WorldWideScience

Sample records for phytotherapy

  1. Phytotherapy Research简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霄茜; 周庆辉

    2009-01-01

    Phytotherapy Researchz(《植物药疗法研究》;ISSN:0951—418X;e-ISSN:1099—1573)是由英国John Wiley&Sons有限公司出版发行的一本针对自然产品衍生物的国际性药理学及毒理学评价鉴定杂志。杂志每月出版一期,现任主编为英国雷丁大学的药学教授Elizabeth M.Williamson。

  2. Phytotherapy in primary health care

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    Gisele Damian Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To characterize the integration of phytotherapy in primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Journal articles and theses and dissertations were searched for in the following databases: SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Theses Portal Capes, between January 1988 and March 2013. We analyzed 53 original studies on actions, programs, acceptance and use of phytotherapy and medicinal plants in the Brazilian Unified Health System. Bibliometric data, characteristics of the actions/programs, places and subjects involved and type and focus of the selected studies were analyzed. RESULTS Between 2003 and 2013, there was an increase in publications in different areas of knowledge, compared with the 1990-2002 period. The objectives and actions of programs involving the integration of phytotherapy into primary health care varied: including other treatment options, reduce costs, reviving traditional knowledge, preserving biodiversity, promoting social development and stimulating inter-sectorial actions. CONCLUSIONS Over the past 25 years, there was a small increase in scientific production on actions/programs developed in primary care. Including phytotherapy in primary care services encourages interaction between health care users and professionals. It also contributes to the socialization of scientific research and the development of a critical vision about the use of phytotherapy and plant medicine, not only on the part of professionals but also of the population.

  3. Phytotherapy in primary health care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Gisele Damian; Tesser, Charles Dalcanale; Moretti-Pires, Rodrigo Otavio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the integration of phytotherapy in primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Journal articles and theses and dissertations were searched for in the following databases: SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Theses Portal Capes, between January 1988 and March 2013. We analyzed 53 original studies on actions, programs, acceptance and use of phytotherapy and medicinal plants in the Brazilian Unified Health System. Bibliometric data, characteristics of the actions/programs, places and subjects involved and type and focus of the selected studies were analyzed. RESULTS Between 2003 and 2013, there was an increase in publications in different areas of knowledge, compared with the 1990-2002 period. The objectives and actions of programs involving the integration of phytotherapy into primary health care varied: including other treatment options, reduce costs, reviving traditional knowledge, preserving biodiversity, promoting social development and stimulating inter-sectorial actions. CONCLUSIONS Over the past 25 years, there was a small increase in scientific production on actions/programs developed in primary care. Including phytotherapy in primary care services encourages interaction between health care users and professionals. It also contributes to the socialization of scientific research and the development of a critical vision about the use of phytotherapy and plant medicine, not only on the part of professionals but also of the population. PMID:25119949

  4. Physicians? Opinions of Phytotherapy Products

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    Murat Kartal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study has been conducted to determine of family physicians’ level of knowledge and perspectives with herbal products therapy (phytotherapy - and herbal products.Material and Methods; Present study, which is a type of descriptive study, is designed with the participation of the family physician specialists and assistants working public or private health organizations in several cities in between June 2007 and April 2008 by via electronic mail. In this research, a specifically developed questionnaire including 11 questions was applied for the physicians. Results: 150 physicians participated in to the research from 30 provinces. The half of the study participants (75 people was male. The mean age was 34.4. The 63.1% of the participating physicians stated that they applied or interested in phytotherapy. The 36.9% of physicians determined that they were against to phytotherapy or not interested. The major reasons of the opposition or indifference are lack of evidence-based and not having enough study in this subject (50.0%, the insufficient legal regulations (16.7%, only being able to be a the placebo effect (8.3%, and the thinking of being able to have harmful side effects (4.2%. There was not statistically significant difference between gender and interest in phytotherapy (p: 0.567. The 28.2% of the participating physicians stated that they ask to their patients whether using herbal products or not before their treatment or prescription. Conclusion  Phytotherapy, which is frequently mentioned and used in currently, is a fact to be considered whether it is interested or not. Many studies show that it is useful while the physicians taking medical history to inquire about if the patient use of this any product, to detect possible interactions and harms. In addition, the studies emphasize that the production and consumption of herbal products is still not designed with legal regulation, there is no standardization of quality and evidence

  5. [Chinese phytotherapy: the power of synergy].

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    Rodríguez, Manuel

    2005-05-01

    Chinese pharmacology is ancient and very extensive. In reality, Chinese pharmacology is composed of matter having vegetable, animal and mineral origins; however, the dominance of vegetable and the exclusive restriction to vegetable matter which European legislation obliges us to follow makes the use of the term phyto-therapy which means curing via plants, as is reported in another article, "Phyto-therapy, a choice based on science and tradition" by Dr. Josep AlluPéCreus. (Rev ROL Enf 8(3):179-182).

  6. [Complementary medicine: phytotherapy and soyaisoflavones as phytoestrogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, J; Brignoli, R; Saller, R

    2004-06-01

    After a introduction concerning complementary medicine, naturopathy and phytotherapy a general view of soy isoflavones as phytoestrogens will be given. In german speaking countries the term and topic naturopathy has a tradition of 150 years regarding theoretical development and practical use among lay people and health professionals in European culture. In contrary the term complementary medicine has been used for approximately 15 years in englisch speaking countries as a kind of collective name for European and Non-European medical cultures and traditions. Complementay medicine summarizes a huge variety of cultural, medical and qualitywise different medical methods and treatments which can be a contribution to conventional medicine. One of the oldest and intensly researched fields in European and Non-European complementary medicine is the use of herbal drugs (phytotherapy). Soy isoflavones serve as an example to show the differences between phytotherapy based on multicompounds and dietary supplements (neutraceuticals) based on monosubstances. The differing preparations of soy isoflavones are not phytotherapeutic medicine. A review of the experimental and clinical data concerning soy isoflavones as phytoestrogens for the prevention of cancer, menopausal complaints, osteoporosis or cardiovascular diseases indicates that the consumption of food containing phytoestrogens seems to be health protective. Yet, the relevance of supplementation of single phytoestrogens for an additional health effect is not sufficiently proven.

  7. A Maternity different: Breastfeeding and Phytotherapy

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    María Dolores Hernández Benítez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of complementary health therapies has grown progressively since the 1950s. This article presents a bibliographical review on galactogogues. The main objective is to identify scientific evidence of plants used traditionally as galactogogues in our environment, and its efficacy and safety. We carried out a literature review in order to find the scientific evidence available on the Cochrane Library databases, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Cuidatge CUIDEN. The keywords used were: phytotherapy, breastfeeding galactogogues, herbal agents, herbal products, breastfeeding and galactogogues. To conclusion although the use of natural remedies, improve breastfeeding should provide accurate and updated health information and women transmit security capabilities.

  8. A comprehensive review of vaginitis phytotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Hanieh; Fallah-Tafti, Mehrnaz; Karimi-Darmiyan, Maliheh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-11-01

    To overview phytotherapy of vaginitis in order to identify new approaches for new pharmacological treatments. All related literature databases were searched for herbal medicinal treatment in vaginitis. The search terms were plant, herb, herbal therapy, phytotherapy, vaginitis, vaginal, anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas. All of the human, animal and in vitro studies were included. Anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas effects were the key outcomes. The plants including carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, menthol, terpinen-4-ol and thymol exhibited anti-candida effects. A very low concentration of geranium oil and geraniol blocked mycelial growth, but not yeast. Tea tree oil including terpinen-4-ol, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpineol showed anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-protozoal properties against trichomonas. Allium hirtifolium (persian shallot) comparable to metronidazole exhibited anti-trichomonas activity due to its components such as allicin, ajoene and other organosulfides. The plants having beneficial effects on vaginitis encompass essential oils that clear the pathway that future studies should be focused to standardize theses herbs.

  9. Phytotherapy: Present State of the Issue

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    L. R. Selimzianova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy is one of the oldest treatment methods. Studies and conclusions of the World Health Organization (WHO Expert evidence of the trend towards greater demand for alternative treatments, including herbal medicine. The article presents such actual data on the issue under review as herbal preparations use at the present stage, frequency of and reasons for the use of medicinal plants in the world pediatric practice. There is a review of the WHO documents on quality assessment, harvesting, preparation and use of vegetable raw materials in the article. It also highlights the key provisions of the WHO strategy for ethnoscience in 2014–2023. There also is data on the properties of one of the plant-based drugs components and results of clinical trials of its effectiveness in children.

  10. Phytotherapy of Acute Respiratory Viral Diseases

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    I.B. Ershova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays phytotherapy is increasingly being implemented into medical practice, especially for the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Acute respiratory viral infections are most common in childhood and in adults. Acute rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, nasopharyngitis and acute laryngitis refer to diseases of the upper respiratory tract. The main reason for respiratory diseases in recurrent respiratory infection child is disorders of mucociliary and immune protection. The therapeutic value of medicinal plants is determined by their biologically active substances. The method of application of phytotherpy is an integral part of traditional medicine. Herbal medicine can be used at home and does not require special equipment. The main indications for the herbal medicine use in pediatrics are the initial stage of the disease as a primary method of treatment due to mild and low toxicity; as a supporting treatment for enhancing the protective forces of the child’s body during the disease deterioration. During the recovery period herbal medicine again occupies a leading position, especially in case of chronic diseases because it can be used for a long time and is well combined with synthetic drugs. The terms of appointment of herbs for children: prescription of medicinal plants for children must be individual according to indications, taking into account the child’s age; it is recommended to take into account the form and nature of the course of the main disease and comorbidities as well; at the initial stage of the treatment it is better to use some medicinal plants or species consisting of 2–3 plants and in the future a more complex composition; therapy with medicinal plants requires a long period to be used use, especially in chronic diseases; in the treatment of chronic diseases a good effect preventive courses of herbal medicine was revealed, which are appointed during seasonal exacerbations; in case of intolerance

  11. AROMATIC PLANT OF LAMIACEAE FAMILY FOR USE IN PHYTOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Logvinenko; L. A. Khlypenko; N. V. Marko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Therapeutic action of terpenoids of essential oil in uncommon plants like Elsholtzia stauntonii, Agastache foenic-ulum, Monarda fistulosa, Perovskia atri-plicifolia, Majorana hortensis, therefore the study for these plants application in phyto-therapy is timely. The study for componen-tial content of essential oil of 18 uncommon species from Lamiaceae family from the collection of Nikitsky Botanical Garden to increase therapeutic possibilities and their practical use in phytothe...

  12. AROMATIC PLANT OF LAMIACEAE FAMILY FOR USE IN PHYTOTHERAPY

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    L. A. Logvinenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Therapeutic action of terpenoids of essential oil in uncommon plants like Elsholtzia stauntonii, Agastache foenic-ulum, Monarda fistulosa, Perovskia atri-plicifolia, Majorana hortensis, therefore the study for these plants application in phyto-therapy is timely. The study for componen-tial content of essential oil of 18 uncommon species from Lamiaceae family from the collection of Nikitsky Botanical Garden to increase therapeutic possibilities and their practical use in phytotherapy was the purpose of this paper. The plant species under study were introduced to the South Coast of Crimea from different ecological and geographic zones in seeds from botanical gardens of Europe. Methods. Every species was represented by 3-20 samples, which were studied by biomorpholofical and principal economically valuable features. The article presents the generalization and analysis of long-time studies for biologically active substances from 18 species of aromatic plants from Lamiaceae family. The content of essential oil was determined in a phase of mass blossom, from freshly harvested raw materials by means of hydro distillation at Ginsberg apparatuses. Componential content of essential oil was studied by the method of gas liquid chromatography. Results. Identification of the essential oils components allowed isolation of plant chemotypes with high content of valuable substances (methyl chavicol, carvacrol, pinen, thymol, and others. Highproductive samples (forms, prospective for industrial cultivation were isolated by the features complex. Based on the classification of A.D. Turova in phytotherapeutic action of plants and results of our studies, the isolated plant forms were distributed in 10 groups of usage in phytotherapy. On the example of Agastache foeniculum we showed that one and the same plant species may have different chemotypes, which have treatment and toxic action. Conclusion. The data obtained broaden and add the information about a

  13. Skull lichens: a curious chapter in the history of phytotherapy.

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    Modenesi, P

    2009-04-01

    Lichens growing on skulls were known in late medieval times as usnea or moss of a dead man's skull and were recommended as highly beneficial in various diseases. They were, in addition, the main ingredient of Unguentum armariun, a liniment used in a curious medical practice: the magnetic cure of wounds. We can place this chapter of the history of phytotherapy within the wider cultural context of the period, which saw the definition of nature become increasingly more fluid and open to a variety of novel interpretations.

  14. Phytotherapy against insomnia: extravagant claims or an alternative medicine?

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    Dey, Abhijit; Dey, Amrita

    2013-02-01

    Insomnia or sleeplessness is a disorder characterized by a personal incapability to falling or staying asleep for a desirable period of time. Apart from Valeriana officinalis and Ziziphus jujuba most of the ethnobotanicals used for sleep disorders have not been evaluated for pharmacological or clinical efficacy against insomnia. Chinese herbal medicines involving polyherbal formulations are yet to be characterized and long-term side effects are yet to be evaluated. Anti insomniac phytotherapy opens up an exciting aspect of research which might benefit a large number of patients suffering from different degrees of insomnia.

  15. Phytotherapy of hypertension and diabetes in oriental Morocco.

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    Ziyyat, A; Legssyer, A; Mekhfi, H; Dassouli, A; Serhrouchni, M; Benjelloun, W

    1997-09-01

    In order to select the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and/or diabetes, a survey was undertaken in different areas of oriental Morocco. The patients (370 women and 256 men) were divided into three groups: diabetics (61%), hypertensives (23%) and hypertensive diabetic persons (16%). On average, 67.51% of patients regularly use medicinal plants. This proportion is perceptibly the same in all groups and does not depend on sex, age and socio-cultural level. This result shows that phytotherapy is widely adopted in northeastern Morocco. For diabetes, 41 plants were cited, of which the most used were Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Leguminosae), Globularia alypum L. (Globulariaceae), Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (Compositae), Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) and Tetraclinis articulata Benth. (Cupressaceae). In the hypertension's therapy 18 vegetal species were reported, of which the most used were Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae), Olea europea L. (Oleaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae), Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) and Petroselinum crispum A.W. Hill (Apiaceae). Among the 18 species used for hypertension, 14 were also employed for diabetes. Moreover, these two diseases were associated in 41% of hypertensives. These findings suggest that hypertension observed in this region would be in a large part related to diabetes.

  16. [Phytotherapy threats with emphasis on St. John's wort medicines].

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    Sienkiewicz, Jacek; Czarnik-Matusewicz, Henryk; Wiela-Hojeńska, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Plant medicines used by patients in self-treatment contain powerfully acting active substances which can be a source of adverse events including interactions with synthetic medicines. Usage of St. John's wort causes high risk of various complications. St. John's wort preparations shouldn't be combined with antidepressants without physician's consultation. Long-term intake of medicines which contain Hypericum perforatum extracts can be a reason of undesirable interactions with isoenzymes CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) for which St John's wort is a substrate. Compounds present in the St. John's wort, especially hyperforin, increase the activity of cytochrome P450 in the liver and intestinal mucosa as well as P-gp, which can accelerate their elimination from the body, decrease their concentrations and reduce the effect. Effective and safe phytotherapy requires a lot of knowledge about the properties and toxicity of preparations used and accurate monitoring of the consequences of their actions.

  17. An Antioxidant Phytotherapy to Rescue Neuronal Oxidative Stress

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    Zhihong Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of ischemic neuronal injury. A Chinese herbal formula composed of Poria cocos (Chinese name: Fu Ling, Atractylodes macrocephala (Chinese name: Bai Zhu and Angelica sinensis (Chinese names: Danggui, Dong quai, Donggui; Korean name: Danggwi (FBD, has been proved to be beneficial in the treatment of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R.This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of FBD against neuronal oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro. Rat I/R were established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO for 1 h, followed by 24 h reperfusion. MCAO led to significant depletion in superoxide dismutase and glutathione and rise in lipid peroxidation (LPO and nitric oxide in brain. The neurological deficit and brain infarction were also significantly elevated by MCAO as compared with sham-operated group. All the brain oxidative stress and damage were significantly attenuated by 7 days pretreatment with the aqueous extract of FBD (250 mg kg−1, p.o.. Moreover, cerebrospinal fluid sampled from FBD-pretreated rats protected PC12 cells against oxidative insult induced by 0.2 mM hydrogen peroxide, in a concentration and time-dependent manner (IC50 10.6%, ET50 1.2 h. However, aqueous extract of FBD just slightly scavenged superoxide anion radical generated in xanthine–xanthine oxidase system (IC50 2.4 mg ml−1 and hydroxyl radical generated in Fenton reaction system (IC50 3.6 mg ml−1. In conclusion, FBD was a distinct antioxidant phytotherapy to rescue neuronal oxidative stress, through blocking LPO, restoring endogenous antioxidant system, but not scavenging free radicals.

  18. Effectiveness of medication / auricular therapy / phyto-therapy combination in the treatment of hypertensive patients

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    José Ramón Martínez Pérez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: hypertension is one of the main cardiovascular risk factors, so its control improves the life expectancy of patients.Objective: to assess the effects of a treatment combining medication with auricular therapy and phyto-therapy in hypertensive patients assisted at the health area of ”Romárico Oro” Polyclinic, in Puerto Padre, Las Tunas province.Methods: an intervention study was carried out in 68 hypertensive patients of the health area of “Romárico Oro” Polyclinic in Puerto Padre from April, 2013 to April, 2014. The patients were distributed at random into two equal groups; the first received medication combined with auricular therapy and phyto-therapy, while the second one received only medication. The statistical analysis was done by means of Statistic system, t-student and Chi-Square tests were used and p< or =0.05 was considered as level of statistical significance.Results: by the end of the intervention, 73, 53% of the patients of the group with the combination of drug treatment and auricular therapy and phyto-therapy were controlled. In this group, the diastolic filling pressure diminished to 2, 2 mm Hg and the systolic gradient to 3, 66 mm, regarding the group treated only with drugs. Only one patient, representing the 2, 94% showed adverse reaction to the natural and traditional treatment.Conclusions: the combination of medication with auricular therapy and phyto-therapy proved to be effective, corroborated by a significant decrease of quantity of crisis, diastolic and systolic filling pressure values and increase of number of patients with their disease controlled; the report of only one complication shows the innocuousness of the auricular therapy and phyto-therapy treatment.

  19. Traditional phytotherapy and trans-cultural pharmacy among Turkish migrants living in Cologne, Germany.

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    Pieroni, Andrea; Muenz, Harald; Akbulut, Minire; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Durmuşkahya, Cenk

    2005-10-31

    This article reports on an ethnopharmaceutical field study carried out among Turkish migrants in Cologne, western Germany, which recorded 79 botanical taxa and 115 plant-based preparations, encompassing 167 folk phytotherapeutical uses, as well as a few other biological (animal and mineral derived) remedies. One-fourth of the recorded remedies were represented by food-medicines. Half of the ingredients quoted came originally from Turkey; only a few plants were gathered from the wild or cultivated in the Cologne area. This article discusses the Turkish migrants' frequent use of aerial parts of Sideritis species, the fruits of Pistacia terebinthus and the seeds of Peganum harmala from the perspective of modern phytopharmacology, phytotherapy and toxicology. It considers cultural adaptation related to the use of folk pharmaceuticals by analysing the ingredients of the Turkish folk pharmacopoeia and comparing them with those of the Turkish medical ethnobotany and of the phytotherapy of the host country (Germany). Only one third of the remedies mentioned by Turkish migrants living in Cologne are also known in German evidence-based phytotherapy, and less than 10% of the recorded phytotherapeutic uses are common to both pharmacopoeias. This article concludes by suggesting hypotheses on future changes affecting the knowledge and use of medicinal plants within the Turkish community of Cologne.

  20. Nutraceuticals, nutritional therapy, phytonutrients, and phytotherapy for improvement of human health: a perspective on plant biotechnology application.

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    Zhao, Jian

    2007-01-01

    Plants are one of the most important resources of human foods and medicines. Rapidly increasing knowledge on nutrition, medicine, and plant biotechnology has dramatically changed the concepts about food, health and agriculture, and brought in a revolution on them. Nutritional therapy and phytotherapy have emerged as new concepts and healing systems have quickly and widely spread in recent years. Strong recommendations for consumption of nutraceuticals, natural plant foods, and the use of nutritional therapy and phytotherapy have become progressively popular to improve health, and to prevent and treat diseases. With these trends, improving the dietary nutritional values of fruits, vegetables and other crops or even bioactive components in folk herbals has become targets of the blooming plant biotechnology industry. This review attempts to display and remark on these aspects. It summarizes the progress made on nutraceuticals, nutritional therapy, phytonutrients, phytotherapy, and their related epidemiological investigations and clinical studies. It also covers markets of these health-promoting products and disease-preventing or healing systems, as well as regulations behind them that direct the development of biotechnology study and application. Finally, related patents are listed and briefly analyzed, regarding of plant biotechnological research and progress on transgenic crops to improve nutritional value, phytotherapy efficiency, or to produce pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites or high-valued protein medicines such as vaccines and antibodies.

  1. Ethnopharmacological survey: a selection strategy to identify medicinal plants for a local phytotherapy program

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    Flávia Liparini Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological studies are important for documenting and protecting cultural and traditional knowledge associated with the medical use of biodiversity. In this paper, we present a survey on medicinal plants used by locals in a community of Nova Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brazil, as a strategy to select medicinal plants for a phytotherapy-based local healthcare program. Eleven knowledgeable local informants were chosen by snowball sampling and interviewed about the use of medicinal plants. Plant samples were collected, herborised and then identified using traditional techniques and specialised literature. We sampled 107 medicinal plant species belonging to 86 genera and 39 families, predominantly Asteraceae with 16 species. Costus spicatus (Jacq. Sw, M. pulegium L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Ruta graveolens L. were found to have Consensus of Main Use corrected (CMUc values above 50%, which were in agreement with the traditional uses described by the informants. However, species with CMUc values equal to or above 20%, combined with the scientific information survey, were also used to select medicinal plants for the phytotherapy-based local healthcare program. The selection of medicinal plants based on the CMUc index from this particular community, in combination with the scientific survey, appears to be an effective strategy for the implementation of phytotherapy programs.Estudos etnofarmacológicos são importantes no registro e na preservação de conhecimentos de uma cultura tradicional associada ao uso medicinal da biodiversidade. No presente trabalho, foi realizado o levantamento das plantas medicinais utilizadas por conhecedores populares na comunidade de Nova Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil, como ferramenta para auxiliar na seleção de espécies vegetais visando à implantação de um programa de fitoterapia local na comunidade estudada. Participaram 11 conhecedores escolhidos por amostragem Bola de Neve e submetidos a

  2. Medicinal properties of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. in traditional Iranian medicine and modern phytotherapy.

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    Rahimi, Roja; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams

    2013-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (F. vulgare), commonly known as Fennel, is a popular medicinal plant with various pharmacological activities mentioned in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM) and modern phytotherapy such as antioxidant, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, bronchodilatory, estrogenic, diuretic, lithontripic, galactogogue, emmenagogue, antithrombotic, hypotensive, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, memory enhancing, and antimutagenic activities. No serious adverse events were recorded after ingestion of F. vulgare except some cases of allergic reactions. The estrogenic activity of F. vulgare brings some side effects such as decrease in protein concentration and acid and alkaline phosphatase in male genital organs, increase in weight of mammary glands and reproductive organs in women and premature thelarche in girls. However, no evidence of teratogenicity was recorded, it is better not to use F. vulgare during pregnancy due to its estrogenic activity. Because of inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs mainly metabolized by this isozyme may be affected by F. vulgare. In addition, a significant interaction between cyprofloxacin and F. vulgare was demonstrated. The aim of current paper is to review pharmacological properties, toxicity and adverse events, and drug interactions of vulgare and brings conclusive results about the use of this plant in men, women and during pregnancy.

  3. Role of phytotherapy associated with antibiotic prophylaxis in female patients with recurrent urinary tract infections

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    Emanuela Frumenzio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a phytotherapic which includes Solidago, Orthosiphon and Birch extract (Cistimev® in association with antibiotic prophylaxis in female patients affected by recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIr. Materials and methods: Patients affected by UTIr older than 18 years started a 3-months antibiotic prophylaxis (Prulifloxacin 600 mg, 1 cps/week or Phosphomicyn 1 cachet/week according to antibiogram after urine culture. The patients were divided in 2 groups: Group A: antibiotic prophylaxis plus phytotherapy (1 cps/die for 3 months and Group B: antibiotic prophylaxis alone. Results: 164 consecutive patients were studied: 107 were included in group A (mean age 59 ± 17.3 years and 57 (mean age 61 ± 15.7 in group B. During the treatment period the relapse frequencies between the two groups were not significantly different (p = 0.854: 12/107 (11.21% patients interrupted the treatment for UTIr in group A and 6/57 (10.52% in group B. In the long term follow-up the relapse UTI risk was significant different in the two groups with a relapse risk 2.5 greater in group B than in group A (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that in female patients affected by recurrent UTI, the association between antibiotic prophylaxis and of a phytotherapic which includes Solidago, Orthosiphon and Birch extract reduced the number of UTI in the 12 months following the end of prophylaxis and obtained a longer relapsing time, greatly improving the quality of life of the patients.

  4. THE ROLE OF PHYTOTHERAPY IN OPTIMIZATION OF REHABILITATION AT A HEALTH RESORT IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC TONSILLITIS

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    E.I. Kondrat’eva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors present results of a treatment with complex of physical methods and phyto drug Tonsilgon N (Althaeae officinalis L., Chamomilla recutita, Equisetum arvense L., Juglans regia L., Achillea millefolium L., Quercus robur, Taraxacum officinale of 35 children with chronic tonsillitis at a health resort. Clinical, immunological effectiveness and safety was estimated. Inclusion of the drug in treatment scheme resulted in decrease of morbidity with acute respiratory infections and rate of exacerbations of tonsillitis. Phyto drug has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating activity manifested in increase of level of humoral factors in nasal secretion and cytoprotective effect related to positive changes in functional state of epithelium of nasal mucous membrane in children with chronic tonsillitis.Key words: children, chronic tonsillitis, rehabilitation, phytotherapy.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:58-63

  5. Prospective randomized clinical trial comparing phytotherapy with potassium citrate in management of minimal burden (≤8 mm nephrolithiasis

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    Iqbal Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To compare efficacy and tolerability of phytotherapy (PT vs. potassium citrate (KC in patients with minimal nephrolithiasis. To compare and assess changes in value of certain serum (Ca 2 +, PO4 3- , uric acid [UA] and urinary (24-hr Ca 2+ , PO4 3- , UA, citrate, oxalate, and urine pH parameters in patients being treated with PT or KC. Materials and Methods : After clearance by the local institutional ethics committee, 60 patients of nephrolithiasis who had consented for the study, were enrolled (as per entry criteria and randomized into citrate therapy (group-I or PT (group-II. PT was administered as a nutritional supplement, using a lupeol-based extract (Tablet Calcury™, two tablets twice a day. They were monitored for the changes in the serum and urinary biochemical, radiological, and clinical parameters (efficacy and tolerability as per protocol. Results : Group-I patients demonstrated favorable changes in certain biochemical parameters (decreased serum calcium, urinary UA/oxalate, increased urinary citrate and pH along with significant symptomatic improvement (decrease in visual analogue pain score with increased stone clearance/reduction in stone size. Four (13.3% patients of group-I had mild upper gastrointestinal discomfort which was controlled with antacids. Group-II patients had favorable changes in biochemical parameters (decreased serum UA and increased urinary citrate along with significant symptomatic improvement (reduction/clearance in the stone size, but without any noticeable side effects. Conclusions : Medical therapies with both KC and PT (with lupeol extract using Calcury™ were effective in reducing the stone size and symptoms of nephrolithiasis. It appeared that KC was biochemically efficacious in producing some favorable biochemical changes with some side effects, whereas PT was probably clinically efficacious in hastening stone expulsion (<8 mm without any observed adverse events. Although both the medical

  6. Phytotherapy in medieval Serbian medicine according to the pharmacological manuscripts of the Chilandar Medical Codex (15-16th centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarić, Snežana; Mitrović, Miroslava; Djurdjević, Lola; Kostić, Olga; Gajić, Gordana; Pavlović, Dragana; Pavlović, Pavle

    2011-09-01

    The Chilandar Medical Codex is the most significant and best preserved medieval Serbian manuscript and collects together documents on European medical science from the 12th to 15th centuries. It represents the best-known and most complete example of a large collection of medical manuscripts from the Salerno-Montpellier school, written in the vernacular - something which does not exist among the majority of European nations. This paper presents the section of the Codex that deals with phytotherapy, which is contained within the pharmacological manuscripts. An analysis of their contents shows that out of a total of 167 recorded substances, 135 are of plant origin (81%), 13 animal origin (7.7%) and 19 inorganic (11.3%). The recorded plant species are categorised into 63 families, of which the most frequent are: Apiaceae (8.1%), Lamiaceae (8.1%), Asteraceae (5.9%), Rosaceae (5.9%) and Fabaceae (4.4%). All possible plant parts were used in treatments: the whole plant (6%), underground parts (13.7% - root, rhizome, bulb) and aerial parts (80.3% - stem, leaf, flower, buds, fruit, seeds). Of the plants quoted, the following are mentioned most frequently: Vitis sp. (120), Rosa canina (55), Olea europaea (45), Pistacia lentiscus (25), Saccharum officinarum (23), Artemisia absinthium (16) and Foeniculum vulgare (15). The contents of the pharmacological manuscripts of the Chilandar Medical Codex point to the sound contemporary knowledge of the diversity of plant species, their origins, habitat types, the levels of their healing powers, and when and how to gather them and prepare them, as well as the recommended dose for the treatment of specific illnesses. As these manuscripts contain not only common, lay terms for the plants, but also scientific, botanical ones, we can consider them the precursor to Serbian botany. Based on its contents and the way in which they are presented, it can be viewed not only as the first Serbian pharmacopeia, but first Slavic pharmacopeia, too

  7. Phytotherapy for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareba, Grazyna

    2009-06-01

    Pain is considered the third most common healthcare problem disabling more individuals than heart disease and cancer together. Although pharmacological pain management offers a significant relief in several pain-related diseases, many patients turn to its supplementation with complementary and alternative medicine. Botanicals used in pain therapy can contribute to restoring the quality of life to a patient and may effect and enhance conventional pain management. Herbal analgesic use in several pain-related diseases such as rheumatologic diseases, back pain, cancer, diabetic peripheral neuropathy and migraine will be discussed. In addition, this review describes botanicals with known analgesic activity for which randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials assessing their efficacy in different pain-related diseases have been published and which have been recently evaluated in many systematic reviews with well-described methodology.

  8. Application Status of Phytotherapy for Prevention and Treatment of Chemotherapy Induced Phlebitis%植物疗法在防治化学治疗药物性静脉炎中应用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈娟; 张静; 阴唯唯; 吴礼高

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy induced phlebitis is a kind of acute and local inflammation caused by chemotherapeutics, which has complicated factors. There are many prevention measures. One of them is phytotherapy, which is widely used as a part of natural therapy. This article summarized the phytotherapy used for chemotherapy induced phlebitis, with the purpose to provide the references for enhancing the clinical intravenous administration and ensuring the smooth progress of chemotherapy.%化学治疗药物性静脉炎(以下简称“化疗性静脉炎”)是化疗药物引起的一种急性局部性炎症,原因复杂。临床对静脉炎的防治有多种方法,植物疗法是其中一种,植物疗法作为自然疗法的一部分,已被广泛应用。本文通过总结近年来植物疗法在化疗性静脉炎中的运用,为提高临床静脉维护水平、保证化疗顺利进行提供参考作用。

  9. Análise sobre a fitoterapia como prática integrativa no Sistema Único de Saúde Analysis about phytotherapy as an integrating practice in the Brazilian Unified Health System (UHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Santos

    2011-01-01

    profissionais e estudantes da saúde, auxiliando e tornando mais sólidas as bases de segurança e eficácia para implementação das praticas fitoterápicas no SUS.The growing use of phytotherapy as an integrating medical practice in several countries has been remarkable. The use of medicinal plants in Brazil is facilitated by the plant diversity and low cost associated with therapeutics, which has called the attention of health assistance programs and professionals. The Brazilian Ministry of Health, in order to avoid misuse of this medical practice, has demonstrated interest, developing policies that encourage research related to this issue and favoring the establishment of health programs focused on the distribution and use of these drugs in a rational way. Based on this context, a survey about how this issue has been addressed and implemented in the Unified Health System (UHS was carried out. This was a descriptive study of qualitative approach, performed through a literature review in databases, related to the theme "phytotherapic medicines in the unified health system". The key words used throughout the study were: phytotherapy, phytomedicines, integrating medicine, medicines, herbal medicine, phytotherapy in the UHS, integrating medicine and public health systems. The government has shown interest in developing policies which combine technological advances with common knowledge for the sake of assistance health procedures that show effectiveness, coverage, humanization and less dependence on the pharmaceutical industry. In the last two decades, some Brazilian states and municipalities have implemented Phytotherapy Programs in primary health care in order to meet the drug needs of their communities. Despite the growing search for integrating drugs, studies about phytotherapy are still limited in Brazil, with the need of research in this area in order to increase the knowledge of health professionals and students, helping and making more solid the safety and efficacy bases

  10. Phytotherapy and Nutritional Supplements on Breast Cancer

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    C. M. Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent type of nonskin malignancy among women worldwide. In general, conventional cancer treatment options (i.e., surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, biological therapy, and hormone therapy are not completely effective. Recurrence and other pathologic situations are still an issue in breast cancer patients due to side effects, toxicity of drugs in normal cells, and aggressive behaviour of the tumours. From this point of view, breast cancer therapy and adjuvant methods represent a promising and challenging field for researchers. In the last few years, the use of some types of complementary medicines by women with a history of breast cancer has significantly increased such as phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements. Despite this, the use of such approaches in oncologic processes may be problematic and patient’s health risks can arise such as interference with the efficacy of standard cancer treatment. The present review gives an overview of the most usual phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements with application in breast cancer patients as adjuvant approach. Regardless of the contradictory results of scientific evidence, we demonstrated the need to perform additional investigation, mainly well-designed clinical trials in order to establish correlations and allow for further validated outcomes concerning the efficacy, safety, and clinical evidence-based recommendation of these products.

  11. Phytotherapy and Nutritional Supplements on Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, A.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent type of nonskin malignancy among women worldwide. In general, conventional cancer treatment options (i.e., surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, biological therapy, and hormone therapy) are not completely effective. Recurrence and other pathologic situations are still an issue in breast cancer patients due to side effects, toxicity of drugs in normal cells, and aggressive behaviour of the tumours. From this point of view, breast cancer therapy and adjuvant methods represent a promising and challenging field for researchers. In the last few years, the use of some types of complementary medicines by women with a history of breast cancer has significantly increased such as phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements. Despite this, the use of such approaches in oncologic processes may be problematic and patient's health risks can arise such as interference with the efficacy of standard cancer treatment. The present review gives an overview of the most usual phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements with application in breast cancer patients as adjuvant approach. Regardless of the contradictory results of scientific evidence, we demonstrated the need to perform additional investigation, mainly well-designed clinical trials in order to establish correlations and allow for further validated outcomes concerning the efficacy, safety, and clinical evidence-based recommendation of these products. PMID:28845434

  12. POSSIBILITYIES OF PHYTOTHERAPY AT DIGESTIVE SYSTEM DISEASES

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    A. V. Kurkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the modern approaches to the reasonable using of phytopharmaceuticals for diseases of gastrointestinal tract were discussed. Substantiates using groups of medicinal plants for the treatment of diseases of gastrointestinal tract based on important relationship «biologically active substance-pharmacological effect». According modern data of chemical composition and pharmacological activity in the attitude to this pathology the most important species of medicinal plants are considered. The importance of principle of phytotherapy’s safety as a main approach of evidential medicine was highlighted. This scientific paper will help experts to make an evidence-based decision of medicinal plants and phytopreparations based on them in clinical practice.

  13. Phytotherapy and Nutritional Supplements on Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    C. M. Lopes; A. Dourado; R. Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    .... In the last few years, the use of some types of complementary medicines by women with a history of breast cancer has significantly increased such as phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements...

  14. Phytotherapy of opioid dependence and withdrawal syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabai, Seyed Meghdad; Dashti, Saeedeh; Doosti, Fatemeh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-06-01

    Development of tolerance and dependence is a major problem associated with opioid treatment. Withdrawal syndrome is common between medical and illicit users of these agents. Phytomedicine has shown promise in the treatment of this complicated psychosomatic condition. In this study, the effects of plant extracts and active components on morphine dependence and withdrawal syndrome are discussed. Proper keywords were used to search through PubMed, Google Scholar, and SciVerse, as well as two local scientific databases, www.iranmedex.com and www.SID.com. All relevant results (original articles, meeting abstracts, patents, etc.) published from 2000 to 2013 were chosen for final review. A total of 35 plant species were studied on this subject. Plants from Lamiaceae, Ranunculaceae, and Apiaceae families were especially effective. A few studies were carried out on human subjects and the rest in animal models. Opioid dependence and withdrawal syndrome remain an intimidating challenge. Nonetheless, plants and their derivatives are suitable sources for their treatment. Although there are several plants shown to be effective in animal models, few clinical studies are available.

  15. Traditional phytotherapy of the Albanians of Lepushe, Nothern Albanian Alps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieroni, A.; Dibra, B.; Grishaj, G.; Grishaj, I.; Maçai, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    An ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacognostic survey has been carried out in one of the most isolated mountainous area in Europe: the village of Lepushe and its surrounding territory, in the Northern Albanian Alps. Approximately 70 botanical taxa and 160 preparations, mainly derived from plants, but

  16. Pancreatic beta cell protection/regeneration with phytotherapy

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    Azar Hosseini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although currently available drugs are useful in controlling early onset complications of diabetes, serious late onset complications appear in a large number of patients. Considering the physiopathology of diabetes, preventing beta cell degeneration and stimulating the endogenous regeneration of islets will be essential approaches for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The current review focused on phytochemicals, the antidiabetic effect of which has been proved by pancreatic beta cell protection/regeneration. Among the hundreds of plants that have been investigated for diabetes, a small fraction has shown the regenerative property and was described in this paper. Processes of pancreatic beta cell degeneration and regeneration were described. Also, the proposed mechanisms for the protective/regenerative effects of such phytochemicals and their potential side effects were discussed.

  17. TONSILLITES IN CHILDREN: ISSUES OF PATHOGENESIS AND POTENTIAL OF PHYTOTHERAPY

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    L. R. Selimzyanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of palatine tonsils (acute and chronic tonsillitis is a pressing issue of pediatrics. Several pathogenetic links of chronictonsillitis development have not been identified yet despite high prevalence of the disease. The article presents current data onformation of biofilms at chronic tonsillites and immunological peculiarities of the Pirogoff-Waldeyer’s tonsillar ring’s lymphoid tissue in children. Authors emphasize the fact that prescription of antibacterial therapy at inflammation of palatine tonsils must be clearly justified due to the risk of development of microflora resistance, as well as of disturbed natural balance of mouth cavity microbiota. Differential diagnosis of tonsillitis and rare Marshall syndrome is important for determining appropriate management tactics. The authors demonstrated effectiveness of using a complex phytopreparation for acute and chronic tonsillites in children. 

  18. Traditional phytotherapy in Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the more significant results of extensive ethnopharmacobotanical research carried out by the author in the years 1977-2000 in 175 localities of three regions of Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium) have been reported and compared. The usages of 80 species belonging to 36 families are described, of which 71 were used in human therapy and 29 in veterinary medicine. Uses are suited with the number of localities in which they have been mentioned. Among the wild plant mainly still used, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, and Sambucus nigra are particularly highly considered, while major uses of plants concern these plants in addition to Allium sativum, Rubus ulmifolius, Parietaria diffusa, Cynodon dactylon, and Ficus carica. Unusual phytotherapic uses concern Brassica oleracea, Taraxacum officinale (warts), Ruscus aculeatus, S. nigra (chilblains), Allium cepa (chilblains; to remove thorns and splinters), Juglans regia, R. ulmifolius (burns), and Euphorbia paralias (bites of weevers). Among new uses with only one quotation, we remember Cirsium arvense (intestinal disturbances), Centaurea bracteata (cough), Lupinus albus (calluses), Melittis melissophyllum (eye inflammations, antispasmodic), and Artemisia absinthium (tendon inflammations), while among plants employed in various regions with interesting less-known properties, there are C. arvense (emergency haemostatic), P. diffusa (insect bites), and Scrophularia canina (antiseptic and cicatrizing agent for wounds in bovines and sheep).

  19. Phytotherapy and women's reproductive health: the Cameroonian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njamen, Dieudonne; Mvondo, Marie Alfrede; Djiogue, Sefirin; Ketcha Wanda, Germain Jean Magloire; Magne Nde, Chantal Beatrice; Vollmer, Günter

    2013-05-01

    Approximately 80 % of the population in Africa use traditional medicinal plants to improve their state of health. The reason of such a wide use of medicinal plants has been mainly attributed to their accessibility and affordability. Expectation of little if any side effects, of a "natural" and therefore safe treatment regimen, as well as traditional beliefs additionally contribute to their popularity. Several of these plants are used by women to relieve problems related to their reproductive health, during or after their reproductive life, during pregnancy, or following parturition. The African pharmacopoeia thus provides plants used for preventing and/or treating gynecological infections, dysmenorrhea, irregular menstruations, oligomenorrhea or protracted menstruation, and infertility. Such plants may then be used as antimicrobians, emmenagogues, or as suppressors of uterine flow. African medicinal plants are also used during pregnancy for prenatal care, against fetal malposition or malpresentation, retained dead fetus, and against threatened abortion. Some others are used as anti-fertilizing drugs for birth control. Such plants may exert various activities, namely, anti-implantation or early abortifacient, anti-zygotic, blastocytotoxic, and anti-ovulatory effects. Some herbs could also act as sexual drive suppressors or as a post-coital contraceptive by reducing the fertility index. A number of these plants have already been subject to scientific investigations and many of their properties have been assessed as estrogenic, oxytocic, or anti-implantation. Taking into account the diversity of the African pharmacopoeia, we are still at an early stage in the phytochemical and pharmacological characterization of these medicinal plants that affect the female reproductive system, in order to determine, through in vitro and in vivo studies, their pharmacological properties and their active principles.

  20. [Potentials of phytotherapy in the complex treatment of acute pyelonephritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neĭmark, A I; Kablova, I V

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase the effectiveness of treatment of patients with acute pyelonephritis by incorporating of phytopreparation "Prolit Super Septo" in complex therapy. The study included 38 patients with acute primary pyelonephritis. All patients have received standard medical therapy, 21 of them (Group 2) have additionally received "Prolit Super Septo" 2 capsules 2 times a day for 1 month. Outcome measures included basic laboratory parameters, and results of bacteriological examination and immunological assessment of patients 12-14 and 28-30 days after initiation of therapy. Against the background of the therapy, positive dynamics of the level of leukocyturia and bacteriuria was detected in both groups; therapeutic effect, however, was more pronounced in the Group 2 treated with complex therapy: after the end of treatment, the proportion of sterile cultures was 85.7%, whereas in Group 1--70.6%. In addition, complex treatment had a positive effect on the immune status of patients, as evidenced by normalization of blood immunoglobulins, circulating immune complexes and C-reactive protein. The inclusion of "Prolit Super Septo" in the complex conservative treatment of patients with acute pyelonephritis promotes the development of an adequate immune response and the rapid elimination of the pathogens, thus preventing the development of purulent forms of the disease, or chronization of process.

  1. Phytotherapy of chronic abdominal pain following pancreatic carcinoma surgery: a single case observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebelitz KR

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Karl Rüdiger Wiebelitz, André-Michael BeerDepartment of True Naturopathy, Blankenstein Hospital, Hattingen, GermanyAbstract: A patient with pancreatic carcinoma diagnosed in 2005 suffered from chronic abdominal pain 6 years later that did not respond to conventional pain treatment according to guidelines. Furthermore, several complementary medical approaches remained ineffective. In the long run, only an Iberis amara drug combination relieved pain sufficiently. The drug is registered in Germany for the indications irritable bowel syndrome and dyspepsia. The multi-target approach of this combination drug may account for the effectiveness under these fundamentally different pathophysiological conditions. No serious undesired effects have been described in the use of this drug for other indications and none were observed in this case.Keywords: Iberis amara combination, early dumping syndrome, late dumping syndrome

  2. Leishmaniosis phytotherapy: Review of plants used in Iranian traditional medicine on leishmaniasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmoud; Bahmani; Kourosh; Saki; Behrouz; Ezatpour; Somayeh; Shahsavari; Zohreh; Eftekhari; Mahyar; Jelodari; Mahmoud; Rafieian; Kopaei; Reza; Sepahvand

    2015-01-01

    Many native plants in traditional medicine have been used for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis and the recent clinical trials have proven the efficacy of some of them. Researches conducted on these plants have shown that garlic, shallots, wormwood, yarrow, walnuts, thyme, henna plant, mimosa, aloe, wood betony, medlar, periwinkle, yeah, savory, black beans, etc. are ef ective on cutaneous leishmania. Synthetic agents in Iranian market have some disadvantages such as high cost and side ef ects and are painful in injections. Given the ef ectiveness of these plants, they can be a source of natural and safe compounds for the treatment of Leishmania. Therefore, more clinical researches should be done to determine the ef ectiveness and safety of these medicinal plants, their active ingredients and their possible toxic substances which can lead to the production of ef ective and safe drugs for leishmaniasis. It also might be an ef ective way to prepare herbal ointment on wound healing.

  3. Phytotherapie bei unkompliziertem Harnwegsinfekt und Reizblase: heute noch zeitgemäß?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zellner M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auch bei der Frau können die Symptome des unteren Harntraktes multifaktoriell bedingt sein und sind nicht immer auf eine unkomplizierte bakterielle Zystitis zurückzuführen. Die Indikation zur antibiotischen Therapie sollte auch und gerade bei der unkomplizierten bakteriellen Zystitis äußerst streng gestellt werden, da es keine hinreichende Evidenz für eine schnellere Symptomlinderung und Morbiditätsreduktion im Vergleich zu einer ausschließlich symptomatischen Behandlung gibt. Demgegenüber steht eine dramatisch zunehmende Resistenzlage von antibiotischen Substanzen, die für dringlichere Indikationen reserviert werden sollten. Nachdem in nächster Zukunft auch keine neuen antibiotischen Wirkstoffe erwartet werden dürfen, sind „neue“, auch antibakterielle Wirkansätze indiziert. Eine Option könnten die multiplen Wirkstoffgemische in geeigneten phytotherapeutischen Präparationen mit ihren u. a. antimikrobiellen, antiphlogistischen, spasmolytischen, diuretisch-aquaretischen, antiadhäsiven und immunmodulierenden Eigenschaften ohne Resistenzinduktion sein.

  4. Fascioliasis Control: In Vivo and In Vitro Phytotherapy of Vector Snail to Kill Fasciola Larva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunita, Kumari; Singh, D. K.

    2011-01-01

    Snail is one of the important components of an aquatic ecosystem, it acts as intermediate host of Fasciola species. Control of snail population below a certain threshold level is one of the important methods in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. Life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the snail or Fasciola larva redia and cercaria in the snail body. In vivo and in vitro toxicity of the plant products and their active component such as citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin, and allicin against larva of Fasciola in infected snail Lymnaea acuminata were tested. Mortality of larvae were observed at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, and 8 h, of treatment. In in vivo treatment, azadirachtin caused highest mortality in redia and cercaria larva (8 h, LC50 0.11, and 0.05 mg/L) whereas in in vitro condition allicin was highly toxic against redia and cercaria (8 h, LC50 0.01, and 0.009 mg/L). Toxicity of citral was lowest against redia and cercaria larva. PMID:22132306

  5. Fascioliasis Control: In Vivo and In Vitro Phytotherapy of Vector Snail to Kill Fasciola Larva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Sunita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Snail is one of the important components of an aquatic ecosystem, it acts as intermediate host of Fasciola species. Control of snail population below a certain threshold level is one of the important methods in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. Life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the snail or Fasciola larva redia and cercaria in the snail body. In vivo and in vitro toxicity of the plant products and their active component such as citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin, and allicin against larva of Fasciola in infected snail Lymnaea acuminata were tested. Mortality of larvae were observed at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, and 8 h, of treatment. In in vivo treatment, azadirachtin caused highest mortality in redia and cercaria larva (8 h, LC50 0.11, and 0.05 mg/L whereas in in vitro condition allicin was highly toxic against redia and cercaria (8 h, LC50 0.01, and 0.009 mg/L. Toxicity of citral was lowest against redia and cercaria larva.

  6. Phytotherapy of experimental depression: Kalanchoe integra Var. Crenata (Andr. Cuf Leaf Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy K E Kukuia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Kalanchoe sp. have been used since 1921 for central nervous system (CNS disorders such as psychosis and depression. It is known to possess CNS depressant effects. Aims: To investigate the antidepressant properties of the aqueous leaf extract of Kalanchoe integra. Settings and Design: The study was carried out at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology between 6 a.m. and 3 p.m. Materials and Methods: ICR mice were subjected to the forced swimming test (FST and tail suspension test (TST after they had received extract (30-300 mg/kg, fluoxetine (3-30 mg/kg, desipramine (3-30 mg/kg orally, or water (as vehicle. In a separate experiment, mice were pre-treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg, α-methyl paratyrosine (AMPT; 400 mg/kg, both reserpine (1 mg/kg and AMPT (200 mg/kg concomitantly, or p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA; 200 mg/kg to ascertain the role of the noradrenergic and serotoninergic systems in the mode of action of the extract. Statistical analysis used: Means were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls′ post hoc test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: In both FST and TST, the extract induced a decline in immobility, indicative of antidepressant-like effect. This diminution in immobility was reversed by pCPA, but not by reserpine and/or AMPT. The extract increased the swimming and climbing scores in the FST, suggestive of possible interaction with serotoninergic and noradrenergic systems. In the TST, the extract produced increases in both curling and swinging scores, suggestive of opioidergic monoaminergic activity, respectively. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the antidepressant potential of the aqueous leaf extract of K. integra is mediated possibly by a complex interplay between serotoninergic, opioidergic, and noradrenergic systems.

  7. Leishmaniosis phytotherapy: Review of plants used in Iranian traditional medicine on leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many native plants in traditional medicine have been used for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis and the recent clinical trials have proven the efficacy of some of them. Researches conducted on these plants have shown that garlic, shallots, wormwood, yarrow, walnuts, thyme, henna plant, mimosa, aloe, wood betony, medlar, periwinkle, yeah, savory, black beans, etc. are effective on cutaneous leishmania. Synthetic agents in Iranian market have some disadvantages such as high cost and side effects and are painful in injections. Given the effectiveness of these plants, they can be a source of natural and safe compounds for the treatment of Leishmania. Therefore, more clinical researches should be done to determine the effectiveness and safety of these medicinal plants, their active ingredients and their possible toxic substances which can lead to the production of effective and safe drugs for leishmaniasis. It also might be an effective way to prepare herbal ointment on wound healing.

  8. [Planning, realization and evaluation of post-marketing surveillance studies. Recommendations of the Society for Phytotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, K; Loew, D; Schneider, B; Kemper, F H

    1997-08-01

    Post-marketing-surveillance studies with herbal drugs usually are prospective prescription-epidemiological studies, which should allow statements on quality, efficacy and safety. Until now neither laws nor concrete normative guidelines for the methodology and the evaluation of post-marketing-surveillance studies are existing which could be used for pharmacovigilance. In the present paper guidelines for planning, realisation and evaluation are presented which should allow studies of high quality. The essential components required for the investigational plan are focussed. Also recommendations on the obligatory, optional and special components of the study protocols are made. Additionally statistical methods which allow the evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy are presented.

  9. Pseudomoniasis phytotherapy: a review on most important Iranian medicinal plants effective on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Hassanzadazar, Hassan; Taherikalani, Morovat

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium found in water and soil. It is a normal flora in skin and gastrointestinal tract of human beings. P. aeruginosa as an opportunistic pathogen involved in nosocomial infections having multiple pathogenic factors and shows high rate of resistance to different antibiotics. The aim of this study was to identify the most important native medicinal plants of Iran effective on P. aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: All required information was obtained by searching keywords such as P. aeruginosa, medicinal plant extracts or essential oils in published articles in authentic scientific databases such as Science Direct, Wiley-Blackwell, Springer, Google scholar, Scientific Information Database (SID) and Magiran. Results: According to the literature review, our results showed 12 different native medicinal plants were effective against P. aeruginosa in Iran including Eucalyptus camadulensis, Marticaria chamomilla, Ferula gummosa Boiss, Lawsonia inermis, Ocimumgra tissimum, Allium sativum, Satureja hortensis L, Satureja bachtiarica Bunge, Satureja khuzestanica (Jamzad), Thymus daenensis Celak, Thymus carmanicus Jalals and Camellia sinensis. Conclusion: Phytochemical analysis has shown that bioactive compounds of medicinal plants with their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties can be good alternatives for the synthetic medicines in food and drug industry. PMID:28149496

  10. Phytotherapy of experimental depression: Kalanchoe integra Var. Crenata (Andr.) Cuf Leaf Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuia, Kennedy K. E.; Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac J.; Woode, Eric; Biney, Robert P.; Addae, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Context: Kalanchoe sp. have been used since 1921 for central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as psychosis and depression. It is known to possess CNS depressant effects. Aims: To investigate the antidepressant properties of the aqueous leaf extract of Kalanchoe integra. Settings and Design: The study was carried out at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology between 6 a.m. and 3 p.m. Materials and Methods: ICR mice were subjected to the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) after they had received extract (30-300 mg/kg), fluoxetine (3-30 mg/kg), desipramine (3-30 mg/kg) orally, or water (as vehicle). In a separate experiment, mice were pre-treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg), α-methyl paratyrosine (AMPT; 400 mg/kg), both reserpine (1 mg/kg) and AMPT (200 mg/kg) concomitantly, or p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA; 200 mg/kg) to ascertain the role of the noradrenergic and serotoninergic systems in the mode of action of the extract. Statistical analysis used: Means were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Newman-Keuls’ post hoc test. P immobility, indicative of antidepressant-like effect. This diminution in immobility was reversed by pCPA, but not by reserpine and/or AMPT. The extract increased the swimming and climbing scores in the FST, suggestive of possible interaction with serotoninergic and noradrenergic systems. In the TST, the extract produced increases in both curling and swinging scores, suggestive of opioidergic monoaminergic activity, respectively. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the antidepressant potential of the aqueous leaf extract of K. integra is mediated possibly by a complex interplay between serotoninergic, opioidergic, and noradrenergic systems. PMID:25709333

  11. Traditional phytotherapy and trans-cultural pharmacy among Turkish migrants living in Cologne, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieroni, A.; Muenz, H.; Akbulut, M.; Baser, K.H.C.; Durmuskahya, C.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on an ethnopharmaceutical field study carried out among Turkish migrants in Cologne, western Germany, which recorded 79 botanical taxa and 115 plant-based preparations, encompassing 167 folk phytotherapeutical uses, as well as a few other biological (animal and mineral derived)

  12. [Effectiveness of phytotherapy in supportive treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus III. Momordica (Momordica charantia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudá-Kučerová, Jana; Kotolová, Hana; Koupý, David

    2015-09-01

    Momordica charantia is a thermophilic voluble plant from the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa and the Caribbean. In central Europe, momordica requires greenhouse plantations. Mature fruits resemble a cucumber or a pumpkin and can be used as other similar vegetables. Crude fruits are very bitter and refreshing. For centuries the plant has been known in Chinese traditional medicine for its antidiabetic effects as well as for the treatment of cancer or infections caused by worms, viruses and malaria. Antidiabetic effects are attributed namely to cucurbitane type triterpenoids, charantin, p-insulin and 9cis-11trans-13trans-conjugated linolenic acid. These substances in momordica preparations show antidiabetic effectiveness in clinical studies by increasing insulin secretion and deceasing insulin resistance or glucose absorption from the gut. Beside this main effect the extract possesses certain neuroprotective and antioxidant effects (especially p9cis-11trans-13trans-conjugated linolenic acid) and contributes to normalize blood lipid and adipokine levels which results in the normalization of metabolic syndrome. Antidiabetic effectiveness of momordica was compared to active treatment with several oral antidiabetic drugs and proved comparable effects. However, the number of studies is limited and their methodological approach variable. Therefore, the evidence is so far inconclusive.

  13. Listeriosis Phytotherapy: A Review Study on the Effectiveness of Iranian Medicinal Plants in Treatment of Listeriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Saki, Kourosh; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Taherikalani, Morovat

    2015-12-17

    Listeria monocytogenes can be found in many processed foods, raw milk, dairy products, meat and meat products such as sausages, beef and fish products, seafoods, eggs, fruits, and vegetables such as radish and cabbage. This article is a review study on the Iranian medicinal plants applied for treatment of listeriosis. Information of this review article was obtained by searching various key words such as Listeria monocytogenes, medicinal plants, plant extracts and essential oils among scientific articles published in databases of Google scholar, ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, SID and Magiran. Thyme, German chamomile, great chamomile, yarrow, onion, oregano, nutmeg, sage, sagebrush, hyssop, rosemary, St John's wort, safflower, ajowan, cumin, peppermint, shallot, anise, and parsnip are known antilisteriosis medicinal plants. Bioactive phytochemicals, antioxidants and monoterpenes, sesquiterpene, coumarin, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and terpenoids are the main ingredients of antilisteriosis medicinal plants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. O uso da fitoterapia no cuidado de crianças com até cinco anos em área central e periférica da cidade de São Paulo El uso de la fitoterapia en el cuidado de ninõs menores de cinco años en áreas central y periférica de la ciudad de São Paulo-Brasil The use of phytotherapy in the care of children up to 5 years of age in urban and suburban areas of São Paulo city-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Regiani Alves

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa verifica a utilização da fitoterapia em crianças que freqüentam um centro de saúde da área central e um centro de saúde da periferia da cidade de São Paulo. É um estudo exploratório descritivo, com 120 mães que freqüentam os dois centros de saúde (sendo 60 na região central e 60 na região periférica durante o mês de dezembro de 2001. Após aprovação pelo Comitê de Ética, as mães foram questionadas individualmente e verificamos que 79 (66% delas utilizam com maior freqüência a camomila, a erva-doce e a hortelã para cólicas intestinais, sintomas de gripe e tranqüilizar seus filhos. As informações sobre como e o que utilizar vieram, segundo as mães, principalmente de pais e avós 45 (57% e, concluindo, não encontramos grandes diferenças entre o uso nas duas regiões de São Paulo.El uso de la fitoterapia en el cuidado de ninõs menores de cinco años en áreas central y periférica de la ciudad de São Paulo.Esta investigación constató la utilización de la fitoterapia en ninõs que acuden a un centro de salud del área central y a un centro de salud de la periferia de São Paulo. Es un estudio exploratorio descriptivo, con 120 madres que acudieron a los dos centros de salud (60 en la región central y 60 en la región periférica durante el mes de diciembre de 2001. Después de la aprobación por el Comité de Ética, las madres fueron preguntadas individualmente y verificamos que el 79 (66% de ellas utilizam con mayor frecuencia la manzanilla, el anís y la hierba buena para los cólicos intestinales, síntomas de gripe y tranquilizante para sus hijos. Las informaciones sobre cómo y qué utilizar, vinieron principalmente de padres y abuelos 45 (57% y no encontramos gran diferencia entre el uso de las hierbas en las regiones de São Paulo.This research evaluated the use of phytotherapy in children who attend a Health Center in an urban area and a Health Center in the suburbs of São Paulo city. This

  15. Emerging importance of geographical indications and designations of origin - authenticating geo-authentic botanicals and implications for phytotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinckmann, J A

    2013-11-01

    Pharmacopoeial monographs providing specifications for composition, identity, purity, quality, and strength of a botanical are developed based on analysis of presumably authenticated botanical reference materials. The specimens should represent the quality traditionally specified for the intended use, which may require different standards for medicinal versus food use. Development of quality standards monographs may occur through collaboration between a sponsor company or industry association and a pharmacopoeial expert committee. The sponsor may base proposed standards and methods on their own preferred botanical supply which may, or may not, be geo-authentic and/or correspond to qualities defined in traditional medicine formularies and pharmacopoeias. Geo-authentic botanicals are those with specific germplasm, cultivated or collected in their traditional production regions, of a specified biological age at maturity, with specific production techniques and processing methods. Consequences of developing new monographs that specify characteristics of an 'introduced' cultivated species or of a material obtained from one unique origin could lead to exclusion of geo-authentic herbs and may have therapeutic implications for clinical practice. In this review, specifications of selected medicinal plants with either a geo-authentic or geographical indication designation are discussed and compared against official pharmacopoeial standards for same genus and species regardless of origin. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Phytotherapy of chronic dermatitis and pruritus of dogs with a topical preparation containing tea tree oil (Bogaskin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzi, J; Fürst-Jucker, J; Wegener, T; Saller, R; Reichling, J

    2002-05-01

    Localised dermatitis, for example unspecific eczema or skinfold pyoderma, is a very common diagnosis in dogs. Typical and impressive complaints are pruritus, erythema, erosion and oozing surface. With respect to the underlying disease dermatological treatment is indicated, usually based on antimicrobial and antipruriginous active substances, it can include transient glucocorticoids. An effective and safe alternative might be a phytotherapeutic topical preparation containing tea tree oil. Tea tree oil exerts both antimicrobial and antipruriginous effects. In an open multicenter study efficacy and safety of a standardized 10% tea tree oil cream applied thinly and twice daily for 4 weeks was tested in 53 dogs with chronic dermatitis, particularly non-specific eczema, allergic dermatitis, interdigital pyoderma, acral lick dermatitis and skinfold pyoderma. Analysis of efficacy assessed by investigating veterinarians showed a good or very good response to treatment for 82% of the dogs, significant at a 5% level (p = 0.05). At the end of the study a strong and significant reduction (p = 0.001) as well as disappearance of major symptoms were observed. Only two adverse events (local reactions) possibly related to tea tree oil occurred during therapy. Consequently the tested study medication (Bogaskin) can be considered an alternative for uncomplicated and localised dermatitis in dogs. Bogaskin might allow reduction of other pharmaceutical products, perhaps even replace standard therapy.

  17. Tamarind (Tamarindus indica linn. and Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.Moench: their Potential Utilization in Phytotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina D Loria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of botanical extracts and essential oil in skin care has been increasing due to greater demand on the part of consumers to use natural ingredients. Tamarind and Sweet Sorghum really have   big potentials  for reaching the public and showcasing its benefits , thus this study could encourage growers to raise more Tamarind and Sweet Sorghum in their areas not only as  food but as a raw material in the production of natural products which are for health and wellness. Both Tamarind and Sweet Sorghum possess skin healing effect which may be attributed to their biologically active components. Tamarind  possess to have bioflavonoids and alkaloids which occur in its leaves, pulp and bark. The bark contains  tannin which are recommended for treatments of inflammation, ulceration and skin disease. Tamarind has  Tartaric acid that makes it possible for tamarind to works wonders on oily skin with pimples and on sun-damaged.  Sweet Sorghum on the other hand contains emulsion, a substance that can give a moisturizing effect on the skin. the majestic phytochemistry of Tamarind and Sweet Sorghum encouraged the researcher  to produce and test  the acceptability, efficacy and safety of different skin care products that are commonly needed by the community. The Tamarind Leaves soap was proven to be highly acceptable in terms of its color, odor, texture, hardness and overall appearance. Both the Tamarind soap and the Sweet Sorghum soap were safe and free from insoluble soap and fatty acid soap. The percent reduction of acne in using Tamarind soap, Sweet Sorghum and Commercial soap have similar effect on the tenth and twelve days of use. The initial means of the treatments ranges from 10.00 pustule to 2.00 pustule. After 12 days of treatment the mean decrease is zero or equivalent to 100% decrease in the number of acne. The result of this study maybe explained with the result on antibacterial property test ( against Staphylococcus A. of Tamarind soap and Sweet Sorghum Soap. Tamarind soap with 8% extract was found to be most effective in reduction of pimples. The Tamarind shower gel and Sweet Sorghum shower gels were effective against Staphylococcus Aurous. Tamarind Bark Ointment was an effective anti – inflammatory agent particularly on swelling and redness as well as for wound healing. Tamarind scrub salt, shower gel  and liniment  were also highly acceptable and found to be safe and effective. Result on the acceptability of Sweet Sorghum natural products are comparable to the acceptability of Tamarind natural products.  The development of technology for the Production of Natural  Products from Tamarind and Sweet Sorghum is timely, considering the growing consciousness of consumers on safe, organic and healthy natural products. Likewise, this product diversification scheme can promote multi-uses and competitive of the Tamarind and Sweet Sorghum.

  18. In vitro PHYTOTHERAPY OF VECTOR SNAILS BY BINARY COMBINATIONS OF LARVICIDAL ACTIVE COMPONENTS IN EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF FASCIOLIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Sunita

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY A food-borne trematode infection fascioliasis is one among common public health problems worldwide. It caused a great economic loss for the human race. Control of snail population below a certain threshold level is one of the important methods in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. The life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the snail or Fasciola larva redia and cercaria inside of the snail Lymnaea acuminata. In vitro toxicity of different binary combinations (1:1 ratio of plant-derived larvicidal active components such as citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin and allicin against Fasciola redia and cercaria were tested. The mortality of larvae was observed at 2h, 4h, 6h and 8h of treatment. In in vitro condition azadirachtin + allicin (1:1 ratio was highly toxic against redia and cercaria (8h LC50 0.006 and 0.005 mg/L. Toxicity of citral + ferulic acid was lowest against redia and cercaria larvae.

  19. In vitro PHYTOTHERAPY OF VECTOR SNAILS BY BINARY COMBINATIONS OF LARVICIDAL ACTIVE COMPONENTS IN EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF FASCIOLIASIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunita, Kumari; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY A food-borne trematode infection fascioliasis is one among common public health problems worldwide. It caused a great economic loss for the human race. Control of snail population below a certain threshold level is one of the important methods in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. The life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the snail or Fasciola larva redia and cercaria inside of the snail Lymnaea acuminata. In vitro toxicity of different binary combinations (1:1 ratio) of plant-derived larvicidal active components such as citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin and allicin against Fasciola redia and cercaria were tested. The mortality of larvae was observed at 2h, 4h, 6h and 8h of treatment. In in vitro condition azadirachtin + allicin (1:1 ratio) was highly toxic against redia and cercaria (8h LC50 0.006 and 0.005 mg/L). Toxicity of citral + ferulic acid was lowest against redia and cercaria larvae. PMID:24037283

  20. Nanotechnology in Phytotherapy: Antiinflammatory Effect of a Nanostructured Thymol Gel from Lippia sidoides in Acute Periodontitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Marco A; Barros, Gisele; Queiroz, Dinalva B; Carvalho, Celso Felício; Gouvea, Julia; Patrus, Lia; Bannet, Mariane; Patrus, Danile; Rego, Amália; Silva, Ivaldo; Campus, Guglielmo; Araújo-Filho, Irami

    2016-01-01

    Lippia sidoides Cham (Verbenaceae) is largely distributed in the northeastern region of Brazil. It is popularly known as 'Alecrim-pimenta'. Recent studies have shown that some species of Lippia have interesting pharmacological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a nanostructured thymol gel (TG) 1.2 mg/g on acute phase of ligature-induced periodontitis model [acute periodontal disease (APD)] in rats. APD was induced in 24 Wistar rats subjected to ligature placement on left molars in maxillae. Animals were treated with TG, immediately after APD induction. Saline-based gel was utilized as negative control and diethylammonium diclofenac gel 10 mg/g was used as positive control. Animals were randomly assigned into the groups. The periodontium and the surrounding gingiva were examined at histopathology, as well as the neutrophil influx into the gingiva was assayed using myeloperoxidase activity levels by ELISA method. TG treatment reduced tissue lesion at histopathology coupled to decreased myeloperoxidase activity production in gingival tissue when compared with the saline gel control group (p < 0.05). The TG gel was able to provide a significant myeloperoxidase decreasing in gingiva tissue confirming to be effective in reducing gingival inflammation in this model.

  1. Herbal Products in Italy: The Thin Line between Phytotherapy, Nutrition and Parapharmaceuticals; A Normative Overview of the Fastest Growing Market in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Marco; Pecorari, Rita; Appendino, Giovanni; Miraldi, Elisabetta; Magnano, Anna Rosa; Governa, Paolo; Cettolin, Giulia; Giachetti, Daniela

    2016-10-29

    The Italian herbal products market is the most prosperous in Europe. The proof is represented by the use of these products in several marketing categories, ranging from medicine to nutrition and cosmetics. Market and legislation in Italy are at the same time cause and consequence of this peculiar situation. In fact, the legislation on botanical food supplements in Italy is very permissive and at the same time the market shows an overall satisfaction of users and strong feedback in terms of consumption, which brings a widening use of medicinal plants, formerly the prerogative of pharmaceuticals, to other fields such as nutrition. This review summarizes the market and normative panorama of herbal products in Italy, highlighting the blurred boundaries of health indications, marketing authorizations and quality controls between herbal medicines and non pharmaceutical products, such as food supplements, cosmetics and other herbal-based "parapharmaceuticals".

  2. ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN THE TRADITIONAL PHYTOTHERAPY OF CHEST DISEASES BY THE GUJJAR-BAKERWAL TRIBE OF DISTRICT RAJOURI OF JAMMU & KASHMIR STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical study was conducted in district Rajouri, Jammu And Kashmir State aiming at identifying plants used to treat chest diseases mainly related to respiratory system. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview members of the tribal population including traditional healers, herb sellers, and other villagers. The plant parts used as well as the modes of preparation and administration were recorded. Thirty one plant species belonging to twenty four families were collected and identified by their vernacular and scientific names. The Asteraceae, Acanthaceae, Pinaceae were the most represented family with three species each, followed by the Anacrdiaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae with two species each. All the remaining 15 families were represented by one species each. The plant part most frequently used to treat respiratory diseases in the study was reported as Root followed by leaf, flower, fruit, bark and seed. Also many other plant parts including rhizomes, galls, buds, resins and latex were found in use in various formulations for chest diseases cure.

  3. Antiplasmodial potential of traditional phytotherapy of some remedies used in treatment of malaria in Meru-Tharaka Nithi County of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthaura, C N; Keriko, J M; Mutai, C; Yenesew, Abiy; Gathirwa, J W; Irungu, B N; Nyangacha, R; Mungai, G M; Derese, Solomon

    2015-12-04

    Medicinal plants play a major role in many communities across the world, in the treatment and prevention of disease and the promotion of general health. The aim of the study was to escalate documentation from an earlier study of medicinal plants, traditionally used to combat malaria by the Ameru community of Imenti Forest area and Gatunga in Eastern Region of Kenya, and validate their ethnopharmacological claims by evaluating their antiplasmodial efficacies. The study was carried out in Meru County at Imenti Forest Game Reserve and in Tharaka Nithi County at Gatunga. Traditional health practitioners (THP) were interviewed with a standard questionnaire to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for management of malaria. Group interviews were also held among THPs and members of the community. The antiplasmodial activities of the crude extracts against chloroquine sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum were determined using the semi-automated micro-dilution technique that measures the ability of the extracts to inhibit the incorporation of (G-3H) hypoxanthine into the malaria parasite. Ninety nine (99) species in eighty one (81) genera and forty five (45) families were documented and evaluated for in vitro antiplasmodial activity. Compositae, Fabaceae, Meliceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae had the highest number of species mentioned in treatment of malaria in Meru/Tharaka Nithi study area. Twenty four (24.2%) species showed antiplasmodial efficacy of IC50 ≤ 5 µg/ml and were considered to have potential for isolation of antimalarial compounds. Eight plant (8) species with moderate antiplasmodial activity namely; Cordia africana, Commiphora africana, Elaeodendron buchananii, Gomphocarpus semilunatus, Tarena graveolens, Plectranthus igniarius, Acacia senegal and Ziziphus abyssinica were documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. The antiplasmodial activity of MeOH root bark extract of Maytenus obtusifolia was very promising (IC50 malaria and antimalarial activity. The results seem to indicate that ethnopharmacological inquiry used in search for new herbal remedies as predictive and could be used as the basis for search of new active principles. Eight plant (8) species are documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. This is the first report on traditional use of M. obtusifolia for treatment of malaria and evaluation of its antiplasmodial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Anti-infective phytotherapies of the tree-savannah, Senegal (occidental Africa). III: A review of phytochemical substances and the antimicrobial activity of 43 species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grand, A

    1989-05-01

    A review has been made of the ethnobotanical and pharmacological data of 43 medicinal plants of the tree-savannah used by the Diola against infectious diseases. The traditional use of ten plants can be explained by pharmacologically active principles: Adansonia digitata, Azadirachta indica, Carica papaya, Cassia tora, Fagara leprieurii, Guiera senegalensis, Khaya senegalensis, Mangifera indica, Psidium guajava and Voacanga africana. Four of these herbs are recommended for use in Primary Health Care. The therapeutic value of the other plants discussed is not absolutely clear. It is, however, obvious that herbal medicine has a large potential, which is still insufficiently explored, for utilization in Primary Health Care.

  5. Use of diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy and HPLC-UV-SPE-NMR to identify undeclared synthetic drugs in medicines illegally sold as phytotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lorena M A; Filho, Elenilson G A; Thomasi, Sérgio S; Silva, Bianca F; Ferreira, Antonio G; Venâncio, Tiago

    2013-09-01

    The informal (and/or illegal) e-commerce of pharmaceutical formulations causes problems that governmental health agencies find hard to control, one of which concerns formulas sold as natural products. The purpose of this work was to explore the advantages and limitations of DOSY and HPLC-UV-SPE-NMR. These techniques were used to identify the components of a formula illegally marketed in Brazil as an herbal medicine possessing anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. DOSY was able to detect the major components present at higher concentrations. Complete characterization was achieved using HPLC-UV-SPE-NMR, and 1D and 2D NMR analyses enabled the identification of known synthetic drugs. These were ranitidine and a mixture of orphenadrine citrate, piroxicam, and dexamethasone, which are co-formulated in a remedy called Rheumazim that is used to relieve severe pain, but it is prohibited in Brazil because of a lack of sufficient pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic information. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Evidence-based study of quantitative four nature of drugs based on the advances of phytotherapy research%植物药疗法研究现状及药物四性定量循证思维初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾令烽; 陈云波; 程淑意; 孔令朔; 王璐; 王克柱; 王奇; 王宁生

    2016-01-01

    寒、凉、温、热,简称“四气”,被视为以中草药为主的植物药疗法其最根本的4种属性,其内涵侧重于植物药与人体相互作用的效应.在传统中医理论指导下,如何把植物药研究进行定量标化分析,进而促进其国际化、现代化发展,这仍然是当前中医药发展倍感困惑的问题之一.在此类背景下,不少国内外研究者根据当前各自领域的最佳研究证据,陆续展开了系列循证思维与实践探索.随着生物光子检测技术的发展,人体生物光子辐射特性及光子计数分布检测理论不断得以充实,这过程促进其在中医植物药中的探索与潜在应用.运用生物光子辐射检测分析,对植物药与人体的相互作用进行研究,并对其效应进行定量分析,这过程从根本上来说与传统中医理论的整体观念相吻合.源自生物系统其电磁辐射的统计熵,可对植物药研究的四性属性进行相关性描述;光谱效应分析,则可对其药性归经进行客观评价.文章围绕上述核心问题在药用植物药的属性研究现状、当前植物药属性研究的局限性等方面展开论述,并就研究思维与评价模式的二次探索等层面进行相关分析,以期为当前植物药疗法研究实践决策提供参考.

  7. Análise sobre a fitoterapia como prática integrativa no Sistema Único de Saúde Analysis about phytotherapy as an integrating practice in the Brazilian Unified Health System (UHS)

    OpenAIRE

    R.L. Santos; G.P. Guimaraes; M.S.C. Nobre; A.S. Portela

    2011-01-01

    É notável o crescente uso da fitoterapia como prática médica integrativa em diversos países. A utilização de plantas medicinais no Brasil tem como facilitadores a grande diversidade vegetal e o baixo custo associado à terapêutica, o que vem despertando a atenção dos programas de assistência à saúde e profissionais. O Ministério da Saúde, com a finalidade de evitar o uso inadequado desta prática medicinal, tem demonstrado interesse por meio do incentivo de pesquisas relacionadas ao assunto, fa...

  8. Perfil de utilização de fitoterápicos em farmácias comunitárias de Belo Horizonte sob a influência da legislação nacional Profile of the utilization of phytotherapie medicines in communitary pharmacies of Belo Horizonte, under the influence of the national legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Ribeiro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Um panorama do consumo de fitoterápicos em farmácias comunitárias de Belo Horizonte (MG é utilizado neste artigo como instrumento para analisar a influência da legislação nacional sobre este mercado. Para tal, foram entrevistados indivíduos que adquiriram fitoterápicos nos estabelecimentos farmacêuticos visitados. Observa-se que, na mesma nação detentora da maior biodiversidade do planeta e privilegiada por uma cultura popular conhecedora das propriedades terapêuticas das plantas, existe uma tendência de mercado para a utilização de plantas exóticas, oriundas de países desenvolvidos. A influência da legislação brasileira de fitoterápicos, que prima pela qualidade, eficácia e segurança desses medicamentos, mas que, ao mesmo tempo, tende a proscrever as drogas nativas que fazem parte da medicina popular brasileira, é discutida nesse trabalho. Verifica-se, assim, a pertinência de se discutir o perfil de usuário de fitoterápicos à luz das normas de registro desses fármacos no país no campo da saúde pública, tendo em vista que essa legislação repercute nas estratégias e/ou empecilhos para aumentar o acesso a medicamentos pela população.An overview of the herbal drugs consumption in communitarian pharmacies in Belo Horizonte (MG, Brazil is used in this article as a tool to analyze the influence of the national law over this market. In order to reach this goal, individuals that had bought herbal drugs were interviewed at the pharmacies. It was observed that, in the same nation that has the highest biodiversity in the planet and is privileged by a popular culture knowledgeable in the therapeutic properties of the plants, there is a tendency in the market for the use of exotic plants, coming from developed countries. The influence of the Brazilian law about the herbal drugs, which constantly worries about the quality, efficiency and safety of these medicines, but at the same time, tends to proscribe the native drugs that are part of the popular medicine, is discussed in this assignment. It is concluded that it is pertinent to discuss the profile of the herbal drugs users in the spot of the laws of the country related to these drugs, in the field of the public health, since this legislation is reflected in the strategies and/or barriers to increase the access to the drugs by the population.

  9. Assessment of anti-inflammatory potential of Sesbania bispinosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ganesh D. Boddawar

    2015-12-23

    Dec 23, 2015 ... b School of Physical Sciences, SRTM University, Nanded 431606, MS, India. Received 5 ... phyto-therapy, the fear about the possible side effects of allo- ..... cytokine for model mice of rheumatoid arthritis in vivo. Bioorg.

  10. Efficiency and costs of the health management in an organic dairy farm where we use unconventional medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Polidori; Massimo Casini; Paolo Tambini; Stefano Squilloni; Sara Gallai; Luca Sabatini; Giangiacomo Lorenzini; Andrea Martini

    2010-01-01

    The EU organic regulation explicitly promote the use of unconventional therapies, like homoeopathy and phytotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficiency and the costs of these treatment methods. From December 2006 to September 2008, we analyzed the data recorded in an organic dairy farm where the animals are normally treated by classical unicistic homeopathy and phytotherapy, and only when indispensable, by allophaty, antiparasitic drugs, surgery and vaccines. The u...

  11. Efficiency and costs of the health management in an organic dairy farm where we use unconventional medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Polidori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU organic regulation explicitly promote the use of unconventional therapies, like homoeopathy and phytotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficiency and the costs of these treatment methods. From December 2006 to September 2008, we analyzed the data recorded in an organic dairy farm where the animals are normally treated by classical unicistic homeopathy and phytotherapy, and only when indispensable, by allophaty, antiparasitic drugs, surgery and vaccines. The use of homeopathy resulted to be predominant in comparison with the others treatments. Besides, our trial showed that homeopathy and phytotherapy could be used to treat, with good outcomes, the majority of diseases that occur in a dairy cattle farm, even if, sometimes, conventional medicines have to be used. The costs for unconventional treatments are very low in comparison with conventional ones. This will allow the spreading of unconventional medicines in the Italian organic farms.

  12. Phytothérapie traditionnelle des bovins dans les élevages de la plaine de la Ruzizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaisse F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional horned cattle phytotherapy in the Rusizi plain breedings [Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo]. After presenting the ecological characteristics of the Rusizi plain and reminding of the socio-economical importance of horned cattle for the local populations, the authors deal with the traditional phytotherapy knowledge in this area. The study lists the plants used, the organs concerned (leaves, bark, root, fruit, etc., as well as the formula and doses recommended regarding the recognized diseases. Finally this ethnobotanical knowledge is placed and discussed regarding the East African one.

  13. Phytoneering: a new way of therapy for rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passali, D; Cambi, J; Passali, F M; Bellussi, L M

    2015-02-01

    A growing amount of scientific evidence suggests that herbal medicine may be helpful as an adjuvant treatment in rhinosinusitis. Herein, we systematically review and determine the role, efficacy and safety of phytotherapy in the treatment of acute and chronic rhinosinusitis and establish the qualities of herbal drugs as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Eligible studies published in English or German from January 1990 until June 2014 were identified via electronic database searches. Keywords were: sinusitis, phytotherapy, phytomedicine and herbal drugs. Additional studies were obtained through the references of selected articles. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Overall, the publications indicated that herbal medicines can have mucolytic, antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and secretolytic effects in experimental animals. Phytotherapy has also been found to be efficacious in reducing the symptoms of acute and chronic rhinosinusitis in children and the adult population in vivo, demonstrating a high level of tolerability and safety. Herbal products developed using phytoneering techniques have shown improvements in performance compared with previous formulations. The current literature suggests that phytotherapy is an effective and safe form of ancillary treatment for rhinosinusitis. In particular, herbal drugs made with the technique of phytoneering have proven effective in acute rhinosinusitis.

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 11, No 3 (2014), The Bioload and Aflatoxin Content of Herbal Medicines from .... Vol 13, No 2 (2016), The efficacy and safety of Urtica dioica in treating benign ... Vol 9, No 1 (2012), The Influence of Phytotherapy on Prolactin Level in ...

  15. A review of plants used in folk veterinary medicine in Italy as basis for a databank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viegi, L.; Pieroni, A.; Guarrera, P.M.; Vangelisti, R.

    2003-01-01

    We report folk veterinary phytotherapy in Italy collected from ethnobotanical scientific literature of the second half of the 20th Century. References are cited together with unpublished data gathered recently in the field by the authors. The data have been placed in two databases: one organized by

  16. A review of plants used in folk veterinary medicine in Italy as basis for a databank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viegi, L.; Pieroni, A.; Guarrera, P.M.; Vangelisti, R.

    2003-01-01

    We report folk veterinary phytotherapy in Italy collected from ethnobotanical scientific literature of the second half of the 20th Century. References are cited together with unpublished data gathered recently in the field by the authors. The data have been placed in two databases: one organized by

  17. In vivo screening of five phytochemicals/extracts and a fungal immunomodulatory protein against colibacillosis in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, H.W.; Halkes, S.B.A.; Mes, J.J.; Landman, W.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Besides the anticoccidial drug resistance problem, increasing consumer concerns about food safety and residues have propelled the quest for alternative prevention and control strategies amongst which phytotherapy has gained appeal due to a renewed interest in natural medicine.Objective: The

  18. In vivo screening of five phytochemicals/extracts and a fungal immunomodulatory protein against colibacillosis in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, H.W.; Halkes, S.B.A.; Mes, J.J.; Landman, W.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Besides the anticoccidial drug resistance problem, increasing consumer concerns about food safety and residues have propelled the quest for alternative prevention and control strategies amongst which phytotherapy has gained appeal due to a renewed interest in natural medicine.Objective: The objectiv

  19. In vivo screening of five phytochemicals/extracts and a fungal immunomodulatory protein against colibacillosis in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, H.W.; Halkes, S.B.A.; Mes, J.J.; Landman, W.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Besides the anticoccidial drug resistance problem, increasing consumer concerns about food safety and residues have propelled the quest for alternative prevention and control strategies amongst which phytotherapy has gained appeal due to a renewed interest in natural medicine.Objective: The objectiv

  20. Correction of the functional condition of the bile excretory system in pathogenetic management of polymorbid patients with atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Gorbacheva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the search was development of some methods for improvement of effectiveness of treatment of polymorbid patients with atherosclerosis and disordered bile outflow. Complex phytotherapy (phytocomplex «Hepar» with its hepatoprotective and choleratic effects was prescribed for 33 patients with atherosclerosis and hepatobiliary dysfunction (in addition to dietotherapy and choleratics. Administration of the balanced phytotherapy resulted in significant reduction of the cholesterol level associated with the decrease of the C-reactive protein index in the blood. These changes were followed by decrease of the blood lipids and protein substrates oxidation - the factors meaning suppression of the degree of oxidative stress and of inflammation in the body.

  1. PHARMACIES LIVE : The context of the use of medicinal plants and herbal medicines through social actors in Fortaleza

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Lopes Rufino

    2015-01-01

    The practice of Living Pharmacies (FVs) in Fortaleza precedes Phytotherapy Deployment Policy in Public Health in the state of CearÃ, Decree No. 30016 of December 30, 2009. Conceived by Professor Francisco Josà Matos, the FVs make up the practices complementary integrative, anchored in the Municipal Public Policy and National Medicinal Plants and Herbal medicines. To understand how this municipal public policy within living pharmacy emerged and structure, and social actors see this public poli...

  2. The Advantages of Traditional Chumash Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Adams

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chumash healing has been practiced in California for ∼13 000 years. Chumash healers treat their patients with prayer, laughter, dreaming, phytotherapy, aromatherapy, healing ceremonies and other techniques. Healing involves first healing the spirit, then healing the body. Chumash people still maintain their unique identity. Chumash Healers still practice the ancient healing arts in California. This lecture is a brief introduction to Chumash Healing.

  3. Diminution of oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury and inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro by aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Recurrence and persistent side effects of present day treatment for urolithiasis restrict their use, so an alternate solution, using phytotherapy is being sought. The present study attempted to evaluate the antilithiatic properties of Tribulus terrestris commonly called as “gokhru” which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including urolithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The activity of Tribulus terrestris was investigated on nucleation and the growth of the cal...

  4. Extraction by solvent using microwave and ultrasound-assisted techniques followed by HPLC analysis of Harpagoside from Harpagophytum procumbens and comparison with conventional solvent extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Filly, Aurore; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Mabrouki, Fathi; Chemat, Farid; Ollivier, Évelyne

    2016-01-01

    This research paper presents a quick and ecofriendly technique for the extraction of harpagoside (HS), the active marker of Harpagophytum procumbens (HP), along with a comparison with conventional methods so as to propose an efficient HPLC method. HP is widely used as an anti-inflammatory in phytotherapy. The quality control of the herbal drug and extract calls for a time consuming method of conventional extraction, which involves a high consumption of solvents. In this study, HP has been ...

  5. Kampo medicine: Evaluation of the pharmacological activity of 121 herbal drugs on GABA(A) and 5 HT3A receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Katrin M Hoffmann; Robin Herbrechter; Ziemba, Paul M.; Peter Lepke; Leopoldo Raul Beltran; Hanns Hatt; Markus Werner; Guenter Gisselmann

    2016-01-01

    Kampo medicine is a form of Japanese phytotherapy originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). During the last several decades, much attention has been paid to the pharmacological effects of these medical plants and its constituents. However, in many cases, a systematic screening of Kampo remedies to determine pharmacologically relevant targets is still lacking. In this study, we performed a broad screening of Kampo remedies to look for pharmacologically relevant 5 HT3A and GABA(A) re...

  6. Kampo Medicine: Evaluation of the Pharmacological Activity of 121 Herbal Drugs on GABAA and 5-HT3A Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Katrin M Hoffmann; Herbrechter, Robin; Ziemba, Paul M.; Lepke, Peter; Beltrán, Leopoldo; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Kampo medicine is a form of Japanese phytotherapy originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). During the last several decades, much attention has been paid to the pharmacological effects of these medical plants and their constituents. However, in many cases, a systematic screening of Kampo remedies to determine pharmacologically relevant targets is still lacking. In this study, a broad screening of Kampo remedies was performed to look for pharmacologically relevant 5-HT3A and GABAA r...

  7. [Evaluation and pluralism from the viewpoint of constitutional law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuck, Rüdiger

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation of a scientific method proceeds by means of the fitting attitude analysis. In a pluralistic system, there are different therapy concepts and therefore also different evaluation methods. The German legal system acknowledges this principle for the special therapy forms of phytotherapy, homeopathy, and anthroposophic medicine. For these fields, the golden standard is not the evidence-based medicine but, based on the principle of internal recognition, the acceptance of and response to the therapy concept.

  8. The use of complementary and integrative practices in oral health

    OpenAIRE

    Camila da Silva Gonçalo; Nelson Filice de Barros

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recognizes the medical practices derived from the culture of each country, as Traditional Medicine, but all over the world, there has been no consensus about the denomination of these practices. InBrazil, the Ministry of Health recognizes the use of the following, as Complementary and Integrative Practices (CIP): Acupuncture, Homeopathy, Medicinal Plants/Phytotherapy, Thermal Water/Crenotherapy, Anthroposophic Medicine. Based on the therapies recognized by the Mi...

  9. Die antihomotoxische Therapie des grippalen Infekts

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Alternative medicine – phytotherapy and homeopathy in particular – enjoy increasing popularity in Germany. Under the medical indication of a common cold, however, only a small quantity of remedies are backed by studies with a high level of evidence regarding efficacy and innocuousness. The antihomotoxic therapy as such is a recognized „particular biological therapy“ and is considered a link between traditional medicine and homeopathy. It is equipped with a wide range of specific pharmaceutica...

  10. Herbal medicines for urinary stone treatment. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Monti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the clinical evidence on the efficacy of phytotherapy in the treatment of calculi in the urinary tract. Methods: To be eligible, full-length articles should include the results of randomized controlled trials enrolling patients affected by urolithiasis, reporting any comparison between an experimental herbal agent versus placebo or any active comparator, aimed at preventing the formation or facilitating the dissolution of calculi in any portion of the urinary tract. Fifteen databases were searched for relevant references. The primary outcomes investigated were (i the reduction of stone size and/or number and (ii the urinary excretion rates of calcium, urate, or oxalate. The secondary outcome of the review was the adverse effects (AE of treatment. Risk of bias (ROB and quality of the evidence were assessed according to Cochrane and GRADE guidelines. We performed a randomeffect meta-analysis. Results: 541 articles were retrieved and 16 studies were finally confirmed as eligible. Multiple Cochrane ROB tool items were rated as having high risk of bias in each analyzed trial report. Pooled analysis of continuous data could be performed for three different comparisons: (i phytotherapy versus citrate as single agent (ii phytotherapy versus placebo, (iii preparation of Didymocarpus pedicellata (DP -combined with other herbal agents- versus placebo. Results showed that citrate is superior to phytotherapy in significantly decreasing both the size of urinary stones (mean difference: phytotherapy, 0.42 mm higher; 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.6; Z = 4.42, P < 0.0001; I2 = 30% and the urinary excretion rate of urate (mean difference: 42.32 mg/24h higher, 95% CI: 19.44 to 65.19; Z = 3.63, P = 0.0003; I2 = 96%, assessed after 3 months on-therapy. No significant differences in the excretion rates of urinary calcium or oxalate were found. The DP preparation was superior to placebo in inducing total clearance (risk ratio: 6.19, 95% CI: 2.60 to 14.74; Z

  11. Use of herbal medicines in children following EBM criteria. Effectiveness and tolerability of echinacea, cranberry, and chamomile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Careddu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent appreciation of phytotherapy is related to the evidence of efficacy of herbal medicines, as well as to the continuous improvement of scientific and clinical knowledge of their effects. Unfortunately among herbal medicine it is frequent to find products that are neither registered nor controlled by regulatory bodies, with a lack of proofs regarding their constituents and quality.Phytotherapy can find its role among medical therapies only if each medication is standardised and controlled according to the requirements of an official Pharmacopoeia, and produced on the basis of Good Manufacturing Practices similar to those used in pharmaceutical companies. This is even more important in paediatric age, also because often parents administer herbal medications to their children, without asking the physician or the pharmacist for advice, being convinced that “natural products” are always safe and do not have adverse events or interactions. The evaluation of these products, ensuring their safety and efficacy through registration and regulation,is an important challenge. To improve an evidence-based and safe use, herbal medicines should be titrated, standardised and labelled. Clinical applications, pharmacology, dosage, possible contraindications and precautions (i.e. during pregnancy, breastfeeding and paediatric age, and potential adverse reactions should be clearly described and codified, for example in the officialPharmacopeia and in the various Monographs (ESCOP, The European Scientific Cooperative On Phytotherapy, and WHO, World Health Organization.The purpose of this article is to provide a review on the safety and efficacy of some medicinal plants widely used in the paediatric age: echinacea, cranberry, and chamomile. The final aim is to help to use herbal medicine on the basis of the criteria of the Evidence Based Medicine.

  12. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF LEAF TEAS BLACKBERRY (MORUS NIGRA)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Zanco; de Souza, E F; Bonacorsi,C.

    2017-01-01

    Brazil has a long tradition in the use of plants, and is the same used in different ways, such as in the form of infusions and decoctions, for therapeutic purposes. Morus nigra species is a plant that has been used in different parts of the world as phytotherapy. This plant is known as mulberry, black, blackberry black or blackberry and various parts of the plant, such as leaves, fruit, bark and roots are used by the population, demonstrating anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant, hypoglyce...

  13. [Recommendation for Sinupret as a supplementary specimen in pharmacological treatment of rhinosinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golusiński, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Due to rhinosinusitis symptoms severity and relatively high treatment resistance, excipients, supplementing basic pharmacological and surgical treatment, have played a significant role in the recent years. Phytotherapy is one of the most dynamically developing studies which focuses on implementing natural active substances into the treatment. 2012 EPOS Report pinpoints the benefits of using substances of natural origin in patients with acute rhinosinusitis. Sinupret drug has been proven effective in clinical trials, as a drug for both acute and chronic rhinosinusitis, in children and adults. Sinupret is a multidirectional drug, which significantly alleviates the symptoms of rhinosinusitis.

  14. EAV and Gemmotherapy - Medicine for the Next Millennium? (technique as a means to link eastern and western medicine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkova, A; Sarek, M

    2005-01-01

    These article give you basic information about technique as a means to link eastern and western medicine based on using combination of EAV (Electro-Acupuncture According to Dr. Voll) and gemmotherapy, a special form of phytotherapy. Experience with this method continues to grow steadily and some very interesting results are already available today. Based on the results of treatment achieved in our practice so far (17.000 examinations during 10 years), we are convinced that EAV and gemmotherapy will become, and in fact has already become, a successful natural treatment method for the 21st century.

  15. Scientific committee. Comité scientifique

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Présidents / Chairmen Docteur Jacques FleurentinSociété française d’ethnopharmacologieUniversité de Metz Professeur Jean-Marie PeltInstitut européen d’écologieUniversité de Metz Docteur Guy MazarsEuropean Society of EthnopharmacologyUniversité de Strasbourg Dr Philippe Antoine Societe belge de phytotherapie, Belgique Dr Peter Babulka Universite Eotvos Lorand, Hongrie Pr Guy Balansard Universite de la Mediterranee, France Dr Jamal Bellakhdar Association “Al Biruniya”, Maroc Pr Jean Benoist Uni...

  16. A meta-analysis of medicinal plants to assess the evidence for toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sarah; Vieira, Amandio

    2010-06-01

    Toxicity of phytochemicals, plant-based extracts and dietary supplements, and medicinal plants in general, is of medical importance and must be considered in phytotherapy and other plant uses. We show in this report how general database analyses can provide a quantitative assessment of research and evidence related to toxicity of medicinal plants or specific phytochemicals. As examples, several medicinal plants are analyzed for their relation to nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The results of analyses in different databases are similar, and reveal the two best-established toxic effects among the group of plants that were examined: nephrotoxicity of Aristolochia fangchi and hepatotoxicity of Larrea tridentata.

  17. MENOPAUSE AND NATURAL HEALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucija Vrabič Dežman

    2008-12-01

    The studies could not decisively confirm the effectiveness of various phytoestrogens inamelioration of climacteric symptoms. Most studies have proven the effectiveness of thenatural medication made of Cimicifuga racemosa and its safe short-term use. Gynecologists should be familiar with the basics of phytotherapy and the results of clinical studiesin this field in order to confidently advise women to use the natural medications in caseswhere despite the climacteric symptoms they cannot or will not use HRT, consequentlygreatly reducing the quality of their lives. In cases where climacteric symptoms are mild tomoderate, some menopausal societies around the globe suggest trying natural medicationfirst, and only later implementing HRT

  18. Herbal remedies and aroma for beauty and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Петрівна Гарник

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, non-medical, naturopathic methods remedies for prevention and treatment, including aromatherapy and phytotherapy, become more developed and perfect. Aromatherapy is one of phytotherapy methods using natural organic volatile aromatic substances of plants - essential oils. When used correctly they are comfortable, painless, and affordable remedies, affecting all systems and organs, allowing get over diseases, skin damage and possible mental disorders.Aim. The aim of our research was the literature data analysis, and our own study concerning the application of phytotherapeutic and aromatic remedies for skin and hair care, as well as for complex, rehabilitation and preventive treatment of respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal system disorders, cardiovascular system and increase work capacity.Methods. To solve the problem conventional analytical research of electronic and paper sources, as well as our own studies analysis, were used.Results. Based on the analysis of the literature data and our own studies, the effective phytotherapeutic remedies for different types of skin and hair care using different species of available herbal material and natural essential oils.The attention was focused on essential oils quality evaluation criteria suitable for medical use, and methods of their use for both children and adults.Conclusion. The essential oils lists explained from the scientific point of view were displayed for prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal system disorders, emotional state regulation, and during working on the computer, as well as elimination of cosmetic skin blemishes and premature ageing of the skin

  19. A Critical Review on Phytochemistry, Pharmacology of Viola odorata L. and Related Multipotential Products in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyzabadi, Zohre; Ghorbani, Fariba; Vazani, Yasaman; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2017-09-26

    Common violet (Viola odorata L., Violaceae) has shown various medical applications. Current study aimed to compile a review over chemical composition and medicinal properties of this plant in modern phytotherapy and its related multipotential products from traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Medicinal applications of V. odorata and respective products were derived from credible pharmaceutical textbooks of TPM (10th-18th century AD). In parallel, electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect were explored for targeted purposes. Management of cough, fever, common cold, headache, insomnia, epilepsy, constipation, palpitation, dyspnea, dysuria, and skin diseases is of most applications of V. odorata, reported in TPM. On the other side, this herb plant has exerted antiinflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, diuretic, antihypertensive, and antibacterial activities in modern phytotherapy. Violet TPM therapeutic preparations are including violet oil in the form of nasal or topical application for neurologic and skin disorders as well as pill, decoction, sweet syrup, and confection or semisolid oral preparations for skin, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary ailments. Flavonoids, saponins, and alkaloids are responsible for pharmacological activities. Some medical applications of V. odorata in TPM have been proven by recent studies. However, more studies are needed to confirm these medicinal properties. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Manufacturing process of high quality phytopreparation on example of herbal sedative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Sofija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rational phytotherapy is a modern concept of using plant-originated drugs which has emerged from the need to improve phytotherapy in order to make the use of herbal remedies more efficient and safer. The aim of this study was to give the health-care workers more information on the manufacturing process of high quality phytopreparation following principles of Good Manufacturing Practice and Good Laboratory Practice on the example of herbal sedative, Odoval S® capsules. Material and Methods. This study was designed to reflect the production process of a high-quality and safe herbal remedy, starting from defining the formulation and the production procedure to the quality control of raw materials, characterization of the final product, and testing stability of active ingredients in the capsules. Results. Formulation of the phytopreparation, validation of the production process, quality control and stability testing, all together have resulted in the production of capsules with defined valeric acid content (1 mg valeric acid per capsule. Discussion. The preparation is recommended to relieve the symptoms caused by chronic stress (anxiety, irritability, fatigue, lack of concentration, heart palpitations and for mild insomnia. Conclusion. This paper presents the complete cycle of the production of a phytopreparation on the example of a new herbal sedative - Odoval S® capsules.

  1. Diminution of oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury and inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro by aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aggarwal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recurrence and persistent side effects of present day treatment for urolithiasis restrict their use, so an alternate solution, using phytotherapy is being sought. The present study attempted to evaluate the antilithiatic properties of Tribulus terrestris commonly called as “gokhru” which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including urolithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The activity of Tribulus terrestris was investigated on nucleation and the growth of the calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals as well as on oxalate induced cell injury of NRK 52E renal epithelial cells. RESULTS: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and the growth of CaOx crystals. When NRK-52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 72 h, Tribulus terrestris extract prevented the injury in a dose-dependent manner. On treatment with the different concentrations of the plant, the cell viability increased and lactate dehydrogenase release decreased in a concentration dependent manner. CONCLUSION: The current data suggests that Tribulus terrestris extract not only has a potential to inhibit nucleation and the growth of the CaOx crystals but also has a cytoprotective role. Our results indicate that it could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  2. A Systematic Overview of Reviews for Complementary and Alternative Therapies in the Treatment of the Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy Lauche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This systematic overview of reviews aimed to summarize evidence and methodological quality from systematic reviews of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM for the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS. Methods. The PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases were screened from their inception to Sept 2013 to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of CAM interventions for FMS. Methodological quality of reviews was rated using the AMSTAR instrument. Results. Altogether 25 systematic reviews were found; they investigated the evidence of CAM in general, exercised-based CAM therapies, manipulative therapies, Mind/Body therapies, acupuncture, hydrotherapy, phytotherapy, and homeopathy. Methodological quality of reviews ranged from lowest to highest possible quality. Consistently positive results were found for tai chi, yoga, meditation and mindfulness-based interventions, hypnosis or guided imagery, electromyogram (EMG biofeedback, and balneotherapy/hydrotherapy. Inconsistent results concerned qigong, acupuncture, chiropractic interventions, electroencephalogram (EEG biofeedback, and nutritional supplements. Inconclusive results were found for homeopathy and phytotherapy. Major methodological flaws included missing details on data extraction process, included or excluded studies, study details, and adaption of conclusions based on quality assessment. Conclusions. Despite a growing body of scientific evidence of CAM therapies for the management of FMS systematic reviews still show methodological flaws limiting definite conclusions about their efficacy and safety.

  3. Safety, Efficacy, and Mechanistic Studies Regarding Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and p-Synephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J

    2017-07-28

    Citrus aurantium L. (bitter orange) extracts that contain p-synephrine as the primary protoalkaloid are widely used for weight loss/weight management, sports performance, appetite control, energy, and mental focus and cognition. Questions have been raised about the safety of p-synephrine because it has some structural similarity to ephedrine. This review focuses on current human, animal, in vitro, and mechanistic studies that address the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of action of bitter orange extracts and p-synephrine. Numerous studies have been conducted with respect to p-synephrine and bitter orange extract because ephedra and ephedrine were banned from use in dietary supplements in 2004. Approximately 30 human studies indicate that p-synephrine and bitter orange extracts do not result in cardiovascular effects and do not act as stimulants at commonly used doses. Mechanistic studies suggest that p-synephrine exerts its effects through multiple actions, which are discussed. Because p-synephrine exhibits greater adrenergic receptor binding in rodents than humans, data from animals cannot be directly extrapolated to humans. This review, as well as several other assessments published in recent years, has concluded that bitter orange extract and p-synephrine are safe for use in dietary supplements and foods at the commonly used doses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The treatment of medical plants: Opportunity and feasability of domestic industry

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    Dugalić Sretenka L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal technology can be determined, among various choices, for manufacturing phytopharmaceutical products by using the model of project profile and risk analysis of investment (comparative analysis of the project value. This technology takes into account different targets: marketing natural and social ones. The production is desirable for producers in Serbia to increase the accumulation of capital. The realization of profit in the production of these products also has ethical reasons because the income is distributed among research, development and social activities. This paper presents some results of research and practice regarding the manufacture of phytotherapy products, which can be useful for managers working on problems of technological restructuring as follows: 1. The feasability study for this production shows that the profit margin is between 10 and 25%. 2. The know-how for the production of phytotherapy products ranges from 12.5 to 25.5% of the total investment in new technology, which can be a great advantage in the development of original (domestic technology and its export to other countries (example Hemofarm. 3. The development of these products and realized profit improve research for new indication and initiate the production of other equipment (machines for packing, transport etc Furthermore, some extremely passive regions could be incorporated into such production. The production of phytopharmacy products has a social target supplying the market with cheap medical compounds obtained from plants without any undesired side effects in the treatment.

  5. A Systematic Overview of Reviews for Complementary and Alternative Therapies in the Treatment of the Fibromyalgia Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Cramer, Holger; Häuser, Winfried; Dobos, Gustav; Langhorst, Jost

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This systematic overview of reviews aimed to summarize evidence and methodological quality from systematic reviews of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Methods. The PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases were screened from their inception to Sept 2013 to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of CAM interventions for FMS. Methodological quality of reviews was rated using the AMSTAR instrument. Results. Altogether 25 systematic reviews were found; they investigated the evidence of CAM in general, exercised-based CAM therapies, manipulative therapies, Mind/Body therapies, acupuncture, hydrotherapy, phytotherapy, and homeopathy. Methodological quality of reviews ranged from lowest to highest possible quality. Consistently positive results were found for tai chi, yoga, meditation and mindfulness-based interventions, hypnosis or guided imagery, electromyogram (EMG) biofeedback, and balneotherapy/hydrotherapy. Inconsistent results concerned qigong, acupuncture, chiropractic interventions, electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback, and nutritional supplements. Inconclusive results were found for homeopathy and phytotherapy. Major methodological flaws included missing details on data extraction process, included or excluded studies, study details, and adaption of conclusions based on quality assessment. Conclusions. Despite a growing body of scientific evidence of CAM therapies for the management of FMS systematic reviews still show methodological flaws limiting definite conclusions about their efficacy and safety.

  6. [From Swiss herbs to the global plant system and individual use--a biographic approach to Alfred Vogel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, J

    2003-04-01

    Even 100 years after the birth of Alfred Vogel there is a lack of reliable data about his life as a non-doctoral therapist in the fields of naturopathy and phytotherapy. Which documents about A. Vogel do exist, which facts do they prove about his career and which interpretations of his point of view of phytotherapy do they allow. With the methods in medical history (heuristic, critic, interpretation) video, audio and written documents from the A. Vogel Museum and A. Vogel publisher in Teufen, the A. Vogel collection in the Museum in Aesch and the Bioforce AG in Roggwil have been examined. From 1923 to 1932 A. Vogel runs a grocer's shop or a herb and health-food store in Basel and later Bern, Zürich and Solothurn. The economic success of his health-food stores and his interest in the field of naturopathy enable him to take part in a training to become a 'natural doctor' and in 1933 he is registered by the 'Natural Doctors Association of Switzerland'. From 1935 on he is working as a nutritionalist in his own spa pension in Trogen and produces plant extracts in his 'Laboratory Bioforce'. From 1937 to 1957 he has a spa hotel in Teufen and is producer of extracts from fresh plants. He is able to travel all continents of the world from 1958 on, in order to observe customs and medical habits of different tribes. He writes about his findings in his own magazine and books. His knowledge about the usage of herbs in different cultures inspires his production of herbal extracts in his company. In 1963, to meet the increasing sales of his products, he founds the where he, until the early 1990s, takes part in the adjustment of the recipes to the new pharmaceutic-medical standards. Because of his work as a 'natural doctor' A. Vogel becomes one of Switzerland's best known non-doctoral therapists in the 20th century. The publication of his collected wisdom in a lay-like language is a contribution to the tradition and popularity in this field through which, as well as through the

  7. Usage and Attitudes Towards Natural Remedies and Homeopathy in General Pediatrics: A Cross-Country Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, André-Michael; Burlaka, Ievgeniia; Buskin, Stephen; Kamenov, Borislav; Pettenazzo, Andrea; Popova, Diana; Riveros Huckstadt, María Pilar; Sakalinskas, Virgilijus; Oberbaum, Menachem

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand the global approach and country differences in physicians' usage, knowledge, and attitudes towards natural remedies and homeopathy in pediatric practice, an online survey involving 582 general pediatricians and general practitioners treating pediatric diseases was conducted in 6 countries. Overall, 17% of the pediatric prescriptions refer to phytotherapy and 15% refer to homeopathic preparations. Natural remedies and homeopathic preparations are more frequently used in upper respiratory tract infections, infant colic, sleep disturbances, and recurrent infections. In the majority of cases, they are used together with chemical drugs. Both treatment options are typically used if parents are concerned about side effects of conventional drugs or prefer natural remedies for themselves. Physicians express high interest in natural remedies and homeopathy; however, their knowledge is variable. Lack of proven efficacy, knowledge on mechanism of action, and information on indications are main factors that limit their usage.

  8. Comparative study of rosmarinic acid content in some plants of Labiatae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarchi, Maryam; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Hamedani, Morteza Pirali

    2012-01-01

    Plants of Labiatae are used in traditional medicine and phytotherapy. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound which is found in many genus of Labiatae and exhibits important biological activities. In this investigation, RA contents of 29 species of Labiatae named Salvia officinalis, Salvia limbata, Salvia virgata, Salvia hypoleuca, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia choloroleuca, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus daenensis, Thymus citriodorous, Thymus pubescens, Thymus vulgaris, Zataria multiflora, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha longifolia, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica, Mentha crispa, Perovskia artemisoides, Zhumeria majdae, Satureja hortensis, Satureja khuzistanica, Satureja bachtiarica, Satureja atropatana, Satureja mutica and Satureja macrantha were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The results showed that RA content in different species of Labiatae was 0.0-58.5 mg g(-1) of dried plants. The highest amount of RA was found in Mentha species especially M. spicata. M. spicata can be considered as a new source of rosmarinic acid .

  9. [INFLUENCE OF MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS ON THE FUNCTIONS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROTECTION OF ERYTHROCYTES IN RATS WITH EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES MELLITUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengerovskii, A I; Yakimova, T V; Nasanova, O N

    2016-01-01

    Experiments on rats with diabetes mellitus model induced by streptosotocin and high (30%) fat diet showed that the daily treatment with aqueous extracts of great nettle leaves (100 mg/kg) and common burdock roots (25 mg/kg) for a period of 10 days led to a decrease in the glycemic index and triglyceride level and produced protective action on erythrocytes both in animals kept on a fat-rich diet and on the background of a low-caloric ration. Both medicinal plant extracts were comparable with reference drug metformin in reducing the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin (by 12-31%) and ectoglobular hemoglobin (1.7-1.8 times, p diet with usual (8%) fat content improved the metabolic indices to a lower degree (on the average by 13-21%, p < 0.05) than did the proposed phytotherapy.

  10. Effects of Chelidonium majus extracts and major alkaloids on hERG potassium channels and on dog cardiac action potential - a safety approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orvos, Péter; Virág, László; Tálosi, László; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Csupor, Dezső; Jedlinszki, Nikoletta; Szél, Tamás; Varró, András; Hohmann, Judit

    2015-01-01

    Chelidonium majus or greater celandine is spread throughout the world, and it is a very common and frequent component of modern phytotherapy. Although C. majus contains alkaloids with remarkable physiological effect, moreover, safety pharmacology properties of this plant are not widely clarified, medications prepared from this plant are often used internally. In our study the inhibitory effects of C. majus herb extracts and alkaloids on hERG potassium current as well as on cardiac action potential were investigated. Our data show that hydroalcoholic extracts of greater celandine and its alkaloids, especially berberine, chelidonine and sanguinarine have a significant hERG potassium channel blocking effect. These extracts and alkaloids also prolong the cardiac action potential in dog ventricular muscle. Therefore these compounds may consequently delay cardiac repolarization, which may result in the prolongation of the QT interval and increase the risk of potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Potential New Pharmacological Agents Derived From Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Haniye; Khakshur, Ali Asghar; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Roja

    2015-01-01

    In the present article, we reviewed plants and phytochemical compounds demonstrating beneficial effects in pancreatic cancer to find new sources of pharmaceutical agents. For this purpose, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google scholar were searched for plants or herbal components with beneficial effects in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Data were collected up to January 2013. The search terms were "plant," "herb," "herbal therapy," or "phytotherapy" and "pancreatic cancer" or "pancreas." All of the human in vivo and in vitro studies were included. According to studies, among diverse plants and phytochemicals, 12 compounds including apigenin, genistein, quercetin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate, benzyl isothiocyanate, sulforaphane, curcumin, thymoquinone, dihydroartemisinin, cucurbitacin B, and perillyl alcohol have beneficial action against pancreatic cancer cells through 4 or more mechanisms. Applying their plausible synergistic effects can be an imperative approach for finding new efficient pharmacological agents in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  12. A review on Ipomoea carnea: pharmacology, toxicology and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Nusrat; Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Fu, Junjiang

    2014-06-01

    Phytomedicines are increasingly being established in modern medical science. The shrub Ipomoea carnea has been used traditionally for thousands of years. However, there are few scientific studies on this medicinal plant, and most of the information are scattered. In this review, we have summarized the existing knowledge and recent progress on the medicinal importance of I. carnea. Different extracts of I. carnea plant possess anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-convulsant, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, sedative and wound healing activities. However, some toxicological effects have been also reported. Some of the major phytochemicals associated with the bioactivity of I. carnea have been characterized, which have been discussed in this study too. This review article might be beneficial for phytotherapy research, as I. carnea can be a good source for drug development.

  13. Strategic management of technology in phytopharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugalić Sretenka L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the: 1. Meaning, characteristics and developing possibilities of phytotherapy; 2. Dimensions of markets and technologies in managing phytotherapic assortment. By observing the final results, which were obtained by means of representative sources and other research of phytotherapeutics products, it can be expected applicable to a broader range in practice with input to marketing ideas. The models, presented here, are meant to be innovative applications in the medical marketing concept, by the results of broad spending in the food service industry (domain of dietetics in the manufacture of food for children, in the manufacture of 'medical cosmetics' and cosmetic-druggist assortments (products for hygiene, shampoos soaps, creams and buble baths.

  14. Usage and Attitudes Towards Natural Remedies and Homeopathy in General Pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André-Michael Beer MD, PhD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the global approach and country differences in physicians’ usage, knowledge, and attitudes towards natural remedies and homeopathy in pediatric practice, an online survey involving 582 general pediatricians and general practitioners treating pediatric diseases was conducted in 6 countries. Overall, 17% of the pediatric prescriptions refer to phytotherapy and 15% refer to homeopathic preparations. Natural remedies and homeopathic preparations are more frequently used in upper respiratory tract infections, infant colic, sleep disturbances, and recurrent infections. In the majority of cases, they are used together with chemical drugs. Both treatment options are typically used if parents are concerned about side effects of conventional drugs or prefer natural remedies for themselves. Physicians express high interest in natural remedies and homeopathy; however, their knowledge is variable. Lack of proven efficacy, knowledge on mechanism of action, and information on indications are main factors that limit their usage.

  15. The effect of hydro alcoholic extract of Juglans regia leaves in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Jamshid; Delaviz, Hamdollah; Malekzadeh, Jan Mohammad; Roozbehi, Amrollah

    2012-04-01

    Phytotherapy has been achieved to maintain glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperglycemic properties of the Juglans regia leaf extract in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Nicotinamide was injected intraperitonealy (i.p.) 15 min before the injection of Streptozotocin (i.p.). One week after induction of diabetes, oral treatment started with extract of Juglans regia and Metformin and continued for 4 weeks. Fasting blood sugar, body weight, serum lipids and insulin level were measured in different groups. A significant reduction of glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol and serum triglycerides were detected after 4 weeks in rats treated with Juglans regia leaves compared to the control groups. Thus, Juglans regia extract treatment showed potential hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in type 2 diabetic rats.

  16. Skin wound healing and phytomedicine: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazyar, Nader; Yaghoobi, Reza; Rafiee, Esmail; Mehrabian, Abolfath; Feily, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Skin integrity is restored by a physiological process aimed at repairing the damaged tissues. The healing process proceeds in four phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and remodeling. Phytomedicine presents remedies, which possess significant pharmacological effects. It is popular amongst the general population in regions all over the world. Phytotherapeutic agents have been largely used for cutaneous wound healing. These include Aloe vera, mimosa, grape vine, Echinacea, chamomile, ginseng, green tea, jojoba, tea tree oil, rosemary, lemon, soybean, comfrey, papaya, oat, garlic, ginkgo, olive oil and ocimum. Phytotherapy may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention on cutaneous wounds. This article provides a review of the common beneficial medicinal plants in the management of skin wounds with an attempt to explain their mechanisms.

  17. OPPORTUNITIES OF MICRONUTRIENTAL AND PHYTOCORRECTION IN INCREASE OF RESISTANCE OF CATARRHAL DISEASES IN CHILDREN

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    O.A. Gromova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A term «frequently ailing children» (FAC characterizes increased morbidity with acute respiratory infections compared with healthy coevals, and this term is widely used by pediatrists in present time. unfavorable course of pregnancy, prematurity, defects in immune system are predisposing to this state. Rational nutrition, regular day regimen, sanitary measures are necessary to the normal living of such children. In some cases medicamental correction with use of poly vitamins, immunocorrectors and phytotherapy is needed. Deficiency of vitamins and minerals is frequently occurring in children from FAC group. «sanasol extravit», containing extracts from black currant, dog rose and strawberry, was developed for the deficiency of microelements and vitamins and for a correction of immune system.Key words: frequently ailing children, vitamins, immunity.

  18. Repellent Action of Carapa guianensis and Caesalpinia ferrea for flies species of Calliphoridae family

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    Ciciane Pereira Marten Fernandes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Myiases occur by the infestation of fly larvae in tissues of live vertebrate animals, resulting in economic loss. Phytotherapy is considered an important alternative in the control of insects, which may reduce the economic impacts . Carapa guianensis is a plant that has been studied as a repellent against mosquitoes and Caesalpinia ferrea is reported in tropical climates, and there are few studies about its repellent action. The present study was designed to evaluate the repellent action of s C. guianensis and C. ferrea plants on flies species of the Calliphoridae family. W.O.T. traps containing deteriorated bovine liver and herbs cream of at concentrations of 20 and 50% were used to catch the flies. It was reported that the creams containing C. ferrea at concentrations of 20 and 50% and C. guianensis at the concentration of 50% have repellent effect against species of Calliphoridae family.

  19. Rise of herbal and traditional medicine in erectile dysfunction management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Christopher C K; Tan, Hui Meng

    2011-12-01

    Herbal medicine long has been used in the management of sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction. Many patients have attested to the efficacy of this treatment. However, is it evidence-based medicine? Studies have been done on animal models, mainly in the laboratory. However, randomized controlled trials on humans are scarce. The only herbal medications that have been studied for erectile dysfunction are Panax ginseng, Butea superba, Epimedium herbs (icariin), Tribulus terrestris, Securidaca longipedunculata, Piper guineense, and yohimbine. Of these, only Panax ginseng, B. superb, and yohimbine have published studies done on humans. Unfortunately, these published trials on humans were not robust. Many herbal therapies appear to have potential benefits, and similarly, the health risks of various phytotherapeutic compounds need to be elucidated. Properly designed human trials should be worked out and encouraged to determine the efficacy and safety of potential phytotherapies.

  20. Ethnopharmacological study of medicinal plants used in Rosário da Limeira, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Helaine B. de Oliveira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the popular knowledge on the use of medicinal plants and the contribution in the preservation of medicinal flora, the present work aims to rescue and organize such knowledge on medicinal species and its relation with therapeutic uses, in the city of Rosario de Limeira, MG. Data were collected January to March, 2007. Fifteen informants, all resident in urban and agricultural communities, were asked about their knowledge on medicinal plants. The current survey revealed the use of 66 species belonging to 33 families (Asteraceae with the major number of species, followed by Lamiaceae, Rutaceae, and Bignoniaceae used in the treatment of various diseases. 44,3% of them grow spontaneously and 55,7% are cultivated. The main vegetal part used in the preparation of the phytotherapy was the leaf, and the most common preparation was the infusion. The most used species were: Baccharis trimera, Mentha sp., Plantago major, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Symphytum officinale.

  1. Role of herbs in endodontics

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    Rajendra Kumar Tewari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants and herbs have attracted a lot of attention since the past few years. The market for drugs extracted from these plants and made from herbal extracts has seen a significant rise. India is known for its rich stock of medicinal plants. Among many, some herbs are rich in phytochemical content. These phytochemicals are useful in generating phytomedicines which have effects on the human body. In the field of endodontics, phytomedicines are a boon. They have been popularly used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, sedatives, and antibiotics. They are most significantly used as endodontic irrigants. Phytotherapy has been a grand entrant in the drug market. The reason why herbal extracts have the potential to be highly popular is due to the side effects of synthetic medicines which alter microbiota.

  2. Phytochemically evaluation and net anti-oxidant activity of Tunisian Melia azedarach leaves extract from their ProAntidex parameter

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    Maroua Akacha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy is a discipline which is interested in the design, the preparation and the interpretation of structure activity relationship of the natural bioactive molecules. In this context, ethanolic leaves extract of Melia azedarach L. was phytochemically analysed on the bases of HPLC and by GC–MS. Extract wase tested for his in vitro antioxidant activities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, H2O2, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, Ferric Reducing Power (FRP and Ferrous ion chelating abilities methods. The antioxidant activity of the extract was analyzed simultaneously with their pro-oxidant capacity. The ratio of pro-oxidant to the antioxidant activity (ProAntidex represents a useful index of the net free radical scavenging potential of the synthesized compounds. Tested extract showed significant antioxidant activity with a moderate ProAntidex.

  3. MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL HERBAL MEDICINE IN THE PROVINCE OF CHIMBORAZO, ECUADOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Fátima; Padilla, Susana; Falconí, Félix

    2017-01-01

    Phyto-therapy studies on Chimborazo province in Ecuador are really limited. This area, located within the Andes, is considered a millenarian and intercultural province, where multiples cultures and ethnic groups coexist. The study was conducted through direct interviews with 84 ancestral healers from the Province of Chimborazo, Ecuador. We presented ten most used species by ancestral healers of Chimborazo province to cure different illnesses and their medicinal uses. We also provided the application mode and some features of healing that should be emphasized. The nettle was the medicinal plant employed for more different illness and the chamomile was the one with higher prevalence. We could confirm that the Native Ecuadorians have a vast variety of traditions and popular medicinal practices that have great value and are needed to be researched and studied extensively.

  4. Resins and gums in historical iatrosophia texts from Cyprus - a botanical and medico-pharmacological approach

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    Andreas eLardos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores historical iatrosophia texts from Cyprus from a botanical and medico-pharmacological point of view focusing on remedies containing resins and gums. The iatrosophia are a genre of Greek medical literature of Byzantine origin and can be described as medicine handbooks which serve as therapeutic repositories containing recipes or advice. To extract and analyse information on plant usage in such sources – which are largely unedited texts and so far have not been translated – we investigate i the relationship of the iatrosophia to Dioscorides' De Materia Medica as well as historic pharmaceutical books or standard texts on modern phytotherapy and ii the validity of the remedies by comparing them to modern scientific data on reported biological activities. In the six texts investigated 27 substances incorporating plant exudates are mentioned. They are obtained from over 43 taxa of higher plants and in particular are used to treat dermatological, gastrointestinal and respiratory tract conditions. The comparison to historic pharmaceutical books and phytotherapy texts reflects the gradual decline of the use of plant exudates in Western medicine. While remarkable parallels to Dioscorides’ text exist, the non-Dioscoridean influence suggests a complex pattern of knowledge exchange. Overall, this resulted in an integration of knowledge from so far poorly understood sources. The comparison with bioscientific data reveals a fragmentary picture and highlights the potential of these unexplored substances and their uses. Where relevant bioscientific data are available, we generally found a confirmation. This points to a largely rational use of the associated remedies. Taken together, the iatrosophia are a valuable resource for ethnopharmacological and natural product research. Most importantly they contribute to the understanding of the development of herbal medicines in the (Eastern Mediterranean and Europe.

  5. Medicinal plants with antioxidant properties from Banat region (Romania: a rich pool for the discovery of multi-target phytochemicals active in free-radical related disorders

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    Diana Simona ANTAL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural compounds from plants and other life forms (bacteria, fungi, marine organisms represent a major source of molecules with medicinal properties. Among them, antioxidant substances are of particular interest. The understanding of the central role that oxidative stress holds in the progression of disorders as varied as: cardiovascular diseases, degenerative conditions, rheumatic disorders, metabolic syndrome, and in aging, makes antioxidant capacity to a key-feature of modern, multipotent remedies. Rational screenings of the Plant Kingdom for the discovery of new medications are based on: a the inventory of available species, b knowledge accumulated from traditional phytotherapy, c already available results of recent investigations on bioactivity, d chemotaxonomic considerations, and e toxicologic facts. The objective of the present work is to set the starting point for a database of plants with antioxidant properties. It is projected to serve as a basic step for further investigations aimed at discovering biomolecules with multiple effects in free-radical mediated diseases and in gerontology. The research focuses on vascular plants with a history of utilization in phytotherapy, and growing wild in the Western part of Romania (Banat region. Based on the above inclusion criteria a – e, it was possible to point out over 140 plant species for which antioxidant activities were documented by different research groups. This impressive body of evidence provides valuable preliminary data for subsequent, more detailed research on the pharmacology, phytochemistry and clinical application of plants growing in Romania. The systematization of data performed in the present work is intended to help discover new, more efficient means to maintain and promote human health.

  6. Resins and Gums in Historical Iatrosophia Texts from Cyprus - A Botanical and Medico-pharmacological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardos, Andreas; Prieto-Garcia, José; Heinrich, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study explores historical iatrosophia texts from Cyprus from a botanical and medico-pharmacological point of view focusing on remedies containing resins and gums. The iatrosophia are a genre of Greek medical literature of Byzantine origin and can be described as medicine handbooks which serve as therapeutic repositories containing recipes or advice. To extract and analyze information on plant usage in such sources - which are largely unedited texts and so far have not been translated - we investigate (i) the relationship of the iatrosophia to Dioscorides' De Materia Medica as well as historic pharmaceutical books or standard texts on modern phytotherapy and (ii) the validity of the remedies by comparing them to modern scientific data on reported biological activities. In the six texts investigated 27 substances incorporating plant exudates are mentioned. They are obtained from over 43 taxa of higher plants and in particular are used to treat dermatological, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tract conditions. The comparison to historic pharmaceutical books and phytotherapy texts reflects the gradual decline of the use of plant exudates in Western medicine. While remarkable parallels to Dioscorides' text exist, the non-Dioscoridean influence suggests a complex pattern of knowledge exchange. Overall, this resulted in an integration of knowledge from so far poorly understood sources. The comparison with bioscientific data reveals a fragmentary picture and highlights the potential of these unexplored substances and their uses. Where relevant bioscientific data are available, we generally found a confirmation. This points to a largely rational use of the associated remedies. Taken together, the iatrosophia are a valuable resource for ethnopharmacological and natural product research. Most importantly they contribute to the understanding of the development of herbal medicines in the (Eastern) Mediterranean and Europe.

  7. Representações de gestantes sobre o uso de plantas medicinais Representations of pregnant women on the use of medicinal plants

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    M. Rangel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa insere-se no campo da etnofarmacologia e utiliza, como fonte de dados, informações de gestantes usuárias, ou não, de fitoterápicos. O objetivo foi o de analisar representações formadas sobre o uso de plantas medicinais por gestantes em tratamento ambulatorial. Na perspectiva metodológica, assinala-se a natureza qualitativa do estudo e o emprego da análise de conteúdo, na perspectiva bardiniana. O levantamento de dados foi feito com um grupo de gestantes que usava e um grupo que não usava fitoterápicos. As análises permitiram identificar as categorias da concepção e dos motivos do uso, ou não, das plantas, verificando-se, com o grupo de usuárias, que o seu conhecimento vem sendo transmitido de geração a geração, principalmente através da informação verbal. Pôde-se, então, observar que esse conhecimento, embora aceito, pode levar ao uso inadequado ou ineficaz. No grupo que não usava fitoterápicos, pôde-se perceber desconhecimento da fitoterapia, ou a compreensão das plantas como perigosas, prejudiciais ao feto. Nas conclusões, verificaram-se dificuldades de identificação e administração segura das plantas e um certo grau de mistificação, além do uso de substâncias ineficazes e potencialmente tóxicas, destacando-se, então, o valor do diálogo entre médico e pacientes, com atenção ao possível uso medicinal de plantas.The present ethnopharmacological study evaluated information by pregnant women using phytotherapy or not. Its aim was to analyze representations on the use of medicinal plants by pregnant women under outpatient care. As regards methodology, the qualitative nature of the study and the content analysis underlie the bardinian approach. Data were collected from two groups: phytotherapy-user and non-user pregnant women. Categories related to the concept and the reason of plant use or non-use were identified. In the users group, knowledge has been transmitted over generations, mainly

  8. [Development of 'Ordnungstherapie' by Bircher-Benner in naturopathy of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, J; Melchart, D; Saller, R

    2004-10-01

    The German term 'Ordnungstherapie' is one of the five therapeutics which defines naturopathy in German-speaking countries. Who formed the term Ordnungstherapie in naturopathy and what does it mean? Heuristics and criticism of literature of the 20th century as well as database research. Nowadays in German-language medical books Ordnungstherpie belongs to the five therapeutics which define European naturopathy. Yet, the interpretation ranges from health education to body-orientated forms of psychotherapy. The term Ordnungstherapie is often related with the German priest and hydropath Sebastian Kneipp, however, term and definition have been founded by the Swiss physician Maximillian Bircher-Benner. In 1937 he defined Ordnungstherapie as a complex concept of natural healing. It is based upon the rather nosological idea that health is order/harmony in the human body (physically, psychologically), the environment and the daily course. Illness occurs if disorder appears in one of these fields. The therapeutic setting of Ordnungstherapy is defined by 9 rules of conduct to maintain order, which include nutrition, the skin as an organ (exposure to light, air, water), breathing, movement, rhythm of life, and psyche. For all these aspects Bircher-Benner himself uses the terms somatotherapy (dietotherapy, sun and light therapy, hydrotherapy, exercise therapy, breathing technique, order of the rhythm of live) and psychotherapy. He chose these complementary methods subjectively after learning them from 1897 onwards in an eclectic manner and after gaining therapeutic empiricism. Nevertheless his ideas of the Ordnungstherapie correlate with the socio-political context of the 1940ies. The term Ordnungstherapie was introduced by Bircher-Benner as an umbrella term in 1937 to describe a complex concept of naturopathic therapies. It comprises, with certain limitations for phytotherapy, the therapies which nowadays define European naturopathy. Yet, in European naturopathy today

  9. PHYTOCHEMICAL, PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHARMACOKINETICS EFFECTS OF ROSMARINIC ACID

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    Rahul Bhatt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rosmarinic acid is natural polyphenol antioxidant isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis L. and commonly found in species of the Boraginaceae and the subfamily Nepetoideae of the Lamiaceae. RA species of Labiatae named Salvia officinalis, Rosmarinus officinali. RA exhibits important biological activities include its anti-carcinogenic, antiviral, antibacterial antimicrobial, antidepressant qualities. Plants of Labiatae family have been used in traditional medicine for exhaustion, phytotherapy, weakness, depression, and memory enhancement, circulation improvement, strengthening of fragile blood vessels, inflammation, and infection CNS disorder. RA showed the highest concentrations of antioxidant all the polyphenols. It is a red-orange powder that is slightly soluble in water, but well soluble in most organic solvents. RA polyphenolic compounds have been associated with antioxidative action in biological systems, acting as scavengers of singlet oxygen and free radicals. RA protects neurons from oxidative stress significantly attenuated H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and apoptotic cell death and could contribute at least in part to neuroprotective effects because this natural compound exerts neuroprotective and anti-oxidative effects against neurotoxin insult in dopaminergic cells. This review focused on pharmacokinetics and use different uses of RA as antioxidant agent, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, photo protective, anticancer, antidepressant, and possible neuroprotective agent mechanism of actions.

  10. Uncaria tomentosa Gel against Denture Stomatitis: Clinical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Lidia Y; Dos Santos, Fabio A; Jorge, Janaina H

    2015-02-09

    The objective of this study is to report the clinical use of 2% Uncaria tomentosa gel against denture stomatitis (DS) as an alternative treatment. The patient was a 65-year-old, denture-wearing woman. At the clinical examination, her palate showed hyperplasic and erythematous mucosa indicating DS type II. DS is a chronic oral disease that affects denture wearers. It occurs as an inflammatory reaction in denture-wearing patients under maxillary prostheses. Candida albicans has been reported as the principal etiological agent. An alternative treatment, the topical application of a gel of 2% U. tomentosa three times a day for 1 week was given to the patient. After 1 week of this treatment, she had significantly reduced signs of the disease. Despite the existence of a great number of antifungal agents, treatment failure is observed frequently. Phytotherapy is becoming more popular worldwide. Currently, the most promising medicinal Amazonian herb is U. tomentosa (Willd.) DC., known as Cat's Claw. Studies of the chemical and pharmacological properties of this medicinal plant have allowed researchers to develop indications for its use. This report demonstrates the effectiveness of U. tomentosa against DS. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  11. Complementary and Alternative Medicine use Among Patients with Acne Vulgaris or Melasma in Dermatology Clinic: a Questionnaire Survey

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    Çiçek Durusoy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine the prevalence rate and types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM use among patients diagnosed with acne vulgaris (AV or melasma, and to identify the factors influencing the use of CAM.Method: This study included 73 patients who attended dermatology outpatient clinic in Alanya Başkent University and diagnosed with AV or melasma. Each patient was asked to answer a questionnaire consisting of sociodemografic information and negative impact of their disease on their psychological and physical health status and work/friendship relations, their history of using CAM methods. Results: Of the study patients, 54 were diagnosed with AV and 19 with melasma. The proportion of CAM use was 52,1%in total; 57.4 %of AV and 36,8%of melasma patients had used CAM. Females with regard to the males, those having problems in work/friendship relations with regard to those who have not, were using CAM in high proportion. All CAM users have applied phytotherapy, and 63,2 %of the patients have learned these methods from family members and/or friends.Conclusion: Our results show that CAM use is common in patients with AV and melasma. Since the CAM methods have the potential of influencing the outcomes of the disease by interacting with the medical treatment modalities, dermatologists should enquire about CAM use as it may by.

  12. Phytotherapic compounds: the consumer-pharmacist relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchini, Marco; Cuzzolin, Laura; Camerlengo, Thomas; Velo, Giampaolo; Benoni, Giuseppina

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacists play an important role in providing information about natural products and in preventing risks related to these substances, particularly with respect to interactions with conventional drugs. For these reasons, a survey was specifically designed to investigate the quality of self-care counselling by pharmacists on phytotherapy. Twenty-three pharmacy stores took part in the project. Face-to-face interviews, using a pre-structured questionnaire, were undertaken by trained pharmacists to consumers buying a herbal product. The questionnaire included socio-demographic data and 17 items designed to elicit information regarding the reason of consumption, product knowledge, relationship/communication with healthcare providers, level of satisfaction, concurrent drug use and adverse reactions. The collection of interviews started in November 2006 until April 2007. From the analysis of 1420 questionnaires, it is evident that herbal use is increasing in Italy: 12% of our interviewees were buying a herbal product for the first time. The present survey highlights the favourable perception of efficacy of phytotherapic compounds by the pharmacy's consumers, who consider this healthcare modality to be an important and effective way to promote health/wellness and disease management as well as being safer overall than conventional drugs. Moreover, findings from this study demonstrate that pharmacists are more likely to answer correctly about the uses of herbal medicines than about drug interactions, adverse drug effects and cautions about these products.

  13. Methods for extraction and determination of phenolic acids in medicinal plants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Konieczynski, Pawel

    2013-12-01

    Phenolic acids constitute a group of potentially immunostimulating compounds. They occur in all medicinal plants and are widely used in phytotherapy and foods of plant origin. In recent years, phenolic acids have attracted much interest owing to their biological functions. This paper reviews the extraction and determination methods of phenolic acids in medicinal plants over the last 10 years. Although Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) are commonly used for the extraction of phenolic acids from plant materials, alternative techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) can also be used. After extraction, phenolic acids are determined usually by liquid chromatography (LC) owing to the recent developments in this technique, especially when it is coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Also detection systems are discussed, including UV-Vis, diode array, electrochemical and fluorimetric. Other popular techniques for the analysis of this group of secondary metabolites are gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE).

  14. Trypanocidal and cytotoxic effects of 30 Ethiopian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibret, Endalkachew; Wink, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Trypanocidal and cytotoxic effects of traditionally used medicinal plants of Ethiopia were evaluated. A total of 60 crude plant extracts were prepared from 30 plant species using CH2Cl2 and MeOH. Effect upon cell proliferation by the extracts, for both bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and human leukaemia HL-60 cells, was assessed using resazurin as vital stain. Of all CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts evaluated against the trypanosomes, the CH2Cl2 extracts from five plants showed trypanocidal activity with an IC50 value below 20 microg/mL: Dovyalis abyssinica (Flacourtiaceae), IC50 = 1.4 microg/mL; Albizia schimperiana (Fabaceae), IC50 = 7.2 microg/mL; Ocimum urticifolium (Lamiaceae), IC50 = 14.0 microg/mL; Acokanthera schimperi (Apocynaceae), IC50 = 16.6 microg/mL; and Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae), IC50 = 17.1 microg/mL. A pronounced and selective killing of trypanosomes with minimal toxic effect on human cells was exhibited by Dovyalis abyssinica (CH2Cl2 extract, SI = 125.0; MeOH extract, SI = 57.7) followed by Albizia schimperiana (CH2Cl2 extract, SI = 31.3) and Ocimum urticifolium (MeOH extract, SI = 16.0). In conclusion, the screening of 30 Ethiopian medicinal plants identified three species with good antitrypanosomal activities and low toxicity towards human cells. Dovyalis abyssinica might be a promising candidate for phytotherapy of trypanosomiasis.

  15. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF LEAF TEAS BLACKBERRY (MORUS NIGRA

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    P. Zanco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has a long tradition in the use of plants, and is the same used in different ways, such as in the form of infusions and decoctions, for therapeutic purposes. Morus nigra species is a plant that has been used in different parts of the world as phytotherapy. This plant is known as mulberry, black, blackberry black or blackberry and various parts of the plant, such as leaves, fruit, bark and roots are used by the population, demonstrating anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, among others. Because of the interest in research on the bioactivity of plant products and use of blackberry tea in the population, present study evaluated the antibacterial activity of teas M. nigra leaves obtained by infusion and decoction against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium, as well as the antioxidant potential of preparations by DPPH technique. Results revealed that the infusions and decoctions prepared with Morus nigra leaves showed no ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria tested. However, all preparations (decoctions and infusions obtained from the leaves showed antioxidant potential, demonstrated ability to reduce DPPH radical. Despite infusions and decoctions evaluated in this study do not show antimicrobial activity, both had significant antioxidant property. Considering the use of different plants, including mulberry tree, by the people, it is considered always important proof of their biological activities.

  16. O uso da medicina alternativa ou complementar em crianças com dermatite atópica The use of alternative or complementary medicine for children with atopic dermatitis

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    Nelson dos Reis Aguiar Júnior

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicina alternativa ou complementar é definida como forma de terapia que não possui bases científicas ou eficácia comprovadas. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a prevalência do uso dessas terapias por pacientes pediátricos com dermatite atópica no Hospital Universitário de Brasília, no período de março de 2007 a dezembro de 2008. Um total de 54 pacientes (63,5% utilizou algum tipo de recurso alternativo, fitoterapia e homeopatia foram os recursos alternativos mais utilizados.Complementary or Alternative Medicine is defined as a form of therapy that has no scientific basis or proven effectiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the use of such therapies for pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis at the University Hospital of Brasília, in the period between March 2007 and December 2008. A total number of 54 patients (63.5% used some kind of alternative resource and phytotherapy and homeopathy were the most used ones.

  17. What does «integrative medicine» provide to daily scientific clinical care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataller-Sifre, R; Bataller-Alberola, A

    2015-11-01

    Integrative medicine is an ambitious and noble-minded attempt to address the shortcomings of the current public health systems in our Western societies, which is restricted by the limited time available, especially in outpatient clinics. Integrative medicine also does not limit the possibilities of useful therapies that have been tested over the centuries (from China, India, etc.) or of certain resources that do not achieve the level of desired scientific credibility but that present certain therapeutic support in specific cases (homeopathy, acupuncture, etc.) but still require a scientific approach. Finally, the resource of botanical products (phytotherapy) constitutes a wide range of possibilities that universities can (and do) make progress on by providing drug brands for these products through the use of the scientific method and evidence-based medical criteria. This approach will help avoid the irrationality of the daily struggle between conventional scientific medicine (which we apply to the immense majority of patients) and the other diagnostic-therapeutic «guidelines» (natural medicine, alternative medicine, complementary medicine, patient-focused medicine and others). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  18. Use of Mastodinon in different forms of mastopathy

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    N. I. Rozhkova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse benign breast disease mastopathy is most common in reproductive-aged women. According to the World Health Organization, mastopathy is defined as a fibrocystic disease (FCD characterized by a broad spectrum of proliferative and regressive changes in breast tissues. The prevalence of this disease varies from 30 to 40%. The magnitude of clinical manifestations is highly diverse varying from slight premenstrual tension to the acute pain syndrome accompanied by the higher volume and density of the gland with the formation of nodular proliferations and cysts. In most cases, the present women regard mastopathy as a handicap in daily life and try to resort to sparing therapy options, such as homeopathy or phytotherapy. The phytotherapeutic preparation Mastodinon is one of these pathogenetic effective drugs to treat premenstrual syndrome and FCD. The major active principle is Agnus castus (leban, chaste tree. The clinical efficacy of mastodinon may be judged from the results of a large number of the studies given in this paper.

  19. Differentiated Evaluation of Extract-Specific Evidence on Cimicifuga racemosa's Efficacy and Safety for Climacteric Complaints

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    A.-M. Beer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Past reviews on Cimicifuga racemosa (CR without differentiation between extracts, quality, and indication altogether led to inconsistent data. Therefore, for the first time, we meet the requirements of the system's logic of evidence-based phytotherapy by taking into consideration extracts, pharmaceutical quality (reflected in a regulatory status as medicinal product, and indication. A literature search for clinical studies examining CR's efficacy and safety for menopausal complaints was conducted. The results were sorted by type of extract, regulatory status, and indication. Accordingly, Oxford Levels of Evidence (LOE and Grades of Recommendation (GR were determined. CR extracts demonstrated a good to very good safety in general, on estrogen-sensitive organs and the liver. However, only registered CR medicinal products were able to prove their efficacy. Best evidence was provided by the isopropanolic CR extract (iCR: the multitude of studies including more than 11,000 patients demonstrated consistent confirmatory evidence of LOE 1b (LOE 1a for safety leading to GR A. The studies on the ethanolic extract BNO 1055 including more than 500 patients showed exploratory evidence of LOE 2b resulting in GR B. A positive benefit-risk profile is stated and limited to Cimicifuga racemosa products holding a marketing authorisation for treating climacteric complaints.

  20. Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion as physiological stress decreaser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliú-Hemmelmann, Karina; Monsalve, Francisco; Rivera, César

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion on the severity of physiological chronic stress induced by movement restriction in CF-1 mice. 40 CF-1 male mice, six weeks of age, were divided into 4 groups (n = 10 for each group): (1) Group RS/MP received two treatments, induced stress through movement restriction and a infusion of Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea in a dose of 200 mg/kg, (2) RS group with induced stress using movement restriction, (3) MP group, which received only a infusion, and (4) a CONTROL group that received no treatment. The severity of the stress was obtained by analysis of the physical parameters of body weight, thymus and spleen, and associated biomarkers with stress, corticosterone, and glucose. Animals that consumed Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion had lower plasma corticosterone levels (Student's t test, Welch, p = 0.05), which is the most important biomarker associated with physiological stress, demonstrating a phytotherapy effect.

  1. Aqueous extract of pecan nut shell (Carya illinoensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch) exerts protection against oxidative damage induced by cyclophosphamide in rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvegnu, Dalila M; Barcelos, Raquel C S; Roversi, Katiane; Boufleur, Nardelli; Pase, Camila S; Trevizol, Fabiola; Segat, Hecson J; Dias, Verônica T; Dolci, Geisa S; Antoniazzi, Caren T D; Reckziegel, Patricia; Lima, Fernanda; de Lima, Luiz A R; de Carvalho, Leandro M; da Silva Junior, Valdemiro A; Burger, Marilise E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of pecan nut (Carya illinoensis) shell aqueous extract (AE) on the oxidative and morphological status of rat testis treated with cyclophosphamide (CP). Wistar rats received water or AE (5%) ad libitum for 37 days. On day 30, half of each group received a single intraperitoneal administration of vehicle or CP 200 mg/kg. After 7 days, the animals were killed and their testis removed. Rats treated with CP presented reduced levels of lactate dehydrogenase, vitamin C, and gluthatione, as well as decreased catalase activity, increased lipid peroxidation levels and superoxide dismutase activity, no alteration in carbonyl protein levels, and a loss of morphological testicular integrity. In contrast, cotreatment with pecan shell AE totally prevented the decrease of lactate dehydrogenase and vitamin C levels and catalase activity and partially prevented the depletion of gluthatione levels. Moreover, it totally prevented the increase in superoxide dismutase activity and lipid peroxidation levels and maintained testicular integrity. These findings show the protective role of pecan shell AE in CP-induced testicular toxicity. The use of this phytotherapy may be considered to minimize deleterious effects related to this chemotherapy.

  2. 4'''-Acetylvitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside, isoorientin, orientin, and 8-methoxykaempferol-3-O-glucoside as markers for the differentiation of Crataegus monogyna and Crataegus pentagyna from Crataegus laevigata (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Sonja; Ringl, Alexandra; Huefner, Antje; Pemp, Enne; Kopp, Brigitte

    2007-12-01

    In our chemotaxonomic investigation of pharmaceutically relevant Crataegus species, the qualitative and quantitative flavonoid fingerprint of Crataegus monogyna and C. pentagyna is presented. Six flavonoids were identified as vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside (1), vitexin (2), isovitexin (3), rutin (4), hyperoside (5), and isoquercitrin (6). Besides the verification of the main compounds isoorientin (7) and orientin (8) in C. pentagyna, further four flavonoids were isolated and identified as isoorientin-2''-O-rhamnoside (9), orientin-2''-O-rhamnoside (10), isovitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside (11), and 8-methoxykaempferol-3-O-glucoside (12) by means of 1D- and 2D-NMR, MS, and UV analyses. Compound 12 was isolated for the first time from C. pentagyna. In contrast to C. pentagyna, C. monogyna samples were predominated by 4'''-acetylvitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside (13), which was missing in C. pentagyna. Hence, 13 represents an interesting compound for chemotaxonomy of C. monogyna, whereas the main flavonoids 7, 8, and 12 could be proposed as markers for C. pentagyna. The absence of 7, 8, 12, and 13 in C. laevigata offers an appropriate tool for additional differentiation from C. monogyna and C. pentagyna, and for sample identification and quality control of the three main Crataegus species used in European phytotherapy.

  3. Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz.: Phytochemical and pharmacological profile : A review

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    Anjoo Kamboj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz (Crassulaceae is a perennial herb growing widely and used in folkloric medicine in tropical Africa, tropical America, India, China, and Australia. The divine herb contains a wide range of active compounds, including alkaloids, triterpenes, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, bufadienolides, lipids and organic acids, have been isolated from this species. The plant is widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of variety of ailments and well known for its haemostatic and wound healing properties. The pharmacological studies are reviewed and discussed, focussing on that different extracts from this plant have been found to possess pharmacological activities as immunomodulator, CNS depressant, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antiallergic, antianaphylactic, antileishmanial, antitumorous, antiulcerous, antibacterial, antifungal, antihistamine, antiviral, febrifuge, gastroprotective, immunosuppressive, insecticidal, muscle relaxant, sedative. However, future efforts should concentrate more on in vitro and in vivo studies and also on clinical trials in order to confirm traditional wisdom in the light of a rational phytotherapy. The present review is an attempt to highlight the various ethnopharmacological and traditional uses as well as phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of B. pinnatum and to discuss them.

  4. Perspectives of using greater plantain in the medical and pharmaceutical practice

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    Ірина Вікторівна Герасимова

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of the use range of well-known plant objects in medicine and pharmacy is a pressing task in the pharmaceutical science. Modern science has discovered pharmaceutical characteristics of many plants, however nowadays we still have a large volume for research in the field of phytotherapy. Greater plantain Plantago major is one of the well-known medicinal plants, which remains interesting for studying and creating medicinal products based on it.Goal. The goal of our work was to study literature sources regarding biochemical composition of medicinal plant – greater plantain and a range of herbal medicinal products based on it represented on the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine.Methods. Literary search for information regarding Plantago major, as well as structural, comparative and graphical analysis methods of the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine were made to solve the set goal.Results. As a result of the work literary data analysis was conducted in regard to the chemical composition of Plantago major and study of domestic pharmaceutical market relating to herbal medicinal products which were composed of greater plantain and other species of Plantago L.Summary. Medicinal plant Plantago major is of value and is a prospect for future studies, as well as development and creation of new original medicinal products based on it

  5. Antimycobacterial and Antifungal Activities of Selected Four Salvia Species

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    Nur Tan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The content of essential oils of endemic Salvia cilicica was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. Spathulenol (23.8 %, caryophyllene oxide (14.9 % and hexadecanoic acid (10.3 % were identified as the major components in the oil of Salvia cilicica. Additionally, in this study ethanol extracts of the aerial parts and essential oils of four Salvia species ( S. cilicica, S. officinalis, S. fruticosa, S. tomentosa , as well as the roots of S. cilicica were investigated their antimycobacterial and antifungal activities including infectious diseases. The antimycobacterial activity was analyzed against three Mycobacterium tuberculosis (sensitive-, resistant-standard strains and multidrug resistance clinical isolate strains and the antifungal activity was compared with two dermotophytes (Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei and three Candida species by the broth microdilution method. The essentials oils of the four tested Salvia species showed high antimycobacterial and antifungal activity (MIC between 0.2-12.5 mcg/mL in comparison to the aerial parts and root extracts . The antifungal and antimycobacterial potential of the ethanol extracts and essential oils were introduced to determine whether, Salvia species can be used in phytotherapy against the yeasts, dermatophytes and M. tuberculosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of S. cilicica about their antimycobacterial and antifungal activities and chemical composition of its essential oils.

  6. Unravelling the complex antimicrobial interactions of essential oils--the case of Thymus vulgaris (thyme).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aijaz; van Vuuren, Sandy; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2014-03-06

    Thymus vulgaris has gained tremendous popularity as an ornamental, culinary herb and its use in phytotherapy is well established and supported in the literature. The objective of this study was to explore possible interactions between selected molecules within Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TvEO) to gain a better understanding of how this complex essential oil exerts its antimicrobial activity. Evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy and interactions were assessed on the essential oil and volatile constituents against various pathogens. Interactions between molecules at various ratios were graphically observed through the construction of isobolograms. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed 22 compounds which collectively represent >95% of the oil composition. Based on their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values, they were categorised into weak (≥4 mg mL⁻¹), moderate (2-4 mg mL⁻¹) and noteworthy active (≤2 mg mL⁻¹) compounds. For the combination study, 21% synergistic, 42% additive, 36% indifferent and 1% antagonistic interactions were observed. Most of the interactions were observed between the weak and highly active molecules, and interestingly, no synergistic interaction was observed between the highly active compounds. Synergistic and additive interactions between the strong and weaker antimicrobial constituents present in TvEO enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of this commercially important essential oil.

  7. Chelidonium majus--an integrative review: traditional knowledge versus modern findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilca, Marilena; Gaman, Laura; Panait, Elena; Stoian, Irina; Atanasiu, Valeriu

    2010-10-01

    Chelidonium majus L. (family Papaveraceae), or greater celandine, is an important plant in western phytotherapy and in traditional Chinese medicine. Crude extracts of C. majus as well as purified compounds derived from it exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities (antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antitumoral, analgesic, hepatoprotective) that support some of the traditional uses of C. majus. However, herbal medicine also claims that this plant has several important properties which have not yet been scientifically studied: C. majus is supposed to have diuretic, antitussive and eye-regenerative effects. On the other hand, C. majus also has scientifically proven effects, e.g. anti-osteoporotic activity and radioprotection, which are not mentioned in traditional sources. Moreover, recent controversy about the hepatoprotective versus hepatotoxic effects of Chelidonium majus has renewed the interest of the medical community in this plant. This review is intended to integrate traditional ethno-medical knowledge and modern scientific findings about C. majus in order to promote understanding of its therapeutic actions as well as its toxic potential. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Hepatotoxicity induced by greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.): a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantano, F; Mannocchi, G; Marinelli, E; Gentili, S; Graziano, S; Busardò, F P; di Luca, N M

    2017-03-01

    The available literature assessing Chelidonium majus L. (CM) hepatotoxicity potential, and its risk to benefit assessment has been reviewed in this paper. Identification of significant scientific literature was performed via the following research databases: Cochrane Central, Google Scholar, EMBASE, Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, using the following keywords: "Chelidonium majus", "greater celandine", "Hepatotoxicity", "Liver" "Injury", "Toxicity" individually investigated and then again in association. CM named also greater celandine, swallow-wort, or bai-qu-cai (Chinese), has been used for a long time in traditional Chinese medicine and phytotherapy. Its extracts have been claimed to display a wide variety of biological activities: antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, antineoplastic, hepatoprotective, and analgesic. Moreover, herbal medicine suggests this plant have numerous additional effects which have not yet been scientifically evaluated, such as antitussive, diuretic, and eye-regenerative. However, despite its claimed hepatoprotective effects, several hepatotoxicity cases have been reported to be probably or highly probably connected with CM exposure, after their evaluation through liver-targeted causality assessment methods. CM hepatotoxicity has been defined as a distinct form of herb-induced liver injury (HILI), due to an idiosyncratic reaction of the metabolic type. This evidence has to be considered in relationship with the absence of considerable benefits of CM therapy. Therefore, the risk to benefit ratio of the use of herbal products containing greater celandine can actually be considered as negative.

  9. 6-Acetonyl-5,6-dihydrosanguinarine (ADS) from Chelidonium majus L. triggers proinflammatory cytokine production via ROS-JNK/ERK-NFκB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyeok; Lee, Ji Hye; Park, Soojong; Oh, Sang-seok; Kim, Suk; Kim, Dae Wook; Park, Ki Hun; Kim, Kwang Dong

    2013-08-01

    Chelidonium majus L. is an herbal plant that is commonly used in Western phytotherapy and traditional Chinese medicine for diuretic, antitussive, eye-regenerative, anti-osteoporotic, and radioprotective purposes. In this study, we purified 6-acetonyl-5,6-dihydrosanguinarine (ADS) from C. majus and investigated its immune-stimulatory effect. We found that ADS has the potential to induce the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 in macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), that NFκB activation is a critical mediator of ADS-induced cytokine production, and that the activation of NFκB was dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS). ADS induced phosphorylation of ERK and JNK, which was also associated with NFκB activation; phosphorylarion and cytokine production were inhibited by ROS scavenger and by specific MAPK inhibitors. Taken together, the results suggest that ADS from C. majus, as a positive immune modulator, induces inflammatory cytokines that might improve immunity, via the ROS-ERK/JNK-NFκB pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Unravelling the Complex Antimicrobial Interactions of Essential Oils — The Case of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme

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    Aijaz Ahmad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Thymus vulgaris has gained tremendous popularity as an ornamental, culinary herb and its use in phytotherapy is well established and supported in the literature. The objective of this study was to explore possible interactions between selected molecules within Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TvEO to gain a better understanding of how this complex essential oil exerts its antimicrobial activity. Evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy and interactions were assessed on the essential oil and volatile constituents against various pathogens. Interactions between molecules at various ratios were graphically observed through the construction of isobolograms. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis revealed 22 compounds which collectively represent >95% of the oil composition. Based on their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values, they were categorised into weak (≥4 mg mL−1, moderate (2–4 mg mL−1 and noteworthy active (≤2 mg mL−1 compounds. For the combination study, 21% synergistic, 42% additive, 36% indifferent and 1% antagonistic interactions were observed. Most of the interactions were observed between the weak and highly active molecules, and interestingly, no synergistic interaction was observed between the highly active compounds. Synergistic and additive interactions between the strong and weaker antimicrobial constituents present in TvEO enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of this commercially important essential oil.

  11. Santé et valorisation des plantes médicinales en Cóte d’Ivoire

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    L. Ake Assi

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available HEALTH AND THE EVALUATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE IVORY COAST The Ivory Coast, like most tropical countries, has a rich flora with many species, some of which contain active principles used in the preparation of useful remedies for the treatment of disease. The art of curing disease is practisea in a very empirical way by healers all over the Ivory Coast. In intertropical Africa, generally speaking, traditional medicine accounts for about 80-90c/t of the medicinal needs of the population. It has the advantage of being near at hand and provides medical treatment at low cost. The study of medicinal plants will result in the production locally of medicines from indigenous raw materials, and the project, in addition to the exploitation of national resources, will create work opportunities. Concerning ethnobotany, investigations carried out among healers in some areas of the Ivory Coast, have enabled the registration of several medicinal recipes that have resulted in various reports and publications. Yet, slow progress with the registration of plants of use in human health restricts the possibilities of phytotherapy. Clearly, many plants remain to be studied and evaluated. Unfortunately, thoughtless and rapid destruction of natural areas in several parts of the country, makes the discovery and judicious exploitation of our plant resources increasingly difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to urge African governments to take draconian actions in order to save our endangered medical heritage.

  12. Alternative therapies for Helicobacter pylori: probiotics and phytomedicine.

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    Vítor, Jorge M B; Vale, Filipa F

    2011-11-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a common human pathogen infecting about 30% of children and 60% of adults worldwide and is responsible for diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Treatment against H. pylori is based on the use of antibiotics, but therapy failure can be higher than 20% and is essentially due to an increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which has led to the search for alternative therapies. In this review, we discuss alternative therapies for H. pylori, mainly phytotherapy and probiotics. Probiotics are live organisms or produced substances that are orally administrated, usually in addition to conventional antibiotic therapy. They may modulate the human microbiota and promote health, prevent antibiotic side effects, stimulate the immune response and directly compete with pathogenic bacteria. Phytomedicine consists of the use of plant extracts as medicines or health-promoting agents, but in most cases the molecular mode of action of the active ingredients of these herbal extracts is unknown. Possible mechanisms include inhibition of H. pylori urease enzyme, disruption of bacterial cell membrane, and modulation of the host immune system. Other alternative therapies are also reviewed.

  13. Phytopharmacological review of Xanthium strumarium L. (Cocklebur

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    Kamboj Anjoo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthium strumarium L. (Family: Compositae a medicinal plant commonly found as a weed, is widely distributed in North America, Brazil, China, Malaysia and hotter parts of India. The herb is traditionally used mostly in treating several ailments. Extracts of the whole plant, especially leaves, roots, fruits and seeds have been applied in traditional medicine for the treatment of leucoderma, poisonous bites of insects, epilepsy, salivation, long-standing cases of malaria, rheumatism, tuberculosis, allergic rhinitis, sinitis, urticaria, rheumatoid arthritis, constipation, diarrhoea, leprosy, lumbago, pruritis, bacterial and fungal infections. This comprehensive account provides a botanical description of the plant, its phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities are reviewed, focussing on antibacterial, antitumour, antitussive, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antinociceptive, hypoglycaemic, antimitotic, antioxidant, antitrypanosomal, CNS depressant activity, diuretic effects, contact dermatitis, insecticidal and herbicidal activities. Most of the pharmacological effects can be explained by the constituents like sesquiterpene lactones, glycoside, phenols, polysterols present in all plant parts. However, future efforts should concentrate more on in vitro and in vivo studies and also on clinical trials in order to confirm traditional wisdom in the light of a rational phytotherapy. Because of its multi-activity, in particular, anti-tumour, anti-cancer activity, so much attention is focussed on the herb. Finally, research needs quantitation of individual constituents and assessment of their pharmacological activities in humans.

  14. Brazilian scientific production on herbal medicines used in dentistry

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    R.D. Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to critically analyze the scientific production published in specialized Brazilian journals concerning the use of medicinal plants in dentistry. A literature review was carried out using an indirect documentation technique by means of a bibliographical study. Four examiners performed independent searches in Brazilian journals of medicinal plants indexed in the database SciELO (Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy; Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants; Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences; and Acta Botanica Brasilica using the descriptors "herbal medicine/phytotherapy" or "medicinal plants" and "dentistry ". The articles published from 2002 to 2012 addressing the use of medicinal plants in dentistry were included and analyzed. The searches based on the descriptors and reading of abstracts, resulted in 155 articles. Of these, 44 were read in full and a total of 16 publications met the eligibility criteria and were selected. Laboratory studies predominated (10 and were limited to the evaluation of antimicrobial properties by means of tests for determining inhibitory, fungicidal and bactericidal concentrations. Three literature reviews and only one clinical trial with no blinding and randomization were found. It is highlighted the need for better methodological designs in the researches and greater production of clinical or in vivo studies.

  15. Santé et valorisation des plantes médicinales en Cóte d’Ivoire

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    L. Ake Assi

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available HEALTH AND THE EVALUATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE IVORY COAST The Ivory Coast, like most tropical countries, has a rich flora with many species, some of which contain active principles used in the preparation of useful remedies for the treatment of disease. The art of curing disease is practisea in a very empirical way by healers all over the Ivory Coast. In intertropical Africa, generally speaking, traditional medicine accounts for about 80-90c/t of the medicinal needs of the population. It has the advantage of being near at hand and provides medical treatment at low cost. The study of medicinal plants will result in the production locally of medicines from indigenous raw materials, and the project, in addition to the exploitation of national resources, will create work opportunities. Concerning ethnobotany, investigations carried out among healers in some areas of the Ivory Coast, have enabled the registration of several medicinal recipes that have resulted in various reports and publications. Yet, slow progress with the registration of plants of use in human health restricts the possibilities of phytotherapy. Clearly, many plants remain to be studied and evaluated. Unfortunately, thoughtless and rapid destruction of natural areas in several parts of the country, makes the discovery and judicious exploitation of our plant resources increasingly difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to urge African governments to take draconian actions in order to save our endangered medical heritage.

  16. Hypothesis on Serenoa repens (Bartram small extract inhibition of prostatic 5α-reductase through an in silico approach on 5β-reductase x-ray structure

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    Paolo Governa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease in men aged over 50 years old, with an incidence increasing to more than 80% over the age of 70, that is increasingly going to attract pharmaceutical interest. Within conventional therapies, such as α-adrenoreceptor antagonists and 5α-reductase inhibitor, there is a large requirement for treatments with less adverse events on, e.g., blood pressure and sexual function: phytotherapy may be the right way to fill this need. Serenoa repens standardized extract has been widely studied and its ability to reduce lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia is comprehensively described in literature. An innovative investigation on the mechanism of inhibition of 5α-reductase by Serenoa repens extract active principles is proposed in this work through computational methods, performing molecular docking simulations on the crystal structure of human liver 5β-reductase. The results confirm that both sterols and fatty acids can play a role in the inhibition of the enzyme, thus, suggesting a competitive mechanism of inhibition. This work proposes a further confirmation for the rational use of herbal products in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia, and suggests computational methods as an innovative, low cost, and non-invasive process for the study of phytocomplex activity toward proteic targets.

  17. Targeting metabolic disorders by natural products.

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    Tabatabaei-Malazy, Ozra; Larijani, Bagher; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The most prevalent metabolic disorders are diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome, which are developed when normal metabolic processes are disturbed. The most common pathophysiologies of the above disorders are oxidative stress, Nrf2 pathways, epigenetic, and change in miRNA expression. There is a challenge in the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders due to severe adverse effects of some synthetic drugs, their high cost, lack of safety and poverty in some conditions, and insufficient accessibility for the general population in the world. With increasing interest in shifting from synthetic drugs to phytotherapy as an alternative treatment, there is still a gap in scientific evidences of plant-derived therapeutic benefits. One reason may be slow rate of translation of animal studies' findings into human clinical trials. Since metabolic disorders are multifactorial, it seems that poly-herbal medications, or drug-herbal combination are needed for their treatment. However, further researches to determine the most effective plant-derived metabolites, and their cellular mechanism in order to set priorities for well-designed animal and clinical trials, and also more studies with strong scientific evidences such as systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled studies are needed.

  18. Evaluation of extracts from Coccoloba mollis using the Salmonella/microsome system and in vivo tests

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    Marcela Stefanini Tsuboy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The common everyday use of medicinal plants is an ancient, and still very widespread practice, whereby the need for studies on their possible toxicity and mutagenic properties. The species Coccoloba mollis has been much used in phytotherapy, mainly in cases involving loss of memory and stress. In order to investigate its genotoxic and mutagenic potential, ethanolic extracts from the leaves and roots underwent Salmonella/microsome assaying (TA98 and TA100 strains, with and without exogenous metabolism - S9, besides comet and micronucleus tests in vivo.There was no significant increase in the number of revertants/plate of Salmonella strains in any of the analyzed root-extract concentrations, although the extract itself was extremely toxic to the Salmonella TA98 strain in the tests carried out with S9 (doses varying from 0.005 to 0.5 µg/plate. On the other hand, the leaf-extract induced mutations in the TA98 strain in the absence of S9 in the highest concentration evaluated, although at very low mutagenic potency (0.004 rev/µg. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant increase in the number of comets and micronuclei, in treatments involving Swiss mice. It was obvious that extracts of Coccoloba mollis, under the described experimental conditions, are not mutagenic.

  19. Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy.

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    Pieroni, A

    2000-06-01

    An ethnopharmacobotanical survey of the medicinal plants and food medicines of the northern part of Lucca Province, north-west Tuscany, central Italy, was carried out. The geographical isolation of this area has permitted the survival of a rich folk phytotherapy involving medicinal herbs and also vegetable resources used by locals as food medicine. Among these are the uncommon use of Ballota nigra leaves as a trophic protective; the use of Lilium candidum bulbs as an antiviral to treat shingles (Herpes zoster); Parmelia sp. as a cholagogue; Crocus napolitanus flowers as antiseptic; Prunus laurocerasus drupes as a hypotensive; and the consumption of chestnut flour polenta cooked with new wine as bechic. Many wild gathered greens are eaten raw in salads, or in boiled mixtures, as 'blood cleansing' and 'intestine cleansing' agents. Of particular interest is the persistence of the archaic use of Bryonia dioica root against sciatica, and the use of ritual plant therapeuticals as good omens, or against the 'evil eye.' Over 120 species represent the heritage of the local folk pharmacopoeia in upper Garfagnana. Anthropological and ethnopharmacological considerations of the collected data are also discussed.

  20. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

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    Qi Ye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic scar is a complication of wound healing and has a high recurrence rate which can lead to significant abnormity in aesthetics and functions. To date, no ideal treatment method has been established. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism of hypertrophic scarring has not been clearly defined. Although a large amount of scientific research has been reported on the use of medicinal plants as a natural source of treatment for hypertrophic scarring, it is currently scattered across a wide range of publications. Therefore, a systematic summary and knowledge for future prospects are necessary to facilitate further medicinal plant research for their potential use as antihypertrophic scar agents. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by focusing on medicinal plants which have been scientifically tested in vitro and/or in vivo and proved as potential agents for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Although the chemical components and mechanisms of action of medicinal plants with antihypertrophic scarring potential have been investigated, many others remain unknown. More investigations and clinical trials are necessary to make use of these medical plants reasonably and phytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach against hypertrophic scars.

  1. Herbal mouthwash based on Libidibia ferrea: microbiological control, sensory characteristics, sedimentation, pH and density

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    Gisely Naura Venâncio

    Full Text Available Introduction Phytotherapy is the study of herbal medicines and their applicability to cure diseases in general, being a therapeutic method which can be used for the prevention and treatment of mouth diseases. Among the herbal studied, the Libidibia ferrea, known as jucá or ironwood, is widely used in folk medicine by presenting anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial and antipyretic therapeutic properties. Objective To evaluate in vitro pharmacological stability of the Libidibia ferrea extract’s mouthwash (INPA - 228 022. Material and method It was held the mouthwash microbiological control by determining the total number of microorganisms and Salmonella sp, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus; stability characteristics (color, odor, brightness and consistency, sedimentation test (centrifuge, the pH measurement (pH meter and density evaluation (pycnometer were analyzed. Result The mouthwash showed to be absent from microorganisms and no changes were observed in the organoleptics and sedimentation characteristics. The average pH values were 6.21, 6.15 and 5.85 at 0, 30 and 60 days, respectively, and 1.029, 1.033 and 1.035 g/ mL density values, respectively, without interfering with the final characteristic of the formulation. Conclusion The mouthwash presented pharmacological stability and quality conditions.

  2. Prophylactic effect of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L. on ethylene glycol induced nephrocalcinosis in male wistar rat

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    M. Gandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Many medicinal plants have been employed during ages to treat urinary stones though the rationale behind their use is not well established. Thus, the present study was proposed to evaluate the effect of coconut water as a prophylactic agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. Materials and Methods The male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups. Animals of group I (control were fed standard rat diet. In group II, the animals were administrated 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for the induction of nephrolithiasis. Group III animals were administrated coconut water in addition to ethylene glycol. All the treatments were continued for a total duration of seven weeks. Results and Conclusion Treatment with coconut water inhibited crystal deposition in renal tissue as well as reduced the number of crystals in urine. Furthermore, coconut water also protected against impaired renal function and development of oxidative stress in the kidneys. The results indicate that coconut water could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  3. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in obstetrics and gynaecology: a survey of office-based obstetricians and gynaecologists regarding attitudes towards CAM, its provision and cooperation with other CAM providers in the state of Hesse, Germany.

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    Münstedt, K; Maisch, M; Tinneberg, H R; Hübner, J

    2014-12-01

    Whereas we have some information on complementary medicine in the field of oncology, little is known about complementary medicine in the field of obstetrics and gynaecology especially outside of hospitals. All office-based obstetricians and gynaecologists in the state of Hesse, Germany, were contacted and asked to fill in an assessment form regarding cooperation in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as well as the perceived efficacy of various CAM methods for a number of pathological conditions in the field of obstetrics and gynaecology. It was found that more than half of Hessian office-based obstetricians and gynaecologists had existing cooperation regarding CAM, especially with colleagues, but also midwives, pharmacists, physiotherapists, and health practitioners. The probability of cooperation was significantly inversely associated with age. It was found that the probability for advising CAM differed between various health problems. The following CAM methods were considered reasonable for the treatment of different conditions: phytotherapy for climacteric complaints and premenstrual syndrome; homoeopathy for puerperal problems; acupuncture and traditional Chinese medicine for complaints during pregnancy; and dietary supplements for the side effects of cancer therapy. The analysis shows that there is much cooperation in the field of CAM. Comparison between physicians' perceived efficacy of CAM methods and objective findings shows that there is a need for the provision of valid information in the field.

  4. Phytotoxicity Assessment of Certain Phytochemical Products Containing Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

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    Cristina Șeremet Oana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot, Petasites hybridus (common butterbur, Senecio vernalis (eastern groundsel and Symphytum officinale (comfrey are species traditionally used in phytotherapy that besides the therapeutic compounds contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs. The aim of the paper is to determine the total PAs content and the phytotoxicity of the above species. Material and methods: The quantitative determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids is based on the stoichiometric reaction of protonated alkaloids with methyl orange. In acidic conditions the dye is released from the complex and its color is assessed spectrophotometrically using a linear regression curve of senecionine as a standard. The phytotoxicity was assessed by Triticum bioassay that studies the effect of the extracts (0.001-5.00%, w/v upon root elongation (inhibitory concentration - IC50 and on the karyokinetic film. Results: The highest amount of total PAs was found in Senecio vernalis (654.8 ± 35.96 μg/g dry plant and the lowest in Petasites hybridus. The lowest IC50 was found for Tussilago farfara followed by Petasites hybridus, Senecio vernalis, and Symphytum officinale. The results were supported by microscopic examination. Conclusions: The results of the spectrophotometric assay are consistent with the ones found in the literature. All extracts inhibited the elongation of the main root of wheat caryopses, however, no correlation between phytotoxicity and the PAs concentration could be emphasized

  5. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Tajikistan

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    Sharopov, Farukh; Braun, Markus Santhosh; Gulmurodov, Isomiddin; Khalifaev, Davlat; Isupov, Salomiddin; Wink, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of 18 plant species from Tajikistan (Central Asia) were investigated. The essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum showed a strong antibacterial activity with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 312.5 µg/mL for E. coli, 625 µg/mL (MIC) and 1250 µg/mL (MBC) for MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), respectively. The essential oil of Galagania fragrantissima was highly active against MRSA at concentrations as low as 39.1 µg/mL and 78.2 µg/mL for MIC and MBC, respectively. Origanum tyttanthum essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 0.12 mg/mL for ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and 0.28 mg/mL for DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Galagania fragrantissima and Origanum tyttanthum essential oils showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity; IC50 values of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibition were 7.34 and 14.78 µg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, essential oils of Origanum tyttanthum and Galagania fragrantissima exhibit substantial antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. They are interesting candidates in phytotherapy.

  6. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Tajikistan

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    Farukh Sharopov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of 18 plant species from Tajikistan (Central Asia were investigated. The essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum showed a strong antibacterial activity with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of 312.5 µg/mL for E. coli, 625 µg/mL (MIC and 1250 µg/mL (MBC for MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. The essential oil of Galagania fragrantissima was highly active against MRSA at concentrations as low as 39.1 µg/mL and 78.2 µg/mL for MIC and MBC, respectively. Origanum tyttanthum essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 0.12 mg/mL for ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 0.28 mg/mL for DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Galagania fragrantissima and Origanum tyttanthum essential oils showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity; IC50 values of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX inhibition were 7.34 and 14.78 µg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, essential oils of Origanum tyttanthum and Galagania fragrantissima exhibit substantial antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. They are interesting candidates in phytotherapy.

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder among earthquake survivors of the Wenchuan area (Sichuan, China

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    Chunlan Hong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: On May 12, 2008, an earthquake with a power of 8.0 M on the Richter scale occurred in the Wenchuan County of Sichuan Province in southwest China, which was unprecedented in magnitude and aftermath. Approximately 70,000 people were killed and nearly 20,000 went missing. The earthquake caused a wide number of mental and physical health outcomes among survivors, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD was one of the most commonly studied. Methods: We conducted a systematic overview to assess research achievements about PTSD in the past 6 years after the Wenchuan earthquake, including symptoms and risk factors about PTSD among Wenchuan earthquake survivors, as well as research developments in genetics, molecular biology, and treatment of PTSD. Results: The large body of research conducted after the Wenchuan earthquake suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons with high exposure was substantial. Adolescents and adults were among the most studied populations with high prevalence rates. Phytotherapy with Chinese herbs as well as acupuncture were rarely studied as of yet, although published data indicated promising therapy effects. Genome-wide microarray technologies are widely used in experimental mice and rat models to study PTSD mechanisms as well as in patients suffering from PTSD and other psychosomatic disorders to search for novel biomarkers and to monitor the effectiveness of treatment interventions. Conclusion: Using genomic and transcriptomic technologies, our future research will focus on the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine to find potential interventions and effective treatments of PTSD.

  8. Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment and diagnosis of asthma and allergic diseases.

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    Passalacqua, G; Compalati, E; Schiappoli, M; Senna, G

    2005-03-01

    The use of Complementary/Alternative Medicines (CAM) is largely diffused and constantly increasing, especially in the field of allergic diseases and asthma. Homeopathy, acupuncture and phytotherapy are the most frequently utilised treatments, whereas complementary diagnostic techniques are mainly used in the field of food allergy-intolerance. Looking at the literature, the majority of clinical trials with CAMS are of low methodological quality, thus difficult to interpret. There are very few studies performed in a rigorously controlled fashion, and those studies provided inconclusive results. In asthma, none of the CAM have thus far been proved more effective than placebo or equally effective as standard treatments. Some herbal products, containing active principles, have displayed some clinical effect, but the herbal remedies are usually not standardised and not quantified, thus carry the risk of toxic effects or interactions. None of the alternative diagnostic techniques (electrodermal testing, kinesiology, leukocytotoxic test, iridology, hair analysis) have been proved able to distinguish between healthy and allergic subjects or to diagnose sensitizations. Therefore these tests must not be used, since they can lead to delayed or incorrect diagnosis and therapy.

  9. Notes about the uses of plants by one of the last healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy

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    Montesano Vincenzo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The paper refers to the knowledge and uses of plants and to the linked ritual practices as referred by Matteo (It.‘Zì Matteo’, En. ‘Uncle Matthew’, one of the last elder healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy. Particular attention is also paid to the uses of ‘Vruca’ (Tamarix gallica L. as a medicinal and magical plant used to heal common warts on various parts of the body. Methods After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through an open interview about the uses of the plants and on the associated ritual practices. For each species, data were collected that included the vernacular names, preparation, plant parts utilized and their method of use. Results The uses of 52 taxa are described. Among these, 43 are or were employed medicinally, eight as culinary foodstuffs, and 4 for domestic, handicraft or ethnoveterinary uses. Among the major findings: the ritual and magical use of Tamarix gallica L. to heal warts is described in detail; so far, no records of similar use were found in any Italian ethnobotanical studies conducted in southern Italy. Conclusion Phytotherapy in the Basilicata region is practiced by elderly people who resort to medicinal plants for mild illnesses; we interviewed one of those traditional healers who is very experienced in the field, and possesses rich ethno-pharmacological knowledge.

  10. Structure and cytotoxic activity of sesquiterpene glycoside esters from Calendula officinalis L.: Studies on the conformation of viridiflorol.

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    D'Ambrosio, Michele; Ciocarlan, Alexandru; Colombo, Elisa; Guerriero, Antonio; Pizza, Cosimo; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Topic applications of Calendula officinalis L. lipophilic extracts are used in phytotherapy to relieve skin inflammatory conditions whereas infusions are used as a remedy for gastric complaints. Such a different usage might be explained by some cytotoxicity of lipophilic extracts at gastric level but little is known about this. Therefore, we screened the CH2Cl2 extract from the flowers of C. officinalis by MTT and LDH assays in human epithelial gastric cells AGS. This bioassay-oriented approach led to the isolation of several sesquiterpene glycosides which were structurally characterized by spectroscopic measurements, chemical reactions and MM calculations. The conformational preferences of viridiflorol fucoside were established and a previously assigned stereochemistry was revised. The compounds 1a, 2a and 3f showed comparably high cytotoxicity in the MTT assays, whereas the effect on LDH release was lower. Our study provides new insights on the composition of C. officinalis extracts of medium polarity and identifies the main compounds that could be responsible for cytotoxic effects at gastric level.

  11. Evaluation of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil on goat gastrointestinal nematodes.

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    Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; de Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra; Camurça-Vasconcelos, Ana Lourdes Fernandes; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Amóra, Sthenia Dos Santos Albano

    2011-01-01

    Phytotherapy may be an alternative strategy for controlling gastrointestinal parasites. This study evaluated the anthelmintic efficacy of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil (EcEO). The in vitro effects of EcEO were determined through testing the inhibition of egg hatching and larval development of Haemonchus contortus. EcEO was subjected to acute toxicity testing on mice, orally and intraperitoneally. The in vivo effects of EcEO were determined by the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) in goats infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The results showed that 5.3 mg.mL(-1) EcEO inhibited egg hatching by 98.8% and 10.6 mg.mL(-1) EcEO inhibited H. contortus larval development by 99.71%. The lethal doses for 50% of the mice were 4153 and 622.8 mg.kg(-1), for acute toxicity orally and intraperitoneally. In the FECRT, the efficacy of EcEO and ivermectin was 66.25 and 79.16% respectively, on goat gastrointestinal nematodes eight days after treatment. EcEO showed in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity.

  12. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Effects of Withania coagulans Extract on Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats

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    Sarbishegi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH is a common urological disorder in elderly men. Phytotherapy is frequently used to alleviate the symptoms of this condition. Objectives The present study investigated the effect of Withania coagulans extract (WCE, which is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, and anti-cancer properties, on testosterone-induced BPH in rats. Materials and Methods Forty Wistar rats were divided into five groups (each n = 8: the control group, the untreated BPH group, and three WCE-treated groups (WCE250, 500, and 1000. BPH was induced with 3 mg/kg subcutaneous injections of testosterone propionate for four weeks. WCE was concomitantly administrated by oral gavage. At the end of the induction schedule, the animals were sacrificed and their prostate glands were dissected, weighed, and fixed for histological examination (H&E and proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] staining. Half of each sample was prepared for measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA and total antioxidant capacity (TAC levels in the prostate. Results The present study revealed that BPH caused elevation of MDA levels, suppression of TAC levels, and increased PCNA expression in the prostate gland. Interestingly, in a dose-dependent manner, WCE caused decreased MDA levels and increased TAC levels in the prostate gland, compared to the untreated BPH group. Histopathological examinations showed a reduction in PCNA expression in the prostate epithelium of the WCE animals. Conclusions W. coagulans inhibits the development of BPH can be useful for the treatment of this condition.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITYOF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SCHINUS TEREBINTHIFOLIUS RADDI

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    A. Arnobio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy consists in all pharmaceutical preparation using certain part of plants as a feedstock with known pharmacological effects for medicinal purposes. In order to a better understanding of the biological effects associated with herbal medicines, many scientific studies have been conducted and developed in recent years. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Aroeira is native from Peru and is also found in Europe, Asia and some Latin American countries. This herbal remedy was chosen for study because of its wide use and interesting pharmacological actions. Among the effects documented in the literature, they are a potent antimicrobial agent. Its use as hydroalcoholic extract showed positive effect on cystotomy healing in rats and the studies indicate that Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi vaginal gel is effective and safe for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. The experimental model discussed in this study was the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC in different strains of protozoa. Evaluation of the effects of the extract with Trypanosomacruzi and Leishmaniaamazonensis strains was conducted at different concentrations of a dilution series to allow a more sensitive analysis, in a wide concentration range. A static or toxic action can be distinguished by the color reaction which is involved rezazorina. The results indicate that in none of the tested strains were observed cytotoxic effects of aqueous extract. There was also no inhibitory action on the development of tested strains.

  14. Chemo-profiling of eucalyptus and study of its hypoglycemic potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baishakhi; Dey; Analava; Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Constant escalations in the number of diabetics worldwide and the failure of conventional therapy to restore normoglycemia without adverse effects,in spite of tremendous strides in modern medicine,calls for naturopathy and alternative medicine.Because diabetes is multi-factorial and has secondary complications,prevention of hyperglycemia is the central dogma for its management.To date,no oral hypoglycemic exists which can achieve tight glycemic control without side effects.Dietary adjuncts,lifestyle interventions and a resurgence of interest in phyto-therapy have consequently gained ground.Natural hypoglycemics have attracted attention due to ease of incorporation in everyday diet,affordability,less adverse effects,and long term safety.Ethno botanical literature reports more than 800 anti-diabetic plants species.Eucalyptus is well represented in the Aboriginal Pharmacopoeias for its various pharmacological activities.Its hot aqueous decoction has been used as a hypoglycemic in various regions of world.This editorial attempts to summarize the data on the hypoglycemic potential of the different eucalyptus species,highlight the value of its natural biomolecules for the prophylaxis and treatment of type2 diabetes,describe their mechanistic actions,shed light on the posology and safety aspects of eucalyptusand assess its applicability as a reinforcement to currently used therapy.

  15. Analysis of benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives of some medicinal plants in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural phenolics, which are ubiquitously distributed in plants, have been reported as functional factors in phytotherapy. We have examined phenolic compounds in the leaves and inflorescences of five significant medicinal plants of different plant families: Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae; Achillea clypeolata (Asteraceae; Nymphaea alba (Nymphaeaceae; Rumex acetosella (Polygonaceae and Allium ursinum (Alliaceae. The examined species were rich in total phenolics (up to 30.88 mg/g dry weight. According to their total phenolics contents, the plants can be arranged in the following order: A. clypeolata>N. alba>S. officinalis>R. acetosella>A. ursinum. Free phenolics prevailed in all species in comparison to the bound forms (63.72-82.68% of total phenolics. The highest content of total free phenolics was measured in the tissues of A. clypeolata and N. alba, and the lowest in A. ursinum. Five phenolic acids were isolated and measured. p-Coumaric and ferulic acids as derivatives of cinnamic acid prevailed in the leaves of R. acetosella and A. ursinum (up to 4.81%. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173018

  16. Evaluation of Estrogenic Activity of Extract from the Herbal Mixture Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsley, Phlomis umbrosa Turczaninow, and Angelica gigas Nakai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Jong; Jin, Sun Woo; Lee, Gi-Ho; Kim, Yong An; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2017-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) consists of highly effective prescription medications for treating menopausal symptoms; however, these agents have exhibited side effects including the risk of estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. Therefore, interest in phytotherapy-based materials as a natural source of alternatives to estrogen therapy has increased. However, some of these herbal medicines have been reported to increase the risk of estrogen-induced cancer. Herbal formulations composed of a combination of Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsley (CW), Phlomis umbrosa Turczaninow (PU), and Angelica gigas Nakai (AG) extracts (CPAE) have been used for treating menopausal symptoms. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to examine the safety of CPAE by determining its potential adverse estrogenic activity using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline 455 (TG455) in a stably transfected transcriptionally activated human estrogen receptor α (hERα)-HeLa9903 cell model. We found that CPAE did not how any estrogenic activity or stimulate promoters containing estrogen response elements in MCF-7 cells. In addition, CPAE showed no significant selective activity against hERα and hERβ, non-selective activity against the ER, or effects on ER target gene expression. Furthermore, CPAE did not significantly induce MCF-7 cell proliferation and uterine weight increase in ovariectomized rats. These results demonstrate that CPAE can be used as beneficial herbal drug for prevention and therapeutic intervention of estrogen carcinogenesis in menopausal women. PMID:28133516

  17. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) Essential Oil Inhalation Improves Positive Feelings in the Waiting Room of a Mental Health Treatment Center: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuesheng; Gibson, Jacob; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L

    2017-03-24

    Mental health issues have been increasingly recognized as public health problems globally. Their burden is projected to increase over the next several decades. Additional therapies for mental problems are in urgent need worldwide due to the limitations and costs of existing healthcare approaches. Essential oil aromatherapy can provide a cost-effective and safe treatment for many mental problems. This pilot study observed the effects of bergamot essential oil inhalation on mental health and well-being, as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, in a mental-health treatment center located in Utah, USA. Fifty-seven eligible participants (50 women, age range: 23-70 years) were included for analysis. Fifteen minutes of bergamot essential oil exposure improved participants' positive feelings compared with the control group (17% higher). Unexpectedly, more participants participated in experimental periods rather than control periods, suggesting even brief exposure to essential oil aroma may make people more willing to enroll in clinical trials. This study provides preliminary evidence of the efficacy and safety of bergamot essential oil inhalation on mental well-being in a mental health treatment center, suggesting that bergamot essential oil aromatherapy can be an effective adjunct treatment to improve individuals' mental health and well-being. © 2017 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The legacy of Sebastian Kneipp: linking wellness, naturopathic, and allopathic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Cornelia; Pforr, Christof

    2014-07-01

    Sebastian Kneipp (1821-1897) is seen as a vital link between the European nature cure movement of the 19th century and American naturopathy. He promoted a holistic treatment concept founded on five pillars: hydro- and phytotherapy, exercise, balanced nutrition, and regulative therapy. Kneipp attempted to bridge the gap with allopathic medicine, and many modern treatments that are based on his methods indeed blend wellness elements with naturopathic medicine and biomedicine. Because Kneipp's approach to health and healing today are mainly covered in German literature, this paper aims to provide a broader international audience with insights into his life and his treatment methods and to highlight the profound influence Kneipp has had to this day on natural and preventive medicine. The paper emphasizes in particular the continued popularity of Kneipp's holistic approach to health and well-being, which is evident in the many national and international Kneipp Associations, the globally operating Kneipp Werke, postgraduate qualifications in his treatment methods, and the existence of more than 60 accredited Kneipp spas and health resorts in Germany alone.

  19. Use of homeopathy in organic dairy farming in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjales, Inmaculada; López-Alonso, Marta; Rodríguez-Bermúdez, Ruth; Rey-Crespo, Francisco; Villar, Ana; Miranda, Marta

    2016-02-01

    Organic farming principles promote the use of unconventional therapies as an alternative to chemical substances (which are limited by organic regulations), with homeopathy being the most extensive. Traditionally, Spain has had little faith in homeopathy but its use in organic farming is growing. Fifty-six Spanish organic dairy farmers were interviewed to obtain what we believe to be the first data on the use of homeopathy in organic dairy cattle in Spain. Only 32% of farms use some sort of alternative therapy (16.1% homeopathy, 10.7% phytotherapy and 5.3% using both therapies) and interestingly, a clear geographical pattern showing a higher use towards the East (similar to that in the human population) was observed. The main motivation to use homeopathy was the need to reduce chemical substances promoted by organic regulations, and the treatment of clinical mastitis being the principle reason. The number of total treatments was lower in farms using homeopathy compared with those applying allopathic therapies (0.13 and 0.54 treatments/cow/year respectively) and although the bulk SCC was significantly higher (p farms (161,826 and 111,218 cel/ml, respectively) it did not have any negative economical penalty for the farmer and milk quality was not affected complying with the required standards; on the contrary homeopathic therapies seems to be an alternative for reducing antibiotic treatments, allowing farmers to meet the organic farming principles.

  20. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatment Options for Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Tal; Marchisio, Paola; Tamir, Sharon Ovnat; Torretta, Sara; Gavriel, Haim; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Otitis media (OM) has numerous presentations in children. Together with conventional medical therapies aimed to prevent and/or treat OM, a rising number of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment options can be offered. Since OM is common in children, parents may ask healthcare professionals about possible CAM therapies. Many physicians feel that their knowledge is limited regarding these therapies, and that they desire some information. Therefore, we conducted a literature review of CAM therapies for OM, taking into account that many of these treatments, their validity and efficacy and have not been scientifically demonstrated. We performed a search in MEDLINE (accessed via PubMed) using the following terms: “CAM” in conjunction with “OM” and “children. Retrieved publications regarding treatment of OM in children which included these terms included randomized controlled trials, prospective/retrospective studies, and case studies. The following CAM options for OM treatment in children were considered: acupuncture, homeopathy, herbal medicine/phytotherapy, osteopathy, chiropractic, xylitol, ear candling, vitamin D supplement, and systemic and topical probiotics. We reviewed each treatment and described the level of scientific evidence of the relevant publications. The therapeutic approaches commonly associated with CAM are usually conservative, and do not include drugs or surgery. Currently, CAM is not considered by physicians a potential treatment of OM, as there is limited supporting evidence. Further studies are warranted in order to evaluate the potential value of CAM therapies for OM. PMID:26871802

  1. Medicinal plant reported with adverse reactions in Cuba: potential interactions with conventional drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Martínez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Herbal drugs are a mixture of active compounds and the chemical complexity of each formulation increase with the possibility of interactions between them and conventional drugs. Many mechanisms are implicated in the interactions; scientific community has dedicated the attentions to enzymes as P-gp and CYP450. Aims: To investigate in the literature the principal plants with suspicions of adverse reactions in Cuba and their potential interactions with conventional drugs. Methods: PubMed was the database used as source of information until February 2014. Key words: Herb-Drug, Drug-Plant, Herbal–Drug, Interactions with scientific names of plants was used. Information was structured and analysed with EndNote X4. Analysis and integration of the information: Allium sativum L. (garlic was the plant with the high number of studies related with CYP450 and P-gp. Plants with great demand as Morinda citrifolia L. (noni, Psidium guajava L. (guayaba, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger and Eucalyptus spp. (eucalyptus have a very small number of studies. The professionals of the health should keep in mind the possibility of interactions between herbal products and conventional drugs to increase the effectiveness of phytotherapy. Conclusions: It is necessary enhance reports and investigations and to put to disposition of the system of health information on the interactions of plants and to stimulate the investigation that offers information for the rational use of our medicinal plants.

  2. Plant-based antimicrobial studies--methods and approaches to study the interaction between natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, Sandy; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2011-07-01

    The therapeutic value of synergistic interactions has been known since antiquity, and many different cultural healing systems still rely on this principle in the belief that combination therapy may enhance efficacy. This paper intends to provide an overview, from an antimicrobial perspective, on the research undertaken and interactive principles involved in pharmacognosy studies. Methods used to determine antimicrobial interactions include basic combination studies, the sum of the fractional inhibitory concentration index (ΣFIC), isobole interpretations, and death kinetic (time-kill) assays. The various interactions are discussed with reference to molecules, different plant parts or fractions, different plant species, and combinations with nonbotanical antimicrobial agents. It is recommended for future development in the field of phytosynergy that consideration should be given to the selection criteria for the two inhibitors. A more conservative approach should be adopted when classifying synergy. When examining interactions in plant-based studies, antagonistic interactions should not be ignored. Combinations involving more than two test samples should be examined where applicable, and very importantly, the mechanism of action of synergistic interactions should be given precedence. It is encouraging to observe the upsurge in papers exploring the complex interactions of medicinal plants, and undoubtedly this will become increasingly important in our continued quest to understand the mechanism of action of phytotherapy. The scientific validation of efficacious antimicrobial combinations could lead to patentable entities making research in the field of phytosynergy not only academically rewarding but also commercially relevant.

  3. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of seed extract of Coriandrum sativum compared to Niclosamid against Hymenolepis nana infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Samaneh; Ghalesefidi, Maryam Jamshidian; Azami, Mehdi; Mohaghegh, Mohammad Ali; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Ghomashlooyan, Mohsen

    2016-12-01

    Phytotherapy can be an alternative for the control of gastrointestinal parasites in human and animals. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a medicinal plant which grown as a spice crop all over the world. The seeds of this plant have been used to treat parasitic disease, indigestion, diabetes, rheumatism and pain in the joints. This study was carried out to compare the efficacy of Niclosamid and alcoholic seed extract of C. sativum on Hymenolepis nana infection, in vivo and vitro. For in vivo study, Balb/c mice were used, to compare the efficacy of 50 mg/kg body weight (B.W) of Niclosamid with different doses of alcoholic extracts of C. sativum (250, 500, and 750 mg/kg B.W). It was found that the efficacy of Niclosamid had reached 100 % after 11 days post treatment, while the efficacy of 500 and 750 mg/kg B.W of C. sativum reached to 100 % after 15 days after treatment. For in vitro study, special nutrient broth media was used. It was found that the addition of 1000 mg/ml of Niclosamid had paralyzed and killed worms within 5 min, while C. sativum killed them within 30 min. Our results showed that extract of C. sativum has good effect against H. nana and could be use in traditional medicine for treatment of parasitic disease.

  4. Forms of medical pluralism among the Polish Community in Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Monika

    2016-08-01

    The paper addresses forms of medical pluralism, studied from the microsocial perspective, among the Polish community in Misiones, Argentina. It shows different attitudes to health treatment within the field of home medicine, local non-biomedical specialists and biomedicine. It points out the relationship between the diversity of offers of medical assistance and community members' negotiations between various medical approaches. It also identifies the factors influencing these choices. While prior research examines Indigenous and Mestizo medical ethnobotany in this region, there has not been research on medical pluralism and very little study of complementary and alternative medicine among the inhabitants of Misiones. The study group comprises Polish peasants who settled in northern Misiones between 1936 and 1938 and their descendants born in Argentina. Field research was based on semi-structured, in-depth and free-listing interviews. The analysis was carried out using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The results show that Polish settlers tried to reconstruct bits and pieces of their familiar and traditional healing practices in the new environment. Phytotherapy plays the most important role among home therapies. It is at home that most treatments start. Members of the Polish community also treat folk illnesses at home and report them to local healers. The growing influence of biomedicine does not contribute to the elimination of home medicine or non-biomedical specialists in the study area. There has been a medicalization of childbirth and fractures, but folk experts such as curanderos, hueseros and naturistas are still very popular in the region.

  5. Reduction of oxalate-induced renal tubular epithelial (NRK-52E cell injury and inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallisation in vitro by aqueous extract of Achyranthes aspera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Anshu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable progress in medical therapy, there is no satisfactory drug to treat kidney stones. Therefore, this study is aimed to look for an alternative treatment by using Achyranthes aspera. Here, the inhibitory potency of A. aspera was investigated on nucleation and the growth of the calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals as well as on oxalate-induced cell injury of NRK 52E renal epithelial cells in vitro. Data are expressed as mean values of three independent experiments (each in triplicate and analysed by the analysis of variance (P < 0.05 to estimate the differences between values of extracts tested. A. aspera extract exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of the growth of CaOx crystals but a similar pattern of inhibition was not observed with increase in the plant extract concentration for the nucleation assay. When NRK 52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 72 hours, A. aspera extract prevented the injury in a dose-dependent manner. On treatment with the different concentrations of the plant, the cell viability increased and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. These studies indicate that A. aspera extract besides having a cytoprotective role also has a potential to inhibit both nucleation and the growth of the CaOx crystals and can prove to be a potent candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  6. Bromelain Inhibits Allergic Sensitization and Murine Asthma via Modulation of Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Eric R; Szczepanek, Steven M; Castater, Christine A; Adami, Alexander J; Matson, Adam P; Rafti, Ektor T; Guernsey, Linda; Natarajan, Prabitha; McNamara, Jeffrey T; Schramm, Craig M; Thrall, Roger S; Silbart, Lawrence K

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of atopic conditions has increased in industrialized countries. Persisting symptoms and concern for drug side-effects lead patients toward adjunctive treatments such as phytotherapy. Previously, we have shown that Bromelain (sBr), a mixture of cysteine proteases from pineapple, Ananas comosus, inhibits ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of allergic airway disease (AAD). However, sBr's effect on development of AAD when treatment is administered throughout OVA-alum sensitization was unknown and is the aim of the present study. C57BL/6J mice were sensitized with OVA/alum and challenged with 7 days OVA aerosol. sBr 6 mg/kg/0.5 ml or PBS vehicle were administered throughout sensitization. Lung, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), spleen, and lymph nodes were processed for flow cytometry and OVA-specific IgE was determined via ELISA. sBr treatment throughout OVA-alum sensitization significantly reduced the development of AAD (BAL eosinophils and lymphocytes). OVA-specific IgE and OVA TET(+) cells were decreased. sBr reduced CD11c(+) dendritic cell subsets, and in vitro treatment of DCs significantly reduced CD44, a key receptor in both cell trafficking and activation. sBr was shown to reduce allergic sensitization and the generation of AAD upon antigen challenge. These results provide additional insight into sBr's anti-inflammatory and antiallergic properties and rationale for translation into the clinical arena.

  7. Thuja occidentalis (Arbor vitae: A Review of its Pharmaceutical, Pharmacological and Clinical Properties

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    Belal Naser

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arbor vitae (Thuja occidentalis L. is a native European tree widely used in homeopathy and evidence-based phytotherapy. Many reviews and monographs have been published on the herbal substance's description, mode of action and clinical use. However, no comprehensive evidence-based review is available. Therefore, our aim was to search MEDLINE databases and survey manufacturers for further details or unpublished data. This review presents the botany, ethnobotany and phytochemistry, especially the different contents of essential oil (Thujone in relation to different extraction procedures of this medicinal plant. Thuja's antiviral action and immunopharmacological potential, such as stimulatory and co-stimulatory effects on cytokine and antibody production and activation of macrophages and other immunocompetent cells, have been evaluated in numerous in vitro and in vivo investigations. Although no controlled trials have been conducted on Thuja occ alone, many clinical studies have been performed with a herbal medicinal product containing a special extract of Thuja occ and other immunostimulants, demonstrating its therapeutic efficacy and safety in respiratory tract infections.

  8. Systematic Review on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Survivors of the Wenchuan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chunlan; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) widely occurs among victims or witness of disasters. With flashbacks, hyperarousal, and avoidance being the typical symptoms, PTSD became a focus of psychological research. The earthquake in Wenchuan, China, on May 12, 2008, was without precedent in magnitude and aftermath and caused huge damage, which drew scientists' attention to mental health of the survivors. We conducted a systematic overview by collecting published articles from the PubMed database and classifying them into five points: epidemiology, neuropathology, biochemistry, genetics and epigenetics, and treatment. The large body of research during the past 6 years showed that adolescents and adults were among the most studied populations with high prevalence rates for PTSD. Genomic and transcriptomic studies focusing on gene × environment studies as well as epigenetics are still rare, although a few available data showed great potential to better understand the pathophysiology of PTSD as multifactorial disease. Phytotherapy with Chinese herbs and acupuncture are rarely reported as of yet, although the first published data indicated promising therapy effects. Future studies should focus on the following points: (1) The affected populations under observation should be better defined concerning individual risk factor, time of observation, spatial movement, and individual disease courses of patients. (2) The role of social support for prevalence rates of PTSD should be observed in more detail. (3) Efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine should be studied to find potential interventions and effective treatments of PTSD.

  9. Coccidiosis in poultry: anticoccidial products, vaccines and other prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, H W; Landman, W J M

    2011-09-01

    Coccidiosis in chickens is a parasitic disease with great economic significance, which has been controlled successfully for decades using mainly anticoccidial products. However, large-scale and long-term use of anticoccidial drugs has led to the worldwide development of resistance against all these drugs. In order to minimize the occurrence of resistance, the rotation of various anticoccidial drugs in single and/or shuttle programmes is used. Unfortunately, this has not solved the anticoccidial resistance problem. Recently, live anticoccidial vaccines have been incorporated into rotation programmes, resulting in an increasing incidence of anticoccidial drug-sensitive Eimeria spp. field isolates, which may ameliorate the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs. Nevertheless, possible upcoming bans restricting the use of anticoccidials as feed additives, consumer concerns on residues and increasing regulations have prompted the quest for alternative coccidiosis control strategies. Although management and biosecurity measures could halt the introduction of Eimeria spp. to a farm, in practice they do not suffice to prevent coccidiosis outbreaks. Phytotherapy, aromatherapy and pre- and probiotics either show conflicting, non-consistent or non-convincing results, and have therefore not been applied at a large scale in the field. So far, live attenuated and non-attenuated anticoccidial vaccines have proved to be the most solid and successful coccidiosis prevention and control strategy. Despite the drawbacks associated with their production and use, their popularity is increasing. If with time, the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines can be improved, they could represent the next generation of highly efficient and low-cost anticoccidial strategies.

  10. Differentiated Evaluation of Extract-Specific Evidence on Cimicifuga racemosa's Efficacy and Safety for Climacteric Complaints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A.-M.; Neff, A.

    2013-01-01

    Past reviews on Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) without differentiation between extracts, quality, and indication altogether led to inconsistent data. Therefore, for the first time, we meet the requirements of the system's logic of evidence-based phytotherapy by taking into consideration extracts, pharmaceutical quality (reflected in a regulatory status as medicinal product), and indication. A literature search for clinical studies examining CR's efficacy and safety for menopausal complaints was conducted. The results were sorted by type of extract, regulatory status, and indication. Accordingly, Oxford Levels of Evidence (LOE) and Grades of Recommendation (GR) were determined. CR extracts demonstrated a good to very good safety in general, on estrogen-sensitive organs and the liver. However, only registered CR medicinal products were able to prove their efficacy. Best evidence was provided by the isopropanolic CR extract (iCR): the multitude of studies including more than 11,000 patients demonstrated consistent confirmatory evidence of LOE 1b (LOE 1a for safety) leading to GR A. The studies on the ethanolic extract BNO 1055 including more than 500 patients showed exploratory evidence of LOE 2b resulting in GR B. A positive benefit-risk profile is stated and limited to Cimicifuga racemosa products holding a marketing authorisation for treating climacteric complaints. PMID:24062793

  11. Randomized clinical trial of an ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum in men with lower urinary tract symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masanori Noguchi; Kei Matsuoka; Tatsuyuki Kakuma; Katsuro Tomiyasu; Akira Yamada; Kyogo Itoh; Fumiko Konishi; Shoichiro Kumamoto; Kuniyoshi Shimizu; Ryuichiro Kondo

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of an extract of Ganoderma lucidum that shows the strongest 5α-reductase inhibitory activity among the extracts of 19 edible and medicinal mushrooms by a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized and dose-ranging study in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Methods: In this trial, we randomly assigned 88 men over the age of 49 years who had slight-to-moderate LUTS to 12 weeks of treatment with G. Lucidum extract (6 mg once a day) or placebo. The primary outcome measures were changes in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and variables of uroflowmetry. Secondary outcome measures included changes in prostate size, residual urinary volume after voiding, laboratory values and the reported adverse effects. Results: G. Lucidum was effective and significantly superior to placebo for improving total IPSS with 2.1 points decreasing at the end of treatment (mean difference, -1.18 points; 95% confidence interval, -1.74 to -0.62; P < 0.0001). No changes were observed with respect to quality of life scores, peak urinary flow, mean urinary flow, residual urine, prostate volume, serum prostate-specific antigen or testosterone levels. Overall treatment was well tolerated with no severe adverse effects. Conclusion: The extract of G. Lucidum was well tolerated and improved IPSS scores. These results encouraged a further, large-scale evaluation of phytotherapy for a long duration using the extract of G. Lucidum on men with LUTS.

  12. Marketing aspect of paramedical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugalić Sretenka L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available That's how the primary medical and ecological reasons as the well being for humanity came out of the satisfaction of specific health needs. Through operationally of these outcomes it tried to prove the need and the intentions of the customers, and through methodologies and strategies which stand to our service. Further developing activity acted as a useful to the innovation of the product and vertical structure of marketing, through the change in the way of thinking of the medical and pharmaceutical profession. The paper is concepted so that the received material inserted to the content part, do the following: 1. Meaning, characteristics and developing possibilities of phytotherapy; 2. Dimensions of market in managing of phytotherapic assortment. By observing the final results, which were obtained through means of representative sources and other research of phytotherapic products, it can be expected that the same can be applicable to broader spectrum in practice with kind input to the marketing ideas. Models, presented here, is meant to be for innovative applications in the medical marketing concept, by the results of wide spending in the food service industry (domain of dietetics, at manufacture of food for children at the manufacture of 'medical cosmetics' and cosmetic-druggist assortments (products for hygiene, shampoos, soap, creams and bubbles for bath.

  13. A medieval physician: Amirdovlat Amasiatsi (1420-1495).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Hakobyan, Tatevik

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to acquaint the reader with a medieval physician, Amirdovlat Amasiatsi, who lived and practiced in the 15th century Anatolia. Amirdovlat wrote several books on medicine mainly focusing on phytotherapy and pharmacology using medicinal plants, animal-derived products and minerals. All his works were written in Middle Armenian, spoken Armenian language of the time. In his writings, Amirdovlat described unique recipes that represent a portrayal of medical knowledge and practice at the time in Anatolia where he lived and worked. He discussed the physical and therapeutic properties as well as geographic distributions of various plants and minerals, using different languages, mainly Turkish, Greek, Arabic, French and Persian. Amirdovlat's works not only enhanced our understanding of Armenian medical practices but also provided great deal of information on those of Ancient Greco-Roman as well as Islamic world, demonstrating close relationship of Armenian medicine with Greco-Roman and Islamic medicine. Amirdovlat accomplished this by amalgamating the past and contemporary practices of his time. In this regard, Amirdovlat's works, in particular "Useless for the Ignorant", are very unique playing a significant role in preserving traditions and heritage of different cultures.

  14. A Review of Natural Stimulant and Non‐stimulant Thermogenic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmaev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are major health issues. Exercise and calorie intake control are recognized as the primary mechanisms for addressing excess body weight. Naturally occurring thermogenic plant constituents offer adjunct means for assisting in weight management. The controlling mechanisms for thermogenesis offer many intervention points. Thermogenic agents can act through stimulation of the central nervous system with associated adverse cardiovascular effects and through metabolic mechanisms that are non‐stimulatory or a combination thereof. Examples of stimulatory thermogenic agents that will be discussed include ephedrine and caffeine. Examples of non‐stimulatory thermogenic agents include p‐synephrine (bitter orange extract), capsaicin, forskolin (Coleus root extract), and chlorogenic acid (green coffee bean extract). Green tea is an example of a thermogenic with the potential to produce mild but clinically insignificant undesirable stimulatory effects. The use of the aforementioned thermogenic agents in combination with other extracts such as those derived from Salacia reticulata, Sesamum indicum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cissus quadrangularis, and Moringa olifera, as well as the use of the carotenoids as lutein and fucoxanthin, and flavonoids as naringin and hesperidin can further facilitate energy metabolism and weight management as well as sports performance without adverse side effects. © 2016 The Authors Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26856274

  15. Medicinal Plants Used for Neuropsychiatric Disorders Treatment in the Hauts Bassins Region of Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper T. Kinda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Burkina Faso, phytotherapy is the main medical alternative used by populations to manage various diseases that affect the nervous system. The aim of the present study was to report medicinal plants with psychoactive properties used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders in the Hauts Bassins region, in the western zone of Burkina Faso. Methods: Through an ethnobotanical survey using structured questionnaire, 53 traditional healers (TH were interviewed about neuropsychiatric disorders, medicinal plants and medical practices used to treat them. The survey was carried out over a period of three months. Results: The results report 66 plant species used to treat neuropsychiatric pathologies. Roots (36.2% and leaves (29% were the main plant parts used. Alone or associated, these parts were used to prepare drugs using mainly the decoction and the trituration methods. Remedies were administered via drink, fumigation and external applications. Conclusions: It appears from this study a real knowledge of neuropsychiatric disorders in the traditional medicine of Hauts Bassins area. The therapeutic remedies suggested in this work are a real interest in the fight against psychiatric and neurological diseases. In the future, identified plants could be used for searching antipsychotic or neuroprotective compounds.

  16. Does Scientific Evidence for the Use of Natural Products in the Treatment of Oral Candidiasis Exist? A Systematic Review

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    Gabriela Lacet Silva Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the limitations of antifungal agents used in the treatment of oral candidiasis and the wide variety of natural products that have been studied as treatment of this disease, this systematic literature review proposed to evaluate whether scientific evidence attesting to the efficacy of natural products in the treatment of this disease exists. A systematic search in PubMed, MEDLINE, SciELO, Lilacs, and Cochrane Library databases was accomplished using the associations among the keywords Candida albicans, phytotherapy, biological products, denture stomatitis, and oral candidiasis in both English and Portuguese. Four independent observers evaluated the methodological quality of the resulting articles. Three studies were included for detailed analysis and evaluated according to the analysis protocol based on the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials 2010 statement. The tested products were different in all studies. Two studies mentioned random samples, but no study described the sample allocation. No study mentioned sample calculations, a prior pilot study, or examiner calibration, and only one trial reported sample losses. Differences between the tested products and the methodological designs among these studies did not allow the existence of scientific evidence related to the effectiveness of these products for the proposed subjects to be confirmed.

  17. Bromelain Inhibits Allergic Sensitization and Murine Asthma via Modulation of Dendritic Cells

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    Eric R. Secor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of atopic conditions has increased in industrialized countries. Persisting symptoms and concern for drug side-effects lead patients toward adjunctive treatments such as phytotherapy. Previously, we have shown that Bromelain (sBr, a mixture of cysteine proteases from pineapple, Ananas comosus, inhibits ovalbumin (OVA-induced murine model of allergic airway disease (AAD. However, sBr’s effect on development of AAD when treatment is administered throughout OVA-alum sensitization was unknown and is the aim of the present study. C57BL/6J mice were sensitized with OVA/alum and challenged with 7 days OVA aerosol. sBr 6 mg/kg/0.5 ml or PBS vehicle were administered throughout sensitization. Lung, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, spleen, and lymph nodes were processed for flow cytometry and OVA-specific IgE was determined via ELISA. sBr treatment throughout OVA-alum sensitization significantly reduced the development of AAD (BAL eosinophils and lymphocytes. OVA-specific IgE and OVA TET+ cells were decreased. sBr reduced CD11c+ dendritic cell subsets, and in vitro treatment of DCs significantly reduced CD44, a key receptor in both cell trafficking and activation. sBr was shown to reduce allergic sensitization and the generation of AAD upon antigen challenge. These results provide additional insight into sBr's anti-inflammatory and antiallergic properties and rationale for translation into the clinical arena.

  18. In vitro effects of Coriandrum sativum, Tagetes minuta, Alpinia zerumbet and Lantana camara essential oils on Haemonchus contortus.

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    Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; de Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra; Camurça-Vasconcelos, Ana Lourdes Fernandes; Ribeiro, Wesley Lyeverton Correia; dos Santos, Jessica Maria Leite; de Morais, Selene Maia; de Paula, Haroldo Cesar Beserra; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

    2013-01-01

    Phytotherapy can be an alternative for the control of gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants. This study evaluated the efficacy of Alpinia zerumbet, Coriandrum sativum, Tagetes minuta and Lantana camara essential oils by two in vitro assays on Haemonchus contortus, an egg hatch test (EHT) and larval development test (LDT). No effect was observed for L. camara in the EHT. A. zerumbet, C. sativum and T. minuta essential oils exhibited a dose-dependent effect in the EHT, inhibiting 81.2, 99 and 98.1% of H. contortus larvae hatching, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg mL-1. The effective concentration to inhibit 50% (EC50) of egg hatching was 0.94, 0.63 and 0.53 mg mL-1 for A. zerumbet, C. sativum and T. minuta essential oils, respectively. In LDT, L. camara, A. zerumbet, C. sativum and T. minuta at concentration of 10 mg mL-1 inhibited 54.9, 94.2, 97.8 and 99.5% of H. contortus larval development, presenting EC50 values of 6.32, 3.88, 2.89 and 1.67 mg mL-1, respectively. Based on the promising results presented in this in vitro model, it may be possible use of these essential oils to control gastrointestinal nematodes. However, their anthelmintic activity should be confirmed in vivo.

  19. In vitro effects of Coriandrum sativum, Tagetes minuta, Alpinia zerumbet and Lantana camara essential oils on Haemonchus contortus

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    Iara Tersia Freitas Macedo

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy can be an alternative for the control of gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants. This study evaluated the efficacy of Alpinia zerumbet, Coriandrum sativum, Tagetes minuta and Lantana camaraessential oils by two in vitro assays on Haemonchus contortus, an egg hatch test (EHT and larval development test (LDT. No effect was observed for L. camara in the EHT. A. zerumbet, C. sativum and T. minuta essential oils exhibited a dose-dependent effect in the EHT, inhibiting 81.2, 99 and 98.1% of H. contortus larvae hatching, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg mL-1. The effective concentration to inhibit 50% (EC50 of egg hatching was 0.94, 0.63 and 0.53 mg mL-1 for A. zerumbet, C. sativum and T. minuta essential oils, respectively. In LDT, L. camara, A. zerumbet, C. sativum and T. minuta at concentration of 10 mg mL-1 inhibited 54.9, 94.2, 97.8 and 99.5% of H. contortus larval development, presenting EC50 values of 6.32, 3.88, 2.89 and 1.67 mg mL-1, respectively. Based on the promising results presented in this in vitro model, it may be possible use of these essential oils to control gastrointestinal nematodes. However, their anthelmintic activity should be confirmed in vivo.

  20. [Sanatorium "Arkhangelskoe" celebrates 80th anniversary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, G N

    2013-10-01

    The article is dedicated to the 80th anniversary of sanatorium "Arkhangelskoe" celebrating in October 2013. Since October 16th, 1933 sanatorium is a military health resort, in 1934 sanatorium was named for "Sanatorium for command personnel of the Red Army". In 1935-1936 such prominent commaders as V.K. Blyukher, A.I. Egorov, A.I. Kork, M.N. Tukhachevskiy, G.M.Shtern, A.V. Khrulev, I.E. Yakir took rest in the sanatorium. Today organization of treatment and diagnostic services in the sanatorium meets modern requirements of medical science. Diagnostics includes the following methods: bicycle ergometry, medical treadmills, ECG and ABP monitoring, rheoencephalography, oscillography, ultrasonic diagnosis, monitoring of lipid and carbonaceous metabolism, blood coagulation and anticoagulation, enzymes, electrolytes and also bacteriologic, immunologic and serological tests. The following treatment methotds are used: climatotherapy, clinical nutrition, exercise therapy, spa treatment, balneo- and fangotherapy. Also methods of magnetotherapy, lasertherapy, ultrasonic therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation, phytotherapy and halotherapy are used.

  1. Chemical Variability and Biological Activities of Volatile Oils from Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit.

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    Luiz Claudio Barbosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit. belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is widely used in folk medicine in various countries. Th e essential oils from H. suaveolens have been extensively investigated and are mainly composed of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, although significant diterpene content has been reported in recent studies. The survey of the literature concerning H. suaveolens essential oils revealed a high level of chemical variability in terms of quantity and composition that is commonly observed for volatile oils from other plant species. However, few researchers have dealt with the reasons for such chemical variability. Our research group has been investigating the relationships between growing conditions of the plants and the H. suaveolens (L. Poit. essential oil composition. The results of these investigations have led to some advances in the characterization and knowledge of H. suaveolens chemotypes from Brazil. Nevertheless, since this species presents high level of genetic polymorphism and allows it to adapt to the alterations in environmental features resulting in interpopulational and intrapopulational variability in the volatile oil chemical compositions. Consequently, biochemical assays on the biosynthetic pathway are required in order to detect the molecular mechanisms involved in inducing differential terpenoid biosynthesis within H. suaveolens. These are some of the challenges which require resolution leading to an understanding of the complex secondary metabolism of this species, thereby making possible the volatile oil chemical standardization seeking productivity and phytotherapy.

  2. Plant Ethnoveterinary Practices in Two Pyrenean Territories of Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula and in Two Areas of the Balearic Islands and Comparison with Ethnobotanical Uses in Human Medicine

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    Esperança Carrió

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an ethnobotanical study centred in veterinarian uses in two Catalan Pyrenean regions (Alt Empordà -AE- and High River Ter Valley -AT-, Iberian peninsula and two Balearic Islands areas (Formentera -FO- and northeastern Mallorca -MA-. In the areas studied, 97 plant species have been claimed to be useful for veterinary purposes. A total of 306 veterinary use reports have been gathered and analysed. The ten most reported plants are Tanacetum parthenium (24 use reports, Parietaria officinalis (15, Ranunculus parnassifolius (14, Meum athamanticum (13, Olea europaea (13, Quercus ilex (12, Ruta chalepensis (12, Sambucus nigra (10 and Thymus vulgaris (10. According to comprehensive reviews, a high number of novelties for plant ethnoveterinary are contributed: 34 species and one subspecies, 11 genera, and three families have not been reported in previous works in this field, and 21 species had only been mentioned once. Several ethnoveterinary uses are coincidental with those in human medicine. Although ethnoveterinary practices are less relevant than in the past in the territories considered, as in all industrialised countries, the knowledge on plant properties and applications is still rich and constitutes a large pool of evidence for phytotherapy, both in domestic animals and humans.

  3. Ethnopharmacognostic survey on the natural ingredients used in folk cosmetics, cosmeceuticals and remedies for healing skin diseases in the inland Marches, Central-Eastern Italy.

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    Pieroni, Andrea; Quave, Cassandra L; Villanelli, Maria Lorena; Mangino, Paola; Sabbatini, Giulia; Santini, Luigina; Boccetti, Tamara; Profili, Monica; Ciccioli, Tamara; Rampa, Loredana Giovanna; Antonini, Giovanna; Girolamini, Claudia; Cecchi, Marcello; Tomasi, Marco

    2004-04-01

    An ethnopharmaceutical study focused on domestic cosmetics, cosmeceuticals, and remedies to heal skin diseases traditionally used in the inland part of the Marches region (Central-Eastern Italy) has been conducted. At present, traditional knowledge concerning home-made phytocosmetics is represented by both the remnants of an orally transmitted folk heritage and also by new forms of knowledge, sometimes coming from popular phytotherapeutical books and the mass media (out of the scope of this survey), but also as a result of recent migration trends from Eastern Europe. We recorded approximately 135 cosmetic or cosmeceutical preparations prepared from more than 70 botanical species and a very few animal or mineral ingredients. Among the recorded preparations, developing a clear distinction amongst cosmetics, cosmeceuticals and pharmaceuticals for skin diseases is very problematic, confirming that in folk knowledge systems medicinal products for healing skin diseases and cosmetics have often been perceived as two poles of a continuum. Many of the quoted species represented well-known medicinal plants of the European phytotherapy, although we also recorded a few unusual plant taxa, which are briefly discussed under the perspective of their eventual phytochemical and/or phytopharmacological potentialities. Exotic drugs or precious essences, even native of the Mediterranean, were not quoted as ingredients for preparing perfumes and fragrances by the interviewees of the present study, thus indicating that popular cosmetic practices in rural Central Italy have taken a much separated path away from the cosmetic "know-how" of the aristocracy and high bourgeois classes of the last centuries.

  4. Anthelmintic effect of condensed tannins in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep (Ovis aries

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    Eidi Yoshihara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal helminthiasis infections are considerate one of the main limiting factors in sheep production worldwide. The development of parasite resistance to anthelmintics has caused significant losses of small ruminant production. In the search for new alternatives for effective control of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants, phytotherapy is a promising field of research in an attempt to reduce the usage of chemical treatments, aimed at ecological production. Many plants play a crucial role in maintaining animal and human life. During human evolution many interactions with other organisms were established and they have affected each other in many ways. Plants have developed biochemical mechanisms to defend themselves from biological antagonists that act as their natural enemies. This principle has led scientists to search for bio-active compounds produced by plants against pathogens. Since these discovers their metabolites are evaluated against diseases of importance not only in public health, but also in animal production. This article presents a review of studies with tanniniferous plants scientifically tested worldwide for the control of gastrointestinal parasites in ruminants.

  5. The therapeutic potential of royal jelly in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Comparison with contemporary literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajovic, Bogdan; Radojevic, Nemanja; Dimitrovski, Antonio; Tomovic, Savo; Vukovic, Marko

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the scientific benefit of royal jelly (RJ) on prostatic-specific antigen (PSA), post-void residual (PVR) volume and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) in benign prostatic hyperplasia. For the study, a group of 40 men were administered 38 mg of RJ over a period of three months, their PSA values, prostate volumes and the volumes of their transitory prostate zones, PVR and IPPS values were measured at the end of the first month, and at the end of the third month. The results of this study confirm the potential of RJ in reducing PSA scores and improving IPSS values. Since the use of RJ did not lead to any significant reduction in PVR, prostate volume, or to any involution of the transitory zone, it appears that it may only affect the blood marker of prostatic hyperplasia and to improve quality-of-life (QoL) in those patients. Overall, in comparison to phytotherapy and conventional therapy, RJ had similar positive effects on QoL in patients with BPH, however it exhibited markedly better effects on reducing PSA levels in blood. The therapeutical use of RJ exhibited no side effects.

  6. Maya phytomedicine in Guatemala - Can cooperative research change ethnopharmacological paradigms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitziger, Martin; Heinrich, Michael; Edwards, Peter; Pöll, Elfriede; Lopez, Marissa; Krütli, Pius

    2016-06-20

    is clearly beneficial to indigenous collaborators. It provided access and built trust as prerequisites for assembling the largest comparative ethnopharmacological collection, vastly extending knowledge on Maya phytotherapy. The collection represents knowledge of the two groups' most reputed herbalists and is a representative selection of the Guatemalan medicinal flora. ICD-10 proved useful for making broad comparisons between the groups, but more refined approaches would be necessary for other research objectives. Knowledge in the two areas is highly diverse and seems fragmented. New approaches are required to assess how coherent Maya phytotherapy is. The documented 'traditional' ethno-pharmacopoeias demonstrate dynamic change and acculturation, reflecting the two linguistic groups' sociocultural history and context. This highlights the adaptive potential of phyto-therapeutic knowledge and calls the equation of local indigenous pharmacopoeias with 'traditional' medicine into question. We suggest using the term 'local' pharmacopoeias, and reserving the term 'traditional' for the study of indigenous pharmacopoeias with a clear delineation of ancient knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study on treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome using stepwise therapy(report of 147 cases)%阶梯式治疗慢性前列腺炎/慢性盆底疼痛综合征的疗效观察(附147例报告)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 刘俊敏; 李明川

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome using stepwise therapy.Methods A total of 271 patients were assessed by the NIH-CPSI and SGA.The sequence modality therapy was as follow: antibiotics, anti-inflammatory phytotherapy, α -blockers and antianxiety &antidepressant.Results Mean age of patients was 42 years old and median symptom history was 1.6 years.Based on results of bacterial culture and routine examination of urine and prostatic fluid, 11.8% of the cases were type Ⅱ prostatitis, other 88.2% were type Ⅲ prostatitis including 42.4% type Ⅲa and 45.8% Ⅲb.The score on the NIH-CPSI were changed from (23.2±5.6) to (12.5±8.7) (P<0.001).Based on SGA score, 82% of the cases were better,12% were the same and 6% were worse.Conclusion Stepwise modality therapy with antibiotics, anti-inflammatory phytotherapy, α -blockers and antianxiety & antidepressant was effective for treatment of most patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.%目的 探索慢性前列腺炎/慢性盆底疼痛综合征的阶梯式治疗手段的结果.方法 全部147例病人使用慢性前列腺炎症状积分指数(NIH-CPSI)评分和SGA(全球主观症状评估)评分进行评估,治疗方法依次为:抗生素、抗炎药、α受体阻滞剂和抗焦虑抑郁药.结果 患者平均年龄42岁,病程平均1.6年.根据尿与前列腺液的培养和常规检查,11.8%为Ⅱ型前列腺炎;另外88.2%是Ⅲ型前列腺炎,这其中42.4%属于Ⅲa,其余45.8%属于Ⅲb.这些病人(147例)的NIH-CPSI评分从最初的(23.2±5.6)下降到(12.5±8.7)(P<0.001),根据SGA评分,其中82%为好转,12%无变化,6%恶化.结论 阶梯式应用抗生素、抗炎药、α受体阻滞剂和抗焦虑抑郁药可以成功地治愈绝大多数的慢性前列腺炎/慢性盆底疼痛综合症的病人.

  8. Methanolic Extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) Unripe Fruit Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Place Preferences in Mice.

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    Khan, Yasmin; Pandy, Vijayapandi

    2016-01-01

    Phytotherapy is an emerging field successfully utilized to treat various chronic diseases including alcohol dependence. In the present study, we examined the effect of the standardized methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. unripe fruit (MMC), on compulsive ethanol-seeking behavior using the mouse conditioned place preference (CPP) test. CPP was established by injections of ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.) in a 12-day conditioning schedule in mice. The effect of MMC and the reference drug, acamprosate (ACAM), on the reinforcing properties of ethanol in mice was studied by the oral administration of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg) and ACAM (300 mg/kg) 60 min prior to the final CPP test postconditioning. Furthermore, CPPs weakened with repeated testing in the absence of ethanol over the next 12 days (extinction), during which the treatment groups received MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg, p.o.) or ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.). Finally, a priming injection of a low dose of ethanol (0.4 g/kg, i.p.) in the home cage (Reinstatement) was sufficient to reinstate CPPs, an effect that was challenged by the administration of MMC or ACAM. MMC (3 and 5 g/kg, p.o.) and ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed the establishment of ethanol-induced CPPs and effectively facilitated the extinction of ethanol CPP. In light of these findings, it has been suggested that M. citrifolia unripe fruit could be utilized for novel drug development to combat alcohol dependence.

  9. Comparative gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of essential oils extracted using 4 methods from the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus L.

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    Yasmeen Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eucalyptus globulus L. (family, Myrtaceae is one of the world′s most widely planted genera. E. globulus L., commonly referred to as Tasmanian blue gum, is a fast growing, evergreen tree, native to Tasmania and South-East Australia. Apart from its extensive use in pulp industry, it is also produces Oleum Eucalypti (eucalyptus oil that is extracted on commercial scale in many countries such as China, India, South Africa, Portugal, Brazil, and Tasmania, as a raw material in perfumery, cosmetics, food beverage, aromatherapy, and phytotherapy. Materials and Methods: Traditional hydrodistillation (HD, solvent extraction (SE, ultrasonication (US, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE were conducted for the extraction of essential oil from the leaves of E. globulus. Each oil was evaluated in terms of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPTLC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR fingerprinting with qualitative and semi-quantitative composition of the isolated essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS, the extract yield of essential oil was 2.60%, 2.2%, 2.0%, and 3.6% v/w, respectively, for HD, SE, US, and SFE. Results: A total of 53 compounds were identified by GCMS. Comparative analysis indicated that SFE was favorable for extraction of monoterpene hydrocarbon, sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, and oxygenated sesquiterpene hydrocarbon. HD, SE, and US had certain advantages in the extraction of aliphatic saturated hydrocarbons organic acid and esters. Overlay, FTIR spectra of oil samples obtained by four extraction methods were superimposed with each other showing similar components. The maximum separation of compound seen at 254 nm and lesser at 366 nm by HPTLC fingerprinting which again showed superimposed chromatograms. Conclusion: It is concluded that different extraction method may lead to different yields of essential oils where the choice of appropriate method is very important to obtained more desired

  10. Rationale and design of the CANARI study: a case-control study investigating the association between prostate cancer and 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors for symptomatic benign prostate hypertrophy by linking SNIIRAM and pathology laboratories in a specific region in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scailteux, Lucie-Marie; Balusson, Frédéric; Vincendeau, Sébastien; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Nowak, Emmanuel

    2017-08-30

    Benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) could be associated with low urinary symptoms requiring medical treatment: 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (5-ARI) or ɑ-blockers. Two clinical trials investigating 5-ARI use in prostate cancer (PCa) primary prevention highlighted a potential safety signal with an increased risk of high grade PCa. Later observational studies failed to show similar results but have some limits. The present paper focuses on describing the protocol of the CANARI study and its feasibility, as regards the matching process of two pseudo-anonymous databases. The study concerned patients living in the Brittany region (France) between 2010 and 2013. We designed a case-control study nested within a cohort of men treated by medical drugs licensed for symptomatic BPH between 2010 and 2011. Cases were patients with incident PCa diagnosed between 2012 and 2013 identified through French Health database (SNIIRAM). Gleason score was searched through Brittany pathology laboratories. Controls were patients without PCa diagnosis. Local pathology laboratories database was constituted in Brittany, gathering Gleason scores. No unique identification number is available in France; linkage of SNIIRAM and Brittany pathology laboratories database was made by deterministic matching. We matched 859 cases to Gleason grading (119 had Gleason score ≥ 8 and 740 had Gleason < 8); around 22% of cases received 5-ARI and 78% α-blockers or phytotherapy. The CANARI study investigated in a population of men treated for BPH the risk of PCa with 5-ARI, according to Gleason grade thanks to SNIIRAM database enriched by local pathological results. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

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    Oussama Abdelkhalek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight. Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  12. Methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni unripe fruit attenuates ethanol-induced conditioned place preferences in mice

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    Yasmin Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy is an emerging field successfully utilized to treat various chronic diseases including alcohol dependence. In the present study, we examined the effect of the standardized methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. unripe fruit (MMC, on compulsive ethanol-seeking behaviour using the mouse conditioned place preference (CPP test. CPP was established by injections of ethanol (2g/kg, i.p. in a 12-day conditioning schedule in mice. The effect of MMC and the reference drug, acamprosate (ACAM, on the reinforcing properties of ethanol in mice was studied by the oral administration of MMC (1, 3 and 5g/kg and ACAM (300 mg/kg 60 min prior to the final CPP test postconditioning. Furthermore, CPPs weakened with repeated testing in the absence of ethanol over the next 12 days (extinction, during which the treatment groups received MMC (1, 3 and 5g/kg, p.o. or ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.. Finally, a priming injection of a low dose of ethanol (0.4g/kg, i.p. in the home cage (Reinstatement was sufficient to reinstate CPPs, an effect that was challenged by the administration of MMC or ACAM. MMC (3 and 5g/kg, p.o and ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o. significantly reversed the establishment of ethanol-induced CPPs and effectively facilitated the extinction of ethanol CPP. In light of these findings, it has been suggested that M. citrifolia unripe fruit could be utilized for novel drug development to combat alcohol dependence.

  13. The Use of Herbal Medicine in Alzheimer's Disease—A Systematic Review

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    Leopoldo Luiz dos Santos-Neto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatments of choice in Alzheimer's disease (AD are cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA-receptor antagonists, although doubts remain about the therapeutic effectiveness of these drugs. Herbal medicine products have been used in the treatment of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD but with various responses. The objective of this article was to review evidences from controlled studies in order to determine whether herbs can be useful in the treatment of cognitive disorders in the elderly. Randomized controlled studies assessing AD in individuals older than 65 years were identified through searches of MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, dissertation Abstract (USA, ADEAR (Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Trials Database, National Research Register, Current Controlled trials, Centerwatch Trials Database and PsychINFO Journal Articles. The search combined the terms Alzheimer disease, dementia, cognition disorders, Herbal, Phytotherapy. The crossover results were evaluated by the Jadad's measurement scale. The systematic review identified two herbs and herbal formulations with therapeutic effects for the treatment of AD: Melissa officinalis, Salvia officinalis and Yi-Gan San and BDW (Ba Wei Di Huang Wan. Ginkgo biloba was identified in a meta-analysis study. All five herbs are useful for cognitive impairment of AD. M. officinalis and Yi-Gan San are also useful in agitation, for they have sedative effects. These herbs and formulations have demonstrated good therapeutic effectiveness but these results need to be compared with those of traditional drugs. Further large multicenter studies should be conducted in order to test the cost-effectiveness of these herbs for AD and the impact in the control of cognitive deterioration.

  14. A short guide to peer-reviewed, MEDLINE-indexed complementary and alternative medicine journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sherry; Littman, Lynn; Palmer, Christina; Singh, Gurneet; LaRiccia, Patrick J

    2012-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) comprises a multitude of disciplines, for example, acupuncture, ayurvedic medicine, biofeedback, herbal medicine, and homeopathic medicine. While research on CAM interventions has increased and the CAM literature has proliferated since the mid-1990s, a number of our colleagues have expressed difficulties in deciding where to publish CAM articles. In response, we created a short guide to peer-reviewed MEDLINE-indexed journals that publish CAM articles. We examined numerous English-language sources to identify titles that met our criteria, whether specific to or overlapping CAM. A few of the resources in which we found the journal titles that we included are Alternative Medicine Foundation, American Holistic Nurses Association, CINAHL/Nursing Database, Journal Citation Reports database, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Research Council for Complementary Medicine. We organized the 69 selected titles for easy use by creating 2 user-friendly tables, one listing titles in alphabetical order and one listing them in topical categories. A few examples of the topical categories are Acupuncture, CAM (general), Chinese Medicine, Herbal/Plant/Phytotherapy, Neuroscience/Psychology, Nursing/Clinical Care. Our study is the first to list general CAM journals, specialty CAM journals, and overlapping mainstream journals that are peer reviewed, in English, and indexed in MEDLINE. Our goal was to assist both authors seeking publication and mainstream journal editors who receive an overabundance of publishable articles but must recommend that authors seek publication elsewhere due to space and priority issues. Publishing in journals indexed by and included in MEDLINE (or PubMed) ensures that citations to articles will be found easily.

  15. Homeopathy and cancer: a literature review

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    Carla Holandino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization states that deaths from cancer are increasing reaching an estimated 12 million deaths by 2030 [1]. In Brazil will be about 480,000 new cases by the end of 2011 [2]. For the treatment of cancer conventional therapies are used, such as chemotherapy[3] and radiotherapy [4] which can cause many adverse reactions. Complementary therapies such as homeopathy can be combined to traditional cancer treatment with the aim of minimizing these adverse reactions, relieving the symptoms of the disease itself and its treatment. Other complementary therapies which can aid in cancer treatment are electrotherapy, acupuncture and electroacupuncture, nutritional supplements, probiotics, phytotherapy, among others[5]. The literature shows the homeopathic medicines can be prescribed using the patient’s physical constitution as one strategy to help cancer patients [6-11]. This work aims to compile the literature review done with in vitro and in vivo models describing the mechanisms of action of homeopathic medicines used to treat different kinds of cancer. The research findings showed that homeopathy can help the patient to come to terms with the disease, after cancer diagnosis which often brings with itself denial, fear and a host of psychological disorders that cause an unbalance in the body. In addition, some works done with in vitro and in vivo models have shown that homeopathic medicines can modulate the immune system, activating macrophages and inducing the release of cytokines. These and other effects may help the body to overcome the cancer. The use of homeopathic therapy as complementary to conventional cancer treatment has promising results and should be further investigated.

  16. Barriers and Facilitators for Type-2 Diabetes Management in South Asians: A Systematic Review.

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    Tanveer Sohal

    Full Text Available Although South Asian populations have among the highest burden of type 2 diabetes in the world, their diabetes management remains poor. We systematically reviewed studies on South Asian patient's perspectives on the barriers and facilitators to diabetes management.We conducted a literature search using OVID, CINHAL and EMBASE (January, 1990 -February, 2014 evaluating the core components of diabetes management: interactions with health care providers, diet, exercise, and medication adherence. South Asian patients were self-reported as Indian, Pakistani, Malaysian-Indian or Bangladeshi origin. From 208 abstracts reviewed, 20 studies were included (19 qualitative including mixed methods studies, 1 questionnaire. Barriers and facilitators were extracted and combined using qualitative synthesis.All studies included barriers and few facilitators were identified. Language and communication discordance with the healthcare provider was a significant barrier to receiving and understanding diabetes education. There was inconsistent willingness to partake in self-management with preference for following their physician's guidance. Barriers to adopting a diabetic diet were lack of specific details on South Asian tailored diabetic diet; social responsibilities to continue with a traditional diet, and misconceptions on the components of the diabetic diet. For exercise, South Asian patients were concerned with lack of gender specific exercise facilities and fear of injury or worsening health with exercise. Patients reported a lack of understanding about diabetes medication management, preference for folk and phytotherapy, and concerns about the long-term safety of diabetes medications. Facilitators included trust in care providers, use of culturally appropriate exercise and dietary advice and increasing family involvement. Overall themes for the barriers included lack of knowledge and misperceptions as well as lack of cultural adaptation to diabetes management

  17. Kampo Medicine: Evaluation of the Pharmacological Activity of 121 Herbal Drugs on GABAA and 5-HT3A Receptors

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    Hoffmann, Katrin M.; Herbrechter, Robin; Ziemba, Paul M.; Lepke, Peter; Beltrán, Leopoldo; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Kampo medicine is a form of Japanese phytotherapy originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). During the last several decades, much attention has been paid to the pharmacological effects of these medical plants and their constituents. However, in many cases, a systematic screening of Kampo remedies to determine pharmacologically relevant targets is still lacking. In this study, a broad screening of Kampo remedies was performed to look for pharmacologically relevant 5-HT3A and GABAA receptor ligands. Several of the Kampo remedies are currently used for symptoms such as nausea, emesis, gastrointestinal motility disorders, anxiety, restlessness, or insomnia. Therefore, the pharmacological effects of 121 herbal drugs from Kampo medicine were analyzed as ethanol tinctures on heterologously expressed 5-HT3A and GABAA receptors, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. The tinctures of Lindera aggregata (radix) and Leonurus japonicus (herba) were the most effective inhibitory compounds on the 5-HT3A receptor. Further investigation of known ingredients in these compounds led to the identification of leonurine from Leonurus as a new natural 5-HT3A receptor antagonist. Several potentiating herbs (e.g., Magnolia officinalis (cortex), Syzygium aromaticum (flos), and Panax ginseng (radix)) were also identified for the GABAA receptor, which are all traditionally used for their sedative or anxiolytic effects. A variety of tinctures with antagonistic effects Salvia miltiorrhiza (radix) were also detected. Therefore, this study reveals new insights into the pharmacological action of a broad spectrum of herbal drugs from Kampo, allowing for a better understanding of their physiological effects and clinical applications. PMID:27524967

  18. [Analysis of the status and trends of international research in complementary and alternative medicine based on literature mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yuan-yuan; He, Wei; Yang, Ce; Zhang, Bin; Du, Jian; Zhao, Ying-kai

    2012-06-01

    To have an overview of the international status and trends of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) research, and to provide a reference tool for researchers. Taking PubMed as the retrieval source, and using the methods of informetrics analysis (such as Price's Law of exponential growth, Bradford's law) and text mining (association rules), CAM articles published between 1998 and 2010 were statistically analyzed on, for example, document growth, core journals and active fields. The literature about CAM research published between 1998 and 2010 showed the trends of exponential growth in quantity. Regional distribution of literature was extensive; China and the United States were the two major sources. Forty-five periodicals were selected from core journals based on Bradford's law of scattering; some colleges and schools constituted the main force in research on CAM. The active fields mainly focus on (1) acupuncture research; (2) phytotherapy research; (3) mind-body medicine; (4) integrative medicine; (5) treatment and prevention of key conditions such as neoplasm, low back pain, mental disorder and chronic diseases. (1) CAM research has attracted attention from all over the world, and it will enter a rapid development stage in the future; (2) Treatment and prevention of neoplasm is a consistent key subject and research field in global CAM research; (3) Elucidating clinical effects, mechanisms of action, and safety of major CAM methods constitutes the most important task; (4) Studies on mind-body medicine have increased in recent years, so clinical evaluation and studies of mind-body interventions should be supported; (5) Research has been done increasingly for identification of the clinical effects and biological mechanisms of CAM interventions in symptom management; (6) Research on CAM will stimulate the development of modern medical model; (7) TCM is an active discipline of CAM, and China will thus face increasing challenges.

  19. Molecular analysis on the chemopreventive properties of resveratrol, a plant polyphenol microcomponent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latruffe, Norbert; Delmas, Dominique; Jannin, Brigitte; Cherkaoui Malki, Mustapha; Passilly-Degrace, Patricia; Berlot, Jean-Pierre

    2002-12-01

    As a plant microcomponent, resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound produced by several species and found especially in Polygonum roots, peanuts seeds, berries and also grape and therefore can be present in human diet or beverages (red wine, for instance). Traditional chinese medicine and more recent epidemiological studies strongly suggested that resveratrol may act as a cancer chemopreventive compound. The biochemical mechanism by which resveratrol inhibits cell proliferation was provided by studies in numerous human cell lines including our work in hepatoblastoma HepG2 and colorectal tumor SW480 cells. The results show that resveratrol strongly inhibits cell proliferation at the micromolar range in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Resveratrol appears to block the cell cycle at the transition S to G2/M since there is no inhibition of [3H]-thymidine incorporation observed, while there is an increase of the cell number in S phase. On the other hand, in order to evaluate if the amount of resveratrol taken up during food or drink consumption is sufficient to ensure in the whole body the in vitro described beneficial effects, we evaluated the ratio between plasmatic level of resveratrol and its cell bioabsorption. Our study reports a higher uptake of resveratrol in the human hepatic derived HepG2 cells than in colorectal derived SW480 cells. In contrast, resveratrol is conjugated in these cells and derivatives are released in large amounts in the cell medium. Based on present knowledge, resveratrol appears to be a promising bioactive natural molecule with potential applications in phytotherapy, pharmacology or in nutriprotection (nutraceutic food) area.

  20. Cadmium content in Hypericum perforatum L. and Thymus serpyllum L. from localities of the mountains Rtanj and Ozren

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    Đukić-Ćosić Danijela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The beneficial effects of medicinal plants are well-known from the ancient times. However, expansion of phytopharmacy and phytotherapy occured during the last decades. Medicinal plants can absorb environmental contaminants from the ground and consequently may cause harmful effects on human health. Quality control usually comprises standard methodology which includes macroscopic identification and examination of active ingredients. Additionaly, there is a permanent need to control the level of pollutants in herbs, with a particular attention to the level of toxic metals. In this study we estimated the level of contamination by determining the content of cadmium (Cd in the herbs of Hypericum perforatum and Thymus serpyllum collected from the different localities of the mountains Rtanj and Ozren. Methods. Herbs of investigated plants were collected during July 2005 from various localities of Rtanj and Ozren mountains. After drying, homogenization and mineralization, Cd content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results. The obtained results show that Cd content varies significantly in Hypericum perforatum samples collected. The lowest Cd level was found in samples from the one of Rtanj localities (0.25 mg Cd/kg, while the highest was observed in Hypericum perforatum from Ozren locality (1.24 mg/kg. Levels of Cd in the three of four investigated localities were higher than pro posed by WHO (0.3 mg/kg dried herb material. In all investigated samples of Thymus serpyllum herbs Cd levels were below the limit of detection of analytical method (0.2 mg Cd/kg dried materials. Conclusion. This work contributes to the issue of Cd content in Hypericum perforatum and Thymus serpyllum grown in localities of Rtanj and Ozren, and implies the importance for systemic control of Cd content in Hypericum species in order to provide safety of their preparations. Furthermore, regarding Cd toxicity, maximal permissible level of Cd in

  1. In vitro antioxidant, collagenase inhibition, and in vivo anti-wrinkle effects of combined formulation containing Punica granatum, Ginkgo biloba, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract

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    Ghimeray AK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Amal Kumar Ghimeray,1 Un Sun Jung,1,2 Ha Youn Lee,1 Young Hoon Kim,1 Eun Kyung Ryu,1 Moon Sik Chang11R&D Center, Natural Solution Co., Ltd, Gojan-dong, Namdong-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Horticultural Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Republic of KoreaBackground: In phytotherapy, the therapeutic potential is based on the combined action of different herbal drugs. Our objective was to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-collagenase (in vitro, and anti-wrinkle (in vivo effect of combined formulation containing Ginkgo biloba, Punica granatum, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract.Methods: Antioxidant evaluation was based on the scavenging activity of free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H2O2, and O2- and the anti-collagenase activity was based on the reduction of collagenase enzyme in vitro. In an in vivo study, 21 female subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled trail. Facial wrinkle, especially the crow's feet region of eyes, was treated with topical formulated 2% cream for 56 days and compared with the placebo.Results: In the in vitro study, the combination of fruits extract showed a higher antioxidant activity which was comparable with the positive standard (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, and Trolox. The data also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of collagenase. In the in vivo study, treatment with 2% formulated cream for 56 days significantly reduced the percentage of wrinkle depth, length, and area with 11.5, 10.07, and 29.55, respectively.Conclusion: The combined formulation of fruit extracts showed excellent antioxidative and anti-collagenase activity as well as a significant effect on anti-wrinkle activity on human skin.Keywords: antioxidant, anti-collagenase, anti-wrinkle, fruits, topical formulation

  2. Ethnomedicine and ethnobotany of fright, a Caribbean culture-bound psychiatric syndrome

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    Quinlan Marsha B

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Fright" is an English-speaking Caribbean idiom for an illness, or ethnomedical syndrome, of persistent distress. A parallel ethnopsychiatric idiom exists in the French Antilles as sésisma. Fright is distinct from susto among Hispanics, though both develop in the wake of traumatic events. West Indian ethnophysiology (ethnoanatomy theorizes that an overload of stressful emotions (fear, panic, anguish or worry causes a cold humoral state in which blood coagulates causing prolonged distress and increased risks of other humorally cold illnesses. Methods Qualitative data on local explanatory models and treatment of fright were collected using participant-observation, informal key informant interviews and a village health survey. Ethnobotanical and epidemiological data come from freelist (or "free-list" tasks, analyzed for salience, with nearly all adults (N = 112 of an eastern village in Dominica, and a village survey on medicinal plant recognition and use (N = 106. Results Along with prayer and exercise, three herbs are salient fright treatments: Gossypium barbadense L., Lippia micromera Schauer, and, Plectranthus [Coleus] amboinicus [Loureiro] Sprengel. The survey indicated that 27% of village adults had medicated themselves for fright. Logistic regression of fright suffering onto demographic variables of age, education, gender, parental status and wealth measured in consumer goods found age to be the only significant predictor of having had fright. The probability of having (and medicating for fright thus increases with every year. Conclusions While sufferers are often uncomfortable recalling personal fright experiences, reporting use of medicinal plants is less problematic. Inquiry on fright medical ethnobotany (or phytotherapies serves as a proxy measurement for fright occurrence. Cross-cultural and ethnopharmacology literature on the medicinal plants suggests probable efficacy in accord with Dominican ethnomedical notions

  3. Medicinal Plant Diversity and Inter-Cultural Interactions between Indigenous Guarani, Criollos and Polish Migrants in the Subtropics of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Monika; Hilgert, Norma I; Keller, Héctor A; Gil, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies highlight the importance of phytotherapy for indigenous and non-indigenous people in different parts of the world. In this work we analyze the richness (number of species), diversity (plant identity and the number of illnesses for which it is used) and similarity of plant species and illnesses treated with them, in order to contribute new data and insight into the importance of plant medicines to the local medical systems of people living in Misiones province, in the subtropics of Argentina. Three sympatric groups were compared: Guarani Indians, Criollos (mestizos) and Polish migrants. Quantitative scrutiny was focused on both primary and secondary sources. The similarity and diversity of medicinal plants and uses between groups was calculated by applying the Sørensen quantitative coefficient and the Shannon-Wiener index, respectively. In order to identify the characteristic plant species used by each group, the Cultural Importance and Prevalence Value (CIPV) was calculated based on the species Indicator Value (IndVal), which combines a species relative abundance with its relative frequency of occurrence in the various groups, and modified according to the type of the analyzed data. The important finding is a great variation in the number of species used by the study groups. Altogether, 509 botanical species were registered: Guarani (397), Criollos (243) and Polish migrants (137). For all groups, the use of native medicinal plants prevailed. The Guarani appear to be the local experts in use of medicinal plants. There is the significant difference in the number of treated illnesses by each taxon among three groups. Criollos and Polish migrants exhibit the greatest similarity in illnesses treated with medicinal plants. These groups share a corpus of knowledge related to illness nosology, and have a symptomatic approach to illness treatment. The Guarani have an etiological approach to illness diagnosis and healing, which may be viewed as a barrier to

  4. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Zanthoxylum simulans essential oil against Haemonchus contortus.

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    Qi, H; Wang, W X; Dai, J L; Zhu, L

    2015-07-30

    The need for new anthelmintic agents with low impact on the environment is becoming urgent. Phytotherapy is an alternative method to control gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants. This study aims to determine the composition of Zanthoxylum simulans essential oil (ZSEO) and evaluate the in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal effects of ZSEO on Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay, larval development assay (LDA), and larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). The chemical composition of ZSEO was determined through gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and 94 compounds were identified from the ZSEO. The major constituents of ZSEO were borneol (18.61%), β-elemene (10.87%). ZSEO and borneol both at 40 mg/mL inhibited larval hatching by 100%, with LC50 values of 3.98 and 1.50mg/mL, respectively. The LC50 value of β-elemene was not determined because of its insufficient activity. The results of LDA showed that ZSEO, borneol, and β-elemene all at 40 mg/mL inhibited larval development by 99.8%, 100%, and 55.4%, respectively, and exhibited dose-dependent responses with LC50 values of 4.02, 1.99, and 32.17 mg/mL, respectively. The results of LMIA showed that ZSEO, borneol, and β-elemene all at 40 mg/mL inhibited larval migration by 74.3%, 97.0%, and 53.2%, respectively. ZSEO presented ovicidal and larvicidal activities in vitro. Therefore, Zanthoxylum may be an alternative source of anthelmintic agents to control gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep.

  5. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-05

    -pharmaceutical works written in the Asian missions of the 17th to 18th century and influenced by ethnopharmaceutical knowledge and the relevance of historical studies for modern investigation in phytotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An improved HPLC method for determination of colocynthin in colocynth

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    M. Shekarchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Colocynthin is the major active secondary metabolite of colocynth, Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad, which has been used in traditional and ethno medicine of many countries.  It could be considered as an active marker for quality control of colocynth and its herbal products. Analysis and standardization of colocynth and its herbal preparations are a critical issue for their safe applications in phytotherapy and traditional medicine. In the present work, a simple and efficient sample preparation was developed and optimized through combination of matrix solid phase dispersion and ultrasonic assisted extraction. In addition, analytical reversed-phase HPLC method was optimized for analyzing the concentration of colocynthin in colocynth pulp. Methods: Powdered colocynth pulp was grinded with diatomaceous earth to obtain a homogenous mixture. The blend was mixed with methanol and extracted by sonication, followed by centrifugation and filtration. The analytical chromatographic separation was carried out using Luna C18 in isocratic elution with methanol: isopropanol: water: triflouroacetic acid (30:10:60:0.1 v/v. The method was validated as well.  Results: The validation parameters were determines as follows, linear range (r2 = 0.999, 75-500 μg/mL, precision (intra-day < 2.7%, inter-day = 4.4% and accuracy measured via determination of recovery (90-107%. The limit of detection and quantization were calculated 8.5 and 25.7 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Regarding the relatively high content of colocynthin in colocynth pulp, the validated HPLC method could be applied for quality control of colocynth pulp used in Traditional Persian Medicine.

  7. Eficácia de plantas para o controle de nematóides gastrintestinais de pequenos ruminantes: revisão de estudos publicados Plant efficacy in small ruminant gastrointestinal nematode control: a review of published studies

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    P.S. Nery

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As helmintoses gastrintestinais constituem um dos principais fatores limitantes para a ovinocaprinocultura em todo o mundo e a saúde dos rebanhos depende de um efetivo controle antiparasitário. A resistência aos anti-helmínticos representa um dos entraves para esse controle e a busca por novas bases tem sido um desafio constante. A utilização da fitoterapia na medicina veterinária constitui um campo promissor de pesquisas. Estudos nesta área necessitam da inserção em um contexto agroecológico, tendo como fator limitante o manejo sustentável dos recursos naturais envolvidos. O presente artigo apresenta uma revisão dos estudos de plantas cientificamente testadas no Brasil e em outros países para o controle das parasitoses gastrintestinais em pequenos ruminantes.Gastrointestinal helminthiasis has been one of the main limiting factors to small ruminant breeding around the world and the health of these animals depends on an efficient parasitological control. Resistance to anthelmintics represents one of the barriers to this control and the search for new bases has been a constant challenge. The use of phytotherapy in Veterinary Medicine is a promising research field. Studies in this area require the insertion into an agroecological context, presenting as limitation the sustainable management of the involved natural resources. This paper presents a review of studies on plants scientifically tested in Brazil and other countries for gastrointestinal nematode control concerning small ruminants.

  8. Safety and Efficacy of Banaba–Moringa oleifera–Green Coffee Bean Extracts and Vitamin D3 in a Sustained Release Weight Management Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaats, Gilbert R.; Preuss, Harry G.

    2016-01-01

    This 60‐day, 30‐subject pilot study examined a novel combination of ingredients in a unique sustained release (Carbopol matrix) tablet consumed twice daily. The product was composed of extracts of banaba leaf, green coffee bean, and Moringa oleifera leaf and vitamin D3. Safety was assessed using a 45‐measurement blood chemistry panel, an 86‐item self‐reported Quality of Life Inventory, bone mineral density, and cardiovascular changes. Efficacy was assessed by calculating a body composition improvement index (BCI) based on changes in dual energy X‐ray absorptiometry measured fat mass (FM) and fat‐free mass (FFM) as well as between the study group (SG) and a historical placebo group. No changes occurred in any blood chemistry measurements. Positive changes were found in the Quality of Life (QOL) inventory composite scores. No adverse effects were observed. Decreases occurred in FM (p = 0.004) and increases in FFM (p = 0.009). Relative to the historical placebo group, the SG lost more FM (p < 0.0001), gained more FFM (p = <0.0001), and had a negative BCI of −2.7 lb. compared with a positive BCI in the SG of 3.4 lb., a 6.1 discordance (p = 0.0009). The data support the safety and efficacy of this unique product and demonstrate importance of using changes in body composition versus scale weight and BMI. © 2016 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:26871553

  9. Avaliação in vitro da atividade antifúngica de extratos de plantas e óleo de eucalipto sobre Trichophyton mentagrophytes In vitro evaluation of the antifungal activity of plant extracts and eucalyptus oil on Trichophyton mentagrophytes

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    D.F.R. Frias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a ação antifúngica de extratos de plantas medicinais e óleo de eucalipto frente ao dermatófito Trichophyton mentagropytes, visando a utilização da fitoterapia no controle. As plantas utilizadas na obtenção dos extratos foram arruda (Ruta graveolens, citronela (Cymbopogon nardus, cravo de defunto (Tagetes minuta, eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp, graviola (Annona muricata, fruta do conde (Annona spp, manga (Mangifera indica, romã (Punica granatum, flores e folhas de primavera (Bougainvillea spectabilis. Verificou-se que uso de 0,5% óleo de eucalipto no combate ao T. mentagropytes foi eficaz, já os extratos de citronela (4% eucalipto (5% e romã (8% atuaram como fungistáticos e os restantes não devem ser usados contra este dermatófito porque não causaram nenhum efeito.The aim of this study was to assess the antifungal action of medicinal plant extracts and eucalyptus oil against the dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes in order to employ phytotherapy for its control. The plants used for extract production were common rue (Ruta graveolens, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus, wild marigold (Tagetes minuta, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp, sweetsop (Annona muricata, custard apple (Annona spp, mango (Mangifera indica, pomegranate (Punica granatum, besides flowers and leaves of bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spectabilis. The use of 0.5% eucalyptus oil was effective in controlling Trichophyton mentagrophytes; however, citronella (4%, eucalyptus (5% and pomegranate (8% extracts acted as fungistatic, and the remaining extracts should not be used against this dermatophyte since they did not have any effect.

  10. Academic Education in Complementary Medicine: A Tuscan Methodological Perspective

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    Gian Franco Gensini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of complementary medicine (CM involves a large number of persons in Italy, and in the nineties, the percentage of Italian citizens adopting the most frequent and relevant practices of CM almost doubled. Appropriate academic education in CM is an important and fascinating challenge for current didactic systems in the Italian University. Already in 2004, the Joint Italian Conference of the Deans of the Faculties of Medicine and of the Presidents of Medical Degree Courses released an official statement regarding the relationship between CM and health area degree courses. The main teaching objectives embedded in the institutional framework proposed by the Joint Italian Conference are now finding specific implementation modalities in the University of Florence. For many years, the Florence Medical School has had strong and fruitful contacts with institutional bodies in Tuscany and, together with these institutions, has established a continuous dialogue with the world of CM. This exchange has given rise to various teaching activities within the academic setting. With specific reference to the undergraduate curriculum in Medicine and Surgery, a methodological course regarding CM has been designed and conducted, with selective attention being given to the CM practices having an enhanced rate of supportive scientific evidence, such as herbal medicine and acupuncture. With regard to the postgraduate curriculum, a Master degree in Acupuncture and Traditional Chinese Medicine and a Master in Clinical Phytotherapy are already active in the University of Florence and are having a remarkable success among the attending health professionals. This high degree of satisfaction well documents the importance, need and feasibility of structured academic education in CM and, in particular, of a methodological didactics such as those currently implemented in the Florence Medical School.

  11. Artemisinin–Second Career as Anticancer Drug?

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    Thomas Efferth

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin represents a showcase example not only for the activity of medicinal herbs deriving from traditional chinese medicine, but for phytotherapy in general. Its isolation from Sweet Wormwood (qinhao, Artemisia annua L. represents the starting point for an unprecedent success story in the treatment of malaria worldwide. Beyond the therapeutic value against Plasmodium parasites, it turned out in recent years that the bioactivity of artemisinin is not restricted to malaria. We and others found that this sesquiterpenoid also exerts profound anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. Artemisinin-type drugs exert multi-factorial cellular and molecular actions in cancer cells. Ferrous iron reacts with artemisinin, which leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species and ultimately to a plethora anticancer effects of artemisinins, e.g. expression of antioxidant response genes, cell cycle arrest (G1 as well as G2 phase arrests, DNA damage that is repaird by base excision repair, homogous recombination and non-homologous end-joining, as well as different modes of cell death (intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, necroptosis, oncosis, and ferroptosis. Furthermore, artemisinins inhibit neoangiogenesis in tumors. The signaling of major transcription factors (NF-κB, MYC/MAX, AP-1, CREBP, mTOR etc. and signaling pathways are affected by artemisinins (e.g. Wnt/β-catenin pathway, AMPK pathway, metastatic pathways, nitric oxide signaling, and others. Several case reports on the compassionate use of artemisinins as well as clinical Phase I/II pilot studies indicate the clinical activity of artemisinins in veterinary and human cancer patients. Larger scale of Phase II and III clinical studies are required now to further develop artemisinin-type compounds as novel anticancer drugs.

  12. 有关功能性胃肠病中医药临床研究规范化问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵荣莱; 王伟岸

    2004-01-01

    传统的本草疗法是建立在大量的各种个人临床经验基础之上的,即所谓的“经验性本草疗法(Experience—based phytotherapy)”,其中,中国传统医学是众多传统医学系统最重要的组成部分。近十余年一个明显的变化是国外学者也开始关注中医药(包括针灸)在功能性胃肠病治疗中的作用,相关报道屡见不鲜。而国内功能性胃肠病(FGID)的中医临床研究呈现蓬勃发展的可喜局面,不但大量临床诊治研究见诸文献,而且参照最新功能性胃肠病诊断标准,相继建立了功能性消化不良和肠易激综合征的中医诊断和分型标准。无疑,国内中医界和中西医结合学者们,在加强中医中药、针灸治疗的基础理论研究和发掘的同时,已重视对功能性胃肠病中医药临床研究的规范化。

  13. The importance of clinical mistletoe cancer therapy and korean mistletoe pharmacopuncture preparation development and application possibility for oriental medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok-Byung Choi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Mistletoe extracts have been in use for around 85 years, predominantly in the area of cancer therapy. Today mistletoe preparations are among the most prescribed drugs in cancer medicine, thus constituting a standard biological therapy in the area of oncology. The purpose of this study is to analyze the practical implications of mistletoe cancer therapy, their clinical status, their preparation techniques and companies. Contents : Mistletoe therapy for cancer has been developed within the context of anthroposophical medicine. One major effect of mistletoe extract is that it stimulates the immune system and cancer defences. In Germany, a total of eight different mistletoe preparations are available, five developed by Anthroposophic Medicine and three evolved from research in phytotherapy. Therapy always consists of an introductory phase in order to test the patient′s tolerance, find the right dosage and choose the most suitable preparation. This paper covers the background of mistletoe medical plant materials, mistletoe therapy for cancer, the anthroposophical medicine and clinical research, the practical regulation of treatment, preparation of mistletoe drugs. Result & suggestion : Mistletoe extracts are a complementary teratment of cancer, widely used in intergrative cancer care. The study of the integration of korean mistletoe extracts to oriental cancer medicine, its development and feasibility in Korea are urgently needed. The products, substances, compositions of european mistletoe drugs are very similar to those of oriental medicine theory. Applying the mistletoe cancer therapy and its preparation techniques to oriental medicine, the herbal acupuncture preparation should be modernized and korean mistletoe products are to be developed. To this end, government and herbal acupuncture society need to interact each other for the development of oriental mistletoe cancer medicine.

  14. Protective Effects of Morus alba Leaves Extract on Ocular Functions of Pups from Diabetic and Hypercholesterolemic Mother Rats

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    H.I.H. El-Sayyad, M.A. El-Sherbiny, M.A. Sobh, A.M. Abou-El-Naga, M.A.N. Ibrahim, S.A. Mousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy is frequently considered to be less toxic and free from side effects than synthetic drugs. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the protective use of crude water extract of Morus alba leaves on ocular functions including cataractogenesis, biochemical diabetic and hypercholesterolemic markers, retinal neurotransmitters and retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to either diabetes and/or hypercholesterolemia. Application of crude water extract of Morus alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and creatine phosphokinase activity as well as retinal neurotransmitters including acetylcholine (ACE, adrenaline (AD, nor-adrenaline (NAD, serotonin (5-HT, histamine (HS, dopamine (DA and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA. The retina of pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemia mothers exhibited massive alterations of retinal neurotransmitters. The alterations of retinal neurotransmitters were correlated with the observed pathological alterations of retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells and increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis cell death. However, protection with Morus alba extract led to amelioration of the pathological alterations of retinal neurons and estimated neurotransmitters. Furthermore, a striking incidence of cataract was detected in pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemic mothers. Highest cataractogenesis was observed in pups of combined -treated groups. Our data indicate that experimental maternal diabetes alone or in combination with hypercholesterolemia led to alteration in the ocular structures of their pups, with an increasing incidence of cataract and retinopathy, and the effects of the extract might be attributed to the hypoglycaemic, antihypercholesterolemic and anti-oxidative potential of flavonoids, the major components of the plant extract.

  15. The influence of traditional herbal formulas on cytokine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J J; Zhao, Lijun; Taylor, Ethan Will; Spelman, Kevin

    2010-11-28

    Many of the botanical "immunomodulators", a class of herbal medicines widely recognized in traditional medical systems such as Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurvedic Medicine, alter immune function and may offer clinically relevant therapeutics or leads to therapeutics. Many of these traditional remedies are prepared from combinations of medicinal plants which may influence numerous molecular pathways. These effects may differ from the sum of effects from the individual plants and therefore, research demonstrating the effects of the formula is crucial for insights into the effects of traditional remedies. In this review we surveyed the primary literature for research that focused on combinations of medicinal plants and effects on cytokine activity. The results demonstrate that many extracts of herb mixtures have effects on at least one cytokine. The most commonly studies cytokines were IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF and IFN-γ. The majority of the formulas researched derived from TCM. The following formulas had activity on at least three cytokines; Chizukit N, CKBM, Daeganghwal-tang, Food Allergy Formula, Gamcho-Sasim-Tang, Hachimi-jio-gan, Herbkines, Hochuekki, Immune System Formula, Jeo-Dang-Tang, Juzen-taiho-to, Kakkon-to, Kan jang, Mao-Bushi-Saishin-to, MSSM-002, Ninjin-youei-to, PG201, Protec, Qing-huo-bai-du-yin, Qingfu Guanjieshu, Sambucol Active Defense, Seng-fu-tang, Shin-Xiao-Xiang, Tien Hsien, Thuja formula, Unkei-to, Vigconic, Wheeze-relief-formula, Xia-Bai-San, Yangyuk-Sanhwa-Tang, Yi-fey Ruenn-hou, and Yuldahansotang. Of the western based combinations, formulas with Echinacea spp. were common and showed multiple activities. Numerous formulas demonstrated activity on both gene and protein expression. The research demonstrates that the reviewed botanical formulas modulate cytokine activity, although the bulk of the research is in vitro. Therapeutic success using these formulas may be partially due to their effects on cytokines. Further study of phytotherapy on

  16. Naturheilkunde und Komplementärmedizin bei chronisch entzündlichen Darmerkrankungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langhorst J

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available iZiel:/iNaturheilkundliche und komplementäre Verfahren werden häufig von Patienten mit chronisch entzündlichen Darmerkrankungen (CED als Therapieoptionen erwogen. Im Rahmen des vorliegenden Beitrags stellen wir die aktuelle Datenlage zu komplementären und alternativen Therapieverfahren (CAM bei CED entsprechend der Definition der National Institutes of Health bzw. der Cochrane Collaboration mit Ausnahme von Diät- und Nahrungsergänzungsmittel sowie „manipulative and body-based methods“ vor.br iMethoden:/iIm März 2014 erfolgte die Recherche nach Originalarbeiten und systematischen Reviews in medizinischen Datenbanken (Cochrane Library, Pubmed / Medline, Psychinfo und Scopus. Eingeschlossen wurden randomisiert-kontrollierte und klinische Studien in englischer oder deutscher Sprache für CAM bei „Inflammatory Bowel Disease“, „Crohns Disease“ und „ulcerative colitis“.br iErgebnisse:/i Vorgestellt werden Arbeiten zu den Themen Phytotherapie, wie z. B. Aloe-vera- Gel, Kalmegh, Artemisia absinthium, Blutwurz, Boswellia serrata, Cannabis, Curcumin, eine Kombination aus Myrrhe, Kamillenblüten und Kaffeekohle, Plantago ovata, Weizengras-Saft und Wermut, Mind-Body Medizin und Lebensstilmodifikation, Hypnotherapie, Entspannungstraining und Achtsamkeit sowie Akupunktur.br iFazit:/i Verschiedene Studien zeigen erste Hinweise auf eine mögliche Wirksamkeit von komplementären und naturheilkundlichen Therapieverfahren in der Behandlung von chronisch entzündlichen Darmerkrankungen. Aufgrund der geringen Anzahl an Studien zu den einzelnen Verfahren, der relativ geringen Zahl der eingeschlossenen Patienten und der heterogenen methodischen Qualität der Studien ist weitere hochqualitative klinische Forschung notwendig.

  17. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in vitro of chamomile flowers, coneflower herbs, peppermint leaves and thyme herbs – a preliminary report

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    Malm Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several studies have been undertaken so as to develop more effective therapeutic approaches towards eradicating Helicobacter pylori. Among these is phytotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity in vitro of the plant extracts obtained from common herbs cultivated in the Lubelszczyzna region against the reference strain H. pylori ATCC 43504. Among these are thyme herbs, chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves and coneflower herbs. Herein, it was found that the MIC values of the assayed extracts were as follows: the extracts from coneflower herbs showed anti-H. pylori activity with MIC = 31.3-125 μg/ml; the extracts from chamomile flowers demonstrated MIC = 31.3-62.5 μg/ ml; the extracts from peppermint leaves had MIC = 15.6-250 μg/ml; and the extracts from thyme herbs revealed MIC = 15.6-62.5 μg/ml, depending on the solvent used. The most active were the extracts obtained with ethyl acetate or ethanol alcohol absolute 99.8%. These showing MIC within the range of 15.6-62.5 μg/ml, while the lowest activity was observed in case of the extract obtained with 70% aqueous ethanol. This last showing MIC within the range of 62.5-250 μg/ml. The MIC values of essential oil components were 15.6 μg/ml for bisabolol and menthol or 31.3 μg/ml for thymol. The obtained data indicate that the assayed herbs possessed promising anti-H. pylori bioactivity.

  18. Kampo medicine: Evaluation of the pharmacological activity of 121 herbal drugs on GABA(A and 5 HT3A receptors

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    Katrin M Hoffmann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kampo medicine is a form of Japanese phytotherapy originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. During the last several decades, much attention has been paid to the pharmacological effects of these medical plants and its constituents. However, in many cases, a systematic screening of Kampo remedies to determine pharmacologically relevant targets is still lacking. In this study, we performed a broad screening of Kampo remedies to look for pharmacologically relevant 5 HT3A and GABA(A receptor ligands. Several of the Kampo remedies are currently used for symptoms such as nausea, emesis, gastrointestinal motility disorders, anxiety, restlessness or insomnia. Therefore, we analyzed the pharmacological effects of 121 herbal drugs from Kampo medicine as ethanol tinctures on heterologously expressed 5 HT3A and GABA(A receptors, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. The tinctures of Lindera aggregata (radix and Leonurus japonicus (herba were the most effective inhibitory compounds on the 5 HT3A receptor. Further investigation of known ingredients in these compounds led to the identification of leonurine from Leonurus as a new natural 5 HT3A receptor antagonist. We also identified several potentiating herbs (e.g., Magnolia officinalis (cortex, Syzygium aromaticum (flos and Panax ginseng (radix for the GABAA receptor, which are all traditionally used for their sedative or anxiolytic effects. A variety of tinctures with antagonistic effects, for instance Salvia miltiorrhiza (radix were also detected. Therefore, this study reveals new insights into the pharmacological action of a broad spectrum of herbal drugs from Kampo, allowing a better understanding of their physiological effects and clinical applications.

  19. Antifungal activity of tea tree oil from Melaleuca alternifolia against Trichophyton equinum: an in vivo assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisseri, F; Bertoli, A; Nardoni, S; Pinto, L; Pistelli, L; Guidi, G; Mancianti, F

    2009-11-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of keratinophilic and keratinolytic molds, some of which are responsible for ringworm. Among them Trichophyton equinum, which mostly infects equids, can cause extensive outbreaks in stud farms. The conventional treatment of equine trichophytosis is topic, based upon medicated shampoos to reduce the spread of infection among the animals. Nevertheless the popularity of phytotherapy is at an all-time peak, and the interest for natural alternatives or complements to conventional drug therapy is challenging both in human and veterinary field. Among herbal remedia Tea Tree Oil (TTO) shows a wide range of antimicrobial activities. A randomized open clinical trial was carried out on 60 thoroughbred breeding horses affected by equine ringworm. The animals were randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 subjects. Diagnostic criteria were the presence of clinical signs and positive T. equinum culture. Specificity control using TTO mixture in 5 not dermatophyte affected animals was achieved also. The antimycotic activity against T. equinum of a mixture containing 25% TTO in sweet almond oil, was evaluated in vivo treating 30 subjects, the others were administered enilconazole 2% solution. The animals of both groups were topically treated twice a day for 15 days with a 25% mixture of TTO diluted in sweet almond oil and every 3 days, four times with enilconazole rinses, respectively. The clinical and mycological outcome were evaluated at day 30 from the start of the treatments. Data analysis was performed by chi square test. All the treated animals showed complete clinical and aetiological healing. Part of control subjects also, showed an improvement and none of them exacerbate the lesions. This therapeutic protocol appears to be effective and versatile, being applicable immediately after physical examination, prior to have the laboratory response. It could be an alternative for practitioners interested in herbal medicines, contributing to fulfill the gap

  20. Cavity disinfection in minimally invasive dentistry - comparative evaluation of Aloe vera and propolis: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, A. R.; Karuna, Y. M.; Yavagal, C.; Deepak, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The survival of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations would probably increase if near total elimination of cariogenic microorganisms could be done in the process of cavity cleaning before going ahead with the restoration. Thus, use of naturally occurring disinfecting agents for achieving this goal could herald a new beginning in the field of contemporary minimum intervention dentistry. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of hand instruments in excavating dental caries and comparatively evaluate the roles of Aloe vera and propolis as potential cavity disinfecting agents after minimally invasive hand excavation of dental caries. Settings and Designs: Experimental, in vivo intergroup split mouth, randomized clinical trial. Subjects and Methods: The study included Group I (Control), Group II (A. vera) and Group III (propolis). Ten patients with three teeth each have occlusal/occlusoproximal lesions suitable for ART were selected. Dentinal samples were collected three times from each tooth viz., preexcavation, postexcavation and postdisinfection of the cavities. These dentinal samples were subjected to microbiological analyses for total viable count. Statistical Analysis Used: Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni post-hoc test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test. Results: In all the three groups, significant amount of bacteria were left behind after hand excavation. Group II and Group III, in which cavities were treated with A. vera and propolis extracts respectively, showed a significant reduction in the bacterial counts when compared to control the group. Conclusions: Hand excavation alone does not completely eliminate bacteria, which may predispose treated teeth to secondary caries. Both propolis and A. vera extracts can be used as potential natural disinfecting agents, thereby embracing the concept of phytotherapy in minimum intervention dentistry. PMID:25821369

  1. Common Questions About Chronic Prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James D; Garrett, W Allan; McCurry, Tyler K; Teichman, Joel M H

    2016-02-15

    floor physical therapy, phytotherapy, and pain management techniques. The UPOINT (urinary, psychosocial, organ-specific, infection, neurologic/systemic, tenderness) approach summarizes the various factors that may contribute to presentation and can guide treatment.

  2. 锯叶棕果实提取物治疗III型前列腺炎的疗效观察%Treatment of chronic prostatitis category IIIA with saw palmetto extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潜力

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the treatment effect of saw palmetto extract on chronic prostatits(CP)category IIIA.Methods Totally 70 cases of CP were enrolled from outpatient in our hospital,and were treated with saw palmetto extract capsules for 6 weeks.NIH-CP-SI and routine examination of EPS were evaluated before and after the treatment.Results The cure rate was 14.3%,the alleviation rate was 70%,and total effective rate was 84.3%.No severe side effect was observed.Conclusion Saw palmetto extract capsules have the positive effects in the treatment of CP.It could be recommended as optional phytotherapy for CP.%目的:评价锯叶棕果实提取物对III型前列腺炎的治疗作用。方法选取我院门诊就诊的III型前列腺炎患者70例,口服锯叶棕果实提取物软胶囊治疗,治疗前后6周行慢性前列腺炎症状指数(NIH-CPSI),前列腺液常规检查,观察治疗效果。结果治愈率为14.3%,好转率为70%,总有效率为84.3%,未记录到药物不良反应。结论锯叶棕果实提取物胶囊治疗III型前列腺炎疗效确切,可作为选择性治疗药物。

  3. Fascinating metabolic pools of Pelargonium sidoides and Pelargonium reniforme, traditional and phytomedicinal sources of the herbal medicine Umckaloabo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    The metabolic pools of Pelargonium sidoides DC and Pelargonium reniforme CURT, associated with the origin of the herbal medicine Umckaloabo, exhibit remarkable diversity and complexity. They comprise a variety of phenolic and polyphenolic compounds, a notable wealth of highly oxygenated simple coumarins and a number of miscellaneous uncommon metabolites. Noteworthy, the roots of both species express conspicuously distinct coumarin variations that facilitate their identification. Of the range of coumarins identified the titled species shared the ubiquitous scopoletin and the unique members 6,7,8-trihydroxycoumarin and 8-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin merely. Furthermore, the current data on the coumarin profiles suggest the occurrence of coumarin sulphates and coumarin glycosides to be apparently confined to P. sidoides, while the occurrence of conventional proanthocyanidins was a common chemical feature. An unprecedented diterpene, designated as reniformin, was encountered in the roots of P. reniforme, possessing a novel diterpene skeleton linked to a unique p-oxyphenethansulfonic moiety. Coumarins were less abundant in the aerial parts of both species. These were rich in flavonoids and hydrolysable tannins including a unique series of O-galloyl-C-glucosylflavones (P. sidoides and P. reniforme) and novel ellagitannins with a (1)C(4) glucopyranose core in P. reniforme, trivially named pelargoniins, accompanied by the new 4-allyl-2,5-dimethoxyphenol-1-beta-D-glucoside. These Pelargoniums have thus represented an attractive source of fascinating secondary metabolites. A proprietary extract of the roots of P. sidoides, EPs 7630, has been developed from this traditional herbal medicine and introduced into modern phytotherapy in Europe. Structural examination of EPs 7630 constituents showed excellent agreement of the profile with that of P. sidoides.

  4. [Advertising and Zeitgeist. The advertising of Schwabe Pharmaceuticals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Cornelia; Riha, Ortrun

    2015-01-01

    This contribution explores the advertisements for homeopathic products in magazines in the first half of the twentieth century, focusing on the period between 1933 and 1945 and based on the example of the pharmaceutical company Dr Willmar Schwabe. In the first half of the twentieth century, Schwabe Pharmaceuticals was market leader for homeopathic and other complementary medical products (phytotherapy, biochemicals). The example chosen as well as the time frame complement the existing research. We searched three German publications (the homeopathy journal Leipziger Populäre Zeitschrift für Homöopathie, the medical weekly Münchner Medizinische Wochenschrift and the pharma magazine Pharmazeutische Zeitung) and collected target-group-specific results for laypersons, physicians and pharmacists. Analysis of the images and texts in the selected advertisements often reflected the historical background and the respective health policies (wartime requirements, times of need, "Neue Deutsche Heilkunde"). The history of this traditional company was seen as an important point in advertising, as were the recognisability of the brand through the company logo, the emphasis on the high quality of their products and the reference to the company's own research activities. We furthermore found the kind of argumentation that is typical of natural medicine (naturalness, the power of the sun, prominent representatives). Schwabe met the expectations of its clients, who were interested in complementary medicine, whilst pursuing an approach to homeopathy that was compatible with natural science, and it presented itself as a modern, scientifically oriented enterprise. The company did not lose credibility as a result, but increased its clientele by expanding to include the whole naturopathic market.

  5. Preclinical evaluation of Luffa operculata Cogn. and its main active principle in the treatment of bacterial rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leonardo; Costa, Henrique Olival; Souza, Flávia Coelho de; Lopes, Elaine Monteiro Cardoso; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko

    2016-12-26

    The prevalence of rhinosinusitis is quite high. Despite the widespread use of antibiotics for rhinosinusitis, there are other forms of treatment, including phytotherapy. One of the most widely used herbal medicines for treatment of rhinosinusitis is Luffa operculata. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of topical nasal solution of the aqueous extract of L. operculata, determining the toxicity to its use and identifying the active principles presented in the aqueous extract. The secondary objective was to evaluate the action of active principles on bacteria commonly involved in acute rhino sinusitis. The study was conducted in experimental model of sinusitis. Three different concentrations of L. operculata were used as local treatment of rhino sinusitis. The results were compared with those observed in control groups that received nasal saline solution. Histological examination of the liver, kidney, spleen, myocardium, brain and lungs of all animals evaluated the toxicity of L. operculata. The aqueous extract used was subjected to chromatographic analysis and an active principle was isolated and tested for in vitro inhibition of bacterial colonies usually found in rhino sinusitis. Intranasal treatment of sinusitis with L. operculata showed better clinical evolution than control group. Statistically significant difference (p>0.10) between the treated group and the control group was observed in the histologic evaluation for inflammatory pattern. The aqueous extract of L. operculata used presented a predominance of 2,3-dicafeoilglicaric acid, a substance not yet described in the literature. There was a significant difference in bacterial growth of Streptococcus pyogenes on blood-agar plates when under the influence of both the aqueous extract and the active substance. Topical nasal solution of the aqueous extract of L. operculata is effective compared to the application of saline solution for the treatment of bacterial rhinosinusitis in an experimental model. L

  6. Biopiracy of natural products and good bioprospecting practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efferth, Thomas; Banerjee, Mita; Paul, Norbert W; Abdelfatah, Sara; Arend, Joachim; Elhassan, Gihan; Hamdoun, Sami; Hamm, Rebecca; Hong, Chunlan; Kadioglu, Onat; Naß, Janine; Ochwangi, Dominic; Ooko, Edna; Ozenver, Nadire; Saeed, Mohamed E M; Schneider, Mathias; Seo, Ean-Jeong; Wu, Ching-Fen; Yan, Ge; Zeino, Maen; Zhao, Qiaoli; Abu-Darwish, Mohammad S; Andersch, Kai; Alexie, Gladys; Bessarab, Dawn; Bhakta-Guha, Dipita; Bolzani, Vanderlan; Dapat, Else; Donenko, Fedor V; Efferth, Monika; Greten, Henry J; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Hussein, Ahmed A; Karadeniz, Asuman; Khalid, Hassan E; Kuete, Victor; Lee, Ik-Soo; Liu, Liang; Midiwo, Jacob; Mora, Rodrigo; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Ngassapa, Olipa; Noysang, Chanai; Omosa, Leonida K; Roland, Fred Hwiemtun; Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Saab, Antoine; Saeed, Elfatih M; Shan, Letian; Titinchi, Salam J J

    2016-02-15

    Biopiracy mainly focuses on the use of biological resources and/or knowledge of indigenous tribes or communities without allowing them to share the revenues generated out of economic exploitation or other non-monetary incentives associated with the resource/knowledge. Based on collaborations of scientists from five continents, we have created a communication platform to discuss not only scientific topics, but also more general issues with social relevance. This platform was termed 'PhytCancer -Phytotherapy to Fight Cancer' (www.phyt-cancer.uni-mainz.de). As a starting point, we have chosen the topic "biopiracy", since we feel this is of pragmatic significance for scientists working with medicinal plants. It was argued that the patenting of herbs or natural products by pharmaceutical corporations disregarded the ownership of the knowledge possessed by the indigenous communities on how these substances worked. Despite numerous court decisions in U.S.A. and Europe, several international treaties, (e.g. from United Nations, World Health Organization, World Trade Organization, the African Unity and others), sharing of a rational set of benefits amongst producers (mainly pharmaceutical companies) and indigenous communities is yet a distant reality. In this paper, we present an overview of the legal frameworks, discuss some exemplary cases of biopiracy and bioprospecting as excellent forms of utilization of natural resources. We suggest certain perspectives, by which we as scientists, may contribute towards prevention of biopiracy and also to foster the fair utilization of natural resources. We discuss ways, in which the interests of indigenous people especially from developing countries can be secured. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Cavity disinfection in minimally invasive dentistry - comparative evaluation of Aloe vera and propolis: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Prabhakar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The survival of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART restorations would probably increase if near total elimination of cariogenic microorganisms could be done in the process of cavity cleaning before going ahead with the restoration. Thus, use of naturally occurring disinfecting agents for achieving this goal could herald a new beginning in the field of contemporary minimum intervention dentistry. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of hand instruments in excavating dental caries and comparatively evaluate the roles of Aloe vera and propolis as potential cavity disinfecting agents after minimally invasive hand excavation of dental caries. Settings and Designs: Experimental, in vivo intergroup split mouth, randomized clinical trial. Subjects and Methods: The study included Group I (Control, Group II (A. vera and Group III (propolis. Ten patients with three teeth each have occlusal/occlusoproximal lesions suitable for ART were selected. Dentinal samples were collected three times from each tooth viz., preexcavation, postexcavation and postdisinfection of the cavities. These dentinal samples were subjected to microbiological analyses for total viable count. Statistical Analysis Used: Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test. Results: In all the three groups, significant amount of bacteria were left behind after hand excavation. Group II and Group III, in which cavities were treated with A. vera and propolis extracts respectively, showed a significant reduction in the bacterial counts when compared to control the group. Conclusions: Hand excavation alone does not completely eliminate bacteria, which may predispose treated teeth to secondary caries. Both propolis and A. vera extracts can be used as potential natural disinfecting agents, thereby embracing the concept of phytotherapy in minimum intervention dentistry.

  8. Withania coagulans Extract Induces Cell Apoptosis and Inhibits COX-2 Expression in a Rat Model of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbishegi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Phytotherapy is a popular treatment option in cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, with many different herbal products being used for the treatment of this condition. Withania coagulans (WC is an herbal medicine that has shown anti-tumoral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Objectives This study examined the effect of Withania coagulans extract (WCE on prostatic cell apoptosis and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH in rats. Methods Forty Wistar rats were equally divided into five groups: control, sham, BPH, BPH + WCE, and BPH + CLX (celecoxib as a positive control group. The induction of BPH was achieved via the subcutaneous injection of 3 mg/kg of testosterone propionate (TP daily for 28 days. The animals received WCE, celecoxib, or distilled water by oral gavage accompanied by the TP injection. After four weeks, the prostate glands of the rats were weighed to measure the prostatic index (PI. The ventral lobes of the prostates were dissected and processed with paraffin blocks in order to study the number of mast cells. A TUNEL analysis was performed to evaluate the cell apoptosis, while the expression of COX-2 was examined using immunohistochemistry. Results BPH was obvious in the ventral lobe of the prostate, and the administration of WCE markedly decreased the PI and the number of mast cells (P < 0.001 in the BPH rats. Additionally, the WCE treatment induced prostatic cell apoptosis when compared to the BPH group. Furthermore, following the WCE treatment, the expression of COX-2 in the prostatic tissues was significantly decreased when compared to the BPH groups. Conclusions According to the results of this study, WCE was effective in the treatment of BPH in rats. It may therefore have beneficial effects in the treatment of patients with BPH.

  9. Commercially important properties of plants of the genus Plantago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The centuries-old experience of folk medicine, nutritional traditions, and the results of numerous research studies show that plants of the genus Plantago can be used for medicinal, cosmetic, dietetic, and ritual purposes. In the phytochemical composition of Plantago, there is an abundance of biologically active substances (among others, glycosides, flavonoids, polysaccharides, and vitamins exhibiting beneficial effects and, simultaneously, there is a low content of compounds that may exert a toxic effect. Scientific research has confirmed that Plantago plants have antioxidative, apoptosis-inhibiting, protective, healing-enhancing, spasmolytic, anthelmintic, and antimicrobial properties; they inhibit the development of some tumours, reduce the level of lipids in blood and inhibit tissue glycation. In phytotherapy, leaves, stems, and/or seeds of different plantain species are used. Plantago leaves and seeds are also used to manufacture creams, lotions, and face masks. Different parts of these plants (fresh plant material, extracts, or isolated substances are also used in human and animal nutrition. Plantain leaves can be eaten like lettuce or added to salads, fried in pastry, used to prepare a tea, juice, or wine. Its seeds are added to cakes, bread, breakfast cereals, ice cream, and drinks, or they are cooked like groats. Animals fed with plantain can live longer and are healthier, while meat derived from such animals is tastier and healthier to humans. Plantago seeds are readily eaten by cage birds. Plantain pollen, produced in large amounts (up to 20,000 pollen grains per 1 stamen of P. lancolata, can cause allergies in sensitive people. Due to a long flowering period of plants of the genus Plantago, the effect of the allergenic factor persists for many weeks. In Poland days with the maximum concentration of airborne plantain pollen most often occur in July.

  10. Medicinal Plant Diversity and Inter-Cultural Interactions between Indigenous Guarani, Criollos and Polish Migrants in the Subtropics of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Monika; Hilgert, Norma I.; Keller, Héctor A.; Gil, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies highlight the importance of phytotherapy for indigenous and non-indigenous people in different parts of the world. In this work we analyze the richness (number of species), diversity (plant identity and the number of illnesses for which it is used) and similarity of plant species and illnesses treated with them, in order to contribute new data and insight into the importance of plant medicines to the local medical systems of people living in Misiones province, in the subtropics of Argentina. Three sympatric groups were compared: Guarani Indians, Criollos (mestizos) and Polish migrants. Quantitative scrutiny was focused on both primary and secondary sources. The similarity and diversity of medicinal plants and uses between groups was calculated by applying the Sørensen quantitative coefficient and the Shannon-Wiener index, respectively. In order to identify the characteristic plant species used by each group, the Cultural Importance and Prevalence Value (CIPV) was calculated based on the species Indicator Value (IndVal), which combines a species relative abundance with its relative frequency of occurrence in the various groups, and modified according to the type of the analyzed data. The important finding is a great variation in the number of species used by the study groups. Altogether, 509 botanical species were registered: Guarani (397), Criollos (243) and Polish migrants (137). For all groups, the use of native medicinal plants prevailed. The Guarani appear to be the local experts in use of medicinal plants. There is the significant difference in the number of treated illnesses by each taxon among three groups. Criollos and Polish migrants exhibit the greatest similarity in illnesses treated with medicinal plants. These groups share a corpus of knowledge related to illness nosology, and have a symptomatic approach to illness treatment. The Guarani have an etiological approach to illness diagnosis and healing, which may be viewed as a barrier to

  11. Effect of Sapindus trifoliatus on hyperalgesic in vivo migraine models

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    D.K. Arulmozhi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapies have offered alternative sources of therapy for migraine and gained much importance in prophylactic treatment. Sapindus trifoliatus is a medium-sized deciduous tree growing wild in south India that belongs to the family Sapindaceae. The pericarp is reported for various medicinal properties. A thick aqueous solution of the pericarp is used for the treatment of hemicrania, hysteria or epilepsy in folklore medicine. We have investigated the antihyperalgesic effects of the lyophilized aqueous extract of S. trifoliatus in animal models predictive of experimental migraine models using morphine withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia on the hot-plate test and on 0.3% acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions in adult male Swiss albino mice. The extract significantly (N = 10, P < 0.05 increased the licking latency in the hot-plate test when administered ip at 10 mg/kg (6.70 ± 0.39 s in saline control vs 18.76 ± 0.96 s in S. trifoliatus-treated animals and significantly (N = 10, P < 0.001 reduced the abdominal constrictions when administered ip at 2 and 10 mg/kg (40.20 ± 1.36 in saline control vs 30.20 ± 1.33 and 23.00 ± 0.98 for 2 and 10 mg/kg, ip, respectively, in S. trifoliatus-treated animals. Furthermore, when administered ip at 20 and 100 mg/kg, the extract significantly (N = 10, P < 0.05 inhibited the apomorphine-induced climbing behavior in mice (climbing duration 15.75 ± 5.0 min for saline control vs 11.4 ± 1.28 and 3.9 ± 1.71 min for 20 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, in S. trifoliatus-treated animals. In receptor radioligand-binding studies, the extract exhibited affinity towards D2 receptors. The findings suggest that dopamine D2 antagonism could be the mechanism involved in the antihyperalgesic activity of the aqueous extract of S. trifoliatus.

  12. Evaluation of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil on goat gastrointestinal nematodes Avaliação do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus citriodora sobre nematóides gastrintestinais de caprinos

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    Iara Tersia Freitas Macedo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy may be an alternative strategy for controlling gastrointestinal parasites. This study evaluated the anthelmintic efficacy of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil (EcEO. The in vitro effects of EcEO were determined through testing the inhibition of egg hatching and larval development of Haemonchus contortus. EcEO was subjected to acute toxicity testing on mice, orally and intraperitoneally. The in vivo effects of EcEO were determined by the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT in goats infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The results showed that 5.3 mg.mL-1 EcEO inhibited egg hatching by 98.8% and 10.6 mg.mL-1 EcEO inhibited H. contortus larval development by 99.71%. The lethal doses for 50% of the mice were 4153 and 622.8 mg.kg-1, for acute toxicity orally and intraperitoneally. In the FECRT, the efficacy of EcEO and ivermectin was 66.25 and 79.16% respectively, on goat gastrointestinal nematodes eight days after treatment. EcEO showed in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity.Fitoterapia pode ser uma estratégia alternativa para o controle de parasitas gastrintestinais. Este estudo avaliou a eficácia anti-helmintica do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus citriodora (OeEc. Os efeitos in vitro do OeEc foram determinados através do teste de eclosão de ovos e inibição do desenvolvimento larvar de Haemonchus contortus. O OeEc foi submetido ao teste de toxicidade aguda oral e intraperitoneal, em camundongos. Os efeitos in vivo do OeEc foram avaliados através do teste de redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes (FECRT com caprinos infectados com nematóides gastrintestinais. Os resultados mostraram que 5,3 mg.mL-1 OeEc inibiram 98,8% a eclosão de ovos e 10,6 mg.mL-1 OeEc inibiram 99,71% o desenvolvimento larvar de H. contortus. As doses letais para 50% dos camundongos foram de 4153 e 622,8 mg.kg-1 pela via oral e intraperitoneal. No FECRT, a eficácia de OeEc e ivermectina foi de 66,25 e 79,16%, respectivamente, em caprinos 8 dias

  13. The genus Mansoa (Bignoniaceae: a source of organosulfur compounds O gênero Mansoa (Bignoniaceae: uma fonte de compostos organosulfurados

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    Maria das Graças Bichara Zoghbi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Mansoa belongs to the family Bignoniaceae and it includes eleven species that occur mainly in the dry and wet forests of Brazil and from Argentina to the Southeast of Mexico. These species in the Brazilian Amazon region are known as "cipó-de-alho", that means garlic vine, in reference to the pungent garlic-like smell of the leaves when crushed. "Cipó-de-alho" has several uses in folk medicine and among them, the most cited are the treatment for cold, fever, pain and inflammation of arthritis and rheumatism. In spite of all those uses, it still has little application in phytotherapy when compared to garlic (Allium sativum. The essential oils of Mansoa spp. show the presence of allyl polysufides that contribute to the characteristic aroma and flavor. The chemical composition of the organic extracts of Mansoa has been reported and it includes alkanes, alkanols, triterpenoids, flavonoids, lapachol derivatives and organosulfur compound alliin. The uses, chemical composition, biological activities and agricultural aspects of Mansoa species and their relationship with A. sativum are presented.O gênero Mansoa pertence à família Bignoniaceae e inclui onze espécies que ocorrem principalmente nas florestas secas e úmidas do Brasil e da Argentina até o Sudeste do México. Essas espécies na Amazônia brasileira são conhecidas como "cipó-de-alho", em referência ao forte cheiro de alho das folhas quando esmagadas. O "cipó-de-alho" tem vários usos na medicina tradicional e entre eles, os mais citados são para tratamento de gripe, febre, dor e inflamação de artrite e reumatismo. Apesar de todos os usos, ainda tem pequena aplicação como fitoterápico quando comparado ao alho (Allium sativum. Os óleos essenciais de Mansoa spp. contêm polissulfetos de alila que contribuem para o aroma e sabor característicos. A composição química dos extratos orgânicos de Mansoa incluiu alcanos, alcanóis, triterpenóides, flavonóides, derivados

  14. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by people in Oriental Morocco to manage various ailments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamila, Fakchich; Mostafa, Elachouri

    2014-05-28

    This document presents the uses of plants in traditional herbal medicines in Oriental Morocco. It also determines the homogeneity of informant knowledge in medicinal plants suitable for different ailment categories and the most preferred plant species used to treat each illness category in the study area. The ethnobotanical information was obtained from 3151 inhabitants who were 20 years and older in five different areas of Oriental Morocco region. The data were analyzed through informant consensus factor (ICF) and frequency of uses (FC). The results indicated that 65.7% of the participants interviewed used medicinal plants to treat 23 ailments. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific and vernacular names of the plant, the part of the plant and the preparation used and the therapeutic indication. Extensive investigations have brought to light 148 medicinal plants belonging to 60 families; of these, 108 are used for the disorders of the digestive system, 74 for diabetes, 73 for dermatological problems, 66 for allergy, 66 for cardiovascular disorders and 63 for respiratory problems. In this region, the most frequently used plants including Origanum compactum Benth., Trigonella foenum graecum L., Lavandula dentata L., Mentha pulegium L., Nigella sativa L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lippia citriodora L., Tetraclinis articulata Benth., and Atemisia herba-alba Asso. Lamiaceae and Asteraceae are the dominant locally used families. Most medicines were prepared in the form of powder and used orally. Leaves were the most frequently used plant part. Gastro-intestinal ailments have high ICF (0.92) whereas pathologies of the circulatory and ophthalmological uses have low ICF (0.22 and 0.24, respectively). Oriental Morocco boasts an extensive phytotherapy knowledge base and ICF values indicated that there was high agreement in the use of plants in gastro-intestinal ailment category among the users. The frequency use

  15. Sleep complaints: Whenever possible, avoid the use of sleeping pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    (1) Most sleep complaints involve difficulties in getting to sleep or staying asleep, or not feeling refreshed on awakening. Misconceptions and worrying over the lack of sleep and its consequences can contribute to reinforcing these disorders; (2) How can patients who complain of poor-quality sleep be helped, without resorting to treatments that can have adverse effects? To answer this question, we conducted a systematic review of the literature based on the standard Prescrire procedure; (3) One effective approach is to explain the basic physiology of sleep, to discuss misconceptions, and to adopt a strategy of "stimulus control". This method has a similar efficacy to prescribing a benzodiazepine. and the effect is longer lasting; (4) Moderate, regular physical exercise, especially in the morning, seems to help some patients, but the evidence is weak; (5) Some clinical trials of phytotherapy have shown a positive risk-benefit balance of weak aqueous or hydroalcoholic valerian extracts. Efficacy is limited, however; (6) A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials showed that benzodiazepines and related drugs increase the duration of sleep and help patients to fall asleep sooner. However, none of these trials provides comparative data spanning periods of more than two weeks. Efficacy is uncertain in the longer term, as patients quickly develop a tolerance to the hypnotic effects of benzodiazepines; (7) The adverse effects of benzodiazepines include frequent memory disorders, daytime drowsiness, falls, fractures and road accidents, and a withdrawal syndrome after treatment cessation. Related drugs such as zolpidem and zopiclone provoke similar adverse effects; (8) Sedative antihistamines have not been as well-evaluated as benzodiazepines in this setting. Small comparative trials of doxylamine and diphenhydramine showed no major difference in efficacy versus benzodiazepines and related drugs. The main adverse effects of sedative antihistamines are daytime drowsiness

  16. Systematic review of the most important medicinal plants and place them in the international treatment of diseases

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    azadeh Khonsari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine, a complementary and alternative medical system has been used to treat various diseases over thousands of years in many countries and the use of herbal medicine is growing in all of the world. Exploring the most frequently used herbs and herbal products in alternative and complementary medicine worldwide is a challenging issue because herbal medicine has been increased popularity among physicians and patients. The aim of this study was to systematically review literature reporting on the use of the herbal medicine to determine the genus of the most frequently used herbs in alternative medicine and the diseases under treatment. Material and Methods: Systematic searches were carried out in the databases Medline, Pubmed, Sciencedirect and Springer. Each databases was searched from Jan 2000 until Jan 2008 with the keywords of herbal medicine, herb medicine, phytotherapy and extract medicine. Systematic reviews and meta – analysis were included and no language restrictions were imposed, to find the genus of commonly used herbs and studied diseases. The findings were evaluated according to frequency of usage. Results: In this paper we have reported 8 plants which are the most common ones and have been in vogue from ancient time in the world. These most frequently used plants are Ginseng, Salvia, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum, Garlic, Ginger, Aloe vera and Marijuana. According to findings neurologic, inflammatory – immunogenic, digestive and urinary – kidney diseases are the most interested fields in herbal medicine. Although most of the reviewed articles (89.2% showed a positive effect but side effects of herbal medicine are reported in the others and also need to furthermore works was mentioned as a necessity in 49.7% of them. Discussion: According to the present findings, herbal medicine has historically been efficacious in the treatment and management of many health problems. The ultimate purpose of the herbal medicine is to

  17. Standardized production of Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. by plant tissue culture Produção padronizada de Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. por cultura de tecidos vegetais

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    Cristiane Pimentel Victório

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Exigencies as ethic plant raw material are part of the needs of modern phytotherapy. Micropropagation offers opportunities to obtain mass propagation of superior genotypes in short time. This study aimed to develop a protocol of direct and indirect organogenesis of Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. Nodal segments from plantlets obtained by in vitro germination were subcultured in modified Murashige and Skoog medium added with different plant growth regulators: IAA (indole-3-acetic acid, IBA (indole-3-butyric acid, GA3 (3-giberelic acid and KIN (kinetin. The highest proliferation rate was obtained using the combinations: IBA, KIN + GA3 (3.5 mg L-1 and IBA + KIN (2.4 mg L-1. Rooting was intensified after 40 days, reaching 100% for all media with indole-3-butyric acid. Addition of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D provided the best results for production of friable calli. Acclimatization was 100% effective for plantlets cultured in control medium, with decrease in survival rate in grown plantlets from media added with growth regulators.Exigências como matérias-primas vegetais fidedignas fazem parte das necessidades da fitoterapia moderna. A propagação in vitro permite a obtenção em massa de genótipos superiores, em curto espaço de tempo. Este estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver um protocolo de organogênese direta e indireta de Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. Segmentos nodais de plântulas obtidas por germinação in vitro foram introduzidos em meio Murashige e Skoog adicionado de diferentes reguladores de crescimento vegetal: AIA (ácido indol-3-acético, AIB (ácido indol-3-butírico, AG3 (ácido giberélico-3 e CIN (cinetina. A maior taxa de proliferação foi obtida utilizando as combinações: AIB, CIN + AG3 (3,5 mg L-1 e AIB + CIN (2,4 mg L-1. A rizogênese foi intensificada após 40 dias de cultivo, atingindo 100% para todos os meios contendo AIB. A adição de ácido 2,4 diclorofenoxiacético (2,4D proporcionou os melhores resultados para

  18. Levantamento florístico das tribos Psychotrieae, Coussareeae e Morindeae (Rubiaceae na região de Porto Rico, alto rio Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4474 Flora survey of tribes Psychotrieae, Coussareeae and Morindeae in the region of Porto Rico, high river Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4474

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    Maria Conceição de Souza

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available A elevada diversidade florística das regiões tropicais torna-as importantes na busca de novas fontes fitoterápicas e alimentícias, fazendo dos levantamentos florísticos importantes estudos para a ampliação do conhecimento dessa fitodiversidade. Este trabalho foi elaborado buscando ampliar o conhecimento da flora do alto rio Paraná, em especial das tribos Psychotrieae, Coussareeae e Morindeae da família Rubiaceae. A área deste estudo localiza-se a aproximadamente 22º41’-22º51’S e 53º12’-53º28’W, abrangendo parte dos Estados do Paraná e do Mato Grosso do Sul. Coletas de material botânico foram realizadas durante os anos de 1992 a 1995, tendo sido elaboradas chaves de identificação, descrições e ilustrações das espécies. Foram levantados quatro gêneros e seis espécies, Palicourea (P. crocea, Psychotria (P. carthagenensis e P. leiocarpa, Coussarea (C. contracta e C. platyphylla e Cephalanthus (C. glabratus.The great diversity of flora in tropical regions transforms them into very important food and phytotherapy sources. Flora surveys are indispensable for a profounder knowledge of this biodiversity. Research work aimed at improving knowledge on the flora of the high river Paraná with special emphasis to the tribes Psychotrieae, Coussareeae and Morindeae. The area lies in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul at 22º41’-22º51’S and 53º12’-53º28’W. Botanic samplings were carried out from 1992 to 1995 and species identification keys, description and illustrations were elaborated. Four genera and six species were surveyed, or rather, Palicourea (P. crocea, Psychotria (P. carthagenensis and P. leiocarpa, Coussarea (C. contracta and C. platyphylla and Cephalanthus (C. glabratus.

  19. Anticoccidial effects of coumestans from Eclipta alba for sustainable control of Eimeria tenella parasitosis in poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, M G; Bertolini, L C T; Esteves, A F; Moreira, P; Franca, S C

    2011-04-19

    significant decrease in the oocyst counting since the 21 th day of life and displayed a reduced number of macroscopic lesions. Histopathological evaluations of cecum fragments showed that both treatments induced the migration of defense cells at the site of infection. A severe destruction of the cecal lining was found in the intestinal tract of broilers fed with a coumestans dose of 180 ppm. Overall, our results validate the use of a phytotherapy containing E. alba coumestans at a dose of 120 ppm as a therapeutic or prophylactic agent against avian coccidiosis.

  20. Pharmacotherapy of elderly patients in everyday anthroposophic medical practice: a prospective, multicenter observational study

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    Bockelbrink Angelina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacotherapy in the older adult is a complex field involving several different medical professionals. The evidence base for pharmacotherapy in elderly patients in primary care relies on only a few clinical trials, thus documentation must be improved, particularly in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM like phytotherapy, homoeopathy, and anthroposophic medicine. This study describes diagnoses and therapies observed in elderly patients treated with anthroposophic medicine in usual care. Methods Twenty-nine primary care physicians in Germany participated in this prospective, multicenter observational study on prescribing patterns. Prescriptions and diagnoses were reported for each consecutive patient. Data were included if patients were at least 60 years of age. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with anthroposophic prescriptions. Results In 2005, a total of 12 314 prescriptions for 3076 patients (68.1% female were included. The most frequent diagnoses were hypertension (11.1%, breast cancer (3.5%, and heart failure (3.0%. In total, 30.5% of the prescriptions were classified as CAM remedies alone, 54.4% as conventional pharmaceuticals alone, and 15.1% as a combination of both. CAM remedies accounted for 41.7% of all medications prescribed (35.5% anthroposophic. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR for receiving an anthroposophic remedy was significantly higher for the first consultation (AOR = 1.65; CI: 1.52-1.79, treatment by an internist (AOR = 1.49; CI: 1.40-1.58, female patients (AOR = 1.35; CI: 1.27-1.43, cancer (AOR = 4.54; CI: 4.12-4.99, arthropathies (AOR = 1.36; CI: 1.19-1.55, or dorsopathies (AOR = 1.34; CI: 1.16-1.55 and it decreased with patient age (AOR = 0.97; CI: 0.97-0.98. The likelihood of being prescribed an anthroposophic remedy was especially low for patients with hypertensive diseases (AOR = 0.36; CI: 0.32-0.39, diabetes mellitus (AOR = 0.17; CI: 0

  1. Metabolite profiling of polyphenols in the Tunisian plant Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Adel; Prencipe, Francesco Pio; Mighri, Zine; Pellati, Federica

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a detailed investigation on the composition of polyphenols of Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst., consisting of phenolic acids and flavonoids, was carried out. In order to optimize the yield of secondary metabolites, three extraction techniques were compared, including dynamic maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. The latter technique provided the best results in terms of both recovery and selectivity, using ethyl acetate as extraction solvent for 2h. The analysis of T. aphylla polyphenols was performed by means of HPLC-UV/DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS and MS(2), using an ion trap mass analyzer. Phenolic acids and flavonoids were separated on an Ascentis C18 column (250mm×4.6mm I.D., 5μm), with a mobile phase composed of 0.1M formic acid in water and acetonitrile, under gradient elution. The proposed method was fully validated in agreement with ICH guidelines and then applied to the analysis of T. aphylla leaves and stems. A total of 14 phenolic compounds were characterized for the first time in this plant extracts by using UV, MS and MS(2) data. The amount of total phenolics was found to be 993.1±22.5μg/g in the leaves and 113.1±25.8μg/g in the stems, respectively. The most abundant constituents found in the leaves include ellagic acid (211.4±10.8μg/g), quercetin (125.7±4.7μg/g) and gallic acid (120.6±1.2μg/g), whereas those in the stems were ellagic acid (44.4±3.9μg/g), gallic acid (24.3±3.3μg/g) and kaempferol (16.3±1.6μg/g). The developed method can be considered a useful tool for the metabolite profiling of T. aphylla, which represents a potential source of bioactive compounds to be used in phytotherapy.

  2. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; Borgsteede, F H M; Gaasenbeek, C P H

    2010-03-25

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. Therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. In the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb mixture, adding 1% Thymus vulgaris, 1% Melissa officinalis and 1% Echinacea purpurea to the diet, or with 4% of a herb mixture, thereby adding the mentioned herbs plus 1% Camellia sinensis (black tea). A negative control group (no treatment) and a positive control group (treatment with conventional synthetic drug flubendazole) were included. In the second experiment, the anthelmintic properties against A. suum of three individual herbs, Carica papaya, Peumus boldus and Artemisia vulgaris, each in a dose of 1%, were tested. Pigs were infected with 1000 infective worm eggs each. Each experiment was performed with 32 individually housed growing pigs (8 replicates/treatment), which were monitored for 67 days. It was hypothesized that the herbs would block the cycles of the larvae, thereby preventing the development of adult worms. Therefore, phytogenic feed additives were not supplied during the whole experimental period, but only from the start until D39. Pigs were inoculated with infective worm eggs during five consecutive days (D17-D21). At D67 all pigs were dissected, whereafter livers were checked for the presence of white spots. Also numbers of worms in the small intestine were counted. In experiment 1, the numbers of worm-infected pigs were similar for both the herb supplemented (groups 3 and 4) and the unsupplemented (group 1) treatments (5-6 pigs of 8), while the treatment with flubendazole (group 2) resulted in 0 infected pigs. In experiment 2, herb addition (groups 2

  3. Vermittlung von Naturheilverfahren in der Veterinärmedizin mittels E-Learning [Teaching methods of alternative therapy in veterinary medicine via e-learning

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    Fidelak, Christian

    2008-11-01

    -Learning genutzt. Anschließend wurde ein Teil des Kursangebotes komplett auf E-Learning umgestellt. Der Wahlpflichtkurs „Einführung in die Naturheilverfahren“ kann seither von den Studierenden vollständig über das Internet bearbeitet werden. Dieser Kurs behandelt die theoretischen Grundlagen von Homöopathie, Phytotherapie, Akupunktur und einigen weiteren Methoden. In Aufbaukursen werden neben einer Vertiefung der Grundlagen umfangreiche praktische Übungen durchgeführt. Die Evaluationsergebnisse belegen, dass die Studierenden E-Learning als sinnvolle Ergänzung der herkömmlichen Lehrmethoden betrachten. Zudem befürworten mehr als zwei Drittel der Studierenden eine vermehrte Einbindung von E-Learning in die Ausbildung.

  4. Resultados obtenidos en pacientes con dolor sometidos a tratamiento

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    Fe Boch Valdés

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available El dolor tiene una proyección biopsicosocial, síntoma por el que gran número de pacientes son atendidos, requiere de visión multidimensional, por lo que origina los grupos multidisciplinarios y las Clínicas del Dolor. El aumento en la toxicidad medicamentosa y otras técnicas invasivas, que no siempre producen alivio, ha incrementado el uso de terapias naturales y biológicas. En este estudio se recogen resultados de tratamientos naturales y convencionales utilizados en un período de 5 años. Se estudiaron 9 280 pacientes con dolor, a los que se aplicaron las técnicas de electroacupuntura, acupuntura, láser, estimulación eléctrica nerviosa transcutánea (TENS, faciocibernetoterapia (FACI, moxibustión, auriculoterapia, técnicas psicológicas, homeopatía, masajes, magnetoterapia y fitoterapia. Las variables de respuesta al tratamiento fueron consideradas por escala análoga visual a la 5ta y 10ma sesión. Encontramos que las lumbalgias fueron más frecuentes, y la electroacupuntura y la acupuntura las técnicas más efectivas. Los métodos naturales utilizados fueron eficaces, económicos y útiles en el tratamiento del dolor.Pain has a biopsychosocial projection and many patients receive attention because of this symptom, which requires a multidimensional vision that gives rise to the multidisciplinary groups and to the Pain Clinic. The increase in drug toxicity and other invasive techniques that not always cause relief have promoted the use of natural and biologic therapies. In the present study, the results of natural and conventional treatments used for 5 years were collected. A total of 9 280 patients with pain were studied. Electroacupuncture, acupuncture, laser, transcutaneous nerve electric stimulation, phaciocybernetic therapy (PHACI, moxibustion, auricle therapy, psychologic techniques, homeopathy, massages, magnetotherapy and phytotherapy were applied. Variables of response to treatment were considered by visual analogue

  5. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Leporatti

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species, Marche (274 and Abruzzo (203. The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised. Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several

  6. Cellular trafficking and anticancer activity of Garcinia mangostana extract-encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles

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    Pan-In P

    2014-08-01

    . In summary, encapsulation of GME using cellulose-derivative nanoparticles – GME-EC and GME-EC/MC nanoparticles – successfully improved the bioavailability of GME in aqueous solution, enhanced cellular uptake, and displayed effective anticancer activity. Keywords: phytotherapy, cancer, nanoparticles, cellulose, intracellular trafficking

  7. A Review of Possible Herbal Treatment in Multiple Sclerosis in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanavati, Rahil; Namjoyan, Foroogh; Zadeh, Hosein Rezaee

    2016-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of central nervous system (CNS) and is the most common cause of neurologic disability in young adults (20-40 years old). About 2.5 million patients all over the world are suffering from MS. Common symptoms of the disease include sensory disorders, optic neuritis, and limb weakness. Following disease progression, other symptoms like fatigue, bladder disorders, and cognitive impairment also occur. Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) is an ancient medical system from 6000 years ago in Persia, where Iran was its most important state. TPM is a known humoral medical system. In this review article, the traditional approach to MS and treatment methods in TPM literature are presented. TPM literature was written in the Persian and Arabic languages, the common scientific language of that era. Keywords defining MS were extracted from the well-known TPM books, such as Canon, Tebb-e-akbari, and Exire azam. The search covered known books from the 5(th) century to the 19(th) century. At the beginning, keywords such as Khaddar, Esterkha and Falej were considered. The search for herbal remedies was carried out according to the defined keywords in the main TPM manuscripts and especially in remedies (Mufradat) and treatment (Moalejat) TPM books, including Makhzan-ul-Adwiah, Al-abnieh Al-aghayegh Al-advie, Tuhfat-ul-Momineen, Gharabadin-e-Kabir, Gharabadine Shafaee, Tib-e-Akbari, and Exir-e-Azam. As the result of this review study, we managed to introduce categorized lists of herbal remedies and combinations used orally and in topical forms. Finally, comparative tables, including scientific names of plants, active components, and mechanisms showed the results of recent studies and phytotherapy research on TPM ancient remedies. Although we did not find MS in our search; however, there are some ailments with similar signs and symptoms in TPM literature. A list of various herbal medicaments has been introduced for these ailments

  8. People, plants and health: a conceptual framework for assessing changes in medicinal plant consumption

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    Smith-Hall Carsten

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of people in both developing and developed countries rely on medicinal plant products to maintain their health or treat illnesses. Available evidence suggests that medicinal plant consumption will remain stable or increase in the short to medium term. Knowledge on what factors determine medicinal plant consumption is, however, scattered across many disciplines, impeding, for example, systematic consideration of plant-based traditional medicine in national health care systems. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding medicinal plant consumption dynamics. Consumption is employed in the economic sense: use of medicinal plants by consumers or in the production of other goods. Methods PubMed and Web of Knowledge (formerly Web of Science were searched using a set of medicinal plant key terms (folk/peasant/rural/traditional/ethno/indigenous/CAM/herbal/botanical/phytotherapy; each search terms was combined with terms related to medicinal plant consumption dynamics (medicinal plants/health care/preference/trade/treatment seeking behavior/domestication/sustainability/conservation/urban/migration/climate change/policy/production systems. To eliminate studies not directly focused on medicinal plant consumption, searches were limited by a number of terms (chemistry/clinical/in vitro/antibacterial/dose/molecular/trial/efficacy/antimicrobial/alkaloid/bioactive/inhibit/antibody/purification/antioxidant/DNA/rat/aqueous. A total of 1940 references were identified; manual screening for relevance reduced this to 645 relevant documents. As the conceptual framework emerged inductively, additional targeted literature searches were undertaken on specific factors and link, bringing the final number of references to 737. Results The paper first defines the four main groups of medicinal plant users (1. Hunter-gatherers, 2. Farmers and pastoralists, 3. Urban and peri-urban people, 4. Entrepreneurs and

  9. The 5th Conference on Asian Trends in Prostate Cancer Hormone Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Moore, Malcolm A; Chang, Shu-Jen; Cheng, Christopher; Choi, Han Yong; Esuvaranathan, Kesavan; Hinotsu, Shiro; Hong, Sung-Joon; Kim, Choung-Soo; Kim, Wun-Jae; Murai, Masaru; Naito, Seiji; Soebadi, Doddy; Song, Jae-Mann; Umbas, Rainy; Usami, Michiyuki; Xia, Shujie; Yang, Chi-Rei

    2007-01-01

    The Conference on Asian Trends in Prostate Cancer Hormone Therapy is an annual forum for Asian urologists now in its 5th year. The 2006 conference, held in Bali, Indonesia, was attended by 27 leading urologic oncologists from China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan and featured a packed program of presentations and discussions on a wide range of topics such as relationships among clinicians and the newly opened Asia Regional Office for Cancer Control of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC), detection rates of prostate cancer by biopsy in each of the 6 Asian countries, and favored treatment modalities for hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) in each country. The first session of the conference kicked off with a keynote lecture entitled "Activities of the UICC ARO". UICC's new office will be the nerve center for its activities in the Asia region. Along with the Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention (APOCP), UICC aims to shift the focus of attention to cancer control. As such APOCP's long-running publication the APJCP is to be re-launched as the Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Control. Although UICC is primarily concerned with cancer, several risk factors for cancer are common also to other non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and heart disease, and an important strategy is to implement measures to control these various pathologic conditions as a whole. Apart from contributing to an Asian prostate cancer registry the UICC-ARO will provide training courses, working groups, and assistance in collecting and processing data. The keynote lecture was followed by a roundtable discussion on possible ways in which clinicians from each Asian country can work with UICC. A number of suggestions were put forth including better registration, epidemiology research, possible implementation of UICC prostate cancer guidelines, early detection and screening, and roles of diet and phytotherapy. The underlying reasons for the large but

  10. Tratamiento farmacológico en la hiperplasia prostática benigna Pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia

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    Yohani Pérez Guerra

    2011-03-01

    tract symptoms. The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia is multifactoral involving the increased conversion of testosterone in dihydrotestosterone by the prostatic 5a-reductase action, which brought about events that encourage the prostate growth (static component and the increase of the bladder and prostate smooth muscle tone (dynamic component regulated by the a1 -adrenoceptors (ADR. The pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia includes the prostatic 5a-reductase inhibitors, the a1-adrenoreceptor blockers, their combined therapy and the phytotherapy. This paper was aimed at presenting the most relevant aspects of the pharmacology of drugs used for treating the benign prostatic hyperplasia, and providing elements to analyze their efficacy, safety and tolerability. To this end, a review was made of the different drugs for the treatment of this pathology and they were grouped according to their mechanism of action. Natural products were included as lipid extracts from Serenoa repens and Pygeum africanum as well as D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, with proved beneficial effects on the main etiological factors of benign prostatic hyperplasia. D-004 is a prostatic 5a-reductase inhibitor, an a1-adrenoceptor antagonist, a 5-lipooxygenase inhibitor and has antioxidant action, all of which reveals a multifactoral mechanism. The results achieved till now indicate that D-004 is a safe and well-tolerated product.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF PHYTOPREPARATIONS OF CALENDULA OFFICINALIS L. FLOWERS

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    V. A. Kurkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The flowers of the pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. are part of combination herbal medicinal preparations which applied in the treatment of diseases of the hepatobiliary system, gastrointestinal tract, diseases of kidneys and the urinary tract, such as «Fitonephrol» («Urological tea». Calendula flowers make a contribution in the total therapeutic activity of «Urological tea» as a component which has anti-inflammatory and reparative properties. As is widely known that phytopharmaceuticals usually combine the variety of therapeutic activity and softness of pharmacological effects along with the absence of a significant number of side effects and contraindications which is extremely important in the treatment of chronic pathologies. The main purpose was to study diuretic activity of phytopreparations of pot marigold.Materials and methods. Investigations of discovering of diuretic action of pot marigold’s phytopreparations were carried out on white rats of both sexes weighing 200–220 g (8 sets of experiments. Each experimental group consisted of ten animals. The effect of pot marigold medicines at a dose of 50 mg/kg was carried out background the administered intragastrically at 3% aqueous load of 4 and 24 hours of the experiment. There are such drugs as a subjects to examination: calendula tincture (1 : 10 (industrial production, calendula tincture (1 : 5 and calendula liquid extract (1 : 2 of 70% alcohol, obtained at the Department of Pharmacognosy with Botany and Bases of Phytotherapy, at a dose of 50 mg/kg. Animals were housed in the vivarium on a standard diet with free access to water. The day before the experiment the rats received intragastric water load in the amount of 3% of body weight. On the day of the experiment the animals of the control group was administered water-alcohol load and experienced – intragastrically drug dose of 50 mg/kg in an identical volume of water. As a control was used 70% alcohol. Animals were

  12. An ethnomedicinal survey and documentation of important medicinal folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, (Azad Kashmir) Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Hanif, Wajahat; Khan, M A; Ashraf, M; Butt, Ansar M

    2007-07-01

    Ethnobotanical knowledge is one of the precious cultural heritage parts of an area that involves the interaction between plants and people and foremost among these are the management of plant diversity by indigenous communities and the traditional use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical analysis was conducted in order to document the traditional medicinal uses of plants, particularly medicinally important folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, Azad Kashmir (Pakistan). In the valley, inhabitants use different taxa of flora in two different ways; herbal medicines and food (vegetable and fruits) medicines. The distinctive geographic position and historic demological background of the area keep folk phytotherapy potential of medicinal herbs hitherto alive, which are used in various forms; as regular herbal medicines prescribed by Hakeems (herbal practitioners) and as food (medicines) recepies suggested by elder people. Among these, some herbs are used as single remedy while others depict better curative effects in synergistic mode against various ailments. Some interesting and uncommon findings are as; Sisymbrium irio is used for treatment of measles, asthma; Solanum miniatum to cure urinary calculi, heart pain, rheumatism, Momordica balsamina leaves as wound healer; Allium sativum bulb juice as anti cancer, contraceptive, blood pressure; Boerhavia diffusa roots as anti jaundice, anemia, edema; Capsicum annuum fruit as omen against evil eye and giant, yellow fever; Corriandrum sativum seeds as diuretic, anti spermatogenesis; Raphanus sativus seeds against syphilis; Solanum miniatum fruit for treatment of enlarged spleen and liver; seed's oil of Pisum sativum as anti spermatogenesis; Bauhinia variegata for skin diseases, ulcers; Malva sylvestris for cough, bladder ulcer; Phoenix sylvestris kernel as anti-aging tonic; Phyllanthus emblica for diuretic, anemia, biliousness; Terminalia chebula to cure chronic ulcers, carious teeth pain, heart problems

  13. An acqueous extract of Bidens pilosa L. protects liver from cholestatic disease: experimental study in young rats Um extrato aquoso de Bidens pilosa L. protege o fígado da doença colestática: estudo experimental em ratos jovens

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    Marta Izabel Suzigan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To test the hepatoprotective effect of water extract from Bidens Pilosa L. (BPE in cholestatic liver disease induced by ligature and resection of the common bile ducts (LRBD in young rats. METHODS: We studied four groups of ten 21 days old (P21 Wistar rats, Group SW: sham operation and water; Group SD: sham operation and BPE (160 mg of fresh leaves/100 g of body weight/day; Group LW: LRBD and water and Group LD: LRBD and BPE daily. Pentobarbital sleeping time (PST and serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT were determined after the sacrifice (P70. A Ruwart's score for hepatic fibrosis (RS was given to each animal. Were employed two way ANOVA and the test of Tukey or a non-parametric test for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between LW and LD in the measurements of the PST ((means LW=390; LD=173, AST (means LW=8, LD=5, ALT (medians LW=2; LD=1 e RS (medians LW=2; LD=1. CONCLUSION: BPE could be used in the phytotherapy of the hepatic damage induced by chronic obstructive cholestasis, because protects liver function, decreases the rate of necrosis and liver fibrosis in cholestatic liver disease.OBJETIVO: Testar o efeito hepatoprotetor do extrato aquoso de Bidens pilosa L. (EBP na doença hepática induzida pela ligadura e ressecção do ducto biliar comum (LRDBC em ratos jovens. MÉTODOS: Estudamos ratos Wistar com 21º. dia de vida (P21 divididos em quatro grupos de 10 animais, Grupo SA: operação simulada e água; Grupo SD: operação simulada e EBP (160mg de folhas frescas/100g de peso corporal/dia; Grupo LA: LRDBC e água e Grupo LD: LRDBC e EBP diariamente. O tempo de sono por pentobarbital (TSP, aspartato (AST e alanina (ALT aminotransferase foram determinadas após o sacrifício (P70. O Score de Ruwart (SR para fibrose hepática foi atribuído para cada animal. Foi realizada análise de variância com dois fatores e pelo teste de Tukey

  14. Avaliação clínica e laboratorial do gel da Uncaria tomentosa (Unha de Gato sobre candidose oral Clinical and laboratorial evaluation of Uncaria tomentosa (Cat's Claw gel on oral candidiasis

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    Leonardo Costa de Almeida Paiva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Na odontologia, a fitoterapia já vem sendo utilizada com sucesso há vários anos. Trata-se de um meio terapêutico que apresenta como vantagem sobre as medicações alopáticas o fato de apresentar reações adversas mínimas. A Uncaria tomentosa é uma planta indígena da floresta Amazônica e de outras áreas tropicais da América do Sul e Central. Tem aplicação no tratamento de diversas patologias, entre elas a candidose. Este trabalho avalia clínico e laboratorialmente a ação do gel da Uncaria tomentosa em pacientes portadores de candidose na cavidade oral. Foram selecionados 20 pacientes que apresentaram clínico e laboratorialmente infecção pelo Candida. Os mesmos foram divididos em 2 grupos. O grupo-teste (Uncaria tomentosa/Imuno-Max Gel, composto por 10 pacientes, foi orientado a utilizar o gel da Uncaria tomentosa, sobre as lesões na cavidade oral, 3x ao dia por um período de 14 dias. O grupo-controle (Miconazol/Daktarin Gel utilizou a medicação da mesma forma prescrita para o grupo-teste. Após o período de tratamento, os pacientes retornaram para nova avaliação clínica e laboratorial. A Uncaria tomentosa mostrou ser um fitofármaco promissor na odontologia, apresentando vantagem sobre o miconazol de não ter provocado reações adversas nos pacientes, uma vez que, 40% dos pacientes do grupo-controle, apresentaram reações indesejáveis.In dentistry, the phytotherapy is already being used successfully for some years now. It is about a promising therapeutical way in the pharmaceutical field, having as advantage on pharmacotherapy medications the fact to present minimum adverse reactions. The Uncaria tomentosa is an aboriginal plant of the Amazonian forest and other tropical areas of the South and Central America. It has application in the treatment of several pathologies, including candidiasis. This work evaluates, clinical and laboratorial, the action of the Uncaria tomentosa gel in the oral cavity candidiasis

  15. 骨关节炎的中药治疗现状%Current status of Chinese herbal therapy for osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹月龙; 庞坚; 王翔; 石瑛; 沈卫东; 郑昱新; 詹红生; 石印玉

    2006-01-01

    目的:通过证、法、方、药的写作顺序简述中医药治疗骨关节炎的近况.资料来源:应用计算机检索PUBMED 1966-10/2005-10期间的相关文章,检索词为"osteoarthritis,degenerative arthritis,traditional chinese medicine,chinese medieine,chinese botanical medicine,chinese phytotherapy",并限定文章语言种类为English.同时计算机检索万方数据库1979-10/2005-10期间的相关文章,检索词为"骨关节炎,退行性骨关节炎,中医,中国植物药,中国植物药疗法",并限定文章语言种类为中文.资料选择:对资料进行初审,并查看每篇文献后的引文.纳入标准:文章所述内容应与中医药治疗骨关节炎的研究相关.排除标准:重复研究或Meta分析类文章.资料提炼:共收集到284篇相关文献,98篇文献符合纳入标准,排除的186篇文献为内容陈旧或重复.符合纳入标准的98篇文献中,69篇涉及痹证类的病因病机、治法或方药近况,29篇涉及痿类的病因病机、治法或方药近况.本文选用其中的31篇作为资料综合:有学者将骨关节炎归为痹证范畴,相关治法有补肾法;健脾法;祛邪法(包括有祛风除湿法、散寒止痛法、活血祛瘀法、化痰软坚法、解毒散结法).另有学者将骨关节炎归为痿证范畴,治法有养血软坚法、养筋柔肝.大多数文献报道为自拟诊疗标准,缺乏统一公认的疗效评价标准;相对缺少按照循证医学要求进行的前瞻设计的随机、对照临床试验.在用药上,骨关节炎的治疗药物十分广泛,从常用药材至虫毒类药都有.从剂型和药物上对骨关节炎的治疗进行改革和筛选将是中医现代化的有益探索.结论:中医多从痹证或痿证的角度治疗骨关节炎,运用相应的祛邪、补肾、健脾、柔肝药及虫毒类药.目前相对缺少按照循证医学原则要求设计的随机、对照临床试验.

  16. Fitoterápicos: um mercado promissor

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    TRAUDI KLEIN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Observa-se na Fitoterapia uma tendência de contribuição efetiva à saúde da população. Por consequência, a padronização de fitomedicamentos é um pré-requisito para a garantia da qualidade, bem como para a constância dos efeitos terapêuticos e segurança do usuário. A validação de processo analítico deve garantir, através de evidências experimentais, que o método atenda às exigências das aplicações analíticas, assegurando a confiabilidade dos resultados. Assim, os equipamentos e materiais de laboratório devem ser devidamente calibrados e o analista qualificado. As substâncias químicas de referência devem ser certificadas por compêndios oficiais, como as Farmacopeias ou por outros códigos autorizados pela legislação vigente.Tão importante quanto o desenvolvimento e validação de uma metodologia analítica é o posterior estudo de estabilidade, a fim de garantir que o produto mantenha sua qualidade durante toda vida útil. Para a obtenção de registro de um medicamento fitoterápico dentro dos padrões requeridos pela legislação faz-se necessário, portanto, a realização de diferentes testes para validação deste medicamento de forma a garantir sua segurança no uso, eficácia na utilização e qualidade do produto. Palavras-chave: Fitomedicamentos. Validação. Saúde Publica. Padronização. ABSTRACT Phytomedicines: a promising market There is an observable trend towards phytotherapy making a recognized effective contribution to public health. Consequently, the standardization of phytomedicines is a prerequisite for quality assurance and to ensure the consistency of therapeutic effects and safety of the user. Analytical method validation should ensure, through experimental testing, that the method meets the requirements of the analytical applications, ensuring the reliability of results. Thus, the equipment and laboratory materials must be properly calibrated and the analyst

  17. Representations and uses of medicinal plants in elderly men Representaciones y usos de las plantas medicinales en mayores Representações e usos de plantas medicinais por homens idosos

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    Silvia Cristina da Silva Lima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know and understand the representations and use of medicinal plants by elderly men assisted in the Family Health Strategies of Dourados, MS. Participated in this study, 18 elderly men aged over 60 years, using four or more medications. The research was conducted with qualitative approach. The results showed that there is still the consumption of medicinal plants among the elderly, especially in the treatment of minor harm. The representations about the plants seem anchored in the concept of safety; they are natural and few side effects. Its use is made concurrently with the manufactured medicines without regard to risk of interactions. Older men use medicinal plants, without however reporting to health professionals. Therefore, it is necessary continuing education focused on phytotherapy health team and nursing, contributing to safe and effective use of medicinal plants.El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer y comprender las representaciones y el uso de plantas medicinales por los mayores asistidos en Estrategias de Salud de la Familia de Dourados/MS. Participaron de ese estudio 18 hombres de edad con edad igual o superior a 60 años, haciendo uso de cuatro o más medicamentos. Se trató de investigación cualitativa, descriptiva y exploratoria. Los resultados apuntaron que aun existe el consumo de plantas medicinales entre los mayores, principalmente en el tratamiento de mortalidades menores. Las representaciones sobre las plantas medicinales parecen ancladas en la concepción de seguridad, o sea, son naturales y pocos efectos colaterales. Su uso es hecho concomitantemente con los medicamentos industrializados, sin atentar los riesgos de las interacciones. Los mayores utilizan las plantas medicinales sin, sin embargo, relatar a los profesionales de salud. Luego, se hace necesario la educación permanente del equipo de salud y de la enfermería vuelta para la fitoterapia, aportando al uso seguro y eficaz de las

  18. Management of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat; Attia, John; Nickel, J Curtis; Thammakraisorn, Sangsuree; Numthavaj, Pawin; McEvoy, Mark; Thakkinstian, Ammarin

    2011-01-05

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is common, but trial evidence is conflicting and therapeutic options are controversial. To conduct a systematic review and network meta-analysis comparing mean symptom scores and treatment response among α-blockers, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, other active drugs (phytotherapy, glycosaminoglycans, finasteride, and neuromodulators), and placebo. We searched MEDLINE from 1949 and EMBASE from 1974 to November 16, 2010, using the PubMed and Ovid search engines. Randomized controlled trials comparing drug treatments in CP/CPPS patients. Two reviewers independently extracted mean symptom scores, quality-of-life measures, and response to treatment between treatment groups. Standardized mean difference and random-effects methods were applied for pooling continuous and dichotomous outcomes, respectively. A longitudinal mixed regression model was used for network meta-analysis to indirectly compare treatment effects. Twenty-three of 262 studies identified were eligible. Compared with placebo, α-blockers were associated with significant improvement in symptoms with standardized mean differences in total symptom, pain, voiding, and quality-of-life scores of -1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], -2.8 to -0.6), -1.1 (95% CI, -1.8 to -0.3), -1.4 (95% CI, -2.3 to -0.5), and -1.0 (95% CI, -1.8 to -0.2), respectively. Patients receiving α-blockers or anti-inflammatory medications had a higher chance of favorable response compared with placebo, with pooled RRs of 1.6 (95% CI, 1.1-2.3) and 1.8 (95% CI, 1.2-2.6), respectively. Contour-enhanced funnel plots suggested the presence of publication bias for smaller studies of α-blocker therapies. The network meta-analysis suggested benefits of antibiotics in decreasing total symptom scores (-9.8; 95% CI, -15.1 to -4.6), pain scores (-4.4; 95% CI, -7.0 to -1.9), voiding scores (-2.8; 95% CI, -4.1 to -1.6), and quality-of-life scores (-1.9; 95% CI, -3.6 to -0.2) compared

  19. QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF MAIN GROUPS OF SUBSTANCES IN GRANULES ON THE BASIS OF MEDICINAL VEGETABLE RAW MATERIAL FOR TREATING GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES

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    Spiridonov S.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last time a significant increasing of gastrointestinal tract diseases has been observed. The poor quality and irrational feeding, environmental pollution, psychological and other factors is the causes of this. Very often the gastrointestinal tract has a multifactorial pathological effects, also affecting the hepatosphere organs and urogenital system. Also a great importance have accompanying disorders of the central nervous system. Thus we must to require a comprehensive approach to the creation of drugs for use in gastroenterology, the assortment range of which should be expanded. Advantageous position in this case takes a phytotherapy using drugs based on medicinal plant raw material, which acting on the main areas of the pathological process. For this purpose the scientists from the National University of Pharmacy (Kharkov, Ukraine was created a complex herbal drug in the form of granules under the code name "Poligerbagastrin", includes the following types of medicinal plant raw material powders: helichrysum arenarium flowers, corn stigmas, horsetail grass, knotweed grass, horse chestnut seeds, licorice roots and wheat bran. Materials and methods To determine the quantity of biologically active substances the method of spectrophotometry in the visible and UV spectral region was used. This method is well studied and available, equipped with high-precision hardware. He also described in the Ukrainian normative documents and contained in the world's leading pharmacopoeias. For determination was used the unifieds methods, which shown in pharmacopoeia monographs and other reference literature. Determination was carried out with a spectrophotometer HP 8543 UV-VIZ of «Hewlett Packard» company, USA. Results and discussion For the quantitative determination of flavonoids was used a methodology, which based on the complexation reaction of isolated by acid hydrolysis and extraction with ethylacetate hydrolysis products with aluminum chloride in

  20. Harinas de hojas de plantas aromáticas como fitoterapéuticos en pollos de engorda Leaf meals of aromatic plants as fitotherapeutics for broilers

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    Pedro Enrique Lara y Lara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el comportamiento productivo y el rendimiento de la canal en pollos de engorda, con el uso de harina de hojas de plantas aromáticas como aditivo fitoterapéutico al 0,07% en la dieta. Fueron utilizados 280 pollitos machos de la estirpe Ross 308, de 1 a 42 días de edad, distribuidos de forma aleatoria en un diseño completamente al azar, en cuatro tratamientos y siete repeticiones con 10 pollos cada una. Las combinaciones fueron en proporción 50:50 de harina de Origanum vulgare y Piper auritum (OHS, O. vulgare y Ocimum basilicum (OA, O. basilicum y P. auritum (HSA, y un testigo con flavomicina al 4%. El grupo testigo obtuvo el mayor peso corporal (2.385 g, consumo de alimento (204 g por ave por día y mortalidad acumulada (21,87%, al final de la prueba. No hubo diferencias con la combinación de OA (2.198 g y HSA (2.023 g en peso corporal y consumo de alimento. La combinación OA registró la menor (1,96 y OHS la mayor (2,44 conversión de alimento. No se encontraron diferencias en el rendimiento de la canal. La combinación al 50% de O. vulgare y O. basilicum, incluida al 0,07% en la dieta para pollos de engorda, es una alternativa como promotora del crecimiento y no altera el rendimiento de la canal.The objective of this study was to determine the growth performance and carcass yield in broilers using leaf meals as an additive phytotherapy of herbs at 0.07% in the diet. Two hundred eighty male chicks of Ross 308 strain, with 1 to 42 days of age, were randomly assigned in a completely randomized design with four treatments and seven replicates of 10 chickens each. The blends were in the proportion of 50:50 of Origanum vulgare and Piper auritum (OHL, O. vulgare and Ocimum basilicum (OA, O. basilicum and P. auritum (AHL, and one control group with flavomicim at 4%. The control group showed the highest body weight (2,385 g, feed consumption (204 g per broiler per day and accumulative mortality (21

  1. 德国老年人对替代医学疗法、针刺、顺势疗法及人智学疗法的使用情况%Usage of alternative medical systems, acupuncture,homeopathy and anthroposophic medicine,by older German adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arndt Büissing; Thomas Ostermann; Peter Heusser; Peter F. Matthiessen

    2011-01-01

    /traditional Chinese medicine (21%),homeopathy (21%),movement therapies/physical exercises (19%),osteopathy/chiropractic ( 12 % ),herbs/phytotherapy (7 % ),diets/specific food recommendations (6 % )and foot reflexology (5%).Anthroposophic medicine was used only to a minor degree.Acupuncture and homeopathy users were likely to choose more than one CAM treatment simultaneously,particularly the combination of homeopathy and acupuncture.Moreover,this study can confirm significant differences between women and men in the use of the main relevant CAM interventions.Conclusion:The relative proportion of acupuncture usage was similar to homeopathy,which is an alternative whole medical system originating from Western Europe.This means that an Eastern alternative system is established also in Germany.In several cases not only one CAM treatment was used but distinct combinations existed (particularly homeopathy and acupuncture);thus one should be cautious to draw predictive conclusions from studies with broad and unspecific CAM categories,for among them there are several therapies which should not be regarded as CAM.

  2. Estaquia de rizomas do carapiá, planta medicinal em extinção Rhizome cuttings of Carapiá, a medicinal plant vulnerable to extinction

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    José Magno Q Luz

    2011-06-01

    ção assexuada.Dorstenia cayapia Vellozo, Moraceae (carapiá is a Brazilian native medicinal herb that is classified as "vulnerable" because of the drastic reduction of its habitat and its declining population. This study was carried out in a greenhouse at the Center for Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The objective of the study was to obtain informations about cultivation and exploration of carapiá to obtain plant material for phytotherapy and chemical industry products. Plant material was collected in Raul Soares, Minas Gerais State, in a fragment of the Atlantic Coastal Forest. Three substrates were evaluated in the rhizome cutting experiment: Commercial substrate, S1 (40% soil + 40% cattle manure + 20% humus; S2 (20% soil + 20% cattle manure + 40% humus + 20% vermiculite; three sections of the rhizome: apical, basal and intermediate and two types of trays: 128 and 200 cells. Medium sized cuttings (2 cm were prepared and planting was done according to positive geotropism. The experiment was carried out from April to June 2007 and the experimental design was completely randomized as a 3x3x2 factorial. Dry mass was determined for the above ground (leaves and inflorescences and for the under ground (roots and rhizomes parts of the plant. The rhizome tip sprouting was greater than those of the median and basal sections. Rhizome sprouting was better in the 128-cells tray than in the 200-cell tray. Collecting cuttings from the top of the rhizomes could be recommended for planting because it avoids removing the entire plant, thus preserving the plants in their environment and providing for the possibility of asexual propagation.

  3. Avaliação do uso do extrato bruto de Jatropha gossypiifolia L. na cicatrização de feridas cutâneas em ratos Evaluation of the use of raw extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia L. in the healing process of skin wounds in rats

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    Manoel Francisco da Silva Santos

    2006-01-01

    significativamente melhor no 7º dia do grupo Jatropha. CONCLUSÃO: Embora mostrando melhora histológica com o uso da Jatropha, não ocorreu diferença significativa entre os grupos nas variáveis analisadas, na cicatrização das feridas cutânea de ratos ao término da avaliação.INTRODUCTION: Phytotherapy is one of the research branches in the healing process of surgical wounds. PURPOSE: To analyze the morphological aspects of the healing process occurring in open skin lesions in rats under administration of raw extract from Jatropha Gossypiifolia L. METHOD: Sixty Wistar rats were utilized. A 2cm wound in diameter was done in each animal at the dorsal region. The animals were divided into two groups, each one consisting of 30 animals. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of ten. They were analyzed in the 7th, 14th and 21st post-operative day. The two groups were compared through macroscopic analysis using digital planigraphy and histological examination. The microscopic parameters considered were the vascular proliferation, polymorph and mononuclear cells, fibroblastic proliferation, collagen and epithelium formation. RESULTS: Epitelization occurred in a same amount in all animals. There was no chronic inflamation on 21st day in the Jatropha group and also no difference in polimorphonuclear cells between the groups. The fibroblastic reaction was better on the 7th day in the Jatropha group and equal in the remaining ones. Colagenization was greater on 7th and 14th days in Jatropha and better re-epitelization occurred in the same group in the 7th day. CONCLUSION: Although with hystologic aspects favoring the Jatropha, no significant differences concerning to the macroscopic and microscopic aspects were observed among the skin wounds receiving raw extract Jatropha and those that received no treatment in the final evaluation.

  4. ANIVERSALIA: 110 YEARS SINCE THE BIRTH OF BOTANIST DR. EMILIAN TOPA (1900 – 1987

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    OPREA ADRIAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available He was born on February 9th 1900, only son of a poor family in the Cuciurul Mic village from the old County named Chernivtsi (today in Ukraine. He did the primary classes in his native village, and the middle and high school in Chernivtsi. He graduated in 1925, the Department of Natural Sciences, University of Chernivtsi. After his graduation Emilian Topa enters into secondary education level, where he worked for the next years (between 1925 and 1943 - at the “Mihai Eminescu” girls High School, the Pedagogic Seminar of University and the School of health officers. Also in this period becomes botany assistant at the University of Chernivtsi, the Chair Professor Gusuleac, where he worked no more than 17 years. During this period he had the responsibility and leadership for the botanical garden from the same city. It then becomes Assistant Botany at Bucharest University (1940-1941, lecturer at Chernivtsi University (1942-1943, lecturer (delegation for applied botany at the Polytechnic Institute “Gheorghe Asachi” of Iasi (1945-1946, conservator at the Museum of the Botanical Garden in Cluj (1946-1947. Between 1948 and 1953 is geobotany lecturer at University of Cluj and, simultaneously, an associate professor of pharmaceutical botany at the Medico-Pharmaceutical Institute in the same city (1948-1951. From 1952 to 1959, we meet him as director of the Botanical Garden of the University of Cluj, and from 1963 until his retirement in 1970, is director of the Botanical Gardens of Iasi.Emilian Topa held a prolific and sustainable scientific research, educational or cultural, national or social, during no less than 60 years. Thus, he has published over 200 books, articles, studies and scientific reviews in different areas: plant taxonomy, plant ecology and chorology, phytosociology, phylogeny, phytopathology, phytotherapy, ethnobotanical, nature protection, ornamental flora, Romanian or European botanical histories etc.His doctoral thesis, titled

  5. A farmacobotânica, ainda tem lugar na moderna anestesiologia? ¿La farmacobotánica, aún tiene lugar en la moderna anestesiología? Is there still a place for pharmacobotany in modern anesthesiology?

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    Nilton Bezerra do Vale

    2002-06-01

    models for organic synthesis in fine leading edge modern chemistry, as well as shedding more light on the advantages, potential adverse effects, interactions and risks for side-effects which may affect anesthesia in surgical patients users of phytotherapy. CONTENTS: Selected anesthesiologic considerations are discussed focusing a brief review of popular herbs essentials on the development of anesthetic pharmacology and the potential drug-herb interactions between synthetic drugs used in anesthesia and the medicinal herbs used by patients in their illness and symptoms management. CONCLUSIONS: While specialized Medicine is increasingly fascinated by the advanced technology of new drugs and fantastic monitors, there is an increasing trend in several countries for a more holistic approach and rejection of new treatment methods, with an option for teas, meditation, vegetarian diets and anti-oxidants, among others. It is the anesthesiologist’s role to evaluate how much pharmacognosy and pharmacobotany knowledge may help him in the anesthetic practice and, especially, in patients safety.

  6. 联合迈之灵治疗慢性前列腺炎伴精索静脉曲张随机平行对照的多中心研究%Random parallel and multi-center reserch on combined aescuven forte in the treatment of chronic prostatitis with varicocele

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    李宏军; 张志超; 高瞻; 李景敏; 王莹; 夏溟; 张国喜; 侯铸; 柯明辉

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价联合迈之灵片治疗慢性前列腺炎伴精索静脉曲张患者的疗效. 方法 2011年8月至2012年3月采用随机、平行对照的研究方法,将330例慢性前列腺炎伴精索静脉曲张患者分为应用α受体阻滞剂及植物药+迈之灵治疗的观察组259例,单纯应用α受体阻滞剂及植物药的对照组71例.观察用药前和用药后4周、8周慢性前列腺炎症状指数(NIH-CPSI)评分及前列腺按摩液(EPS)中白细胞(WBC)计数情况,对比治疗前后指标进行疗效分析. 结果 两组患者年龄、教育程度、饮酒、吸烟、病程比较差异均无统计学意义,临床基本情况、精索静脉曲张严重程度和左右侧别比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组患者治疗4周、8周后与治疗前比较,临床症状显著改善,观察组总有效(有效+显效)率分别为88.7%和95.8%,对照组分别为64.8%和92.8%.治疗4周、8周后的NIH-CPSI评分改善率组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).观察组有效随访的EPS内WBC达到+/HP者142例,经过4周和8周治疗后的WBC转阴率分别为26.1%和59.1%;对照组57例,转阴率分别为21.1%和29.8%,两组8周转阴率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论 联合迈之灵治疗慢性前列腺炎伴精索静脉曲张在改善患者的临床症状,包括疼痛、排尿症状及生活质量方面具有良好的效果,并具有抗炎作用,可以显著降低EPS内的WBC数量.%Objective To study the effectiveness of combined Aescuven forte in the treatment of chronic prostatitis with varicocele.Methods In this randomized and parallel comparative study,330chronic prostatitis patients with varicocele were divided into observed group with 259 cases and control group with 71 cases.Patients in observed group were treated with α adrenoceptor blocker,phytotherapy and Aescuven forte,while patients in and control group were treated with medication only for 8 weeks.Follow up was carried out at 4 and 8 weeks

  7. Application of CUA Guidelines on Prostatitis in the management of chronic pelvic pain syndrome: A nationwide survey%泌尿男科医师应用《CUA前列腺炎诊断治疗指南》诊疗CPPS的调查

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    张凯; 白文俊; 商学军; 肖云翔; 刘继红; 李铮; 邓春华; 王怀鹏

    2013-01-01

    . 5% had studied the CUA Guidelines. Most of the subjects agreed that Type III prostatitis is a clinical syndrome, whose diagnosis should exclude other conditions with similar symptoms, and whose treatment should aim at relieving pain, alleviating urination symptoms and improving the quality of life. Those who had and those who had not studied the CUA Guidelines differed in their viewpoints on CPPS as illustrated in the book. In clinical practice, the most common treatment options for CPPS were psychological therapy (80.7% ) , medication (80.4% ) and life style adjustment (79.6%), and the most frequently used drugs were phytotherapy (80.0%), alpha-blockers (68.9%) and antibiotics (61.0% ). Conclusion: CUA Guidelines on Prostatitis has gained a nationwide application and promoted the standardization of the management of CPPS in China.

  8. Avaliação agronômica e química de dezessete acessos de erva-cidreira [Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Brown] - quimiotipo citral, cultivados no Distrito Federal Agronomic and chemical evaluation of seventeen accessions of "erva-cidreira" [Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Brown] - citral chemotype, cultivated at the Federal District, Brazil

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    H. Jannuzzi

    2011-01-01

    plant all over Brazil. Citral, a major constituent of L. alba essential oil, is responsible for its sedative activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic behavior, content and yield of essential oil and citral in 17 accessions of L. alba from the germplasm bank of University of Brasília - UnB, Brazil. The experiment was carried out from 02/19/2005 to 03/18/2006, in red latosol, at the Federal District, Brazil. The adopted experimental design was in randomized blocks, with three replicates and three plants per plot. The following parameters were evaluated: leaf area, stem length, fresh mass (leaves and stems production, dry leaf mass production, essential oil and citral content, estimated yield of essential oil and citral per plant, besides characterization of the essential oil aromatic profile. Accessions L41 (0.75%, L45 (0.66% and L08 (0.62% showed the highest essential oil content. Accessions L45 (1.32 g pl-1 presented the highest essential oil yield, followed by L47 (0.73 g pl-1, L41 (0.67 g pl-1, L34 (0.67 g pl-1 and L33 (0.62 g pl-1. Citral content varied from 51.7% (L34 to 75.1% (L09, with an average of 63.6% and predominance of the isomer geranial (36.4% over neral (27.8%. Accession L45 (0.83 g pl-1 showed the highest citral yield. Thirteen accessions presented the chemotype citral; three, the chemotype citral-limonene, and only one had the chemotype citral-myrcene. The results evidenced the potential of accession L45 to produce citral, which can be used to improve the quality of "erva-cidreira" raw material in phytotherapy programs in the country or in breeding programs.

  9. Treatment of drug dependence with Brazilian herbal medicines Tratamento da dependência de drogas com plantas medicinais brasileiras

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    Elisaldo A. Carlini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic "Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Addictions" in a country must be preceded by answers to four questions: 1. Does the country in question possess a biodiversity rich enough to allow the discovery of useful medicines? 2. Do local people have tradition and culture to look for and use resources from Nature to alleviate and cure diseases, including drug dependence? 3. Is drug dependence (or addiction present in the country in question? 4. Do people of that country recognize and diagnose such problem as a serious one? Alcohol is, by far, the most serious health problem when drug abuse is considered, reaching all of Brazilian society, including the Indians. On the contrary, other drugs may be considered as minor problems and they are not the main focus of this manuscript. The people living in Brazilian hinterland don’t have access to public health systems. Consequently, these people seek assistance from "curandeiros" and "raizeiros"; the Indians are assisted by the shaman. These "folk doctors" do not know the academic medicine and therapeutics, and resort to the local plants to treat different ailments of their patients. Furthermore, alcohol abuse and dependence are not recognized by them, according to the rules and criteria of academic medicine. We have conducted a survey in many Brazilian books, Thesis concerning phytotherapy, and several databank. The results of such searches were very disappointing. No published papers from Brazilian authors concerning the use of plants for the treatment of addictions were found in the databases and there were only three very short notes in the masterly book written by Shultes and Raffauf (1990. From the Brazilian books on folk medicine employing medicinal plants, ten mentions were disclosed: most of them dealing with treatment of alcohol problems and two to counteract "Ayahuasca" dependence.O tema "Plantas medicinais no tratamento de dependência" em um país deve ser precedido pela resposta a