspartate transaminase levels and histological findings. Moreover, SalB pretreatment increased the expression of Nrf2, Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutamate-l-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC). Furthermore, the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin and the GCLC inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine reversed the protective effect of SalB. Additionally, siRNA-mediated depletion of Nrf2 reduced the induction of HO-1 and GCLC by SalB, and SalB pretreatment activated the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways. Both inhibitors (PI3K and PKC) blocked the protective effect of SalB against APAP-induced cell death, abolishing the SalB-induced Nrf2 activation and decreasing HO-1 and GCLC expression. These results indicated that SalB induces Nrf2, HO-1 and GCLC expression via activation of the PI3K and PKC pathways, thereby protecting against APAP-induced liver injury.

  16. Rutin attenuates H2O2-induced oxidation damage and apoptosis in Leydig cells by activating PI3K/Akt signal pathways.

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    Sun, Jianhua; Wang, Heng; Liu, Bei; Shi, Wenhao; Shi, Juanzi; Zhang, Zhou; Xing, Junping

    2017-04-01

    Oxidative stress is a primary factor in the pathology of male infertility. The strong antioxidative capacity of rutin has been proven by numerous studies, but a protective role in the context of male reproduction remains to be elucidated. To explore the biological role of rutin in protecting male reproductive function and the potential underlying mechanism, H2O2-induced Leydig cells were used as a cell model of oxidation damage. Our findings showed that rutin at concentrations of 10, 20, and 40μmol/L remarkably increased cell survival rate of H2O2-induced Leydig cells to 70.1%, 86.8%, and 80.3% respectively. Next, rutin with concentrations of 10, 20, and 40μmol/L decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels but increased the levels of glutathione (GSH) and testosterone in H2O2-induced Leydig cells. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were remarkably increased by rutin treatment with concentrations of 20 and 40μmol/L, but glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was notably decreased. Moreover, rutin with concentrations of 10, 20, and 40μmol/L increased Bcl-2 protein levels but decreased protein levels of Bax and caspase-3. Furthermore, 20μmol/L rutin significantly abrogated the decrease in levels of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylated serine/threonine kinase (p-AKT) induced by H2O2. Pretreatment with LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, antagonized protective action of 20μmol/L rutin against H2O2-induced cell activities, intracellular oxidant, testosterone, antioxidant enzyme activities, and the apoptosis related protein expression. Taken together, these results suggest that rutin attenuates H2O2-induced oxidation damage and apoptosis in Leydig cells by activating PI3K/Akt signal pathways, providing a promising strategy to decrease oxidative stress associated with male infertility.

  17. Quercetin attenuates high fructose feeding-induced atherosclerosis by suppressing inflammation and apoptosis via ROS-regulated PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

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    Lu, Xue-Li; Zhao, Cui-Hua; Yao, Xin-Liang; Zhang, Han

    2017-01-01

    Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid compound extracted from various plants, such as apple and onions. Previous studies have revealed its anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities. This study investigated the ability of quercetin to inhibit high fructose feeding- or LPS-induced atherosclerosis through regulating oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation response in vivo and in vitro experiments. 50 and 100mg/kg quercetin were used in our study, showing significant inhibitory role in high fructose-induced atherosclerosis via reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, Caspase-3 activation, inflammatory cytokines releasing, the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells and collagen contents as well as modulating apoptosis- and inflammation-related proteins expression. We also explored the protective effects of quercetin on atherosclerosis by phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Protein kinase B (AKT)-associated Bcl-2/Caspase-3 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signal pathways activation, promoting AKT and Bcl-2 expression and reducing Caspase-3 and NF-κB activation. Quercetin reduced the atherosclerotic plaque size in vivo in high fructose feeding-induced mice assessed by oil red O. Also, in vitro experiments, quercetin displayed inhibitory role in LPS-induced ROS production, inflammatory response and apoptosis, which were linked with PI3K/AKT-regulated Caspase-3 and NF-κB activation. In conclusion, our results showed that quercetin inhibited atherosclerotic plaque development in high fructose feeding mice via PI3K/AKT activation regulated by ROS.

  18. PI3 Kinase Disease

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    ... of Award Clinical Terms of Award Restriction for China Clinical Terms Guidance Compliance Sample Letter Inclusion Codes ... Division of AIDS Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Division of ...

  19. HER2+ Cancer Cell Dependence on PI3K vs. MAPK Signaling Axes Is Determined by Expression of EGFR, ERBB3 and CDKN1B.

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    Daniel C Kirouac

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular pathways by which oncogenes drive cancerous cell growth, and how dependence on such pathways varies between tumors could be highly valuable for the design of anti-cancer treatment strategies. In this work we study how dependence upon the canonical PI3K and MAPK cascades varies across HER2+ cancers, and define biomarkers predictive of pathway dependencies. A panel of 18 HER2+ (ERBB2-amplified cell lines representing a variety of indications was used to characterize the functional and molecular diversity within this oncogene-defined cancer. PI3K and MAPK-pathway dependencies were quantified by measuring in vitro cell growth responses to combinations of AKT (MK2206 and MEK (GSK1120212; trametinib inhibitors, in the presence and absence of the ERBB3 ligand heregulin (NRG1. A combination of three protein measurements comprising the receptors EGFR, ERBB3 (HER3, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 (CDKN1B was found to accurately predict dependence on PI3K/AKT vs. MAPK/ERK signaling axes. Notably, this multivariate classifier outperformed the more intuitive and clinically employed metrics, such as expression of phospho-AKT and phospho-ERK, and PI3K pathway mutations (PIK3CA, PTEN, and PIK3R1. In both cell lines and primary patient samples, we observed consistent expression patterns of these biomarkers varies by cancer indication, such that ERBB3 and CDKN1B expression are relatively high in breast tumors while EGFR expression is relatively high in other indications. The predictability of the three protein biomarkers for differentiating PI3K/AKT vs. MAPK dependence in HER2+ cancers was confirmed using external datasets (Project Achilles and GDSC, again out-performing clinically used genetic markers. Measurement of this minimal set of three protein biomarkers could thus inform treatment, and predict mechanisms of drug resistance in HER2+ cancers. More generally, our results show a single oncogenic transformation can

  20. In Vitro Treatment of Melanoma Brain Metastasis by Simultaneously Targeting the MAPK and PI3K Signaling Pathways

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    Inderjit Daphu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer, with a high propensity to metastasize to the brain. More than 60% of melanomas have the BRAFV600E mutation, which activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway [1]. In addition, increased PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway activity has been demonstrated, through the loss of activity of the tumor suppressor gene, PTEN [2]. Here, we treated two melanoma brain metastasis cell lines, H1_DL2, harboring a BRAFV600E mutation and PTEN loss, and H3, harboring WT (wild-type BRAF and PTEN loss, with the MAPK (BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib and the PI3K pathway associated mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus. Combined use of the drugs inhibited tumor cell growth and proliferation in vitro in H1_DL2 cells, compared to single drug treatment. Treatment was less effective in the H3 cells. Furthermore, a strong inhibitory effect on the viability of H1_DL2 cells, when grown as 3D multicellular spheroids, was seen. The treatment inhibited the expression of pERK1/2 and reduced the expression of pAKT and p-mTOR in H1_DL2 cells, confirming that the MAPK and PI3K pathways were inhibited after drug treatment. Microarray experiments followed by principal component analysis (PCA mapping showed distinct gene clustering after treatment, and cell cycle checkpoint regulators were affected. Global gene analysis indicated that functions related to cell survival and invasion were influenced by combined treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that combined therapy with vemurafenib and temsirolimus is effective on melanoma brain metastasis cells in vitro. The presented results highlight the potential of combined treatment to overcome treatment resistance that may develop after vemurafenib treatment of melanomas.

  1. Oxidant Stress and Signal Transduction in the Nervous System with the PI 3-K, Akt, and mTOR Cascade

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    Yan Chen Shang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress impacts multiple systems of the body and can lead to some of the most devastating consequences in the nervous system especially during aging. Both acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as diabetes mellitus, cerebral ischemia, trauma, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and tuberous sclerosis through programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis and autophagy can be the result of oxidant stress. Novel therapeutic avenues that focus upon the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K, Akt (protein kinase B, and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR cascade and related pathways offer exciting prospects to address the onset and potential reversal of neurodegenerative disorders. Effective clinical translation of these pathways into robust therapeutic strategies requires intimate knowledge of the complexity of these pathways and the ability of this cascade to influence biological outcome that can vary among disorders of the nervous system.

  2. Effects of simulated microgravity on human umbilical vein endothelial cell angiogenesis and role of the PI3K-Akt-eNOS signal pathway.

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    Fei Shi

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells are very sensitive to microgravity and the morphological and functional changes in endothelial cells are believed to be at the basis of weightlessness-induced cardiovascular deconditioning. It has been shown that the proliferation, migration, and morphological differentiation of endothelial cells play critical roles in angiogenesis. However, the influence of microgravity on the ability of endothelial cells to foster angiogenesis remains to be explored in detail. In the present study, we used a clinostat to simulate microgravity, and we observed tube formation, migration, and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC-C. Specific inhibitors of eNOS and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K were added to the culture medium and gravity-induced changes in the pathways that mediate angiogenesis were investigated. After 24 h of exposure to simulated microgravity, HUVEC-C tube formation and migration were significantly promoted.This was reversed by co-incubation with the specific inhibitor of N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (eNOS. Immunofluorescence assay, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis demonstrated that eNOS expression in the HUVEC-C was significantly elevated after simulated microgravity exhibition. Ultrastructure observation via transmission electron microscope showed the number of caveolae organelles in the membrane of HUVEC-C to be significantly reduced. This was correlated with enhanced eNOS activity. Western blot analysis then showed that phosphorylation of eNOS and serine/threonine kinase (Akt were both up-regulated after exposure to simulated microgravity. However, the specific inhibitor of PI3K not only significantly downregulated the expression of phosphorylated Akt, but also downregulated the phosphorylation of eNOS. This suggested that the PI3K-Akt signal pathway might participate in modulating the activity of eNOS. In conclusion, the present study

  3. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus spontaneous lytic infection involves ERK1/2 and PI3-K/Akt signaling in EBV-positive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sufang; Li, Hongde; Chen, Lin; Yang, Lifang; Li, Lili; Tao, Yongguan; Li, Wei; Li, Zijian; Liu, Haidan; Tang, Min; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Cao, Ya

    2013-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation into the lytic cycle plays certain roles in the development of EBV-associated diseases, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma and lymphoma. In this study, we investigated the effects of the tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on EBV spontaneous lytic infection and the mechanism(s) involved in EBV-positive cells. We found that EGCG could effectively inhibit the constitutive lytic infection of EBV at the DNA, gene transcription and protein levels by decreasing the phosphorylation and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt. By using cellular signaling pathway-specific inhibitors, we also explored the signaling mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of EGCG on EBV spontaneous lytic infection in cell models. Results show that specific inhibitors of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase (MEK) (PD98059) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI3-K (LY294002)] markedly downregulated gene transcription and expression of BZLF1 and BMRF1 indicating that the MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3-K/Akt pathways are involved in the EBV spontaneous lytic cycle cascade. Therefore, one of the mechanisms by which EGCG inhibits EBV spontaneous lytic infection appears to involve the suppression of the activation of MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3-K/Akt signaling.

  4. Neuritogenic Monoglyceride Derived from the Constituent of a Marine Fish for Activating the PI3K/ERK/CREB Signalling Pathways in PC12 Cells

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    Wei Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A neuritogenic monoglyceride, 1-O-(myristoyl glycerol (MG, was isolated from the head of Ilisha elongate using a PC12 cell bioassay system, and its chemical structure was elucidated using spectroscopic methods. MG significantly induced 42% of the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells at a concentration of 10 μM. To study the structure-activity relationships of MG, a series of monoglycerides was designed and synthesised. Bioassay results indicated that the alkyl chain length plays a key role in the neuritogenic activity of the monoglycerides. The groups that link the propane-1,2-diol and alkyl chain were also investigated. An ester linkage, rather than an amido one, was found to be optimal for neuritogenic activity. Therefore, 1-O-(stearoyl glycerol (SG, which induces 57% of the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells at 10 μM, was determined to be a lead compound for neuritogenic activity. We then investigated the mechanism of action of neurite outgrowth induced by SG on PC12 cells using protein specific inhibitors and Western blot analysis. The mitogen-activated kinase/ERK kinase (MEK inhibitor U0126 and the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K inhibitor LY294002 significantly decreased neurite outgrowth. At the same time, SG increased phosphorylation of CREB in protein level. Thus, SG-induced neuritogenic activity depends on the activation of the extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK, cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB and PI3K signalling pathways in PC12 cells.

  5. Adhesion of ZAP-70+ chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to stromal cells is enhanced by cytokines and blocked by inhibitors of the PI3-kinase pathway.

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    Lafarge, Sandrine T; Johnston, James B; Gibson, Spencer B; Marshall, Aaron J

    2014-01-01

    CLL cell survival and proliferation is enhanced through direct contact with supporting cells present in lymphoid tissues. PI3Ks are critical signal transduction enzymes controlling B cell survival and activation. PI3K inhibitors have entered clinical trials and show promising therapeutic activity; however, it is unclear whether PI3K inhibitor drugs differentially affect ZAP-70 positive versus negative CLL cells or target specific microenvironmental interactions. Here we provide evidence that CD40L+IL-4, IL-8 or IL-6 enhance adhesion to stromal cells, with IL-6 showing a selective effect on ZAP-70 positive cells. Stimulatory effects of IL-8 or IL-6 are fully reversed by PI3K inhibition, while the effects of CD40L+IL-4 are partially reversed. While CD40L+IL-4 is the only stimulation increasing CLL cell survival for all patient groups, IL-6 protects ZAP-70 positive cells from cell death induced by PI3K inhibition. Altogether, our results indicate that targeting the PI3K pathway can reverse protective CLL-microenvironment interactions in both ZAP-70 positive and negative CLL despite their differences in cytokine responsiveness.

  6. Curcumin inhibited HGF-induced EMT and angiogenesis through regulating c-Met dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in lung cancer

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    Demin Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and angiogenesis have emerged as two pivotal events in cancer progression. Curcumin has been extensively studied in preclinical models and clinical trials of cancer prevention due to its favorable toxicity profile. However, the possible involvement of curcumin in the EMT and angiogenesis in lung cancer remains unclear. This study found that curcumin inhibited hepatocyte growth factor (HGF-induced migration and EMT-related morphological changes in A549 and PC-9 cells. Moreover, pretreatment with curcumin blocked HGF-induced c-Met phosphorylation and downstream activation of Akt, mTOR, and S6. These effects mimicked that of c-Met inhibitor SU11274 or PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 or mTOR inhibitor rapamycin treatment. c-Met gene overexpression analysis further demonstrated that curcumin suppressed lung cancer cell EMT by inhibiting c-Met/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, we found that curcumin also significantly inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and induced apoptosis and reduced migration and tube formation of HGF-treated HUVEC. Finally, in the experimental mouse model, we showed that curcumin inhibited HGF-stimulated tumor growth and induced an increase in E-cadherin expression and a decrease in vimentin, CD34, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression. Collectively, these findings indicated that curcumin could inhibit HGF-promoted EMT and angiogenesis by targeting c-Met and blocking PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways.

  7. Catalase expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells is mainly controlled by PI3K/Akt/mTor signaling pathway.

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    Glorieux, Christophe; Auquier, Julien; Dejeans, Nicolas; Sid, Brice; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand, Luc; Verrax, Julien; Calderon, Pedro Buc

    2014-05-15

    Catalase is an antioxidant enzyme that catalyzes mainly the transformation of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. Although catalase is frequently down-regulated in tumors the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Few transcription factors have been reported to directly bind the human catalase promoter. Among them FoxO3a has been proposed as a positive regulator of catalase expression. Therefore, we decided to study the role of the transcription factor FoxO3a and the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway, which regulates FoxO3a, in the expression of catalase. To this end, we developed an experimental model of mammary breast MCF-7 cancer cells that acquire resistance to oxidative stress, the so-called Resox cells, in which catalase is overexpressed as compared with MCF-7 parental cell line. In Resox cells, Akt expression is decreased but its phosphorylation is enhanced when compared with MCF-7 cells. A similar profile is observed for FoxO3a, with less total protein but more phosphorylated FoxO3a in Resox cells, correlating with its higher Akt activity. The modulation of FoxO3a expression by knockdown and overexpression strategies did not affect catalase expression, neither in MCF-7 nor in Resox cells. Inhibition of PI3K and mTOR by LY295002 and rapamycin, respectively, decreases the phosphorylation of downstream targets (i.e. GSK3β and p70S6K) and leads to an increase of catalase expression only in MCF-7 but not in Resox cells. In conclusion, FoxO3a does not appear to play a critical role in the regulation of catalase expression in both cancer cells. Only MCF-7 cells are sensitive and dependent on PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling.

  8. ROLE OF PI3K-AKT-mTOR AND Wnt SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN G1-S TRANSITION OF CELL CYCLE IN CANCER CELLS

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    LAKSHMIPATHI eVADLAKONDA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The PI3K–Akt pathway together with one of its downstream targets, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR is a highly deregulated pathway in cancers. There is a reciprocal relation between the Akt phosphorylation and mTOR complexes. Akt phosphorylated at T308 activates mTORC1 by inhibition of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC1/2, where as mTORC2 is recognized as the kinase that phosphorylates Akt at S473. Recent developments in the research on regulatory mechanisms of autophagy places mTORC1 mediated inhibition of autophagy at the central position in activation of proliferation and survival pathways in cells. Autophagy is a negative regulator of Wnt signaling pathway and the downstream effectors of Wnt signaling pathway, cyclin D1 and the c-Myc, are the key players in initiation of cell cycle and regulation of the G1-S transition in cancer cells. Production of reaction oxygen species (ROS, a common feature of a cancer cell metabolism, activates several downstream targets like the transcription factors FoxO, which play key roles in promoting the progression of cell cycle. A model is presented on the role of PI3K -Akt - mTOR and Wnt pathways in regulation of the progression of cell cycle through Go-G1-and S phases.

  9. MicroRNA-130b targets PTEN to mediate drug resistance and proliferation of breast cancer cells via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

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    Miao, Yuan; Zheng, Wei; Li, Nana; Su, Zhen; Zhao, Lifen; Zhou, Huimin; Jia, Li

    2017-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) correlates with treatment failure and poor prognosis among breast cancer patients. This study was aimed to investigate the possible mechanism by which microRNA-130b-3p (miR-130b) mediates the chemoresistance and proliferation of breast cancer. MiR-130b was found to be up-regulated in tumor tissues versus adjacent tissues of breast cancer, as well as in adriamycin (ADR) resistant breast cancer cell line (MCF-7/ADR) versus its parental line (MCF-7) and the non-malignant breast epithelial cell line (MCF-10A), demonstrating its crucial relevance for breast cancer biology. We identified that PTEN was a direct target of miR-130b and inversely correlated with miR-130b expression in breast cancer. Moreover, over-expression of miR-130b promoted drug resistance, proliferation and decreased apoptosis of MCF-7 cells, while suppression of miR-130b enhanced drug cytotoxicity and apoptosis, as well as reduced proliferation of MCF-7/ADR cells in vitro and in vivo. Particularly, miR-130b mediated the activity of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway as well as the chemoresistance and proliferation of breast cancer cell lines, which was partially blocked following knockdown of PTEN. Altogether, miR-130b targets PTEN to induce MDR, proliferation, and apoptosis via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This provides a novel promising candidate for breast cancer therapy. PMID:28165066

  10. EPO-dependent activation of PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a signalling mediates neuroprotection in in vitro and in vivo models of Parkinson's disease.

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    Jia, Yu; Mo, Shi-Jing; Feng, Qi-Qi; Zhan, Ma-Li; OuYang, Li-Si; Chen, Jia-Chang; Ma, Yu-Xin; Wu, Jia-Jia; Lei, Wan-Long

    2014-05-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) may become a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of the neurodegenerative disorder -- Parkinson's disease (PD), since EPO has been found to prevent neuron apoptosis through the activation of cell survival signalling. However, the underlying mechanisms of how EPO exerts its neuroprotective effect are not fully elucidated. Here we investigated the mechanism by which EPO suppressed 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neuron death in in vitro and in vivo models of PD. EPO knockdown conferred 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity. This effect was reversed by EPO administration. Treatment of PC12 cells with EPO greatly diminished the toxicity induced by 6-OHDA in a dose- and time-dependent manner. EPO effectively reduced apoptosis of striatal neurons and induced a significant improvement on the neurological function score in the rat models of PD. Furthermore, EPO increased the expression of phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated FoxO3a, and abrogated the 6-OHDA-induced dysregulation of Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 in PC12 cells and in striatal neurons. Meanwhile, the EPO-dependent neuroprotection was notably reversed by pretreatment with LY294002, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Our data suggest that PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a signalling pathway may be a possible mechanism involved in the neuroprotective effect of EPO in PD.

  11. Tetramethylpyrazine attenuates TNF-α-induced iNOS expression in human endothelial cells: Involvement of Syk-mediated activation of PI3K-IKK-IκB signaling pathways

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    Zheng, Zhen; Li, Zhiliang; Chen, Song; Pan, Jieyi; Ma, Xiaochun, E-mail: zjoever@gmail.com

    2013-08-15

    Endothelial cells produce nitric oxide (NO) by activation of constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and transcription of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). We explored the effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), a compound derived from chuanxiong, on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced iNOS in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and explored the signal pathways involved by using RT-PCR and Western blot. TMP suppressed TNF-α-induced expression of iNOS by inhibiting IκB kinase (IKK) phosphorylation, IκB degradation and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation, which were required for NO gene transcription. Exposure to wortmannin abrogated IKK/IκB/NF-κB-mediated iNOS expression, suggesting activation of such a signal pathway might be phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) dependent. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) inhibitor piceatannol significantly inhibited NO production. Furthermore, piceatannol obviously suppressed TNF-α-induced IκB phosphorylation and the downstream NF-κB activation, suggesting that Syk is an upstream key regulator in the activation of PI3K/IKK/IκB-mediated signaling. TMP significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of Syk and PI3K. Our data indicate that TMP might repress iNOS expression, at least in part, through its inhibitory effect of Syk-mediated PI3K phosphorylation in TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. -- Highlights: •TMP suppressed TNF-α-induced expression of iNOS by inhibiting IKK/IκB/NF-κB pathway. •PI3K inhibitor wortmannin abrogated IKK/IκB/NF-κB-mediated iNOS expression. •Syk inhibitor piceatannol repressed PI3K/IKK/IκB mediated NO production. •Syk is an upstream regulator in the activation of PI3K/IKK/IκB-mediated signaling. •TMP might repress iNOS expression through Syk-mediated PI3K pathway.

  12. Dynamics of GFP-Fusion p110α and p110β Isoforms of PI3K Signaling Pathway in Normal and Cancer Cells.

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    Singh, Paramjeet; Dar, Mohd Saleem; Singh, Gurjinder; Jamwal, Gayatri; Sharma, Parduman Raj; Ahmad, Muzamil; Dar, Mohd Jamal

    2016-12-01

    Cancer therapeutics is a hot subject and PI3K class 1A isoforms (p110α and p110β) are pursued as major targets. Genetic analysis, biochemical approaches, and structural studies have demonstrated crucial roles for these isoforms in several physiological processes. p110α is critical for insulin signaling, whereas p110β is essential for the growth and differs from p110α in many ways. Here, we have generated GFP-fusion clones of wildtype and mutant version of p110α and p110β and expressed them in HEK293 and cancer cells to examine their subcellular localization and their impact on downstream signaling. In HEK293 cells, p110β GFP-fusion protein is translocated into the nucleus, whereas p110α-GFP stays exclusively in the cytoplasm. This study demonstrates that p110α and p110β oncogenecity, kinase activity, and interaction with p85 regulatory subunit does not have any impact on their subcellular localization. PI3K pathway specific inhibitor, LY294002, abrogated PI3K signaling by reducing pAkt levels, however, the subcellular localization of p110α and p110β remained unchanged. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression of recombinant p110α and p110β in a panel of human cancer cells and observed remarkable differences in their expression levels. The differential expression of recombinant p110α and p110β was observed to be mainly regulated by the endogenous levels of pAkt. Unlike in HEK293, p110α showed nuclear localization in cancer cells in a similar fashion to p110β. Moreover, we observed the PI3K signaling activities in low pAkt expressing cells are mediated by PDK1 and S6K proteins. Finally, p110α and p110β were seen to play an essential role in promoting the cell cycle progression in MCF-7 and HCT-116 cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2864-2874, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Tramadol regulates proliferation, migration and invasion via PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling in lung adenocarcinoma cells.

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    Xia, M; Tong, J-H; Ji, N-N; Duan, M-L; Tan, Y-H; Xu, J-G

    2016-06-01

    Tramadol is used mainly for the treatment of moderate to severe chronic cancer pain. However, the effect of tramadol on lung cancer remains unclear. Therefore, it is important to explore the mechanism accounting for the function of tramadol on lung cancer. We investigated the effects of tramadol on the proliferation, migration and invasion in human lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro by CCK-8 assay, wound healing assay and Transwell assay, respectively. We also explored the potential mechanism of tramadol on lung cancer cells by Western blotting. A549 and PC-9 cells were incubated with 2 µM tramadol for different time (0, 7, 14 and 28 d). The in vitro experiments showed that tramadol treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, administration of tramadol suppressed tumor growth in vivo. The data also revealed that tramadol could up-regulate the protein expression level of PTEN and consistently inhibit the phosphorylation level of PI3K and Akt, whereas the total level of PI3K and Akt remain unchanged. These findings indicated that tramadol inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma cells through elevation of PTEN and inactivation of PI3K/Akt signaling.

  14. The Effect of Tianmai Xiaoke Pian on Insulin Resistance through PI3-K/AKT Signal Pathway

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    Nana Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the clinical setting, given the potential adverse effects of thiazolidinediones and biguanides, we often have difficulty in treatment that no other insulin sensitizers are available for use in type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM patients. Tianmai Xiaoke Pian (TMXKP is a traditional Chinese medicine tablet, which is comprised of chromium picolinate, Tianhuafen, Maidong, and Wuweizi. To understand its mechanism of action on insulin resistance, TMXKP (50 mg/kg orally was tested in T2DM rats (induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin. Eight weeks later, fasting blood glucose (FBG and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT were performed. Area under the curve (AUC and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were calculated, and PI3-K/AKT signal pathway-related genes and proteins were tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blot analysis in muscle, adipose, and liver tissues, respectively. TMXKP significantly reduced FBG, OGTT, AUC, and HOMA-IR in diabetic rats P<0.05. Furthermore, we also observed that TMXKP could significantly decrease IRS-1, IRS-2, PI3-K p85α, and AKT2 gene expression and also IRS-1, IRS-2, PI3-K, AKT2, and p-AKT2 protein expression levels P<0.05 in diabetic rats. These findings confirm that TMXKP can alleviate insulin resistance in T2DM rats through the PI3K/AKT pathway. Thus TMXKP appears to be a promising insulin sensitizer.

  15. PI3K/Akt通路在结肠癌中的研究进展%PI3K/Akt Signaling Path Way and its Advances in Colon Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹涤非; 吴琼; 姜洋; 薛佳莹; 黄国庆; 孙尧

    2015-01-01

    结肠癌是我国常发的恶性肿瘤之一,近几年来发病率逐年上升。PI3K/Akt信号传导通路与细胞的增殖和凋亡密切相关,是细胞内调控的重要通路之一。本文对结肠癌中的PI3K/Akt信号传导通路的作用机制进行介绍,有助于加深我们对结肠癌发生、发展的认识,为结肠癌的治疗提供新的研究思路。%Colon cancer is one of the most common malignant tumor in China, and the incidence is increasing in recent years. PI3K/Akt signaling pathway was involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis, which was one of the important pathways for intracellular in colon cancer, and it plays an important role in occurrence and drug treatment.In this review, the mechanism of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in colon cancer were introduced.

  16. Protein and lipid kinase inhibitors as targeted anticancer agents of the Ras/Raf/MEK and PI3K/PKB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Echeverría, Carlos

    2009-03-01

    The identification and characterization of the components of individual signal transduction cascades, and advances in our understanding on how these biological signals are integrated in cancer initiation and progression, have provided new strategies for therapeutic intervention in solid tumors and hematological malignancies. To this end, pharmaceutical efforts have been directed to target different components of the Ras/Raf/MEK and PI3K/PKB pathways. This review article covers recent salient achievements in the identification and development of Raf, MEK, and PI3K inhibitors.

  17. PI3K/Akt signaling mediated apoptosis blockage and viral gene expression in oral epithelial cells during herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Mei-Ju; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chiang, Hsiao-Han; Lai, Yu-Lin; Hung, Shan-Ling

    2010-10-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) function in the anti-apoptotic pathway, and are commonly exploited by various viruses to accomplish the viral life cycle. This study examined the role of the PI3K pathway in human oral epithelial cells following herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The results showed that HSV-1 induced the phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). Phosphorylation of Akt, but not GSK-3, induced by HSV-1 was PI3K-dependent. The expression of HSV-1 immediate-early genes may be involved in the initial phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3. Inhibition of HSV-1-induced PI3K activity increased DNA fragmentation and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), caspase 3 and caspase 7 compared with infected alone. Inhibition of PI3K attenuated the expression of HSV-1-infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), but not thymidine kinase (TK) and viral replication. Collectively, these data suggested that, in oral epithelial cells, the HSV-1-induced PI3K/Akt activation was involved in the regulation of apoptosis blockage and viral gene expression.

  18. Lack of SIRPα phosphorylation and concomitantly reduced SHP-2-PI3K-Akt2 signaling decrease osteoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Cecilia Koskinen; Engman, Sara; Sulniute, Rima; Matozaki, Takashi; Oldenborg, Per-Arne; Lundberg, Pernilla

    2016-09-09

    Normal differentiation of bone forming osteoblasts is a prerequisite for maintenance of skeletal health and is dependent on intricate cellular signaling pathways, including the essential transcription factor Runx2. The cell surface glycoprotein CD47 and its receptor signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) have both been suggested to regulate bone cell differentiation. Here we investigated osteoblastic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells from SIRPα mutant mice lacking the cytoplasmic signaling domain of SIRPα. An impaired osteoblastogenesis in SIRPα-mutant cell cultures was demonstrated by lower alkaline phosphatase activity and less mineral formation compared to wild-type cultures. This reduced osteoblastic differentiation potential in SIRPα-mutant stromal cells was associated with a significantly reduced expression of Runx2, osterix, osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase mRNA, as well as a reduced phosphorylation of SHP-2 and Akt2, as compared with that in wild-type stromal cells. Addition of a PI3K-inhibitor to wild-type stromal cells could mimic the impaired osteoblastogenesis seen in SIRPα-mutant cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that SIRPα signaling through SHP-2-PI3K-Akt2 strongly influences osteoblast differentiation from bone marrow stromal cells.

  19. Liraglutide Exerts Antidiabetic Effect via PTP1B and PI3K/Akt2 Signaling Pathway in Skeletal Muscle of KKAy Mice

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    Wenjun Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Liraglutide (a glucagon-like peptide 1 analog was used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM which could produce glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Aim. The aim was to investigate whether liraglutide could improve myofibril and mitochondria injury in skeletal muscle and the mechanisms in diabetic KKAy mice. Method. We divided the male KKAy mice into 2 groups: liraglutide group (250 μg/kg/day liraglutide subcutaneous injection and model group; meanwhile, the male C57BL/6J mice were considered as the control. After 6 weeks, the ultrastructure of skeletal muscle was observed by electron microscope. The gene expressions of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K, and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 were determined by real-time PCR. The protein levels of the above molecules and phospho-Akt2 (p-Akt2 were measured by Western blot. Results. Liraglutide significantly ameliorated the injury of mitochondria by increasing the number (+441% and the area (+113% of mitochondria and mitochondrial area/100 µm2 (+396% in skeletal muscle of KKAy mice. The results of real-time PCR and Western blot showed that liraglutide downregulated PTP1B while it upregulated PI3K and GLUT4 (P<0.01. The protein level of p-Akt2/Akt2 was also increased (P<0.01. Conclusion. These results revealed that liraglutide could improve myofibril and mitochondria injury in skeletal muscle against T2DM via PTP1B and PI3K/Akt2 signaling pathway.

  20. WSTF promotes proliferation and invasion of lung cancer cells by inducing EMT via PI3K/Akt and IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathways.

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    Meng, Jin; Zhang, Xu-Tao; Liu, Xin-Li; Fan, Lei; Li, Chen; Sun, Yang; Liang, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jian-Bo; Mei, Qi-Bing; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Tao

    2016-11-01

    Williams syndrome transcription factor (WSTF), which is encoded by the BAZ1B gene, was first identified as a hemizygously deleted gene in patients with Williams syndrome. WSTF protein has been reported to be involved in transcription, replication, chromatin remodeling and DNA damage response, and also functions as a tyrosine protein kinase. However, the function of WSTF in cancer is not known. Here, we show that WSTF overexpression promotes proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of lung cancer A549 and H1299 cells. WSTF overexpression also promotes tumor growth and invasive abilities of lung cancer cells in mouse xenograft models. cDNA microarray and subsequent qRT-PCR validation revealed that WSTF overexpression significantly upregulated the expression of EMT (epithelial to mesenchymal transition) marker fibronectin (FN1) and EMT-inducing genes Fos and CEACAM6. The changes of EMT markers including downregulated E-cadherin and upregulated N-cadherin and FN1 were further confirmed at both mRNA and protein levels upon WSTF overexpression, with typical morphological changes of EMT. Furthermore, WSTF activates both PI3K/Akt and IL-6/STAT3 oncogenic signaling pathways. Treatment with PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 or STAT3 inhibitor niclosamide reversed the effects of WSTF overexpression by inhibiting cell proliferation, migration and invasion, with decreased level of p-Akt, p-STAT3 and IL-6. ZSTK474 and niclosamide also reversed EMT markers and EMT-inducing proteins including Snail, Slug, Twist and CEACAM6 in WSTF-overexpressing A549 cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that WSTF may act as an oncoprotein in lung cancer to accelerate tumor aggressiveness by promoting EMT via activation of PI3K/Akt and IL-6/STAT3 pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Targeting acute myeloid leukemia by dual inhibition of PI3K signaling and Cdk9-mediated Mcl-1 transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel; Powell, Jason A; Vergez, Francois; Segal, David H; Nguyen, Nhu-Y N; Baker, Adele; Teh, Tse-Chieh; Barry, Emma F; Sarry, Jean-Emmanuel; Lee, Erwin M; Nero, Tracy L; Jabbour, Anissa M; Pomilio, Giovanna; Green, Benjamin D; Manenti, Stéphane; Glaser, Stefan P; Parker, Michael W; Lopez, Angel F; Ekert, Paul G; Lock, Richard B; Huang, David C S; Nilsson, Susie K; Récher, Christian; Wei, Andrew H; Guthridge, Mark A

    2013-08-01

    Resistance to cell death is a hallmark of cancer and renders transformed cells resistant to multiple apoptotic triggers. The Bcl-2 family member, Mcl-1, is a key driver of cell survival in diverse cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A screen for compounds that downregulate Mcl-1 identified the kinase inhibitor, PIK-75, which demonstrates marked proapoptotic activity against a panel of cytogenetically diverse primary human AML patient samples. We show that PIK-75 transiently blocks Cdk7/9, leading to transcriptional suppression of MCL-1, rapid loss of Mcl-1 protein, and alleviation of its inhibition of proapoptotic Bak. PIK-75 also targets the p110α isoform of PI3K, which leads to a loss of association between Bcl-xL and Bak. The simultaneous loss of Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL association with Bak leads to rapid apoptosis of AML cells. Concordantly, low Bak expression in AML confers resistance to PIK-75-mediated killing. On the other hand, the induction of apoptosis by PIK-75 did not require the expression of the BH3 proteins Bim, Bid, Bad, Noxa, or Puma. PIK-75 significantly reduced leukemia burden and increased the survival of mice engrafted with human AML without inducing overt toxicity. Future efforts to cotarget PI3K and Cdk9 with drugs such as PIK-75 in AML are warranted.

  2. PI3K regulates endocytosis after insulin secretion by mediating signaling crosstalk between Arf6 and Rab27a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Mami; Ando, Tomomi; Terabayashi, Takeshi; Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Takei, Masahiro; Nishioka, Tomoki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Matsunaga, Kohichi; Ishizaki, Ray; Izumi, Tetsuro; Niki, Ichiro; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Kimura, Toshihide

    2016-02-01

    In secretory cells, endocytosis is coupled to exocytosis to enable proper secretion. Although endocytosis is crucial to maintain cellular homeostasis before and after secretion, knowledge about secretagogue-induced endocytosis in secretory cells is still limited. Here, we searched for proteins that interacted with the Rab27a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) EPI64 (also known as TBC1D10A) and identified the Arf6 guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) ARNO (also known as CYTH2) in pancreatic β-cells. We found that the insulin secretagogue glucose promotes phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) generation through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), thereby recruiting ARNO to the intracellular side of the plasma membrane. Peripheral ARNO promotes clathrin assembly through its GEF activity for Arf6 and regulates the early stage of endocytosis. We also found that peripheral ARNO recruits EPI64 to the same area and that the interaction requires glucose-induced endocytosis in pancreatic β-cells. Given that GTP- and GDP-bound Rab27a regulate exocytosis and the late stage of endocytosis, our results indicate that the glucose-induced activation of PI3K plays a pivotal role in exocytosis-endocytosis coupling, and that ARNO and EPI64 regulate endocytosis at distinct stages.

  3. Proanthocyanidin from grape seeds inactivates the PI3-kinase/PKB pathway and induces apoptosis in a colon cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, A-M; Mattheyse, M; Ellis, B; Loos, B; Thomas, M; Smith, R; Peters, S; Smith, C; Myburgh, K

    2007-12-08

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the chemopreventative/antiproliferative potential of a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) against colon cancer cells (CaCo2 cells) and to investigate its mechanism of action. GSPE (10-100 microg/ml) significantly inhibited cell viability and increased apoptosis in CaCo2 cells, but did not alter viability in the normal colon cell line (NCM460). The increased apoptosis observed in GSPE-treated CaCo2 cells correlated with an attenuation of PI3-kinase (p110 and p85 subunits) and decreased PKB Ser(473) phosphorylation. GSPE might thus exert its beneficial effects by means of increased apoptosis and suppression of the important PI3-kinase survival-related pathway.

  4. Formaldehyde up-regulates TRPV1 through MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways in a rat model of bone cancer pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Han; Yah Li; Xing Xiao; Jia Liu; Xiang-Ling Meng; Feng-YuLiu; Guo-Gang Xing; You Wan

    2012-01-01

    Objective Our previous study showed that tumor tissue-derived formaldehyde at low concentrations plays an impoaant role in bone cancer pain through activating transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1).The present study further explored whether this tumor tissue-derived endogenous formaldehyde regulates TRPV1 expression in a rat model of bone cancer pain,and if so,what the possible signal pathways are during the development of this type of pain.Methods A rat model of bone cancer pain was established by injecting living MRMT-1 tumor cells into the tibia.The formaldehyde levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography,and the expression of TRPV1 was examined with Western blot and RT-PCR.In primary cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons,the expression of TRPV1 was assessed after treatment with 100 μmol/L formaldehyde with or without pre-addition of PD98059 [an inhibitor for extracellular signal-regulated kinase],SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor),SP600125 [an inhibitor for c-Jun Nterminal kinase],BIM [a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor] or LY294002 [a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor].Results In the rat model of bone cancer pain,formaldehyde concentration increased in blood plasma,bone marrow and the spinal cord.TRPV1 protein expression was also increased in the DRG.In primary cultured DRG neurons,100μmol/L formaldehyde significantly increased the TRPV1 expression level.Pre-incubation with PD98059,SB203580,SP600125 or LY294002,but not BIM,inhibited the formaldehyde-induced increase of TRPV1 expression.Conclusion Formaldehyde at a very low concentration up-regulates TRPV1 expression through mitogen-activated protein kinase and PI3K,but not PKC,signaling pathways.These results further support our previous finding that TRPV1 in peripheral afferents plays a role in bone cancer pain.

  5. Adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener protects PC12 cells against hypoxia-induced apoptosis through PI3K/Akt and Bcl-2 signaling pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zhang; Chunhong Jia; Danyang Zhao; Yang Lu; Runling Wang; Jia Li

    2010-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown the neuroprotective effects of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel opener against ischemic neuronal damage, little is known about the mechanisms involved. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/v-akt murine thy-moma viral oncogene homolog (Akt) and Bcl-2 are thought to be important factors that mediate neuroprotection. The present study investigated the effects of KATP openers on hypoxia-induced PC12 cell apoptosis, as well as mRNA and protein expression of Akt and Bcl-2. Results demon-strated that pretreatment of PC12 cells with pinacidil, a KATP opener, resulted in decreased PC12 cell apoptosis following hypoxia, as detected by Annexin-V fluorescein isothiocyanate/ propidium iodide double staining flow cytometry. In addition, mRNA and protein expression of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and Bcl-2 increased, as detected by immunofluorescence, Western blot analysis, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The protective effect of this preconditioning was attenuated by glipizide, a selective KATP blocker. These results demonstrate for the first time that the protective mechanisms of KATP openers on PC12 cell apoptosis following hypoxia could result from activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which further activates expression of the downstream Bcl-2 gene.

  6. Interleukin-21 promotes osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway independently of RANKL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Rui; Zhang, Yingjian; Li, Changhong; Sun, Lin; Yang, Lin; Zhao, Jinxia; Liu, Xiangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines play a key role in the bone destruction of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interleukin-21 (IL-21) promotes osteoclastogenesis in RA in a receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-dependent way. Whether IL-21 is capable of promoting osteoclastogenesis directly in the absence of RANKL remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the osteoclastogenic activity of IL-21 in RAW264.7 cells in the absence of RANKL. We found that IL-21 enhanced osteoclastogenesis and this was demonstrated by increased numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive stained, multinucleated cells compared with the negative control. Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry showed the positive expression of calcitonin receptor (CTR) in the IL-21 group. RT-PCR and RT-qPCR also verified the increased mRNA expression of CTR and cathepsin K in the IL-21 group compared with the negative control. The scanning electronic microscope images showed a few resorption pits on the bone slices cultured with IL-21. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002 significantly suppressed IL-21-induced osteoclastogenesis. Taken together, these findings suggest that IL-21 has direct osteoclastogenic potential independently of RANKL. IL-21 may promote osteoclastogenesis through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Therapy targeting IL-21 may be of value in preventing bone erosions in patients with RA. PMID:27599586

  7. Inhibition of c-Met activation sensitizes osteosarcoma cells to cisplatin via suppression of the PI3K-Akt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kelai; Zhuang, Yan; Liu, Chunlan; Li, Yang

    2012-10-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor. Cisplatin (CDDP) achieves a high response rate in osteosarcoma. However, osteosarcoma usually exhibits cisplatin resistance. Many members of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)(1) have been demonstrated to be overexpressed and constitutively activated in various tumors including osteosarcoma, resulting in malignant progression and insensitivity to chemotherapy. Hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR/c-Met) also appears overexpressed and activated in osteosarcoma cells. Nevertheless, which role of c-Met activation in cisplatin efficacy against osteosarcoma cells remains still elusive. This study found that inhibition of c-Met activity by PHA-665752 or blockade of the interaction of autocrined HGF with c-Met with neutralizing anti-HGF antibody promoted cisplatin efficacy in osteosarcoma cells, while addition of recombinant human HGF (rh-HGF) counteracts cisplatin cytotoxicity. Specifically, we demonstrated that inhibition of c-Met activity led to suppression of the PI3K-Akt pathway, thus enhancing cisplatin chemosensitivity. Our study clearly suggests that inhibition of c-Met activity can effectively sensitize osteosarcoma cells to cisplatin via suppression of the PI3K-Akt signaling.

  8. Protection afforded by quercetin against H2O2-induced apoptosis on PC12 cells via activating PI3K/Akt signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Sun, Lejin; Liu, Zhene; Wang, Hongxia; Xu, Cunli

    2016-01-01

    Cell damage and apoptosis induced by oxidative stress have been involved in various neurodegenerative diseases. This study aims to explore the neuro-protective effects of quercetin on PC12 cells apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and the underlying mechanisms. The cell viability was detected, as well as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) of the cells in control, H(2)O(2) and quercetin groups. It finally turned out that quercetin might protect PC12 cells against the negative effect of H(2)O(2) by decreasing of LDH release, ROS concentration and MDA level and regaining the GSH-Px and SOD activities. To investigate the mechanism, LY294002 was introduced, the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Akt phosphorylation (p-Akt) were examined by Western blot analysis. The data showed that LY294002 almost had the same effects with H(2)O(2), which was also significantly reversed by quercetin could enhance Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and adjust the p-Akt expression, which indicated quercetin might protect PC12 cells against the negative effect of H(2)O(2) via activating the PI3K/Akt signal pathway.

  9. BDNF/ TrkB interaction regulates migration of SVZ precursor cells via PI3-K and MAP-K signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramello, S; Dalmasso, G; Bezin, L; Marcel, D; Jourdan, F; Peretto, P; Fasolo, A; De Marchis, S

    2007-10-01

    Neuroblasts born in the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate along the rostral migratory stream, reaching the olfactory bulb (OB) where they differentiate into local interneurons. Several extracellular factors have been suggested to control specific steps of this process. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been demonstrated to promote morphological differentiation and survival of OB interneurons. Here we show that BDNF and its receptor TrkB are expressed in vivo throughout the migratory pathway, implying that BDNF might also mediate migratory signals. By using in vitro models we demonstrate that BDNF promotes migration of SVZ neuroblasts, acting both as inducer and attractant through TrkB activation. We show that BDNF induces cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation in migrating neuroblasts via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP-K) signalling. Pharmacological blockade of these pathways on SVZ explants significantly reduces CREB activation and impairs neuronal migration. This study identifies a function of BDNF in the SVZ system, which involves multiple protein kinase pathways leading to neuroblast migration.

  10. RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/AKT Signaling in Malignant Melanoma Progression and Therapy

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    Ichiro Yajima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma is one of the most serious skin cancers and is highly invasive and markedly resistant to conventional therapy. Melanomagenesis is initially triggered by environmental agents including ultraviolet (UV, which induces genetic/epigenetic alterations in the chromosomes of melanocytes. In human melanomas, the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK (MAPK and the PI3K/PTEN/AKT (AKT signaling pathways are two major signaling pathways and are constitutively activated through genetic alterations. Mutations of RAF, RAS, and PTEN contribute to antiapoptosis, abnormal proliferation, angiogenesis, and invasion for melanoma development and progression. To find better approaches to therapies for patients, understanding these MAPK and AKT signaling mechanisms of melanoma development and progression is important. Here, we review MAPK and AKT signaling networks associated with melanoma development and progression.

  11. Layered double hydroxide nanoparticles promote self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells through the PI3K signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Youjun; Zhu, Rongrong; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Wenrui; Sun, Xiaoyu; Wu, Xianzheng; Cheng, Liming; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Shilong

    2015-06-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold great potential for regenerative medicine due to their two unique characteristics: self-renewal and pluripotency. Several groups of nanoparticles have shown promising applications in directing the stem cell fate. Herein, we investigated the cellular effects of layered double hydroxide nanoparticles (LDH NPs) on mouse ESCs (mESCs) and the associated molecular mechanisms. Mg-Al-LDH NPs with an average diameter of ~100 nm were prepared by hydrothermal methods. To determine the influences of LDH NPs on mESCs, cellular cytotoxicity, self-renewal, differentiation potential, and the possible signaling pathways were explored. Evaluation of cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, ROS generation and apoptosis demonstrated the low cytotoxicity of LDH NPs. The alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of pluripotency genes in mESCs were examined, which indicated that exposure to LDH NPs could support self-renewal and inhibit spontaneous differentiation of mESCs under feeder-free culture conditions. The self-renewal promotion was further proved to be independent of the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Furthermore, cells treated with LDH NPs maintained the potential to differentiate into all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo through formation of embryoid bodies and teratomas. In addition, we observed that LDH NPs initiated the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, while treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 could block the effects of LDH NPs on mESCs. The results confirmed that the promotion of self-renewal by LDH NPs was associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Altogether, our studies identified a new role of LDH NPs in maintaining self-renewal of mouse ES cells which could potentially be applied in stem cell research.Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold great potential for regenerative medicine due to their two unique characteristics: self-renewal and pluripotency. Several groups of nanoparticles

  12. ApoA-IV improves insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in mouse adipocytes via PI3K-Akt Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Fei; Xu, Min; Howles, Philip; Tso, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effect of ApoA-IV on glucose uptake in the adipose and muscle tissues of mice and cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that treatment with ApoA-IV lowered fasting blood glucose in both WT and diabetic KKAy mice by increasing glucose uptake in cardiac muscle, white adipose tissue, and brown adipose tissue through a mechanism that was partially insulin independent. Cell culture experiments showed that ApoA-IV improved glucose uptake in adipocytes in the absence of insulin by upregulating GLUT4 translocation by PI3K mediated activation of Akt signaling pathways. Considering our previous finding that ApoA-IV treatment enhanced pancreatic insulin secretion, these results suggests that ApoA-IV acts directly upon adipose tissue to improve glucose uptake and indirectly via insulin signaling. Our findings warrant future studies to identify the receptor for ApoA-IV and the downstream targets of PI3K-Akt signaling that regulate glucose uptake in adipocytes as potential therapeutic targets for treating insulin resistance. PMID:28117404

  13. CK2α Regulates the Metastases and Migration of Lung Adenocarcinoma 
A549 Cell Line through PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β Signal Pathway

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    Aibing WU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is the leading cancer-related death worldwide. Patients with lung cancer mainly died of tumor metastasis and invasion. Protein kinase CK2 is an ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase and is frequently upregulated in various human tumors. This study aims to explore the effect and molecular mechanism of the invasion and migration of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells after knock-down of CK2α expression. Methods The pSilencerTM 4.1-siCK2α-eGFP of lentiviral-mediated shRNA was constructed. The expression of CK2α was knock-downed, and a stable A549 cell line was established. The invasion and migration of A549 cell line was detected through Transwell and Boyden chamber assays. The protein expression of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (EMT was evaluated using Western blot analysis. Results The invasion and migration of A549 cells were significantly inhibited after the knockdown of CK2α expression compared with that in the control group. p-PTEN, Akt, p-Akt473, p-Akt308, p-PDK1, p-c-Raf, and p-GSK-3β were significantly downregulated, whereas PTEN was upregulated. Moreover, vimentin, β-catenin, Snail, MMP2, and MMP9 were significantly downregulated after reducing the CK2α expression. Conclusion CK2α might regulate the invasion and migration of A549 cells through the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling pathway, which controls EMT in lung adenocarcinoma.

  14. Gas6 Delays Senescence in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells through the PI3K/ Akt/FoxO Signaling Pathway

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    Cheng-wei Jin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6 is a cytokine that can be synthesized by a variety of cell types and secreted into the extracellular matrix. Previous studies have confirmed that Gas6 is involved in certain pathophysiological processes of the cardiovascular system through binding to its receptor, Axl. In the present study, we investigated the role of Gas6 in cellular senescence and explored the mechanisms underlying its activity. Methods: We used vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs to create two cellular senescence models, one for replicative senescence (RS and one for induced senescence (IS, to test the hypothesis that Gas6 delays senescence. Results: Gas6-treated cells appear relatively younger compared with non-Gas6-treated cells. In particular, Gas6-treated cells displayed decreased staining for SA-β-Gal, fewer G1 phase cells, and decreased levels of p16INK4a and p21Cip1 expression; conversely, Gas6-treated cells displayed more S phase cells and significantly increased proliferation indexes. Furthermore, in both the IS and RS models with Gas6 treatment, the levels of PI3K, p-Akt, and p-FoxO3a decreased following Axl inhibition by R428; similarly, the levels of p-Akt and p-FoxO3a also decreased following PI3K inhibition by LY294002. Conclusion: Gas6/Axl signaling is essential for delaying the cellular senescence process regulated by the PI3K/Akt/FoxO signaling pathway.

  15. Activation of PI3K/AKT and ERK MAPK signal pathways is required for the induction of lytic cycle replication of Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by herpes simplex virus type 1

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    Lv Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is causally linked to several acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related malignancies, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL and a subset of multicentric Castleman's disease. Regulation of viral lytic replication is critical to the initiation and progression of KS. Recently, we reported that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 was an important cofactor that activated lytic cycle replication of KSHV. Here, we further investigated the possible signal pathways involved in HSV-1-induced reactivation of KSHV. Results By transfecting a series of dominant negative mutants and protein expressing constructs and using pharmacologic inhibitors, we found that either Janus kinase 1 (JAK1/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 or JAK1/STAT6 signaling failed to regulate HSV-1-induced KSHV replication. However, HSV-1 infection of BCBL-1 cells activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (PKB, also called AKT pathway and inactivated phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β. PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway was found to be involved in HSV-1-induced KSHV reactivation. Additionally, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway also partially contributed to HSV-1-induced KSHV replication. Conclusions HSV-1 infection stimulated PI3K/AKT and ERK MAPK signaling pathways that in turn contributed to KSHV reactivation, which provided further insights into the molecular mechanism controlling KSHV lytic replication, particularly in the context of HSV-1 and KSHV co-infection.

  16. Photoactivation of GLUT4 translocation promotes glucose uptake via PI3-K/Akt2 signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

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    Lei Huang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is a hallmark of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Dysfunction of PI-3K/Akt signaling was involved in insulin resistance. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 is a key factor for glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissues, which is closely regulated by PI-3K/Akt signaling in response to insulin treatment. Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI has been shown to regulate various physiological processes and induce the synthesis or release of multiple molecules such as growth factors, which (especially red and near infrared light is mainly through the activation of mitochondrial respiratory chain and the initiation of intracellular signaling pathways. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether LPLI could promote glucose uptake through activation of PI-3K/Akt/GLUT4 signaling in 3T3L-1 adipocytes. In this study, we investigated how LPLI promoted glucose uptake through activation of PI-3K/Akt/GLUT4 signaling pathway. Here, we showed that GLUT4 was localized to the Golgi apparatus and translocated from cytoplasm to cytomembrane upon LPLI treatment in 3T3L-1 adipocytes, which enhanced glucose uptake. Moreover, we found that glucose uptake was mediated by the PI3-K/Akt2 signaling, but not Akt1 upon LPLI treatment with Akt isoforms gene silence and PI3-K/Akt inhibitors. Collectively, our results indicate that PI3-K/Akt2/GLUT4 signaling act as the key regulators for improvement of glucose uptake under LPLI treatment in 3T3L-1 adipocytes. More importantly, our findings suggest that activation of PI3-K/Akt2/GLUT4 signaling by LPLI may provide guidance in practical applications for promotion of glucose uptake in insulin-resistant adipose tissue.

  17. The tyrosine kinase receptor c-met, its cognate ligand HGF and the tyrosine kinase receptor trasducers STAT3, PI3K and RHO in thyroid nodules associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis: an immunohistochemical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Ruggeri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF exerts proliferative activities in thyrocytes upon binding to its tyrosine kinase receptor c-met and is also expressed in benign thyroid nodules as well as in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT. The simultaneous expression of HGF/c-met and three trasducers of tyrosine kinase receptors (STAT3, PI3K, RHO in both the nodular and extranodular tissues were studied by immunohistochemistry in 50 benign thyroid nodules (NGs, 25 of which associated with HT. The ligand/tyrosine kinase receptor pair HGF/c-met and the two trasducers PI3K and RHO were expressed in NGs, regardless of association with HT, with a higher positive cases percentage in HT-associated NGs compared to not HT-associated NGs (25/25 or 100% vs 7/25 or 28%; P<0.001. HGF, PI3K and RHO expression was only stromal (fibroblasts and endothelial cells, in all 32 reactive NGs, while c-met localization was consistently epithelial (thyrocyes. Immu­noreactions for HGF, c-met, PI3K and RHO were also apparent in the extra-nodular tissue of HT specimens, where HGF and PI3K were expressed not only in stromal cells but also in thyrocyes along with the c-met. Finally, a positive correlation was observed between the proportion of HGF, c-met, PI3K follicular cells and the grade of lymphoid aggregates in HT. In conclusion, HGF, c-met, PI3K are much more frequently and highly expressed in HT compared to NGs, and among all NGs in those present in the context of HT. A paracrine effect of HFG/c-met on nodule development, based on the prevalent stromal expression, may be suggested along with a major role of HGF/c-met and PI3K in HT. Finally, the expression of such molecules in HT may be regulated by lymphoid infiltrate.

  18. CXCL8 promotes the invasion of human osteosarcoma cells by regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai; Wang, Xiaowei; Miao, Wusheng; Wang, Bing; Qiu, Yusheng

    2017-09-01

    Chemokine cysteine-X-cysteine motif ligand 8 (CXCL8) is up-regulated in many malignancies, indicating that CXCL8 takes part in tumor progression. However, the expression and function of CXCL8 in osteosarcoma remained not fully elucidated. In this study, expressions of 12 cytokines and chemokines were measured in the serum from 12 of normal controls (NCs) and 25 of osteosarcoma patients. The human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 was stimulated by recombinant CXCL8 to further analyze invasion, proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycles, cytokine secretions, and signaling pathways. We found that serum concentrations of CXCL8 and vascular endothelial growth factor were elevated in osteosarcoma patients in comparison with those in NCs. CXCL8 stimulation led to enhancement of invasion and suppression of late stage apoptosis in MG-63 cells. Moreover, secretions of MMPs by MG-63 cells were also increased upon stimulation. However, early stage apoptosis, proliferation, and cell cycles were not affected by CXCL8 treatment. Furthermore, CXCL8 stimulation induced elevations of phosphorylated PI3K and Akt, but not PKC or FAK. In conclusion, our findings suggested that CXCL8 enhanced the invasion and suppressed late stage apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells probably via influencing PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and elevating the expression of MMPs. CXCL8 may promote disease progression of osteosarcoma as a protumorigenic molecule, and may be served as a new therapeutic target for osteosarcoma. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Id-1 promotes osteosarcoma cell growth and inhibits cell apoptosis via PI3K/AKT signaling pathway

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    Hao, Liang; Liao, Qi; Tang, Qiang [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 300006 (China); Deng, Huan [Department of Pathology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Chen, Lu, E-mail: chenlu0578@163.com [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 300006 (China)

    2016-02-12

    Accumulating evidence reveals that Id-1 is upregulated and functions as a potential tumor promoter in several human cancer types. However, the role of Id-1 in osteosarcoma (OS) is unknown. In present study, we found that Id-1 expression was elevated in OS tissues than adjacent normal bone tissues. More importantly, we demonstrated that overexpression of Id-1 is significantly correlated with tumor progression and poor survival in OS patients. Furthermore, increased expression of Id-1 was observed in OS cell lines and ectopic expression of Id-1 significantly enhanced in vitro cell proliferation and promoted in vivo tumor growth, whereas knockdown of Id-1 suppressed OS cells growth. Moreover, our experimental data revealed that Id-1 promotes cell proliferation by facilitating cell cycle progression and inhibits cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, the effects of Id-1 in OS cells is at least partly through activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Therefore, we identified a tumorigenic role of Id-1 in OS and suggested a potential therapeutic target for OS patients. - Highlights: • Id-1 expression is positively correlated in OS patients with poor prognosis. • Overexpression of Id-1 promotes OS cell growth in vitro and in vivo. • Id-1induces cell cycle progression and inhibits cell apoptosis. • PI3K/Akt signaling pathway contributed to the oncogenic effects of Id-1 in OS cells.

  20. Beauvericin ameliorates experimental colitis by inhibiting activated T cells via downregulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Feng Wu

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease is a common, chronic inflammatory bowel condition characterized by remission and relapse. Accumulating evidence indicates that activated T cells play an important role in this disease. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effect of beauvericin, a natural cyclic peptide, on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS-induced colitis in mice, which mimics Crohn's disease. Beauvericin significantly reduced weight loss, diarrhea and mortality, accompanied with notable alleviation of macroscopic and microscopic signs. In addition, this compound decreased serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interferon (IFN-γ in a concentration-dependent manner in mice with experimental colitis. These effects of beauvericin are attributed to its inhibition on activated T cells. Flow cytometry and immunoblot assay data showed that beauvericin suppressed T-cell proliferation, activation and IFN-γ-STAT1-T-bet signaling and subsequently led to apoptosis of activated T cells by suppressing Bcl-2 and phosphorylated Bad as well as increasing cleavage of caspase-3, -9, -12 and PARP. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling, which was an upstream regulator of cell activation and survival in activated T cells, contributed to the effect of beauvericin. Overall, these results supported beauvericin as a novel drug candidate for the treatment of colonic inflammation mainly by targeting PI3K/Akt in activated T cells.

  1. Effect of lipitor on high glucose-induced HUVEC apoptosis and PI3K/AKT/eNOS signal pathway%立普妥对高糖诱导的HUVEC凋亡及PI3 K/AKT/eNOS信号通路的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志辉

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨立普妥对高糖诱导的人脐静脉内皮细胞(HUVEC)的凋亡及对磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶(PI3K)/蛋白激酶B(AKT)/内皮型一氧化氮(eNOS)信号通路的影响.方法 实验分为正常组,模型组(33.3 mol/L葡萄糖),立普妥组(33.3 mol/L葡萄糖+0.1,1,10μmol/L);MTT法检测各组HUVEC活力;倒置显微镜拍照检测各组HUVEC形态;Annexin V-FITC/PI流式双染法检测各组HUVEC凋亡;Gries法检测各组HUVEC上清NO含量;Western blot分析PI3K/AKT激活状况及eNOS的表达情况.结果 与正常组比较,高糖组中HUVEC皱缩,变圆变亮,细胞活力降低,细胞早期凋亡和晚期凋亡率显著提高,NO含量及eNOS、PI3K表达量及AKT磷酸化程度降低,差异均具有显著性(P<0.05);与模型组比较,1,10μmol/L立普妥组中HUVEC形态恢复,细胞活力上升,PI3K表达量提高,差异均具有显著性(P<0.05);0.1,1,10μmol/L立普妥组HUVEC凋亡程度下降,NO含量、eNOS表达量提高,AKT磷酸化水平上升,差异均具有显著性(P<0.05).结论 立普妥可抵抗高糖诱导的HUVEC凋亡,是通过激活PI3 K/AKT/eNOS信号通路实现的.%Objectives To explore effect of lipitor on apoptosis and phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase ( PI3K)/protein kinase B ( AKT )/endothelial nitric oxide synthase ( eNOS ) signal pathway in high glucose-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell ( HUVEC) .Methods The cases were randomly divided into normal control group, model control group (33.3 mol/L glucose), lipitor low, medium, high-dose group (0.1,1,10 μmol/L lipitor).The viability of HUVEC was detected by MTT assay.The morphology of HUVEC was photographed by inverted microscope.The apoptosis of HUVEC was examed by Annexin V-FITC/PI flow dual-staining method.The concertration of NO in HUVEC supernatant was exmaed by Gries method.The activation of PI3K/AKT and expression of eNOS was assayed by western blot.Results HUVEC was shrinkage, rounded and brighten, the viability of HUVEC decreased, early and late

  2. Plant food anthocyanins inhibit platelet granule secretion in hypercholesterolaemia: Involving the signalling pathway of PI3K-Akt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fenglin; Zhu, Yanna; Shi, Zhenyin; Tian, Jinju; Deng, Xiujuan; Ren, Jing; Andrews, Marc C; Ni, Heyu; Ling, Wenhua; Yang, Yan

    2014-11-01

    Controlling platelet granule secretion has been considered an effective strategy to dampen thrombosis and prevent atherosclerosis. Anthocyanins are natural plant pigments and possess a wide range of biological activities, including cardiovascular protective activity. In the present study we explored the effects and the potential mechanisms of anthocyanins on platelet granule secretion in hypercholesterolemia. In a randomised, double-blind clinical trial, 150 hypercholesterolaemic individuals were treated with purified anthocyanins (320 mg/day) or placebo for 24 weeks. Anthocyanins consumption significantly reduced plasma levels of β-thromboglobulin (β-TG), soluble P-selectin, and of Regulated on Activation Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) as compared with the placebo. A minor reduction in platelet factor 4 (PF4) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) levels were also observed. In in vitro experiments, we observed that puriӿed anthocyanin mixture, as well as its two main anthocyanin components, delphinidin-3-glucoside (Dp-3-g) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3g) directly inhibited platelet á-granule, dense granule, and lysosome secretion evaluated by P-selectin, RANTES, β-TG, PF4, TGF-β1, serotonin, ATP, and CD63 release. Further, anthocyanins inhibited platelet PI3K/Akt activation and consequently attenuated eNOS phosphorylation and cGMP production, thus interrupting MAPK activation. LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, did not cause additional inhibitory efficacy, indicating that anthocyanin-induced effects may be involved in inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. These results provide evidence that by inhibiting platelet granule secretion, anthocyanins may be a potent cardioprotective agent.

  3. Regulative mechanism of PI3K/Akt signal pathway on Skp2 via Cdh1 in non-small cell lung cancer%非小细胞肺癌中PI3K/Akt信号通路通过Cdh1调控Skp2表达的机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀华; 张洪开; 李玉; 于爱鸣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the regulative mechanism of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway on S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) via Cdc20 homolog 1 ( Cdh1 ) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods NSCLC cell lines A549, LK2 and H460 were cultured in vitro and treated with LY294002 to block the PI3K/Akt pathway. Western blot method was used to detect the expression of Skp2, Cdh1 and p-Akt proteins. Immunofluorescence (IF) analysis was used to examine the localization of Cdh1 in NSCLC. Results Compared with control cells, the protein expression of Skp2 and p-Akt decreased ( P < 0.01 ). IF result showed a redistribution of Cdh1 to the nucleus. Conclusion The inhibitor of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway LY294002 down-regulated the expression of Skp2, which might correlated with the nuclear localization of Cdh1.%目的 探讨非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)中Cdc20同源蛋白1(Cdh1)参与磷脂酰肌醇三羟基激酶(PI3K)/Akt信号通路对S期激酶相关蛋白2(Skp2)表达调控的机制.方法 体外培养NSCLC细胞系A549、LK2和H460,LY294002特异性阻断PI3K/Akt信号通路后,Western blot 检测Skp2、Cdh1及p-Akt蛋白表达的变化,免疫荧光(IF)检测Cdh1在NSCLC中的定位变化.结果 LY294002处理后,与对照组相比3种细胞中Skp2蛋白表达和Akt磷酸化水平均降低(P<0.01),Cdh1在3种细胞的核内表达均增多.结论 NSCLC中PI3K/Akt 信号通路抑制剂LY294002使Skp2蛋白表达下调与Cdh1由细胞质向细胞核转位有关.

  4. Correlation between PTEN Expression and PI3K/Akt Signal Pathway in Endometrial Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinglei GAO; Fei YE; Xi XIA; Hui XING; Yunping LU; Jianfeng ZHOU; Ding MA

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of the PTEN expression in carcinogenesis and develop-ment of endometrial carcinoma and clarify whether and how PTEN and PI3K/Akt pathway relate to endometrial carcinoma,the expression of PTEN and phospho-Akt was detected by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods and Western-blot from 24 cases of endomctrial carcinoma,10 cases of endometrial atypical hyperplasia,10 cases of endometrial hy-perplasia,and 10 cases of normal endometrium.SP immunohistochemical methods were used to measure levels of PTEN protein expression in following 5 study groups:31 cases of endometrium in proliferative phase,30 cases of endometrium in secretory phase,71 cases of endometrial hyperplasia,25 cases of atypical hyperplasia and 73 cases of endometrial carcinoma.Immunostaining score of PTEN was 3.39±0.15 in proliferative phase,1.90±0.21 in secretory phase,3.34~0.29 in endometrial hyperplasia,0.624±0.11 in atypical hyperplasia,and 0.74±0.19 in endometrial carcinoma,respectively.PTEN mRNA relative value in normal endometrium,endometrial hyperplasia,endometrial atypical hyperplasia,and endometrial carcinoma was 2.45±0.51,2.32±0.32,0.46±0.11,and 0.35±0.13 respec-tively.The expression levels of PTEN mRNA and protein in patients with endometrial carcinoma and atypical hyperplasia were significantly lower than in those of proliferative phase and with endo-metrial hyperplasia.The level of PTEN expression in patients with endometrial carcinoma was sig-nificantly related to tissue type (P0.05).Western blot analysis revealed that Phospho-Akt level in PTEN negative cases was significantly higher,and there was a negative correlation between PTEN and phospho-Akt (r=- 0.8973,P<0.0001).It was suggested that loss of PTEN expression was an early event in endometrial tumorigenesis.The phosphorylation of Akt induced by the loss of PTEN took part in the tumorigenesis and development of endometrial carcinoma.

  5. β-Caryophyllene Pretreatment Alleviates Focal Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Activating PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; An, Ruidi; Tian, Xiaocui; Yang, Mei; Li, Minghang; Lou, Jie; Xu, Lu; Dong, Zhi

    2017-02-24

    β-Caryophyllene (BCP) has been reported to be protective against focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury by its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory features. Recent study demonstrates that the BCP exhibits potential neuroprotection against I/R injury induced apoptosis, however, the mechanism remains unknown. Therefore, we investigate the underlying anti-apoptotic mechanism of BCP pretreatment in I/R injury. Sprague-Dawley rats (pretreated with BCP suspensions or solvent orally for 7 days) were subjected to transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min, followed by 24 h reperfusion. Results showed that BCP pretreatment improved the neurologic deficit score, lowered the infarct volume and decreased number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus. Moreover, in western blot and RT-qPCR detections, BCP pretreatment down-regulated the expressions of Bax and p53, up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, and enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473. Blockage of PI3K activity by wortmannin not only abolished the BCP-induced decreases in infarct volume and neurologic deficit score, but also dramatically abrogated the enhancement of AKt phosphorylation. Our results suggested that BCP pre-treatment protects against I/R injury partly by suppressing apoptosis via PI3K/AKt signaling pathway activation.

  6. The PI3K/p-Akt signaling pathway participates in calcitriol ameliorating podocyte injury in DN rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhixia; Guo, Yinfeng; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2014-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between PI3K/p-Akt signaling pathway and podocyte impairment in DN rats as well as the protective effect of calcitriol. SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control (NC), normal treated with calcitriol (NC+VD), diabetic nephropathy (DN) and DN treated with calcitriol (DN+VD); all VD rats were treated with 0.1 μg/kg/d calcitriol by gavage. DN model rats were established by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ). Rats were sacrificed after 18 weeks of treatments. In the present study, increased albuminuria was observed as early as 3 weeks of diabetes and continued to increase more than six-fold throughout the length of the study (18 weeks). Expectedly, animals receiving the treatment with calcitriol was protected from this increase, lower about one third. Meanwhile, the expression of podocyte specific markers, including nephrin and podocin, together with PI3K/p-Akt was significantly decreased in DN rats, whereas calcitriol reversed these above changes accompanied by elevated the expression levels of VDR. Additionally, a positive correlation was observed between the expression levels of nephrin and VDR (r = 0.776, P DN rats. The manipulation of calcitriol might act as a promising therapeutic intervention for diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of streptozotocin-induced type 1 maternal diabetes on PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in the hippocampus of rat neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hami, Javad; Kerachian, Mohammad-Amin; Karimi, Razieh; Haghir, Hossein; Sadr-Nabavi, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes in pregnancy impairs hippocampus development in offspring, leading to behavioral problems and learning deficits. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in the regulation of neuronal proliferation, survival and death. The present study was designed to examine the effects of maternal diabetes on PKB/Akt expression and phosphorylation in the developing rat hippocampus. Wistar female rats were maintained diabetic from a week before pregnancy through parturition and male offspring was killed at first postnatal day (P1). The hippocampal expression and phosphorylation level of PKB/Akt, one of the key molecules in PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analysis. We found a significant bilateral downregulation of AKT1 gene expression in the hippocampus of pups born to diabetic mothers (p diabetic and insulin-treated groups compared with control (p diabetic group. These results represent that diabetes during pregnancy strongly influences the regulation of PKB/AKT in the developing rat hippocampus. Furthermore, although the control of glycemia by insulin administration is not sufficient to prevent the alterations in PKB/Akt expression, it modulates the phosphorylation process, thus ultimately resulting in a situation comparable to that found in the normal condition.

  8. [Influence of polypeptide extract from scorpion venom on PI3K and p-Akt signaling protein expression and cell proliferation of K562 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Jun; Yang, Wen-Hua; Yang, Xiang-Dong; Shi, Zhe-Xin; Wang, Xing-Li; Hao, Zheng; Zhang, Jia

    2012-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of polypeptide extract from scorpion venom (PESV) on PI3K, p-Akt signal protein regulating K562 cell apoptosis and its mechanism. The K562 cells were cultured with PESV for different time, the cell growth curve was determined by MTT method, the levels of PI3K and p-Akt proteins were detected by Western blot. The results showed that as compared with control group, the apoptosis rate of K562 cells treated with PESV increased, the levels of PI3K and p-Akt expression decreased. It is concluded that the PESV inhibits the proliferation and promotes the apoptosis of K562 cells probably through suppressing the expression of PI3K and p-Akt signal proteins.

  9. Puquitinib mesylate (XC-302) induces autophagy via inhibiting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in nasopharyngeal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Feng; Yang, Hang; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Li, Su; Cai, Yu-Chen

    2015-12-01

    There are numerous studies that demonstrate the anti-neoplastic activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors and the mechanisms of inducing autophagy in cancer cells. The new anticancer drug puquitinib mesylate (XC-302) is a molecular-targeted drug, which suppresses the activity of PI3K directly. However, it remains unclear whether XC‑302 can develop an antitumor effect by inducing autophagy in nasopharyngeal cancer cells. The MTT assay was used to study the anti-proliferative effects of XC-302. Subsequently, autophagy was determined by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, punctate localization of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-light chain 3 (LC3), LC3 protein blotting and electron microscopy. The expression levels of beclin 1, p62, protein kinase B (AKT), phospho (p)‑AKT, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p‑mTOR in XC-302‑induced autophagy were detected. Autophagy inhibition was assayed by 3-methyladenine (3‑MA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of beclin 1. XC-302 inhibited the viability of CNE‑2 in a dose-dependent manner and the IC50 of 72 h was 5.2 µmol/l. After cells were exposed to XC-302 for 24 h, MDC-labeled autophagolysosomes were evident in CNE-2 cells by fluorescence microscope. Autophagosomes and autolysosomes were identified by transmission electron microscopy. Following transfection with GFP‑LC3, XC-302 induced a significant accumulation of GFP‑LC3, as monitored by a confocal microscope, which was reduced by 3-MA. XC-302 induced the formation of LC3‑II, increased beclin 1 levels and decreased the expression of p62. Additionally, the expression levels of p‑AKT and p‑mTOR were reduced with the elevation of XC-302. Knockdown of beclin 1 with siRNA or co-treatment with 3-MA enhanced significantly the survival of CNE-2 and promoted the ability of clone formation. XC-302 also induced apoptosis in CNE-2, and when autophagy was inhibited by 3-MA, the apoptosis rate was decreased. The present data

  10. Participation of the PI-3K/Akt-NF-κB signaling pathways in hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor-stimulated Flk-1 expression in endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chuanshu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF, a lung-specific growth factor, promotes vascular tubule formation in a matrigel plug model. We initially found that HIMF enhances vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression in lung epithelial cells. In present work, we tested whether HIMF modulates expression of fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk-1 in endothelial cells, and dissected the possible signaling pathways that link HIMF to Flk-1 upregulation. Methods Recombinant HIMF protein was intratracheally instilled into adult mouse lungs, Flk-1 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The promoter-luciferase reporter assay and real-time RT-PCR were performed to examine the effects of HIMF on Flk-1 expression in mouse endothelial cell line SVEC 4–10. The activation of NF-kappa B (NF-κB and phosphorylation of Akt, IKK, and IκBα were examined by luciferase assay and Western blot, respectively. Results Intratracheal instillation of HIMF protein resulted in a significant increase of Flk-1 production in lung tissues. Stimulation of SVEC 4–10 cells by HIMF resulted in increased phosphorylation of IKK and IκBα, leading to activation of NF-κB. Blocking NF-κB signaling pathway by dominant-negative mutants of IKK and IκBα suppressed HIMF-induced Flk-1 upregulation. Mutation or deletion of NF-κB binding site within Flk-1 promoter also abolished HIMF-induced Flk-1 expression in SVEC 4–10 cells. Furthermore, HIMF strongly induced phosphorylation of Akt. A dominant-negative mutant of PI-3K, Δp85, as well as PI-3K inhibitor LY294002, blocked HIMF-induced NF-κB activation and attenuated Flk-1 production. Conclusion These results suggest that HIMF upregulates Flk-1 expression in endothelial cells in a PI-3K/Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway-dependent manner, and may play critical roles in pulmonary angiogenesis.

  11. HO-1 attenuates hippocampal neurons injury via the activation of BDNF-TrkB-PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dashi; Ouyang, Changjie; Wang, Yulan; Zhang, Shichun; Ma, Xijuan; Song, YuanJian; Yu, HongLi; Tang, Jiali; Fu, Wei; Sheng, Lei; Yang, Lihua; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Weihao; Miao, Lei; Li, Tengteng; Huang, Xiaojing; Dong, Hongyan

    2014-08-19

    Although recent studies have found that HO-1 plays an important role in neuronal survival, little is known about the precise mechanisms occurring during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective mechanisms of HO-1 against ischemic brain injury induced by cerebral I/R and to explore whether the BDNF-TrkB-PI3K/Akt signaling pathway contributed to the protection provided by HO-1. Over-expressed HO-1 plasmids were employed to induce the overexpression of HO-1 through hippocampi CA1 injection 5 days before the cerebral I/R animal model was induced by four-vessel occlusion for 15 min transient ischemia and followed by reperfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. Immunoblotting was carried out to examine the expression of the related proteins, and HE-staining was used to detect the percentage of living neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region. The results showed that over-expressed HO-1 could significantly protect neurons against cerebral I/R. Furthermore, the protein expression of BDNF, TrkB and p-Akt also increased in the rats treated with over-expressed HO-1 plasmids. However, treatment with tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor antagonist (K252a) reversed the HO-1-induced increase in BDNF and p-Akt protein levels and decreased the level of cleaved caspase-3 protein in I/R rats. In summary, our results imply that HO-1 can decrease cell apoptosis in the I/R rat brain and that the mechanism may be related to the activation of the BDNF-TrkB-PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  12. Desflurane Via PI3-K/Akt Kinase Signal Pathways Regulates HO-1mRNA Expression and Protects Neuron Against Oxygen-glucose Deprivation%脱氟烷诱导神经元HO-1mRNA表达信号通路的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李薇; 邵建林; 衡新华

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究脱氟烷(desflurane)诱导氧糖剥夺损伤神经元血红素氧合酶-1表达的信号转导通路,探讨脱氟烷脑保护机制.方法 将96孔和6孔培养板上培养7d的大鼠海马神经元随机分为6组(n=12):正常培养组(C组),神经元按正常培养方法培养;氧糖剥夺组(I/R组),神经元缺糖缺氧后复糖复氧处理;氧糖剥夺+6% desflurane组(Des组),神经元缺糖缺氧的同时接受6% desflurane麻醉;氧糖剥夺+6% desflurane+10μmol/L tin-protoporphyrin (HO-1抑制剂)组(Tin组)、氧糖剥夺+6% desflurane+10μmol/L LY 294002 (PI3-K抑制剂)组(LY组)、氧糖剥夺+6% desflurane+10μmol/L Triciribin (Akt抑制剂)组(Tri组)神经元进行缺糖同时分别加入tin-protoporphyrin、 LY 294002或Triciribin使其终浓度均为10μmol/L后同D组处理.96孔培养板的神经元进行细胞存活率的检测.6孔培养板的神经元进行神经元纯度鉴定、神经元凋亡、HO-1mRNA表达、PI3-K和Akt蛋白表达的检测.结果 Des组PI3K和Akt蛋白表达增加,HO-1mRNA表达增加,神经元存活率增加、凋亡率降低(vs I/R组,P<0.01).Tin组PI3K和Akt蛋白表达变化不明显(vs Des组,P0.05), HO-1mRNA表达降低,神经元存活率降低、凋亡率增加 (vs Des组,P<0.01). LY组PI3K和Akt表达降低,HO-1mRNA表达降低,神经元存活率降低、凋亡率增加(vs Des组,P<0.05或P<0.01). Tri组PI3K表达变化不明显(vs Des组,P0.05), Akt表达降低,HO-1mRNA表达降低,神经元存活率降低、凋亡率增加(vs Des组,P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 Desflurane通过PI3-K/Akt信号转导通路诱导大鼠海马神经元HO-1表达,保护了神经元.

  13. Epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 promotes migration and invasion of human trophoblast cells through activation of MAPK, PI3K and NOTCH signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimiani, M; Vecchione, L; Piccirilli, D; Spitalieri, P; Amati, F; Salvi, S; Ferrazzani, S; Stuhlmann, H; Campagnolo, L

    2015-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 (Egfl7) is a gene that encodes a partially secreted protein and whose expression is largely restricted to the endothelia. We recently reported that EGFL7 is also expressed by trophoblast cells in mouse and human placentas. Here, we investigated the molecular pathways that are regulated by EGFL7 in trophoblast cells. Stable EGFL7 overexpression in a Jeg3 human choriocarcinoma cell line resulted in significantly increased cell migration and invasiveness, while cell proliferation was unaffected. Analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways showed that EGFL7 promotes Jeg3 cell motility by activating both pathways. We show that EGFL7 activates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in Jeg3 cells, resulting in downstream activation of extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs). In addition, we provide evidence that EGFL7-triggered migration of Jeg3 cells involves activation of NOTCH signaling. EGFL7 and NOTCH1 are co-expressed in Jeg3 cells, and blocking of NOTCH activation abrogates enhanced migration of Jeg3 cells overexpressing EGFL7. We also demonstrate that signaling through EGFR and NOTCH converged to mediate EGFL7 effects. Reduction of endogenous EGFL7 expression in Jeg3 cells significantly decreased cell migration. We further confirmed that EGFL7 stimulates cell migration by using primary human first trimester trophoblast (PTB) cells overexpressing EGFL7. In conclusion, our data suggest that in trophoblast cells, EGFL7 regulates cell migration and invasion by activating multiple signaling pathways. Our results provide a possible explanation for the correlation between reduced expression of EGFL7 and inadequate trophoblast invasion observed in placentopathies.

  14. Estrogen receptor beta growth-inhibitory effects are repressed through activation of MAPK and PI3K signalling in mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells.

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    Cotrim, C Z; Fabris, V; Doria, M L; Lindberg, K; Gustafsson, J-Å; Amado, F; Lanari, C; Helguero, L A

    2013-05-09

    Two thirds of breast cancers express estrogen receptors (ER). ER alpha (ERα) mediates breast cancer cell proliferation, and expression of ERα is the standard choice to indicate adjuvant endocrine therapy. ERbeta (ERβ) inhibits growth in vitro; its effects in vivo have been incompletely investigated and its role in breast cancer and potential as alternative target in endocrine therapy needs further study. In this work, mammary epithelial (EpH4 and HC11) and breast cancer (MC4-L2) cells with endogenous ERα and ERβ expression and T47-D human breast cancer cells with recombinant ERβ (T47-DERβ) were used to explore effects exerted in vitro and in vivo by the ERβ agonists 2,3-bis (4-hydroxy-phenyl)-propionitrile (DPN) and 7-bromo-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-benzoxazol-5-ol (WAY). In vivo, ERβ agonists induced mammary gland hyperplasia and MC4-L2 tumour growth to a similar extent as the ERα agonist 4,4',4''-(4-propyl-(1H)-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol (PPT) or 17β-estradiol (E2) and correlated with higher number of mitotic and lower number of apoptotic features. In vitro, in MC4-L2, EpH4 or HC11 cells incubated under basal conditions, ERβ agonists induced apoptosis measured as upregulation of p53 and apoptosis-inducible factor protein levels and increased caspase 3 activity, whereas PPT and E2 stimulated proliferation. However, when extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK ½) were activated by co-incubation with basement membrane extract or epidermal growth factor, induction of apoptosis by ERβ agonists was repressed and DPN induced proliferation in a similar way as E2 or PPT. In a context of active ERK ½, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT) signalling was necessary to allow proliferation stimulated by ER agonists. Inhibition of MEK ½ with UO126 completely restored ERβ growth-inhibitory effects, whereas inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 inhibited ERβ-induced proliferation. These

  15. Alterations in microRNA expression profile in HCV-infected hepatoma cells: Involvement of miR-491 in regulation of HCV replication via the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway

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    Ishida, Hisashi; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Hosui, Atsushi; Nawa, Takatoshi; Kodama, Takahiro; Shimizu, Satoshi; Hikita, Hayato; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Kanto, Tatsuya [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Hayashi, Norio [Kansai Rosai Hospital, 3-1-69, Inabaso, Amagasaki 660-8511 (Japan); Takehara, Tetsuo, E-mail: takehara@gh.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} HCV infection upregulated miR-192, -194, -215, downregulated miR-320, -491. {yields} Transfection of miR-192, -215, and -491 enhanced HCV replication. {yields} Transfection of miR-491 inhibited Akt phosphorylation. {yields} Akt inhibition could be responsible for augmentation of HCV replication by miR-491. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of microRNA (miRNA) on hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in hepatoma cells. Using miRNA array analysis, miR-192/miR-215, miR-194, miR-320, and miR-491 were identified as miRNAs whose expression levels were altered by HCV infection. Among them, miR-192/miR-215 and miR-491 were capable of enhancing replication of the HCV replicon as well as HCV itself. HCV IRES activity or cell proliferation was not increased by forced expression of miR-192/miR-215 or miR-491. Investigation of signaling pathways revealed that miR-491 specifically suppressed the phosphoinositol-3 (PI3) kinase/Akt pathway. Under inhibition of PI3 kinase by LY294002, the suppressive effect of miR-491 on HCV replication was abolished, indicating that suppression of HCV replication by miR-491 was dependent on the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway. miRNAs altered by HCV infection would then affect HCV replication, which implies a complicated mechanism for regulating HCV replication. HCV-induced miRNA may be involved in changes in cellular properties including hepatocarcinogenesis.

  16. Didymin Alleviates Hepatic Fibrosis Through Inhibiting ERK and PI3K/Akt Pathways via Regulation of Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein

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    Xing Lin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Didymin has been reported to have anti-cancer potential. However, the effect of didymin on liver fibrosis remains illdefined. Methods: Hepatic fibrosis was induced by CCl4 in rats. The effects of didymin on liver pathology and collagen accumulation were observed by hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining, respectively. Serum transaminases activities and collagen-related indicators levels were determined by commercially available kits. Moreover, the effects of didymin on hepatic stellate cell apoptosis and cell cycle were analyzed by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by using rhodamine-123 dye. The expression of Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP and the phosphorylation of the ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways were assessed by Western blot. Results: Didymin significantly ameliorated chronic liver injury and collagen deposition. It strongly inhibited hepatic stellate cells proliferation, induced apoptosis and caused cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Moreover, didymin notably attenuated mitochondrial membrane potential, accompanied by release of cytochrome C. Didymin significantly inhibited the ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. The effects of didymin on the collagen accumulation in rats and on the biological behaviors of hepatic stellate cells were largely abolished by the specific RKIP inhibitor locostatin. Conclusion: Didymin alleviates hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways via regulation of RKIP expression.

  17. Combined blockade of ADP receptors and PI3-kinase p110β fully prevents platelet and leukocyte activation during hypothermic extracorporeal circulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Krajewski

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal circulation (ECC and hypothermia are used to maintain stable circulatory parameters and improve the ischemia tolerance of patients in cardiac surgery. However, ECC and hypothermia induce activation mechanisms in platelets and leukocytes, which are mediated by the platelet agonist ADP and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K p110β. Under clinical conditions these processes are associated with life-threatening complications including thromboembolism and inflammation. This study analyzes effects of ADP receptor P(2Y(12 and P(2Y(1 blockade and PI3K p110β inhibition on platelets and granulocytes during hypothermic ECC. Human blood was treated with the P(2Y(12 antagonist 2-MeSAMP, the P(2Y(1 antagonist MRS2179, the PI3K p110β inhibitor TGX-221, combinations thereof, or PBS and propylene glycol (controls. Under static in vitro conditions a concentration-dependent effect regarding the inhibition of ADP-induced platelet activation was found using 2-MeSAMP or TGX-221. Further inhibition of ADP-mediated effects was achieved with MRS2179. Next, blood was circulated in an ex vivo ECC model at 28°C for 30 minutes and various platelet and granulocyte markers were investigated using flow cytometry, ELISA and platelet count analysis. GPIIb/IIIa activation induced by hypothermic ECC was inhibited using TGX-221 alone or in combination with P(2Y blockers (p<0.05, while no effect of hypothermic ECC or antiplatelet agents on GPIIb/IIIa and GPIbα expression and von Willebrand factor binding was observed. Sole P(2Y and PI3K blockade or a combination thereof inhibited P-selectin expression on platelets and platelet-derived microparticles during hypothermic ECC (p<0.05. P(2Y blockade alone or combined with TGX-221 prevented ECC-induced platelet-granulocyte aggregate formation (p<0.05. Platelet adhesion to the ECC surface, platelet loss and Mac-1 expression on granulocytes were inhibited by combined P(2Y and PI3K blockade (p<0.05. Combined blockade of P

  18. Involvement of PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a and PKA/CREB Signaling Pathways in the Protective Effect of Fluoxetine Against Corticosterone-Induced Cytotoxicity in PC12 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bingqing; Li, Yiwen; Niu, Bo; Wang, Xinyi; Cheng, Yufang; Zhou, Zhongzhen; You, Tingting; Liu, Yonggang; Wang, Haitao; Xu, Jiangping

    2016-08-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine is neuroprotective in several brain injury models. It is commonly used to treat major depressive disorder and related conditions, but its mechanism of action remains incompletely understood. Activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B/forkhead box O3a (PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a) and protein kinase A/cAMP-response element binding protein (PKA/CREB) signaling pathways has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and might be the downstream target of fluoxetine. Here, we used PC12 cells exposed to corticosterone (CORT) to study the neuroprotective effects of fluoxetine and the involvement of the PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a and PKA/CREB signaling pathways. Our results show that CORT reduced PC12 cells viability by 70 %, and that fluoxetine showed a concentration-dependent neuroprotective effect. Neuroprotective effects of fluoxetine were abolished by inhibition of PI3K, Akt, and PKA using LY294002, KRX-0401, and H89, respectively. Treatment of PC12 cells with fluoxetine resulted in increased phosphorylation of Akt, FoxO3a, and CREB. Fluoxetine also dose-dependently rescued the phosphorylation levels of Akt, FoxO3a, and CREB, following administration of CORT (from 99 to 110, 56 to 170, 80 to 170 %, respectively). In addition, inhibition of PKA and PI3K/Akt resulted in decreased levels of p-CREB, p-Akt, and p-FoxO3a in the presence of fluoxetine. Furthermore, fluoxetine reversed CORT-induced upregulation of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (Puma) and Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim) via the PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a signaling pathway. H89 treatment reversed the effect of fluoxetine on the mRNA level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which was decreased in the presence of CORT. Our data indicate that fluoxetine elicited neuroprotection toward CORT-induced cell death that involves dual regulation from PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a and PKA/CREB pathways.

  19. Exposure to Ionizing Radiation Causes Long-Term Increase in Serum Estradiol and Activation of PI3K-Akt Signaling Pathway in Mouse Mammary Gland

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    Suman, Shubhankar [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, Michael D. [Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States); Fornace, Albert J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States); Datta, Kamal, E-mail: kd257@georgetown.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Exposure to ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Radiation exposure during infancy, childhood, and adolescence confers the highest risk. Although radiation is a proven mammary carcinogen, it remains unclear where it acts in the complex multistage process of breast cancer development. In this study, we investigated the long-term pathophysiologic effects of ionizing radiation at a dose (2 Gy) relevant to fractionated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Adolescent (6-8 weeks old; n = 10) female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2 Gy total body {gamma}-radiation, the mammary glands were surgically removed, and serum and urine samples were collected 2 and 12 months after exposure. Molecular pathways involving estrogen receptor-{alpha} (ER{alpha}) and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling were investigated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Results: Serum estrogen and urinary levels of the oncogenic estrogen metabolite (16{alpha}OHE1) were significantly increased in irradiated animals. Immunostaining for the cellular proliferative marker Ki-67 and cyclin-D1 showed increased nuclear accumulation in sections of mammary glands from irradiated vs. control mice. Marked increase in p85{alpha}, a regulatory sub-unit of the PI3K was associated with increase in Akt, phospho-Akt, phospho-BAD, phospho-mTOR, and c-Myc in irradiated samples. Persistent increase in nuclear ER{alpha} in mammary tissues 2 and 12 months after radiation exposure was also observed. Conclusions: Taken together, our data not only support epidemiologic observations associating radiation and breast cancer but also, specify molecular events that could be involved in radiation-induced breast cancer.

  20. Amiloride sensitizes human pancreatic cancer cells to erlotinib in vitro through inhibition of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuan-ting; Yang, Hui-ying; Li, Tao; Zhao, Bei; Shao, Teng-fei; Xiang, Xiao-qiang; Cai, Wei-min

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Blockade of EGFR by EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as erlotinib is insufficient for effective treatment of human pancreatic cancer due to independent activation of the Akt pathway, while amiloride, a potassium-sparing diuretic, has been found as a potential Akt inhibitor. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer effects of combined amiloride with erlotinib against human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Methods: Cell proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed in 4 human pancreatic cancer cell lines Bxpc-3, PANC-1, Aspc-1 and CFPAC-1 treated with erlotinib or amiloride alone, or in their combination. The synergistic analysis for the effects of combinations of amiloride and erlotinib was performed using Chou-Talalay's combination index isobolographic method. Results: Amiloride (10, 30, and 100 μmol/L) concentration-dependently potentiated erlotinib-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and colony formation in the 4 pancreatic cancer cell lines. Isobolographic analysis confirmed that combinations of amiloride and erlotinib produced synergistic cytotoxic effects. Amiloride significantly potentiated erlotinib-induced G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in Bxpc-3 and PANC-1 cells. Amiloride inhibited EGF-stimulated phorsphorylation of AKT, and significantly enhanced erlotinib-induced downregulation of phorsphorylation of EGFR, AKT, PI3K P85 and GSK 3β in Bxpc-3 and PANC-1 cells. Conclusion: Amiloride sensitizes human pancreatic cancer cells to erlotinib in vitro through inhibition of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Treatment of pancreatic cancer patients with combination of erlotinib and amiloride merits further investigation. PMID:25864651

  1. Afatinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer involves the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK signalling pathways and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Simona; Truini, Anna; Alama, Angela; Dal Bello, Maria Giovanna; Venè, Roberta; Garuti, Anna; Carminati, Enrico; Rijavec, Erika; Genova, Carlo; Barletta, Giulia; Sini, Claudio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Boccardo, Francesco; Grossi, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling is one of the most deregulated pathways in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recently, the development of novel irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), such as afatinib, has significantly improved the survival of advanced NSCLC patients harbouring activated EGFR mutations. However, treatment with TKI is not always curative due to the development of resistance. In the present study, we investigated the sensitivity to afatinib in two NSCLC EGFR mutated cell lines (NCI-H1650 and NCI-H1975) by expression profile analysis of 92 genes involved in the EGF pathway. Thereafter, the established afatinib resistant clones were evaluated at different biological levels: genomic, by array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) and deep sequencing; transcriptomic, by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and proteomic, by Western blot and immunofluorescence. The baseline gene expression of the two cell lines revealed that NCI-H1650, the less afatinib-responsive cell, showed activation of two main EGFR downstream pathways such as PI3K/AKT and PLCγ/PKC axes. Analysis of the afatinib-resistant cells showed PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathways activation together with a biological switch from an epithelial-to-mesenchymal phenotype might confer afatinib-resistant properties to this cell line. Our data suggest that the activation of EGFR-dependent downstream pathways might be involved in the occurrence of resistance to afatinib assuming that the EGFR mutational status should not be exclusively considered when selecting TKI treatments. In particular, the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition might provide a new basis for understanding afatinib resistance.

  2. Deregulation of the PI3K and KRAS signaling pathways in human cancer cells determines their response to everolimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nicolantonio, Federica; Arena, Sabrina; Tabernero, Josep; Grosso, Stefano; Molinari, Francesca; Macarulla, Teresa; Russo, Mariangela; Cancelliere, Carlotta; Zecchin, Davide; Mazzucchelli, Luca; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Geuna, Massimo; Frattini, Milo; Baselga, José; Gallicchio, Margherita; Biffo, Stefano; Bardelli, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Personalized cancer medicine is based on the concept that targeted therapies are effective on subsets of patients whose tumors carry specific molecular alterations. Several mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are in preclinical or clinical trials for cancers, but the molecular basis of sensitivity or resistance to these inhibitors among patients is largely unknown. Here we have identified oncogenic variants of phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, α polypeptide (PIK3CA) and KRAS as determinants of response to the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. Human cancer cells carrying alterations in the PI3K pathway were responsive to everolimus, both in vitro and in vivo, except when KRAS mutations occurred concomitantly or were exogenously introduced. In human cancer cells with mutations in both PIK3CA and KRAS, genetic ablation of mutant KRAS reinstated response to the drug. Consistent with these data, PIK3CA mutant cells, but not KRAS mutant cells, displayed everolimus-sensitive translation. Importantly, in a cohort of metastatic cancer patients, the presence of oncogenic KRAS mutations was associated with lack of benefit after everolimus therapy. Thus, our results demonstrate that alterations in the KRAS and PIK3CA genes may represent biomarkers to optimize treatment of patients with mTOR inhibitors. PMID:20664172

  3. Regulation of H-Ras-driven MAPK signaling, transformation and tumorigenesis, but not PI3K signaling and tumor progression, by plasma membrane microdomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, J V; Wurtzel, J G T; Goldfinger, L E

    2016-05-30

    In this study, we assessed the contributions of plasma membrane (PM) microdomain targeting to the functions of H-Ras and R-Ras. These paralogs have identical effector-binding regions, but variant C-terminal targeting domains (tDs) which are responsible for lateral microdomain distribution: activated H-Ras targets to lipid ordered/disordered (Lo/Ld) domain borders, and R-Ras to Lo domains (rafts). We hypothesized that PM distribution regulates Ras-effector interactions and downstream signaling. We used tD swap mutants, and assessed effects on signal transduction, cell proliferation, transformation and tumorigenesis. R-Ras harboring the H-Ras tD (R-Ras-tH) interacted with Raf, and induced Raf and ERK phosphorylation similar to H-Ras. R-Ras-tH stimulated proliferation and transformation in vitro, and these effects were blocked by both MEK and PI3K inhibition. Conversely, the R-Ras tD suppressed H-Ras-mediated Raf activation and ERK phosphorylation, proliferation and transformation. Thus, Ras access to Raf at the PM is sufficient for MAPK activation and is a principal component of Ras mitogenesis and transformation. Fusion of the R-Ras extended N-terminal domain to H-Ras had no effect on proliferation, but inhibited transformation and tumor progression, indicating that the R-Ras N-terminus also contributes negative regulation to these Ras functions. PI3K activation was tD independent; however, H-Ras was a stronger activator of PI3K than R-Ras, with either tD. PI3K inhibition nearly ablated transformation by R-Ras-tH, H-Ras and H-Ras-tR, whereas MEK inhibition had a modest effect on Ras-tH-driven transformation but no effect on H-Ras-tR transformation. R-Ras-tH supported tumor initiation, but not tumor progression. While H-Ras-tR-induced transformation was reduced relative to H-Ras, tumor progression was robust and similar to H-Ras. H-Ras tumor growth was moderately suppressed by MEK inhibition, which had no effect on H-Ras-tR tumor growth. In contrast, PI3K inhibition

  4. Protease-activated receptor-2 promotes kidney tubular epithelial inflammation by inhibiting autophagy via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chunyang; Zhang, Tao; Xiao, Xia; Shi, Yonghong; Duan, Huijun; Ren, Yunzhuo

    2017-08-02

    Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2), which belongs to a specific class of the G-protein-coupled receptors, is central to several inflammation processes. However, the precise molecular mechanism involved remains undefined. Autophagy has been previously shown to affect inflammation. In the present study, we examine the effect of PAR2 on kidney tubular epithelial autophagy and on autophagy-related inflammation and reveal the underlying mechanism involved. Autophagic activity and levels of autophagic marker LC3 were examined in human kidney tubular epithelial cells with PAR2 knockdown or overexpression. We administered the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor (rapamycin) or activator (MHY1485) to investigate the function of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR pathway. We also used transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced HK-2 cell inflammation models to investigate the role of PAR2-associated autophagy in kidney tubular epithelial inflammation. PAR2 antagonist and rapamycin were administered to mice after unilateral ureteral obstruction to detect the correlations between PAR2, autophagy, and inflammation. Our results show that PAR2 overexpression in HK-2 cells led to a greater reduction in autophagy via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway activation and induces autophagy-related inflammation. Meanwhile, a knockdown of PAR2 via PAR2 RNAi transfection greatly increased autophagy and alleviated autophagy-associated inflammation. In unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) kidneys, PAR2 antagonist treatment greatly attenuated renal inflammation and interstitial injury by enhancing autophagy. Moreover, inhibition of mTOR, rapa, markedly increased autophagy and inhibited the UUO-induced inflammation. We conclude that PAR2 induces kidney tubular epithelial inflammation by inhibiting autophagy via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway. Our results are suggestive that PAR2 inhibition may play a role in the treatment of diseases with increased inflammatory

  5. Aberrant Cytoplasm Localization and Protein Stability of SIRT1 is Regulated by PI3K/IGF-1R Signaling in Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Byles, Laura K. Chmilewski, Joyce Wang, Lijia Zhu, Lora W. Forman, Douglas V. Faller, Yan Dai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available SIRT1, an NAD-dependent histone/protein deacetylase, has classically been thought of as a nuclear protein. In this study, we demonstrate that SIRT1 is mainly localized in the nucleus of normal cells, but is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm of the cancer / transformed cells we tested. We found this predominant cytoplasmic localization of SIRT1 is regulated by elevated mitotic activity and PI3K/IGF-1R signaling in cancer cells. We show that aberrant cytoplasmic localization of SIRT1 is due to increased protein stability and is regulated by PI3K/IGF-1R signaling. In addition, we determined that SIRT1 is required for PI3K-mediated cancer cell growth. Our study represents the first identification that aberrant cytoplasm localization is one of the specific alternations to SIRT1 that occur in cancer cells, and PI3K/IGF-1R signaling plays an important role in the regulation of cytoplasmic SIRT1 stability. Our findings suggest that the over-expressed cytoplasmic SIRT1 in cancer cells may greatly contribute to its cancer-specific function by working downstream of the PI3K/IGF-1R signaling pathway.

  6. PTEN, a widely known negative regulator of insulin/PI3K signaling, positively regulates neuronal insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit; Dey, Chinmoy Sankar

    2012-01-01

    Lipid and protein tyrosine phosphatase, phosphatase and tension homologue (PTEN), is a widely known negative regulator of insulin/phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling. Down-regulation of PTEN is thus widely documented to ameliorate insulin resistance in peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle and adipose. However, not much is known about its exact role in neuronal insulin signaling and insulin resistance. Moreover, alterations of PTEN in neuronal systems have led to discovery of several unexpected outcomes, including in the neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is increasingly being recognized as a brain-specific form of diabetes. In addition, contrary to expectations, its neuron-specific deletion in mice resulted in development of diet-sensitive obesity. The present study shows that PTEN, paradoxically, positively regulates neuronal insulin signaling and glucose uptake. Its down-regulation exacerbates neuronal insulin resistance. The positive role of PTEN in neuronal insulin signaling is likely due to its protein phosphatase actions, which prevents the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), the kinases critically involved in neuronal energy impairment and neurodegeneration. Results suggest that PTEN acting through FAK, the direct protein substrate of PTEN, prevents ERK activation. Our findings provide an explanation for unexpected outcomes reported earlier with PTEN alterations in neuronal systems and also suggest a novel molecular pathway linking neuronal insulin resistance and AD, the two pathophysiological states demonstrated to be closely linked. PMID:22875989

  7. miR-564 acts as a dual inhibitor of PI3K and MAPK signaling networks and inhibits proliferation and invasion in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Merve; Saatci, Özge; Ansari, Suhail A.; Yurdusev, Emre; Shehwana, Huma; Konu, Özlen; Raza, Umar; Şahin, Özgür

    2016-09-01

    Dysregulation of PI3K and MAPK pathways promotes uncontrolled cell proliferation, apoptotic inhibition and metastasis. Individual targeting of these pathways using kinase inhibitors has largely been insufficient due to the existence of cross-talks between these parallel cascades. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs targeting several genes simultaneously and controlling cancer-related processes. To identify miRNAs repressing both PI3K and MAPK pathways in breast cancer, we re-analyzed our previous miRNA mimic screen data with reverse phase protein array (RPPA) output, and identified miR-564 inhibiting both PI3K and MAPK pathways causing markedly decreased cell proliferation through G1 arrest. Moreover, ectopic expression of miR-564 blocks epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and reduces migration and invasion of aggressive breast cancer cells. Mechanistically, miR-564 directly targets a network of genes comprising AKT2, GNA12, GYS1 and SRF, thereby facilitating simultaneous repression of PI3K and MAPK pathways. Notably, combinatorial knockdown of these target genes using a cocktail of siRNAs mimics the phenotypes exerted upon miR-564 expression. Importantly, high miR-564 expression or low expression of target genes in combination is significantly correlated with better distant relapse-free survival of patients. Overall, miR-564 is a potential dual inhibitor of PI3K and MAPK pathways, and may be an attractive target and prognostic marker for breast cancer.

  8. IL-4 protects the B-cell lymphoma cell line CH31 from anti-IgM-induced growth arrest and apoptosis:contribution of the PI-3' kinase/AKT pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gregory B Carey; Elena Semenova; Xiulan Qi; Achsah D Keegan

    2007-01-01

    Interleukin-4(IL-4)promotes lymphocyte survival and protects primary lymphomas from apoptosis.Previous studies reported differential requirements for the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6(STAT6)and IRS2/phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase(PI-3K)signaling pathways in mediating the IL-4-induced protection from Fas-mediated apoptosis.In this study,we characterized IL-4-activated signals that suppress anti-IgM-mediated apoptosis and growth arrest of CH31,a model B-cell lymphoma line.In CH31,anti-IgM treatment leads to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential,phospho-Akt,phospho-CDK2,and c-myc protein.These losses are followed by massive induction ofp27Kip1 protein expression,cell cycle arrest,and apoptosis.Strikingly,IL-4 treatment prevented or reversed these changes.Furthermore,IL-4 suppressed the activation of caspases 9 and 3,and,in contrast to previous reports,induced the phosphorylation(deactivation)of BAD.IL-4 treatment also induced expression of BclxL,a STAT6-dependent gene.Pharmacologic inhibitors and dominant inhibitory forms of PI-3K andAkt abrogated the anti-apoptotic function of IL-4.These results suggest that the IL-4 receptor activates several signaling pathways,with the Akt pathway playing a major role in suppression of the apoptotic program activated by anti-IgM.

  9. Active β-catenin is regulated by the PTEN/PI3 kinase pathway: a role for protein phosphatase PP2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Amit; Venkateswaran, Geetha; Hao, Li; Garcia, Maria E.; Yoon, Jenny; Sidhu, Jaskiran; Persad, Sujata

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been associated with the development and progression of many cancers. The stability and subcellular localization of β-catenin, a dual functional protein that plays a role in intracellular adhesion and in regulating gene expression, is tightly regulated. However, little is known about the transcriptionally active form of β-catenin, Active Beta Catenin (ABC), that is unphosphorylated at serine 37 (Ser37) and threonine 41 (Thr41). Elucidating the mechanism by which β-catenin is activated to generate ABC is vital to the development of therapeutic strategies to block β-catenin signaling for cancer treatment. Using melanoma, breast and prostate cancer cell lines, we show that while cellular β-catenin levels are regulated by the Wnt pathway, cellular ABC levels are mainly regulated by the PI3K pathway and are dependent on the phosphatase activity of the protein phosphatase PP2A. Furthermore, we demonstrate that although the PI3K/PTEN pathway does not regulate total β-catenin protein levels within the cell, it plays a role in regulating the subcellular localization of β-catenin. Our results support a novel functional interaction/cross-talk between the PTEN/PI3K and Wnt pathways in the regulation of the subcellular/nuclear levels of ABC, which is crucially important for the protein's activity as a transcription factor and its biological effects in health and disease.

  10. Pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 prevents over-activation of the primordial follicle pool in response to elevated PI3K signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Deepak; Risal, Sanjiv; Liu, Kui; Shen, Yan

    2013-01-01

    The majority of ovarian primordial follicles must be preserved in a quiescent state to allow for the regular production of gametes over the female reproductive lifespan. However, the molecular mechanism that maintains the long quiescence of primordial follicles is poorly understood. Under certain pathological conditions, the entire pool of primordial follicles matures simultaneously leading to an accelerated loss of primordial follicles and to premature ovarian failure (POF). We have previously shown that loss of Pten (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten) in mouse oocytes leads to premature activation of the entire pool of primordial follicles, subsequent follicular depletion in early adulthood, and the onset of POF. Lack of PTEN leads to increased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling in the oocytes. To study the functional and pathological roles of elevated mTORC1 signaling in the oocytes, we treated the Pten-mutant mice with the specific mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin. When administered to Pten-deficient mice prior to the activation of the primordial follicles, rapamycin effectively prevented global follicular activation and preserved the ovarian reserve. These results provide a rationale for exploring the possible use of rapamycin as a drug for the preservation of the primordial follicle pool, and the possible prevention of POF.

  11. Targeting of cell metabolism in human acute myeloid leukemia--more than targeting of isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Michelle; Bruserud, Øystein; Hatfield, Kimberley Joanne

    2016-03-01

    Targeting of cellular metabolism has emerged as a possible strategy in the treatment of human malignancies, and several experimental studies suggest that this therapeutic approach should also be considered in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Clinical studies of metabolic intervention in AML patients with isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations have shown promising results. Moreover, metabolic targeting of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway as an anticancer strategy has been extensively studied. In this review, we focus on other emerging therapeutic alternatives for metabolic inhibition in human AML, in particular targeting of glycolysis and the AMP kinase signaling pathway. Pharmacological drugs for these metabolic interventions are already available and they seem to have an acceptable toxicity, even when used in combination with conventional chemotherapy. Future clinical studies of these therapeutic strategies should focus on the following: (i) heterogeneity of patients and the possibility that this treatment is most effective only for certain subsets of patients, (ii) toxic effects in AML patients with an existing disease-induced bone marrow failure prior to treatment, and (iii) whether this strategy should be used as part of a potentially curative treatment and/or as disease-stabilizing treatment to prolong survival in elderly or unfit patients.

  12. 12b-hydroxy-des-D-garcigerin A enhances glucose metabolism in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells via the IRS-1/PI3-K/Akt cell signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Sha; Tian, Shi-Ting; Hu, Xin; Xu, Jing; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Wang, Chao-Yuan

    2016-11-01

    HepG2 cells were induced with a high concentration of insulin to establish an insulin-resistant cell model (HepG2/IR). The effect of 12b-hydroxy-des-D-garcigerin A (DGA) on the glucose consumption (GC) of HepG2/IR cells was analyzed with the glucose oxidase/peroxidase assay. The results showed that DGA significantly stimulated GC by enhancing the activity of hexokinase (HK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) in HepG2/IR cells. The cell signaling pathway by which DGA enhances the GC of HepG2/IR cells was explored. The results showed that DGA promoted the expression of insulin receptor (InsR) protein, and stimulated the expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (p-PI3-K), and phospho-protein kinase B Serine(473) (p-AKT ser(473)). Therefore, we concluded that DGA improved the insulin-resistance of HepG2/IR cells by inducing the IRS-1/PI3-K/Akt cell signaling pathway. Interestingly, DGA had no effect on the phosphorylation of threonine(172) (Thr(172)) in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK).

  13. Notch2 regulates matrix metallopeptidase 9 via PI3K/AKT signaling in human gastric carcinoma cell MKN-45

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-Yun Guo; Yu-Min Li; Liang Qiao; Tao Liu; Yuan-Yuan Du; Jun-Qiang Zhang; Wen-Ting He

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To clarify the role of activated Notch2 in the invasiveness of gastric cancer.METHODS:To investigate the invasiveness of silencing Notch2 gene expression,we established a Notch2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfected cell line using the MKN-45 gastric cancer cell line.After the successful transfection confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting,migration and invasion assays were employed to evaluate the aggressiveness of the gastric cancer.RT-PCR and Western blottings were employed to confirm the down-regulation of Notch2 and to evaluate the expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition-related gene matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMPg),Akt,p-Akt.To confirm the relationship between PI3K-Akt and MMP9,the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 was used to treat MKN-45 cells.RESULTS:Notch2 expression was dramatically decreased after Notch2 siRNA transfection (100.00% ±9.74% vs 11.61% ± 3.85%,P < 0.01 by qRT-PCR).There was also a marked reduction of Notch target gene Hes1 (100.00% ± 4.74% vs 61.61% ± 3.58%,P < 0.05)at the mRNA,indicating an inhibition of Notch signaling.Inhibition of Notch signaling was also confirmed by the marked reduction of Notch2 intracellular domain at the protein levels (100.00% ± 9.74% vs 65.61% ± 7.58%,P < 0.05).Down-regulation of Notch2 by siRNA enhanced tumor cell invasion (100.00% ± 21.64% vs 162.22% ± 16.84%,P < 0.05) and expression of MMP9 (1.56 fold,P < 0.05),and activated the pro-MMP9 protein to its active form (1.48 fold,P < 0.05).There was no significant difference in the protein levels of Akt between the two groups (100.00% ± 10.87% vs 96.61% ± 7.33%,P > 0.05),while down-regulation of Notch2 elevated p-Akt expression (100.00% ± 9.87% vs 154.61% ± 13.10%,P < 0.05).Furthermore,p-Akt and MMP9 was down-regulated in response to the inhibitor LY294002 (p-Akt 100.00% ± 8.87% vs 58.27% ± 5.01%,P < 0.05; MMP9

  14. Supercritical Fluid Extract of Spent Coffee Grounds Attenuates Melanogenesis through Downregulation of the PKA, PI3K/Akt, and MAPK Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Chun Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mode of action of spent coffee grounds supercritical fluid CO2 extract (SFE in melanogenesis has never been reported. In the study, the spent coffee grounds were extracted by the supercritical fluid CO2 extraction method; the chemical constituents of the SFE were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The effects of the SFE and its major fatty acid components on melanogenesis were evaluated by mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and determination of intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content. The expression level of melanogenesis-related proteins was analyzed by western blotting assay. The results revealed that the SFE of spent coffee grounds (1–10 mg/mL and its major fatty acids such as linoleic acid and oleic acid (6.25–50 μM effectively suppressed melanogenesis in the B16F10 murine melanoma cells. Furthermore, the SFE decreased the expression of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1, and tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2. The SFE also decreased the protein expression levels of p-JNK, p-p38, p-ERK, and p-CREB. Our results revealed that the SFE of spent coffee grounds attenuated melanogenesis in B16F10 cells by downregulation of protein kinase A (PKA, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling pathways, which may be due to linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  15. PI3K-C2α: One enzyme for two products coupling vesicle trafficking and signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, Carlo C; Franco, Irene; Hirsch, Emilio

    2015-06-22

    The spatial restriction of phosphorylated phosphoinositides generated downstream activated membrane receptors is critical for proper cell response to environmental cues. The α isoform of class II PI3Ks, PI3K-C2α, has emerged as a modulator of receptor localization, acting both in the control of receptor endocytosis and resensitization. This unexpectedly versatile enzyme was found to differentially produce two distinct 3-phosphorylated phosphoinositides and to selectively control distinct steps of vesicular traffic such as endocytosis and recycling. This review focuses on the latest discoveries regarding PI3K-C2α function in vesicle trafficking and its impact on cell biology and mammalian embryonic development.

  16. TDRG1 regulates chemosensitivity of seminoma TCam-2 cells to cisplatin via PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yu; Wang, Yong; Tan, Zhengyu; Zhou, Jun; Kitazawa, Riko; Jiang, Xianzhen; Tang, Yuxin; Yang, Jianfu

    2016-07-02

    We previously identified TDRG1 (testis developmental related gene 1), a novel gene with exclusive expression in testis, promoted the proliferation and progression of cultured human seminoma cells through PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling. As increasing evidence reveal that aberrant activation of this signaling is involved in cisplatin resistance. Then, in this study, we further explored whether TDRG1 regulated the chemosensitivity of seminoma TCam-2 cells to cisplatin. Our researches showed TDRG1 could regulate the viability of TCam-2 cells following cisplatin treatment in vitro through control of both cell apoptosis and cell cycle. Mechanistically, we observed TDRG1 positively regulated the expression levels of the key elements in PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway including p-PI3K, p-Akt and p-mTOR and also affected the translocation of nuclear p-Akt in TCam-2 cells during cisplatin treatment. Meanwhile, the levels of Bad, cytochrome c, caspase-9 ratio (activated/total), caspase-3 ratio (activated/total) and cleaved-PARP were negatively modulated by TDRG1, which meant the involvement of mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, we found the effect of TDRG1 knockdown or TDRG1 overexpression could be reversed by IGF-1, a PI3K signaling activator, or LY294002, a inhibitor of this pathway, respectively. Similar effects of TDRG1 on cisplatin chemosensitivity and associated molecular mechanism were also confirmed in vivo by employing xenograft assays. In addition, the positive correlation between TDRG1 and p-PI3K, or p-Akt, was found in tumor tissues from seminoma patients. In conclusion, we uncover that TDRG1 regulates chemosensitivity of TCam-2 cells to cisplatin through PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway both in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Transient Acidosis during Early Reperfusion Attenuates Myocardium Ischemia Reperfusion Injury via PI3k-Akt-eNOS Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we concluded that transient acidosis reperfusion conferred cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts through activating PI3K-Akt-eNOS pathway.

  18. Effect of Fufang Zhengzhu Tiaozhi Capsules on Insulin Resistance and Insulin Signal PI-3K in Metabolic Syndrome Rats%复方贞术调脂胶囊对MS大鼠胰岛素抵抗及胰岛素信号PI-3K的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡旭光; 郭姣; 贝伟剑; 何伟; 王槾; 刘沙沙

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of FufangZhengzhu Tiaozhi Capsules(FTZ) on insulin resistance and insulin signal phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase(PI-3K) in the rats with the metabolic syndrome(MS) and to explore its possible metabolism. Methods High glucose food was given to MS rats for 12 weeks. On the 5th week of modeling, the rats were given high-, medium- and low-dosage FTZ for 8 weeks. The changes of rat body weight, abdominal circumference, and the levels of fasting glucose and fasting serum insulin were measured. RT-PCR was applied,for the detection of expression levels of PI-3Kp85 subunit mRNA in the rat adipose tissue. Results Compared with MS model group, FTZ significantly reduced serum triglyceride(TG) and total cholesterol(TC) levels, fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance index and body weight, and significantly increased serum high -density lipopro tein cholesteral (HDL-C) level. FTZ also significantly up-regulated, the expression of PI-3Kp85 mRNA in rat adipose tissue. Conclusion FTZ can regulate lipid levels, and improve insulin resistance MS rats.Up-regulation of insulin signal PI-3K may be one of its therapeutic mechanisms for MS and insulin resistance.%目的 观察复方贞术调脂胶囊(FTZ)对代谢综合征(MS)大鼠胰岛素抵抗和胰岛素信号磷脂酰肌醇-3-激酶(PI-3K)的影响,探讨FTZ治疗MS和改善胰岛素抵抗的作用机制.方法 采用高热量饲料喂养复制MS大鼠模型,经FTZ治疗8周,测量体重、腹围、血脂、空腹血糖和胰岛素水平,RT-PCR检测脂肪组织PI-3Kp85亚基的mRNA表达水平.结果 FTZ可降低MS大鼠血清TG、TC、空腹血糖、胰岛素及胰岛素抵抗指数,升高血清HDL-C水平、减轻体重和肥胖,上调大鼠脂肪组织PI-3Kp85 mRNA的表达.结论 FTZ可调节MS大鼠糖脂水平,改善胰岛素抵抗,对MS具有防治作用.FTZ上调胰岛素信号PI-3K,可能是其治疗MS和改善胰岛素抵抗的作用机制之一.

  19. Anti-tumor effects of progesterone in human glioblastoma multiforme: role of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Fahim; Yousuf, Seema; Stein, Donald G

    2015-02-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive primary brain tumor with a mean patient survival of 13-15 months despite surgical resection, radiation therapy and standard-of-care chemotherapy. We investigated the chemotherapeutic effects of the hormone progesterone (P4) on the growth of human GBM in four genetically different cell lines (U87MG, U87dEGFR, U118MG, LN-229) in vitro and in a U87MG subcutaneous xenograft mouse model. At high concentrations (20, 40, and 80 μM), P4 significantly (Pmatrix metalloproteinase-9. Apoptosis in tumor tissue was detected by the expression of cleaved caspase-3, BCl-2, BAD and p53 proteins and confirmed by TUNEL assay. P4 treatment also suppressed PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, which regulates tumor growth, as demonstrated by the suppression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Our data can be interpreted to suggest that P4 suppresses the growth of human GBM cells both in vitro and in vivo and enhances survival time in mice without any demonstrable side effects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Sex steroids and brain disorders'.

  20. Disrupted PI3K p110δ Signaling Dysregulates Maternal Immune Cells and Increases Fetal Mortality In Mice

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    Jens Kieckbusch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal immune cells are an integral part of reproduction, but how they might cause pregnancy complications remains elusive. Macrophages and their dual function in inflammation and tissue repair are thought to play key yet undefined roles. Altered perinatal growth underpins adult morbidity, and natural killer (NK cells may sustain fetal growth by establishing the placental blood supply. Using a mouse model of genetic inactivation of PI3K p110δ, a key intracellular signaling molecule in leukocytes, we show that p110δ regulates macrophage dynamics and NK-cell-mediated arterial remodeling. The uterus of dams with inactive p110δ had decreased IFN-γ and MHC class IIlow macrophages but enhanced IL-6. Poor vascular remodeling and a pro-inflammatory uterine milieu resulted in fetal death or growth retardation. Our results provide one mechanism that explains how imbalanced adaptations of maternal innate immune cells to gestation affect offspring well-being with consequence perinatally and possibly into adulthood.

  1. Polyphenols isolated from Allium cepa L. induces apoptosis by suppressing IAP-1 through inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in human leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min Ho; Lee, Won Sup; Jung, Ji Hyun; Jeong, Jae-Hun; Park, Cheol; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, GonSup; Jung, Jin-Myung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kim, Gi-Young; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Hong, Soon Chan; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Allium cepa Linn is commonly used as supplementary folk remedy for cancer therapy. Evidence suggests that Allium extracts have anti-cancer properties. However, the mechanisms of the anti-cancer activity of A. cepa Linn are not fully elucidated in human cancer cells. In this study, we investigated anti-cancer effects of polyphenols extracted from lyophilized A. cepa Linn (PEAL) in human leukemia cells and their mechanisms. PEAL inhibited cancer cell growth by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis. The apoptosis was suppressed by caspase 8 and 9 inhibitors. PEAL also up-regulated TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor DR5 and down-regulated survivin and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP-1). We confirmed these findings in other leukemic cells (THP-1, K562 cells). In addition, PEAL suppressed Akt activity and the PEAL-induced apoptosis was significantly attenuated in Akt-overexpressing U937 cells. In conclusion, our data suggested that PEAL induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in several human leukemic cells including U937 cells. The apoptosis was triggered through extrinsic pathway by up-regulating DR5 modulating as well as through intrinsic pathway by modulating IAP family members. In addition, PEAL induces caspase-dependent apoptosis at least in part through the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. This study provides evidence that PEAL might be useful for the treatment of leukemia.

  2. Activation of Robo1 signaling of breast cancer cells by Slit2 from stromal fibroblast restrains tumorigenesis via blocking PI3K/Akt/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Hao; Hwang-Verslues, Wendy W; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Chin; Hsiao, Michael; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Chang, King-Jen; Lee, Eva Y-H P; Shew, Jin-Yuh; Lee, Wen-Hwa

    2012-09-15

    Tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in regulating tumor progression by secreting factors that mediate cancer cell growth. Stromal fibroblasts can promote tumor growth through paracrine factors; however, restraint of malignant carcinoma progression by the microenvironment also has been observed. The mechanisms that underlie this paradox remain unknown. Here, we report that the tumorigenic potential of breast cancer cells is determined by an interaction between the Robo1 receptor and its ligand Slit2, which is secreted by stromal fibroblasts. The presence of an active Slit2/Robo1 signal blocks the translocation of β-catenin into nucleus, leading to downregulation of c-myc and cyclin D1 via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Clinically, high Robo1 expression in the breast cancer cells correlates with increased survival in patients with breast cancer, and low Slit2 expression in the stromal fibroblasts is associated with lymph node metastasis. Together, our findings explain how a specific tumor microenvironment can restrain a given type of cancer cell from progression and show that both stromal fibroblasts and tumor cell heterogeneity affect breast cancer outcomes.

  3. Inhibition of melanogenesis by gallic acid: possible involvement of the PI3K/Akt, MEK/ERK and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways in B16F10 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tzu-Rong; Lin, Jen-Jie; Tsai, Chi-Chu; Huang, Tsu-Kei; Yang, Zih-Yan; Wu, Ming-O; Zheng, Yu-Qing; Su, Ching-Chyuan; Wu, Yu-Jen

    2013-10-14

    Gallic acid is one of the major flavonoids found in plants. It acts as an antioxidant, and seems to have anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of gallic acid on melanogenesis, including the activation of melanogenesis signaling pathways. Gallic acid significantly inhibited both melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and decreased the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP1), and dopachrome tautomerase (Dct). In addition, gallic acid also acts by phosphorylating and activating melanogenesis inhibitory proteins such as Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Using inhibitors against PI3K/Akt (LY294002) or MEK/ERK-specific (PD98059), the hypopigmentation effect was suppressed, and the gallic acid-initiated activation of MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt was also revoked. Gallic acid also increased GSK3β and p-β-catenin expression but down-regulated p-GSK3β. Moreover, GSK3β-specific inhibitor (SB216763) restored gallic acid-induced melanin reduction. These results suggest that activation of the MEK/ERK, PI3K/Akt, and inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways is involved in the melanogenesis signaling cascade, and that activation by gallic acid reduces melanin synthesis via down-regulation of MITF and its downstream signaling pathway. In conclusion, gallic acid may be a potentially agent for the treatment of certain skin conditions.

  4. Inhibition of Melanogenesis by Gallic Acid: Possible Involvement of the PI3K/Akt, MEK/ERK and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathways in B16F10 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Wu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gallic acid is one of the major flavonoids found in plants. It acts as an antioxidant, and seems to have anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of gallic acid on melanogenesis, including the activation of melanogenesis signaling pathways. Gallic acid significantly inhibited both melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and decreased the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP1, and dopachrome tautomerase (Dct. In addition, gallic acid also acts by phosphorylating and activating melanogenesis inhibitory proteins such as Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK. Using inhibitors against PI3K/Akt (LY294002 or MEK/ERK-specific (PD98059, the hypopigmentation effect was suppressed, and the gallic acid-initiated activation of MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt was also revoked. Gallic acid also increased GSK3β and p-β-catenin expression but down-regulated p-GSK3β. Moreover, GSK3β-specific inhibitor (SB216763 restored gallic acid-induced melanin reduction. These results suggest that activation of the MEK/ERK, PI3K/Akt, and inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways is involved in the melanogenesis signaling cascade, and that activation by gallic acid reduces melanin synthesis via down-regulation of MITF and its downstream signaling pathway. In conclusion, gallic acid may be a potentially agent for the treatment of certain skin conditions.

  5. Gedunin abrogates aldose reductase, PI3K/Akt/mToR, and NF-κB signaling pathways to inhibit angiogenesis in a hamster model of oral carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore T, Kranthi Kiran; Ganugula, Raghu; Gade, Deepak Reddy; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2016-02-01

    Aberrant activation of oncogenic signaling pathways plays a central role in tumor development and progression. The aim of this present study was to investigate the chemopreventive effects of the neem limonoid gedunin in the hamster model of oral cancer based on its ability to modulate aldose reductase (AR), phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways to block angiogenesis. Administration of gedunin suppressed the development of HBP carcinomas by inhibiting PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways through the inactivation of Akt and inhibitory kappa B kinase (IKK), respectively. Immunoblot and molecular docking interactions revealed that inhibition of these signaling pathways may be mediated via inactivation of AR by gedunin. Gedunin blocked angiogenesis by downregulating the expression of miR-21 and the pro-angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). In conclusion, the results of the present study provide compelling evidence that gedunin prevents progression of hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinomas via inhibition of the kinases Akt, IKK, and AR, and the oncogenic transcription factors NF-κB and HIF-1α to block angiogenesis.

  6. p38MAPK, ERK and PI3K signaling pathways are involved in C5a-primed neutrophils for ANCA-mediated activation.

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    Jian Hao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The complement system is one of the important contributing factors in the development of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV. C5a and the neutrophil C5a receptor play a central role in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA-mediated neutrophil recruitment and activation. The current study further investigated the signaling pathways of C5a-mediated priming of human neutrophils for ANCA-induced neutrophil activation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effects of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK inhibitor (SB202190, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK inhibitor (PD98059, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK inhibitor (6o and phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitor (LY294002 were tested on respiratory burst and degranulation of C5a-primed neutrophils activated with ANCA, as well as on C5a-induced increase in expression of membrane-bound PR3 (mPR3 on neutrophils. For C5a-primed neutrophils for MPO-ANCA-induced respiratory burst, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI value was 254.8±67.1, which decreased to 203.6±60.3, 204.4±36.7, 202.4±49.9 and 188±47.9 upon pre-incubation with SB202190, PD98059, LY294002 and the mixture of above-mentioned three inhibitors (compared with that without inhibitors, P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively. For PR3-ANCA-positive IgG, the MFI value increased in C5a-primed neutrophils, which decreased upon pre-incubation with above-mentioned inhibitors. The lactoferrin concentration increased in C5a-primed neutrophils induced by MPO or PR3-ANCA-positive IgG supernatant and decreased upon pre-incubation with above-mentioned three inhibitors. mPR3 expression increased from 923.3±182.4 in untreated cells to 1278.3±299.3 after C5a treatment and decreased to 1069.9±188.9, 1100±238.2, 1092.3±231.8 and 1053.9±200.3 by SB202190, PD98059, LY294002 and the mixture of above-mentioned three inhibitors (compared with that without inhibitors, P<0.01, P<0

  7. Anti-fibrotic actions of interleukin-10 against hypertrophic scarring by activation of PI3K/AKT and STAT3 signaling pathways in scar-forming fibroblasts.

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    Jihong Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hypertrophic scar (HS is a serious fibrotic skin condition and a major clinical problem. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 has been identified as a prospective scar-improving compound based on preclinical trials. Our previous work showed that IL-10 has anti-fibrotic effects in transforming growth factor (TGF-β1-stimulated fibroblasts, as well as potential therapeutic benefits for the prevention and reduction of scar formation. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying IL-10-mediated anti-fibrotic and scar-improvement actions. OBJECTIVE: To explore the expression of the IL-10 receptor in human HS tissue and primary HS fibroblasts (HSFs, and the molecular mechanisms contributing to the anti-fibrotic and scar-improvement capabilities of IL-10. METHODS: Expression of the IL-10 receptor was assessed in HS tissue and HSFs by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction analysis. Primary HSFs were treated with IL-10, a specific phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K inhibitor (LY294002 or a function-blocking antibody against the IL-10 receptor (IL-10RB. Next, Western blot analysis was used to evaluate changes in the phosphorylation status of AKT and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT 3, as well as the expression levels of fibrosis-related proteins. RESULTS: HS tissue and primary HSFs were characterized by expression of the IL-10 receptor and by high expression of fibrotic markers relative to normal controls. Primary HSFs expressed the IL-10 receptor, while IL-10 induced AKT and STAT3 phosphorylation in these cells. In addition, LY294002 blocked AKT and STAT phosphorylation, and also up-regulated expression levels of type I and type III collagen (Col 1 and Col 3 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA in IL-10-treated cells. Similarly, IL-10RB reduced STAT3/AKT phosphorylation and blocked the IL-10-mediated mitigation of fibrosis in HSFs. CONCLUSION: IL-10 apparently

  8. MiR-126 regulates proliferation and invasion in the bladder cancer BLS cell line by targeting the PIK3R2-mediated PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

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    Xiao J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jun Xiao,1 Huan-Yi Lin,2 Yuan-Yuan Zhu,3 Yu-Ping Zhu,1 Ling-Wu Chen2 1Department of Urology, Anhui Provincial Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 2Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 3Clinical Laboratory, Anhui Provincial Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, People’s Republic of China Objective: To assess whether microRNA-126 (miR-126 targets phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit beta (PIK3R2 and to determine the potential roles of miR-126 in regulating proliferation and invasion via the PIK3R2-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K-protein kinase B (Akt signaling pathway in the human bladder BLS cell line. Materials and methods: A recombinant lentivirus (Lv vector expressing miR-216 (Lv-miR-126 was successfully constructed, and Lv-miR-126 and Lv vector were transfected into the BLS cell line. A direct regulatory relationship between miR-126 and the PIK3R2 gene was demonstrated by luciferase reporter assays. To determine whether PIK3R2 directly participates in the miR-126-induced effects in BLS cells, anti-miR-126 and a PIK3R2 small interfering RNA (siRNA were transfected into the BLS cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure miR-126 and PIK3R2 expressions. 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine and colony formation assays to assess cell proliferation, flow cytometry for cell apoptosis and cell cycle analysis, Transwell assays for cell migration and invasion, and Western blots for PIK3R2, PI3K, phosphorylated PI3K (p-PI3K, Akt, and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt protein expressions were performed. Results: Lv-miR-126 significantly enhanced the relative expression of miR-126 in the BLS cells after infection (P<0.0001. MiR-126 overexpression inhibited the proliferation, cloning, migration, and invasion of BLS cells, promoted cell apoptosis, and induced S phase arrest (all P<0.05. PIK3R2, p-PI3K, and p-Akt protein expressions were significantly

  9. Suppressing the formation of lipid raft-associated Rac1/PI3K/Akt signaling complexes by curcumin inhibits SDF-1α-induced invasion of human esophageal carcinoma cells.

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    Lin, Meng-Liang; Lu, Yao-Cheng; Chen, Hung-Yi; Lee, Chuan-Chun; Chung, Jing-Gung; Chen, Shih-Shun

    2014-05-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a ligand for C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), which contributes to the metastasis of cancer cells by promoting cell migration. Here, we show that the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis can significantly increase invasion of esophageal carcinoma (EC) cells. We accomplished this by examining the effects of CXCR4 knockdown as well as treatment with a CXCR4-neutralizing antibody and the CXCR4-specific inhibitor AMD3100. Curcumin suppressed SDF-1α-induced cell invasion and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) promoter activity, cell surface localization of CXCR4 at lipid rafts, and lipid raft-associated ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) p85α/Akt signaling. Curcumin inhibited SDF-1α-induced cell invasion by suppressing the Rac1-PI3K signaling complex at lipid rafts but did not abrogate lipid raft formation. We further demonstrate that the attenuation of lipid raft-associated Rac1 activity by curcumin was critical for the inhibition of SDF-1α-induced PI3K/Akt/NF-κB activation, cell surface localization of CXCR4 at lipid rafts, MMP-2 promoter activity, and cell invasion. Collectively, our results indicate that curcumin inhibits SDF-1α-induced EC cell invasion by suppressing the formation of the lipid raft-associated Rac1-PI3K-Akt signaling complex, the localization of CXCR4 with lipid rafts at the cell surface, and MMP-2 promoter activity, likely through the inhibition of Rac1 activity.

  10. DUAL INHIBITION OF PI3K/AKT AND mTOR SIGNALING IN HUMAN NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER CELLS BY A DIETARY FLAVONOID FISETIN

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    Khan, Naghma; Afaq, Farrukh; Khusro, Fatima H.; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Suh, Yewseok; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most commonly occurring malignancies. It has been reported that mTOR is phosphorylated in lung cancer and its activation was more frequent in tumors with over-expression of PI3K/Akt. Therefore, dual inhibitors of PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling could be valuable agents for treating lung cancer. In the present study, we show that fisetin, a dietary tetrahydroxyflavone inhibits cell-growth with the concomitant suppression of PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Using autodock 4, we found that fisetin physically interacts with the mTOR complex at two sites. Fisetin treatment was also found to reduce the formation of A549 cell colonies in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with fisetin caused decrease in the protein expression of PI3K (p85 and p110), inhibition of phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, p70S6K1, eIF-4E and 4E-BP1. Fisetin-treated cells also exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of the constituents of mTOR signaling complex like Rictor, Raptor, GβL and PRAS40. There was increase in the phosphorylation of AMPKα and decrease in the phosphorylation of TSC2 on treatment of cells with fisetin. We also found that treatment of cells with mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and mTOR-siRNA caused decrease in phosphorylation of mTOR and its target proteins which were further downregulated on treatment with fisetin, suggesting that these effects are mediated in part, through mTOR signaling. Our results show that fisetin suppressed PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling in NSCLC cells and thus, could be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent against human lung cancer. PMID:21618507

  11. Fine-Tuning of PI3K/AKT Signalling by the Tumour Suppressor PTEN Is Required for Maintenance of Flight Muscle Function and Mitochondrial Integrity in Ageing Adult Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Lawrence B Mensah

    Full Text Available Insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling (IIS, acting primarily through the PI3-kinase (PI3K/AKT kinase signalling cassette, plays key evolutionarily conserved regulatory roles in nutrient homeostasis, growth, ageing and longevity. The dysfunction of this pathway has been linked to several age-related human diseases including cancer, Type 2 diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. However, it remains unclear whether minor defects in IIS can independently induce the age-dependent functional decline in cells that accompany some of these diseases or whether IIS alters the sensitivity to other aberrant signalling. We identified a novel hypomorphic allele of PI3K's direct antagonist, Phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome 10 (Pten, in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Adults carrying combinations of this allele, Pten5, combined with strong loss-of-function Pten mutations exhibit subtle or no increase in mass, but are highly susceptible to a wide range of stresses. They also exhibit dramatic upregulation of the oxidative stress response gene, GstD1, and a progressive loss of motor function that ultimately leads to defects in climbing and flight ability. The latter phenotype is associated with mitochondrial disruption in indirect flight muscles, although overall muscle structure appears to be maintained. We show that the phenotype is partially rescued by muscle-specific expression of the Bcl-2 homologue Buffy, which in flies, maintains mitochondrial integrity, modulates energy homeostasis and suppresses cell death. The flightless phenotype is also suppressed by mutations in downstream IIS signalling components, including those in the mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1 pathway, suggesting that elevated IIS is responsible for functional decline in flight muscle. Our data demonstrate that IIS levels must be precisely regulated by Pten in adults to maintain the function of the highly metabolically active indirect flight

  12. E-cadherin-dependent stimulation of traction force at focal adhesions via the Src and PI3K signaling pathways.

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    Jasaitis, Audrius; Estevez, Maruxa; Heysch, Julie; Ladoux, Benoit; Dufour, Sylvie

    2012-07-18

    The interplay between cadherin- and integrin-dependent signals controls cell behavior, but the precise mechanisms that regulate the strength of adhesion to the extracellular matrix remains poorly understood. We deposited cells expressing a defined repertoire of cadherins and integrins on fibronectin (FN)-coated polyacrylamide gels (FN-PAG) and on FN-coated pillars used as a micro-force sensor array (μFSA), and analyzed the functional relationship between these adhesion receptors to determine how it regulates cell traction force. We found that cadherin-mediated adhesion stimulated cell spreading on FN-PAG, and this was modulated by the substrate stiffness. We compared S180 cells with cells stably expressing different cadherins on μFSA and found that traction forces were stronger in cells expressing cadherins than in parental cells. E-cadherin-mediated contact and mechanical coupling between cells are required for this increase in cell-FN traction force, which was not observed in isolated cells, and required Src and PI3K activities. Traction forces were stronger in cells expressing type I cadherins than in cells expressing type II cadherins, which correlates with our previous observation of a higher intercellular adhesion strength developed by type I compared with type II cadherins. Our results reveal one of the mechanisms whereby molecular cross talk between cadherins and integrins upregulates traction forces at cell-FN adhesion sites, and thus provide additional insight into the molecular control of cell behavior. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Breast Cancer Invasion and Metastasis by mPRα Through the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.

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    Wu, Xiaojuan; Sun, Limin; Wang, Xiao; Su, Peng; Li, Zhishuang; Zhang, Chunyan; Wang, Yan; Gao, Peng; Ma, Rong

    2016-07-01

    Invasive breast cancer is the most common type of malignancy in women worldwide. However, the mechanism responsible for breast cancer metastasis is still unclear and needs further illustration. It has been proven that matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) promotes metastasis of the cancer cells. However, the interaction between mPRα and MMP-9 has not been studied. Therefore, in the present research, the effect of MMP-9 on the malignant progression of invasive breast cancer promoted by membrane progesterone receptorα (mPRα) was investigated. The results showed that the protein expression of mPRα, p-Akt and MMP-9 increased in the cancerous tissues compared to that of the noncancerous breast tissue. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between mPRα and C-erbB-2, as well as the number of involved local lymph nodes. On the other hand, a negative correlation was observed between mPRα and estrogen receptors (ER) along with progesterone receptors (PR). Similarly, a positive association was found between MMP-9 and the number of involved local lymph nodes. Besides, the high expression of MMP-9 also had a positive correlation with the tumor size. However, the high level of MMP-9 had a negative correlation with ER and PR. In addition, there was a positive correlation between mPRα and p-Akt together with MMP-9. The results confirm that mPRα was a major marker of harmful prognosis and it promoted the expression of MMP-9 during invasion to the local lymph nodes through the pathway of PI3K/Akt. The present study provided a novel therapeutic strategy to inhibit breast cancer growth by preventing mPRα signaling pathway.

  14. Paeonia lactiflora Pall. protects against ANIT-induced cholestasis by activating Nrf2 via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

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    Ma X

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiao Ma,1,2 Yan-ling Zhao,2 Yun Zhu,3 Zhe Chen,1,2 Jia-bo Wang,4 Rui-yu Li,1,4 Chang Chen,1,2 Shi-zhang Wei,1,2 Jian-yu Li,3 Bing Liu,5 Rui-lin Wang,3 Yong-gang Li,3 Li-fu Wang,3 Xiao-he Xiao4 1Pharmacy College, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, 302 Military Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Integrative Medical Center, 302 Military Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4China Military Institute of Chinese Medicine, 302 Military Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Background: Paeonia lactiflora Pall. (PLP, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been used for hepatic disease treatment over thousands of years. In our previous study, PLP was shown to demonstrate therapeutic effect on hepatitis with severe cholestasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative effect of PLP on alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT-induced cholestasis by activating NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Materials and methods: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS was performed to identify the main compounds present in PLP. The mechanism of action of PLP and its therapeutic effect on cholestasis, induced by ANIT, were further investigated. Serum indices such as total bilirubin (TBIL, direct bilirubin (DBIL, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT, and total bile acid (TBA were measured, and histopathology of liver was also performed to determine the efficacy of treatment with PLP. Moreover, in order to illustrate the underlying signaling pathway, liver glutathione (GSH content and mRNA or protein levels of glutamate

  15. The novel pterostilbene derivative ANK-199 induces autophagic cell death through regulating PI3 kinase class III/beclin 1/Atg‑related proteins in cisplatin‑resistant CAR human oral cancer cells.

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    Hsieh, Min-Tsang; Chen, Hao-Ping; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Wu, Tian-Shung; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Huang, Li-Jiau; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2014-08-01

    Pterostilbene is an effective chemopreventive agent against multiple types of cancer cells. A novel pterostilbene derivative, ANK-199, was designed and synthesized by our group. Its antitumor activity and mechanism in cisplatin-resistant CAR human oral cancer cells were investigated in this study. Our results show that ANK-199 has an extremely low toxicity in normal oral cell lines. The formation of autophagic vacuoles and acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) was observed in the ANK-199-treated CAR cells by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and acridine orange (AO) staining, suggesting that ANK-199 is able to induce autophagic cell death in CAR cells. Neither DNA fragmentation nor DNA condensation was observed, which means that ANK-199-induced cell death is not triggered by apoptosis. In accordance with morphological observation, 3-MA, a specific inhibitor of PI3K kinase class III, can inhibit the autophagic vesicle formation induced by ANK-199. In addition, ANK-199 is also able to enhance the protein levels of autophagic proteins, Atg complex, beclin 1, PI3K class III and LC3-II, and mRNA expression of autophagic genes Atg7, Atg12, beclin 1 and LC3-II in the ANK-199-treated CAR cells. A molecular signaling pathway induced by ANK-199 was therefore summarized. Results presented in this study show that ANK-199 may become a novel therapeutic reagent for the treatment of oral cancer in the near future (patent pending).

  16. Si Shen Wan Regulates Phospholipase Cγ-1 and PI3K/Akt Signal in Colonic Mucosa from Rats with Colitis

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    Duan-yong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the feasible pathway of Si Shen Wan (SSW in inhibiting apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs by observing activation of phospholipase Cγ-1 (PLC-γ1 and PI3K/Akt signal in colonic mucosa from rats with colitis. Experimental colitis was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS in the Sprague-Dawley rats. After SSW was administrated for 7 days after TNBS infusion, western blot showed an increment in levels of PI3K, p-Akt, and IL-23 and a decrement in levels of PLC-γ1 and HSP70 in colonic mucosal injury induced by TNBS. Meanwhile, assessments by ELISA revealed an increment in concentrations of IL-2, IL-6, and IL-17 and a reduction in level of TGF-β after TNBS challenge. Impressively, treatment with SSW for 7 days significantly attenuated the expressions of PI3K and p-Akt and the secretion of IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-23 and promoted the activation of PLC-γ1, HSP70, and TGF-β. Our previous studies had demonstrated that SSW restored colonic mucosal ulcers by inhibiting apoptosis of IECs. The present study demonstrated that the effect of SSW on inhibiting apoptosis of IECs was realized probably by activation of PLC-γ1 and suppression of PI3K/Akt signal pathway.

  17. Co-Inhibition of GLUT-1 Expression and the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway to Enhance the Radiosensitivity of Laryngeal Carcinoma Xenografts In Vivo.

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    Luo, Xing-Mei; Xu, Bin; Zhou, Min-Li; Bao, Yang-Yang; Zhou, Shui-Hong; Fan, Jun; Lu, Zhong-Jie

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of GLUT-1 and PI3K/Akt signaling in radioresistance of laryngeal carcinoma xenografts. Volume, weight, radiosensitization, and the rate of inhibition of tumor growth in the xenografts were evaluated in different groups. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay. In addition, mRNA and protein levels of GLUT-1, p-Akt, and PI3K in the xenografts were measured. Treatment with LY294002, wortmannin, wortmannin plus GLUT-1 AS-ODN, and LY294002 plus GLUT-1 AS-ODN after X-ray irradiation significantly reduced the size and weight of the tumors, rate of tumor growth, and apoptosis in tumors compared to that observed in the 10-Gy group (pGLUT-1, p-Akt, and PI3K was downregulated. The E/O values of LY294002, LY294002 plus GLUT-1 AS-ODN, wortmannin, and wortmannin plus GLUT-1 AS-ODN were 2.7, 1.1, 1.8, and 1.8, respectively. Taken together, these data indicate that GLUT-1 AS-ODN as well as the inhibitors of PI3K/Akt signaling may act as radiosensitizers of laryngeal carcinoma in vivo.

  18. TOP 1 and 2, polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale, inhibit NFκB-mediated inflammation and accelerate Nrf2-induced antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells.

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    Park, Chung Mu; Cho, Chung Won; Song, Young Sun

    2014-04-01

    Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities of polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale (TOP 1 and 2) were analyzed in RAW 264.7 cells. First, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was applied to identify anti-inflammatory activity of TOPs, which reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. TOPs treatment inhibited phosphorylation of inflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF)κB, and its upstream signaling molecule, PI3K/Akt. Second, cytoprotective potential of TOPs against oxidative stress was investigated via heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction. HO-1, one of phase II enzymes shows antioxidative activity, was potently induced by TOPs treatment, which was in accordance with the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). In addition, TOPs treatment phosphorylated PI3K/Akt with slight activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). TOPs-mediated HO-1 induction protected macrophage cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death, which was confirmed by SnPP and CoPP (HO-1 inhibitor and inducer, respectively). Consequently, TOPs potently inhibited NFκB-mediated inflammation and accelerated Nrf2-mediated antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K/Akt pathway, which would contribute to their promising strategy for novel anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents.

  19. PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling & its regulator tumour suppressor genes PTEN & LKB1 in human uterine leiomyomas

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    Annu Makker

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Upregulation of PTEN and LKB1 in concert with negative or low levels of activated Akt, mTOR and S6 indicates that PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway may not play a significant role in pathogenesis of leiomyoma.

  20. Quercetin Protects against Okadaic Acid-Induced Injury via MAPK and PI3K/Akt/GSK3β Signaling Pathways in HT22 Hippocampal Neurons

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    Li, Sheng; Zhou, Yue; Shen, Xiu-Yin; He, Feng; Xu, Jie; Wang, Hua-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that oxidative stress and the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein play essential roles in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Quercetin is a major flavonoid that has anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of quercetin to HT22 cells (a cell line from mouse hippocampal neurons). We found that Okadaic acid (OA) induced the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein at Ser199, Ser396, Thr205, and Thr231 and produced oxidative stress to the HT22 cells. The oxidative stress suppressed the cell viability and decreased the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). It up-regulated malondialdehyde (MDA) production and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, phosphoinositide 3 kinase/protein kinase B/Glycogen synthase kinase3β (PI3K/Akt/GSK3β) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) were also involved in this process. We found that pre-treatment with quercetin can inhibited OA-induced the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein and oxidative stress. Moreover, pre-treatment with quercetin not only inhibited OA-induced apoptosis via the reduction of Bax, and up-regulation of cleaved caspase 3, but also via the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/GSK3β, MAPKs and activation of NF-κB p65. Our findings suggest the therapeutic potential of quercetin to treat AD. PMID:27050422

  1. Quercetin Protects against Okadaic Acid-Induced Injury via MAPK and PI3K/Akt/GSK3β Signaling Pathways in HT22 Hippocampal Neurons.

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    Wei Jiang

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that oxidative stress and the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein play essential roles in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Quercetin is a major flavonoid that has anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of quercetin to HT22 cells (a cell line from mouse hippocampal neurons. We found that Okadaic acid (OA induced the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein at Ser199, Ser396, Thr205, and Thr231 and produced oxidative stress to the HT22 cells. The oxidative stress suppressed the cell viability and decreased the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, mitochondria membrane potential (MMP and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px. It up-regulated malondialdehyde (MDA production and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. In addition, phosphoinositide 3 kinase/protein kinase B/Glycogen synthase kinase3β (PI3K/Akt/GSK3β and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK were also involved in this process. We found that pre-treatment with quercetin can inhibited OA-induced the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein and oxidative stress. Moreover, pre-treatment with quercetin not only inhibited OA-induced apoptosis via the reduction of Bax, and up-regulation of cleaved caspase 3, but also via the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/GSK3β, MAPKs and activation of NF-κB p65. Our findings suggest the therapeutic potential of quercetin to treat AD.

  2. Predicting the structures of complexes between phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and romidepsin-related compounds for the drug design of PI3K/histone deacetylase dual inhibitors using computational docking and the ligand-based drug design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Akifumi; Saijo, Ken; Ishioka, Chikashi; Narita, Koichi; Katoh, Tadashi; Watanabe, Yurie; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi; Takahashi, Ohgi

    2014-11-01

    Predictions of the three-dimensional (3D) structures of the complexes between phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and two inhibitors were conducted using computational docking and the ligand-based drug design approach. The obtained structures were refined by structural optimizations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The ligands were located deep inside the ligand binding pocket of the p110α subunit of PI3K, and the hydrogen bond formations and hydrophobic effects of the surrounding amino acids were predicted. Although rough structures were obtained for the PI3K-inhibitor complexes before the MD simulations, the refinement of the structures by these simulations clarified the hydrogen bonding patterns of the complexes.

  3. Analysis of miRNA profiles identified miR-196a as a crucial mediator of aberrant PI3K/AKT signaling in lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Ilaria; D'Angelo, Daniela; Pallante, Pierlorenzo; Santos, Mafalda; Scrima, Marianna; Malanga, Donatella; De Marco, Carmela; Ravo, Maria; Weisz, Alessandro; Laudanna, Carmelo; Ceccarelli, Michele; Falco, Geppino; Rizzuto, Antonia; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2016-11-17

    Hyperactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway is observed in most human cancer including lung carcinomas. Here we have investigated the role of miRNAs as downstream targets of activated PI3K/AKT signaling in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). To this aim, miRNA profiling was performed in human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) expressing active AKT1 (BEAS-AKT1-E17K), active PI3KCA (BEAS-PIK3CA-E545K) or with silenced PTEN (BEAS-shPTEN).Twenty-four differentially expressed miRNAs common to BEAS-AKT1-E17K, BEAS-PIK3CA-E545K and BEAS-shPTEN cells were identified through this analysis, with miR-196a being the most consistently up-regulated miRNA. Interestingly, miR-196a was significantly overexpressed also in human NSCLC-derived cell lines (n=11) and primary lung cancer samples (n=28).By manipulating the expression of miR-196a in BEAS-2B and NCI-H460 cells, we obtained compelling evidence that this miRNA acts downstream the PI3K/AKT pathway, mediating some of the proliferative, pro-migratory and tumorigenic activity that this pathway exerts in lung epithelial cells, possibly through the regulation of FoxO1, CDKN1B (hereafter p27) and HOXA9.

  4. The roles of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in regulating MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast proliferation and differentiation on SLA and SLActive titanium surfaces.

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    Gu, Ying-Xin; Du, Juan; Si, Mi-Si; Mo, Jia-Ji; Qiao, Shi-Chong; Lai, Hong-Chang

    2013-03-01

    Chemical modification to produce a hydrophilic microrough titanium (Ti) implant surface has been shown to increase osseointegration compared with microrough topography alone. This study aimed to investigate the roles of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in regulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in response to surface microroughness and hydrophilicity. Ti disks were manufactured to present different surface morphologies: a smooth pretreatment surface (PT), a rough hydrophobic surface that was sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA), and an SLA surface with the same roughness that was chemically modified to possess high wettability/hydrophilicity (SLActive/modSLA). MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on these substrates with or without LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, and their behaviors, including cell viability (MTT colorimetric assay), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and osteogenic genes expression of osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) were measured. Western blot was applied to detect the expression of PI3K/Akt signal pathway proteins. The results showed that a decrease in osteoblast proliferation associated with the Ti surfaces (SLActive > SLA > PT) correlated with an increase in activity of the osteogenic differentiation markers ALP. The peak of ALP activity appeared earlier at 7 days for the SLActive surfaces compared with the SLA and PT surfaces. Osteoblast proliferation, as well as the level of p-Akt, was significantly inhibited by LY294002 in all three Ti surfaces. The top value of ALP activity was increased with the inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway while the time of the peak appeared was not advanced. The expression levels of OPN and OCN were upregulated by the effect of surface roughness and hydrophilicity, which were further enhanced by LY294002. In conclusion, osteogenic responses to SLActive surface were moderately better than the SLA surface and protein expression studies indicated that PI3K/Akt signaling activation may be

  5. Insulin promotes Rip11 accumulation at the plasma membrane by inhibiting a dynamin- and PI3-kinase-dependent, but Akt-independent, internalisation event.

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    Boal, Frédéric; Hodgson, Lorna R; Reed, Sam E; Yarwood, Sophie E; Just, Victoria J; Stephens, David J; McCaffrey, Mary W; Tavaré, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    Rip11 is a Rab11 effector protein that has been shown to be important in controlling the trafficking of several intracellular cargoes, including the fatty acid transporter FAT/CD36, V-ATPase and the glucose transporter GLUT4. We have previously demonstrated that Rip11 translocates to the plasma membrane in response to insulin and here we examine the basis of this regulated phenomenon in more detail. We show that Rip11 rapidly recycles between the cell interior and surface, and that the ability of insulin to increase the appearance of Rip11 at the cell surface involves an inhibition of Rip11 internalisation from the plasma membrane. By contrast the hormone has no effect on the rate of Rip11 translocation towards the plasma membrane. The ability of insulin to inhibit Rip11 internalisation requires dynamin and class I PI3-kinases, but is independent of the activation of the protein kinase Akt; characteristics which are very similar to the mechanism by which insulin inhibits GLUT4 endocytosis.

  6. SMND-309 promotes neuron survival through the activation of the PI3K/Akt/CREB-signalling pathway.

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    Wang, Youlei; Zhang, Jinjin; Han, Meng; Liu, Bo; Gao, Yulin; Ma, Peng; Zhang, Songzi; Zheng, Qingyin; Song, Xiaodong

    2016-10-01

    Context In clinical practice, the promotion of neuron survival is necessary to recover neurological functions after the onset of stroke. Objective This study aimed to investigate the post-ischaemic neuroprotective effect of SMND-309, a novel metabolite of salvianolic acid, on differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Materials and methods SH-SY5Y cells were differentiated by pre-treating with 5 μM all-trans-retinoic acid for 6 d. The differentiated SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 2 h and reperfusion (R) for 24 h to induce OGD/R injury. After OGD injury, differentiated SH-SY5Y cells were treated with or without SMND-309 (5, 10, 20 μM) for another 24 h. Cell viability was detected through Cell counting kit-8 assay and lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay. Apoptosis was evaluated through flow cytometry, caspase-3 activity assay. Changes in protein levels were assessed through Western blot. Results SMND-309 ameliorated the degree of injury in the differentiated SH-SY5Y cells by increasing cell viabilities (5 μM, 65.4% ± 4.1%; 10 μM, 69.8% ± 3.7%; 20 μM, 75.3% ± 5.1%) and by reducing LDH activity (20 μM, 2.5 fold) upon OGD/R stimulation. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining results suggested that apoptotic rate of differentiated SH-SY5Y cells decreased from 43.8% induced by OGD/R injury to 19.2% when the cells were treated with 20 μM SMND-309. SMND-309 significantly increased the Bcl-2 level of the injured differentiated SH-SY5Y cells but decreased the caspase-3 activity of these cells by 1.6-fold. In contrast, SMND-309 did not affect the Bax level of these cells. SMND-309 evidently increased the protein expression of BDNF when Akt and CREB were activated. This function was antagonized by the addition of LY294002. Conclusion SMND-309 can prevent neuronal cell death in vitro. This process may be related to the activation of the PI3K/Akt/CREB-signalling pathway.

  7. Diosgenin and 5-Methoxypsoralen Ameliorate Insulin Resistance through ER-α/PI3K/Akt-Signaling Pathways in HepG2 Cells

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    Ke Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects and the underlying mechanism of diosgenin (DSG and 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP, two main active components in the classical Chinese prescription Hu-Lu-Ba-Wan (HLBW, on insulin resistance, HepG2 cells were incubated in medium containing insulin. Treatments with DSG, 5-MOP, and their combination were performed, respectively. The result showed that the incubation of HepG2 cells with high concentration insulin markedly decreased glucose consumption and glycogen synthesis. However, treatment with DSG, 5-MOP, or their combination significantly reversed the condition and increased the phosphorylated expression of estrogen receptor-α (ERα, sarcoma (Src, Akt/protein kinase B, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β, and the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85 (PI3Kp85. At the transcriptional level, expression of the genes mentioned above also increased except for the negative regulation of GSK-3β mRNA. The increased expression of glucose transport-4 (GLUT-4 was meanwhile observed through immunofluorescence. Nevertheless, the synergistic effect of DSG and 5-MOP on improving glycometabolism was not obvious in the present study. These results suggested that DSG and 5-MOP may improve insulin resistance through an ER-mediated PI3K/Akt activation pathway which may be a new strategy for type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially for women in an estrogen-deficient condition.

  8. PI3K-GLUT4 Signal Pathway Associated with Effects of EX-B3 Electroacupuncture on Hyperglycemia and Insulin Resistance of T2DM Rats

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    Bing-Yan Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To explore electroacupuncture’s (EA’s effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG and insulin resistance of type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM model rats and give a possible explanation for the effects. Method. It takes high fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 30 mg/kg for model preparation. Model rats were randomly divided into T2DM Model group, EA weiwanxiashu (EX-B3 group, and sham EA group (n=12/group. EA (2 Hz continuous wave, 2 mA, 20 min/day, 6 days/week, 4 weeks was applied as intervention. FBG, area under curve (AUC of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR, pancreatic B cell function index (HOMA-B, skeletal muscle phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, and membrane GLUT4 protein expression were measured. Results. EA weiwanxiashu (EX-B3 can greatly upregulate model rat’s significantly reduced skeletal muscle PI3K (Y607 and membrane GLUT4 protein expression (P<0.01, effectively reducing model rats’ FBG and AUC of OGTT (P<0.01. The effects are far superior to sham EA group. Conclusion. EA weiwanxiashu (EX-B3 can upregulate skeletal muscle phosphorylated PI3K protein expression, to stimulate membrane translocation of GLUT4 and thereby increase skeletal muscle glucose intake to treat T2DM.

  9. PI3K-GLUT4 Signal Pathway Associated with Effects of EX-B3 Electroacupuncture on Hyperglycemia and Insulin Resistance of T2DM Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To explore electroacupuncture's (EA's) effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin resistance of type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) model rats and give a possible explanation for the effects. Method. It takes high fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 30 mg/kg) for model preparation. Model rats were randomly divided into T2DM Model group, EA weiwanxiashu (EX-B3) group, and sham EA group (n = 12/group). EA (2 Hz continuous wave, 2 mA, 20 min/day, 6 days/week, 4 weeks) was applied as intervention. FBG, area under curve (AUC) of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), pancreatic B cell function index (HOMA-B), skeletal muscle phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and membrane GLUT4 protein expression were measured. Results. EA weiwanxiashu (EX-B3) can greatly upregulate model rat's significantly reduced skeletal muscle PI3K (Y607) and membrane GLUT4 protein expression (P < 0.01), effectively reducing model rats' FBG and AUC of OGTT (P < 0.01). The effects are far superior to sham EA group. Conclusion. EA weiwanxiashu (EX-B3) can upregulate skeletal muscle phosphorylated PI3K protein expression, to stimulate membrane translocation of GLUT4 and thereby increase skeletal muscle glucose intake to treat T2DM. PMID:27656242

  10. Wortmannin, PI3K/Akt signaling pathway inhibitor, attenuates thyroid injury associated with severe acute pancreatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abliz, Ablikim; Deng, Wenhong; Sun, Rongze; Guo, Wenyi; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Weixing

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidences suggest that PI3K/AKT pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases such as acute pancreatitis. However, the exact effect of PI3K/AKT on thyroid injury associated with acute pancreatitis has not been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of wortmannin, PI3K/AKT inhibitor, on thyroid injury in a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operating group (SO), SAP group, wortmannin treatment (WOR) group and drug control (WOR-CON) group. Serum amylase (AMY), lipase (LIP) and thyroid hormone levels were evaluated. The morphological change of thyroid tissue was analyzed under the light and transmission electron microscopy. AKT, P38MAPK and NF-κB expression in the thyroid tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were detected. Results showed that wortmannin attenuated the following: (1) serum AMY, LIP and thyroid hormone (2) pancreatic and thyroid pathological injuries (3) thyroid MDA, (4) thyroid ultrastructural change, (5) serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β (6) AKT, MAPKP38 and NF-κB expression in thyroid tissues. These results suggested that wortmannin attenuates thyroid injury in SAP rats, presumably because of its role on prevent ROS generation and inhibits the activation of P38MAPK, NF-κB pathway. Our findings provide new therapeutic targets for thyroid injury associated with SAP.

  11. Inhibitors of pan PI3K signaling synergize with BRAF or MEK inhibitors to prevent BRAF-mutant melanoma cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eSweetlove

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BRAF and MEK inhibitors have improved outcomes for patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma, but their efficacy is limited by both intrinsic and acquired resistance. Activation of the PI3K pathway can mediate resistance to these agents, providing a strong rationale for combination therapy in melanoma. Here, a panel of 9 low passage human metastatic melanoma cell lines with BRAF mutations were tested in cell proliferation and protein expression assays for sensitivity to inhibitors of MEK (selumetinib and BRAF (vemurafenib as single agents and in combination with inhibitors of pan-PI3K (ZSTK474, pan-PI3K/mTOR (BEZ235, individual PI3K isoforms (p110α, A66; p110β, TGX-221; p110γ, AS-252424; p110δ, idelalisib, or mTORC1/2 (KU-0063794. Selumetinib and vemurafenib potently inhibited cell proliferation in all cell lines, especially in those that expressed low levels of pAKT. ZSTK474 and BEZ235 also inhibited cell proliferation in all cell lines and enhanced the antitumor activity of selumetinib and vemurafenib in the majority of lines by either interacting synergistically or additively to increase potency or by inducing cytotoxicity by significantly increasing the magnitude of cell growth inhibition. Furthermore, ZSTK474 or BEZ235 combined with selumetinib to produce robust inhibition of pERK, pAKT and pS6 expression and synergistic inhibition of NZM20 tumor growth. The inhibitors of individual PI3K isoforms or mTORC1/2 were less effective at inhibiting cell proliferation either as single agents or in combination with selumetinib or vemurafenib, although KU-0063794 synergistically interacted with vemurafenib and increased the magnitude of cell growth inhibition with selumetinib or vemurafenib in certain cell lines. Overall, these results suggest that the sensitivity of BRAF-mutant melanoma cells to BRAF or MEK inhibitors is at least partly mediated by activation of the PI3K pathway and can be enhanced by combined inhibition of the BRAF/MEK and PI3K

  12. High expression of G-protein signaling modulator 2 in hepatocellular carcinoma facilitates tumor growth and metastasis by activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Qin; Zhang, Yue-Feng; Yu, Jia-Jun; Gan, Yuan-Yuan; Han, Na-Na; Zhang, Mei-Xia; Ge, Wei; Deng, Jun-Jian; Zheng, Yong-Fa; Xu, Xi-Ming

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of G-protein signaling modulator 2 in the carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. We previously showed that G-protein signaling modulator 2 was upregulated in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma tissues through a hierarchical clustering analysis. With this study, we first assessed the expression pattern of G-protein signaling modulator 2 in hepatocellular carcinoma specimens and adjacent noncancerous tissues; clinical data were analyzed, along survival times, utilizing the Kaplan-Meier method. Moreover, the functions of G-protein signaling modulator 2 were examined using small-interfering RNAs in vitro. The results showed that G-protein signaling modulator 2 was clearly overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and cell lines and that the G-protein signaling modulator 2 expression level was related to tumor size and hepatitis B virus infection. Furthermore, G-protein signaling modulator 2 knockdown studies suggested that G-protein signaling modulator 2 accelerates cell growth, cell cycle, migration, and invasion and inhibits apoptosis, acting as an oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma. Western blotting indicated that silencing of G-protein signaling modulator 2 in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells increased the expression levels of Bax, caspase-3, and E-cadherin, while notably suppressing the cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin-dependent kinase 6, CyclinD1, Snail1, Vimentin, and matrix metallopeptidase 9 expression levels, compared with that in the control groups. In addition, we found that G-protein signaling modulator 2 can affect the expression of key proteins involved in protein kinase B activation. In conclusion, high expression of G-protein signaling modulator 2 was involved in the pathological processes of hepatocellular carcinoma through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway, which may provide an attractive potential diagnostic

  13. Fucoidan Induces ROS-Dependent Apoptosis in 5637 Human Bladder Cancer Cells by Downregulating Telomerase Activity via Inactivation of the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min Ho; Lee, Dae-Sung; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Hong, Su-Hyun; Choi, Il-Whan; Cha, Hee-Jae; Kim, Suhkmann; Kim, Heui-Soo; Park, Cheol; Kim, Gi-Young; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Wun-Jae; Hyun Choi, Yung

    2017-02-01

    Preclinical Research Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, is a compound found in various species of seaweed that has anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities; however, the underlying relationship between apoptosis and anti-telomerase activity has not been investigated. Here, we report that fucoidan-induced apoptosis in 5637 human bladder cancer cells was associated with an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, Δψm), and cytosolic release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Under the same experimental conditions, fucoidan-treatment decreased hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase) expression and the transcription factors, c-myc and Sp1. This was accompanied by decreased telomerase activity. Fucoidan-treatment also suppressed activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling enhanced fucoidan-induced apoptosis and anti-telomerase activity. Meanwhile, fucoidan treatment increased the generation of intracellular ROS, whereas the over-elimination of ROS by N-acetylcysteine, an anti-oxidant, attenuated fucoidan-induced apoptosis, inhibition of hTERT, c-myc, and Sp1 expression, and reversed fucoidan-induced inactivation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Collectively, these data indicate that the induction of apoptosis and the inhibition of telomerase activity by fucoidan are mediated via ROS-dependent inactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Drug Dev Res 78 : 37-48, 2017.   © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Selective inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway regulates autophagy of macrophage and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungang Zhai

    Full Text Available Macrophage infiltration contributes to the instability of atherosclerotic plaques. In the present study, we investigated whether selective inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway can enhance the stability of atherosclerotic plaques by activation of macrophage autophagy. In vitro study, selective inhibitors or siRNA of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways were used to treat the rabbit's peritoneal primary macrophage cells. Inflammation related cytokines secreted by macrophages were measured. Ultrastructure changes of macrophages were examined by transmission electron microscope. mRNA or protein expression levels of autophagy related gene Beclin 1, protein 1 light chain 3 II dots (LC3-II or Atg5-Atg12 conjugation were assayed by quantitative RT-PCR or Western blot. In vivo study, vulnerable plaque models were established in 40 New Zealand White rabbits and then drugs or siRNA were given for 8 weeks to inhibit the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS was performed to observe the plaque imaging. The ultrastructure of the abdominal aortic atherosclerosis lesions were analyzed with histopathology. RT-PCR or Western blot methods were used to measure the expression levels of corresponding autophagy related molecules. We found that macrophage autophagy was induced in the presence of Akt inhibitor, mTOR inhibitor and mTOR-siRNA in vitro study, while PI3K inhibitor had the opposite role. In vivo study, we found that macrophage autophagy increased significantly and the rabbits had lower plaque rupture incidence, lower plaque burden and decreased vulnerability index in the inhibitors or siRNA treated groups. We made a conclusion that selective inhibition of the Akt/mTOR signal pathway can reduce macrophages and stabilize the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques by promoting macrophage autophagy.

  15. Involvement of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in the regulation of cell cycle progression by PTHrP in colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Natalia; Martín, María Julia; de Boland, Ana Russo; Gentili, Claudia

    2014-08-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) is distributed in most fetal and adult tissues, and its expression correlates with the severity of colon carcinoma. Recently we obtained evidence that in Caco-2 cells, a cell line from human colorectal adenocarcinoma, exogenous PTHrP increases the number of live cells, via ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and PI3-kinase and induces the expression of cyclin D1, a cell cycle regulatory protein. In this study, we further investigated the role of PTHrP in the regulation of the cell cycle progression in these intestinal cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that PTHrP treatment diminishes the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase and increases the number in both S and G2/M phases. The hormone increases the expression of CDK6 and diminishes the amount of negative cell cycle regulators p27Kip1, p15INK4B, and p53. However, PTHrP does not modify the expression of cyclin D3, CDK4, and p16INK4A. In addition, inhibitors of ERK1/2 (PD98059), p38 MAPK (SB203580), and PI3Kinase (LY294002) reversed PTHrP response in Caco-2 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that PTHrP positively modulates cell cycle progression and changes the expression of proteins involved in cell cycle regulation via ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and PI3K signaling pathways in Caco-2 cells.

  16. Synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids protect retinal neurons from AMPA excitotoxicity in vivo, via activation of CB1 receptors: Involvement of PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokona, Despina; Thermos, Kyriaki

    2015-07-01

    Cannabinoids have been suggested to protect retinal ganglion cells in different models of toxicity, but their effects on other retinal neurons are poorly known. We investigated the neuroprotective actions of the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (Anandamide/AEA) and the synthetic cannabinoids R1-Methanandamide (MethAEA) and HU-210, in an in vivo retinal model of AMPA excitotoxicity, and the mechanisms involved in the neuroprotection. Sprague-Dawley rats were intravitreally injected with PBS or AMPA in the absence or presence of the cannabinoid agonists. Brain nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity (IR), as well as TUNEL staining, assessed the AMPA-induced retinal amacrine cell loss and the dose-dependent neuroprotection afforded by cannabinoids. The CB1 receptor selective antagonist AM251 and the PI3K/Akt inhibitor wortmannin reversed the cannabinoid-induced neuroprotection, suggesting the involvement of CB1 receptors and the PI3K/Akt pathway in cannabinoids' actions. Experiments with the CB2 agonist JWH015 and [(3)H]CP55940 radioligand binding suggested that the CB2 receptor is not involved in the neuroprotection. AEA and HU-210 induced phosphorylation of Akt but only AEA induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 kinases, as revealed by western blot analysis. To investigate the role of caspase-3 in the AMPA-induced cell death, the caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK was co-injected with AMPA. Z-DEVD-FMK had no effect on AMPA excitotoxicity. Moreover, no difference was observed in the phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK kinases between PBS- and AMPA-treated retinas. These results suggest that endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids protect retinal amacrine neurons from AMPA excitotoxicity in vivo via a mechanism involving the CB1 receptors, and the PI3K/Akt and/or MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

  17. Inactivation of class II PI3K-C2α induces leptin resistance, age-dependent insulin resistance and obesity in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliouachene, Samira; Bilanges, Benoit; Chaussade, Claire; Pearce, Wayne; Foukas, Lazaros C; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Moniz, Larissa S; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart

    2016-07-01

    While the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are well-documented positive regulators of metabolism, the involvement of class II PI3K isoforms (PI3K-C2α, -C2β and -C2γ) in metabolic regulation is just emerging. Organismal inactivation of PI3K-C2β increases insulin signalling and sensitivity, whereas PI3K-C2γ inactivation has a negative metabolic impact. In contrast, the role of PI3K-C2α in organismal metabolism remains unexplored. In this study, we investigated whether kinase inactivation of PI3K-C2α affects glucose metabolism in mice. We have generated and characterised a mouse line with a constitutive inactivating knock-in (KI) mutation in the kinase domain of the gene encoding PI3K-C2α (Pik3c2a). While homozygosity for kinase-dead PI3K-C2α was embryonic lethal, heterozygous PI3K-C2α KI mice were viable and fertile, with no significant histopathological findings. However, male heterozygous mice showed early onset leptin resistance, with a defect in leptin signalling in the hypothalamus, correlating with a mild, age-dependent obesity, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Insulin signalling was unaffected in insulin target tissues of PI3K-C2α KI mice, in contrast to previous reports in which downregulation of PI3K-C2α in cell lines was shown to dampen insulin signalling. Interestingly, no metabolic phenotypes were detected in female PI3K-C2α KI mice at any age. Our data uncover a sex-dependent role for PI3K-C2α in the modulation of hypothalamic leptin action and systemic glucose homeostasis. All reagents are available upon request.

  18. Inducing effects of hepatocyte growth factor on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human colorectal carcinoma cells through MEK and PI3K signaling pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-hua; WEI Wei; XU Hao; WANG Yan-yan; WU Wen-xi

    2007-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor plays a key role in human colorectal carcinoma invasion and metastasis. However, the regulation mechanism remains unknown. Recent studies have shown that several cytokines can regulate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in tumor cells. In this study, we investigated whether hepatocyte growth factor can regulate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in colorectal carcinoma cells.Methods Hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in human serum were measured by ELISA.The mRNA level of vascular endothelial growth factor was analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR. Western blot assay was performed to evaluate levels of c-Met and several other proteins involved in the MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways in colorectal carcinoma cells.Results Serum hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor were significantly increased in colorectal carcinoma subjects. In vitro extraneous hepatocyte growth factor markedly increased protein and mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in colorectal carcinoma cells. Hepatocyte growth factor induced phosphorylation of c-Met, ERK1/2 and AKT in a dose-dependent manner. Specific inhibitors on MEK and PI3K inhibited the hepatocyte growth factor-induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in colorectal carcinoma cells.Conclusion This present study indicates that hepatocyte growth factor upregulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in colorectal carcinoma cells via the MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.

  19. The PI3-kinase delta inhibitor idelalisib (GS-1101) targets integrin-mediated adhesion of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell to endothelial and marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorcari, Stefania; Brown, Wells S; McIntyre, Bradley W; Estrov, Zeev; Maffei, Rossana; O'Brien, Susan; Sivina, Mariela; Hoellenriegel, Julia; Wierda, William G; Keating, Michael J; Ding, Wei; Kay, Neil E; Lannutti, Brian J; Marasca, Roberto; Burger, Jan A

    2013-01-01

    CLL cell trafficking between blood and tissue compartments is an integral part of the disease process. Idelalisib, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) inhibitor causes rapid lymph node shrinkage, along with an increase in lymphocytosis, prior to inducing objective responses in CLL patients. This characteristic activity presumably is due to CLL cell redistribution from tissues into the blood, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We therefore analyzed idelalisib effects on CLL cell adhesion to endothelial and bone marrow stromal cells (EC, BMSC). We found that idelalisib inhibited CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC under static and shear flow conditions. TNFα-induced VCAM-1 (CD106) expression in supporting layers increased CLL cell adhesion and accentuated the inhibitory effect of idelalisib. Co-culture with EC and BMSC also protected CLL from undergoing apoptosis, and this EC- and BMSC-mediated protection was antagonized by idelalisib. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CLL cell adhesion to EC and VLA-4 (CD49d) resulted in the phosphorylation of Akt, which was sensitive to inhibition by idelalisib. These findings demonstrate that idelalisib interferes with integrin-mediated CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC, providing a novel mechanism to explain idelalisib-induced redistribution of CLL cells from tissues into the blood.

  20. The PI3-kinase delta inhibitor idelalisib (GS-1101 targets integrin-mediated adhesion of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL cell to endothelial and marrow stromal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Fiorcari

    Full Text Available CLL cell trafficking between blood and tissue compartments is an integral part of the disease process. Idelalisib, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ inhibitor causes rapid lymph node shrinkage, along with an increase in lymphocytosis, prior to inducing objective responses in CLL patients. This characteristic activity presumably is due to CLL cell redistribution from tissues into the blood, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We therefore analyzed idelalisib effects on CLL cell adhesion to endothelial and bone marrow stromal cells (EC, BMSC. We found that idelalisib inhibited CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC under static and shear flow conditions. TNFα-induced VCAM-1 (CD106 expression in supporting layers increased CLL cell adhesion and accentuated the inhibitory effect of idelalisib. Co-culture with EC and BMSC also protected CLL from undergoing apoptosis, and this EC- and BMSC-mediated protection was antagonized by idelalisib. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CLL cell adhesion to EC and VLA-4 (CD49d resulted in the phosphorylation of Akt, which was sensitive to inhibition by idelalisib. These findings demonstrate that idelalisib interferes with integrin-mediated CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC, providing a novel mechanism to explain idelalisib-induced redistribution of CLL cells from tissues into the blood.

  1. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-driven PI3K/Akt/Sp1 signalling and H2S production facilitates the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liao, Ribin; Qiang, Zhanrong; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-04-30

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a disease usually associated with systemic organ dysfunction or pancreatic necrosis. Most patients with SAP suffer from defective intestinal motility in the early phase of the disease. Additionally, SAP-induced inflammation produces hydrogen sulphide (H2S) that impairs the gastrointestinal (GI) system. However, the exact mechanism of H2S in the regulation of SAP is yet to be elucidated. In the present paper, we used a rat model of SAP to evaluate the role of H2S on intestinal motility by counting the number of bowel movements and investigating the effect of H2S on inflammation. We treated colonic muscle cells (CMCs) with SAP plasma, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or interleukin-6 (IL-6) and measured the expressions of H2S-producing enzymes cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and Sp1 and PI3K/Akt by using quantitative PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical detection. We used the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and the siRNA si-Sp1 to suppress the activity of the PI3K/Akt/Sp1 signalling pathway. We found that, in the SAP rat model, H2S facilitated an inhibitory effect on intestinal motility and enhanced the inflammatory response caused by SAP (PH2S plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of SAP and that SAP is modulated by inflammation driven by the PI3K/Akt/Sp1 signalling pathway. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. The inability of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation to stimulate GLUT4 translocation indicates additional signaling pathways are required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakoff, S J; Taha, C; Rose, E; Marcusohn, J; Klip, A; Skolnik, E Y

    1995-10-24

    Recent experimental evidence has focused attention to the role of two molecules, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), in linking the insulin receptor to glucose uptake; IRS-1 knockout mice are insulin resistant, and pharmacological inhibitors of PI3-kinase block insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To investigate the role of PI3-kinase and IRS-1 in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake we examined whether stimulation of insulin-sensitive cells with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or with interleukin 4 (IL-4) stimulates glucose uptake; the activated PDGF receptor (PDGFR) directly binds and activates PI3-kinase, whereas the IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) activates PI3-kinase via IRS-1 or the IRS-1-related molecule 4PS. We found that stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with PDGF resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of the PDGFR and activation of PI3-kinase in these cells. To examine whether IL-4 stimulates glucose uptake, L6 myoblasts were engineered to overexpress GLUT4 as well as both chains of the IL-4R (L6/IL-4R/GLUT4); when these L6/IL-4R/GLUT4 myoblasts were stimulated with IL-4, IRS-1 became tyrosine phosphorylated and associated with PI3-kinase. Although PDGF and IL-4 can activate PI3-kinase in the respective cell lines, they do not possess insulin's ability to stimulate glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. These findings indicate that activation of PI3-kinase is not sufficient to stimulate GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. We postulate that activation of a second signaling pathway by insulin, distinct from PI3-kinase, is necessary for the stimulation of glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive cells.

  3. PfPI3K, a Phosphatidylinsoitol-3 kinase in Plasmodium falciparum, is exported to the host erythrocyte and is involved in hemoglobin trafficking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vaid, A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available corresponds to PlasmoDb annotated gene PFE0765w, which may not have any introns and is predicted to encode a 2133 amino acid protein. PfPI3K shares high homology with the catalytic and signature helical domain of PI3Ks (Supplementary Material, Table I...

  4. Breast Cancer Chemoresistance Mechanisms Through PI 3-Kinase and Akt Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    significant proportion of ER-positive breast can- cers (Cancer Genome Atlas Network, 2012). Our results suggest that MERIT40 phosphorylation could be...authors thank the histology core at the BIDMC for their technical support for IHC; Steven Elledge for providing MSCV-HA-Flag-MERIT40; Frank Sicheri for...strand break response and promotes survival. Mol. Cell 30, 203–213. Cancer Genome Atlas Network (2012). Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast

  5. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling in cancer: Alliance or contradiction? (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua-Fu; Wang, Jing; Tony To, Shing-Shun

    2015-08-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway are responsible for regulating a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, migration, invasion and apoptosis. These two pathways are essential to the development and progression of tumors. The dual roles of JNK signaling in apoptosis and tumor development determine the different interactions between the PI3K/Akt and JNK pathways. Activation of PI3K/Akt signaling can inhibit stress- and cytokine-induced JNK activation through Akt antagonizing and the formation of the JIP1-JNK module, as well as the activities of upstream kinases ASK1, MKK4/7 and MLK. On the other hand, hyperactivation of Akt and JNK is also found in cancers that harbor EGFR overexpression or loss of PTEN. Understanding the activation mechanism of PI3K/Akt and JNK pathways, as well as the interplays between these two pathways in cancer may contribute to the identification of novel therapeutic targets. In the present report, we summarized the current understanding of the PI3K/Akt and JNK signaling networks, as well as their biological roles in cancers. In addition, the interactions and regulatory network between PI3K/Akt and JNK pathways in cancer were discussed.

  6. ALDH1B1 Is Crucial for Colon Tumorigenesis by Modulating Wnt/β-Catenin, Notch and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways.

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    Surendra Singh

    Full Text Available In the normal human colon, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1B1 (ALDH1B1 is expressed only at the crypt base, along with stem cells. It is also highly expressed in the human colonic adenocarcinomas. This pattern of expression corresponds closely to that observed for Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity. The present study examines the role of ALDH1B1 in colon tumorigenesis and signalling pathways mediating its effects. In a 3-dimensional spheroid growth model and a nude mouse xenograft tumor model, shRNA-induced suppression of ALDH1B1 expression decreased the number and size of spheroids formed in vitro and the size of xenograft tumors formed in vivo by SW 480 cells. Six binding elements for Wnt/β-catenin signalling transcription factor binding elements (T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancing factor were identified in the human ALDH1B1 gene promoter (3 kb but shown by dual luciferase reporter assay to not be necessary for ALDH1B1 mRNA expression in colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. We examined Wnt-reporter activity and protein/mRNA expression for Wnt, Notch and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Wnt/β-catenin, Notch and PI3K/Akt-signaling pathways were down-regulated in SW 480 cells in which ALDH1B1 expression had been suppressed. In summary, our data demonstrate that ALDH1B1 may promote colon cancer tumorigenesis by modulating the Wnt/β-catenin, Notch and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Selective targeting of ALDH1B1 may represent a novel means to prevent or treat colon cancer.

  7. Gomisin N Inhibits Melanogenesis through Regulating the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathways in Melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jae Kyoung; Subedi, Lalita; Jeong, Minsun; Park, Yong Un; Kim, Chul Young; Kim, Hakwon; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2017-02-22

    Gomisin N, one of the lignan compounds found in Schisandra chinensis has been shown to possess anti-oxidative, anti-tumorigenic, and anti-inflammatory activities in various studies. Here we report, for the first time, the anti-melenogenic efficacy of Gomisin N in mammalian cells as well as in zebrafish embryos. Gomisin N significantly reduced the melanin content without cellular toxicity. Although it was not capable of modulating the catalytic activity of mushroom tyrosinase in vitro, Gomisin N downregulated the expression levels of key proteins that function in melanogenesis. Gomisin N downregulated melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), adenylyl cyclase 2, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), and tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2). In addition, Gomisin N-treated Melan-A cells exhibited increased p-Akt and p-ERK levels, which implies that the activation of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways may function to inhibit melanogenesis. We also validated that Gomisin N reduced melanin production by repressing the expression of MITF, tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2 in mouse and human cells as well as in developing zebrafish embryos. Collectively, we conclude that Gomisin N inhibits melanin synthesis by repressing the expression of MITF and melanogenic enzymes, probably through modulating the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways.

  8. Gomisin N Inhibits Melanogenesis through Regulating the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathways in Melanocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jae Kyoung; Subedi, Lalita; Jeong, Minsun; Park, Yong Un; Kim, Chul Young; Kim, Hakwon; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2017-01-01

    Gomisin N, one of the lignan compounds found in Schisandra chinensis has been shown to possess anti-oxidative, anti-tumorigenic, and anti-inflammatory activities in various studies. Here we report, for the first time, the anti-melenogenic efficacy of Gomisin N in mammalian cells as well as in zebrafish embryos. Gomisin N significantly reduced the melanin content without cellular toxicity. Although it was not capable of modulating the catalytic activity of mushroom tyrosinase in vitro, Gomisin N downregulated the expression levels of key proteins that function in melanogenesis. Gomisin N downregulated melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), adenylyl cyclase 2, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), and tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2). In addition, Gomisin N-treated Melan-A cells exhibited increased p-Akt and p-ERK levels, which implies that the activation of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways may function to inhibit melanogenesis. We also validated that Gomisin N reduced melanin production by repressing the expression of MITF, tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2 in mouse and human cells as well as in developing zebrafish embryos. Collectively, we conclude that Gomisin N inhibits melanin synthesis by repressing the expression of MITF and melanogenic enzymes, probably through modulating the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways. PMID:28241436

  9. Gomisin N Inhibits Melanogenesis through Regulating the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathways in Melanocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Kyoung Chae

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gomisin N, one of the lignan compounds found in Schisandra chinensis has been shown to possess anti-oxidative, anti-tumorigenic, and anti-inflammatory activities in various studies. Here we report, for the first time, the anti-melenogenic efficacy of Gomisin N in mammalian cells as well as in zebrafish embryos. Gomisin N significantly reduced the melanin content without cellular toxicity. Although it was not capable of modulating the catalytic activity of mushroom tyrosinase in vitro, Gomisin N downregulated the expression levels of key proteins that function in melanogenesis. Gomisin N downregulated melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R, adenylyl cyclase 2, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1, and tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2. In addition, Gomisin N-treated Melan-A cells exhibited increased p-Akt and p-ERK levels, which implies that the activation of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways may function to inhibit melanogenesis. We also validated that Gomisin N reduced melanin production by repressing the expression of MITF, tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2 in mouse and human cells as well as in developing zebrafish embryos. Collectively, we conclude that Gomisin N inhibits melanin synthesis by repressing the expression of MITF and melanogenic enzymes, probably through modulating the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways.

  10. Long noncoding RNA HULC promotes cell proliferation by regulating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yinghao; Li, Yan; Chai, Xiao; Kang, Qian; Zhao, Peng; Xiong, Jie; Wang, Jishi

    2017-04-05

    Aberrant expression of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) HULC is associated with various human cancers. However, the role of HULC in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is unknown. In this study, we found that HULC was remarkably overexpressed in both leukemia cell lines and primary hematopoietic cells derived from CML patients. The increase in HULC expression was positively correlated with clinical stages in CML. Moreover, the knockdown of HULC significantly inhibited CML cell proliferation and induced apoptosis by repressing c-Myc and Bcl-2. Furthermore, inhibition of HULC enhanced imatinib-induced apoptosis of CML cells. Further experiments demonstrated that HULC silencing markedly suppressed the phosphorylation of PI3K and AKT, indicating that enhancement of imatinib-induced apoptosis by HULC inhibition is related with the reduction of c-Myc expression and inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway activity. Furthermore, HULC could modulate c-Myc and Bcl-2 by miR-200a as an endogenous sponge. Taken together, these results reveal that HULC promotes oncogenesis in CML and suggest a potential strategy for the CML treatment.

  11. Colon Cancer Tumorigenesis Initiated by the H1047R Mutant PI3K.

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    Alexander E Yueh

    Full Text Available The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K signaling pathway is critical for multiple important cellular functions, and is one of the most commonly altered pathways in human cancers. We previously developed a mouse model in which colon cancers were initiated by a dominant active PI3K p110-p85 fusion protein. In that model, well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinomas developed within the colon and initiated through a non-canonical mechanism that is not dependent on WNT signaling. To assess the potential relevance of PI3K mutations in human cancers, we sought to determine if one of the common mutations in the human disease could also initiate similar colon cancers. Mice were generated expressing the Pik3caH1047R mutation, the analog of one of three human hotspot mutations in this gene. Mice expressing a constitutively active PI3K, as a result of this mutation, develop invasive adenocarcinomas strikingly similar to invasive adenocarcinomas found in human colon cancers. These tumors form without a polypoid intermediary and also lack nuclear CTNNB1 (β-catenin, indicating a non-canonical mechanism of tumor initiation mediated by the PI3K pathway. These cancers are sensitive to dual PI3K/mTOR inhibition indicating dependence on the PI3K pathway. The tumor tissue remaining after treatment demonstrated reduction in cellular proliferation and inhibition of PI3K signaling.

  12. Extracellular Matrix/Integrin Signaling Promotes Resistance to Combined Inhibition of HER2 and PI3K in HER2(+) Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanker, Ariella B; Estrada, Mónica Valeria; Bianchini, Giampaolo; Moore, Preston D; Zhao, Junfei; Cheng, Feixiong; Koch, James P; Gianni, Luca; Tyson, Darren R; Sánchez, Violeta; Rexer, Brent N; Sanders, Melinda E; Zhao, Zhongming; Stricker, Thomas P; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2017-06-15

    PIK3CA mutations are associated with resistance to HER2-targeted therapies. We previously showed that HER2(+)/PIK3CA(H1047R) transgenic mammary tumors are resistant to the HER2 antibodies trastuzumab and pertuzumab but respond to PI3K inhibitor buparlisib (TPB). In this study, we identified mechanisms of resistance to combined inhibition of HER2 and PI3K. TPB-resistant tumors were generated by treating HER2(+)/PIK3CA(H1047R) tumor-bearing mice long term with the drug combination. RNA sequencing of TPB-resistant tumors revealed that extracellular matrix and cell adhesion genes, including collagen II (Col2a1), were markedly upregulated, accompanied by activation of integrin β1/Src. Cells derived from drug-resistant tumors were sensitive to TBP when grown in vitro, but exhibited resistance when plated on collagen or when reintroduced into mice. Drug resistance was partially reversed by the collagen synthesis inhibitor ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate. Inhibition of integrin β1/Src blocked collagen-induced resistance to TPB and inhibited growth of drug-resistant tumors. High collagen II expression was associated with significantly lower clinical response to neoadjuvant anti-HER2 therapy in HER2(+) breast cancer patients. Overall, these data suggest that upregulation of collagen/integrin/Src signaling contributes to resistance to combinatorial HER2 and PI3K inhibition. Cancer Res; 77(12); 3280-92. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a signaling mediates cardioprotection of FGF-2 against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells.

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    Liu, Mi-Hua; Li, Guo-Hua; Peng, Li-Jun; Qu, Shun-Lin; Zhang, Yuan; Peng, Juan; Luo, Xin-Yuan; Hu, Heng-Jing; Ren, Zhong; Liu, Yao; Tang, Hui; Liu, Lu-Shan; Tang, Zhi-Han; Jiang, Zhi-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a growing major global public health problem. Oxidative stress is regarded as one of the key regulators of pathological physiology, which eventually leads to cardiovascular disease. However, mechanisms by which FGF-2 rescues cells from oxidative stress damage in cardiovascular disease is not fully elucidated. Herein this study was designed to investigate the protective effects of FGF-2 in H2O2-induced apoptosis of H9c2 cardiomyocytes, as well as the possible signaling pathway involved. Apoptosis of H9c2 cardiomyocytes was induced by H2O2 and assessed using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, Hoechst, and TUNEL staining. Cells were pretreated with PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 to investigate the possible PI3K/Akt pathways involved in the protection of FGF-2. The levels of p-Akt, p-FoxO3a, and Bim were detected by immunoblotting. Stimulation with H2O2 decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and FoxO3a, and induced nuclear localization of FoxO3a and apoptosis of H9c2 cells. These effects of H2O2 were abrogated by pretreatment with FGF-2. Furthermore, the protective effects of FGF-2 were abolished by PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. In conclusion, our data suggest that FGF-2 protects against H2O2-induced apoptosis of H9c2 cardiomyocytes via activation of the PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a pathway.

  14. Effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on the axonal outgrowth through activation of PI3K/AKT signaling in primary cortical neurons followed oxygen-glucose deprivation injury.

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    Yong Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transplantation with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs improves the survival of neurons and axonal outgrowth after stroke remains undetermined. Here, we investigated whether PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is involved in these therapeutic effects of BMSCs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (1 BMSCs and cortical neurons were derived from Sprague-Dawley rats. The injured neurons were induced by Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation (OGD, and then were respectively co-cultured for 48 hours with BMSCs at different densities (5×10(3, 5×10(5/ml in transwell co-culture system. The average length of axon and expression of GAP-43 were examined to assess the effect of BMSCs on axonal outgrowth after the damage of neurons induced by OGD. (2 The injured neurons were cultured with a conditioned medium (CM of BMSCs cultured for 24 hours in neurobasal medium. During the process, we further identified whether PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is involved through the adjunction of LY294002 (a specific phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K inhibitor. Two hours later, the expression of pAKT (phosphorylated AKT and AKT were analyzed by Western blotting. The length of axons, the expression of GAP-43 and the survival of neurons were measured at 48 hours. RESULTS: Both BMSCs and CM from BMSCs inreased the axonal length and GAP-43 expression in OGD-injured cortical neurons. There was no difference between the effects of BMSCs of 5×10(5/ml and of 5×10(3/ml on axonal outgrowth. Expression of pAKT enhanced significantly at 2 hours and the neuron survival increased at 48 hours after the injured neurons cultured with the CM, respectively. These effects of CM were prevented by inhibitor LY294002. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BMSCs promote axonal outgrowth and the survival of neurons against the damage from OGD in vitro by the paracrine effects through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

  15. Reactive oxygen species mediate Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis through PI3K/AKT-dependent activation of GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young-Ok; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xin; Fan, Jia; Kim, Dong-Hern; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Lee, Jeong-Chae [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biosciences, Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Cr(VI) compounds are known human carcinogens that primarily target the lungs. Cr(VI) produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the exact effects of ROS on the signaling molecules involved in Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis have not been extensively studied. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to Cr(VI) at nanomolar concentrations (10–100 nM) for 3 months not only induced cell transformation, but also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of Cr(VI)-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) increased levels of intracellular ROS and antiapoptotic proteins. Transfection with catalase or superoxide dismutase (SOD) prevented Cr(VI)-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion, migration, and xenograft tumors. While chronic Cr(VI) exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin and PI3K/AKT/mTOR, transfection with catalase or SOD markedly inhibited Cr(VI)-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or β-catenin almost completely suppressed the Cr(VI)-mediated increase in total and active β-catenin proteins and colony formation. In particular, Cr(VI) suppressed autophagy of epithelial cells under nutrition deprivation. Furthermore, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3β, β-catenin, mTOR, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with Cr(VI)-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that ROS is a key mediator of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis through the activation of PI3K/AKT-dependent GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling and the promotion of cell survival mechanisms via the inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy. - Highlights: • Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) induces carcinogenic properties in BEAS-2B cells. • ROS play an important role in Cr(VI)-induced tumorigenicity of BEAS-2B cells. • PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling involved in Cr

  16. Aegeline from Aegle marmelos stimulates glucose transport via Akt and Rac1 signaling, and contributes to a cytoskeletal rearrangement through PI3K/Rac1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sudeep; Ishrat, Nayab; Singh, Rohit; Narender, Tadigoppula; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2015-09-01

    Aegeline is an alkaloidal-amide, isolated from the leaves of Aegle marmelos and have shown antihyperglycemic as well as antidyslipidemic activities in the validated animal models of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here we delineate, aegeline enhanced GLUT4 translocation mediated 2-deoxy-glucose uptake in both time and concentration-dependent manner. 2-deoxy-glucose uptake was completely stymied by the transport inhibitors (wortmannin and genistein) in C2C12 myotubes. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt (also known as protein kinase B) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) suggest that both Akt and Rac1 operate aegeline-stimulated glucose transport via distinct parallel pathways. Moreover, aegeline activates p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and cofilin (an actin polymerization regulator). Rac1 inhibitor (Rac1 inhib II) and PAK1 inhibitor (IPA-3) completely blocked aegeline-induced phosphorylation of cofilin and p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1). In summary, these findings suggest that aegeline stimulates the glucose transport through Akt and Rac1 dependent distinct parallel pathways and have cytoskeletal roles via stimulation of the PI3-kinase-Rac1-PAK1-cofilin pathway in the skeletal muscle cells. Therefore, multiple targets of aegeline in the improvement of insulin sensitivity of the skeletal muscle cells may be suggested.

  17. Different muscarinic receptor subtypes modulate proliferation of primary human detrusor smooth muscle cells via Akt/PI3K and map kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Nicola; Bodei, Serena; Zani, Danilo; Michel, Martin C; Simeone, Claudio; Cosciani Cunico, Sergio; Spano, Pierfranco; Sigala, Sandra

    2013-08-01

    While acetylcholine (ACh) and muscarinic receptors in the bladder are mainly known for their role in the regulation of smooth muscle contractility, in other tissues they are involved in tissue remodelling and promote cell growth and proliferation. In the present study we have used primary cultures of human detrusor smooth muscle cells (HDSMCs), in order to investigate the role of muscarinic receptors in HDSMC proliferation. Samples were obtained as discarded tissue from men >65 years undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer and cut in pieces that were either immediately frozen or placed in culture medium for the cell culture establishment. HDSMCs were isolated from samples, propagated and maintained in culture. [(3)H]-QNB radioligand binding on biopsies revealed the presence of muscarinic receptors, with a Kd of 0.10±0.02nM and a Bmax of 72.8±0.1fmol/mg protein. The relative expression of muscarinic receptor subtypes, based on Q-RT-PCR, was similar in biopsies and HDSMC with a rank order of M2≥M3>M1>M4>M5. The cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh, 1-100μM) concentration-dependently increased [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation (up to 46±4%). This was concentration-dependently inhibited by the general muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine and by subtype-preferring antagonists with an order of potency of darifenacin >4-DAMP>AF-DX 116. The CCh-induced cell proliferation was blocked by selective PI-3 kinase and ERK activation inhibitors, strongly suggesting that these intracellular pathways mediate, at least in part, the muscarinic receptor-mediated cell proliferation. This work shows that M2 and M3 receptors can mediate not only HDSM contraction but also proliferation; they may also contribute bladder remodelling including detrusor hypertrophy.

  18. c-Src activation promotes nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis by inducing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway: a new and promising target for NPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinping; Xia, Weixiong; Yu, Yahui; Peng, Yongjian; Wang, Li; Wang, Gang; Ye, Yanfang; Yang, Jing; Liang, Hu; Kang, Tiebang; Lv, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of cellular Src (c-Src), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, could promote cancer progression through activating its downstream signaling pathways. However, the roles of c-Src and phosphorylated-Src (p-Src) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) progression are rarely investigated. Herein, we have identified high c-Src concentrations in the serum of NPC patients with distant metastasis using high-throughput protein microarrays. Levels of c-Src in serum and p-Src in human primary NPC samples were unfavorable independent prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival, disease-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival. Depletion or inactivation of c-Src in NPC cells using sgRNA with CRISPR/Cas9 system or PP2 decreased cell viability, colony formation, migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. In contrast, these malignancies could be up-regulated by overexpressed c-Src in a NPC cell line with low-metastasis potential. Furthermore, p-Src was involved in promoting NPC cell metastasis by inducing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process via activating the PI3K/Akt pathway and cytoskeleton remodeling. The p-Src-induced EMT process could be retarded by PP2, which mediated by down-regulating the PI3K/Akt pathway. In conclusion, elevated levels of c-Src in serum and p-Src in primary NPC tissue correlated with poor outcomes of NPC patients. And aberrant activation of c-Src facilitated NPC cells with malignant potential, especially metastasis ability, which mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation and sequentially induced the EMT process. These findings unveiled a promising approach for targeted therapy of advanced NPC. PMID:27078847

  19. Static magnetic field enhances the viability and proliferation rate of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells potentially through activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marędziak, Monika; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof; Polinceusz, Paulina; Lewandowski, Daniel; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of 0.5T static magnetic field (sMF) on the viability and proliferation rate of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells (hASCs) via activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway. In a 7-d culture we examined cell growth kinetic and population doubling time (PDT). We also examined cell morphology and the cellular senescence markers level. Exposure to sMF enhanced the viability of these cells. However, the effect was blocked by treating the cells with LY294002, a P13K inhibitor. We compared this effect by Western Blot analysis of Akt protein expression. We also examined whether the cell response on sMF stimulation is dependent on integrin engagement and we measured integrin gene expression. Our results suggest that stimulation using sMF is a viable method to improve hASC viability. sMF is involved in mechanisms associated with controlling cell proliferative potential signaling events.

  20. Isoorientin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in HepG2 cancer cells

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    Yuan, Li; Wang, Jing; Xiao, Haifang; Xiao, Chunxia; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo, E-mail: xueboliu@yahoo.com.cn

    2012-11-15

    Isoorientin (ISO) is a flavonoid compound that can be extracted from several plant species, such as Phyllostachys pubescens, Patrinia, and Drosophyllum lusitanicum; however, its biological activity remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the effects and putative mechanism of apoptosis induced by ISO in human hepatoblastoma cancer (HepG2) cells. The results showed that ISO induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells, but no toxicity in human liver cells (HL-7702) and buffalo rat liver cells (BRL-3A) treated with ISO at the indicated concentrations. ISO-induced cell death included apoptosis which characterized by the appearance of nuclear shrinkage, the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and DNA fragmentation. ISO significantly (p < 0.01) increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), increased the release of cytochrome c, activated caspase-3, and enhanced intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). In addition, ISO effectively inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and increased FoxO4 expression. The PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 enhanced the apoptosis-inducing effect of ISO. However, LY294002 markedly quenched ROS and NO generation and diminished the protein expression of heme peroxidase enzyme (HO-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Furthermore, the addition of a ROS inhibitor (N-acetyl cysteine, NAC) or iNOS inhibitor (N-[3-(aminomethyl) benzyl] acetamidine, dihydrochloride, 1400W) significantly diminished the apoptosis induced by ISO and also blocked the phosphorylation of Akt. These results demonstrated for the first time that ISO induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells and indicate that this apoptosis might be mediated through mitochondrial dysfunction and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and has no toxicity in normal liver cells, suggesting that ISO may have good potential as a therapeutic and chemopreventive agent for liver cancer. Highlights:

  1. Effects of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway on acetaldehyde-stimulated proliferation of hepatic stellate cells HSC-T6%PI3K/Akt 信号传导通路在乙醛刺激下大鼠肝星状细胞株 HSC-T6增殖中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迪; 程敏; 康馨丹; 陈卫刚; 郑勇

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨磷脂酰肌醇3激酶/蛋白激酶 B(PI3K/Akt)信号传导通路在乙醛刺激的大鼠肝星状细胞株HSC-T6增殖中的作用。方法将大鼠 HSC-T6随机分为6组:空白对照组(A 组):采用10%胎牛血清的 DMEM培养液培养;乙醛组(B 组):在 A 组基础上加乙醛,使终浓度为200μmol/L;实验组在 B 组基础上加入不同浓度(25、50、75、100μmol/L)的 PI3K/Akt 通路抑制剂 LY294002,分别称为 C、D、E、F 组。用 CCK-8法检测大鼠 HSC-T6增殖活力(用 A 值表示)。再随机将 HSC-T6分为3组:空白对照组(10%胎牛血清的 DMEM培养液培养)、乙醛组(在空白对照组基础上加乙醛,使终浓度为200μmol/L)、乙醛+LY294002组(在乙醛组的基础上加入50μmol/L LY294002),用 Western blotting 法检测大鼠 HSC-T6中 PI3K、p-Akt 蛋白的表达情况。结果 A、B、C、D、E、F 组 A 值分别为0.5450±0.0244、0.9523±0.0455、0.9273±0.0419、0.8658±0.0289、0.8143±0.0247、0.7593±0.2200。与 A 组比较,其他各组 A 值均升高;与 B、C 组比较,D、E、F 组降低(P 均<0.01)。与空白对照组比较,乙醛组、乙醛+LY294002组 PI3K、p-AKT 蛋白相对表达量高(P 均<0.01),与乙醛组比较,乙醛+LY294002组降低(P <0.05)。结论 PI3K/Akt 信号传导通路部分参与调控乙醛刺激的大鼠 HSC-T6增殖。%Objective To investigate the effects of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway spe-cific inhibitor LY294002 on the proliferation of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6)stimulated by acetaldehyde.Methods The rat HSC-T6 cells were randomly divided into six groups:the blank control group (group A):we used DMEMculture solution with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)to culture,the acetaldehyde group (group B):we added acetaldehyde on the basis of the blank control group and made the final

  2. Dequalinium induces cytotoxicity in human leukemia NB4 cells by downregulation of Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and potentiation of specific inhibitors of these pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Ana I; Galeano, Eva; Nieto, Elena; Estañ, M Cristina; Sancho, Pilar

    2014-07-01

    Delocalized lipophilic cation dequalinium (DQA) selectively accumulates in mitochondria and displays anticancer activity in different malignancies. Our previous studies indicate a DQA-induced cytotoxicity in human acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 cells by early disturbance in mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. This study shows the ability of DQA to downregulate Raf/MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in NB4 cells which leads to cell death by apoptosis and/or necrosis. Moreover, DQA potentiates the action of specific inhibitors of these pathways. These DQA effects could be mediated by redox regulation of Akt. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the cytotoxic DQA mechanism on leukemia cells and encourage the performance of further studies in combination with other agents such as kinase inhibitors for improving the efficacy of therapies against acute promyelocytic leukemia.

  3. Fisetin inhibits UVB-induced cutaneous inflammation and activation of PI3K/AKT/NFκB signaling pathways in SKH-1 hairless mice†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Harish Chandra; Athar, Mohammad; Elmets, Craig A.; Afaq, Farrukh

    2014-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation has been shown to induce inflammation, DNA damage, p53 mutations, and alterations in signaling pathways eventually leading to skin cancer. In the present study, we investigated whether fisetin reduces inflammatory responses and modulates PI3K/AKT/NFκB cell survival signaling pathways in UVB exposed SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. Mice were exposed to 180 mJ/cm2 of UVB radiation on alternate days for a total of seven exposures, and fisetin (250 and 500 nmol) was applied topically after 15 min of each UVB exposure. Fisetin treatment to UVB exposed mice resulted in decreased hyperplasia and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells. Fisetin treatment also reduced inflammatory mediators such as COX-2, PGE2 as well as its receptors (EP1- EP4), and MPO activity. Furthermore, fisetin reduced the level of inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 in UVB exposed skin. Fisetin treatment also reduced cell proliferation markers as well as DNA damage as evidenced by increased expression of p53 and p21 proteins. Further studies revealed that fisetin inhibited UVB-induced expression of PI3K, phosphorylation of AKT, and activation of the NFκB signaling pathway in mouse skin. Overall, these data suggest that fisetin may be useful against UVB-induced cutaneous inflammation and DNA damage. PMID:25169110

  4. Fisetin inhibits UVB-induced cutaneous inflammation and activation of PI3K/AKT/NFκB signaling pathways in SKH-1 hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Harish Chandra; Athar, Mohammad; Elmets, Craig A; Afaq, Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation has been shown to induce inflammation, DNA damage, p53 mutations and alterations in signaling pathways eventually leading to skin cancer. In this study, we investigated whether fisetin reduces inflammatory responses and modulates PI3K/AKT/NFκB cell survival signaling pathways in UVB-exposed SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. Mice were exposed to 180 mJ cm(-2) of UVB radiation on alternate days for a total of seven exposures, and fisetin (250 and 500 nmol) was applied topically after 15 min of each UVB exposure. Fisetin treatment to UVB-exposed mice resulted in decreased hyperplasia and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells. Fisetin treatment also reduced inflammatory mediators such as COX-2, PGE2 as well as its receptors (EP1-EP4) and MPO activity. Furthermore, fisetin reduced the level of inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 in UVB-exposed skin. Fisetin treatment also reduced cell proliferation markers as well as DNA damage as evidenced by increased expression of p53 and p21 proteins. Further studies revealed that fisetin inhibited UVB-induced expression of PI3K, phosphorylation of AKT and activation of the NFκB signaling pathway in mouse skin. Overall, these data suggest that fisetin may be useful against UVB-induced cutaneous inflammation and DNA damage. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  5. PI3Kδ inhibitor, GS-1101 (CAL-101), attenuates pathway signaling, induces apoptosis, and overcomes signals from the microenvironment in cellular models of Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Sarah A; Vega, Francisco; Kashishian, Adam; Johnson, Dave; Diehl, Volker; Miller, Langdon L; Younes, Anas; Lannutti, Brian J

    2012-02-23

    GS-1101 (CAL-101) is an oral PI3Kδ-specific inhibitor that has shown preclinical and clinical activity in non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. To investigate the potential role of PI3Kδ in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), we screened 5 HL cell lines and primary samples from patients with HL for PI3Kδ isoform expression and constitutive PI3K pathway activation. Inhibition of PI3Kδ by GS-1101 resulted in the inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. Cocultures with stroma cells induced Akt activation in HL cells, and this effect was blocked by GS-1101. Conversely, production of the stroma-stimulating chemokine, CCL5, by HL cells was reduced by GS-1101. GS-1101 also induced dose-dependent apoptosis of HL cells at 48 hours. Reductions in cell viability and apoptosis were enhanced when combining GS-1101 with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. Our findings suggest that excessive PI3Kδ activity is characteristic in HL and support clinical evaluation of GS-1101, alone and in combination, as targeted therapy for HL.

  6. miR-21 Reduces Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis in c-kit+ Cardiac Stem Cells In Vitro through PTEN/PI3K/Akt Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Long, Xianping; Zhao, Ranzun; Wang, Zhenglong; Liu, Zhijiang

    2016-01-01

    The low survival rate of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) in the infarcted myocardium hampers cell therapy for ischemic cardiomyopathy. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) and one of its target proteins, PTEN, contribute to the survival and proliferation of many cell types, but their prosurvival effects in c-kit+ CSC remain unclear. Thus, we hypothesized that miR-21 reduces hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced apoptosis in c-kit+ CSC and estimated the contribution of PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling to this oxidative circumstance. miR-21 mimics efficiently reduced H2O2-induced apoptosis in c-kit+ CSC, as evidenced by the downregulation of the proapoptosis proteins caspase-3 and Bax and upregulation of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2. In addition, the gain of function of miR-21 in c-kit+ CSC downregulated the protein level of PTEN although its mRNA level changed slightly; in the meantime, miR-21 overexpression also increased phospho-Akt (p-Akt). The antiapoptotic effects of miR-21 were comparable with Phen (bpV), the selective inhibitor of PTEN, while miR-21 inhibitor or PI3K's inhibitor LY294002 efficiently attenuated the antiapoptotic effect of miR-21. Taken together, these results indicate that the anti-H2O2-induced apoptosis effect of miR-21 in c-kit+ CSC is contributed by PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling. miR-21 could be a potential molecule to facilitate the c-kit+ CSC therapy in ischemic myocardium. PMID:27803763

  7. Netrin-1 induces the migration of Schwann cells via p38 MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway mediated by the UNC5B receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Jianwei [General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, No. 154, Anshan Road, Heping District, Tianjin 300052 (China); Tianjin Institute of Orthopedics in Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, No. 155, Munan Road, Tianjin 300050 (China); Sun, Xiaolei; Ma, Jianxiong [Tianjin Institute of Orthopedics in Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, No. 155, Munan Road, Tianjin 300050 (China); Ma, Xinlong, E-mail: gengxiao502@163.com [General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, No. 154, Anshan Road, Heping District, Tianjin 300052 (China); Tianjin Institute of Orthopedics in Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, No. 155, Munan Road, Tianjin 300050 (China); Zhang, Yang; Li, Fengbo; Li, Yanjun; Zhao, Zhihu [Tianjin Institute of Orthopedics in Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, No. 155, Munan Road, Tianjin 300050 (China)

    2015-08-14

    Schwann cells (SCs) play an essentially supportive role in the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve system (PNS). As Netrin-1 is crucial for the normal development of nervous system (NS) and can direct the process of damaged PNS regeneration, our study was designed to determine the role of Netrin-1 in RSC96 Schwann cells (an immortalized rat Schwann cell line) proliferation and migration. Our studies demonstrated that Netrin-1 had no effect on RSC96 cells proliferation, while significantly promoted RSC96 cells migration. The Netrin-1-induced RSC96 cells migration was significantly attenuated by inhibition of p38 and PI3K through pretreatment with SB203580 and LY294002 respectively, but not inhibition of MEK1/2 and JNK by U0126-EtOH and SP600125 individually. Treatment with Netrin-1 enhanced the phosphorylation of p38 and Akt. QRT-PCR indicated that Netrin-1 and only its receptors Unc5a, Unc5b and Neogenin were expressed in RSC96 cells, among which Unc5b expressed the most. And UNC5B protein was significantly increased after stimulated by Netrin-1. In conclusion, we show here that Netrin-1-enhanced SCs migration is mediated by activating p38 MAPK and PI3K-Akt signal cascades via receptor UNC5B, which suggests that Netrin-1 could serve as a new therapeutic strategy and has potential application value for PNS regeneration. - Highlights: • Netrin-1 attracts RSC96 Schwann cells migration in a dose dependent manner. • Netrin-1 induced Schwann cells migration is p38 and PI3K-Akt signaling dependent. • UNC5B may be dominant receptor mediating Netrin-1′ effect on RSC96 cells motility. • Netrin-1 may promote peripheral nerve repair by enhancing Schwann cells motility.

  8. Inhibition of phospholipaseD2 increases hypoxia-induced human colon cancer cell apoptosis through inactivating of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Maoxi; Fu, Zhongxue; Wu, Xingye; Du, Kunli; Zhang, Shouru; Zeng, Li

    2016-05-01

    Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumor, and is a direct stress that triggers apoptosis in many human cell types. As one of solid cancer, hypoxia exists in the whole course of colon cancer occurrence and progression. Our previous studies shown that hypoxia induce high expression of phospholipase D2 (PLD2) and survivin in colon cancer cells. However, the correlation between PLD2 and survivin in hypoxic colon cancer cells remains unknown. In this study, we observed significantly elevated PLD2 and survivin expression levels in colon cancer tissues and cells. This is a positive correlation between of them, and co-expression of PLD2 and survivin has a positive correlation with the clinicpatholic features including tumor size, TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis. We also found that hypoxia induced the activity of PLD increased significant mainly caused by PLD2 in colon cancer cells. However, inhibition the activity of PLD2 induced by hypoxia promotes the apoptosis of human colon cancer cells, as well as decreased the expression of apoptosis markers including survivin and bcl2. Moreover, the pharmacological inhibition of PI3K/AKT supported the hypothesis that promotes the apoptosis of hypoxic colon cancer cells by PLD2 activity inhibition may through inactivation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Furthermore, interference the PLD2 gene expression leaded to the apoptosis of hypoxic colon cancer cells increased and also decreased the expression level of survivin and bcl2 may through inactivation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. These results indicated that PLD2 play antiapoptotic role in colon cancer under hypoxic conditions, inhibition of the activity, or interference of PLD2 gene expression will benefit for the treatment of colon cancer patients.

  9. Ozone oil promotes wound healing by increasing the migration of fibroblasts via PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Weirong; Tang, Hua; Wu, Meng; Liao, Yangying; Li, Ke; Li, Lan; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2017-09-01

    Background: Skin injury affects millions of people via the uncontrolled inflammation and infection. Many cellular components including fibroblasts and signaling pathways such as TGF-β were activated to facilitate the wound healing to repair injured tissues. Methods and Results: C57BL/6 female mice were divided into control and ozone oil treated groups. Excisional wounds were created on the dorsal skin and the fibroblasts were isolated from granulation tissues. The skin injured mouse model revealed that ozone oil could significantly decrease the wound area and accelerate wound healing compared with control group. QPCR and western blotting assays showed that ozone oil upregulated collagen I, α-SMA and TGF-β1 mRNA and protein levels in fibroblasts. Wound healing assay demonstrated that ozone oil could increase the migration of fibroblasts. Western blotting assay demonstrated that ozone oil increased the EMT process of fibroblasts via upregulating fibronectin, vimentin, N-cadherin, MMP-2, MMP-9, IGFBP-3, IGFBP5 and IGFBP6 and decreasing epithelial protein E-cadherin and cellular senescence marker p16 expression. Mechanistically, western blotting assay revealed that ozone oil increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt and mTOR to regulate the EMT process, while inhibition of PI3K reversed this effect of ozone oil. At last, the results from Cytometric Bead Array demonstrated ozone oil significantly decreased the inflammation in fibroblasts. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated ozone oil facilitated the wound healing via increasing fibroblast migration and EMT process via PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in vivo and vitro. The cellular and molecular mechanisms we found here may provide new therapeutic targets for the treatment of skin injury. ©2017 The Author(s).

  10. Minoxidil sulfate induced the increase in blood-brain tumor barrier permeability through ROS/RhoA/PI3K/PKB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan-ting; Xue, Yi-xue; Wang, Yan-feng; Wang, Jin-hui; Chen, Xia; ShangGuan, Qian-ru; Lian, Yan; Zhong, Lei; Meng, Ying-nan

    2013-12-01

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel (KATP channel) activator, minoxidil sulfate (MS), can selectively increase the permeability of the blood-tumor barrier (BTB); however, the mechanism by which this occurs is still under investigation. Using a rat brain glioma (C6) model, we first examined the expression levels of occludin and claudin-5 at different time points after intracarotid infusion of MS (30 μg/kg/min) by western blotting. Compared to MS treatment for 0 min group, the protein expression levels of occludin and claudin-5 in brain tumor tissue of rats showed no changes within 1 h and began to decrease significantly after 2 h of MS infusion. Based on these findings, we then used an in vitro BTB model and selective inhibitors of diverse signaling pathways to investigate whether reactive oxygen species (ROS)/RhoA/PI3K/PKB pathway play a key role in the process of the increase of BTB permeability induced by MS. The inhibitor of ROS or RhoA or PI3K or PKB significantly attenuated the expression of tight junction (TJ) protein and the increase of the BTB permeability after 2 h of MS treatment. In addition, the significant increases in RhoA activity and PKB phosphorylation after MS administration were observed, which were partly inhibited by N-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine (MPG) or C3 exoenzyme or LY294002 pretreatment. The present study indicates that the activation of signaling cascades involving ROS/RhoA/PI3K/PKB in BTB was required for the increase of BTB permeability induced by MS. Taken together, all of these results suggested that MS might increase BTB permeability in a time-dependent manner by down-regulating TJ protein expression and this effect could be related to ROS/RhoA/PI3K/PKB signal pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 4-1BB signaling activates the t cell factor 1 effector/β-catenin pathway with delayed kinetics via ERK signaling and delayed PI3K/AKT activation to promote the proliferation of CD8+ T Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Y Lee

    Full Text Available 4-1BB (CD137, an inducible costimulatory molecule, strongly enhances the proliferation and effector function of CD8(+ T cells. Since the serine/threonine kinase, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3, is involved in a variety of signaling pathways of cellular proliferation, migration, immune responses, and apoptosis, we examined whether 4-1BB signaling activates GSK-3/β-catenin signaling and downstream transcription factors to enhance the proliferation of CD8(+ T cells. 4-1BB signaling induces rapid activation of ERK and IκB degradation, and shows delayed activation of AKT at 24 h post 4-1BB stimulation on anti-CD3 activated T cells. ERK and AKT signals were required for sustained β-catenin levels by inactivating GSK-3, which was also observed with delayed kinetics after 4-1BB stimulation. As a transcriptional partner of β-catenin, 4-1BB signaling decreased levels of FOXO1 and increased levels of stimulatory TCF1 in CD8(+ T cells at 2-3 days but not at early time points after 4-1BB engagement. The enhanced proliferation of CD8(+ T cells due to 4-1BB signaling was completely abolished by treatment with the TCF1/β-catenin inhibitor quercetin. These results show that 4-1BB signaling enhances the proliferation of activated CD8(+ T cells by activating the TCF1/β-catenin axis via the PI3K/AKT/ERK pathway. As effects of 4-1BB on AKT, FOXO1, β-catenin and GSK-3β showed delayed kinetics it is likely that an intervening molecule induced by 4-1BB and ERK signaling in activated T cells is responsible for these effects. These effects were observed on CD8(+ but not on CD4(+ T cells. Moreover, 4-1BB appeared to be unique among several TNFRs tested in inducing increase in stimulatory over inhibitory TCF-1.

  12. The therapeutic potential of targeting the PI3K pathway in pediatric brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Hazel A; Estranero, Jasper; Gudka, Keshni; Grundy, Richard G

    2017-01-10

    Central nervous system tumors are the most common cancer type in children and the leading cause of cancer related deaths. There is therefore a need to develop novel treatments. Large scale profiling studies have begun to identify alterations that could be targeted therapeutically, including the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway, which is one of the most commonly activated pathways in cancer with many inhibitors under clinical development. PI3K signaling has been shown to be aberrantly activated in many pediatric CNS neoplasms. Pre-clinical analysis supports a role for PI3K signaling in the control of tumor growth, survival and migration as well as enhancing the cytotoxic effects of current treatments. Based on this evidence agents targeting PI3K signaling have begun to be tested in clinical trials of pediatric cancer patients. Overall, targeting the PI3K pathway presents as a promising strategy for the treatment of pediatric CNS tumors. In this review we examine the genetic alterations found in the PI3K pathway in pediatric CNS tumors and the pathological role it plays, as well as summarizing the current pre-clinical and clinical data supporting the use of PI3K pathway inhibitors for the treatment of these tumors.

  13. Bergapten exerts inhibitory effects on diabetes-related osteoporosis via the regulation of the PI3K/AKT, JNK/MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways in osteoprotegerin knockout mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Ju; Zhu, Zhe; Han, Si-Lin; Zhang, Zi-Long

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes, as a serious metobolic disorder, poses global threat to human health. It is estimated that over 50 million individuals are already affected by diabetes. Currently, diabetes-related osteoporosis has been a research hotspot due to its high incidence rate in older individuals. Osteoprotegerin, as an important protein for the prevention of osteoporosis, has been proven to be key to the suppression of osteoporosis. Hence, the loss of function of osteoprotegerin may promote the development of osteoporosis. Bergapten, as a natural anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor agent isolated from bergamot essential oil, other citrus essential oils, and grapefruit juice, has been proven to have the ability to attenuate a number of metabolic disorders. In view of these findings, in this study, we used a high-fat diet to construct a mouse model of diabetes-related osteoporosis and a mouse model of diabetes-related osteoporosis using osteoprotegerin knockout mice. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), qPCR, western blot analysis, immunohistochemical assay, H&E staining, Oil Red O staining, Masson's staining and other biochemical analyses were used to evaluate the related signaling pathways involved in the development of diabetes-related osteoporosis. We also examined the role of osteoprotegerin in the activation of these pathways and in the development of osteoporosis, as well as the protective effects of bergapten against diabetes-related osteoporosis and on the activation of related signaling pathways. Our results revealed that in diabetes-related osteoporosis, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways were activated and the expression levels of related indicators were increased. At the same time, osteoprotegerin knockout further promoted the activation of these pathways. By contrast, bergapten exerted effects similar to those of osteoprotegerin

  14. Twist promotes reprogramming of glucose metabolism in breast cancer cells through PI3K/AKT and p53 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Hou, Yixuan; Yuan, Jie; Tang, Shifu; Zhang, Hailong; Zhu, Qing; Du, Yan-e; Zhou, Mingli; Wen, Siyang; Xu, Liyun; Tang, Xi; Cui, Xiaojiang; Liu, Manran

    2015-09-22

    Twist, a key regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), plays an important role in the development of a tumorigenic phenotype. Energy metabolism reprogramming (EMR), a newly discovered hallmark of cancer cells, potentiates cancer cell proliferation, survival, and invasion. Currently little is known about the effects of Twist on tumor EMR. In this study, we found that glucose consumption and lactate production were increased and mitochondrial mass was decreased in Twist-overexpressing MCF10A mammary epithelial cells compared with vector-expressing MCF10A cells. Moreover, these Twist-induced phenotypic changes were augmented by hypoxia. The expression of some glucose metabolism-related genes such as PKM2, LDHA, and G6PD was also found to be upregulated. Mechanistically, activated β1-integrin/FAK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR and suppressed P53 signaling were responsible for the observed EMR. Knockdown of Twist reversed the effects of Twist on EMR in Twist-overexpressing MCF10A cells and Twist-positive breast cancer cells. Furthermore, blockage of the β1-integrin/FAK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway by siRNA or specific chemical inhibitors, or rescue of p53 activation can partially reverse the switch of glucose metabolism and inhibit the migration of Twist-overexpressing MCF10A cells and Twist-positive breast cancer cells. Thus, our data suggest that Twist promotes reprogramming of glucose metabolism in MCF10A-Twist cells and Twist-positive breast cancer cells via activation of the β1-integrin/FAK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and inhibition of the p53 pathway. Our study provides new insight into EMR.

  15. Adenovirus vector E4 gene regulates connexin 40 and 43 expression in endothelial cells via PKA and PI3K signal pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Cheng, Joseph; Lam, George; Jin, David K; Vincent, Loïc; Hackett, Neil R; Wang, Shiyang; Young, Lauren M; Hempstead, Barbara; Crystal, Ronald G; Rafii, Shahin

    2005-05-13

    Connexins (Cxs) provide a means for intercellular communication and play important roles in the pathophysiology of vascular cardiac diseases. Infection of endothelial cells (ECs) with first-generation E1/E3-deleted E4+ adenovirus (AdE4+) selectively modulates the survival and angiogenic potential of ECs by as of yet unrecognized mechanisms. We show here that AdE4+ vectors potentiate Cx expression in ECs in vitro and in mouse heart tissue. Infection of ECs with AdE4+, but not AdE4-, resulted in a time- and dose-dependent induction of junctional Cx40 expression and suppression of Cx43 protein and mRNA expression. Treatment of ECs with PKA inhibitor H89 or PI3K inhibitor LY294002 prevented the AdE4+-mediated regulation of Cx40 and Cx43 that was associated with diminished AdE4+-mediated survival of ECs. Moreover, both PKA activity and cAMP-response element (CRE)-binding activity were enhanced by treatment of ECs with AdE4+. However, there is no causal evidence of a cross-talk between the 2 modulatory pathways, PKA and PI3K. Remarkably, Cx40 immunostaining was markedly increased and Cx43 was decreased in the heart tissue of mice treated with intra-tracheal AdE4+. Taken together, these results suggest that AdE4+ may play an important role in the regulation of Cx expression in ECs, and that these effects are mediated by both the PKA/CREB and PI3K signaling pathways.

  16. INPP4B reverses docetaxel resistance and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haiwen; Li, Hongliang, E-mail: honglianglity@sina.com; Chen, Qi

    2016-08-26

    Docetaxel efficiency in the therapy of prostate cancer (PCa) patients is limited due to the development of chemoresistance. Recent studies have implied a role of INPP4B in tumor chemoresistance, while the effects of INPP4B on docetaxel resistance in PCa have not been elucidated. In the present study, the docetaxel-resistant human PCa cell lines PC3-DR and DU-145-DR were established from the parental cell lines PC3 and DU-145, and the expression and role of INPP4B in docetaxel-resistant PCa cells were investigated. The results demonstrated that INPP4B expression was significantly downregulated in docetaxel-resistant cells. Overexpression of INPP4B increased the sensitivity to docetaxel and promoted cell apoptosis in PC3-DR and DU-145-DR cells. In addition, INPP4B overexpression downregulated the expression of the mesenchymal markers fibronectin, N-cadherin, and vimentin, and upregulated the expression level of the epithelial maker E-cadherin. Furthermore, INPP4B overexpression markedly inhibited the PI3K/Akt pathway. We also found that IGF-1, the inhibitor of PI3K/Akt, markedly blocked the change in EMT markers induced by overexpression of INPP4B, and reversed the resistance of PC3-DR and DU-145-DR cells to docetaxel, which is sensitized by Flag-INPP4B. In summary, the presented data indicate that INPP4B is crucial for docetaxel-resistant PCa cell survival, potentially by regulating EMT through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. - Highlights: • INPP4B is downregulated in docetaxel-resistant PCa cells. • INPP4B inhibits cell proliferation. • INPP4B induces cell apoptosis. • INPP4B inhibits PCa cell EMT.

  17. Will PI3K pathway inhibitors be effective as single agents in patients with cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Joan T.; Chakrabarty, Anindita; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2011-01-01

    The phosphatidyli