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Sample records for phytotherapics guava tree

  1. PHENOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GENOTYPES FROM CATTLEY GUAVA AND GUAVA TREES SUBMITTED TO FRUCTIFICATION PRUNING

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    CINTIA APARECIDA BREMENKAMP

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Psidium cattleianum Sabine is a species from the Myrtaceae family that serves as an option for the native fruits cultivation, besides being considered a source of resistance to the Meloidogyne enterolobii nematode. Although cattley guava trees from this species produce flower buds in young branches, there are no reports of response to fructification pruning or phenological synchronism with the guava tree. The objective of this paper was the comparative evaluation of the genotype response of strawberry guava trees and guava cultivars to fructification pruning, thus, describing the phenology of both species under the same cultivation conditions. The experiment was conducted under an entirely randomized outline, in 7x2 factorial scheme, being evaluated seven genotypes (three from strawberry guava and four from guava trees, and with pruning performed in two seasons (May 2012 and March 2013, with three repetitions. Fructification pruning was executed by a lopping on all mature branches, from the last growth flow in the woody branch region. Were evaluated budding characteristics and fruit harvesting, as well as number of days from pruning to the observation of the phenological event. Cattley guava tree pruning stimulated fructification of all three genotypes after pruning done on May and two genotypes after the March’s pruning. There has been a sync between the guava cultivars’ flowering and both strawberry guava trees genotypes, when those were pruned on May.

  2. 137Cs distribution in guava trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquera, B.; Veiga, R.; Mangia, L.; Carvalho, C.; Estellita, L.; Uzeda, D.; Facure, A.; Violini, B.; Anjos, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents results of 137 Cs concentration measured from a guava tree cultivated after the first decontamination work of one of the sites where the worst Brazilian radiological accident occurred. The present work aims to verify how the 137 Cs is transported and distributed along the tropical trees. Bi-dimensional analyses of the radial distribution of 137 Cs in the main trunk are also presented. Neither symmetrical nor homogeneous behaviors of the specific activity distribution in the tree rings were observed. (author)

  3. {sup 137}Cs distribution in guava trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosquera, B.; Veiga, R.; Mangia, L.; Carvalho, C.; Estellita, L.; Uzeda, D.; Facure, A.; Violini, B.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2004-09-15

    This paper presents results of {sup 137}Cs concentration measured from a guava tree cultivated after the first decontamination work of one of the sites where the worst Brazilian radiological accident occurred. The present work aims to verify how the {sup 137}Cs is transported and distributed along the tropical trees. Bi-dimensional analyses of the radial distribution of {sup 137}Cs in the main trunk are also presented. Neither symmetrical nor homogeneous behaviors of the specific activity distribution in the tree rings were observed. (author)

  4. Proximate analysis, in vitro organic matter digestibility, and energy content of common guava (Psidium guajava L.) and yellow, strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum Var. lucidum) tree parts and fruits as potential forage.

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    Adrian, Julie Ann Luiz; Arancon, Norman Q; Mathews, Bruce W; Carpenter, James R

    2012-10-24

    The nutrient composition of common guava, Psidium guajava L., and strawberry guava (waiwi), Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum, tree parts and fruits was determined during three seasons for six locations in Hawaii to assess guava as a potential feed for cattle. All guava plant parts were higher (p Guava leaves were higher in fiber and had lower energy densities (p Guava fruits were higher in CP (p guava is low in vitro organic matter digestibility as compared to tropical forage grasses; therefore, it is not recommended as a feedstock for livestock.

  5. Characterizing root activity of guava trees by radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, A.G.; Mukherjee, S.K.

    1974-01-01

    The distribution pattern of root activity of 12-year-old trees of guava (Psidium guajava L.) was determined by radiotracer technique. 32 P soloution was injected into the soil at lateral distances of 120, 240 and 360 cm from the tree trunk at depths of 15,30,60 and 90 cm. The 32 P uptake by the tree was determined by leaf analysis. In the rainy season the root activity or 32 P uptake was greater near the soil surface and midway between the trunk and the drip-line. The root activity decreased with an increase in the depth and distance from trunk. These results compared well with the actual distribution of feeder roots as determined by the soil-auger method. In summer the roots near the surface become less active in 32 P absorption with a drcrease in surface soil moisture. A decrease in the root activity in the surface soil was accompanied by an increase in 32 P uptake from lower depths. (author)

  6. Chemical composition of biomass generated in the guava tree pruning

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    Camarena-Tello, Julio César; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria Elizabeth; Gallegos-Infante, José Alberto; González-Laredo, Rubén Francisco; Pedraza-Bucio, Fabiola Eugenia; López-Albarrán, Pablo; Herrera-Bucio, Rafael; Rutiaga-Quiñones, José Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) is a native plant of Central America and is now widely cultivated in many tropical regions of the world for the fruit production. In Mexico, in the guava orchards common practices to control fruit production are: water stress, defoliation and pruning. In this study, we report the chemical composition of the biomass (branches and leaves) generated in the pruning practices. The results ranged as follows: pH (4.98-5.88), soda solubility (39.01-70.49 %), ash (1.87-8.20 %); potassium and calcium were the major inorganic elements in ash. No heavy metals were detected in the studied samples; total solubility (15.21-46.60 %), Runkel lignin (17.77-35.26 %), holocellulose (26.56 -69.49 %), α-cellulose (15.53-35.36 %), hemicelluloses (11.02-34.12 %), tannins in aqueous extracts (3.81-9.06 %), and tannins in ethanolic extracts (3.42-15.24 %). PMID:26417359

  7. Variation in content of macronutrients of guava tree leaves, in function of type and time of storage

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    Henrique Antunes de Souza

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf analysis for perennial crops such as the guava tree is an important tool. It was used to evaluate the influence of the type of packaging (with or without refrigerator and storage time after collection on the macronutrient composition of guava tree leaves. The leaf sampling was carried out on a commercial guava tree (cv. Paluma, collecting the third pair of recently matured leaves in full bloom. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, subdivided according to the type of packaging (with or without refrigerator and further subdivided into eight storage times before washing (zero, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168h after sampling, with four replications. The storage time significantly affected the concentration of leaf nitrogen, calcium and sulfur. Moreover, the type and time of conditioning (with or without refrigerator affected only the magnesium. In general, storage fot up to 12h before washing produced no significant changes in the levels of macronutrients.

  8. Variation in content of macronutrients of guava tree leaves, in function of type and time of storage

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    Henrique Antunes de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf analysis for perennial crops such as the guava tree is an important tool. It was used to evaluate the influence of the type of packaging (with or without refrigerator and storage time after collection on the macronutrient composition of guava tree leaves. The leaf sampling was carried out on a commercial guava tree (cv. Paluma, collecting the third pair of recently matured leaves in full bloom. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, subdivided according to the type of packaging (with or without refrigerator and further subdivided into eight storage times before washing (zero, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168h after sampling, with four replications. The storage time significantly affected the concentration of leaf nitrogen, calcium and sulfur. Moreover, the type and time of conditioning (with or without refrigerator affected only the magnesium. In general, storage fot up to 12h before washing produced no significant changes in the levels of macronutrients.

  9. Electrostatic spraying in the chemical control of Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in guava trees (Psidium guajava L.).

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    Tavares, Rafael M; Cunha, João Par; Alves, Thales C; Bueno, Mariana R; Silva, Sérgio M; Zandonadi, César Hs

    2017-06-01

    Owing to the difficulty in reaching targets during pesticide applications on guava trees, it is important to evaluate new technologies that may improve pest management. In electrostatic spraying, an electric force is added to the droplets to control their movements such that they are efficiently directed to the target. The present study evaluated the performance of electrostatic and non-electrostatic spraying in the control of the guava psyllid, the deposition of the spray mixture on the leaves and the losses to the soil. The deposition of the spray mixture was up to 2 times greater when using electrostatic spraying in comparison with non-electrostatic application. The losses of the spray mixture to the soil were up to 4 times smaller with the electrostatic spraying. Electrostatic spraying had better control of the psyllid. It was possible to reduce the volume rate of application with electrostatic spraying without adversely affecting the control of the guava psyllid. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Phytotherapic compounds: the consumer-pharmacist relationship.

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    Bacchini, Marco; Cuzzolin, Laura; Camerlengo, Thomas; Velo, Giampaolo; Benoni, Giuseppina

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacists play an important role in providing information about natural products and in preventing risks related to these substances, particularly with respect to interactions with conventional drugs. For these reasons, a survey was specifically designed to investigate the quality of self-care counselling by pharmacists on phytotherapy. Twenty-three pharmacy stores took part in the project. Face-to-face interviews, using a pre-structured questionnaire, were undertaken by trained pharmacists to consumers buying a herbal product. The questionnaire included socio-demographic data and 17 items designed to elicit information regarding the reason of consumption, product knowledge, relationship/communication with healthcare providers, level of satisfaction, concurrent drug use and adverse reactions. The collection of interviews started in November 2006 until April 2007. From the analysis of 1420 questionnaires, it is evident that herbal use is increasing in Italy: 12% of our interviewees were buying a herbal product for the first time. The present survey highlights the favourable perception of efficacy of phytotherapic compounds by the pharmacy's consumers, who consider this healthcare modality to be an important and effective way to promote health/wellness and disease management as well as being safer overall than conventional drugs. Moreover, findings from this study demonstrate that pharmacists are more likely to answer correctly about the uses of herbal medicines than about drug interactions, adverse drug effects and cautions about these products.

  11. Response Of Guava Trees (Psidium Guajava To Soil Applications Of Mineral And Organic Fertilisers And Biofertilisers Under Conditions Of Low Fertile Soil

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    Shukla Sushil Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the influence of different organic fertilisers - vermicompost, mulching, Azotobacter, phosphate solubilising microbes (PSM and Trichoderma harzianum added each year to mineral fertilisers containing NPK and to farmyard manure (FYM on leaf nutrient status, tree growth, fruit yield and quality of guava grown in low fertile soil. The results revealed that vermicompost, bio-fertilisers and organic mulching resulted in yield and fruit quality boosters, as compared to application of NPK and FYM as the only organic fertiliser. Significant differences in plant height, canopy spread and stem girth of guava plants were obtained in combination, where Azotobacter, T. harzianum, PSM and organic mulching were applied. The leaf nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn were within sufficient ranges. Fruit yields and quality were highest in combination, where vermicompost, Azotobacter, T. harzianum, PSM and organic mulching was applied. Fruit quality parameters viz. soluble solid concentration, titratable acidity, total sugars and ascorbic acid showed positive correlation with the available macro- and micronutrients in the soil.

  12. A non-destructive method of determination of biomass of mango (Mangifera indica L.) and guava trees using principle of isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, S.C.; Keshava Murthy, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    Biomass of 4-year old trees 'Alphonso' mango was estimated by injecting carrier- free 32 P into the trunk followed by radioassay of the isotope after a complete dilution of 32 P in the tree (3 months after injection). The isotopically calculated plant volume (56.903 - 68.981 m 3 x10 3 ) and biomass (31.70 - 36.23 gx 10 -3 ) showed good agreement but generally overestimated both by about 19 per cent compared to the actual values determined physically (43.720 - 60.693 m 3 x10 3 and 22.88 - 34.78 gx 10 -3 , respectively). Application of the technique in a set of four 15-year old mango trees yielded volume estimates of 170.749 - 175.835 m 3 x10 3 (mean 173.512 ± 1.12 per cent) and biomass estimates of 73.0 - 87.4 gx10 -3 (mean = 80.32 ± 6.79 per cent). In another set of four 12-year old guava trees the corresponding values were 40.165 to 44.014 m 3 x10 3 (mean = 41.743 ± 3.42 per cent) and 22.252 gxl0 -3 (mean = 23.210 ± 2.95 per cent) respectively. The technique is of promise in fertilizer use efficiency and nutrient dynamics studies in tree crops. (author)

  13. Século XXI: nova cultivar de goiabeira de dupla finalidade XXI Century: new cultivar of guava tree to double purpose

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    Fernando Mendes Pereira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. é uma espécie que vem se tornando de grande importância em diversas regiões do Brasil, principalmente no Estado de São Paulo, maior produtor nacional. Desde 1985, a UNESP/FCAV, Câmpus de Jaboticabal, vem desenvolvendo um programa de melhoramento genético da goiabeira, com o objetivo de obter plantas com boas características agronômicas e com frutos que possam ser destinados tanto à industrialização quanto ao consumo na forma de fruta fresca. Partindo-se de 219 plantas, oriundas de diversos cruzamentos, e após dez anos de avaliação, chegou-se à cultivar Século XXI, cujas principais características são: planta muito produtiva com ciclo precoce (130 dias da floração à colheita, frutos grandes, com polpa espessa, róseo-avermelhada, ótimo sabor e com poucas e pequenas sementes.The guava tree (Psidium guajava, L. is a species that is coming into being of great importance in several areas of Brazil, mainly in State of São Paulo, its biggest national producer. Since 1985, the UNESP/FCAV, Jaboticabal Campus comes developing a program of breeding of guava tree, with the objective of obtaining plants with good agronomic characteristics and fruits that can be destined for industrialization and consumption as fresh fruit. From 219 plants originating from several crossing, and after ten years of evaluation, it has been obtained the XXI Century cultivar, which main characteristics are: a very productive plant with precocious cycle (130 days from the blossom to the harvest, big fruits with thick pulp, rosy-red, great flavor and with little and small seeds.

  14. Composition of the essential oil from the leaves of tree domestic varieties and one wild variety of the guava plant (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae

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    Rafaela Karin de Lima

    Full Text Available The compositions of the essential oils from the leaves of three domestic varieties of the guava tree Psidium guajava L. (Paluma, Século XXI and Pedro Sato and of one wild variety were compared. Essential oils were extracted by steam distillation, the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry GC-MS, and the apparent concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The results demonstrated that the three essential oils contained many common substances with a prevalence of 1,8-cineole, whereas the essential oil of the Paluma variety contained 1,8-cineole (42.68% as the major constituent, as well as α-terpineol (38.68%. The principal components of the essential oil of the Século XXI variety were 1,8-cineole (18.83%, trans-caryophyllene (12.08%, and selin-11-en-4-αol (20.98%, while those of the Pedro Sato variety and of the wild plant were 1,8-cineole (17.68% and (12.83%, caryophyllene oxide (9.34% and (9.09%, and selin-11-en-4-α-ol (21.46% and (22.19%, respectively.

  15. Balancing guava nutrition with liming and fertilization

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    Amanda Hernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Guava response to liming and fertilization can be monitored by tissue testing. Tissue nutrient signature is often diagnosed against nutrient concentration standards. However, this approach has been criticized for not considering nutrient interactions and to generate numerical biases as a result of data redundancy, scale dependency and non-normal distribution. Techniques of compositional data analysis can control those biases by balancing groups of nutrients, such as those involved in liming and fertilization. The sequentially arranged and orthonormal isometric log ratios (ilr or balances avoid numerical bias inherent to compositional data. The objectives were to relate tissue nutrient balances with the production of "Paluma" guava orchards differentially limed and fertilized, and to adjust the current patterns of nutrient balance with the range of more productive guava trees. It was conducted one experiment of 7-yr of liming and three experiments of 3-yr with N, P and K trials in 'Paluma' orchards on an Oxisol. Plant N, P, K, Ca and Mg were monitored yearly. It was selected the [N, P, K | Ca, Mg], [N, P | K], [N | P] and [Ca | Mg] balances to set apart the effects of liming (Ca-Mg and fertilizers (N-K on macronutrient balances. Liming largely influenced nutrient balances of guava in the Oxisol while fertilization was less influential. The large range of guava yields and nutrient balances allowed defining balance ranges and comparing them with the critical ranges of nutrient concentration values currently used in Brazil and combined into ilr coordinates.

  16. Greenhouse and field assessment of rhizobacteria to control guava decline

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    Alexandre Macedo Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to devise a biological strategy to control guava decline, 120 rhizobacteria isolates were obtained from symptomless guava trees located in Meloidogyne enterolobii-infested orchards. Of those isolates, 44 were assessed for their potential to reduce nematode's reproduction: for each isolate, six guava stem cuttings were embedded for eight hours with bacterial suspension and transplanted. Upon development of the roots, the plants were inoculated with 2000 nematode eggs and allowed to grow for four months under greenhouse. Seedlings embedded with water, inoculated or not with the nematode, served as controls. All treatments were equivalent in the five variables that assessed plant development. Several rhizobacteria reduced (p<0.05 the final nematode population (Fp, Fp/gram of root and reproduction factor, although not to satisfactory levels. Subsequently, a two-year experiment was set up in a guava orchard affected by guava decline, in which three of the most effective rhizobacterial isolates were compared with the biological products Nemat® and Nemaplus® for their ability to reduce variables related to nematode parasitism and increase guava productivity. Seven bimonthly applications of these treatments under the tree canopy were unable to reduce nematode parasitism and increase productivity. The decline and death of some plants forced the experiment to be stopped after the first harvest. In conclusion, rhizobacteria applications seem unable to reduce the parasitism of M. enterolobii on guava plants, and even less to reduce the extensive root decay or alleviate the physiological stress suffered by trees affected by guava decline.

  17. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m*

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    Abreu, P.R.C.; Almeida, M.C.; Bernardo, R.M.; Bernardo, L.C.; Brito, L.C.; Garcia, E.A.C.; Fonseca, A.S.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2006-01-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with 99mTc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with 99mTc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with 99mTc. The data showed significant (Pguava extract. PMID:16691636

  18. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    OpenAIRE

    D?az-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; G?mez-Caravaca, Ana Mar?a; Fern?ndez-Guti?rrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds ...

  19. Root activity studies of guava plants (Psidium Quajava, L) using 32P radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Sahali Mardi; Bajuri Kadmin; Khairuddin, A. Rahim

    1988-01-01

    The study was conducted on two year old guava plants (Psidium guajava L.) grown on Bungor series soil (Typic paleudult) at the UTN Agricultural Experimental Plot, Bangi, Selangor. The active roots of these guava plants were found to be present in abundance at about 100 cm away from the base of the tree at a depth of 10 cm. Fertilizers could be applied in that area. Sampling of every fourth leaf (for young trees) for counting, to represent the 32 P counts in the leaves can be used in future studies. The leaves and branches (green parts) of guava also have a more consistent P contents, as compared to other parts. (author)

  20. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

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    Elixabet Díaz-de-Cerio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high. The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production.

  1. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States.

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    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-05-11

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production.

  2. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production. PMID:27187352

  3. Grafting guava on cattley guava resistant to Meloidogyne enterolobii

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    Renata Rodrigues Robaina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of resistant rootstocks could be a promising method to control nematodeMeloidogyne enterolobiiin commercial plantations of guava. The present study aimed to evaluate the success of grafting guava as a scion on accessions of cattley guava as rootstocks resistant to M. enterolobii.The treatments consisted of the rootstocks cattley guava plants (three accessions of Psidium cattleyanum and common guava (control. In the apical wedge grafting method, scion of Paluma cultivated variety was used. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four treatments and five replicates, and eight plants per plot. The saplings produced as described before were planted in the field where the initial growth of the different combinations were evaluated. Graft success was observed for the control (common guava and for accessions 115 and 117 of cattley guava plants, with success rates of 63, 32 and 29%, respectively. In the field, the cattley guava used as rootstocks hampered Paluma canopy development and caused death of plants. Incompatibility of P. cattleyanumas rootstocks for P. guajavaPaluma was confirmed one year after cultivation in field.

  4. Épocas e intensidades de poda de frutificação na goiabeira ' Paluma' , em Pinheiros-ES Effect of pruning time and intensity on ' Paluma' guava trees, in Pinheiros, ES, Brazil

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    Luiz Augusto Lopes Serrano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes intensidades de poda de frutificação realizadas em diferentes épocas do ano sobre a fenologia e a produção da goiabeira 'Paluma', em Pinheiros-ES. As plantas foram submetidas a três intensidades de poda de frutificação (curta, média e longa, em quatro diferentes épocas (25-11-2005, 21-12-2005, 27-01-2006 e 23-02-2006. O ciclo da goiabeira 'Paluma', entre a poda até o início da colheita dos frutos, variou de 189 dias (podas em novembro e dezembro a 203 dias (poda em fevereiro. Independentemente da época de poda, as plantas submetidas à poda longa apresentaram maior emissão de brotos novos e maior número de ramos estabelecidos. As plantas submetidas à poda curta apresentaram menores números de brotos emitidos e de ramos estabelecidos, bem como menor índice de pegamento de frutos, menor número de frutos por planta e, conseqüentemente, menor produção; entretanto produziram frutos de maior peso médio em relação às plantas submetidas à poda longa. A maior produção e o maior número de frutos colhidos por planta ocorreram nas plantas podadas em fevereiro. A época e a intensidade da poda de frutificação afetam a brotação e a produção da goiabeira 'Paluma'.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different pruning times and intensities on the phenology and yield of 'Paluma' guava trees, in Pinheiros, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The plants were submitted to three pruning intensities (heavy, medium and light, in four dates (November 25, 2005; December 21, 2005; January 27, 2006 and February 23, 2006. The period between pruning and the beginning of fruit ripening varied from 189 (pruning in November and December to 203 days (pruning in February. Regardless of pruning time, the larger numbers of buds and established branches occurred in plants submitted to light pruning. Plants submitted to heavy pruning produced the smallest numbers of

  5. Normas preliminares dris e faixas de suficiência para goiabeira 'Paluma' Preliminary dris norms and sufficiency range for 'Paluma' guava tree

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    Henrique Antunes de Souza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico nutricional a partir da análise do tecido foliar é um instrumento eficiente para detectar desequilíbrios e auxiliar no processo de recomendação de adubação. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a relação entre os índices DRIS e os teores foliares de nutrientes, estabelecer teores foliares adequados de nutrientes com o DRIS e validar normas DRIS para a goiabeira 'Paluma'. Avaliou-se um pomar comercial nas condições de cultivo do Estado de São Paulo, durante seis safras de produção de frutos, provenientes de ensaios de adubação orgânica e mineral, totalizando 168 amostras. A ordem dos nutrientes limitantes por falta em ordem decrescente foram: Fe>K>Mn>Ca>B>N>P>Cu>S>Mg>Zn, e limitantes por excesso em ordem decrescente foram: Cu>Fe>P>Mn=Mg>Zn>Ca>B>K>S>N. As faixas adequadas, provenientes dos índices DRIS, são: 18-21; 1,5-1,7; 15-17; 8-11; 1,8-2,5 e 2,5-2,9 (g kg-1 para os macronutrientes N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S, respectivamente, e 26-38; 5-57; 54-112; 53-101 e 13-126 (mg kg-1 para os micronutrientes B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn, respectivamente. A produtividade das goiabeiras esteve associada ao estado nutricional.The nutritional diagnosis based on the analysis of leaf tissue is an efficient tool for detecting imbalances and help the process of fertilization recommendation. Thus, it was evaluated to establish preliminary DRIS norms, and to derive critical levels and sufficiency ranges of nutrients in the leaf tissue to Paluma guava cultivar in commercial orchards growing conditions in the State of São Paulo. It was evaluated six harvests of fruit production, from organic and mineral fertilizer, totaling 168 samples. The order of limiting nutrients for failure in descending order were: Fe> K> Mn> Ca> B> N> P> Cu> S> Mg> Zn, and limiting excess in descending order were: Cu> Fe> P> Mn = Mg> Zn> Ca> B> K> S> N. The tracks from the appropriate DRIS indices are: 18-21, 1.5 to 1.7, 15-17, 8-11, 1.8 to 2.5 and 2.5 to 2.9 (g kg-1 for the

  6. Caracterização fenológica da goiabeira 'Pedro Sato' sob diferentes épocas de poda 'Pedro Sato' guava tree phenological characterization in different pruning times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Hissayuki Hojo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo da goiabeira na região de Lavras-MG, vem tendo grande importância, porém não há uma oferta freqüente durante o ano, concentrando muitas vezes a produção em um único período. A prática de podas escalonadas é fundamental para auxiliar o produtor a colher frutos em praticamente todos os meses do ano. Visando a esse escalonamento, objetivou-se a caracterização fenológica da goiabeira 'Pedro Sato', em quatro épocas de poda (setembro, e dezembro de 2003, março e junho de 2004. Foram utilizadas dez plantas, com quatro anos de idade, para cada época de poda. O delineamento foi de blocos casualizados, onde em cada planta foram marcados doze ramos, avaliando-se semanalmente os dados sobre os estádios fenológicos. Com as mensurações, foi possível estabelecer a indicação das diferentes fenofases da cultura, sendo a duração entre a poda e o início da brotação de 30,8 a 39,2 dias; poda ao florescimento de 68,6 a 133 dias; da abertura da flor (floração plena à maturação do fruto de 118,3 a 148,4 dias; e o ciclo poda à colheita foi em média de 214,2, 211,4, 247,8 e 237,3 dias para as podas realizadas em setembro, dezembro, março e junho.Although the guava tree cultivation in the area of Lavras, MG, has had great importance, there is not a frequent offer during the year, concentrating the production in an only period. The practice of staggered prunings is fundamental to aid the producer to pick fruits in practically every month of the year. Seeking that stagger, it was aimed the 'Pedro Sato' guava tree phenological characterization in four pruning times (September and December of 2003, March and June of 2004. Ten four-year-old plants were used for each pruning time in randomized block design, where, in each plant, twelve branches were marked and the data were evaluated weekly on the phenological stages. It was possible to establish the indication of the different phenophases of the culture with the measuring, being

  7. Molecular detection of Erwinia psidii in guava plants under greenhouse and field conditions

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    Claudênia Ferreira da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Erwinia psidii causes bacterial blight of guava ( Psidium guajava , an important disease of this crop in Brazil. The pathogen affects branches and twigs of guava trees, reducing yield significantly. Bacterial dissemination often occurs through contaminated but asymptomatic propagating plant material. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the use of BIO-PCR and conventional PCR to detect E. psidii in inoculated guava plants grown in a greenhouse and in symptomatic and asymptomatic trees from guava orchards. Erwinia psidii strain IBSBF 1576 was inoculated (107CFU mL-1 into young guava shoots and plant tissue was analysed at 0, 5, 10, and 15 days after inoculation. Symptoms were observed after 5 days and all inoculated shoots were PCR positive at all times, by both BIO-PCR and conventional PCR. Under natural infection conditions, 40 samples were tested by BIO-PCR from each of three guava orchards, 20 showing symptoms and 20 asymptomatic. PCR was positive for 58 out of 60 symptomatic samples (96.7% and for 6.7% of asymptomatic samples, showing that the method can be used to detect the pathogen at early stages of infection. This PCR method may be used as a diagnostic tool to assess bacterial survival, dissemination and disease outbreaks.

  8. Neutron activation analysis of phytotherapic obtained from medicinal plants; Analise por ativacao com neutrons de fitoterapicos obtidos de plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Henrique S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: hs_moreira@hotmail.com; Saiki, Mitiko; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: mitiko@ipen.br; mbvascon@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    This paper determines the inorganic constituents in phytotherapic samples for posterior study of the relationship existent among the concentrations of the found elements and the their possible therapeutical effects. The samples of phytotherapic pills (Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba and Ginseng) were analysed by using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn samples were determined in the phytotherapics, The Centella asiatica presented the higher concentrations of Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. In the sample of Ginko biloba, higher levels of As and Ca were found, while in the sample ol Ginseng the element As were not detected. The found results have shown the the NAA method is appropriated for analysing this type of materials due to his simplicity, multielemental capacity and quality of the results obtained. (author)

  9. The demand of guava in Colombia

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    Julio César Alonso-Cifuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, no systematic work have been carried out to determine the demand for fruits beyond descriptive analysis of per capita consumption according to different individual socioeconomic characteristics and much less for a specific product such as guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae. This paper estimates the relationship between guava prices and the demand of guava in Colombia. We found that guava consumption is not affected by its price and its demand is highly correlated to income. While socio-economic characteristics such as income, education and household head labor affect the decision-making for consuming guava, other characteristics such as race and the number of household members determine the quantity of guava consumed in a Colombian household.

  10. Guava SSR analysis: Diversity assessment and similarity to accessions associated with reducing citrus greening in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    The guava (Psidium guajava) is an evergreen tree in the Myrtaceae, native to tropical America. It is grown throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world, and is used as a fresh fruit and processed into juice, jelly and paste. Recent introduction of citrus greening (huanglongbing) into Florida...

  11. Fenologia da goiabeira 'Paluma' sob diferentes sistemas de cultivos, épocas e intensidades de poda de frutificação Phenology of 'Paluma' guava trees under different cultivation systems, times and intensities of fruit pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Lopes Serrano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes épocas e intensidades de poda de frutificação sobre a fenologia da goiabeira 'Paluma', em dois sistemas de cultivo, em Pedro Canário (ES. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema de parcelas sub-subdivididas. As parcelas foram os sistemas de cultivo irrigado e sequeiro; as subparcelas foram as épocas de poda (10/11/2005, 9/12/2005, 13/1/2006 e 10/2/2006; e as sub-subparcelas foram as intensidades de poda (curta, média e longa. O ciclo da goiabeira 'Paluma', entre a poda até o início da colheita dos frutos, variou de 182 (poda em novembro e dezembro a 203 dias (poda em fevereiro. A queda fisiológica dos frutos ocorreu até os 56 dias após o final do florescimento. A irrigação e a poda longa proporcionaram maior brotação e estabelecimento dos ramos. As plantas submetidas à poda longa em fevereiro produziram maior número de frutos por ramo. Independentemente da época de poda, as plantas submetidas à poda curta apresentaram menor número de frutos por ramo e menor índice de pegamento de frutos. A irrigação e as podas realizadas em dezembro e janeiro favoreceram a produção de frutos maiores.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different fruit pruning times and intensities on the phenology of 'Paluma' guava trees in two cultivation systems, in Pedro Canário, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split split plots scheme. The main plots were the cultivation systems (with and without irrigation, the split plots were the pruning times (November 10, 2005; December 9, 2005; January 13, 2006 and February 10, 2006, and the split split plots were the pruning intensities (heavy, medium and light. The period between pruning and the beginning of fruit ripening was between 182 (pruning in November and December to 203 days (pruning in February. Fruit physiologic fall continued for

  12. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended.

  13. Nutritional and nutraceutical comparison of Jamaican Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) and Psidium guajava (common guava) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCook-Russell, Kayanne P; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Facey, Petrea C; Bowen-Forbes, Camille S

    2012-09-15

    Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) is one of many underutilised edible fruits that grow wild in Jamaica, and could potentially be commercially exploited to yield health and economic benefits. In this study, the total phenolics, proximate contents, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities of P. cattleianum and P. guajava (common guava), a well-known species, were compared. Strawberry guavas were found to be superior to common guavas in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, total phenolics and vitamin C content. They also possessed relatively high fibre content (24.9%). The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of strawberry guavas showed cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme inhibitory activities of 18.3% and 26.5%, respectively (250 μg/mL), indicating anti-inflammatory activity. The EtOAc and MeOH extracts of P. guajava showed 56.4% (COX-2) and 44.1% (COX-1) inhibitory activity, respectively. Additionally, nine compounds were isolated from strawberry guava fruits, some of which demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. These results indicate that strawberry guavas are beneficial for health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of an analytical method to quantify total isoflavones in phytotherapic capsules using high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane C. C. Auwerter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones can be found in grains and leaves of soybean. Currently, these are sold in pharmacies as phytotherapic capsules. Isoflavones have been recommended by doctors, especially for women, due to their ability to relieve menopause symptoms, among other benefits. However, no method exists for the official control of isoflavone content in capsules sold in the Brazilian market. This study aims to develop an appropriate analytical method to determine the total isoflavone content (daidzin, glycitin, and genistin, and their respective aglycone forms in phytotherapic capsules purchased in pharmacies in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil, using the technique of high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (UV-HPLC. The HPLC system consisted of a quaternary pump, an autosampler, and Waters reversed-phase C18 column (5 μm × 300 mm. Analyses were carried out at 40 °C, using a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min (acetonitrile and acetic acid 0.1%, and detection was performed at 254 nm. The method was validated as required by ANVISA and showed to be reliable for the following parameters: linearity (r² >0.99, selectivity (correlation between 0.99 and 1.00, precision (relative standard derivation <1.59%, accuracy (from 80% to 111.63% intraday and from 80% to 117.88% interday recovery, and robustness.

  15. Development of an analytical method to quantify total isoflavones in phytotherapic capsules using high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane C. C. Auwerter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones can be found in grains and leaves of soybean. Currently, these are sold in pharmacies as phytotherapic capsules. Isoflavones have been recommended by doctors, especially for women, due to their ability to relieve menopause symptoms, among other benefits. However, no method exists for the official control of isoflavone content in capsules sold in the Brazilian market. This study aims to develop an appropriate analytical method to determine the total isoflavone content (daidzin, glycitin, and genistin, and their respective aglycone forms in phytotherapic capsules purchased in pharmacies in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil, using the technique of high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (UV-HPLC. The HPLC system consisted of a quaternary pump, an autosampler, and Waters reversed-phase C18 column (5 μm × 300 mm. Analyses were carried out at 40 °C, using a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min (acetonitrile and acetic acid 0.1%, and detection was performed at 254 nm. The method was validated as required by ANVISA and showed to be reliable for the following parameters: linearity (r² >0.99, selectivity (correlation between 0.99 and 1.00, precision (relative standard derivation <1.59%, accuracy (from 80% to 111.63% intraday and from 80% to 117.88% interday recovery, and robustness.

  16. Mutation breeding in guava (Psidium guajava)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahishi, D.M.; Reddy, B.G.S.; Shivashankar, G.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Guava is an important tropical fruit crop, rich in Vitamin C. The pulp of the fruit is very soft and is ideal for canning. However, the presence of a large number of hard seeds is a major disadvantage. Mutation studies have been initiated with a view to induce seed sterility. Large quantities of guava seeds were subjected to treatments with gamma radiation ranging from 10 krad to 25 krad. The lethal dose for 50% reduction in the growth parameters was around 35 krad. Among the irradiated progenies distinct variations with reference to growth habits, leaf size and branching pattern have been observed. (author)

  17. FLAMMABILITY OF HERBICIDE-TREATED GUAVA FOLIAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guava leaves treated with herbicide were found to be less flammable than untreated green leaves or dead leaves . Differences in flammability were...determined by small-scale laboratory fires, differential thermal analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The herbicide-treated leaves had a higher ash

  18. Microbial composition of guava (Psidium guajava), hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial composition of guava (Psidium guajava), hibiscus (Hibiscus-rosa sinensis), mango (Mangifera indica) and pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The microbial genera isolated from this study showed that, both human and plant pathogens can colonize plants' phyllosphere.

  19. Red Guava Leaf Harvesting Impact on Flavonoid Optimation in Different Growth Phases

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    MUNIF GHULAMAHDI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting process is a critical time to identify the quality of raw material for traditional medicine. The time and harvesting techniques, drying process after harvesting, and processing to make the simplicia, are the crucial role to make the good quality of the natural product. On the other hand, there is a lack of general understanding and appreciation about the processes involved in governing shoot and tree growth and development, i.e. red guava. The research objective was to evaluate the influence of leaf harvesting and growth phases on red guava for flavonoid production as antioxidant. Randomized factorial block design in time were laid out with two factors and followed by Duncan’s multiple range test. The treatments were the amount of leaf harvested on tertiary branches (0, 25, 50, and 100% and growth phases of the plant (vegetative and generative. Leaf harvesting 25% on tertiary branches significantly increased the leaf number (766.3 tree-1 and the number of new quarternary branches, decreasing leaf area index (LAI and leaf dry weight at the end of the experiment (22 weeks of observation/WO. The highest leaf dry weight (156.94 g tree-1 and LAI (0.47 was found in harvesting 25% tertiary branches. Harvesting 100% leaf on tertiary branches in vegetative phase significantly produced the lowest flavonoid production (7.82 g tree-1. The result suggested that flavonoid production from red guava leaves should be done by harvesting 50% leaf on tertiary branches in generative phase can be used to produce the highest flavonoid (89.90 g tree-1.

  20. Development of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) Related to the Phenology of Blueberry, Blackberry, Strawberry Guava, and Surinam Cherry Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisognin, M; Nava, D E; Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Valgas, R A; Garcia, M S; Krolow, A C R; Antunes, L E C

    2015-02-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) is the main pest of temperate climate orcharding. The study investigated the development of A. fraterculus related to phenological stage of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees. The phenological stages I (green fruits), II (intermediate ripening stage of fruits), and III (fruits close to harvesting) were determined, and they are from 8th, 10th, and 11th week; 6th, 8th, and 9th week; 8th, 13th, and 16th week; and 5th, 6th, and 7th week after the first flowering of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees, respectively. We collected fruits from orchards to determine the infestation index using the formula: number of pupa/fruit weight. To investigate the development of A. fraterculus, we determined the following biological parameters: egg-to-adult period, weight of pupae, oviposition period, fecundity, number of pupae, and number of infested fruits. The infestation index for the fruits collected in the field was greater in strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits. In the laboratory, the development of A. fraterculus occurred in stage III of blueberry. In blackberry, besides stage III, we also observed the development in stage II, however, at lower infestation. In strawberry guava, the development of A. fraterulus occurred in stages II and III, and the development in both stages was similar. For Surinam cherry, the development occurred in the three phenological stages with similar values for biological parameters. Overall, of the four hosts studied, the strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits allowed a better biological development of A. fraterculus, corroborating its preference for fruits native to Brazil. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Pruning for crop regulation in high density guava (Psidium guajava L.) plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakre, M.; Lal, S.; Uniyal, S.; Goswami, A.K. Prakash. P.

    2016-11-01

    High density management and crop regulation are two important aspects in guava (Psidium guajava L.) production. Therefore, to find out the economic way of managing high density planting and crop regulation, the present work was carried out on 6-year-old guava trees of cv. Pant Prabhat under double-hedge row system of planting during 2009-10 and 2010-11. Seven different forms of pruning [FBT: flower bud thinning by hand, FBTT: flower bud thinning by hand followed by removal of terminal one leaf pair, RLFO: removal of leaves and flower buds by hand, retaining one leaf pair at the top, RLF: removal of all leaves and flowers by hand, OLPS: one leaf pair shoot pruning, FSP: full shoot pruning, OLPF: one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only] were studied along with control (C).Minimum annual increase in tree volume (6.764 m3) was recorded with the treatment OLPF, which was 2.31 times less than the control (15.682 m3). Highest yield during winter season (55.30 kg/tree) and total yield (59.87 kg/tree) was obtained from treatment OLPF. One leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only (OLPF) was also found profitable among other treatments by recording cost:benefit ratio of 1:2.96. This treatment also recorded the highest return distributed in rainy as well as in winter season. On the basis of findings it can be concluded that one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only is suitable for profitable high density management as well as crop regulation of guava in farmer friendly manner. (Author)

  2. Pruning for crop regulation in high density guava (Psidium guajava L. plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhubala Thakre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High density management and crop regulation are two important aspects in guava (Psidium guajava L. production. Therefore, to find out the economic way of managing high density planting and crop regulation, the present work was carried out on 6-year-old guava trees of cv. Pant Prabhat under double-hedge row system of planting during 2009-10 and 2010-11. Seven different forms of pruning [FBT: flower bud thinning by hand, FBTT: flower bud thinning by hand followed by removal of terminal one leaf pair, RLFO: removal of leaves and flower buds by hand, retaining one leaf pair at the top, RLF: removal of all leaves and flowers by hand, OLPS: one leaf pair shoot pruning, FSP: full shoot pruning, OLPF: one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only] were studied along with control (C.Minimum annual increase in tree volume (6.764 m3 was recorded with the treatment OLPF, which was 2.31 times less than the control (15.682 m3. Highest yield during winter season (55.30 kg/tree and total yield (59.87 kg/tree was obtained from treatment OLPF. One leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only (OLPF was also found profitable among other treatments by recording cost:benefit ratio of 1:2.96. This treatment also recorded the highest return distributed in rainy as well as in winter season. On the basis of findings it can be concluded that one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only is suitable for profitable high density management as well as crop regulation of guava in farmer friendly manner.

  3. Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaja, Nawal

    2007-01-01

    This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

  4. Identification of plant parasitic nematodes in guava (Psidium guajava L.), at the municipality of Manizales (Caldas), Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Piedrahita, Oscar Adrian; Castano Zapata, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    The future of the colombian fruticulture is in permanent crops, such as tropical fruits, amongst them guava. This research had as objective to identify the parasitic nematodes of this crop. The study was conducted at the region of La Cabana, municipality of Manizales, Caldas, located at 1.100 most, average annual temperature of 24 Celsius degrade and annual precipitation of 2.100 mm. The sampling was carried out in a plantation of guava Pera of 3 years old. At random were sampled 10 trees, and from each one was obtained samples of 100 g of roots and 500 g of soil. The extraction of nematodes was done by following the method of centrifugation and sugar flotation. It was identified: Meloidogyne, Helicotylenchus and Pratylenchus, being the most important the root-knob nematode Meloidogyne spp.

  5. Guajadial: an unusual meroterpenoid from guava leaves Psidium guajava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Long; Hsieh, Kun-Lung; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2007-11-22

    Guajadial (1), a novel caryophyllene-based meroterpenoid, was isolated from the Leaves of Psidium guajava (guava). The structure and relative stereochemistry of guajadial (1) were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. A possible biosynthetic pathway for 1 was proposed.

  6. Adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro cultured leaves of guava (Psidium guava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Concepción Laffitte

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious regeneration is a key step in the application of genetic engineering to the breeding programs of plants. In this work a method for adventitious shoot regeneration from leaves of micropropagated guava shoots has been developed and some of main factors to affect the shoot regeneration like, concentration of plant growth regulators (citoquinine, physiological state of explants and the wound are studied. Leaves from guava in vitro cultured of variety Cuban Red Dwarf 18-40 was used like explant in all experiments. The best re-sult was reached with MS basal medium supplemented with 0.75 mg/L of 6-benzylaminopurine. Was de-monstrated that for the leaves with more multiplication subculture number and taken from lower part of shoot (older; the morfogenetic potential falls significantly (p60% and the largest number of shoot per regenerating leaf (>3 were obtained with several wounds carried out in f orm of jabs to the central nerve of leaves. This regeneration protocol constitutes an important tool that can be applied for future studies of genetic transformation in this species. Key words: Tissue culture, leaf explants, growth regulators, organogenesis, guava

  7. Eficácia antitussígena de duas formulações fitoterápicas Antitussive efficacy of two phytotherapics formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.B. Mello

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos antitussígenos-expectorantes de duas formulações fitoterápicas utilizando-se três modelos biológicos diferentes. Foram utilizados ratos Wistar no modelo da secreção das vias aéreas, cobaias no modelo de tosse induzido por ácido cítrico e codornas japonesas na determinação da velocidade de transporte mucociliar. Os animais foram distribuídos em grupos e tratados por via oral com as formulações, com doses equivalentes a 10 vezes a terapêutica recomendada, 9ml.kg-1. O grupo-controle negativo de cada espécie foi tratado com solução fisiológica, 10ml.kg-1. O grupo-controle positivo no modelo de tosse induzida pelo ácido cítrico foi tratado com morfina, 1mg.kg-1, por via subcutânea. No modelo em que foram utilizados ratos e codornas, o grupo-controle positivo recebeu erdosteína por via oral, 600mg.kg-1. Os resultados mostraram que as duas formulações fitoterápicas foram eficazes no reflexo da tosse em cobaias, causando 36,4% e 27,3%, respectivamente, de redução. Nos modelos de secreção das vias aéreas e determinação da velocidade de transporte mucociliar, ambas as formulações não apresentaram eficácia significativa.The antitussive-expectorant effects of two phytotherapic formulations available in the Brazilian market were evaluated using three different biological models. Each phytotherapic formulation, with different composition, had the same batch number and fabrication date. The trade names of the phytotherapics were: Gripalplus Solução® and Melagrião®. Wistar rats were used in the airway secretion model, guinea pigs in the citric acid-induced cough model and japanese quails in the mucociliary transport rate determination. The animals (one group/formulation were divided in the two phytotherapic groups and orally treated with the equivalent to ten told the therapeutic recommended dose, which was 9ml.kg-1. Animals of negative control group of each specie were orally treated with 10ml

  8. GUAVA JUICE REDUCES CHOLESTEROL LEVEL FOR ELDERLY WITH HYPERTENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Afitasari, Dian Rahma; Yusuf, Ah.; Effendi, Fery

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertensive disease is closely related to high cholesterol level, which may act as one of causes of death in elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of guava juice on the reduction of cholesterol level of hypertensive elderly at Community Health Center, Pacar Keling, Surabaya. Method: Quasy–experimental was used in this study. Sample comprised of 14 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was guava juice and the dependent vari...

  9. Guava Juice Reduces Cholesterol Level for Elderly with Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Afitasari, Dian Rahma; Yusuf, Ah; Effendi, Fery

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertensive disease is closely related to high cholesterol level, which may act as one of causes of death in elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of guava juice on the reduction of cholesterol level of hypertensive elderly at Community Health Center, Pacar Keling, Surabaya. Method: Quasy–experimental was used in this study. Sample comprised of 14 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was guava juice and the dependent vari...

  10. Growth model of the pineapple guava fruit as a function of thermal time and altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Parra-Coronado

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the pineapple guava fruit is primarily stimulated by temperature but is also influenced by other climactic factors, such as altitude. The goal of this study was to develop a growth model for the pineapple guava fruit as a function of thermal time (GDD, growing-degree day and altitude (H of the production area. Twenty trees per farm were marked in two sites in the Cundinamarca department (Colombia during the 2012 and 2014 seasons. The measurements were performed every seven days after day 96 and 99 post-anthesis until harvest in the sites of Tenjo (2,580 m.a.s.l. and San Francisco de Sales (1,800 m.a.s.l., respectively. A growth model was produced for weight as a function of fruit length and diameter as well as for the weight of the fruit as a function of GDD and H, with this last measure adjusted to a sigmoidal logistic growth model. The parameters for the regression analysis showed that the models satisfactorily predicted fruit growth for both of the sites, with a high determination coefficient. The cross-validation showed good statistical fit between the predicted and observed models; the intercept was not significantly different than zero, and the slope was statistically equal to one.

  11. Development and quality of pineapple guava fruit in two locations with different altitudes in Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Parra-Coronado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit growth is stimulated by different weather conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of weather conditions on the physicochemical properties of pineapple guava fruit growth. Twenty trees were marked in two production areas located at different altitudes (1,800 and 2,580 m.a.s.l., and measurements were performed every 7 days from 99 and 141 days post-anthesis to harvest at altitudes of 1,800 and 2,580 m.a.s.l., respectively. The results indicate that altitude and weather conditions greatly influence the growth and development of pineapple guava fruit, and these effects are primarily manifested in the physical characteristics of the fruit. The weight and size of the fruit at harvest are directly related to the altitude of the production area. The weather condition that has the greatest impact on total titratable acidity at harvest is cumulative radiation during fruit growth; the highest value of total soluble solids at harvest corresponds to the location with the higher altitude, lower rainfall and relative humidity and higher cumulative radiation during the fruit growth period. The hue angle and pulp firmness at harvest are not influenced by the location or weather conditions at any location and do not determine the fruit quality at harvest time.

  12. Clonal multiplication of guava through softwood cuttings under mist conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kareem, A.; Jaskkani, M.J.; Fatima, B.; Sadia, B.

    2012-01-01

    Guava (psidium guajava l.) is a luscious and important tropical fruit crop. the objective of the study was to develop vegetative propagation system to avoid clonal degradation in guava fruit plants. softwood cuttings from five year old gola accession were prepared from the shoot tops of current season growth, measuring 12 cm in length and carrying 2 to 4 nodes. iba and naa (0, 2000, 4000, 6000, 8000 ppm) were selected to treat cuttings for root induction. cuttings were planted under mist conditions by maintaining temperature at 25 degree c and 85% relative humidity for 25 days. maximum survival percentage (92.17%) of plants at transplanting was noted with 4000 ppm concentration followed by 2000 ppm (85.50%). In general iba 4000 ppm concentration performed better as compared to naa for all parameters studied. This study revealed the potential of clonal propagation of guava through softwood cuttings treated with auxins. (author)

  13. INCLUSION OF GUAVA WASTES IN THE DIET OF EUROPEAN QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Lemos Camelo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to analyze the performance and carcass characteristics of European quail fed agroindustry residue of guava in substitution of corn. 140 birds were used, distributed in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of a control diet and four diets with levels of guava waste inclusion (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% to a diet based on corn and soybean meal. There were no significant differences (P> 0.05 for the variables: weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, feed efficiency, weight and carcass yield and prime cuts (breast, drumstick and thigh wings, back , neck, head, feet and foodstuffs organs (heart, liver and gizzard. The guava waste can be used as alternative ingredient in the diets of European quail in the period of 16-38 days of age, up to the level of 10% inclusion without depressing the performance and yield of poultry carcasses.

  14. Absorption and translocation of phosphorus-32 in guava leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, William

    1997-01-01

    Phosphorus is easily absorbed by the leaves and translocated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the absorption and translocation of P by guava leaves, with time. When a solution containing 2% MAP and specific activity 0.15 μCi/ml was applied. MAP labelled with 32 P was applied in the 3 rd pair of leaves. These and other leaves, roots and stem were collected separately and analyzed accordingly. The results showed that 20 days after application 12% of the applied P was absorbed by the guava leaves. The translocation of P started immediately after its absorption reaching 20% 2fter 20 days. (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs

  15. Studies on preparation of mixed toffee from guava and strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, U D; Pawar, U B; Pawar, G H

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation was carried out to develop a technology for preparation of mixed toffee from guava and strawberry pulp and to study the changes in chemical composition and sensory properties of toffee during storage at ambient temperature as well as refrigerated condition. Preliminary experiments were conducted to find out optimum levels of guava and strawberry pulp. The toffees prepared were wrapped in metallic coated polythene wrapper, packed in 200 gauge polythene bags and stored at ambient (27 ± 2 oC) as well as refrigerated (5 ± 2 oC) condition for 90 days. The stored samples were drawn periodically at 30 days interval for organoleptic and chemical analysis. Preliminary studies were carried out to standardize the optimum levels of guava and strawberry pulp. Among various combinations of guava and strawberry pulp, 70 : 30 w/w (guava : strawberry) ratios toffee was found better than other combinations in respect to organoleptic properties and nutritional quality. The yield of fresh toffee was higher (868 g/kg of pulp) in toffee prepared from 100 % guava (control). The chemical composition indicated that the fresh toffees contained on an average moisture 8.73 %, TSS 83.21 oBrix, titrable acidity 0.3 %, total sugars 73.1 % and ascorbic acid 64.1 mg/100 g. The mean score of fresh toffees for colour and appearance was 8.29, texture 8.02, flavour 8.22, taste 8.32 and overall acceptability 8.16 on 9 point Hedonic scale. The cost of fresh toffee was Rs. 282/kg which was prepared from 70 : 30 guava and strawberry pulp level. The storage studies indicated that the TSS and total sugars increased with the advancement of storage period, while moisture content, ascorbic acid and acidity decreased. The rates of increase or decrease were relatively higher at ambient temperature than refrigerated temperature. The sensory quality of toffees also decreased at faster rate during 90 days storage period at ambient condition than the refrigerated

  16. Enhanced in vitro multiple shoot induction in elite Pakistani guava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elite guava (Psidium guajava L.) strains of cv. Safeda were explored in vitro for multiple shoot induction. Shoot induction was enhanced up to 83% with 3.5 to 4.25 shoots per single node cutting and shoot tip explants, respectively, using higher levels of benzyl amino purine (BAP) in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium.

  17. Water-activity of dehydrated guava slices sweeteners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayub, M.; Zeb, A.; Ullah, J.

    2005-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the individual and combined effect of caloric sweeteners (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and non-caloric sweeteners (saccharine, cyclamate and aspartame) along with antioxidants (citric acid and ascorbic acid) and chemical preservatives (potassium metabisulphite and potassium sorbate) on the water-activity (a/sub w/) of dehydrated guava slices. Different dilutions of caloric sweeteners (20, 30, 40 and 50 degree brix (bx) and non-caloric sweeteners (equivalent to sucrose sweetness) were used. Guava slices were osmotically dehydrated in these solutions and then dehydrated initially at 0 and then at 60 degree C to final moisture-content of 20-25%. Guava slices prepared with sucrose: glucose 7:3 potassium metabisulphite, ascorbic acid and citric acid produced best quality products, which have minimum (a/sub w/) and best overall sensory characteristics. The analysis showed that treatments and their various concentrations had a significant effect (p=0.05) on (a/sub w/) of dehydrated guava slices. (author)

  18. Barking up the wrong tree: injuries due to falls from trees in Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negin, Joel; Vizintin, Pavle; Houasia, Patrick; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C

    2014-12-11

    To investigate tree-related injuries in Solomon Islands by the types of trees involved, who is affected and the types of injuries caused. Descriptive case series of all cases of injuries related to trees presenting to the National Referral Hospital in Honiara from 1994 to 2011. Data were collected by the attending clinician using a Trauma Epidemiology form, which provides information on age, sex, cause of injury and type of fracture. Number of injuries by tree type, sex and age. Of the 7651 injuries in the database, 1107 (14%) were caused by falls from trees. Falls from coconut trees led to the highest number of injuries, followed by falls from mango, guava, apple and nut trees. Overall, 85% of injuries occurred in individuals aged trees, 77% of patients were aged tree types. Overall, 71% of injuries occurred among males. Of all injuries, 92% were fractures, 3% were dislocations and 5% were non-fracture, non-dislocation injuries. The arm (including wrist, elbow and hand) was the most common location of injury across all tree types. Distal radius fractures in the forearm were particularly common, as were ulna fractures. While mangos and guavas are undeniably delicious, the quest for their flesh can be hazardous. Children will always climb trees, but the search for food among children in lower-income settings may lead to higher rates of injury.

  19. Multiplex PCR in determination of Opiinae parasitoids of fruit flies, Bactrocera sp., infesting star fruit and guava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, S; Ibrahim, N J; Md-Zain, B M; Idris, A B; Suhana, Y; Roff, M N; Yaakop, S

    2014-01-23

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs. This is an

  20. Guava Jam packaging determinant attributes in consumer buying decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Souza Dantas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Using packaging and labels to lure consumers and to communicate product benefits directly on the shelf is a competitive advantage factor in the food industry sector. The label is especially effective since besides supplying basic details, such as weight, ingredients, and instructions in compliance with governmental regulations, it attracts consumers' attention and the desire to buy and which often becomes synonymous to the brand name. The objective of this study was to obtain detailed information on consumers' attitudes, opinions, behavior, and concepts regarding guava jam packaging using the focus group technique. The results showed that label color and design, packaging type and information, and brand name and price are determinant attributes in the consumers' decision to buy guava jam.

  1. [Spectroscopic characteristics of novel Psidium meroterpenoids isolated from guava leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wen; Zhu, Xiao-ai; Liu, Xiao-juan; Yie, Shu-min; Zhao, Litchao; Su, Lei; Cao, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Recently, novel Psidium meroterpenoids were reported in the guava leaves. According to careful analysis of the spectral data of literatures, the spectroscopic characteristics and biosynthetic pathway of Psidium meroterpenoids were summarized in this paper. The results showed that Psidium meroterpenoids had distinct spectroscopic features and reasonable biosynthetic routines, however the number order of carbon atoms was not consistent in the reported literatures. It was concluded that Psidium meroterpenoids were the characteristic chemical constituents of Psidium guajava Linn.

  2. Histochemistry and morphoanatomy study on guava fruit during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato de Abreu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Guava (Psidium guajava L. is a highly perishable fruit due to its intense metabolism during ripening. Information on the enzyme activities that degrade pectic substances, as well as the amount of pectin, is very contradictory and not clearly defined. Thus, this study aimed to monitor the changes occurred in the fruit during ripening through histochemical, physical, and scanning microscopy processes. Guavas were picked at the half-mature stage and stored for 9 days at 22 ± 1 °C and 78 ± 1% RH. The analyses conducted on the day of harvest (0 and each day of storage (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 days were: firmness and histochemical analyses (ferric chloride, lugol, comassie blue, vanillin hydrochloric, and ruthenium red observed under an optic microscope and a scanning electron microscope. Ruthenium red showed a high amount of pectin in the cell wall on day zero as well as its decrease in the wall during ripening and its accumulation in the central area of the cell. Scanning microscopy showed loss of the cell structure during ripening. Those observations suggest that the pectin is the main polymer responsible for firmness maintenance in the guava fruit.

  3. Somatic embryogenesis for efficient micropropagation of guava (Psidium guajava L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Nasim

    2013-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is well known for edible fruit, environment friendly pharmaceutical and commercial products for both national and international market. The conventional propagation and in vitro organogenesis do not meet the demand for the good quality planting materials. Somatic embryogenesis for efficient micropropagation of guava (P. guajava L.) has been developed to fill up the gap. Somatic embryogenesis and plantlets regeneration are achieved from 10-week post-anthesis zygotic embryo explants by 8-day inductive treatment with different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) on MS agar medium containing 5% sucrose. Subsequent development and maturation of somatic embryos occur after 8 days on MS basal medium supplemented with 5% sucrose without plant growth regulator. The process of somatic embryogenesis shows the highest relative efficiency in 8-day treatment of zygotic embryo explants with 1.0 mg L(-1) 2,4-D. High efficiency germination of somatic embryos and plantlet regeneration takes place on half strength semisolid MS medium amended with 3% sucrose within 2 weeks of subculture. Somatic plantlets are grown for additional 2 weeks by subculturing in MS liquid growth medium containing 3% sucrose. Well-grown plantlets from liquid medium have survived very well following 2-4 week hardening process. The protocol of somatic embryogenesis is optimized for high efficiency micropropagation of guava species.

  4. Histopathology of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Raquel Gomes Moraes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, produces brown lesions on guava fruits, causing severe losses on postharvest. In this study, the infection and colonization of guava fruits by C. gloeosporioides has been examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Fruits at the physiologically mature stage were inoculated with a 10(5 conidia/mL spore suspension. Afterward, fruits were incubated at 25 °C in a wet chamber for periods of 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 120 h to allow examination of the infection and colonization process. Conidia germination and appressoria formation occurred six hours after inoculation (h.a.i. Penetration occurred directly via penetration pegs from appressoria, which penetrated the host cuticle 48 h.a.i. Notably, the appressoria did not produce an appressorial cone surrounding the penetration pore. Infection vesicles were found in epidermal cells 96 h.a.i. The same fungal structures were found in epidermal and parenchymal cells of the host 120 h.a.i. Colonization strategy of C. gloeosporioides on guava fruit was intracellular hemibiotrophic.

  5. Natural sparkling guava wine: volatile and physicochemical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maria Michelin Bertagnolli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Although different tropical fruit species have been used in the development of fermented beverages, there are only few references in the literature to the production of natural sparkling wines from fruits other than grapes. In this sense, the objective of the present research was the development and physicochemical and volatile characterization of a natural sparkling guava wine produced by the champenoise method. Volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry using the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME technique on samples. Eighty-nine volatile compounds were detected, of which 51 were identified. Esters were the predominant class of volatile compounds (a total of 26, followed by alcohols (10, terpenes (9, ketones (3, and acids (3. Volatile compounds with possible odoriferous activity were reported in the beverage, including ethyl octanoate, ethyl 5-hexenoate, phenethyl acetate, (E-β-damascenone, (E-ethyl cinnamate, 2-methyl butyl acetate, 3-methylbutanol, ethyl 3-(E-hexenoate, and methyl 5-hexenoate. Natural sparkling guava wine produced showed a complex composition of fruity and floral aromas. Furthermore, the use of the champenoise method, traditionally applied to grapes, enabled the manufacture of a natural sparkling guava wine with physicochemical characteristics equivalent to those of sparkling wines made from grapes.

  6. Guava ( L. Powder as an Antioxidant Dietary Fibre in Sheep Meat Nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Verma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore the antioxidant potential and functional value of guava (Psidium guajava L. powder in muscle foods. Guava powder was used as a source of antioxidant dietary fibre in sheep meat nuggets at two different levels i.e., 0.5% (Treatment I and 1.0% (Treatment II and its effect was evaluated against control. Guava powder is rich in dietary fibre (43.21%, phenolics (44.04 mg GAE/g and possesses good radical scavenging activity as well as reducing power. Incorporation of guava powder resulted in significant decrease (p<0.05 in pH of emulsion and nuggets, emulsion stability, cooking yield and moisture content of nuggets while ash and moisture content of emulsion were increased. Total phenolics, total dietary fibre (TDF and ash content significantly increased (p<0.05 in nuggets with added guava powder. Product redness value was significantly improved (p<0.05 due to guava powder. Textural properties did not differ significantly except, springiness and shear force values. Guava powder was found to retard lipid peroxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets as measured by TBARS number during refrigerated storage. Guava powder did not affect sensory characteristics of the products and can be used as source of antioxidant dietary fibre in meat foods.

  7. Efficiency of Dry (Psidium guava) Leaves for The Removal of Cesium-137 from Aqueous Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, H.A.; Abu-Kharda, S.A.; Abd El -Baset, L.A.; Abu-Shohba, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Batch experiments for the removal of cesium-137 from aqueous solution onto guava leaves (psidium guava) and carbonized guava leaves were studied as a function of contact time, dosage, ph value and initial concentration ion. The sorption process was described by pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, Morris and Elovich kinetic models. Cesium concentrations were ranged between 2x10 -5 - 1x10 -3 M. Sorption data have been interpreted in terms of Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The maximum sorption capacity of carbonized guava leaves adsorbent for cesium removal was 8.02 mgg -1 . The results of the present study suggest that carbonized guava leaves can be used beneficially for cesium removal from aqueous solution.

  8. Record of Edessa scabriventris Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) associated to Eugenia uniflora (Brazilian-Cherry) and Psidium guajava (Guava) (Myrtaceae), in north-northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mauricio S; Fernandes, José A M; Lima, Iracilda M M

    2010-01-01

    This study reports for the first time Edessa scabriventris Stål on Eugenia uniflora (Brazilian-cherry) and on Psidium guajava (guava) (Myrtaceae), fruit trees with economic value. Its geographic distribution is extended with records for the states of Alagoas (Maceió Municipality 35°45'11.16''W; 9°40'18.52''S) and Pará (Belém Municipality 48°28'14.65''W; 1°26'14.83''S), north-northeastern Brazil.

  9. Jumlah Bakteri pada Luka Diabetik Kronik yang Dicuci Menggunakan Ekstrak Air Daun Jambu Biji (Psidium Guava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahni Haris

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Various solutions have been recommended for cleanse the wound, however normal saline is favored. Aqueous guava leaf extracts have material that known for antibacterial in the diabetic wound care especially for cleansing. Guava leaf available in Indonesia, but there is unresolved debate about its use. This study use quasi-experimental with pre-test post-test design. Sample in this study consist 19 outpatients who had diabetic chronic wounds care in clinic Kitamura, Pontianak. Analysis of quantitative data was tested with non-parametric analysis, Wilcoxon test and Mann Whitney test to determine the effect of aqueous guava leaves extract in reducing bacterial. Results sowed that he number of bacteria colonies after cleansing the wound using aqueous guava leaves extract was decreased. P-value on first day until seventh day for 10% aqueous guava leaves was p=0.008 (p0.05, but 20% aqueous guava leaves extract most effective than 10% aqueous guava leaves extract.

  10. Gamma radiation physical-chemical effects on vitamin C contents in white and red guavas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro, Jose Daniel V.; Mansur Netto, Elias

    1995-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is valuable tropical fruit because its high C vitamin content. Red an white are the most common species of guava found in tropical areas. The ionizing radiation is normally used as a ripen ring retardant for longer storage periods. This work studies gamma radiation effects on the C vitamin concentration in white and red guava. Samples of juices were irradiated using a source of Cobalt-60, with doses of 1,0 2,5 and 5,0 kGy and storing periods of 0,15 and 30 days. The white guava juice showed a 49% loss in the C vitamin concentration with 5 kGy radiation dose, while the red guava juice showed 33% under the same condition. This shows that the juice of white guava is more sensitive to gamma radiations than the red guava. This results suggests a protection mechanism by colour pigments we believe is associated to the aromatic structures in the red specie. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Complex Enzyme-Assisted Extraction Releases Antioxidative Phenolic Compositions from Guava Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Wu, Yanan; Liu, Yan; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-09-30

    Phenolics in food and fruit tree leaves exist in free, soluble-conjugate, and insoluble-bound forms. In this study, in order to enhance the bioavailability of insoluble-bound phenolics from guava leaves (GL), the ability of enzyme-assisted extraction in improving the release of insoluble-bound phenolics was investigated. Compared to untreated GL, single xylanase-assisted extraction did not change the composition and yield of soluble phenolics, whereas single cellulase or β -glucosidase-assisted extraction significantly enhanced the soluble phenolics content of PGL. However, complex enzyme-assisted extraction (CEAE) greatly improved the soluble phenolics content, flavonoids content, ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP by 103.2%, 81.6%, 104.4%, 126.5%, and 90.3%, respectively. Interestingly, after CEAE, a major proportion of phenolics existed in the soluble form, and rarely in the insoluble-bound form. Especially, the contents of quercetin and kaempferol with higher bio-activity were enhanced by 3.5- and 2.2-fold, respectively. More importantly, total soluble phenolics extracts of GL following CEAE exhibited the highest antioxidant activity and protective effect against supercoiled DNA damage. This enzyme-assisted extraction technology can be useful for extracting biochemical components from plant matrix, and has good potential for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Complex Enzyme-Assisted Extraction Releases Antioxidative Phenolic Compositions from Guava Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenolics in food and fruit tree leaves exist in free, soluble-conjugate, and insoluble-bound forms. In this study, in order to enhance the bioavailability of insoluble-bound phenolics from guava leaves (GL, the ability of enzyme-assisted extraction in improving the release of insoluble-bound phenolics was investigated. Compared to untreated GL, single xylanase-assisted extraction did not change the composition and yield of soluble phenolics, whereas single cellulase or β-glucosidase-assisted extraction significantly enhanced the soluble phenolics content of PGL. However, complex enzyme-assisted extraction (CEAE greatly improved the soluble phenolics content, flavonoids content, ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP by 103.2%, 81.6%, 104.4%, 126.5%, and 90.3%, respectively. Interestingly, after CEAE, a major proportion of phenolics existed in the soluble form, and rarely in the insoluble-bound form. Especially, the contents of quercetin and kaempferol with higher bio-activity were enhanced by 3.5- and 2.2-fold, respectively. More importantly, total soluble phenolics extracts of GL following CEAE exhibited the highest antioxidant activity and protective effect against supercoiled DNA damage. This enzyme-assisted extraction technology can be useful for extracting biochemical components from plant matrix, and has good potential for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  13. Physicochemical characteristics of guava “Paluma” submitted to osmotic dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Roselene Ferreira Oliveira; Lia Mara Moterlle; Edmar Clemente

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the conservation post process osmotic of guava stored temperature at 5oC. Guava (Psidium guajava L.), red variety “Paluma” minimally processed by mild osmotic dehydration, were packaged in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and stored temperature at 5ºC. Non-treated guava, packed in PET trays, was used as control. The treatment used was osmotic dehydration in sucrose syrup at 60ºBrix and physicochemical determinations were pH, total soluble solids (TSS), tot...

  14. Meroterpenoids with Antitumor Activities from Guava (Psidium guajava).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xu-Jie; Yu, Qian; Yan, Huan; Khan, Afsar; Feng, Mi-Yan; Li, Pan-Pan; Hao, Xiao-Jiang; An, Lin-Kun; Liu, Hai-Yang

    2017-06-21

    Psidium guajava L., a species native to South America, has been widely cultivated in the tropical and subtropical areas of China for its popular fruits. The preliminary analysis by liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (LC-UV) indicated the presence of meroterpenoids in the fruits of P. guajava (guava). Subsequent fractionation of the petroleum ether extract resulted in the identification of two new meroterpenoids, psiguajavadials A (1) and B (2), together with 14 previously described meroterpenoids (3-16). Their structures were fully elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic techniques and theoretical calculations. All of the meroterpenoids showed cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines, with guajadial B (12) being the most effective having an IC 50 value of 150 nM toward A549 cells. Furthermore, biochemical topoisomerase I (Top1) assay revealed that psiguajavadial A (1), psiguajavadial B (2), guajadial B (12), guajadial C (14), and guajadial F (16) acted as Top1 catalytic inhibitors and delayed Top1 poison-mediated DNA damage. The flow cytometric analysis indicated that the new meroterpenoids psiguajavadials A (1) and B (2) could induce apoptosis of HCT116 cells. These data suggest that meroterpenoids from guava fruit could be used for the development of antitumor agents.

  15. The Best Extraction Technique for Kaempferol and Quercetin Isolation from Guava Leaves (Psidium guajava)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, I.; Suparto, I. H.; Wulandari, N. S.

    2017-03-01

    Guava leaves contain various compounds that have biological activity such as kaempferol and quercetin as anticancer. Twelve extraction techniques were performed to obtain the best extraction technique to isolate kaempferol and quercetin from the guava leaves. Toxicity of extracts was tested against Artemia salina larvae. All extracts were toxic (LC50 value less than 1000 ppm) except extract of direct soxhletation on guava leaves, and extract of sonication and soxhletation using n-hexane. The extract with high content of total phenols and total flavonoids, low content of tannins, intense color of spot on thin layer chromatogram was selected for high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Direct sonication of guava leaves was chosen as the best extraction technique with kampferol and quercetin content of 0.02% and 2.15%, respectively. In addition to high content of kaempferol and quercetin, direct sonication was chosen due to the shortest extraction time, lesser impurities and high toxicity.

  16. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of seven cultivars of guava (Psidium guajava) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gema; Wu, Shi-Biao; Negrin, Adam; Kennelly, Edward J

    2015-03-01

    The antioxidant activity and identification of phenolic compounds of seven edible guava (Psidium guajava) cultivars that varied in colour from white to pink were examined. In the DPPH assay all four pink-pulp guavas (Barbie Pink, Homestead, Sardina 1, Sardina 2) included in the study showed higher activity than the white pulp cultivars (Yen 2 and Sayla) and less than the red pulp guava cultivar (Thai Maroon). In the ABTS(+) assay this trend was the same up to 20 min, but from 20 to 40 min Barbie Pink showed lower activity than the white guavas. Twenty-one compounds were characterised in the cultivars, and ten of them are reported for the first time in this fruit. Principle component analysis was performed to identify differences in chemistry among these cultivars. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of P. guajava vary significantly according to the cultivar and pulp colour. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. UJI TOKSISITAS AKUT EKSTRAK DAUN PSIDIUM GUAVA LINN (DAUN JAMBU BIJI TERHADAP MENCIT (MUS MUSCULUS

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    Amiyatun Naini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Psidium guava Linn leaf extract as mouthrinse has been suggested to be used against toothache, and also has suggested effect against diarrhea and vomiting, as well as anti spasmodic and rheumatic symptoms, anti inflammation, anti piretic, analgetic, and anti bacterial activity. However, to consider potential side effects, this work aimed to test the acute toxicity of guava leaf extract. For this purpose guava leaf extract was given orally to to groups of ten mice each at a doses of 1.25g, 2.5, 5, 10 and 21 g/kg body weight in a suspension with CMC Na 0,5%. Ten mice were used as control with a dose of 1 ml CMC Na 0,5%. The results suggest no acute toxicity to mice, since even the biggest dose given (show no measurable value of LD 50. It could be concluded that guava leaf extract shows no acute toxicity to mice at tested concentrations.

  18. Jumlah Bakteri pada Luka Diabetik Kronik yang Dicuci Menggunakan Ekstrak Air Daun Jambu Biji (Psidium Guava)

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    Fahni Haris

    2017-01-01

    Various solutions have been recommended for cleanse the wound, however normal saline is favored. Aqueous guava leaf extracts have material that known for antibacterial in the diabetic wound care especially for cleansing. Guava leaf available in Indonesia, but there is unresolved debate about its use. This study use quasi-experimental with pre-test post-test design. Sample in this study consist 19 outpatients who had diabetic chronic wounds care in clinic Kitamura, Pontianak. Analysis of quant...

  19. Physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of red guava (Psidium guajava) velva at different fruit ripening time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishartani, D.; Rahman, F. L. F.; Hartanto, R.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.

    2018-01-01

    This study purposed to determine the effect of red guava fruit ripening time on the physical (overrun and melting rate), chemical (vitamin C, pH, total dissolved solid) and sensory (color, taste, aroma, texture, and overall compare to control (without ripening) velva) characteristic of red guava velva. Red guava fruits were harvested at 90 days after flowering, ripened and then processed into velva. This research used Completely Randomized Design with fruit ripening time (without ripening, 4 days, and 6 days) as single factor. The research was conducted in triplicate. Chemical and physical characteristic data was analysed using One Way Analysis of Varian whether sensory characteristic data was analyzed using Independent Sample T-test. The result showed that fruit ripening time significantly affected the physical, chemical and sensory characteristic of the velva. Vitamin C, pH, and total solid of the velva were increased as the ripening time prolonged. In other hand, increasing of fruit ripening time decreased the overrun and melting rate of the velva. Red guava velva made from 6 days ripening had better sensory characteristics compared to velva made from red guava fruit without ripening or 4 day ripening. This research conclude that 6 days ripening time gives better chemical, physical and sensory characteristics of the velva compare to 4 days ripening time. Red guava fruits ripened for 6 days were recommended as raw material in velva making.

  20. Exposure to Guava Affects Citrus Olfactory Cues and Attractiveness to Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Jagadish Chandra; Campbell, Stuart A; Zeng, Xinnian

    2016-06-01

    Intercropping can reduce agricultural pest incidence, and represents an important sustainable alternative to conventional pest control methods. Understanding the ecological mechanisms for intercropping could help optimize its use, particularly in tropical systems which present a large number of intercropping possibilities. Citrus is threatened worldwide by greening disease (huanglongbing, HLB) vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Control of HLB and citrus psyllid can be partially achieved through intercropping with guava, Psidium guajava L., but the mechanisms remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that guava olfactory cues affect psyllid behavior by altering the attractiveness of citrus through plant-plant interactions. In choice and no-choice cage experiments, psyllid settlement was reduced on citrus shoots that had been exposed to guava shoot odors for at least 2 h. In Y-tube olfactometer experiments, psyllids oriented to odors of unexposed, compared with guava-exposed, citrus shoots. These behavioral results indicate that a mechanism for the success of guava intercropping for sustainable, ecological disease management may be the indirect effect of guava on citrus attractiveness. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Screening of tomato varieties for fruit tree based Agroforestry system

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    J. Hossain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with four tomato varieties under a six year old orchard was accomplished at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU research farm during October 2011 to April 2012. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Four tomato varieties (BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 8, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 15 were grown under guava, mango, olive and control. Results showed that light availability in control plot (999.75 μ mol m-2s-1 was remarkably higher over fruit tree based agroforestry systems and it was 58.8, 43.9 and 31.5% of the control for guava, mango and olive based systems, respectively. The shortest tomato plant was observed in olive based system (54.91 cm, while the tallest plant was observed in mango based system (60.09 cm. The highest SPAD value and number of primary branches per plant was recorded in control plot. Fruit length, fruit girth was found lowest in olive based system. The highest yield (34.06 t ha-1 was recorded in control plot while the lowest yield (10.26 t ha-1 was recorded in olive based system. The economic performance of fruit tree based tomato production system showed that both the net return and BCR of mango and guava based system was higher over control and olive based system. The contents of organic carbon, nitrogen, available phosphorus, potassium and sulfur of before experimentation soil were slightly higher in fruit tree based agroforestry systems than the control. After experimentation, nutrient elements in soil were found increased slightly than initial soils. Fruit tree based agroforestry systems could be ranked based on the economic performance as mango> guava> control> olive based system with BARI Tomato 15, BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 8, respectively.

  2. Is guava phenolic metabolism influenced by elevated atmospheric CO2?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes de Rezende, Fernanda; Pereira de Souza, Amanda; Silveira Buckeridge, Marcos; Maria Furlan, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Seedlings of Psidium guajava cv. Pedro Sato were distributed into four open-top chambers: two with ambient CO(2) (∼390 ppm) and two with elevated CO(2) (∼780 ppm). Monthly, five individuals of each chamber were collected, separated into root, stem and leaves and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. Chemical parameters were analyzed to investigate how guava invests the surplus carbon. For all classes of phenolic compounds analyzed only tannins showed significant increase in plants at elevated CO(2) after 90 days. There was no significant difference in dry biomass, but the leaves showed high accumulation of starch under elevated CO(2). Results suggest that elevated CO(2) seems to be favorable to seedlings of P. guajava, due to accumulation of starch and tannins, the latter being an important anti-herbivore substance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Temperature-related changes in respiration and Q10 coefficient of Guava

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    Bron Ilana Urbano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Guava (Psidium guajava L. is a tropical fruit that presents fast post-harvest ripening; therefore it is a very perishable product. Inappropriate storage temperature and retail practices can accelerate fruit quality loss. The objective of this study was to evaluate the respiratory activity (RA, the ethylene production (EP and Q10 of guava fruit at different storage temperatures. 'Paluma' guava fruits were harvested at maturity stage 1 (dark-green skin and stored at either 1, 11, 21, 31 or 41ºC; RA and EP were determined after 12, 36, 84 and 156 h of storage. RA and EP rates at 1 and 11ºC were the lowest - 0.16 and 0.43 mmol CO2 kg-1 h-1 and 0.003 and 0.019 µmol C2H4 kg-1 h-1, respectively. When guavas were stored at 21ºC, a gradual increase occurred in RA and EP, reaching 2.24 mmol CO2 kg-1 h-1 and 0.20 µmol C2H4 kg-1 h-1, after 156 h of storage. The highest RA and EP were recorded for guavas stored at 31ºC. In spite of high RA, guavas stored at 41ºC presented EP similar to guavas stored at 11ºC, an indicator of heat-stress injury. Considering the 1-11ºC range, the mean Q10 value was around 3.0; the Q10 value almost duplicated at 11-21ºC range (5.9. At 21-31ºC and 31-41ºC, Q10 was 1.5 and 0.8, respectively. Knowing Q10, respiratory variation and ripening behavior in response to different temperatures, fruit storage and retail conditions can be optimized to reduce quality losses.

  4. Effectiveness on mild stress and mixed urinary incontinence and impact on Quality of Life of a phytotherapic product containing astragalus, thyme, lavender, hop, equisetum, red clover, cypress and agrimonia at titrated concentrations. Results from a monocentric study

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    Oreste Risi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess any beneficial effect on quality of life of a daily treatment with a phytotherapic product containing astragalus, thyme, lavender, hop, equisetum, red clover, cypress and agrimonia at titrated concentrations in a cohort of female patients complaining mild stress urinary incontinence (SUI or mixed urinary incontinence (MUI. Materials and methods: 42 non-consecutive female out-patients with mild SUI or mild MUI were assessed with a clinical evaluation, International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-SF and Patients’ Perception of Intensity of Urgency Scale (PPIUS at baseline the start of the study and after two months of therapy with the phytotherapic product. At the end of the therapy the patients also compiled Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I. Results: After the completion of the study there was a trend towards better results in each item of ICIQ-SF, but without any statistical significance with an average score in ICIQ-SF-1 of 3.12 ± 0.981 versus 3.21 ± 0.914 (p = 0.556, in ICIQ-SF-2 of 3.69 ± 1.422 versus 3.79 ± 1.372 (p = 0.68 and in ICIQ-SF-3 of 5.95 ± 1.618 versus 6.14 ± 1.670 (p = 0.462. The average reduction of PPIUS was of 0.09 (1.26 ± 1.481 versus 1.357 ± 1.509, p = 0.705. There was a reduction of average consumption of pads/die from 1.69 ± 0.636 to 1.54 ± 0.543 (p = 0.101. In relation to the PGI score, 23/42 patients (54.7% reported no changes after the completion of the therapy, 13/42 (30.9% reported a slight improvement, 5/42 (11.9% were much improved and 1/42 (2.3% was slightly worsened. Only 2/42 (4.7% patients discontinued the treatment before of the completion of the study. We did not observe any adverse effects during the period of the study. Conclusions: The phytotherapic product seems to cause a slight improvement of the symptoms in a good rate of patients. Moreover it has a low rate of withdrawal, due to the lack of adverse events.

  5. Effectiveness on mild stress and mixed urinary incontinence and impact on Quality of Life of a phytotherapic product containing astragalus, thyme, lavender, hop, equisetum, red clover, cypress and agrimonia at titrated concentrations. Results from a monocentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risi, Oreste; Manica, Michele; Lisanti, Rocca Carmela; Manfredi, Antonio; Tecci, Giuseppe Romeo

    2017-12-31

    To assess any beneficial effect on quality of life of a daily treatment with a phytotherapic product containing astragalus, thyme, lavender, hop, equisetum, red clover, cypress and agrimonia at titrated concentrations in a cohort of female patients complaining mild stress urinary incontinence (SUI) or mixed urinary incontinence (MUI). 42 non-consecutive female out-patients with mild SUI or mild MUI were assessed with a clinical evaluation, International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-SF) and Patients' Perception of Intensity of Urgency Scale (PPIUS) at baseline the start of the study and after two months of therapy with the phytotherapic product. At the end of the therapy the patients also compiled Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I). After the completion of the study there was a trend towards better results in each item of ICIQ-SF, but without any statistical significance with an average score in ICIQ-SF-1 of 3.12 ± 0.981 versus 3.21 ± 0.914 (p = 0.556), in ICIQ-SF-2 of 3.69 ± 1.422 versus 3.79 ± 1.372 (p = 0.68) and in ICIQ-SF-3 of 5.95 ± 1.618 versus 6.14 ± 1.670 (p = 0.462). The average reduction of PPIUS was of 0.09 (1.26 ± 1.481 versus 1.357 ± 1.509, p = 0.705). There was a reduction of average consumption of pads/die from 1.69 ± 0.636 to 1.54 ± 0.543 (p = 0.101). In relation to the PGI score, 23/42 patients (54.7%) reported no changes after the completion of the therapy, 13/42 (30.9%) reported a slight improvement, 5/42 (11.9%) were much improved and 1/42 (2.3%) was slightly worsened. Only 2/42 (4.7%) patients discontinued the treatment before of the completion of the study. We did not observe any adverse effects during the period of the study. The phytotherapic product seems to cause a slight improvement of the symptoms in a good rate of patients. Moreover it has a low rate of withdrawal, due to the lack of adverse events.

  6. Guava: phytochemical composition of a potential source of antioxidants for cosmetic and/or dermatological applications

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    Bruna Galdorfini Chiari-Andréo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Guava (Psidium guajava L. is a native fruit of the American tropics with commercial applications for its taste, flavor and aroma. Numerous pharmacological uses have been described for it, such as the antiseptic effect of its leaves, the use of the fresh fruit and tea from its leaves for the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, diabetes mellitus, and others. However, considering its rich composition, the guava also is a potential source of antioxidants to be used in the development of new formulations for cosmetic and/or dermatological applications, the main focus of this research. Herein, we describe the study of the phytochemical composition and the antioxidant activity of a guava extract prepared with non-toxic solvents aiming its use at biological applications. High performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were employed to identify the major components, while thermoanalytical measurements and hot stage microscopy were used to assess the chemical stability of guava fruit extract. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated assessing the SOD-like activity and ABTS free radical scavenger. The results show that the extract is a rich source of phenolic compounds, such as quercetin, kaempferol, schottenol, among many others. All of the components found in guava extract exhibit biological effects according to the literature data, mainly antioxidant properties.

  7. Sulfur volatiles in guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves: possible defense mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouseff, Russell L; Onagbola, Ebenezer O; Smoot, John M; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2008-10-08

    Volatiles from crushed and intact guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) were collected using static headspace SPME and determined using GC-PFPD, pulsed flame photometric detection, and GC-MS. Leaf volatiles from four common citrus culitvars were examined similarly to determine the potential component(s) responsible for guava's protective effect against the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama), which is the insect vector of Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening disease. Seven sulfur volatiles were detected: hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), methional, and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS). Identifications were based on matching linear retention index values on ZB-5, DB-Wax, and PLOT columns and MS spectra in the case of DMDS and DMS. DMDS is an insect toxic, defensive volatile produced only by wounded guava but not citrus leaves and, thus, may be the component responsible for the protective effect of guava against the HLB vector. DMDS is formed immediately after crushing, becoming the major headspace volatile within 10 min. Forty-seven additional leaf volatiles were identified from LRI and MS data in the crushed guava leaf headspace.

  8. Isolation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria of guava plants (Psidium guajava

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    Blanca Estela Gómez Luna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Guava production for 2008 in the state of Guanajuato was 177 ha in area planted and the same number of area harvested, production in 1,130.80 Ton. In traditional farming practices have made excessive use of mineral fertilizers, which, if it is true, ensure a good production are expensive and come to cause imbalances in agroecosystems by contamination of soil, water, and food. In this work we evaluated the effect of Bacillus subtilis strains as plant growth promoter rhizobacteria in guava plants under greenhouse conditions. We used three strains were inoculated potted plant with guava. We measured the height, number of branches and leaves. Guava orchards of 2 then display of soil were taken for the isolation andcharacterization of rhizobacteria. Selective medium was used with 1 - carboxylic acid, -1 - aminocyclopropane and selecting bacteria with ACC desaminase activity. For the isolates were determined antibiotic resistance, confrontation with fungal pathogens, plant growth tests in vitro and BIOLOG metabolic profiles. We found 30 isolates with ACC activities, 7 have the effect of biological control and 5 had effect on root development in vitro. The use of growth promotingrhizobacteria are an excellent alternative for improving the production of guavas, growing very little is known of themicroflora associated with the rhizosphere and the ecological role they have in the ground.

  9. Effect of CaCl2 and controlled atmosphere storage on phytochemical attributes of Guava

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    Muhammad Sameem JAVED

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Guava is very delicate and alluring fruit which is being ignored since very long time despite of highly nutritious fruit and rich source of Vitamin C. It contains Vitamin C 2-3 times more than orange. Naturally the guava fruit is enriched with vitamin C and polyphenoles. Guavas fruits after harvesting were dunked in solutions of CaCl2 (1, 2 and 3% at room temperature for 5 minutes and stored for 24 days in 5% CO2 level at temperature of 10±1°C, while the humidity level of storage chamber were 80%. The stored fruits were analyzed at 6 days of interval for sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose g/100g total phenolic contents (mgGAE/100g, antioxidant activity (µmolTE/g, and organic acids (citric, tartaric, ascorbic, and malic acids mg/100 g. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of guava fruits were declined during progression in storage but in fewer amounts as compared to room storage condition. Citric acid and ascorbic acid contents were reduced with the progression in storage, however tartaric and malic acid values were amplified at end of storage but the rate of changes were slower. The pretreatments in combination with modified atmosphere storage escalate the shelf life of guava and slow down nutritional degradation process.

  10. Physicochemical evaluation and hygroscopic behavior of powdered guava obtained by spray drying

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    Alinne Alencar Costa dos Santos

    Full Text Available The guava is one of the most popular tropical fruits, being highly accepted all over Brazil. Many food products can be made from the fruit, such as jams, jellies, liquors and many types of juice. Given the above, the objective of this research was to characterise atomised guava pulp as to its physicochemical composition, and assess its hygroscopic behaviour by means of adsorption isotherms employing different mathematical models. The physicochemical analyses, carried out on both the whole guava pulp and on the atomised guava powder, were: moisture; pH; acidity; soluble solids and ascorbic acid, giving the following results respectively: 88.57-5.69 %; 3.76-3.88, 0.43-0.24 mg 100 g-1; 8.43 to 93.00 ºBrix and 2.77-3.79 mg 100 g-1. The adsorption isotherms were constructed adjusting the experimental data to the mathematical models of GAB, BET, Henderson and Oswin. The Henderson model presented the best fit to the atomised guava powder for all temperatures tested, presenting an error ranging from 09.93 to 12.09% and a correlation coefficient ranging from 0.9900 to 0.9934.

  11. Quality evaluation of frozen guava and yellow passion fruit pulps by NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamar, Priscila D; Caramês, Elem T S; Poppi, Ronei J; Pallone, Juliana A L

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the application of near infrared spectroscopy as a green, quick, and efficient alternative to analytical methods currently used to evaluate the quality (moisture, total sugars, acidity, soluble solids, pH and ascorbic acid) of frozen guava and passion fruit pulps. Fifty samples were analyzed by near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and reference methods. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to develop calibration models to relate the NIR spectra and the reference values. Reference methods indicated adulteration by water addition in 58% of guava pulp samples and 44% of yellow passion fruit pulp samples. The PLS models produced lower values of root mean squares error of calibration (RMSEC), root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP), and coefficient of determination above 0.7. Moisture and total sugars presented the best calibration models (RMSEP of 0.240 and 0.269, respectively, for guava pulp; RMSEP of 0.401 and 0.413, respectively, for passion fruit pulp) which enables the application of these models to determine adulteration in guava and yellow passion fruit pulp by water or sugar addition. The models constructed for calibration of quality parameters of frozen fruit pulps in this study indicate that NIR spectroscopy coupled with the multivariate calibration technique could be applied to determine the quality of guava and yellow passion fruit pulp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Formation of ‘Crioula’ guava rootstock under saline water irrigation and nitrogen doses

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    Leandro de P. Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth and formation of fresh and dry weight of ‘Crioula’ guava rootstock irrigated with waters of different saline levels and nitrogen (N doses, in an experiment conducted in plastic tubes under greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme with four replicates, and the treatments consisted of five levels of water electrical conductivity - ECw (0.3, 1.1, 1.9, 2.7 and 3.5 dS m-1 and four N doses (70, 100, 130 and 160% of the N dose recommended for the cultivation of guava seedlings, cv. ‘Paluma’. The dose referring to 100% corresponds to 773 mg of N dm-3. The highest growth of ‘Crioula’ guava rootstock was obtained with ECw of 0.3 dS m-1 and fertilization of 541.1 mg N dm-3 of soil; increasing N doses did not reduce the deleterious effect of the salt stress on the growth and phytomass formation of ‘Crioula’ guava rootstock; irrigation with water of up to 1.75 dS m-1, in the production of guava rootstocks, promotes acceptable reduction of 10% in growth and quality of the seedlings.

  13. Physicochemical characteristics of guava “Paluma” submitted to osmotic dehydration

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    Roselene Ferreira Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the conservation post process osmotic of guava stored temperature at 5oC. Guava (Psidium guajava L., red variety “Paluma” minimally processed by mild osmotic dehydration, were packaged in polyethylene terephthalate (PET and stored temperature at 5ºC. Non-treated guava, packed in PET trays, was used as control. The treatment used was osmotic dehydration in sucrose syrup at 60ºBrix and physicochemical determinations were pH, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, reducing sugars (RS, total sugars (TS and parameters related to colour read (a*, chroma (c*, yellow (b*, luminosity (L* of the fresh and osmotically dehydrated guava slices. The dehydrated fruits lost about 34.45% of water, concentrating contents of soluble solids, total and reducing sugars, when compared to control samples. The pH value remained around 3.76 for the OD fruits and 3.87 for the fresh fruits. The colour of the dehydrated fruits was more intense than the control samples’. The guava slices osmotic dehydration had 21 days of shelf life, showed physicochemical characteristics significantly superior to the control samples’, having a stable and high quality product as a result.

  14. Production of tannase under solid-state fermentation and its application in detannification of guava juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naresh Kumar; Beniwal, Vikas; Kumar, Naveen; Kumar, Surender; Pathera, Ashok Kumar; Ray, Aradhita

    2014-01-01

    Guava juice is known to be rich in antioxidant activity due a high level of vitamins A and C. However, tannins present in the guava juice form tannin-protein complexes that affect the utilization of vitamins and minerals and inhibit digestive enzymes. Beside this, bitterness and cloudiness are the other major problems of juice industries. The present study aimed to utilize a low-cost substrate (tea residue) for the production of tannase and its application in detannification of guava juice. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was evaluated to produce tannase from Aspergillus niger. Maximum tannase (1.86 U/g dry substrate) production was observed at 30°C after 96 hr of the incubation period. The optimum pH of the moistening agent was found to be 5.0. Partially purified enzyme using ammonium sulfate precipitation was subjected to guava juice treatment at a level of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% for 30 and 60 min. Decrease in tannic acid content of guava juice was found to be 17.60, 29.04, and 44.38% after 30 min and 40.59, 53.69, and 59.23% after 60 min, respectively.

  15. USE OF METHYL EUGENOL SOLUTION AND RED GUAVA EXTRACT FOR FRUIT FLY CONTROL

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    Sulistiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the constraints increase fruit production in Indonesia is the fruit fly pests. The introduction of fruit fly pest attack prevention using attractant methyl eugenol is considered expensive and troublesome. Therefore, researchers are interested in doing this experiment. Objective: (1 determine the volume of a solution of methyl eugenol most appropriate in the fruit fly trap to get optimum results. (2 determine the most appropriate time of application. Conducted experiments using attractant methyl eugenol is mixed into the guava fruit extract. Research conducted in the guava orchard belonging to farmers in the village Sumberagung, Jetis, Bantul begins July through September 2015. The research used randomized block design factorial design with two treatment factors. The first factor is the concentration of the solution Petrogenol which consists of three levels, repeated five times. Data were analyzed by F test, if they depict real effect, continued treatment mean comparison test using HSD test at five percent level. Conclusions (1 The solution Methyl eugenol is a fruit fly attractant potential in the control of fruit flies in the crop guava. (2 The concentration of Methyl eugenol 0.60 ml per 100 ml guava fruit extract with the application time of 10 days is more effective to trap fruit flies in guava crop

  16. Odour-active compounds in guava (Psidium guajava L. cv. Red Suprema).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Jorge A; Bent, Leandra

    2013-09-01

    Solid phase microextraction and simultaneous distillation-extraction combined with GC-FID, GC/MS, aroma extract dilution analysis and odour activity values were used to analyse volatile compounds from guava (Psidium guajava L. cv. Red Suprema) and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analysis led to the detection of 141 compounds, 121 of which were positively identified. The composition of guava fruit volatiles included 43 esters, 37 terpenes, 18 aldehydes, 16 alcohols, ten acids, six ketones, four furans and seven miscellaneous compounds. Seventeen odorants were considered as odour-active compounds, with (E)-β-ionone, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, (Z)-3-hexenal, hexyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenal and limonene contributing most to the typical guava aroma of this cultivar. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Digital phenotyping for quantification of genetic diversity in inbred guava (Psidium guajava) families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, W; Viana, A P; Cavalcante, N R; Ambrósio, M; Santos, E A; Vieira, H D

    2017-03-22

    Digital image analysis of seeds has been used for the identification of cultivars, determination of seed color and mechanical damage, and classification of different seed sizes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of digital image analysis of seeds for the quantification of genetic diversity among genotypes of inbred guava (Psidium guajava L.) families. The SAS Mini equipment, which consists of a capture module and a software program for analysis, was employed for the capture and analysis of the seed images. Different genetic diversity quantification strategies were tested using the Ward-Modified Location Model method. The set of variables related to geometry of the seeds was the largest contributor to divergence among the guava genotypes. The use of seed descriptors obtained by digital image analysis via the SAS system was efficient at quantifying the genetic diversity among genotypes of inbred guava families associated with the use of the Ward-Modified Location Model method.

  18. Oxidative stability of pork emulsion containing tomato products and pink guava pulp during refrigerated aerobic storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-11-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant potential of tomato puree (10 %; T-1), tomato pulp (12.5 %; T-2), lyophilized tomato peel (6 %; T-3), and pink guava pulp (10 %; T-4) was evaluated in raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage for 9 days under aerobic packaging. The lycopene and β-carotene content varied in pork emulsion as T-3 > T-1 > T-2 > T-4 and decreased (P emulsions than in control. Overall, incorporation of tomato products and pink guava pulp improved the visual colour and odour scores of raw pork emulsion. These results indicated that tomato products and guava pulp can be utilized as sources of natural antioxidants in raw pork products to minimize lipid oxidation, off-odour development, and surface discolouration.

  19. Thermal and structural study of guava (Psidium guajava L powders obtained by two dehydration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Osorio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two food products (powders were obtained by hot-air drying or lyophilisation methods on the whole guava fruits. The powders were characterised by sensory and thermal analyses (TGA-DSC, infrared spectroscopy (IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Thermal, morphological and structural characterisations showed a similar behaviour for the two solids. TGA-DSC and IR showed the presence of pectin as the main constituent of solids. A semi-crystalline profile was evidenced by XRD, and lamellar/spherical morphologies were observed by SEM. Sensory analyses revealed an aroma highly related to guava. These value-added food products are an alternative to process guava and avoid loss during postharvest handling.

  20. Determination of volatile compounds by gas liquid chromatography in tropical fruit, guava (psidium guajav L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Zeb-un-Nisa; Asi, M. R.; Ahmad, R.; Iqbal, Z.; Maqbool, A. B.

    2002-01-01

    Volatile flavor components from both white and pink guava fruits were collected using Likens-Nickerson concurrent Distillation Extraction method and were analyzed by GC/FID. In the essence collected by using likens-Nickerson concurrent distillation extraction apparatus, 23 compounds were present in white guava fruit, of which 11 compounds (furfural, alpha-pinene, trans-2-hexene-1-ol, 2-heptanone, benzaldehyde, hexyl acetate Beta-ionone, limonene, 2-nonanone, cinamyl acetate and octyl acetate) were identified. Similarly for pink guava fruit, 13 compounds out of 29 compounds were identified by comparing retention times of unknown with that of standard compounds and sniffing at the odour port. These were hexanal, furfural, 2-heptanone, benzaldehyde, methyl furfural hexyl acetate, beta-ionone, alpha-pinene, 2-nonanone, limonene, cinnamyl acetate, ethyl undecanoate and octyl acetate. (author)

  1. Morphophysiology of guava under saline water irrigation and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idelfonso L. Bezerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth of grafted guava cv. ‘Paluma’ subjected to different concentrations of salts in irrigation water and nitrogen (N fertilization. The plants were transplanted to 150 L lysimeters and under field conditions at the Science and Agri-food Technology Center of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in the municipality of Pombal - PB. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme, with three replicates, and the treatments corresponded to five levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water - ECw (0.3; 1.1; 1.9; 2.7 and 3.5 dS m-1 and four N doses (70, 100, 130 and 160% of the N dose recommended for the crop. The doses equivalent to 100% corresponded to 541.1 mg of N dm-3 of soil. Irrigation water salinity above 0.3 dS m-1 negatively affects the number of leaves, leaf area, stem diameter, dry phytomass of leaves, branches and shoots . A significant interaction between irrigation water salinity and N fertilization was observed only for the number of leaves and leaf area at 120 days after transplanting. N dose above 70% of the recommendation (378.7 mg N dm-3 soil did not mitigate the deleterious effects caused by salt stress on plant growth.

  2. Effect of guava leaves on growth and the non-specific immune response of Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-Li; Li, Zhuo-Jia; Yang, Keng; Lin, Hei-Zhao; Guo, Zhi-Xun

    2014-09-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf extracts have antiviral and antibacterial activity against shrimp pathogens such as yellow-head virus (YHV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), and Vibrio harveyi, which make it a potential water disinfectant for use in shrimp culture. In this study, the safety of guava leaf supplementation in shrimp was evaluated by studying its influence on growth and the non-specific immune response of Penaeus monodon. Six diets containing different levels of guava leaves (0% [basal diet], 0.025% [G1], 0.05% [G2], 0.1% [G3], 0.2% [G4], and 0.4% [G5]) were fed to groups of shrimp (1.576 ± 0.011 g body weight) in triplicate for 56 days. Growth performance (final body weight, WG, PWG, SGR) of shrimp fed guava leaf diets was significantly higher (P 0.05) were found. Dietary supplementation with guava leaf improved the activities of prophenoloxidase (PO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in serum, and of superoxide dismutase (SOD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and lysozyme (LSZ) both in serum and hepatopancreas of shrimp. In the experimental groups, the activities of these enzymes followed a similar pattern of change; they increased initially at low levels of dietary supplementation and then decreased with increasing concentrations of dietary guava leaf. Serum PO and SOD activities in shrimp fed the G1 diet reached 7.50 U ml(-1) and 178.33 U ml(-1), respectively, with PO activity being significantly higher than in controls. In shrimp fed the G1 diet, SOD, ACP, and AKP activities in hepatopancreas were significantly higher than in the controls, reaching 57.32 U g(-1), 23.28 U g(-1), and 19.35 U g(-1) protein, respectively. The highest activities of serum ACP, AKP, LSZ, and of hepatopancreas LSZ, were observed in the G3 diet group. Total nitric oxide synthase (TNOS) activity was highest (64.80 U ml(-1)) in the G4 diet group, which was significantly higher than that observed in the control group. These results suggest that dietary

  3. Efficacy of pink guava pulp as an antioxidant in raw pork emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-08-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. The antioxidant potential of pink guava pulp (PGP) was evaluated at different levels (0%; C, 5.0%; T-1, 7.5%; T-2 and 10.0%; T-3) in the raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage of 9 days under aerobic packaging. Lycopene and β-carotene contents increased (P emulsion than control throughout storage period. Our results indicated that pink guava pulp can be utilized as antioxidants in raw pork products to minimize lipid oxidation, off-odour development, and surface discolouration.

  4. Acúmulo de massa seca e marcha de absorção de nutrientes em mudas de goiabeira 'Pedro Sato' Dry matter storage and absorption route of nutrients in guava seedlings "Pedro Sato"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Mariano Dias Augostinho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a curva de acúmulo da matéria seca de mudas e a marcha de absorção de macro e micronutrientes de goiabeira cultivar 'Pedro Sato'. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Foram utilizadas sete coletas de plantas de goiabeira 'Pedro Sato', em cultivo hidropônico, em casa de vegetação da Unesp, Campus de Jaboticabal. Nas coletas, avaliaram-se o crescimento das plantas e o acúmulo de nutrientes, a cada 15 dias, durante 120 dias após o transplantio. As mudas de goiabeira proporcionaram maior acúmulo de biomassa no órgão folha em relação ao caule e à raiz. Observou-se alta absorção dos nutrientes, no período de 60 a 90 dias após o transplantio, nas mudas de goiabeira. O acúmulo de nutrientes das mudas de goiabeira (planta inteira foi de 340, 44, 380, 173, 33 e 40 mg planta-1, respectivamente para N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, e de 743, 118, 5.114, 2.151, 566 mg planta-1, respectivamente, para B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn.This work aimed to determine the dry matter storage curve of seedlings and the absorptions of macro and micro nutrients of guava tree cultivar 'Pedro Sato'. It was used randomized design with three repetitions. Seven samples of guava plants cultivar 'Pedro Sato' were used in hydroponic growth in the greenhouse located at UNESP- Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. It was evaluated the samples of plants growing and the nutrients storage every 15 days, during 120 days after the transplanting. The seedlings of guava priorized the dry matter storage of leaves in relation of the stem and leaves. The guava seedlings presented high absorption of nutrients in the period of 60 and 90 days after the transplanting. The nutrients storage of the guava seedlings (whole plant were of : 340; 44; 380; 173; 33; and 40 mg plant-1, respectively, for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and 743; 118; 5114; 2151; 566µg plant-1, respectively for B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn.

  5. Relationships between M. enterolobii and F. solani: spatial and temporal dynamics in the occurrence of guava decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martins Gomes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Guava decline, caused by the interaction between the phytonematode Meloidogyne enterolobii and the fungus Fusarium solani, has caused direct and indirect losses to the whole productive chain of guava. Aiming to understand the interaction mechanisms between M. enterolobii and F. solani, this study carried out a bioassay on guava plants with roots in two different treatments: inoculated separatelyor together with the fungus and/or nematode. The nematode parasitism not triggered an systemic effect on the plant become susceptible to root rot caused by the fungus.Therefore, it was concluded that there was a local effect of parasitism by M. enterolobii on the pathogenicity of F. solani in guava roots, making it necessary for the two pathogens to occupy the same space at the same time for occurrence of guava decline. Keywords: complex disease, Fusarium solani, guava root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne enterolobii, Psidium guajava. Cite as Gomes VM, Souza RM, Almeida AM, Dolinski C. Relationships between M. enterolobii and F. solani: spatial and temporal dynamics in the occurrence of guava decline.

  6. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase activity by flavonol glycosides of guava (Psidium guajava L.): a key to the beneficial effects of guava in type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidenberger, Thomas; Selg, Manuel; Krennhuber, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    Based on the traditional use in popular medicine, the effect of extracts from Psidium guajava L. leaves and of the main flavonol-glycoside components on dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DP-IV), a key enzyme of blood glucose homoeostasis, has been investigated in-vitro. An ethanolic extract was prepared from dried, powdered leaves of guava and was found to contain seven main flavonol-glycosides, which were isolated by semipreparative HPLC and tested individually. The ethanolic guava leave extract was shown to exert a dose-dependent inhibition of DP-IV, with an IC50 of 380 μg/ml test assay solution. Also the individual flavonol-glycosides inhibited DP-IV dose-dependently, with variations of the effects by a factor of 10, and an overall effect accounting for 100% of that observed for the total guava extract. The recovery of individual flavonol-glycosides in CaCo-2 epithelial cells, a model of gastrointestinal tract absorption, amounted to 2.3-5.3% of the amount available for absorption over 60 min at 37°C. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fruit production and quality of guava 'Paluma' as a function of humic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit production and quality of guava 'Paluma' as a function of humic substances and soil mulching. Leonardo Fonseca da Rocha, Lourival Ferreira Cavalcante, Járisson Cavalcante Nunes, Antônio Gustavo de Luna Souto, Alian Cássio Pereira Cavalcante, Ítalo Herbert Lucena Cavalcante, Walter Esfrain Pereira ...

  8. Effect of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf extract on glucose uptake in rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-Chi; Shen, Szu-Chuan; Wu, James Swi-Bea

    2009-06-01

    People in oriental countries, including Japan and Taiwan, boil guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) in water and drink the extract as a folk medicine for diabetes. The present study investigated the enhancement of aqueous guava leaf extract on glucose uptake in rat clone 9 hepatocytes and searched for the active compound. The extract was eluted with MeOH-H(2)O solutions through Diaion, Sephadex, and MCI-gel columns to separate into fractions with different polarities. The uptake test of 2-[1-(14)C] deoxy-D-glucose in rat clone 9 hepatocytes was performed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of these fractions. The active compound was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that phenolics are the principal component of the extract, that high polarity fractions of the guava leaf extract are enhancers to glucose uptake in rat clone 9 hepatocytes, and that quercetin is the major active compound. We suggest that quercetin in the aqueous extract of guava leaves promotes glucose uptake in liver cells, and contributes to the alleviation of hypoglycemia in diabetes as a consequence.

  9. Control of media browning in micropropagation of guava (Psidium guajava L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Nafees, M.; Ashraf, I.

    2016-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a highly valuable fruit of the tropical regions of the world. This species faces browning or blackening of culture medium during In vitro culture due to leaching of phenolic, microbial contagion and tissue recalcitrance. A study therefore designed to evaluate the effects of antioxidants in reduction of phenolic exudation which hampers In vitro regeneration. The nodal explants of the plant were cultured on MS media after pre-soaking in antioxidant solutions of citric acid, ascorbic acid, poly vinyl pyrrolidine (PVP) and charcoal. After culturing explants, the amount of phenolic exude was determined periodically on spectrophotometer at 750 nm absorbance. Phenolic exudation from guava was significantly reduced in nodes treated with charcoal as compared to control and rest of the treatments. Moreover, guava nodes survival percentage was also significantly increased in charcoal treated nodes. It is concluded that pre-soaking in different antioxidants significantly reduced the media browning and thus micro-propagation of guava could be achieved on commercial basis. (author)

  10. Pepper Extract 'Biquinho' as an edible coating on conservation of guavas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelly Rodrigues Dantas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Belonging to the species Capsicum chinense, ‘Pout’ Pepper differs from the other due to its salient characteristics of shape, color and absence of pungency, but its use is currently limited, basically in the ornamentation of dishes in cooking, being left aside the numerous other benefits chemicals existing in it. It was aimed the elaboration of edible lining with different concentrations of 'Pout’ pepper extract, besides applying it in the conservation of guavas marketed in the backwoods of Paraiba. For this, the extracts were obtained following to the method of extracting alcohol, incorporated in the coating prepared edible, applied by immersion in the steal and conducted the analyzes. The microbiological results, fruits in which there was the application of the coating, in other words, with extract present, showed a great efficiency in their conservation, especially under the action of yeasts and molds in the fungicidal action was not observed in the guavas were applied to the coating with a greater quantity of extract. Concerning to physical-chemical, all the guavas have achieved good results, especially in the quantification of vitamin C, that the application of the coating caused a lower degradation of vitamin according to the period of analysis. It remains clear then, the effective proof of the action of the edible coating elaborated, thus understanding the proposed objective.The effective proof of the antifungal action of the elaborated coating was achieved, as expected in previous studies, and could be applied in guavas and delayed in the senescence process.

  11. Understanding of social capital condition among red guava farmers in Tambahrejo Village, Pageruyung District, Kendal Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayatri, S.; Sumarjono, D.; Satmoko, S.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the potential of social capital and growing income of red guava farmers in Tambahrejo Village, Pageruyung District, Kendal Regency. Interview and observation were used for data collection. Set of Questionnaire was developed to answer research’ goal. All member of farmer group I ACC (Kelompok Tani Makmur I ACC) were chosen as respondents in this research. Data were analyzed using multiple regressions. The result shows that there was significant relationship between social capital in community and the income of the red guava farmers. Farmer’ group was found as a media to improve farmers’ knowledge and networking. Farmers group facilitated farmers to market red guava product. Moreover, wife of the farmers established women group or KWT (Kelompok Wanita Tani). The result found that KWT contributed to improve family’s income. KWT also promote activities to help product’s diversification of red guava. Both farmer group and KWT provided activities such as saving and loans, it means there was trust among member of farmer group.

  12. Ionizing radiation treatment to improve postharvest life and maintain quality of fresh guava fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Pal, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the potential of ionizing radiation for improving physiological responses, quality, and storage time of fresh guava fruit. Ionizing radiation treatment suppressed the respiration and ethylene production rates and thus retarded the process of fruit ripening during storage. Irradiation treatment also retarded the physical and biochemical changes associated with ripening such as firmness, titratable acidity, soluble solids content, and vitamin C during storage, but for doses higher than 0.25 kGy the vitamin C content decreased. The positive effects of ionizing radiation treatment on delayed fruit ripening and other quality attributes diminished during 22 days of storage at 10 deg. C. Thus, a combination of ionizing radiation with low-temperature storage (10 deg. C) did not have much synergistic effect on storage life and quality of guava fruit. In conclusion, ionizing radiation treatment of guava fruit with 0.25 kGy dose increased the postharvest life by 3-4 days, maintained fruit quality, and reduced the decay incidence. The optimal dose (0.25 kGy) for postharvest life extension of guava fruit may be exploited to provide phytosanitary security against many insect pests including fruit flies

  13. Response of young guava plants cultivar ‘Século XXI’ to phosphorus fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Wigliff Leite Pachico

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Information on nutritional aspects related to phosphorus fertilization is especially important since guava plants are cultivated mainly in tropical regions where P levels are low. The objective of this research was to evaluate the response of young guava plants of cultivar ‘Século XXI’ to phosphorus applied into the soil. The experiment was carried out in 3 dm3 pots filled with samples of a dystrophic Red Latosol (P resin: 8 mg dm-3. Treatments consisted of applying doses of 0, 90, 180, 270, and 360 mg kg-1 of P, and were arranged in a completely randomized design with four replicates. At 175 days after transplanting, P doses applied into soil increase P levels in both soil and plant tissues, resulting in increasing dry mass of guava plants cultivar ‘Século XXI’. The highest development of young guava plants are attained when P is applied from 155 up to 210 mg kg-1 into soil and when P level in leaf tissues occurs from 1.1 up to 1.8 mg kg-1.

  14. Fruit production and quality of guava 'Paluma' as a function of humic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-17

    Aug 17, 2016 ... Guava fruit production increases from the first to the second harvest. Fruit quality for ... tenance is one of the essential factors for a sustainable production .... titratable acidity (SS/TA ratio) was calculated; and vii) the fruit yield.

  15. Managing conflict over biological control: the case of strawberry guava in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Biological control researchers commonly avoid targets with potential for high conflict, but for certain highly damaging invaders with no viable management alternatives, it may be necessary to consider biological control even when it is likely to generate conflict. Discussed here is a case study, strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine...

  16. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fansheng; Yu, Shujuan; Feng, Zeng; Wu, Xinlan

    2015-01-01

    To optimization of extraction of antioxidant compounds from guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves and showed that the guava leaves are the potential source of antioxidant compounds. The bioactive polysaccharide compounds of guava leaves (P. guajava L.) were obtained using ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Extraction was carried out according to Box-Behnken central composite design, and independent variables were temperature (20-60°C), time (20-40 min) and power (200-350 W). The extraction process was optimized by using response surface methodology for the highest crude extraction yield of bioactive polysaccharide compounds. The optimal conditions were identified as 55°C, 30 min, and 240 W. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl and hydroxyl free radical scavenging were conducted. The results of quantification showed that the guava leaves are the potential source of antioxidant compounds.

  17. The guava tree as bioindicator during the process of fuel replacement of an oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Simone F; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Moraes, Regina M

    2013-05-01

    This study was performed to verify whether the exchange of the fuel used in the boilers of a crude oil refinery located in Cubatão (SE Brazil) would result in alterations on gas exchange, growth and leaf injuries in saplings of Psidium guajava 'Paluma'. The purpose of the refinery was to reduce the SO2 emission, but using natural gas as fuel could increase the concentrations of O3 precursors in the atmosphere. Thus a biomonitoring was performed with a native species sensitive to O3. The plants were exposed in five areas (CM1, CM5, CEPEMA, Centro, and RP) at different distances to the refinery, both before and after the fuel exchange. We performed six exposures under environmental conditions, with length of ca. 90 days each. With the utilization of natural gas, the saplings presented reductions in carbon assimilation rate under saturating light conditions (Asat, μmolCO2m(-2)s(-1)) and the stomatal conductance (gs, molH2Om(-2)s(-1)), and increase in height, number of leaves, and dry mass of leaves and shoots. There were also reductions in root dry mass and in the root/shoot ratio. The saplings also presented O3-induced leaf injuries. The responses of P. guajava 'Paluma' were altered after the fuel exchange as a result of a new combination of pollutants in the atmosphere. The fuel exchange has not resulted in environmental benefit to the surrounding forest; it has only altered the contamination profile of the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fingerprint analysis and quality consistency evaluation of flavonoid compounds for fermented Guava leaf by combining high-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Tian, Xiaofei; Wei, Wenhao; Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-10-01

    Guava leaves are used in traditional herbal teas as antidiabetic therapies. Flavonoids are the main active of Guava leaves and have many physiological functions. However, the flavonoid compositions and activities of Guava leaves could change due to microbial fermentation. A high-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method was applied to identify the varieties of the flavonoids in Guava leaves before and after fermentation. High-performance liquid chromatography, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to quantitatively determine the changes in flavonoid compositions and evaluate the consistency and quality of Guava leaves. Monascus anka Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermented Guava leaves contained 2.32- and 4.06-fold more total flavonoids and quercetin, respectively, than natural Guava leaves. The flavonoid compounds of the natural Guava leaves had similarities ranging from 0.837 to 0.927. The flavonoid compounds from the Monascus anka S. cerevisiae fermented Guava leaves had similarities higher than 0.993. This indicated that the quality consistency of the fermented Guava leaves was better than that of the natural Guava leaves. High-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting and chemometric analysis are promising methods for evaluating the degree of fermentation of Guava leaves based on quality consistency, which could be used in assessing flavonoid compounds for the production of fermented Guava leaves. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effect of Guava in Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakavi, R; Mangaraj, Manaswini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The fruit of Psidium guajava (P.guajava) is known to contain free sugars yet the fruit juice showed hypoglycaemic effect. Hypoglycaemic activity of guava leaves has been well documented but not for guava fruit. Aim So we aimed to evaluate the effect of ripe guava (with peel and without peel) fruit supplementation on blood glucose and lipid profile in healthy human subjects. Materials and Methods Randomized Controlled study undertaken in: 1) Baseline; 2) 6 weeks supplementation phase. Forty five healthy MBBS students were included and randomly enrolled into Group A, Group B and Group C. In Baseline phase: Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and serum lipid profile was done in all 3 groups. Group A were supplemented with 400g of ripe guava with peel and group B without peel, for 6 weeks. Rest 15 treated as control i.e., Group C. Result Supplementation of ripe guava fruit with peel reduced BMI as well as blood pressure (pguava pulp supplementation was not significant. Serum Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDLc) levels decreased significantly (pguava pulp without peel may have a favourable effect on lipid levels and blood sugar as well. Conclusion Guava fruit without peel is more effective in lowering blood sugar as well as serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDLc. It increases HDLc levels also. PMID:27790420

  20. Effect of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) leaf soluble solids on glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Szu-Chuan; Cheng, Fang-Chi; Wu, Ning-Jung

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of aqueous and ethanol soluble solid extracts of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) leaves on hypoglycemia and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) and nicotinamide were injected into Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to induce type 2 diabetes. Acute and long-term feeding tests were carried out, and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to follow the changes in plasma glucose and insulin levels was performed to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of guava leaf extracts in diabetic rats.The results of acute and long-term feeding tests showed a significant reduction in the blood sugar level in diabetic rats fed with either the aqueous or ethanol extract of guava leaves (p guava leaf extracts increased the plasma insulin level and glucose utilization in diabetic rats. The results also indicated that the activities of hepatic hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in diabetic rats fed with aqueous extracts were higher than in the normal diabetic group (p guava leaf extract and the health function of guava leaves against type 2 diabetes.

  1. Effect of Time and Level of Pruning on Vegetative Growth, Flowering, Yield, and Quality of Guava

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Shiva; Kandel, Tanka Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Poor quality fruit production in the rainy season and failure to manipulate production periods are common problems for guava production in India and Nepal. As a possible management to overcome these problems, a field experiment was conducted to understand the effect of time and level of pruning...... (%) of fruits increased with the increased level of pruning in both seasons irrespective of timing of pruning, but fruit acidity was not affected by both treatments. In conclusion, pruning plants at a 20 cm pruning level in early May was the most effective management to reduce yield in the rainy season...... on growth, flowering, yield, and quality of guava. An experiment was laid out with split-pot design allocating three pruning times (mid-April, early May, and mid-May) and four pruning levels (0-, 10-, 20-, and 30-cm tip removal) with three replications in each treatment. Increased level of pruning in early...

  2. High performance thin layer chromatography fingerprint analysis of guava (Psidium guajava) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, M.; Darusman, L. K.; Rafi, M.

    2017-05-01

    High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint analysis is commonly used for quality control of medicinal plants in term of identification and authentication. In this study, we have been developed HPTLC fingerprint analysis for identification of guava (Psidium guajava) leaves raw material. A mixture of chloroform, acetone, and formic acid in the ratio 10:2:1 was used as the optimum mobile phase in HPTLC silica plate and with 13 bands were detected. As reference marker we chose gallic acid (Rf = 0.21) and catechin (Rf = 0.11). The two compound were detected as pale black bands at 366 nm after derivatization with sulfuric acid 10% v/v (in methanol) reagent. Validation of the method was met within validation criteria, so the developed method could be used for quality control of guava leaves.

  3. The Effect of Temperature on Cr (VI) Removal by Using Guava Leaves as a Biosorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana,; Mulana, Farid

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary research on Cr(IV) removal in a liquid waste using guava leaves (Psidium Guajava) as a bio-sorbent has been done. The experiments were conducted in a stirred batch reactor. The effect of temperature on efficiency and absorption capacity has been studied. Both the efficiency and absorptioncapacity are directly proportional to the temperature under the current experimental conditions. The results showed that optimum absorption capacity and absorption efficiency of Cr(VI) use of guav...

  4. Rearing of Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae on guava and Eucalyptus in laboratory

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    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Thyrinteina arnobia, is one of the most important defoliating caterpillars of Eucalyptus in Brazil The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and the reproduction of feeding on leaves of guava (Psidium guajava or Eucalyptus grandis in the 15th generation, after rearing this species for 14 genrations on guava leaves. T. arnobia showed shorter larval period, better viability of caterpillars and pupae, heavier pupae, higher number of eggs per female, better egg viability and shorter longevity of females in guava leaves than in Eucalyptus leaves. The better development and reproduction with P. guajava showed that this insect could be reared in laboratory with guava leaves.Thyrinteina arnobia, é umas das mais importantes lagartas desfolhadoras de eucalipto no Brasil. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento e a reprodução desse lepidóptero em folhas de goiabeira (Psidium guajava e Eucalyptus grandis, na 15º geração, após criar essa espécie por 14 gerações em folhas de goiabeira. T. arnobia apresentou menor período larval, maior viabilidade de lagartas e de pupas, maior peso pupal, maior número de ovos totais por fêmea e viabilidade de ovos e menor longevidade de fêmeas com folhas de goiabeira. Além disso, teve melhor desempenho e reprodução com P. guajava, do que com folhas de E. grandis, mostrando que esse inseto pode ser criado com folhas de goiabeira em laboratório.

  5. Effect of Guava Extract Administration on Megakaryocytes Amount in Mice Femur

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    Nur Atik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a disease spread by mosquito’s bite. Dengue fever is marked by the presence of thrombocytopenia. Traditional crops such as guava are commonly used to treat dengue fever. This research aims to know the effect of guava extract administration towards megakaryocytes amount in mice femur. The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Pharmacology and Therapy, Histology Laboratory of Faculty of Medicine at Universitas Padjadjaran, Eijkman, Bandung from September until November 2016 using laboratory experimental study design. 20 Swiss webster mice strains were divided randomly into 4 groups. Group I and II were administered quinine 2.8 mg/20 grBW/day for 14 days to decrease amount of trombocytes. Group II and III were administered guava extract 0.785 mg/20 grBW/day for 5 days. Group IV was administered aquadest for 19 days. In the 27th day, the mice left femurs were collected and made into paraffin section preparations with hematoxylin-eosin staining and then observed under microscope. Group IV had the most megakaryocytes followed by Group II, III, and I. Based on Kruskal-Wallis test, a significant difference was shown (p<0.05. Mann-Whitney test showed that there were significant differences between Group I and Group II, III, and IV. Meanwhile there was no significant difference between normal mice and extract-given mice. Guava extract is proven statistically significant to increase the megakaryocytes amount in thrombocytopenic mice without increasing number of megakaryocytes in normal mice.

  6. Efficacy of pink guava pulp as an antioxidant in raw pork emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K.; Biswas, Ashim K.; Sahoo, Jhari

    2012-01-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. The antioxidant potential of pink guava pulp (PGP) was evaluated at different levels (0%; C, 5.0%; T-1, 7.5%; T-2 and 10.0%; T-3) in the raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage of 9 days under aerobic packaging. Lycopene and β-carotene contents increased (P 

  7. ACTIVITY TEST OF GUAVA (Psidium guajava L. LEAF METHANOL EXTRACT AS CONTRACEPTION ANTIFERTILITY TO WHITE MICE (Rattus norvegicus

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    Sri Retno Dwi Ariani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to know about if the guava (Psidium guajava L. leaf methanol extract on 10.5 mg/mL and 21.0 mg/mL dossages indicate a positive test as contraception antifertility to white mice (Rattus norvegicus. The sample is guava leaf from Mungkid, Magelang Central of Java Indonesia. The animals experiment are the white mice on 140-300 g for female, 200-250 g for male and about 3 months of age in average. The steps of this research are : (1 preparing  sample, i.e. washing, drying on to indirect sunlight and make the sample into powder, (2 isolation the guava leaf powder in soxhlet instrument with hexane, (3 evaporation the sample with rotary evaporator until guava leaf hexane extract produced, (4 maseration the sample with methanol, (5 evaporation the sample with rotary evaporator until guava leaf methanol extract produced, (6 conducting contraception antifertility activity test to guave leaf methanol extract on 10.5 mg/mL and 21.0 mg/mL dossages to mice white. The results of this research are guava leaf methanol extract on 10.5 mg/mL and 21.0 mg/mL dossages indicate a negative contraception antifertility test to white mice but in these dossages have indicated that an antiimplantation effect (the total natality of fetus is less than the total implantation site in mice white.   Keywords: Guava leaf, contraseption antifertility, methanol extract, white mice, implantation

  8. Physiology of ‘Paluma’ guava under irrigation with saline water and nitrogen fertilization

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    Evandro Manoel da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of saline water in irrigation causes osmotic and toxic effects and nutritional imbalance in plants, leading to morphophysiological modifications in the leaves and compromising the production of photosynthetic pigments, which negatively reflects in the growth and development of the crops. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of irrigation water salinity on the content of photosynthetic pigments and leaf morphophysiology of guava seedlings cv. ‘Paluma’ under nitrogen (N fertilization. A randomized block design was used, testing five levels of irrigation water electrical conductivity - ECw (0.3, 1.1, 1.9, 2.7, and 3.5 dS m-1 and four N doses (541.1, 773.0, 1,004.9, and 1,236.8 mg of N dm-3 of soil in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme with three replicates and five plants per plot. The contents of photosynthetic pigments in the leaves of the guava seedlings cv. ‘Paluma’ were inhibited by the increase in irrigation water salinity at 190 days after emergence, and the salt stress was lessened with the N dose of 1,004.9 mg dm-3 up to an ECw level of 1.2 dS m-1. Leaf morphophysiology of guava seedlings was not compromised by irrigation water salinity up to 1.5 dS m-1, and the highest values were obtained in plants fertilized with 541.1 mg of N dm-3.

  9. Recovery of polyphenols from Pink Guava processing wastes by ultra filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilis Sukeksi; Che Rosmani Che Hassan; Nik Meriam Sulaiman; Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Processing of fruits are results in high amounts of waste material that is prone to microbial spoilage and usually represents a problem that is further aggravated by legal restrictions. Polyphenols are a wide variety of compounds that occur in pink guava fruit or others fruits and vegetables. Recovery from pink guava wastes seems to be promising in the case of polyphenols, which are of considerable interest due to their healthy and anti oxidative properties. In this work the performance of commercial tubular PVDF membrane FP 200 with nominal MWCO 200,000, was studied during pretreatment for recovery polyphenols from pink guava processing wastes. The experiments have been carried out at trans-membrane pressure of 0.5 until 2.5 Bar, and all permeate flux significantly decreased with time until a steady-state was established. The steady-state permeates flux reached a maximum at a trans-membrane pressure of about 1 bar. The first results obtained confirm the flux decline at 20 minutes was 35 % of the total flux. Meanwhile concentration of polyphenols at first step reached a steady state after 900 ml of permeate volume (47 %) and the concentration of polyphenols when the permeate volume at VCR = 4 or 3000 ml is 54 %. (author)

  10. Physico-Chemical Properties of Personal Care Products Containing Guava Scrub Granules as Exfoliating Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahariah Ismail; Mohd Fadlly Jumadi; Nurdiyana Mohamed Johari

    2015-01-01

    Treated guava scrub granules (GSG) as an exfoliating agent were obtained from the decanter waste at Sime Darby Food and Beverages, Sungai Wangi, Perak (SDFB). The treated GSG and tocotrienol were the main active ingredients incorporated in a basic formulation containing 87 % palm-based derivatives. Guava body scrub (GBS) and guava facial scrub (GFS) lotions were developed at skin pH 5.5 and pH 5.6 respectively. Both products were found to be stable for three years due to the liquid crystalline structure in the emulsion system , having small particle size (490 nm and 880 nm) and high zeta potential values (-54 mv and -39 mv). The rheological properties showed that the GBS lotion had a viscosity at 900 Pas and a yield value at 98 Pa, whereas the GFS lotion 60 Pas and 6 Pa viscosity and yield values respectively. The formulations were designed to be soft and flowable, with the firmness force indicated at 111 g and 66 g for GBS lotion and GFS lotion respectively. Efficacy testing on 20 healthy subjects showed a significant decrease of 21 % and 22 % in skin sebum removal for GBS lotion and GFS lotion respectively. (author)

  11. Renal protective effects of extracts from guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.) in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yu; Lin, Chia-Yun; Yin, Mei-Chin

    2012-09-01

    This study analyzed the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids in extracts of guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.), and examined the renal protective effects of guava aqueous extract (GAE) and ethanol extract (GEE) in diabetic mice. GAE had more caffeic acid, myricetin, and quercetin; and GEE had more cinnamic, coumaric and ferulic acids. GAE or GEE at 1 and 2 % was supplied in diet for 12 weeks. GAE or GEE intake at 2 % significantly reduced glucose and blood urea nitrogen levels, increased insulin level in plasma of diabetic mice (p < 0.05). GAE or GEE treatments dose-dependently reserved glutathione content, retained activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and decreased reactive oxygen species, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1β levels in kidney (p < 0.05). GAE and GEE treatments at 2 % significantly declined renal N (ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, pentosidine and fructose levels (p < 0.05), and suppressed renal activity of aldose reductase (p < 0.05). These findings support that guava fruit could protect kidney against diabetic progression via its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-glycative effects.

  12. studies about the colombian reality under conditions of the capitalist exploitation - conservation of the guava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla O, German; Parra T, Nilton; Zetina M, Claudia M

    1991-01-01

    Effect of the ionizing radiations in the Conservation of the Guava (Psidium guava-L) in fresh as treatment post-crop. The food radiations is a physical process of conservation, that has for object to prolong the useful life of the products nutritious treaties, maintaining in appropriate form the nutritional characteristics and organoleptic. The ionization treatment consists on irradiation of high constituted energy of photons or quick electrons. The main types of rays used in the ionization treatment are: the photons, the quick electrons and the photons x. The center of gamma radiation has as energy source a cylinder of Co-60 that it diffuses rays gamma in the space and it irradiates the products. The irradiation of any aliment until a dose of 10 kGy, it doesn't present any toxicological risk and it doesn't introduce difficulties of nutritional or biological order. The IAEA has as primordial mission; the to hurry and to increase the peace and the prosperity in the whole world. The common guava is a fruit it would originate of tropical America, it is in the tropics and subtropics and it is of commercial importance in the national and international environment

  13. Calcium lactate effect on the shelf life of osmotically dehydrated guavas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Leila M; Carmello-Guerreiro, Sandra M; Junqueira, Valéria C A; Ferrari, Cristhiane C; Hubinger, Miriam D

    2010-01-01

    The effect of calcium lactate on osmodehydrated guavas in sucrose and maltose solutions was monitored during storage under passive modified atmosphere for 24 d at 5 °C. Sample texture and color characteristics, microbial spoilage, sensory acceptance, structural changes, and gas composition inside the packages were periodically evaluated. Calcium lactate inhibited microbial growth on guavas, with yeast and mold counts in the order of 10(2) CFU/g throughout storage. The calcium salt reduced respiration rate of guava products, showing O(2) and CO(2) concentrations around 18% and 3% inside the packages. A firming effect on fruit texture, with up to 5 and 2 times higher stress and strain at failure values and tissue structure preservation could also be attributed to calcium lactate use. However, fruits treated with calcium lactate, osmodehydrated in maltose and sucrose solutions, showed sensory acceptance scores below the acceptability limit (4.5) after 13 and 17 d of storage, respectively. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and bioactive compounds of guava seeds (Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Athayde Uchôa-thomaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition, determine the fatty acid profile, and quantify the bioactive compounds present in guava seed powder (Psidium guajava L.. The powder resulted from seeds obtained from guava pulp processing. The agro-industrial seeds from red guava cv. paluma were used, and they were donated by a frozen pulp fruit manufacturer. They contain varying amounts of macronutrients and micronutrients, with a high content of total dietary fiber (63.94 g/100g, protein (11.19 g/100g, iron (13.8 mg/100g, zinc (3.31 mg/100g, and reduced calorie content (182 kcal/100g. Their lipid profile showed a predominance of unsaturated fatty acids (87.06%, especially linoleic acid (n6 and oleic acid (n9. The powder obtained contained significant amounts of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid (87.44 mg/100g, total carotenoids (1.25 mg/100 g and insoluble dietary fiber (63.55 g/100g. With regard to their microbiological quality, the samples were found suitable for consumption. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the powder produced has favorable attributes for industrial use, and that use of these seeds would be a viable alternative to prevent various diseases and malnutrition in our country and to reduce the environmental impact of agricultural waste.

  15. Antimicrobial effects of guava leaf (Psidium guajava Linn. extract against Aeromonas hydrophila in fancy carp (Cyprinus carpio

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    Tangtongpirot, J.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of guava leaves in treatment or prevention of bacterial infection using methanol extracted guava leaves. Three hundred and eighty four fancy carps (Cyprinus carpio with average weight of 25.5 g. were acclimated for 14 days before the experiment. Fish were divided into 32 groups of two replicates each with 6 fish. All experiments were done in replicate. Guava leaves were macerated and extracted by methanol distillation and evaporation to produce 12.99% of dried leave weight. The exposures were divided into oral route using 5% (MIC and 10 % (2xMIC. And 1000 ppm (MIC and 2000 ppm (2xMIC for dip and bath methods. MIC by agar dilution method was 1000 ppm. At the 1000 ppm concentration dipped for 5 minutes, fish lost consciousness but this was reversible when returned to freshwater, which may due to the antinociceptive effect. All fish died when dipped at 2000 ppm concentration. The relative percent survival (RPS of 5% feed mix group was significantly higher than the 10% feed mix group and higher when fed for longer time. All groups receiving guava leaf extract had significantly higher percent phagocytosis and percent chemotaxis than the controls (P<0.05. The results indicated that guava leaf extract can stimulate the non-specific immune responses and decrease the mortality rate of the bacterial infected carp. The effects were enhanced by the longer period of exposure.

  16. Metabolic analysis of guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruits at different ripening stages using different data-processing approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sarah; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Cho, Somi Kim; Kim, Young-Suk

    2010-11-01

    Gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and principal component analysis were used to obtain the metabolite profiles of guava (Psidium guajava) fruits. Results with two types of data-processing software, ChromaTOF and AMDIS, were compared to explain the differences between the samples. There were some differences in score and loading plot patterns of PCA as well as in the composition of the metabolites. However, little difference was observed in the type of metabolites detected and identified using either type of software. Both the flesh and peel of premature and mature white guava fruits were compared for the analysis of the metabolite profiles. Malic acid, aspartic acid, and glucose were the major metabolites distinguishing the different parts of guava fruits in the PCA loading plot. In addition, the metabolic profiles of the fruits revealed significant changes in some metabolites during ripening. The major components contributing to the separation were serine, citric acid, fructose, sucrose, and some unknowns. In particular, sucrose, fructose, serine and citric acid were related to the ripening of guava fruits. Fructose and sucrose were increased whereas citric acid was decreased during guava fruit ripening. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Study to find the best extraction solvent for use with guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) for high antioxidant efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jongkwon; Lee, Soojung; Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Kang, Jonghoon; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2014-03-01

    The effects of guava leaves extracted using solvents of water, ethanol, methanol, and different concentrations of hydroethanolic solvents on phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The antioxidant capability was assessed based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-scavenging abilities, reducing power, and nitric oxide-and nitrate-scavenging activities. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant ability of guava leaf extracts has a strong relationship with phenolic compound content rather than flavonoid content. Phenolic compound content of water extracted guava leaves was higher compared to pure ethanol and methanol extracts. However, phenolic compound content extracted using hydroethanolic solvent was higher than water, whereas 50% hydroethanolic was observed to be the most effective solvent showing high antioxidant ability.

  18. Insects of the Sacarabaeidae family associated with guava (Psidium guajava L. in Ceballos, Ciego de Ávila, Cuba

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    Ioan Alberto Rodríguez Sanatana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Was performed a diagnosis to identify the species of the Scarabaeidae family present in guava cultivation, to determine the distribution and ecological indices of abundance and relative frequency of species associated with the cultivation. The sampling was carried out by light traps, in 35 fields of guava, in five Basic Units of Production and a small property, all belonging to the Ceballos Agroindustrial Enterprise, between May 2013 and June 2015. It was determined that the species of the Scarabaeidae family associated with the cultivation, were Cyclocephala cubana Chap., Phyllophaga patruelis Chev., Phyllophaga puberula Duval, Phyllophaga pilositarsis Blackwelder, Anomala calceata Chev., Strategus sarpedon Burm., Digitonthophagus gazella Fabricius and Dyscinetus picipes Burm. The most abundant species were C. cubana 60% (very abundant and A. calceata Chev. with 10 % (abundant. The species C. cubana, P. patruelis, P. puberula, P. pilositarsis, A. calceata and S. sarpedon, were very frequent, while D. gazella and D. picipes were frequent in guava cultivation.

  19. Effect of calcium chloride and calcium lactate on quality and shelf-life of fresh-cut guava slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raheem, M.I.U.; Huma, N.; Anjum, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Present study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of chemical treatments at low temperature on the quality of fresh-cut guava slices during 2011-12. Uniform sized guava slices were made free from seeds and treated with calcium chloride and calcium lactate with concentration 0.9%, 1.8%, 2.7% or 3.6%. After packing in plastic boxes, all treated samples were stored at 5 degree C + 2 degree C in a refrigerator for 24 days with 6 day interval between different removals. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis showed decrease in firmness (111.67-12.67gf) and increase in browning (1.19-1.93nm) of guava slices compared to control with the passage of storage interval. Moreover, scores in taste (7.33-1.00), flavour (7.33-1.00), colour (7.50-1.00) and texture (7.67-1.00) of guava slices was also decreased with respect to interaction of treatments and storage period. Calcium chloride at the rate 2.7% showed significantly higher stability than other concentrations of calcium chloride and calcium lactate in delaying firmness and browning of fresh-cut guava slices along with maintaining their organoleptic properties for longer storage period. However, calcium chloride imparted undesirable bitterness to fresh-cut guava slices at the concentration of 3.6%. Based on the overall quality performance, 2.7% calcium chloride and 3.6% calcium lactate exhibited better results than other concentrations and control with storage life of 8 days at 5 degree C + 2 degree C. (author)

  20. Development and reproduction of Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae fed with Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae reared on guava leaves

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    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the development and reproduction of P. nigrispinus in laboratory when fed with T. arnobia reared on guava leaves. This predator showed nymphal stage of 21.11 days, survival of 60% and periods of pre-oviposition, number of eggs/mass and eggs/female and egg viability of 6.10 days, 26.24 eggs, 314.90 eggs and 82.65%, respectively. These results demonstrated that T. arnobia fed with guava leaves was an adequate supply of food to P.nigrispinus.

  1. Development and reproduction of Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) fed with Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) reared on guava leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Harley Nonato de; Espindula, Marcelo Curitiba; Duarte, Marcela Marcelino; Pereira, Fabrício Fagundes; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the development and reproduction of P. nigrispinus in laboratory when fed with T. arnobia reared on guava leaves. This predator showed nymphal stage of 21.11 days, survival of 60% and periods of pre-oviposition, number of eggs/mass and eggs/female and egg viability of 6.10 days, 26.24 eggs, 314.90 eggs and 82.65%, respectively. These results demonstrated that T. arnobia fed with guava leaves was an adequate supply of food to P.nigrispinus.

  2. Characterization of the seed oils from kiwi (Actinidia chinensis, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis and guava (Psidium guajava

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    Piombo Georges

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Oils extracted from three exotic fruits, guava, kiwi and passion fruit were analyzed to evaluate the possible commercial interest for these waste materials from fruit juices industry. Results showed interesting fatty acids compositions with high amounts of essential fatty acids such as 62.3% alpha linolenic acid for kiwi seed oil, and respectively 73.4% and 77.0% for omega 6 linoleic acid in passion fruit and guava seed oils. Fatty acids regiodistribution, sterols and tocopherols contents were also analyzed to try to establish the potential nutritional interest of such oils.

  3. Effect of whey guava beverage supplementation on haemoglobin level of school going children

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    Divya .

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron deficiency is estimated to affect one-half of the school going children in developing countries and school years are opportune time to intervene. Rationale: No coherent, co-ordinate and effective health services are available in the country for below 16 years. So attempt was made to know real scenario of iron deficiency. Objectives: To assess the effect of whey guava beverage supplementation on the haemoglobin level of school going children. Methodology:  An experimental research design was taken to conduct the study in which 200 children of 6≥and7≥ years in low socio economic status of both the genders were taken. For hemoglobin testing Sahil’s hemoglobinometer was used. Each child in experimental group was given 200ml of whey guava beverage for 90 days except holidays. Results and Discussion: The initial mean Hb levels of 6≥and7≥ year’s old boys and girls of control groups and experimental groups were ranging from 9.50 to 10.24 which were 79.17% to 85.33%. The results revealed that almost all the respondents were anaemic. After 90 days of feeding supplement the final mean Hb levels of 6≥7 years old boys and girls of control group  ranged from 10.10 to 10.65 which was 84.17% to 88.75%. Whereas in experimental group it ranged from 11.06 to 11.42 which were 91.92% to 95.17%. The study clearly evidences that the respondents in experimental group had improved with more Hb levels when compared to control group. Also children who were suffering from anaemia in experimental group became normal. Conclusion: Distribution of whey guava beverage through school feeding program may prove as an outstanding strategy to combat iron deficiency in school children.

  4. Effect of pre-harvest fruit bagging on post-harvest quality of guava cv. Swarupkathi

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    Md. Mokter Hossain

    2018-04-01

    The investigation was carried out at Germplasm Centre (BAU-GPC, Bangladesh Agricultural University, during March to July 2016 in order to investigate the effect of pre-harvest fruit bagging on post-harvest quality of guava cv. Swarupkathi. Four different bagging materials viz. brown paper bag, white paper bag, white polythene bag, black polythene bag included for the study and uncovered fruits were used as control treatment. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Fruit bagging treatments showed significant effects on different parameters studied. It was observed that fruit size, fruit weight, vitamin C concentration, and moisture content increased due to fruit bagging. Fruits were gained maximum in size (6.59 cm length, 5.86 cm diameter and weight (164.26 g under white paper bag followed by white polythene bag (131.3g. The skin color of fruits was very attractive in case of white paper bag than that of other treatments. Total soluble solid concentration of the fruit was found maximum (12.33% Brix under brown paper bag while maximum vitamin C concentration (162.14 mg 100 g-1 was recorded under white paper bag. Uncovered fruits showed maximum total sugar, non-reducing sugar, reducing sugar concentrations (10.13%, 6.05%, 4.08%, respectively.The results revealed that fruit bagging in general, improved the growth and quality of guava fruits as compared to control. Among the various fruit covering materials, white paper bag was found to be the best for overall improvement of physical and chemical quality of guava cv. Swarupkathi. [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(1.000: 363-371

  5. OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION KINETICS OF GUAVAS IN MALTOSE SOLUTIONS WITH CALCIUM SALT*

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    S. DI S. MASTRANTONIO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The osmotic dehydration kinetics of guavas in maltose solutions at 40 and 60ºBrix, with addition of 0, 0.6 and 1.2% of calcium lactate was studied in this paper and the final product quality was evaluated. The experiments were carried out up to 60 hours and samples were taken for analysis at different times to evaluate guavas weight reduction, water loss and sugar gain and to characterize the product according to its texture and color. After 24 hours of process the mass transfer of water and sugar between the osmotic solution and the fruit was negligible, showing that process equilibrium was reached. The increase of sugar concentration in the osmotic solution showed strong influence on the dehydration process, increasing the water loss and reducing sugar gain. The presence of calcium ions in the osmotic solution also influenced the kinetics of mass transfer and showed a strong influence on fruit texture. Higher values of stress and strain at failure were obtained when calcium lactate was employed. The effect of the different osmotic treatments on the color parameters was also investigated and significant changes were observed in the values of chroma C* and hue H* due to sugar concentration and calcium addition.

    KEYWORDS: Osmotic dehydration; kinetics; guava; maltose; calcium lactate.

  6. Guava leaves polyphenolics-rich extract inhibits vital enzymes implicated in gout and hypertension in vitro

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    Emmanuel Anyachukwu Irondi

    2016-06-01

    50 of 38.24 ± 2.32 μg/mL, 21.06 ± 2.04 μg/mL and 27.52 ± 1.72 μg/mL against XO, ACE and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation, respectively. The extract also strongly scavenged DPPH* and ABTS*+. Conclusion: Guava leaves extract could serve as functional food for managing gout and hypertension and attenuating the oxidative stress associated with both diseases. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(2.000: 122-130

  7. Oxidative stability of pork emulsion containing tomato products and pink guava pulp during refrigerated aerobic storage

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K.; Biswas, Ashim K.; Sahoo, Jhari

    2012-01-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant potential of tomato puree (10 %; T-1), tomato pulp (12.5 %; T-2), lyophilized tomato peel (6 %; T-3), and pink guava pulp (10 %; T-4) was evaluated in raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage for 9 days under aerobic packaging. The lycopene and β-carotene content varied in pork emulsion as T-3 > T-1 > T-2 > T-4 and decreased (P 

  8. Rust disease of eucalypts, caused by Puccinia psidii, did not originate via host jump from guava in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo N. Graca; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim; Tobin L. Peever; Phil G. Cannon; Cristina P. Aun; Eduardo G. Mizubuti; Acelino C. Alfenas

    2013-01-01

    The rust fungus, Puccinia psidii, is a devastating pathogen of introduced eucalypts (Eucalyptus spp.) in Brazil where it was first observed in 1912. This pathogen is hypothesized to be endemic to South and Central America and to have first infected eucalypts via a host jump from native guava (Psidium guajava). Ten microsatellite markers were used to genotype 148 P....

  9. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bipul; Rogers, Kimberly; McLaughlin, Fredrick; Yadav, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water). The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50 μL leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3 mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0 mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties. PMID:24223039

  10. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L. on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipul Biswas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water. The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50 μL leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3 mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0 mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties.

  11. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Puccinia psidii Uredospores Reveals Differences of Fungal Populations Infecting Eucalyptus and Guava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quecine, Maria Carolina; Leite, Thiago Falda; Bini, Andressa Peres; Regiani, Thais; Franceschini, Lívia Maria; Budzinski, Ilara Gabriela Frasson; Marques, Felipe Garbelini; Labate, Mônica Teresa Veneziano; Guidetti-Gonzalez, Simone; Moon, David Henry; Labate, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is the causal agent of eucalyptus and guava rust, but it also attacks a wide range of plant species from the myrtle family, resulting in a significant genetic and physiological variability among populations accessed from different hosts. The uredospores are crucial to P. psidii dissemination in the field. Although they are important for the fungal pathogenesis, their molecular characterization has been poorly studied. In this work, we report the first in-depth proteomic analysis of P. psidii s.l. uredospores from two contrasting populations: guava fruits (PpGuava) and eucalyptus leaves (PpEucalyptus). NanoUPLC-MSE was used to generate peptide spectra that were matched to the UniProt Puccinia genera sequences (UniProt database) resulting in the first proteomic analysis of the phytopathogenic fungus P. psidii. Three hundred and fourty proteins were detected and quantified using Label free proteomics. A significant number of unique proteins were found for each sample, others were significantly more or less abundant, according to the fungal populations. In PpGuava population, many proteins correlated with fungal virulence, such as malate dehydrogenase, proteossomes subunits, enolases and others were increased. On the other hand, PpEucalyptus proteins involved in biogenesis, protein folding and translocation were increased, supporting the physiological variability of the fungal populations according to their protein reservoirs and specific host interaction strategies.

  12. Male Sexual Behavior and Pheromone Emission Is Enhanced by Exposure to Guava Fruit Volatiles in Anastrepha fraterculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E Bachmann

    Full Text Available Plant chemicals can affect reproductive strategies of tephritid fruit flies by influencing sex pheromone communication and increasing male mating competitiveness.We explored whether exposure of Anastrepha fraterculus males to guava fruit volatiles and to a synthetic blend of volatile compounds released by this fruit affects the sexual performance of wild and laboratory flies. By means of bioassays and pheromone collection we investigated the mechanism underlying this phenomenon.Guava volatile exposure enhanced male mating success and positively affected male calling behavior and pheromone release in laboratory and wild males. Changes in male behavior appear to be particularly important during the initial phase of the sexual activity period, when most of the mating pairs are formed. Exposure of laboratory males to a subset of guava fruit volatiles enhanced mating success, showing that the response to the fruit might be mimicked artificially.Volatiles of guava seem to influence male mating success through an enhancement of chemical and physical signals related to the communication between sexes. This finding has important implications for the management of this pest species through the Sterile Insect Technique. We discuss the possibility of using artificial blends to improve the sexual competitiveness of sterile males.

  13. Changes in guava (Psidium guajava L. var. Paluma nectar volatile compounds concentration due to thermal processing and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ivaneide Coutinho Correa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Guava nectars were formulated for approximately 10, 12, or 14 ºBrix, with 40% guava pulp. Sodium benzoate, 500 mg.kg-1 was used as preservative. The Brix value was adjusted with saturated sucrose syrup. The guava nectar was pasteurized (85 ºC/42 seconds in tubular heat exchanger and then hot filled in 500 mL white glass bottles. The products were stored either at room temperature (25 ± 5 ºC or refrigerated (5 ± 2 ºC under fluorescent light exposure and analyzed on the day after processing (time zero and also 40, 80, and 120 days of storage. Eight compounds were identified and quantified by Gas Chromatography (GC -Mass Spectrometry (MS: hexanal, (E-hex-2-enal, 1-hexenol, (Z-hex-3-enol, (Z-hex-3-enyl acetate, phenyl-3-propyl acetate, cinnamyl acetate, and acetic acid. There was no significant effect of thermal treatment on the volatile compound concentrations, except for a significant decrease (p = 0.0001 in hexanal and (Z-hex-3-enyl acetate (p = 0.0029. As for the storage time, there was a much greater decrease in the esters contents, such as (Z-hex-3-enyl and phenyl-3-propyl acetates. Cinnamyl acetate had the greatest decrease over storage time. Refrigeration was better than room temperature for guava nectar volatile compounds stability over storage time, mainly for esters compounds, which are important for the product aroma and flavor

  14. Making use of guava seed (Psidium guajava L): the effects of pre-treatments on its chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying Ping; Tan, May Ping; Lok, Wai Li; Pakianathan, Suganthi; Supramaniam, Yasoga

    2014-03-01

    The guava processing industry in Malaysia produces by-products in the form of seed core and peel. These by-products can be regarded as underused resources but there are concerns about their composition that prevent their use in the food and feed industries. This study aims to analyze the respective effects of heat treatments (boiling or autoclaving) and germination periods on the nutritional composition and phytochemical content of guava seeds. The guava seeds were found to contain 618, 78, 72, and 5 mg/g dry weight total dietary fiber, fat, protein, and ash, respectively. The tannin and saponin contents, but not the phytic acid content, were below the respective anti-nutritional thresholds. The heat treatments did not affect the total dietary fiber and ash contents but reduced all other chemical components to different extents (15-91%). Boiling did not reduce the phytic acid content substantially but autoclaving caused a reduction of 91% to a level below the anti-nutritional threshold. Germination for 14 days caused a significant reduction in nutrient contents in the range of 16-79%. Germination also reduced the phytic acid content by 90% in the seed but did not significantly affect the saponin content. Thus, guava seed can be treated thermally or germinated to manipulate its chemical composition to enable its use in the food and feed industries.

  15. Total phenol content of guava fruit and development of an in vitro regeneration protocol amenable to genetic improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total soluble phenolics in two white (‘Allahabad Safeda’ and ‘Lucknow-49’), two pink (‘Beaumont’ and ‘Gushiken Sweet’), and three red fleshed (‘Ka Hua Kola’, ‘Ruby Supreme’ and ‘Red Fleshed’) guava (Psidium guajava. L.) fruits were assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. ‘Allahabad Safeda’ and...

  16. Male Sexual Behavior and Pheromone Emission Is Enhanced by Exposure to Guava Fruit Volatiles in Anastrepha fraterculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Guillermo E.; Segura, Diego F.; Devescovi, Francisco; Juárez, M. Laura; Ruiz, M. Josefina; Vera, M. Teresa; Cladera, Jorge L.; Fernández, Patricia C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Plant chemicals can affect reproductive strategies of tephritid fruit flies by influencing sex pheromone communication and increasing male mating competitiveness. Objective and Methodology We explored whether exposure of Anastrepha fraterculus males to guava fruit volatiles and to a synthetic blend of volatile compounds released by this fruit affects the sexual performance of wild and laboratory flies. By means of bioassays and pheromone collection we investigated the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Results Guava volatile exposure enhanced male mating success and positively affected male calling behavior and pheromone release in laboratory and wild males. Changes in male behavior appear to be particularly important during the initial phase of the sexual activity period, when most of the mating pairs are formed. Exposure of laboratory males to a subset of guava fruit volatiles enhanced mating success, showing that the response to the fruit might be mimicked artificially. Conclusions Volatiles of guava seem to influence male mating success through an enhancement of chemical and physical signals related to the communication between sexes. This finding has important implications for the management of this pest species through the Sterile Insect Technique. We discuss the possibility of using artificial blends to improve the sexual competitiveness of sterile males. PMID:25923584

  17. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Puccinia psidii Uredospores Reveals Differences of Fungal Populations Infecting Eucalyptus and Guava.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Quecine

    Full Text Available Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l. is the causal agent of eucalyptus and guava rust, but it also attacks a wide range of plant species from the myrtle family, resulting in a significant genetic and physiological variability among populations accessed from different hosts. The uredospores are crucial to P. psidii dissemination in the field. Although they are important for the fungal pathogenesis, their molecular characterization has been poorly studied. In this work, we report the first in-depth proteomic analysis of P. psidii s.l. uredospores from two contrasting populations: guava fruits (PpGuava and eucalyptus leaves (PpEucalyptus. NanoUPLC-MSE was used to generate peptide spectra that were matched to the UniProt Puccinia genera sequences (UniProt database resulting in the first proteomic analysis of the phytopathogenic fungus P. psidii. Three hundred and fourty proteins were detected and quantified using Label free proteomics. A significant number of unique proteins were found for each sample, others were significantly more or less abundant, according to the fungal populations. In PpGuava population, many proteins correlated with fungal virulence, such as malate dehydrogenase, proteossomes subunits, enolases and others were increased. On the other hand, PpEucalyptus proteins involved in biogenesis, protein folding and translocation were increased, supporting the physiological variability of the fungal populations according to their protein reservoirs and specific host interaction strategies.

  18. Evaluation of genetic diversity in open pollinated guava by iPBS primers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, A.; Jaskani, M.J.; Ahmad, S.; Ahmad, R.

    2013-01-01

    DNA markers are important tools for assessing genetic diversity and relationships among species, cultivars and breeding materials. Many horticultural species are lacking genomic information. DNA markers that do not require prior knowledge of DNA sequences are therefore appealing for horticultural research. A retrotransposon-based DNA marker system, iPBS (inter primer binding sites) developed from conserved primer binding sites within retrotransposons, was used to study the genetic variation and relationships in ornamental guava. PCR from 6 iPBS primers (dominant markers) produced a total of 113 bands (52.38-100% polymorphic) ranging from 150 bp to 3000 bp, and the mean PIC value for each primer ranging from 0.1245 to 0.3698. Molecular information generated from both iPBS was separately scored in a matrix for phylogenetic dendrogram construction. The phylogenetic dendrogram based on iPBS markers reflected morphologic classifications of the accessions that were studied. The iPBS PCR-based genome fingerprinting technology in this study is low-cost and provides another effective alternative in differentiation of accessions in guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) and related species or genera. (author)

  19. Inhibition of leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase by guava tea leaves prevents development of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Otsuki, Akemi; Mori, Yoshiko; Kawakami, Yuki; Ito, Hideyuki

    2015-11-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the crucial steps for atherosclerosis development, and an essential role of leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase expressed in macrophages in this process has been demonstrated. The biochemical mechanism of the oxidation of circulating LDL by leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase in macrophages has been proposed. The major ingredients in guava tea leaves which inhibited the catalytic activity of leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase were quercetin and ethyl gallate. Administration of extracts from guava tea leaves to apoE-deficient mice significantly attenuated atherogenic lesions in the aorta and aortic sinus. We recently showed that Qing Shan Lu Shui inhibited the catalytic activity of leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase. The major components inhibiting the enzyme contained in Qing Shan Lu Shui were identified to be novel monoterpene glycosides. The anti-atherogenic effect of the tea leaves might be attributed to the inhibition of leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase by these components. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN CONVENTIONAL AND NO ADDED SUGARS RED STRAWBERRY GUAVA (Psidium cattleianum Sabine JELLIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA NIEMEYER REISSIG

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to prepare jellies of conventional type of red strawberry guava (with added sucrose and no added sugar and evaluate the physical and chemical composition and content of bioactive compounds in them. Four jellies formulations were prepared: conventional with addition of sucrose (F1, aspartame (F2, saccharin and cyclamate (F3, acesulfame and sucralose (F4. Physicochemical analysis of pH were carried out, as well as analysis of titratable acidity, total soluble solids, ashes, proteins, lipids, moisture, carbohydrates, calories, lightness, color tone, total phenols, anthocyanins, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity, by the capture of DPPH and ABTS radicals. Conventional and no added sugars jellies did not differ for total phenols, total anthocyanins and ascorbic acid. However, processing exerted significant influence (p=0.05 on total carotenoids and antioxidant activity. It is feasible to use red strawberry guava for the preparation of conventional and no added sugar jellies. The products, however, show a significant difference in carotenoids content, with the highest content of these and higher antioxidant activity in processed jellies without sugars addition.

  1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) evaluation of carotenoids in irradiated guavas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Keila S. Cople; Vital, Helio C.

    2005-01-01

    The use of ionizing gamma irradiation has shown very effective as an auxiliary technology for the decrease of post-harvest waste, grains disinfestation, pathogenic microorganisms control, increase in shelf life for meats, fruits, vegetables and bulbs and tubercles sprouts inhibition, maintaining nutritional quality. The carotenoids are pigments widely found in fruits and vegetables and are beneficial to human being health. This work was undergone using the irradiator with cesium source at the Army Technological Center, Brazil, with maximum dose rate of 2 kGy per hour. The objective is to evaluate the low gamma radiation doses (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) influence in the total carotenoid and content lycopene in guavas CV Pal uma, with excellent weight classification. The total carotenoid content was extracted from the guava with acetone and moved to petroleum ether and determined by spectrophotometer at 450 nm. The determination of lycopene was accomplished by HPLC. The results showed that, in spite of lycopene loss with irradiation, the best dose was 0.5 kGy. (author)

  2. Influence of packaging and potassium sorbate on the physical, physicochemical and microbiological alterations of guava preserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Carvalho Menezes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The elaboration of preserves through fruit processing is a promising alternative for their conservation. Such processing provides pleasant flavor due to the increase of sweetness and allows good conservation of the product for a prolonged time. Seeking quality and higher durability of fruit preserves, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the interference of potassium sorbate addition, and polypropylene, metallic and cellophane film packaging on the quality of guava (Psidium guajava L. preserves during storage, through the physical, physiochemical and microbiological characteristics. The physical, physiochemical and microbiological analyses showed that the different types of packaging did not interfere in the stability of the guava preserves until the 5th month of storage - time being the factor that most influences the quality of the preserves when stored under temperature and humidity of 19.6 °C and 76.2%, respectively. The potassium sorbate caused an increase of the soluble solid levels and a decrease of the water activity. Regardless of the treatment, the preserves remained microbiologically stable during storage.

  3. Simultaneous Analysis of Ursolic Acid and Oleanolic Acid in Guava Leaves Using QuEChERS-Based Extraction Followed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chang; Liao, Yiyi; Fang, Chunyan; Tsunoda, Makoto; Zhang, Yingxia; Song, Yanting; Deng, Shiming

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method of QuEChERS-based extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) in guava leaves. The QuEChERS-based extraction parameters, including the amount of added salt, vortex-assisted extraction time, and absorbent amount, and the chromatographic conditions were investigated for the analysis of UA and OA in guava leaves. Under the optimized conditions, the m...

  4. Respons of Erythrocytes, Hematocrit and Hemoglobin River Catfish (Mystus Nemurus) Combination Fed Guava Leaves (Psidium Guajava) and Bitter (Andrographis Paniculata Ness)

    OpenAIRE

    Susanti, Mesi; Lukystiowati, Iesje; Syawal, Henni

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted from April-June 2013 in the Laboratory of Aquaculture and Fish Diseases and Parasites Laboratory Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences University of Riau. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of erythrocytes, hematocrit, and blood hemoglobin river catfish (Mystus nemurus) fed a combination of guava leaves and bitter infected with the bacterium A. hydrophila. This study used 5 treatments of: negative control (without any solution guava, bitter and...

  5. Metabolic profiling and predicting the free radical scavenging activity of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves according to harvest time by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Hyun; Cho, Somi K; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Park, Hae-Eun; Kim, Young-Suk; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2011-01-01

    Guava leaves were classified and the free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) evaluated according to different harvest times by using the (1)H-NMR-based metabolomic technique. A principal component analysis (PCA) of (1)H-NMR data from the guava leaves provided clear clusters according to the harvesting time. A partial least squares (PLS) analysis indicated a correlation between the metabolic profile and FRSA. FRSA levels of the guava leaves harvested during May and August were high, and those leaves contained higher amounts of 3-hydroxybutyric acid, acetic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, citric acid, malonic acid, trans-aconitic acid, ascorbic acid, maleic acid, cis-aconitic acid, epicatechin, protocatechuic acid, and xanthine than the leaves harvested during October and December. Epicatechin and protocatechuic acid among those compounds seem to have enhanced FRSA of the guava leaf samples harvested in May and August. A PLS regression model was established to predict guava leaf FRSA at different harvesting times by using a (1)H-NMR data set. The predictability of the PLS model was then tested by internal and external validation. The results of this study indicate that (1)H-NMR-based metabolomic data could usefully characterize guava leaves according to their time of harvesting.

  6. Guava (Psidium guajava L) improvement using in vivo and in vitro induced mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamir, R. [Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Peshawar (Pakistan); Ali, N.; Shah, S. Tariq; Mohammad, T. [N.W.F.P. Agricultural University Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan); Ahmad, J. [Center of Biotechnology, University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan)

    2009-05-15

    In-vitro mutagenesis followed by micropropagation via axillary bud proliferation in shoot tips of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cultivar Safeda was carried out. Shoot tips were irradiated with 15 to 90Gy gamma rays radiations using {sup 60}Co gamma cell source and cultured on MS medium containing 3.0% sucrose, BAP and glutamine. Shoots proliferation was observed 7 weeks after culture initiation. Higher shoot proliferation rates were recorded on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mgL{sup -1} BAP and 250 mgL{sup -1} glutamine. Rooting was observed on half-strength MS medium supplemented with IAA and IBA. Radio sensitivity test was assessed by determining the percentage of shoot tips survival and shoot proliferation rates. The LD50 (The dose at which 50% of the population killed) was observed on 45 Gy. The doses above 75 Gy were found to be lethal to all explants. Similarly, seeds and bud woods of guava Cv. Safeda were exposed to gamma rays at 0.05 to 0.3 kGy and 20 to 100 Gy respectively using {sup 60}Co gamma source. The LD50 for seeds was determined at 0.19 kGy, and 0.3 kGy was found to be lethal. Seeds irradiated with low doses germinated earlier as compared to those which received higher doses of irradiation. The LD50 for surviving bud woods grafted on the rootstocks in the nursery was determined at 60 Gy. There was constant and continuous reduction in the survival rates of buds as the doses increased. The bud woods of guava Cv. Safeda were more radiosensitive than seeds of the same cultivar. The most favourable doses were established between 0.15 and 0.2 KGy and led to mutations such as: highest number of fruits (40), highest fruit size (59mm) and highest fruit weight of (128.38g). The highest number of seeds (300) and 100 seed-weight (2.29g) were recorded at 0.05KGy while the lowest number of seeds (167) and the lowest 100 seed-weight of 1.56g was observed in the 0.30KGy treatments. (author)

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr. (Indian Frankincense tree) of Burseraceae is a large-sized deciduous tree that is native to India. Bark is thin, greenish-ash-coloured that exfoliates into smooth papery flakes. Stem exudes pinkish resin ... Fruit is a three-valved capsule. A green gum-resin exudes from the ...

  8. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Flowering Trees. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (INDIAN TREE OF. HEAVEN) of Simaroubaceae is a lofty tree with large pinnately compound alternate leaves, which are ... inflorescences, unisexual and greenish-yellow. Fruits are winged, wings many-nerved. Wood is used in making match sticks. 1. Male flower; 2. Female flower.

  9. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. (Helicopter Tree) of Hernandiaceae is a moderate size deciduous tree that grows to about 12 m in height with a smooth, shining, greenish-white bark. The leaves are ovate, rarely irregularly ... flowers which are unpleasant smelling. Fruit is a woody nut with two long thin wings.

  10. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 112-112 Flowering Trees. Zizyphus jujuba Lam. of Rhamnaceae · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 97-97 Flowering Trees. Moringa oleifera · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 100-100 Flowering Trees.

  11. Accumulation and long-term decline of radiocaesium contamination in tropical fruit trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, R. M.; Mosquera, B.; Carvalho, C.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Macario, K.

    2007-09-01

    The accumulation of 137Cs, 40K and NH 4+ in several organs of tropical plants species were studied through measurements of its concentrations from mango, avocado, guava, papaya, banana and chili pepper trees. Our goal was to infer their differences in the uptake and translocation of such ions to the aboveground plant parts and to establish the suitability of using radiocaesium as a tracer for the plant uptake of nutrients. The results indicate Cs + is better tracer for K + as it is for NH 4+.

  12. Accumulation and long-term decline of radiocaesium contamination in tropical fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, R.M.; Mosquera, B.; Carvalho, C.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Macario, K.

    2007-01-01

    The accumulation of 137 Cs, 40 K and NH 4 + in several organs of tropical plants species were studied through measurements of its concentrations from mango, avocado, guava, papaya, banana and chili pepper trees. Our goal was to infer their differences in the uptake and translocation of such ions to the aboveground plant parts and to establish the suitability of using radiocaesium as a tracer for the plant uptake of nutrients. The results indicate Cs + is better tracer for K + as it is for NH 4 +

  13. Accumulation and long-term decline of radiocaesium contamination in tropical fruit trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.M. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.br; Mosquera, B.; Carvalho, C.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Macario, K. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-09-21

    The accumulation of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K and NH{sub 4}{sup +} in several organs of tropical plants species were studied through measurements of its concentrations from mango, avocado, guava, papaya, banana and chili pepper trees. Our goal was to infer their differences in the uptake and translocation of such ions to the aboveground plant parts and to establish the suitability of using radiocaesium as a tracer for the plant uptake of nutrients. The results indicate Cs{sup +} is better tracer for K{sup +} as it is for NH{sub 4}{sup +}.

  14. Evaluation of herbicidal potential of depsides from Cladosporium uredinicola, an endophytic fungus found in Guava fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Livia S. de; Sampaio, Olivia M.; Silva, Maria Fatima das G.F. da; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Veiga, Thiago Andre M.

    2012-01-01

    Two natural products produced by Cladosporium uredinicola, an endophytic fungus isolated from guava fruit, were evaluated for their effects on photosynthesis. Both of them inhibited electron flow (basal, phosphorylating, and uncoupled) from water to methylviologen (MV), acting as Hill reaction inhibitors in freshly lysed spinach thylakoids. These polyketides, belonging to depsides class, inhibited partial reactions of photosystem II (PS II) electron flow from water to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), from water to sodium silicomolybdate (SiMo Na + ), and partially inhibited electron flow from 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) to 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCPIP). These results established that the depsides sites of inhibition are located on the donor and acceptor sides of PS II, between P680 and QA . Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements corroborated this mechanism of action. None of the tested compounds inhibited photosystem I (PS I) electron transport. (author)

  15. Evaluation of herbicidal potential of depsides from Cladosporium uredinicola, an endophytic fungus found in Guava fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Livia S. de; Sampaio, Olivia M.; Silva, Maria Fatima das G.F. da; Rodrigues Filho, Edson [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Veiga, Thiago Andre M., E-mail: tveiga@unifesp.br [Instituto de Ciencias Ambientais, Quimicas e Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    Two natural products produced by Cladosporium uredinicola, an endophytic fungus isolated from guava fruit, were evaluated for their effects on photosynthesis. Both of them inhibited electron flow (basal, phosphorylating, and uncoupled) from water to methylviologen (MV), acting as Hill reaction inhibitors in freshly lysed spinach thylakoids. These polyketides, belonging to depsides class, inhibited partial reactions of photosystem II (PS II) electron flow from water to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), from water to sodium silicomolybdate (SiMo Na{sup +}), and partially inhibited electron flow from 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) to 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCPIP). These results established that the depsides sites of inhibition are located on the donor and acceptor sides of PS II, between P680 and QA . Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements corroborated this mechanism of action. None of the tested compounds inhibited photosystem I (PS I) electron transport. (author)

  16. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  17. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  18. Guava leaves polyphenolics-rich extract inhibits vital enzymes implicated in gout and hypertension in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irondi, Emmanuel Anyachukwu; Agboola, Samson Olalekan; Oboh, Ganiyu; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Shode, Francis O.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Elevated uric acid level, an index of gout resulting from the over-activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), increases the risk of developing hypertension. However, research has shown that plant-derived inhibitors of XO and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE), two enzymes implicated in gout and hypertension, respectively, can prevent or ameliorate both diseases, without noticeable side effects. Hence, this study characterized the polyphenolics composition of guava leaves extract and evaluated its inhibitory effect on XO and ACE in vitro. Materials and Methods: The polyphenolics (flavonoids and phenolic acids) were characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array detection (DAD). The XO, ACE, and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities, and free radicals (2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl [DPPH]* and 2,2´-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic [ABTS]*+) scavenging activities of the extract were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Results: Flavonoids were present in the extract in the order of quercetin > kaempferol > catechin > quercitrin > rutin > luteolin > epicatechin; while phenolic acids were in the order of caffeic acid > chlorogenic acid > gallic acids. The extract effectively inhibited XO, ACE and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner; having half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 38.24 ± 2.32 μg/mL, 21.06 ± 2.04 μg/mL and 27.52 ± 1.72 μg/mL against XO, ACE and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation, respectively. The extract also strongly scavenged DPPH* and ABTS*+. Conclusion: Guava leaves extract could serve as functional food for managing gout and hypertension and attenuating the oxidative stress associated with both diseases. PMID:27104032

  19. Guava leaves polyphenolics-rich extract inhibits vital enzymes implicated in gout and hypertension in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irondi, Emmanuel Anyachukwu; Agboola, Samson Olalekan; Oboh, Ganiyu; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Shode, Francis O

    2016-01-01

    Elevated uric acid level, an index of gout resulting from the over-activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), increases the risk of developing hypertension. However, research has shown that plant-derived inhibitors of XO and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE), two enzymes implicated in gout and hypertension, respectively, can prevent or ameliorate both diseases, without noticeable side effects. Hence, this study characterized the polyphenolics composition of guava leaves extract and evaluated its inhibitory effect on XO and ACE in vitro. The polyphenolics (flavonoids and phenolic acids) were characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array detection (DAD). The XO, ACE, and Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities, and free radicals (2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl [DPPH]* and 2,2´-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic [ABTS]*(+)) scavenging activities of the extract were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Flavonoids were present in the extract in the order of quercetin > kaempferol > catechin > quercitrin > rutin > luteolin > epicatechin; while phenolic acids were in the order of caffeic acid > chlorogenic acid > gallic acids. The extract effectively inhibited XO, ACE and Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner; having half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 38.24 ± 2.32 μg/mL, 21.06 ± 2.04 μg/mL and 27.52 ± 1.72 μg/mL against XO, ACE and Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation, respectively. The extract also strongly scavenged DPPH* and ABTS*(+). Guava leaves extract could serve as functional food for managing gout and hypertension and attenuating the oxidative stress associated with both diseases.

  20. Carotenoid Profile, Antioxidant Capacity, and Chromoplasts of Pink Guava (Psidium guajava L. Cv. 'Criolla') during Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Garbanzo, Carolina; Gleichenhagen, Maike; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Schulze-Kaysers, Nadine; Schieber, Andreas

    2017-05-10

    Pigments of pericarp and pulp of pink guava (Psidium guajava L. cv. 'Criolla') were investigated to elucidate the profile and the accumulation of main carotenoids during four stages of fruit ripening by using HPLC-DAD and APCI-MS/MS analysis. Seventeen carotenoids were identified, and changes in their profile during fruit ripening were observed. The carotenoids all-trans-β-carotene, 15-cis-lycopene, and all-trans-lycopene were present in all ripening stages, but all-trans-lycopene was found to be predominant (from 63% to 92% of total carotenoids) and responsible for the high lipophilic antioxidant capacity determined by spectrophotometric assays. By using light and transmission electron microscopy, the development of chromoplasts in pericarp and pulp was demonstrated. The accumulation of all-trans-lycopene and all-trans-β-carotene coincided with the development of large crystals; the chromoplasts of pink guava belong, therefore, to the crystalline type.

  1. Physical and physicochemical evaluation of different brands of traditional, low calorie and sugar-free guava preserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. P. Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and physicochemical properties of different brands of traditional (A, B and E, low calorie (C and sugar-free (D guava preserves. The results of these analysis indicated that there are differences in the physical and physicochemical properties of the different brands studied, and the partial and/or total exclusion of sugar from guava alters its physical and physicochemical properties, making the product redder; even added body and sweetening agents are incapable of conferring properties similar to those of conventional products. Regarding the relaxation test, the Maxwell model was the best for sample discrimination. The results also showed that the samples have a traditional standardization and that the sample labeled "low calorie" has a tendency to exhibit a composition similar to the conventional sample, which is evidence that brand (C cannot be considered to be low calorie.

  2. Ursolic acid isolated from guava leaves inhibits inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species in LPS-stimulated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Hye; Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Kim, Hye-Kyeong

    2015-06-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaves have been frequently used for the treatment of rheumatism, fever, arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. The purpose of this study was to identify major anti-inflammatory compounds from guava leaf extract. The methanol extract and its hexane-, dichloromethane-, ethylacetate-, n-butanol- and water-soluble phases derived from guava leaves were evaluated to determine their inhibitory activity on nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The methanol extract decreased NO production in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity at a concentration range of 0-100 μg/mL. The n-butanol soluble phase was the most potent among the five soluble phases. Four compounds were isolated by reversed-phase HPLC from the n-butanol soluble phase and identified to be avicularin, guaijaverin, leucocyanidin and ursolic acid by their NMR spectra. Among these compounds, ursolic acid inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxity at a concentration range of 1-10 µM, but the other three compounds had no effect. Ursolic acid also inhibited LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 production. A western blot analysis showed that ursolic acid decreased the LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase protein levels. In addition, ursolic acid suppressed the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, as measured by flow cytometry. Taken together, these results identified ursolic acid as a major anti-inflammatory compound in guava leaves.

  3. In vitro activity of ethanolic and water extract of guava leaves at various concentrations against Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chemical substances used for prevention of dental caries are known to have many side-effects. Thus, natural products should be explored for their anticaries action. Objectives: To prepare 5% and 20% concentrations of ethanolic and water extracts of guava leaves and to assess their activity against Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: In vitro experimental study was conducted in Department of Biosciences. Ethanolic and water extracts of guava leaves were prepared using Soxhlet extractor. Two concentrations 5% and 20% weight/volume of both extracts were prepared. Test organism L. acidophilus Microbial Type Culture Collection 447 was obtained in lyophillized form. After revival in nutrient broth, bacteria were grown on Lactobacilli de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe agar for further experiment. Antimicrobial testing of extracts was done using Agar well-diffusion method. Ten plates each were prepared for both extracts. Chlorhexidine (0.2% served as a positive control and distilled water as a negative control. Results: Mean zone of inhibition produced by 5% and 20% ethanolic extract was 11.2 mm and 14.1 mm respectively and by 5% and 20% water extract was 1.6 mm and 5.1 mm respectively. Statistical analysis of results using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey′s test revealed that activity of 5% ethanolic extract and 5%, 20% water extract was significantly less than that of 0.2% chlorhexidine. There was no statistical difference in efficacy of 20% ethanolic extract of guava and 0.2% chlorhexidine (P = 0.270. Conclusion: Ethanolic and water extracts of guava leaves possess antibacterial activity against L. acidophilus with 20% ethanolic extract being as efficacious as 0.2% chlorhexidine.

  4. Quercetin-Rich Guava (Psidium guajava) Juice in Combination with Trehalose Reduces Autophagy, Apoptosis and Pyroptosis Formation in the Kidney and Pancreas of Type II Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Fa; Kuo, Yen-Ting; Chen, Tsung-Ying; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-03-10

    We explored whether the combination of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory guava (Psidium guajava) and trehalose treatment protects the kidney and pancreas against Type II diabetes (T2DM)-induced injury in rats. We measured the active component of guava juice by HPLC analysis. T2DM was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of nicotinamide and streptozotocin and combination with high fructose diets for 8 weeks. The rats fed with different dosages of guava juice in combination with or without trehalose for 4 weeks were evaluated the parameters including OGTT, plasma insulin, HbA1c, HOMA-IR (insulin resistance) and HOMA-β (β cell function and insulin secretion). We measured oxidative and inflammatory degrees by immunohistochemistry stain, fluorescent stain, and western blot and serum and kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS) by a chemiluminescence analyzer. High content of quercetin in the guava juice scavenged H2O2 and HOCl, whereas trehalose selectively reduced H2O2, not HOCl. T2DM affected the levels in OGTT, plasma insulin, HbA1c, HOMA-IR and HOMA-β, whereas these T2DM-altered parameters, except HbA1c, were significantly improved by guava and trehalose treatment. The levels of T2DM-enhanced renal ROS, 4-hydroxynonenal, caspase-3/apoptosis, LC3-B/autophagy and IL-1β/pyroptosis were significantly decreased by guava juice and trehalose. The combination with trehalose and guava juice protects the pancreas and kidney against T2DM-induced injury.

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of an ethanolic extract of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi; Jeong, Seung-Weon; Cho, Somi K; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Lee, Jong Hyun; Yang, Deok Chun; Kim, Jong-Chan

    2014-06-01

    Plant extracts have been used as a source of medicines for a wide variety of human ailments. Among the numerous traditional medicinal herbs, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), commonly known as guava, has long been used in folk medicines as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of numerous diseases in East Asian and other countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of an ethanolic leaf extract of P. guajava (guava) in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that guava leaf extract (GLE) significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 in a dose-dependent manner. GLE suppressed the expression and activity of both inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in part through the downregulation of ERK1/2 activation in RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, GLE exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in 2 different animal models-Freund's complete adjuvant-induced hyperalgesia in the rat and LPS-induced endotoxic shock in mice.

  6. Investigation on the effects of guava (Psidium guajava L. infusions on germination, root tips and meristematic cells of Latuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaquelini Luber

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Guava (Psidium guajava L. is a plant often employed in popular medicine. Recently several studies have alerted about the toxicity of substances present in medicinal plants, which can pose risks to the human health. In this sense, the present work aimed to investigate the phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic action of three guava varieties - Paluma, Pedro Sato and Roxa ("purple" - on the plant test system Lactuca sativa L. Thus, macro- and microscopic evaluations were carried out for five infusion concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 g.L-1 prepared from each variety. Distilled water was used as negative control. Chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis by HPLC-PAD indicated that the chemical composition of the infusion of Roxa is different than that of the infusions of the varieties Paluma and Pedro Sato. It was observed that seed germination and root growth in L. sativa exposed to infusions decreased with increasing infusion concentration, regardless of the tested cultivar. For the mitotic index, no statistical differences were observed. On the other hand, a significant increase in the frequency of cell cycle alterations was verified, especially for the highest concentrations tested. The cytogenotoxic effect was significant. Therefore, guava should not be used indiscriminately in popular medicine.

  7. Variation in Antioxidant Attributes at Three Ripening Stages of Guava (Psidium guajava L. Fruit from Different Geographical Regions of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashraf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to appraise the levels of total phenols and vitamin C as well as antioxidant potential at three different ripening stages (un-ripe, semi-ripe and fully-ripe of guava (Psidium guajava L. fruit collected from three different geographical regions of Pakistan (Islamabad, Faisalabad and Bhakkar. The antioxidant potential of guava fruit extracts was assessed by means of different in-vitro antioxidant assays, namely inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system, reducing power and radical scavenging capability. Overall, fruit at the un-ripe stage (G1 exhibited the highest levels of TPC, TFC, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity, followed by the semi-ripe (G2 and fully-ripe (G3 stages. On the other hand, vitamin C content increased as the fruit maturity progressed, with highest value seen at the fully-ripe stage (G3 followed by the semi-ripe (G2 and un-ripe stage (G1. The concentration of vitamin C in fruits varied as: Faisalabad (136.4–247.9 mg 100 g−1, Islamabad (89.7–149.7 mg 100 g−1 and Bhakkar (73.1–129.5 mg 100 g−1. The results showed that different stages of maturation and geographical locations had profound effects on the antioxidant activity and vitamin C contents of guava fruit.

  8. Variation in antioxidant attributes at three ripening stages of guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit from different geographical regions of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, Javaria; Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Naseer, Rehana; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ashrafuzzaman, M

    2012-03-14

    The present investigation was carried out to appraise the levels of total phenols and vitamin C as well as antioxidant potential at three different ripening stages (un-ripe, semi-ripe and fully-ripe) of guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit collected from three different geographical regions of Pakistan (Islamabad, Faisalabad and Bhakkar). The antioxidant potential of guava fruit extracts was assessed by means of different in-vitro antioxidant assays, namely inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system, reducing power and radical scavenging capability. Overall, fruit at the un-ripe stage (G1) exhibited the highest levels of TPC, TFC, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity, followed by the semi-ripe (G2) and fully-ripe (G3) stages. On the other hand, vitamin C content increased as the fruit maturity progressed, with highest value seen at the fully-ripe stage (G3) followed by the semi-ripe (G2) and un-ripe stage (G1). The concentration of vitamin C in fruits varied as: Faisalabad (136.4-247.9 mg 100 g⁻¹), Islamabad (89.7-149.7 mg 100 g⁻¹) and Bhakkar (73.1-129.5 mg 100 g⁻¹). The results showed that different stages of maturation and geographical locations had profound effects on the antioxidant activity and vitamin C contents of guava fruit.

  9. Species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) captured in a guava orchard (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae) in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Deus, E G; Ronchi-Teles, B; Adaime, R; Silva Júnior, R J

    2013-11-01

    The guava fruit (Psidium guajava) is among the most strongly affected by fruit flies in Brazil. In the Brazilian Amazon, 11 species of Anastrepha have been reported in guava orchards to date. This work aimed to identify the species of Anastrepha present in a guava orchard in the municipality of Boa Vista, determine the species infesting the fruits, and identify any parasitoids present. Two McPhail traps with food bait were installed and weekly collections were made between January and December 2008. Fruits were also collected systematically during this period, with a view to determining the association between host plant and tephritid species. Nine species of Anastrepha were identified, in addition to one specimen belonging to a probable new species. Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) were the dominant species in the orchard, accounting for 84.8% of all captured individuals. All females collected directly from fruits were A. striata. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was the only parasitoid species obtained. In this work, Anastrepha ethalea (Walker) is reported for the first time in the state of Roraima.

  10. Investigation on the effects of guava (Psidium guajava L.) infusions on germination, root tips and meristematic cells of Latuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luber, Jaquelini; Palmieri, Marcel J; Botelho, Carolina M; Rinaldo, Daniel; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa F

    2015-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a plant often employed in popular medicine. Recently several studies have alerted about the toxicity of substances present in medicinal plants, which can pose risks to the human health. In this sense, the present work aimed to investigate the phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic action of three guava varieties - Paluma, Pedro Sato and Roxa ("purple") - on the plant test system Lactuca sativa L. Thus, macro- and microscopic evaluations were carried out for five infusion concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 g.L(-1)) prepared from each variety. Distilled water was used as negative control. Chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis by HPLC-PAD indicated that the chemical composition of the infusion of Roxa is different than that of the infusions of the varieties Paluma and Pedro Sato. It was observed that seed germination and root growth in L. sativa exposed to infusions decreased with increasing infusion concentration, regardless of the tested cultivar. For the mitotic index, no statistical differences were observed. On the other hand, a significant increase in the frequency of cell cycle alterations was verified, especially for the highest concentrations tested. The cytogenotoxic effect was significant. Therefore, guava should not be used indiscriminately in popular medicine.

  11. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MIXED JUICE MUNG BEAN AND GUAVA FOR INCREASING HEMOGLOBIN LEVEL IN CANCER PATIENT WITH CHEMOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Huda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a chronic disease with high morbidity and mortality rate in a year. One of therapy in curing cancer is chemotherapy. But unfortunately chemotherapy has some negative effects such as decreasing the level of hemoglobin (Hb. Mung bean that contain a lot of iron and Guava which is rich of vitamin C for iron absorption are useful in cancer patient with chemotherapy. Therefore, a mixture of both is believed in increasing hemoglobin level significantly. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of mixed juice mung bean and guava for increasing hemoglobin level in experiment and control group of cancer patient with chemotherapy.This research used Quasi Experiment design with pretest-posttest design control group approach. The total number of respondent was 30 chosen by purposive sampling method. Results of this study showed hemoglobin level in experiment group 14.07 and 10.42 in control group with p value (0,000 < α (0,05. It can be concluded that a mixture juice mung beans and guava effective for increasing hemoglobin level in cancer patient with chemotherapy. This research suggests that this mixture can be an option for nursing intervention in increasing hemoglobin level for cancer patient after receiving chemotherapy.

  12. Model of pre-harvest quality of pineapple guava fruits (Acca sellowiana (O. berg burret as a function of weather conditions of the crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Parra-Coronado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Weather conditions influence the quality parameters of pineapple guava fruit during growth and development. The aim of this study was to propose a model of pre-harvest fruit quality as a function of weather conditions in the cultivation area. Twenty trees were flagged per farm in 2 localities of the Department of Cundinamarca, Colombia: Tenjo (2,580 m.a.s.l.; 12.5 °C; relative humidity between 74 and 86%; mean annual precipitation 765 mm and San Francisco de Sales (1,800 m.a.s.l.; 20.6 °C; relative humidity between 63 and 97%; mean annual precipitation 1,493 mm. Measurements were performed every 7 days during 2 harvest periods starting on days 96 (Tenjo and 99 (San Francisco de Sales after anthesis and until harvest. The models were obtained using Excel® Solver, and a set of data was obtained for the 2 different cultivar periods and each study site. The results showed that altitude, growing degree days, and accumulated precipitation are the weather variables with the highest influence on the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit during growth. The models of fresh weight, total titratable acidity, and skin firmness better predict the development of fruit quality during growth and development. Equations were obtained for increases of length and diameter as a function of fruit weight and for days from anthesis as a function of growing degree days and altitude. The regression analysis parameters showed that the models adequately predicted the fruit characteristics during growth for both localities, and a cross-validation analysis showed a good statistical fit between the estimated and observed values.

  13. Tree Nut Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Tree Nut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Learn about tree nut allergy, how ... a Tree Nut Label card . Allergic Reactions to Tree Nuts Tree nuts can cause a severe and ...

  14. Selection of the best active modified atmosphere packaging with ethylene and moisture scavengers to maintain quality of guava during low-temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmu, Sanchita Biswas; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2018-07-01

    In modified atmosphere packaging of guava, moisture scavenger (MS) sachet containing 30-50 g of coarse silica gel and ethylene scavenger (ES) sachet containing 0-4 g of potassium permanganate was added as per central composite rotatable design. The headspace O 2 and CO 2 of the packages were studied at 4, 8 and 12 °C for 30 days and thereafter the guava were left for two days to ripen at 30 °C. After that the chilling injuries, percentage acceptable guava, peel color and pulp texture was analyzed. After two days ripening at 30 °C the samples with 3 g ES and 46 g MS registered higher L ∗ , lower a ∗ value & firmness (16.65 N), lowest chilling injury score. About 95% of guava was found acceptable in this treatment with 1.89-2.79% reducing sugar, 0.95-1.1% titrable acidity, 59% and 46.61% retention of total phenols and ascorbic acid respectively, resulting 32 days shelf-life of guava. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Carotenoid content and in vitro bioaccessibility of lycopene from guava (Psidium guajava) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) by high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrika, U G; Fernando, K S S P; Ranaweera, K K D S

    2009-11-01

    The carotenoid content and in vitro accessibility of the 'Sugar baby' variety of watermelon and the 'Horana red' variety of guava from Sri Lanka was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. The high-performance liquid chromatography chromatogram showed that the Guava 'Horana red' variety contained almost exclusively lycopene (45.3 +/- 8.0 microg/g fresh weight (FW)), with a small amount of lutein (2.1 +/- 0.6 microg/g FW), beta-carotene (2.0 +/- 0.2 microg/g FW) and beta-cryptoxanthin. As far as carotenoids in the sugar baby variety of watermelon are concerned, it contained lycopene, lutein and beta-carotene of 37.2 +/- 4.0 microg/g FW, 2.1 +/- 0.6 microg/g FW and 0.3 +/- 1 microg/g FW, respectively. The studies showed that guava contains more lycopene (45.3+/-8.0 microg/g FW) than watermelon (37.2 +/- 4.0 microg/g FW), and that the in vitro accessibility of lycopene in guava (73%) is more than that in watermelon (25.8%). Therefore it can be concluded that guava can be used as a better lycopene source than watermelon.

  16. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY TEST OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF WHITE AND RED FLESH FROM GUAVA LEAF ( Psidium guajava. L AGAINTS Staphylococcus aureus AND Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Maysarah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An antibacterial activity test of ethanol extract of white and red flesh from guava leaf (Psidium guajava. L against S.aureus and E.coli; using agar diffusion method was carried out in order to produce the extract. The extract was collected using maceration method. The concentration of extract was 7,8125; 6,1035; 5,00; 4,8828; 4,3944; and 3,90625 mg/mL. The results showed that both of extracts had antibacterial activities. Ethanol extract of white flesh of fruit guava leaf had (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration MIC value at 5.000 mg/mL against S.aureus and 4.8828 mg/mL against E.coli. Whereas ethanol extract of red flesh of fruit guava leaf had MIC value at 4.3944 mg/mL against S.aureus and E.coli.  MIC value of ethanol extract of white flesh of fruit guava leaf is equal with MIC value of clindamicin concentration at 3.00 µg/mL against S.aureus, and 1.00 µg/mL against E.coli. The MIC value of red flesh of fruit guava leaf is equal to the MIC value of clindamicin concentration at 3.00 µg/mL against S.aureus, and 1.00 µg/mL against E.coli.

  17. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    medium-sized handsome tree with a straight bole that branches at the top. Leaves are once pinnate, with two to three pairs of leaflets. Young parts of the tree are velvety. Inflorescence is a branched raceme borne at the branch ends. Flowers are large, white, attractive, and fragrant. Corolla is funnel-shaped. Fruit is an ...

  18. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cassia siamia Lamk. (Siamese tree senna) of Caesalpiniaceae is a small or medium size handsome tree. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound and glandular, upto 18 cm long with 8–12 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal and branched. Flowering lasts for a long period from March to February. Fruit is ...

  19. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Cerbera manghasL. (SEA MANGO) of Apocynaceae is a medium-sized evergreen coastal tree with milky latex. The bark is grey-brown, thick and ... Fruit is large. (5–10 cm long), oval containing two flattened seeds and resembles a mango, hence the name Mangas or. Manghas. Leaves and fruits contain ...

  20. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowering Trees. Gliricidia sepium(Jacq.) Kunta ex Walp. (Quickstick) of Fabaceae is a small deciduous tree with. Pinnately compound leaves. Flower are prroduced in large number in early summer on terminal racemes. They are attractive, pinkish-white and typically like bean flowers. Fruit is a few-seeded flat pod.

  1. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.

  2. Talking Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  3. Drawing Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær From, Andreas; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    We formally prove in Isabelle/HOL two properties of an algorithm for laying out trees visually. The first property states that removing layout annotations recovers the original tree. The second property states that nodes are placed at least a unit of distance apart. We have yet to formalize three...

  4. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Sil- ver Oak) of Proteaceae is a daintily lacy ornamental tree while young and growing into a mighty tree (45 m). Young shoots are silvery grey and the leaves are fern- like. Flowers are golden-yellow in one- sided racemes (10 cm). Fruit is a boat- shaped, woody follicle.

  5. Extração de pectina de goiaba desidratada Extraction of pectin from dehydrated guava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Leite Munhoz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Goiabas (Psidium guajava L. cultivar Pedro Sato foram utilizadas para extração de pectina. Os frutos separados polpa e polpa com casca foram secos em estufa com circulação de ar. Amostras secas foram caracterizadas física e quimicamente. O planejamento composto central rotacional com quatro pontos axiais e três repetições no ponto central foi utilizado para determinar o rendimento de extração de pectina das farinhas de polpa e de polpa com casca de goiaba. A extração foi realizada em 4 g de farinha para 200 mL de solução de ácido cítrico em diferentes concentrações e em diferentes tempos de extração, a temperatura de 97 ºC. As pectinas obtidas nas melhores condições de extração foram caracterizadas. A extração de pectina com ácido cítrico e precipitação alcoólica forneceu rendimentos acima de 11% para a farinha de polpa e de polpa com casca de goiaba. As melhores condições de extração foram: concentração de ácido cítrico de 5 g.100 g-1 e tempo de extração de 60 minutos. As pectinas obtidas apresentaram-se de baixa esterificação e com teor de ácido galacturônico próximo ao padrão comercial (65%.Pedro Sato cultivar guavas (Psidium guajava L. were used for extraction of pectin. The fruits were divided into pulp and pulp with peel, and dried in a stove with air circulation. Dry samples were characterized physically and chemically. The planning consisted of central axial rotation with four points, and three replicates in the central point were used to determine the extraction yield of pectin flour from the guava pulp and pulp with peel. The extraction was performed in 4 g of flour to 200 mL of solution of citric acid at different concentrations and at different times of extraction, at a temperature of 97 ºC. The pectins obtained in optimum conditions for extraction were characterized. The extraction of pectin with citric acid and alcohol precipitation provided yield above 11% for the guava flour, with

  6. Phylogenetic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Baños, Hector; Bushek, Nathaniel; Davidson, Ruth; Gross, Elizabeth; Harris, Pamela E.; Krone, Robert; Long, Colby; Stewart, Allen; Walker, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the package PhylogeneticTrees for Macaulay2 which allows users to compute phylogenetic invariants for group-based tree models. We provide some background information on phylogenetic algebraic geometry and show how the package PhylogeneticTrees can be used to calculate a generating set for a phylogenetic ideal as well as a lower bound for its dimension. Finally, we show how methods within the package can be used to compute a generating set for the join of any two ideals.

  7. Analysis by UPLC-MS-QTOF and antifungal activity of guava (Psidium guajava L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Camila Fonseca; Rocha, Janaína Esmeraldo; Nascimento Silva, Maria Karollyna do; de Freitas, Thiago Sampaio; de Sousa, Amanda Karine; Dos Santos, Antônia Thassya Lucas; da Cruz, Rafael Pereira; Ferreira, Maciel Horácio; da Silva, Josefa Carolaine Pereira; Machado, Antonio Judson Targino; Carneiro, Joara Nályda Pereira; Sales, Débora Lima; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Ribeiro, Paulo Riceli Vasconcelos; de Brito, Edy Sousa; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana Bezerra

    2018-05-08

    Psidium guajava L. is a plant widely used for food and in folk medicine all over the world. Studies have shown that guava leaves have antifungal properties. In this study, Flavonoid and Tannic fractions were tested to investigate their chemical composition and antifungal potential in vitro.21 compounds in the two fractions, presenting a higher content of phenolic compounds. The antifungal assays were performed against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei by microdilution to determine the IC 50 and the cell viability curve. Minimal Fungicidal Concentration(MFC) and the inhibitory effects of the association of the fractions with Fluconazole, as well as the assays used to verify any morphological changes were performed in microculture chambers based on the concentrations from the microdilution. The IC 50 of the isolated fractions and the fractions associated with each other were calculated, varying from 69.29 to 3444.62 μg/mL and the fractions associated with fluconazole varied from 925.56 to 1.57 μg/mL, it was clear that the association of the natural product with the antifungal presented a synergism. The fractions affected pleomorphism capacity and have a potential antifungal activity as they caused fungal inhibition in isolated use, potentiated the action of Fluconazole, reducing its concentration and impeding morphological transition, one of the virulence factors of the genus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inotropic effects of extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava) leaves on the guinea pig atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde Garcia, E A; Nascimento, V T; Santiago Santos, A B

    2003-05-01

    Many pharmacological effects have been ascribed to extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava) leaves. However, in spite of its widespread use in Brazilian folk medicine and a reasonable number of scientific reports about it, we could not find any study dealing with its action on the mammalian myocardium. In the present study, by measuring isometric force, we observed that the crude extract of P. guajava (water-alcohol extract obtained by macerating dry leaves) depresses the guinea pig atrial contractility in a concentration-dependent fashion (N = 8 hearts, 15 trials). The compound with cardiac activity was concentrated by extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus using 17 M glacial acetic acid after removing the less polar fractions (hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and methanol), suggesting that this compound is a highly polar substance. In the isolated guinea pig left atrium the acetic acid fraction (10-800 mg/l) of P. guajava 1) reversibly decreased myocardial force in a concentration-dependent fashion (EC50 = 0.07g/l, N = 5 hearts, 9 trials, Pleaves depress myocardial inotropism.

  9. AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF PLANTS IN Colletotrichum gloeosporioides INHIBITION IN VITRO AND IN POSTHARVEST GUAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO HENRIQUE ALVES DA SILVA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant aqueous extracts in the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Penz. & Sacc. the causal agent of guava anthracnose in, was evaluated in vitro with 1, 2 and 3% aqueous ex- tracts of Azadirachta indica, Nerium oleander, Ocimum gratissimum, Syzygium aromaticum. The experiment was installed in a complete randomized desing in a 3x4 factorial scheme (doses x extracts. For the evaluation, it was calculated the percentage of fungal inhibition. The experiment in vivo was conducted by applying Syzy- gium aromaticum and Azadirachta indica aqueous extract at 2 and 3%, respectively, in three different storage conditions: refrigerated with and without plastic film (PVC, and at ambient conditions. The experiment was installed in a completely randomized design, in a 2x3 factorial scheme (extracts x storage conditions. We evaluated the external appearance and severity of disease, loss of weight and Brix degrees. Syzygium aromati- cum extract at 2% provided 100% of fungal mycelial growth inhibition, and Azadirachta indica extract at the highest dosage (3% inhibited 20.22%. In fruits, there was not significant statistical difference between the ef- fect of extracts on the external appearance and severity of disease, loss of weight and Brix degrees. In relation to the storage conditions, the ones with plastic film and refrigerated differed from the other conditions obtain- ing better external appearance and less severity of disease, lower loss of weight and higher Brix degrees.

  10. Genetic characterization of natural populations of pineapple guava (Acca sellowiana, with heterologous microsatellites markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Louise dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple guava (Acca sellowiana is a native species from south Brazil and northeast Uruguay, and due to the unique flavor of its fruits, it is an income-generating alternative to small farmers. Knowledge on genetic diversity is an important tool for genetic improvement and conservation. Aiming to increase the knowledge with regarde to the species genetic diversity, fi ve natural populations of A. sellowiana were analyzed through microsatellites markers developed from Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x E. urophylla S.T. Blake complex. Using 10 pairs of selected markers, 122 plants were characterized. The mean values for expected and observed heterozigosity were 0.42 and 0.47, respectively. The fˆ estimates did not differ from zero to four out of the five populations evaluated, suggesting a small inbreeding effect. In addition, private alleles and high genetic divergence was observed. the average genetic divergence among the populations was st Fˆ = 0,13 e st Rˆ = 0,14, mostly due to the incidenceof rare or exclusive alleles among some populations.

  11. Preliminary Study on the Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Guava (Psidium Guajava L.) Fruit Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbashir, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    White fleshed guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruits were exposed to three doses of gamma irradiation (0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 kGy) to disinfest the fruit fly infestation. Irradiated fruits were tested for post-harvest qualities. Weight loss increased during the ripening period but the rate was greater in the control fruits. The irradiated fruits showed a gradual decrease in tissue firmness. TSS showed fluctuations, however, those treated with 0.1kGy showed highest TSS on the ninth day compared to control and those treated with lower doses. After the seventh day, most irradiated fruits reached peak titratable acidity values. There was a decrease in ascorbic acid content in the control fruits which was more pronounced than in those irradiated with 0.025 and 0.05kGy, however, no decrease in its content was noticed in fruits irradiated with 0.10kGy in the ninth day compared to the first day which suggests a probable preservation of ascorbic acid by gamma irradiation. No microbial infections or insect infestations were observed on the fruits treated with 0.1kGy.

  12. IoT based Growth Monitoring System of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, W.; Irham, N. M.; Sutan, M. S. A.

    2018-05-01

    Growth monitoring of plant is important especially to evaluate the influence of environment or growing condition on its productivity. One way to monitor the plant growth is by measuring the radial growth (i.e., the change of circumference) of certain part of plant such as trunk, branch, and fruit. In this study we develop an internet of things (IoT) based monitoring system of radial growth of plant using a low-cost optoelectronic sensor. The system was applied to monitor radial growth of guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.). The principle of the developed sensor is based on the optoelectronic sensor which detects alternating white and black narrow bar printed on reflective tapes. Reflective tape was installed encircling the fruit. The movement of reflective tapes will follow the radial growth of the fruit so that the infrared sensor on the optoelectronic would response reflective tapes movement. This device is designed to measure object continuously and long-term monitor with minimum maintenance. The data collected by the sensors are then sent to the server and also can be monitored in real-time. Based on field test, at current stage, the developed sensor could measure the radial growth of the fruits with a maximum error 2 mm. In term of data transfer, the success rate of the developed system was 97.54%. The result indicated that the developed system can be used as an effective tool for growth monitoring of plant.

  13. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    shaped corolla. Fruit is large, ellipsoidal, green with a hard and smooth shell containing numerous flattened seeds, which are embedded in fleshy pulp. Calabash tree is commonly grown in the tropical gardens of the world as a botanical oddity.

  15. Changes in growth characters and nutrient acquisition of guava (psidium guajava l.) in response to coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, S.C.; Padhi, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Coal ash management would remain a great concern all over the world. Several studies proposed that there is an ample scope for safe utilization of coal ash as a soil ameliorant that may improve physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil and is a source of readily available plant micro and macro nutrient. With this concept a pot culture experiment was carried out in the eastern ghat high land zone of Odisha, India under open condition in the nursery. Different levels of coal ash and soil mixture were used in different combinations to check their effect on the physio-morphological and biochemical parameters of guava. The study on the effect of varying levels of coal ash on guava revealed that the combination of 50:50 and 25:75 coal ash and soil mixture increased the seed germination, seedling characteristics, biomass, vegetative growth and chlorophyll content of the seedlings. The increase in growth traits was attributed to increase in nutrient acquisition of plants grown under above combinations. On contrary 100% coal ash in the growing medium reduced seed germination, seedling vigour, growth and biomass per plant. The leaf nutrient status of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and the micro nutrients Zn, Mn, B, Mo, Fe and Cu were found to be higher in the treatments having higher proportion of coal ash in the growing medium than other treatments and the lowest was recorded in control ( no coal ash). The findings suggest that application of coal ash in certain proportion is beneficial in terms of growth parameters and nutrient acquisition in guava. (author)

  16. Gamma radiation physical-chemical effects on vitamin C contents in white and red guavas; Efeitos fisico-quimicos da radiacao gama nos teores de vitamina C em goiabas brancas e vermelhas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, Jose Daniel V.; Mansur Netto, Elias [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia

    1995-12-31

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is valuable tropical fruit because its high C vitamin content. Red an white are the most common species of guava found in tropical areas. The ionizing radiation is normally used as a ripen ring retardant for longer storage periods. This work studies gamma radiation effects on the C vitamin concentration in white and red guava. Samples of juices were irradiated using a source of Cobalt-60, with doses of 1,0 2,5 and 5,0 kGy and storing periods of 0,15 and 30 days. The white guava juice showed a 49% loss in the C vitamin concentration with 5 kGy radiation dose, while the red guava juice showed 33% under the same condition. This shows that the juice of white guava is more sensitive to gamma radiations than the red guava. This results suggests a protection mechanism by colour pigments we believe is associated to the aromatic structures in the red specie. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Maturity indexes for 'Kumagai' and 'Paluma' guavas Índices de maturidade para goiabeiras 'Kumagai' e 'Paluma'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Cristina Cavalini

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Harvest time is one of the main factors related to guava fruit postharvest losses. It is subjectively determined by fruit size and skin color, without any consensual standardization among the growers. The use of maturity indexes enables growers to know the ideal harvest time according to each market situation. The objective of this work was to determine the maturity indexes to identify the harvest time for guava fruit cv. Kumagai and Paluma. Skin color, fruit firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, ratio and ascorbic acid were analyzed. The most adequate maturity indexes for 'Kumagai' guava fruit were skin color and pulp firmness, while for 'Paluma' guava fruit, the best indexes were skin color, pulp firmness, titratable acidity and ratio.O ponto de colheita é um dos principais fatores de perda pós-colheita e, em goiaba, este é determinado de maneira subjetiva através da coloração externa e tamanho do fruto, não havendo uma padronização consensual entre os produtores. A utilização de índices de maturação permite que se conheça o ponto de colheita ideal para cada situação mercadológica. Este trabalho objetivou determinar tais índices que permitam identificar o ponto de colheita em goiabas 'Kumagai' e 'Paluma', em cinco estádios de maturação. Avaliaram-se cor da casca, firmeza, teor de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, ratio e teor de ácido ascórbico. Os índices de maturação mais adequados para 'Kumagai' foram cor da casca e firmeza da polpa, e para 'Paluma', foram cor da casca, firmeza da polpa, acidez titulável e relação sólidos solúveis/acidez titulável.

  18. Harvest time on the content and chemical composition of essential oil from leaves of guava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aparecida Josefi da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The essential oil plants contents can be affected by several factors. For example, in certain plants, collection time has been observed to affect the content and chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the plant. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of collection time on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil from guava ( Psidium guajava L. leaves. Leaves were collected at different times of the day and the content and chemical composition of their essential oil was determined. Collection time did not qualitatively affect the chemical composition of the essential oil. However, concentration of certain substances in the oil, such as α-humulene and trans-caryophyllene, did significantly vary at different collection times. The main constituents of the essential oil of Psidium guajava are limonene (2.2-4.4%, trans-caryophyllene (18.1-17.1%, α-humulene (26.3-20.4%, aromadendrene (7.6-12.2%, α-selinene (7.3-11.3%, caryophyllene oxide (3.7-3.3%, humulene epoxide II (4.1-1.9%, and selin-11-en-4α-ol (7.2-11.1%. Leaves collected at 7:00 AM had higher essential oil production, with a content of 0.38% (d.b., whereas leaves collected at 7:00 PM had lower essential oil production, 0.24% (d.b.. Chemical analysis showed that sesquiterpene compounds represented the highest concentration (62.0%, and monoterpenoids and monoterpenes represented the lowest concentrations (1.1 and 2.2%, respectively. Chemical classes that underwent major changes with respect to collection time were monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and sesquiterpenoids (2.2-4.4%, 63.8-61.7%, and 15.9-13.2%, respectively.

  19. Inotropic effects of extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava leaves on the guinea pig atrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conde Garcia E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Many pharmacological effects have been ascribed to extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava leaves. However, in spite of its widespread use in Brazilian folk medicine and a reasonable number of scientific reports about it, we could not find any study dealing with its action on the mammalian myocardium. In the present study, by measuring isometric force, we observed that the crude extract of P. guajava (water-alcohol extract obtained by macerating dry leaves depresses the guinea pig atrial contractility in a concentration-dependent fashion (N = 8 hearts, 15 trials. The compound with cardiac activity was concentrated by extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus using 17 M glacial acetic acid after removing the less polar fractions (hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and methanol, suggesting that this compound is a highly polar substance. In the isolated guinea pig left atrium the acetic acid fraction (10-800 mg/l of P. guajava 1 reversibly decreased myocardial force in a concentration-dependent fashion (EC50 = 0.07g/l, N = 5 hearts, 9 trials, P<0.05, 2 increased the atrial relaxation time measured at 20% of the force amplitude up to 35% (91 ± 15 to 123 ± 30 ms, N = 3 hearts, 6 trials, P<0.05, 3 abolished the positive staircase effect (Bowditch phenomenon in a concentration-dependent fashion suggesting a decrease of the cellular inward calcium current (N = 4 hearts, 8 trials, P<0.05, and 4 its inotropic effect was abolished by cholinergic receptor blockade with 1.5 mM atropine sulfate, indicating a cholinergic involvement in the mechanism of action of the extract (N = 7 hearts, 15 trials, P<0.05. The acetic acid extract was 20 times more potent than crude extract (EC50 = 1.4 g/l. The results showed that extracts from P. guajava leaves depress myocardial inotropism.

  20. EFFECT OF CONSUMING GUAVA LEAVES (PSIDII FOLIUM EXTRACT ON THE LEVEL OF BLOOD PROFILE IN TEENAGE GIRLS AT VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL OF PALEBON SEMARANG, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulaeka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women are at risk of iron-deficiency anemia, especially in teenage girls. One alternative treatment to prevent the occurrence of anemia is to consume guava leaf extract Objective: To examine the effect of guava leaves extract on changes in blood profile level in teenage girls. Methods: This study was a quasy experiment with pretest posttest control group design. This research was conducted at SMK Palebon Semarang conducted on December 2016 - January 2017. There were 36 samples selected using a purposive sampling, with 18 samples were assigned in the experiment and control group. Blood profiles was measured in the Laboratory of Cito Klinik Setiabudi to see the hemoglobin level, hematocrit level, erythrocyte count, and platelet count. Data were analyzed using Independent t-test. Results: There were significant differences in hemoglobin and trombocytes levels after given intervention between the experiment and control group with p-value 0.05. Conclusion: Guava leaves (Psidii folium extracts have a significant effect on changes in hemoglobin and thrombocyte levels in teenage girls, but not in the hematocrit and thrombocytes levels. Therefore, it is suggested that guava leaves (Psidii folium extracts can be an alternative treatment for midwives to prevent the occurrence of anemia in teenage girls.

  1. Antibacterial activity of GUAVA, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Flávia A; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Bezerra, José N S; Macrae, Andrew; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de; Fonteles-Filho, Antonio A; Vieira, Regine H S F

    2008-01-01

    Guava leaf tea of Psidium guajava Linnaeus is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis and child diarrhea by those who cannot afford or do not have access to antibiotics. This study screened the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves. The extracts were tested against diarrhea-causing bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Strains that were screened included isolates from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller) and laboratory-type strains. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited by the extracts. The methanol extract showed greatest bacterial inhibition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect. The essential oil extract showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus and Salmonella spp. The strains isolated from the shrimp showed some resistance to commercially available antibiotics. These data support the use of guava leaf-made medicines in diarrhea cases where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. In conclusion, guava leaf extracts and essential oil are very active against S. aureus, thus making up important potential sources of new antimicrobial compounds.

  2. Simultaneous Analysis of Ursolic Acid and Oleanolic Acid in Guava Leaves Using QuEChERS-Based Extraction Followed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang; Liao, Yiyi; Fang, Chunyan; Zhang, Yingxia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method of QuEChERS-based extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) in guava leaves. The QuEChERS-based extraction parameters, including the amount of added salt, vortex-assisted extraction time, and absorbent amount, and the chromatographic conditions were investigated for the analysis of UA and OA in guava leaves. Under the optimized conditions, the method showed good linearity over a range of 1–320 μg mL−1, with correlation coefficients above 0.999. The limits of detection of UA and OA were 0.18 and 0.36 μg mL−1, respectively. The intraday and interday precision were below 1.95 and 2.55%, respectively. The accuracies of the UA and OA determinations ranged from 97.4 to 111.4%. The contents of UA and OA in the guava leaf samples were 2.50 and 0.73 mg g−1, respectively. These results demonstrate that the developed method is applicable to the simultaneous determination of UA and OA in guava leaves. PMID:28781908

  3. The effect of edible coating based on Arabic gum, sodium caseinate and essential oil of cinnamon and lemon grass on guava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmu, Sanchita Biswas; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2018-04-15

    The effect of five coating formulations viz.: (A) 5% Arabic gum (AG)+1% sodium caseinate (SC)+1% cinnamon oil (CE); (B) 5% AG + 1% SC + 2% CE; (C) 5% AG + 1% SC + 1% lemongrass oil (LG); (D) 5% AG + 1% SC + 2% LG; and (E) 5% AG + 1% SC + 2% CE + 2% LG on guava during 35 days storage at 4-7 °C was investigated. Thereafter samples were allowed to ripen for five days at 25 ± 2 °C. The quality of guava was analyzed at an interval of 7, 21, 35 and 40 days. The coating applications resulted in lower activity of PPO & POD, higher DPPH radical scavenging activity, higher retention of ascorbic acid, phenol & flavonoid content, exhibited slower rise of reducing and total sugar in guava pulp. Samples in treatment B and D were the best formulations for extending shelf-life of guava up to 40 days versus seven days of uncoated samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. CORRELATION AMONG DAMAGES CAUSED BY YELLOW BEETLE, CLIMATOLOGICAL ELEMENTS AND PRODUCTION OF GUAVA ACCESSES GROWN IN ORGANIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA ALTAFIN GALLI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was evaluate the damage caused by the yellow beetle on 85 guava accessions and correlations of the damage with the climatological elements and the production of fruit in an orchard of guava conducted in organic system. Ten leaves by access were analyzed containing the injury of insect attack. Each leaf had its foliar area measured by leaf area meter and, after obtaining the total area, the leaf was covered with duct tape, and measure again. The averages were compared by Scott-Knott test at 5% probability. The 15 accessions with highest average damage had the data submitted to the correlation with the minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation and relative humidity. The production was obtained by the number of fruits/plant. The damages are negatively correlated with the mean relative humidity of 7:00h (local time in the period of 14 days prior to the assessments, and negatively affect production. The accessions Saito, L4P16, Monte Alto Comum 1 and L5P19 are promising in organic agriculture, for presenting good production and minor damage to insect attack, when compared to others.

  5. Comparison of antioxidant activity of compounds isolated from guava leaves and a stability study of the most active compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantitanon, W; Okonogi, S

    2012-02-01

    In the present study, quercetin (QT), morin (MR), and quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside (QG) isolated from guava leaves were comparatively tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP methods. QT was the most active among them. The free radical scavenging activity of QT was approximately four times higher than MR and two times higher than QG. The reducing power of QT was eight times higher than MR and two times higher than QG. A mixture of QT with MR or QG showed interesting combination effect. The synergistic antioxidant activity was obtained when QT was mixed with MR whereas the antagonistic effect was found when mixed with QG. The stability study of QT in liquid preparations indicated that the decomposition reaction rate of QT could be explained by a kinetic model assuming a first-order chemical reaction. The aqueous solution of QT was rapidly decomposed with t1/2 of approximately five days whereas QT entrapped in chitosan nanoparticles was five times longer. It was concluded that QT was the most active antioxidant from guava leaves. Entrapment of QT in chitosan nanoparticles could significantly enhance its stability.

  6. Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using guava ( Psidium guajava) leaf extract and its antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Debadin; Chatterjee, Someswar

    2016-08-01

    Among the various inorganic nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have received substantial attention in the field of antimicrobial research. For safe and biocompatible use of silver nanoparticles in antimicrobial research, the different biogenic routes are developed to synthesize silver nanoparticles that do not use toxic chemicals. Among those, to synthesize silver nanoparticles, the use of plant part extract becomes an emerging field because plant part acts as reducing as well as capping agent. For large-scale production of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using plant part, the synthesis route should be very simple, rapid, cost-effective and environment friendly based on easy availability and non-toxic nature of plant, stability and antibacterial potential of biosynthesized nanoparticles. In the present study, we report a very simple, rapid, cost-effective and environment friendly route for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using guava ( Psidium guajava) leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. This plant has been opted for the present study for its known medicinal properties, and it is easily available in all seasons and everywhere. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles are characterized by UV-Vis and TEM analysis. The average particle size is 40 nm in the range of 10-90 nm. The antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles against Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 741 has been measured by disc diffusion method, agar cup assay and serial dilution turbidity measurement assay. The results show that green synthesized silver nanoparticles, using guava ( Psidium guajava) leaf extract, have a potential to inhibit the growth of bacteria.

  7. Post-harvest quality model of pineapple guava fruit according to storage and weather conditions of cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Parra-Coronado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The post-harvest quality of pineapple guava fruit is determined by the storage and prevailing weather conditions during growth and development. This study proposes a model for post-harvest fruit quality according to the storage and weather conditions in the pineapple guava growing region. Physiologically ripe fruit were collected during two harvests from two locations within the Department of Cundinamarca (Colombia: Tenjo and San Francisco de Sales. The fruits were stored at 18 ± 1 °C (76 ± 5% relative humidity (RH, over 11 days and at 5 ± 1 °C (87 ± 5% RH, over 31 days, and the quality attributes were evaluated every two days. Models of the most significant physio-chemical quality characteristics of the post-harvest fruit were developed by using the Excel® Solver tool for all data obtained in the two crop periods. The results showed that storage and prevailing weather conditions, which differed according to the altitude of the growing site, had considerable impacts on the physio-chemical characteristics of the fruit throughout the post-harvest ripening process.

  8. Studies on efficiency of guava (Psidium guajava) bark as bioadsorbent for removal of Hg (II) from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohani, Minaxi B. [Integral University, Kursi Road, Lucknow 226026, UP (India)], E-mail: minaxi_lohani@sify.com; Singh, Amarika; Rupainwar, D.C. [Institute of Engineering and Technology Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226021, UP (India); Dhar, D.N. [IIT Kanpur (India)

    2008-11-30

    Biosorption of Hg (II) was investigated in this study by using guava bark powder (GBP). In the batch system, effects of various parameters like contact time, initial concentration, pH and temperature were investigated. Removal of Hg (II) was pH dependent and was found maximum at pH 9.0. Based on this study, the thermodynamic parameters like change in standard Gibb's free energy ({delta}G{sup 0}), standard enthalpy ({delta}H{sup 0}) and standard entropy ({delta}S{sup 0}) were evaluated. The rate kinetic study was found to follow second-order. The applicability of Freundlich adsorption isotherm model was tested. The value of regression coefficient was greater than 0.99. This indicated that the isotherm model adequately described the experimental data of the biosorption of Hg (II). Maximum adsorption of 3.364 mg g{sup -1} was reached at 80 min. The results of the study showed that guava bark powder can be efficiently used as a low-cost alternative for the removal of divalent mercury from aqueous solutions.

  9. Studies on efficiency of guava (Psidium guajava) bark as bioadsorbent for removal of Hg (II) from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohani, Minaxi B.; Singh, Amarika; Rupainwar, D.C.; Dhar, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    Biosorption of Hg (II) was investigated in this study by using guava bark powder (GBP). In the batch system, effects of various parameters like contact time, initial concentration, pH and temperature were investigated. Removal of Hg (II) was pH dependent and was found maximum at pH 9.0. Based on this study, the thermodynamic parameters like change in standard Gibb's free energy (ΔG 0 ), standard enthalpy (ΔH 0 ) and standard entropy (ΔS 0 ) were evaluated. The rate kinetic study was found to follow second-order. The applicability of Freundlich adsorption isotherm model was tested. The value of regression coefficient was greater than 0.99. This indicated that the isotherm model adequately described the experimental data of the biosorption of Hg (II). Maximum adsorption of 3.364 mg g -1 was reached at 80 min. The results of the study showed that guava bark powder can be efficiently used as a low-cost alternative for the removal of divalent mercury from aqueous solutions

  10. Transferability of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed in guava (Psidium guajava L.) to four Myrtaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Manoj K; Phulwaria, Mahendra; Shekhawat, N S

    2013-08-01

    Present study demonstrated the cross-genera transferability of 23 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs developed for guava (Psidium guajava L.) to four new targets, two species of eucalypts (Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus camaldulensis), bottlebrush (Callistemon lanceolatus) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum), belonging to the family Myrtaceae and subfamily Myrtoideae. Off the 23 SSR loci assayed, 18 (78.2%) gave cross-amplification in E. citriodora, 14 (60.8%) in E. camaldulensis and 17-17 (73.9%) in C. lanceolatus and S. aromaticum. Eight primer pairs were found to be transferable to all four species. The number of alleles detected at each locus ranged from one to nine, with an average of 4.8, 2.6, 4.5 and 4.6 alleles in E. citriodora, E. camaldulensis, C. lanceolatus and S. aromaticum, respectively. The high levels of cross-genera transferability of guava SSRs may be applicable for the analysis of intra- and inter specific genetic diversity of target species, especially in E. citriodora, C. lanceolatus and S. aromaticum, for which till date no information about EST-derived as well as genomic SSR is available.

  11. Viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus in synbiotic guava mousses and its survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriti, Flávia C A; Castro, Inar A; Saad, Susana M I

    2010-02-28

    The effects of refrigeration, freezing and substitution of milk fat by inulin and whey protein concentrate (WPC) on Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 viability and resistance to gastric and enteric simulated conditions in synbiotic guava mousses effects were investigated. Refrigerated mousses supplemented with WPC presented the best probiotic viability, ranging from 7.77 to 6.24 log cfu/g during 28 days of storage. The highest probiotic populations, above 7.45 log cfu/g, were observed for all frozen mousses during 112 days of storage. Decreased L. acidophilus survival during the in vitro gastrointestinal simulation was observed both for refrigerated and frozen mousses. Nonetheless, for the refrigerated mousses, the addition of inulin enhanced the probiotic survival during the in vitro assays in the first week of storage. L. acidophilus survival in simulated gastrointestinal fluids was also improved through freezing. The frozen storage may be used to provide increased shelf-life for synbiotic guava mousses. Even though the protective effect of inulin and WPC on the probiotic microorganism tested was shown to be more specific for the refrigerated products, the partial replacement of milk fat by these ingredients may also help, as it improves the nutritional value of mousses in both storage conditions. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deciduous tree with irregularly-shaped trunk, greyish-white scaly bark and milky latex. Leaves in opposite pairs are simple, oblong and whitish beneath. Flowers that occur in branched inflorescence are white, 2–. 3cm across and fragrant. Calyx is glandular inside. Petals bear numerous linear white scales, the corollary.

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Berrya cordifolia (Willd.) Burret (Syn. B. ammonilla Roxb.) – Trincomali Wood of Tiliaceae is a tall evergreen tree with straight trunk, smooth brownish-grey bark and simple broad leaves. Inflorescence is much branched with white flowers. Stamens are many with golden yellow anthers. Fruit is a capsule with six spreading ...

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Canthium parviflorum Lam. of Rubiaceae is a large shrub that often grows into a small tree with conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid ...

  15. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sriranga

    Hook.f. ex Brandis (Yellow. Cadamba) of Rubiaceae is a large and handsome deciduous tree. Leaves are simple, large, orbicular, and drawn abruptly at the apex. Flowers are small, yellowish and aggregate into small spherical heads. The corolla is funnel-shaped with five stamens inserted at its mouth. Fruit is a capsule.

  16. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Celtis tetrandra Roxb. of Ulmaceae is a moderately large handsome deciduous tree with green branchlets and grayish-brown bark. Leaves are simple with three to four secondary veins running parallel to the mid vein. Flowers are solitary, male, female and bisexual and inconspicuous. Fruit is berry-like, small and globose ...

  17. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Aglaia elaeagnoidea (A.Juss.) Benth. of Meliaceae is a small-sized evergreen tree of both moist and dry deciduous forests. The leaves are alternate and pinnately compound, terminating in a single leaflet. Leaflets are more or less elliptic with entire margin. Flowers are small on branched inflorescence. Fruit is a globose ...

  18. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowers are borne on stiff bunches terminally on short shoots. They are 2-3 cm across, white, sweet-scented with light-brown hairy sepals and many stamens. Loquat fruits are round or pear-shaped, 3-5 cm long and are edible. A native of China, Loquat tree is grown in parks as an ornamental and also for its fruits.

  19. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mid-sized slow-growing evergreen tree with spreading branches that form a dense crown. The bark is smooth, thick, dark and flakes off in large shreds. Leaves are thick, oblong, leathery and bright red when young. The female flowers are drooping and are larger than male flowers. Fruit is large, red in color and velvety.

  20. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andira inermis (wright) DC. , Dog Almond of Fabaceae is a handsome lofty evergreen tree. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are fragrant and are borne on compact branched inflorescences. Fruit is ellipsoidal one-seeded drupe that is peculiar to members of this family.

  1. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    narrow towards base. Flowers are large and attrac- tive, but emit unpleasant foetid smell. They appear in small numbers on erect terminal clusters and open at night. Stamens are numerous, pink or white. Style is slender and long, terminating in a small stigma. Fruit is green, ovoid and indistinctly lobed. Flowering Trees.

  2. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muntingia calabura L. (Singapore cherry) of. Elaeocarpaceae is a medium size handsome ever- green tree. Leaves are simple and alternate with sticky hairs. Flowers are bisexual, bear numerous stamens, white in colour and arise in the leaf axils. Fruit is a berry, edible with several small seeds embedded in a fleshy pulp ...

  3. ~{owering 'Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Stamens are fused into a purple staminal tube that is toothed. Fruit is about 0.5 in. across, nearly globose, generally 5-seeded, green but yellow when ripe, quite smooth at first but wrinkled in drying, remaining long on the tree ajier ripening.

  4. Tree Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2012-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. However, extremely high mortality also can be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  5. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guaiacum officinale L. (LIGNUM-VITAE) of Zygophyllaceae is a dense-crowned, squat, knobbly, rough and twisted medium-sized ev- ergreen tree with mottled bark. The wood is very hard and resinous. Leaves are compound. The leaflets are smooth, leathery, ovate-ellipti- cal and appear in two pairs. Flowers (about 1.5.

  6. Effect of guava leaves on the growth performance and cytokine gene expression of Labeo rohita and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Chi, Cheng; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Psidium guajava L. (guava) leaves on the growth and immune response of the fish species Labeo rohita and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Diets containing five different concentrations of guava leaves (0% [basal diet], 0.1% [G1], 0.5% [G2], 1% [G3], and 1.5% [G4]) were fed to fish (average weight: 11.1 g) for 60 days. Various growth and immune parameters were examined 60 days post-feeding. Fish were challenged with A. hydrophila at the end of the trial, and mortalities were recorded over 15 days post-infection. We found that growth parameters such as percent weight gain (657.61 ± 9.74) and specific growth rate (3.37 ± 0.021) were significantly higher in G2 group than in the control (P guava leaves at any concentration on plasma IgM level. Of the cytokine-related genes examined, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were up-regulated in the head-kidney, intestine, and hepatopancreas of fish fed experimental diets, and expression was significantly higher in G2 and G3 than in the control group. In contrast, gene expression of IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were down-regulated in the treatment groups. Moreover, fish fed the G2 diet exhibited a significantly higher post-challenge survival rate (66.66%). Collectively, these results suggest that dietary supplementation with guava leaves (at 0.5% concentration) could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity of L. rohita. Guava leaves therefore represent a promising feed additive for carps in aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of fibres obtained from the cashew (Anacardium ocidentale, L and guava (Psidium guayava fruits for enrichment of food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima O. Matias

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of using the cashew and guava dried bagasse for enrichment of cookies, a study of drying process was done. The physico- chemical characterization included the determination of pH, soluble solids, total acidity, protein, lipids, fiber, ash, moisture and total and reducing sugars. Total coli forms, yeasts and molds counting were the microbiological analyses conducted. Enriched cookies were prepared by adding 5, 10 and 15% (of total weight of dry residues of cashew and guava. Appearance, color, odor, taste and texture were the sensorial attributes evaluated for the enriched and non-enriched cookies. The granulometric analysis defined that more adequate particle to add were between 65 and 100 mesh. The enriched cookies with cashew and guava fibers in 10% e 5%, respectively, showed a high rate of acceptability in relation to flavor.Foi realizado o estudo de secagem dos bagaços de caju e de goiaba, visando sua utilização no enriquecimento de biscoitos. Determinou-se pH; sólidos solúveis, acidez total titulável, proteína, lipídios, fibras, cinzas, umidade e açúcares redutores e redutores totais. Foram realizadas também as contagens de coliformes totais e fecais e de bolores e leveduras. Adicionou-se aos biscoitos bagaços desidratados de caju e goiaba em percentuais de 5, 10 e 15%. Os atributos avaliados nos biscoitos com e sem adição de bagaços desidratados foram aparência, cor, odor, sabor e textura. Os resultados da caracterização físico-química foram coerentes com os da literatura consultada. As partículas retidas das peneiras entre 65 e 100 mesh foram consideradas as mais adequadas a serem incorporadas ao alimento. As formulações com 10% de bagaço desidratado de caju e 5% de bagaço desidratado de goiaba apresentaram os maiores índices de aceitabilidade com relação ao sabor, 84,9% e 81,8%, respectivamente.

  8. Surface tree languages and parallel derivation trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost

    1976-01-01

    The surface tree languages obtained by top-down finite state transformation of monadic trees are exactly the frontier-preserving homomorphic images of sets of derivation trees of ETOL systems. The corresponding class of tree transformation languages is therefore equal to the class of ETOL languages.

  9. Determinación de vitamina C, compuestos fenólicos totales y actividad antioxidante de frutas de guayaba (Psidium guajava L. cultivadas en Colombia Vitamin C, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in guava (Psidium guajava L. fruits from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Rojas-Barquera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some physicochemical parameters, vitamin C, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity (AA measured by ABTS, FRAP and DPPH methods were determinated in four different varieties of ripe guava produced in Colombia. Samples were statistically similar in their titratable acidity. Soluble solids were statistically similar and higher in "Pear", "Pink Regional", and "White Regional", but lower in "Apple" guavas. Vitamin C was statistically lower in "Pear" guava. Phenolics, ABTS-, FRAP-, and DPPH-AA were statistically lower in "Apple" guava if compared in wet basis. "Pink Regional" and "White Regional" contained the highest levels in vitamin C, phenolics and antioxidant activity.

  10. Efeitos da calagem na fertilidade do solo e na nutrição e produtividade da goiabeira Effects of liming on soil fertility, plant nutrition and guava yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Natale

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A acidez do solo é um dos mais importantes fatores que limitam a produção em regiões tropicais. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da calagem na fertilidade do solo e na nutrição e produtividade da goiabeira (Psidium guajava L.. O experimento foi realizado na Estação Experimental de Citricultura de Bebedouro, São Paulo, em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (V = 26 % na camada de 0-20 cm, no período de agosto/1999 a julho/2006. As doses de calcário empregadas foram: 0; 1,85; 3,71; 5,56 e 7,41 t ha-1. Durante 78 meses após aplicação do corretivo foram realizadas análises químicas de solo. Foi feita avaliação do estado nutricional e da produtividade durante cinco safras agrícolas. A calagem promoveu alteração nos atributos químicos do solo ligados à acidez, elevando o pH, Ca, Mg, soma de bases (SB e saturação por bases (V e diminuindo H + Al, até 60 cm. Os teores foliares de Ca e Mg aumentaram com as doses de calcário. As maiores produções acumuladas de frutos estiveram associadas a um valor de V de 50 % na linha e 65 % na entrelinha das goiabeiras.Soil acidity is one of the most important constraints to agricultural production in the tropics. For this reason, the objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of soil liming on the performance of guava (Psidium guajava L. trees. The experiment took place at the Citrus Experimental Station in Bebedouro, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The soil was a Typic Haplustox (V = 26 % in the 0 to 20 cm layer between August 1999 and July 2006. The following doses of limestone were employed: 0, 1.85, 3.71, 5.56, and 7.41 t ha-1. During the 78 months after starting the experiment, soil chemical attributes were periodically examined. Over a period of five years, the guava tree leaves were analyzed for micro-and macronutrients and the fruit yield was determined. Liming improved the evaluated soil chemical attributes: pH, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, BS, V, and

  11. Trees are good, but…

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; F. Ferrini

    2010-01-01

    We know that “trees are good,” and most people believe this to be true. But if this is so, why are so many trees neglected, and so many tree wells empty? An individual’s attitude toward trees may result from their firsthand encounters with specific trees. Understanding how attitudes about trees are shaped, particularly aversion to trees, is critical to the business of...

  12. Microwave-assisted rapid extracellular synthesis of stable bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles from guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunandan, Deshpande [H.K.E.S' s College of Pharmacy (India); Mahesh, Bedre D. [Gulbarga University, Materials Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Material Science (India); Basavaraja, S. [Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Veeco-India Nanotechnology Laboratory (India); Balaji, S. D. [Gulbarga University, Materials Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Material Science (India); Manjunath, S. Y. [Sri Krupa, Institute of Pharmaceutical Science (India); Venkataraman, A., E-mail: raman_chem@rediffmail.com [Gulbarga University, Materials Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Material Science (India)

    2011-05-15

    Our research interest centers on microwave-assisted rapid extracellular synthesis of bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles of 26 {+-} 5 nm from guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract with control over dimension and composition. The reaction occurs very rapidly as the formation of spherical nanoparticles almost completed within 90 s. The probable pathway of the biosynthesis is suggested. Appearance, crystalline nature, size and shape of nanoparticles are understood by UV-vis (UV-vis spectroscopy), FTIR (fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) techniques. Microwave-assisted route is selected for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles to carry out the reaction fast, suppress the enzymatic action and to keep the process environmentally clean and green.

  13. Microwave-assisted rapid extracellular synthesis of stable bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles from guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunandan, Deshpande; Mahesh, Bedre D.; Basavaraja, S.; Balaji, S. D.; Manjunath, S. Y.; Venkataraman, A.

    2011-01-01

    Our research interest centers on microwave-assisted rapid extracellular synthesis of bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles of 26 ± 5 nm from guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract with control over dimension and composition. The reaction occurs very rapidly as the formation of spherical nanoparticles almost completed within 90 s. The probable pathway of the biosynthesis is suggested. Appearance, crystalline nature, size and shape of nanoparticles are understood by UV–vis (UV–vis spectroscopy), FTIR (fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) techniques. Microwave-assisted route is selected for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles to carry out the reaction fast, suppress the enzymatic action and to keep the process environmentally clean and green.

  14. Heat transfer analyses using computational fluid dynamics in the air blast freezing of guava pulp in large containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Okita

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer during the freezing of guava pulp conditioned in large containers such as in stacked boxes (34 L and buckets (20 L and unstacked drums (200 L is discussed. The air velocities across the cross-section of the tunnel were measured, and the values in the outlet of the evaporator were used as the initial conditions in computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The model tested was turbulent standard k-ε. The CFD-generated convective heat transfer coefficients were mapped on the surfaces for each configuration and used in procedures for the calculation of freezing-time estimates. These estimates were compared with the experimental results for validation. The results showed that CFD determined representative coefficients and produced good correlations between the predicted and experimental values when applied to the freezing-time estimates for the box and drum configurations. The errors depended on the configuration and the adopted mesh (3-D grid construction.

  15. Effects of mesquite gum-candelilla wax based edible coatings on the quality of guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, S. A.; Bosquez-Molina, E.; Stolik, S.; Sánchez, F.

    2005-06-01

    The ability of composite edible coatings to preserve the quality of guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.) at 20ºC was studied for a period of 15 days. The edible coatings were formulated with candelilla wax blended with white mineral oil as the lipid phase and mesquite gum as the structural material. The use of edible coatings prolonged the shelf life of treated fruits by retarding ethylene emission and enhancing texture as compared to control samples. At the sixth day, the ethylene produced by the control samples was fivefold higher than the ethylene produced by the coated samples. In addition, the physiological weight loss of coated fruits was nearly 30% lower than the control samples.

  16. Controle do amadurecimento de goiabas 'Kumagai' tratadas com 1-metilciclopropeno Ripening control of 'Kumagai' guavas submited to 1-methilciclepropene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Sandoval Cerqueira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A alta perecibilidade da goiaba é o principal problema enfrentado pelos produtores na comercialização da fruta in natura, tanto no mercado nacional, como no internacional. O 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP é um regulador vegetal conhecido como bloqueador da ação do etileno, empregado para retardar o amadurecimento de frutos e estender sua vida útil. Assim, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar os efeitos da aplicação do regulador vegetal 1-MCP sobre a qualidade pós-colheita de goiabas 'Kumagai'. As goiabas foram colhidas quando a cor da casca começou a mudar de verde-escura para verde-clara, tendo como base os índices de firmeza (N e cor da casca (ºh de 85N e 117ºh, respectivamente, em lotes uniformes, sem defeitos. Os frutos foram expostos ao 1-MCP durante 3 horas, em câmara hermética, nas concentrações de 0; 100; 300 e 900 nL.L-1 e armazenadas a 22±2 ºC e 80-85 %UR durante 12 dias. O regulador vegetal retardou a perda da cor verde da casca e da firmeza da polpa, bem como o incremento dos teores de ácido ascórbico e de sólidos solúveis, entretanto não alterou a perda de massa, a acidez titulável e a incidência de podridões. A atividade respiratória e a produção de etileno também foram influenciadas pelo 1-MCP, tendo atingido os menores valores ao empregar a maior concentração deste regulador vegetal. A aplicação de 1-MCP, nas concentrações de 300 a 900 nL.L-1, durante 3 horas, retarda o amadurecimento de goiabas 'Kumagai', prolongando sua vida pós-colheita.The short guava shelf life is the main problem that affects commercialization of fruits, either in national or international markets. The 1-MCP is known as an ethylene blocker. This work was carried out to determine the effects of 1-MCP over attributes of quality of 'Kumagai' guavas. The guavas were harvested with the skin color changing from dark-green to light-green stage, presenting: firmness (N 85 and skin color (h° 117, without injuries

  17. Microwave-assisted rapid extracellular synthesis of stable bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles from guava ( Psidium guajava) leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Deshpande; Mahesh, Bedre D.; Basavaraja, S.; Balaji, S. D.; Manjunath, S. Y.; Venkataraman, A.

    2011-05-01

    Our research interest centers on microwave-assisted rapid extracellular synthesis of bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles of 26 ± 5 nm from guava ( Psidium guajava) leaf extract with control over dimension and composition. The reaction occurs very rapidly as the formation of spherical nanoparticles almost completed within 90 s. The probable pathway of the biosynthesis is suggested. Appearance, crystalline nature, size and shape of nanoparticles are understood by UV-vis (UV-vis spectroscopy), FTIR (fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) techniques. Microwave-assisted route is selected for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles to carry out the reaction fast, suppress the enzymatic action and to keep the process environmentally clean and green.

  18. Influence of gamma-irradiation, growth retardants and coatings on the shelf life of winter guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, S.K.; Joshua, Jean E.; Bisen; Abhav

    2010-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to study the effect of gamma irradiation, growth retardants and coatings (coconut oil, mustard oil and liquid paraffin) on shelf life of winter guava fruits during storage. The results revealed that the superiority of coconut oil coating over other post harvest treatments. Physiological loss in weight (7.1%), marketable fruits retained over control (86.7%), total soluble solid (16.1%), ascorbic acid (195 mg/100 g pulp) and total sugar (10%) of fruit were positively influenced by coconut oil coating up to 12 days of storage. The treatment was found significantly effective in increasing the post harvest life of fruits for 12 days over control without adversely affecting the fruit quality. Coconut oil coating gave highest consumer acceptability while, maintaining sufficient level of total soluble solids and sugar content in fruits. (author)

  19. Modular tree automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular...

  20. Simple street tree sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  1. Absorption and translocation of phosphorus-32 in guava leaves; Absorcao e redistribuicao de fosforo (P-32) aplicado via foliar em mudas de goiabeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natale, William [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias; Boaretto, Antonio E.; Muraoka, Takashi [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    Phosphorus is easily absorbed by the leaves and translocated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the absorption and translocation of P by guava leaves, with time. When a solution containing 2% MAP and specific activity 0.15 {mu}Ci/ml was applied. MAP labelled with {sup 32} P was applied in the 3{sup rd} pair of leaves. These and other leaves, roots and stem were collected separately and analyzed accordingly. The results showed that 20 days after application 12% of the applied P was absorbed by the guava leaves. The translocation of P started immediately after its absorption reaching 20% 2fter 20 days. (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  2. Effects of seasonal variations on antioxidant activity of pink guava fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Haniza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of seasonal variations during rainy and hot season on antioxidant activity of pink guava fruits in approximately one year duration specifically on November 2012, December 2012, January 2013, March 2013, April 2013, May 2013, July 2013, August 2013 and November 2013. Fruit samples (Sungkai and Semenyih variants) were collected from Sime Darby Beverages plantation located in Sitiawan. The fruits were samples for 9 times from Nov 2012 to Nov 2013 except Feb 2013, Jun 2013, Sept 2013 and Oct 2013. Fruits were peeled, seeded and blended into uniform puree. Samples were then extracted for its antioxidant activity determination using 50% acetone. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using total phenolic compounds (TPC) assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl1-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging capacity (DPPH). Analysis was conducted using 96-well microplate spectrophotometer UV. The highest TPC result was Semenyih var recorded 2192.80 mg GAE/100g FW whilst Sungkai var 1595.98 mg GAE/100g FW both on July 2013 with rainfall was at the least (45mm) and the lowest for Sungkai var was 792.75 mg GAE/100g FW and 1032.41 mg GAE/100g FW for Semenyih var, both on Nov 2012 with 185mm rainfall. There were significant negative correlation between TPC and rainfall (mm) for both Semenyih var (r = - 0.699, p<0.005, r2 = 0.489) and Sungkai var (r = -0.72, p<0.05, r2 = 0.531). The highest FRAP result (mg TE/100g FW) was 1677.74 for Semenyih var (Aug 2013, rainfall = 160.5mm) and the highest FRAP for Sungkai var was 1104.60 (Jul 2013, rainfall = 45.0mm) whereas the lowest for Semenyih and Sungkai var was 1090.22 (Mar 2013, rainfall = 97.5mm) and 767.88 (Nov 2012, rainfall = 185.50) respectively. There was weak negative correlation between FRAP and rainfall(mm) for both Sungkai var (r = - 0.324, p<0.05, r2 = 0.105) and Semenyih var (r = - 0.362, p<0.05, r2 = 0.132). The highest DPPH for Semenyih var was 88.40% (Aug

  3. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in pink guava (Psidium guajava L.) by means of aroma re-engineering experiments and omission tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Martin; Sinuco, Diana; Polster, Johannes; Osorio, Coralia; Schieberle, Peter

    2009-04-08

    Seventeen aroma-active volatiles, previously identified with high flavor dilution factors in fresh, pink Colombian guavas (Psidium guajava L.), were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds in water, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. High OAVs were determined for the green, grassy smelling (Z)-3-hexenal and the grapefruit-like smelling 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol followed by 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (black currant-like), hexanal (green, grassy), ethyl butanoate (fruity), acetaldehyde (fresh, pungent), trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel, sweet), cinnamyl alcohol (floral), methyl (2S,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoate (fruity), cinnamyl acetate (floral), methional (cooked potato-like), and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (seasoning-like). Studies on the time course of odorant formation in guava puree or cubes, respectively, showed that (Z)-3-hexenal was hardly present in the intact fruits, but was formed very quickly during crushing. The aroma of fresh guava fruit cubes, which showed a very balanced aroma profile, was successfully mimicked in a reconstitute consisting of 13 odorants in their naturally occurring concentrations. Omission tests, in which single odorants were omitted from the entire aroma reconstitute, revealed (Z)-3-hexenal, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, hexanal, ethyl butanoate, cinnamyl acetate, and methional as the key aroma compounds of pink guavas.

  4. City of Pittsburgh Trees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Trees cared for and managed by the City of Pittsburgh Department of Public Works Forestry Division. Tree Benefits are calculated using the National Tree Benefit...

  5. Regeneración de brotes adventicios en hojas de guayaba (Psidium guajava L. cultivadas in vitro Adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro cultured leaves of guava (Psidium guava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trujillo Sánchez Reinaldo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La regeneración de brotes adventicios es una etapa clave para la aplicación de las técnicas de ingeniería gené­tica. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo el desarrollo de un procedimiento para la regeneración de brotes por organogénesis a partir de hojas de microesquejes o brotes de guayaba (Psidium guajava L. cultivados in vi­tro. Para ello se estudiaron algunos de los principales factores que afectan la regeneración de brotes, tales como la concentración de reguladores del crecimiento (citoquinina, el estado fisiológico del explante y la he­rida. En todos los experimentos se utilizaron como explantes hojas de vitroplantas de guayaba de la variedad Enana Roja Cubana EEA18-40 de diferentes subcultivos. El mejor resultado se alcanzó con una concentración de 0,75 mg/L de 6-bencilaminopurina como suplemento hormonal del medio MS. Se comprobó que para las hojas provenientes de microesquejes con mayor número de subcultivo y tomadas de la parte inferior de los brotes, el potencial morfogenético disminuye significativamente (p60% y el mayor número de brotes por explante promedio (>3 se alcanzó al realizar varias heridas en forma de punteaduras en el nervio central de las hojas. Este protocolo de regeneración constituye una importante herramienta que puede ser empleada para futuros estudios de transformación genética en esta especie. Palabras clave: cultivo de tejidos, explantes de hoja, reguladores de crecimiento, organogénesis, guayaba.Adventitious regeneration is a key step in the application of genetic engineering to the breeding programs of plants. In this work a method for adventitious shoot regeneration from leaves of micropropagated guava shoots has been developed and some of main factors to affect the shoot regeneration like, concentration of plant growth regulators (citoquinine, physiological state of explants and the wound are studied. Leaves from guava in vitro cultured of variety Cuban Red Dwarf 18-40 was used

  6. Ripening pattern of guava cv. Pedro Sato Padrão de amadurecimento de goiaba cv. Pedro Sato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato de Abreu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Guava is a fruit with high respiration rates and a very short shelf life. Since information on its respiration pattern is contradictory, the objective was to study the changes occurring in the fruit during ripening and to relate them to the respiration behavior of this fruit. Guavas were picked at the half-ripe stage and stored for 8 days at 22 ± 1 ºC and 78 ± 1% relative humidity. The analyses conducted were: peel and pulp coloration, firmness, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, and ethylene production. According to the results, it was verified that the parameters analyzed apparently do not coincide and are ethylene-independent. There was an accentuated ethylene production during ripening, starting from the 4th day. The ethylene synthesis continued increasing up to the 8th day, when the fruits were already decomposing. It was observed that the firmness decreased sharply in the first three days of ripening, and the skin and pulp color changed during ripening. The TSS, total soluble solids, and the TTA, total titratable acidity, practically did not change during the ripening, even with the increased ethylene production. It can be concluded that guava is a fruit that presents characteristics of climacteric and non-climacteric fruits.A goiaba apresenta altas taxas de respiração e uma vida útil muito curta, e como as informações sobre o padrão respiratório são contraditórias, objetivou-se estudar mudanças ocorridas no fruto durante o amadurecimento e relacioná-las ao comportamento respiratório desses frutos. Foram colhidas goiabas no estádio "de vez" e armazenadas por 8 dias à temperatura ambiente (22 ± 1 ºC e umidade relativa de 78 ± 1%. As análises realizadas foram: coloração da casca e polpa, firmeza, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT e produção de etileno. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que todas as variáveis analisadas aparentemente não coincidem e independem da s

  7. Categorizing ideas about trees: a tree of trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a "tree of trees." Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like "cladists" and "pheneticists" are recovered but others are not: "gradists" are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here "grade theoreticians." We propose new interesting categories like the "buffonian school," the "metaphoricians," and those using "strictly genealogical classifications." We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization.

  8. Urban tree growth modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Paula J. Peper

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes three long-term tree growth studies conducted to evaluate tree performance because repeated measurements of the same trees produce critical data for growth model calibration and validation. Several empirical and process-based approaches to modeling tree growth are reviewed. Modeling is more advanced in the fields of forestry and...

  9. Keeping trees as assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Landscape trees have real value and contribute to making livable communities. Making the most of that value requires providing trees with the proper care and attention. As potentially large and long-lived organisms, trees benefit from commitment to regular care that respects the natural tree system. This system captures, transforms, and uses energy to survive, grow,...

  10. Classification and regression trees

    CERN Document Server

    Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J

    1984-01-01

    The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.

  11. Physiology and postharvest conservation of ‘Paluma’ guava under coatings using Jack fruit seed-based starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto Marques Rodrigues

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of jackfruit seed starch-based (S coatings, added to chitosan and alginate on the physiology and maintenance of quality of cold stored ‘Paluma’ guavas, followed by transfer to the room condition. The design was the completely randomized, in a 4x2 factorial scheme, in 4 replications, with 4 coatings (dispersion of S - 4%; S 2% + chitosan - 2% (SC; S - 2% + alginate - 2% (SA; and the uncoated control, in 2 environments (refrigerated (10±2 °C e 80±2% RH with transfer to room condition (25±3 °C e 75±4% HR, on the 16th and 20th day of cold storage. The SC and SA coatings were efficient in reducing the respiratory rate in fruits during 10 days at room condition. The SC coating delayed fruit ripening, and maintained firmness and color, with intention of purchasing and appearance higher than the limit of acceptance for another 6 days, following transferring to room condition, at the 16th day of refrigeration.

  12. Determination of Polar Compounds in Guava Leaves Infusions and Ultrasound Aqueous Extract by HPLC-ESI-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elixabet Díaz-de-Cerio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature lacks publications about polar compounds content in infusion or guava leaves tea. Because of that, a comparison between different times of infusion and a conventional ultrasound aqueous extract was carried out. Several polar compounds have been identified by HPLC-ESI-MS and their antioxidant activity was evaluated by FRAP and ABTS assays. Four different classes of phenolic compounds (gallic and ellagic acid derivatives, flavonols, flavanones, and flavan-3-ols and some benzophenones were determined. The quantification results reported that the order, in terms of concentration of the classes of polar compounds in all samples, was flavonols > flavan-3-ols > gallic and ellagic acid derivatives > benzophenones > flavanones. As expected, the aqueous extract obtained by sonication showed the highest content in the compounds studied. Significative differences were noticed about the different times of infusion and five minutes was the optimal time to obtain the highest content in polar compounds using this culinary method. All the identified compounds, except HHDP isomers and naringenin, were positively correlated with antioxidant activity.

  13. Postharvest shelf-life extension of pink guavas (Psidium guajava L.) using HPMC-based edible surface coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwasrao, Chandrahas; Ananthanarayan, Laxmi

    2016-04-01

    Psidium guajava L. var. 'Lalit' is a perishable fruit with delicate skin which is prone to damage. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of edible coating made up of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and palm oil on ripening of guava. Coating solution was applied over fruits and coated fruits were stored at 24 ± 1 °C and 65 ± 5%RH. Changes in fruit colour, texture softening, respiration rate, weight loss, ascorbic acid content, soluble solids, titrable acidity, chlorophyll content, total reducing sugars, total phenolic content were studied during post-harvest ripening. Fruits coated with 1 % of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and 0.3 % of palm oil showed significant delay in weight loss, fruit firmness as well as colour change (p < 0.05). Coating delayed the enzyme activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase of the fruit. Results suggest that overall quality of coated fruit was maintained by edible coating formulation extending the shelf life of fruit up to 12 days with appreciable retention of all quality parameters tested.

  14. Guava leaf extracts promote glucose metabolism in SHRSP.Z-Leprfa/Izm rats by improving insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiangyu; Yoshitomi, Hisae; Gao, Ming; Qin, Lingling; Duan, Ying; Sun, Wen; Xu, Tunhai; Xie, Peifeng; Zhou, Jingxin; Huang, Liansha; Liu, Tonghua

    2013-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been associated with insulin-resistance; however, the effective therapies in improving insulin sensitivity are limited. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of Guava Leaf (GL) extracts on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in SHRSP.Z-Leprfa/Izm rats (SHRSP/ZF), a model of spontaneously metabolic syndrome. Male rats at 7 weeks of age were administered with vehicle water or treated by gavage with 2 g/kg GL extracts daily for six weeks, and their body weights, water and food consumption, glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance were measured. Compared with the controls, treatment with GL extracts did not modulate the amounts of water and food consumption, but significantly reduced the body weights at six weeks post treatment. Treatment with GL extracts did not alter the levels of fasting plasma glucose and insulin, but significantly reduced the levels of plasma glucose at 60 and 120 min post glucose challenge, also reduced the values of AUC and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) at 42 days post treatment. Furthermore, treatment with GL extracts promoted IRS-1, AKT, PI3Kp85 expression, then IRS-1, AMKP, and AKT308, but not AKT473, phosphorylation, accompanied by increasing the ratios of membrane to total Glut 4 expression and adiponectin receptor 1 transcription in the skeletal muscles. These data indicated that GL extracts improved glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in the skeletal muscles of rats by modulating the insulin-related signaling.

  15. Influence of Guava by-Product, Enzyme Supplementation and Gamma Irradiation on Performance and Digestive Utilization of Fattening Rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekkawy, S.H.; El-Faramawy, A.A.; Zakaria, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    A total number of 32 New Zealand white rabbits weighing about 850 g were used to study the influence of guava by-product (GBP)on growth, feed consumption, feed efficiency, carcass dressing percentage, blood parameters and digestive efficiency. Four diets were formulated to provide about 17% crude fiber (CF). Control diet, diet with 16% (GBP), diet with the same percent of (GBP) supplemented with enzyme supplement and the last one also the same with the third diet in addition to treatment by gamma irradiation (3 kGy). The results indicated that there were no significant differences (P<0.05) between the experimental groups and control in growth, feed consumption, feed efficiency and carcass dressing percentage. Blood parameters (total protein, albumin, globulin, total lipids, and alkaline phosphatase) were within normal range through out the groups. Apparent digestibility coefficient of nutrients ( OM, CP, CF, EE and NFE) were significantly higher in rabbits fed the diet of (GBP) and enzyme supplementation. Our data indicate that (GBP) can replace 16% of alfalfa hay without decreasing growth performance of rabbits

  16. The Inhibitory Effects of Aqueous Extract from Guava Twigs, Psidium guajava L., on Mutation and Oxidative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Chyang Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the inhibitory effects of the aqueous extract from guava twigs (GTE, Psidium guajava L., on mutation and oxidative damage. The results show that GTE inhibits the mutagenicity of 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO, a direct mutagen, and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA, an indirect mutagen, toward Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. In addition, GTE shows radical scavenging, reducing activities, tyrosinase inhibition, and liposome protection effects. Meanwhile, GTE in the range of 0.1–0.4 mg/mL protects liver cells from tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-(t-BHP- induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity inhibition of GTE in the t-BHP-treated cells was demonstrated in a dose-dependent manner. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis suggests that the major phenolic constituents in GTE are gallic acid, ferulic acid, and myricetin. These active phenolic components may contribute to the biological protective effects of GTE in different models. The data suggest that GTE exhibiting biological activities can be applied to antimutation, antityrosinase, and antioxidative damage.

  17. Fault tree handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haasl, D.F.; Roberts, N.H.; Vesely, W.E.; Goldberg, F.F.

    1981-01-01

    This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic concepts for fault tree analysis; basic elements of a fault tree; fault tree construction; probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra for the fault tree analyst; qualitative and quantitative fault tree evaluation techniques; and computer codes for fault tree evaluation. Also discussed are several example problems illustrating the basic concepts of fault tree construction and evaluation

  18. There's Life in Hazard Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Torsello; Toni McLellan

    The goals of hazard tree management programs are to maximize public safety and maintain a healthy sustainable tree resource. Although hazard tree management frequently targets removal of trees or parts of trees that attract wildlife, it can take into account a diversity of tree values. With just a little extra planning, hazard tree management can be highly beneficial...

  19. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  20. Consumption of guava (Psidium guajava L) and noni (Morinda citrifolia L) may protect betel quid-chewing Papua New Guineans against diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Patrick L; Martineau, Louis C; Caves, Dayna; Haddad, Pierre S; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Johns, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (DM2) in Papua New Guinea, coupled with compelling epidemiological evidence supporting a diabetogenic association with betel quid (BQ) chewing has lead us to investigate dietary strategies that might offer protection from developing DM2. We investigated the dietary habits of Kalo residents from coastal Central Province who are avid BQ chewers yet have a relatively low incidence of DM2 compared to the ethnically similar and adjacent Wanigelans who abstain from BQ yet have an unusually high incidence of DM2. In Kalo, guava bud (Psidium guajava L) and noni (Morinda citrifolia L) were consumed much more frequently than in Wanigela, whereas the inverse was observed for mangrove bean (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L) Lam.). These plants, along with BQ and its component ingredients areca nut (Areca catechu L) and Piper betle L inflorescence, were assessed for their ability to mediate insulin-dependent and insulin-independent glucose transport in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. A dose-dependent inhibition of glucose uptake from methanolic extracts of BQ, areca nut and P. betle inflorescence supports previous reports of prodiabetic activity. Conversely, guava bud extract displayed significant insulin-mimetic and potentiating activity. Noni fruit, noni leaf, commercial noni juice and mangrove bean all displayed insulin-like activity but had little or no effect on insulin action. Habitual intake of guava and noni is proposed to offer better protection against DM2 development and/or betel quid diabetogenicity than cooked mangrove bean. These findings provide empirical support that DM2 risk reduction can be accomplished using traditional foods and medicines.

  1. Conservação de goiabas tratadas com emulsões de cera de carnaúba Postharvest conservation of guavas through carnauba wax emulsion applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Pedro Jacomino

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A goiaba é um fruto muito perecível. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de ceras à base de carnaúba na conservação pós-colheita de goiabas Pedro Sato sob condição ambiente. Utilizaram-se cinco ceras comerciais: Citrosol AK (18%, Citrosol M (10%, Fruit wax (18 a 21%, Meghwax ECF-100 (30% e Cleantex wax (18,5 a 20,5%, as quais foram aplicadas manualmente, na proporção de 0,15 a 0,20mL por fruta. Frutas sem aplicação de cera foram utilizadas como controle. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 6 tratamentos, 4 repetições e 5 frutas por parcela. As goiabas foram caracterizadas imediatamente após a colheita e avaliadas aos 2, 4 e 6 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. As ceras exerceram pouca influência nos teores de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável e ácido ascórbico, porém, foram eficientes em retardar o amadurecimento, reduzir a perda de massa e a incidência de podridões. A cera Meghwax ECF-100 apresenta potencial para utilização em goiabas, porém há necessidade de ser avaliada em maior diluição, para evitar alterações indesejáveis.Guavas are very perishable fruits. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the effects of several carnauba based waxes in the postharvest life of Pedro Sato guavas under room conditions. Five commercial waxes were used: Citrosol AK (18%, Citrosol M (10%, Fruit wax (18 a 21%, Meghwax ECF-100 (30% e Cleantex wax (18,5 a 20,5%. The waxes were applied manualy in the rate of 0.15 to 0.20mL of wax per fruit. Control fruits were not treated. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 6 treatments, 4 replicates per treatment and 5 fruits as experimental unit. Guavas were evaluated at harvest and at every 2 days until the 6th day after treatments. Waxing had little effect on total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and ascorbic acid contents. However, the waxes were efficient in delaying ripening

  2. Comparative investigation to see the efficacy of polyphenol oxidase inhibitors parallel to sulphite for control of enzymatic browning in guava juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zai, M.N.K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Comparative study was conducted to determine the efficacy of polyphenol oxidase inhibitors to control browning in guava juice/concentrates parallel to sulfite. Although sulfites are highly effective to control the browning but these have shown adverse effect on health particularly to those who have pulmonary disorder like asthma. Filtration with useful filter aid and juicing agents are found to be helpful in removing browning residue particulates fractions to extend the shelf life of the juice. Non-enzymatic browning can be prevented by cold blanching. (author)

  3. Trees and highway safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    To minimize the severity of run-off-road collisions of vehicles with trees, departments of transportation (DOTs) : commonly establish clear zones for trees and other fixed objects. Caltrans clear zone on freeways is 30 feet : minimum (40 feet pref...

  4. Decision-Tree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntine, Wray

    1994-01-01

    IND computer program introduces Bayesian and Markov/maximum-likelihood (MML) methods and more-sophisticated methods of searching in growing trees. Produces more-accurate class-probability estimates important in applications like diagnosis. Provides range of features and styles with convenience for casual user, fine-tuning for advanced user or for those interested in research. Consists of four basic kinds of routines: data-manipulation, tree-generation, tree-testing, and tree-display. Written in C language.

  5. Minnesota's Forest Trees. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William R.; Fuller, Bruce L.

    This bulletin describes 46 of the more common trees found in Minnesota's forests and windbreaks. The bulletin contains two tree keys, a summer key and a winter key, to help the reader identify these trees. Besides the two keys, the bulletin includes an introduction, instructions for key use, illustrations of leaf characteristics and twig…

  6. D2-tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Sioutas, Spyros; Pantazos, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    We present a new overlay, called the Deterministic Decentralized tree (D2-tree). The D2-tree compares favorably to other overlays for the following reasons: (a) it provides matching and better complexities, which are deterministic for the supported operations; (b) the management of nodes (peers...

  7. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  8. Winter Birch Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  9. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  10. TreePics: visualizing trees with pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Puillandre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While many programs are available to edit phylogenetic trees, associating pictures with branch tips in an efficient and automatic way is not an available option. Here, we present TreePics, a standalone software that uses a web browser to visualize phylogenetic trees in Newick format and that associates pictures (typically, pictures of the voucher specimens to the tip of each branch. Pictures are visualized as thumbnails and can be enlarged by a mouse rollover. Further, several pictures can be selected and displayed in a separate window for visual comparison. TreePics works either online or in a full standalone version, where it can display trees with several thousands of pictures (depending on the memory available. We argue that TreePics can be particularly useful in a preliminary stage of research, such as to quickly detect conflicts between a DNA-based phylogenetic tree and morphological variation, that may be due to contamination that needs to be removed prior to final analyses, or the presence of species complexes.

  11. Skin protective effect of guava leaves against UV-induced melanogenesis via inhibition of ORAI1 channel and tyrosinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Ung; Weon, Kwon Yeon; Nam, Da-Yeong; Nam, Joo Hyun; Kim, Woo Kyung

    2016-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is a major environmental factor affecting photoageing, which is characterized by skin wrinkle formation and hyperpigmentation. Although many factors are involved in the photoageing process, UV irradiation is thought to play a major role in melanogenesis. Tyrosinase is the key enzyme in melanin synthesis; therefore, many whitening agents target tyrosinase through various mechanisms, such as direct interference of tyrosinase catalytic activity or inhibition of tyrosinase mRNA expression. Furthermore, the highly selective calcium channel ORAI1 has been shown to be associated with UV-induced melanogenesis. Thus, ORAI1 antagonists may have applications in the prevention of melanogenesis. Here, we aimed to identify the antimelanogenesis agents from methanolic extract of guava leaves (Psidium guajava) that can inhibit tyrosinase and ORAI1 channel. The n-butanol (47.47%±7.503% inhibition at 10 μg/mL) and hexane (57.88%±7.09% inhibition at 10 μg/mL) fractions were found to inhibit ORAI1 channel activity. In addition, both fractions showed effective tyrosinase inhibitory activity (68.3%±0.50% and 56.9%±1.53% inhibition, respectively). We also confirmed that the hexane fraction decreased the melanin content induced by UVB irradiation and the ET-1-induced melanogenesis in murine B16F10 melanoma cells. These results suggest that the leaves of P. guajava can be used to protect against direct and indirect UV-induced melanogenesis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Spectra of chemical trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, K.

    1982-01-01

    A method is developed for obtaining the spectra of trees of NMR and chemical interests. The characteristic polynomials of branched trees can be obtained in terms of the characteristic polynomials of unbranched trees and branches by pruning the tree at the joints. The unbranched trees can also be broken down further until a tree containing just two vertices is obtained. The effectively reduces the order of the secular determinant of the tree used at the beginning to determinants of orders atmost equal to the number of vertices in the branch containing the largest number of vertices. An illustrative example of a NMR graph is given for which the 22 x 22 secular determinant is reduced to determinants of orders atmost 4 x 4 in just the second step of the algorithm. The tree pruning algorithm can be applied even to trees with no symmetry elements and such a factoring can be achieved. Methods developed here can be elegantly used to find if two trees are cospectral and to construct cospectral trees

  13. Refining discordant gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Pawel; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary studies are complicated by discordance between gene trees and the species tree in which they evolved. Dealing with discordant trees often relies on comparison costs between gene and species trees, including the well-established Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs. While these costs have provided credible results for binary rooted gene trees, corresponding cost definitions for non-binary unrooted gene trees, which are frequently occurring in practice, are challenged by biological realism. We propose a natural extension of the well-established costs for comparing unrooted and non-binary gene trees with rooted binary species trees using a binary refinement model. For the duplication cost we describe an efficient algorithm that is based on a linear time reduction and also computes an optimal rooted binary refinement of the given gene tree. Finally, we show that similar reductions lead to solutions for computing the deep coalescence and the Robinson-Foulds costs. Our binary refinement of Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs for unrooted and non-binary gene trees together with the linear time reductions provided here for computing these costs significantly extends the range of trees that can be incorporated into approaches dealing with discordance.

  14. Evaluation of the protective effect of guava fruits and leaves on oxidative stress - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v36i1.19839

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mesquita Freire

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant capacity of action. Thus, research, alternative to mitigate the damaging effects of oxidative stress, improving the body´s antioxidant capacity, prevented the disease and its complicatons. The leaves and fruits of guava are rich in the antioxidants. This work aimed to study the effect of flour and ethanolic/acetone extracts leaves and fruits of guava on lipid oxidation in rats with hypercholesterolemic. The flour and extracts decreased leves of triglycerides and non – HDL cholesterol and increased in the HDL. Cholesterol levels decreased only leaves and fruits. The activity of GPx decreased in samples serum in all treatments  and the SOD only the extracts were effective. There was no difference in levels the MDA in relation hypercholesterolemic control. For the samples of liver, there was no difference in activity SOD. In relation of activity GPx, only the flour was effective. There were differences in levels the MDA of the hypercholesterolemic animals treated with flour and extracts with the animals of the hypercholesterolemic control.

  15. Inactivation of Spoilage Yeasts by Mentha spicata L. and M. × villosa Huds. Essential Oils in Cashew, Guava, Mango, and Pineapple Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika T. da Cruz Almeida

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of the essential oil from Mentha spicata L. (MSEO and M. × villosa Huds. (MVEO to inactivate Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, Pichia anomala and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Sabouraud dextrose broth and cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple juices during 72 h of refrigerated storage. The effects of the incorporation of an anti-yeast effective dose of MSEO on some physicochemical and sensory characteristics of juices were evaluated. The incorporation of 3.75 μL/mL MSEO or 15 μL/mL MVEO caused a ≥5-log reductions in counts of C. albicans, P. anomala, and S. cerevisiae in Sabouraud dextrose broth. In cashew and guava juices, 1.875 μL/mL MSEO or 15 μL/mL MVEO caused ≥5-log reductions in counts of P. anomala and S. cerevisiae. In pineapple juice, 3.75 μL/mL MSEO caused ≥5-log reductions in counts of P. anomala and S. cerevisiae; 15 μL/mL MVEO caused ≥5-log reductions in counts of S. cerevisiae in mango juice. The incorporation of 1.875 μL/mL MSEO did not affect the physicochemical parameters of juices and did not induce negative impacts to cause their possible sensory rejection. These results show the potential of MSEO and MVEO, primarily MSEO, to comprise strategies to control spoilage yeasts in fruit juices.

  16. Faunistic analysis of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) on a guava orchard under organic management in the municipality of Una, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Vivian S.; Santos, Mirian S; Souza Filho, Zilton A.; Silva, Janisete G. [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas; Araujo, Elton L. [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido, Mossoro, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Vegetais

    2009-01-15

    We carried out a study to characterize fruit fly populations on an organic guava orchard (Psidium guajava cv. Paluma) in the municipality of Una, southern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil, using faunistic analysis of the adult fruit f y specimens captured in McPhail traps from January 2004 through March 2007. A total of 22,673 specimens of Anastrepha (15,306 females and 7,367 males) were captured. Thirteen species of Anastrepha were recorded. A. fraterculus and A. obliqua were the more frequent and dominant species, accounting for 90.1% of all females captured in the traps. A. fraterculus was the predominant species (more frequent, constant and dominant). The high value of the Simpson index (0.62) and the low values of Shannon-Wiener (0.83) and equitability (0.49) indices indicated the dominance and high frequency of A. fraterculus and A. obliqua on the guava orchard despite the presence of other fruit species as potential hosts of fruit flies. (author)

  17. Effect of chitosan and alginate based coatings enriched with pomegranate peel extract to extend the postharvest quality of guava (Psidium guajava L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M Sneha; Saxena, Alok; Kaur, Charanjit

    2018-02-01

    The influence of chitosan (1% w/v) and alginate (2% w/v) coatings in combination with pomegranate peel extract (PPE; 1% w/v) on quality of guavas (cv Allahabad safeda) were studied. Restricted changes were recorded in respiration rate, ripening index, and instrumental colour values in case of the coated samples as compared to the control for 20days at 10°C. Samples coated with chitosan enriched with PPE (CHE) proved to be the most effective treatment in maintaining the overall fruit quality. Ascorbic acid, total phenolics, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity were recorded with restricted losses of 29%, 8%, 12%, 12% (DPPH) and 9% (FRAP), respectively for CHE samples at the end of storage. A higher degree of correlation (r>0.918) was established between various phytochemicals and AOA. PPE enriched coatings was proved efficient in maintaining the quality of guavas during 20days of low temperature storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of pectinase enzyme from guava (Psidium guajava) peel: Enzyme recovery, specific activity, temperature, and storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Islam Sarker, Zaidul

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions on the yield, specific activity, temperature, and storage stability of the pectinase enzyme from guava peel. The ultrasound variables studied were sonication time (10-30 min), ultrasound temperature (30-50 °C), pH (2.0-8.0), and solvent-to-sample ratio (2:1 mL/g to 6:1 mL/g). The main goal was to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions to maximize the recovery of pectinase from guava peel with the most desirable enzyme-specific activity and stability. Under the optimum conditions, a high yield (96.2%), good specific activity (18.2 U/mg), temperature stability (88.3%), and storage stability (90.3%) of the extracted enzyme were achieved. The optimal conditions were 20 min sonication time, 40 °C temperature, at pH 5.0, using a 4:1 mL/g solvent-to-sample ratio. The study demonstrated that optimization of ultrasound-assisted process conditions for the enzyme extraction could improve the enzymatic characteristics and yield of the enzyme.

  19. Lycopene rich extract from red guava (Psidium guajava L.) displays anti-inflammatory and antioxidant profile by reducing suggestive hallmarks of acute inflammatory response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Andreanne G; Amorim, Adriany das G N; Dos Santos, Raimunda C; Souza, Jessica Maria T; de Souza, Luan Kelves M; Araújo, Thiago de S L; Nicolau, Lucas Antonio D; de Lima Carvalho, Lucas; de Aquino, Pedro Everson A; da Silva Martins, Conceição; Ropke, Cristina D; Soares, Pedro Marcos G; Kuckelhaus, Selma Aparecida S; Medeiros, Jand-Venes R; Leite, José Roberto de S A

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract (LEG) and purified (LPG) lycopene from guava (Psidium guajava L.), as well as some mechanisms possibly involved in this effect. The anti-inflammatory activity was initially assessed using paw edema induced by Carrageenan, Dextran, Compound 48/80, Histamine and Prostaglandin E2 in Swiss mice. A peritonitis model was used to evaluate neutrophil migration, the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration; while the effect on the expression of iNOS, COX-2 and NF-κB, was assessed by immunohistochemistry analysis. Results showed that oral and intraperitoneal administration of LEG and LPG inhibited inflammation caused by carrageenan. LPG (12.5mg/kg p.o.) significantly inhibited the edema formation induced by different phlogistic agents and immunostaining for iNOS, COX-2 and NF-κB. Leukocytes migration in paw tissue and peritoneal cavity was reduced, as well as MPO concentration, whereas GSH levels increased. Thus, lycopene-rich extract from red guava has beneficial effect on acute inflammation, offering protection against the consequences of oxidative stress by downregulating inflammatory mediators and inhibiting gene expression involved in inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Control of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species in guava, mango and papaya using synergistic combinations of chitosan and Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. ex Nees) Stapf. essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Oliveira, Priscila Dinah; de Oliveira, Kataryne Árabe Rimá; Vieira, Willie Anderson Dos Santos; Câmara, Marcos Paz Saraiva; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2018-02-02

    This study assessed the efficacy of chitosan (Chi) and Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. ex Nees) Stapf. essential oil (CCEO) combinations to control the mycelial growth of five pathogenic Colletotrichum species (C. asianum, C. siamense, C. fructicola, C. tropicale and C. karstii) in vitro, as well as the anthracnose development in guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Paluma, mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Tommy Atkins and papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Papaya artificially inoculated with these species. Combinations of Chi (2.5, 5 or 7.5mg/mL) and CCEO (0.15, 0.3, 0.6 or 1.25μL/mL) inhibited the mycelial growth of all tested fungal species in vitro. Examined Chi-CCEO combinations showed additive or synergistic interactions to inhibit the target Colletotrichum species based on the Abbott index. Coatings formed by synergistic Chi (5mg/mL) and CCEO (0.15, 0.3 or 0.6μL/mL) combinations decreased anthracnose lesion development in guava, mango and papaya inoculated with any of the tested Colleotrichum species during storage. Overall, anthracnose lesion development inhibition in fruit coated with synergistic Chi-CCEO combinations was higher than that observed in fruit treated with synthetic fungicides. These results show that the application of coatings formed by Chi-CCEO synergistic combinations could be effective to control postharvest anthracnose development in fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. MIKROENKAPSULASI Lactobacillus plantarum DENGAN BERBAGAI ENKAPSULAN PADA PENGERINGAN SEMPROT JUS JAMBU BIJI [Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum in Guava Juice by Spray Drying Using Several Types of Encapsulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Ningtyas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (1% in guava juice were microencapculated by spray drying technique using several types of encapsulant, i.e. maltodextrin, maltodextrin in combination with other materials such as gum arabic, inulin, and galaktooligosakarida (GOS, with a ratio of 5:1. The objectives of this study were to compare the effect of encapsulation materials of Lactobacillus plantarum 2C12 and Lactobacillus plantarum BSL on heat resistance (50, 60 and 70°C, for 20 min, survival at low pH (2.0, bile salts (0.5%, and antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. Spray drying were performed at 120°C (inlet and 70°C (outlet. The results showed that all types of encapsulated probiotics improved their resistances toward heat, low pH and bile salts as compared to free cells. The highest survival of probiotic cells was achieved by probiotic encapsulated with maltodextrin, and heated at 50°C, with a protection of 2-3 Log CFU g-1 as compared to free cells. Combination of maltodextrin and GOS (5:1 showed the highest protection toward low pH and bile salts, except for L. plantarum BSL, the best encapsulant was maltodextrin. The antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated probiotic the cells did not change after the microencapsulation process. These results indicate that the guava powder probiotic can be developped by microencapsulation technique using maltodextrin or combination of maltodextrin and GOS with spray drying method.

  2. Faunistic analysis of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) on a guava orchard under organic management in the municipality of Una, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, Vivian S.; Santos, Mirian S; Souza Filho, Zilton A.; Silva, Janisete G.; Araujo, Elton L.

    2009-01-01

    We carried out a study to characterize fruit fly populations on an organic guava orchard (Psidium guajava cv. Paluma) in the municipality of Una, southern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil, using faunistic analysis of the adult fruit f y specimens captured in McPhail traps from January 2004 through March 2007. A total of 22,673 specimens of Anastrepha (15,306 females and 7,367 males) were captured. Thirteen species of Anastrepha were recorded. A. fraterculus and A. obliqua were the more frequent and dominant species, accounting for 90.1% of all females captured in the traps. A. fraterculus was the predominant species (more frequent, constant and dominant). The high value of the Simpson index (0.62) and the low values of Shannon-Wiener (0.83) and equitability (0.49) indices indicated the dominance and high frequency of A. fraterculus and A. obliqua on the guava orchard despite the presence of other fruit species as potential hosts of fruit flies. (author)

  3. Characterization of the aroma-active compounds in pink guava (Psidium guajava, L.) by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Martin; Sinuco, Diana; Polster, Johannes; Osorio, Coralia; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-06-11

    The volatiles present in fresh, pink-fleshed Colombian guavas ( Psidium guajava, L.), variety regional rojo, were carefully isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation, and the aroma-active areas in the gas chromatogram were screened by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-methoxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2 H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2 H)-furanone, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, and 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol followed by 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5 H)-furanone, ( Z)-3-hexenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-( E)-2-decenal, cinnamyl alcohol, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, methional, and cinnamyl acetate as important aroma contributors. Enantioselective gas chromatography revealed an enantiomeric distribution close to the racemate in 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate as well as in 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol. In addition, two fruity smelling diastereomeric methyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoates were identified as the ( R,S)- and the ( S,S)-isomers, whereas the ( S,R)- and ( R,R)-isomers were absent. Seven odorants were identified for the first time in guavas, among them 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5 H)-furanone, trans-4,5-epoxy-( E)-2-decenal, and methional were the most odor-active.

  4. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) evaluation of carotenoids in irradiated guavas; Avaliacao por cromatografia liquida de alta eficiencia (CLAE) de carotenoides em goiabas irradiadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Keila S. Cople; Vital, Helio C. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Defesa Nuclear]. E-mail: keilacople@ig.com.br; Lima, Antonio L. Santos; Pereira, Maria Helena G. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Quimica]. E-mail: stolima@ipd.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel L. Oliveira; Fonseca, Marcos J.O. [Embrapa Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2005-07-01

    The use of ionizing gamma irradiation has shown very effective as an auxiliary technology for the decrease of post-harvest waste, grains disinfestation, pathogenic microorganisms control, increase in shelf life for meats, fruits, vegetables and bulbs and tubercles sprouts inhibition, maintaining nutritional quality. The carotenoids are pigments widely found in fruits and vegetables and are beneficial to human being health. This work was undergone using the irradiator with cesium source at the Army Technological Center, Brazil, with maximum dose rate of 2 kGy per hour. The objective is to evaluate the low gamma radiation doses (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) influence in the total carotenoid and content lycopene in guavas CV Pal uma, with excellent weight classification. The total carotenoid content was extracted from the guava with acetone and moved to petroleum ether and determined by spectrophotometer at 450 nm. The determination of lycopene was accomplished by HPLC. The results showed that, in spite of lycopene loss with irradiation, the best dose was 0.5 kGy. (author)

  5. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, E. G.; Godoy, W. A. C.; Sousa, M. S. M.; Lopes, G. N.; Jesus-Barros, C. R.; Silva, J. G.; Adaime, R.

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae. The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement. PMID:27638949

  6. Teste de tetrazólio para avaliação da qualidade fisiológica em sementes de Goiabeira-serrana (Acca sellowiana O. Berg Burret Tetrazolium test to evaluate physiological quality of Brazilian Guava seeds (Acca sellowiana O. Berg Burret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Benevenga Sarmento

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A goiabeira-serrana, espécie frutífera nativa do Sul do Brasil, vem mostrando- se promissora em termos ecológicos e comerciais. O trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade fisiológica de dois lotes de sementes de goiabeira-serrana por meio do teste de tetrazólio. O experimento foi dividido em duas etapas. Na primeira, os lotes foram submetidos aos testes de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação, tempo médio de germinação, emergência em casa de vegetação, índice de velocidade de emergência de plântulas em casa de vegetação, tempo médio de emergência e comprimento de parte aérea. Na segunda, foi realizado o teste de tetrazólio nas concentrações de 0,5 e 1,0, e tempos de embebição (2 h e 4 h. O tratamento 0,5 TZ 4h obteve 73% de sementes viáveis (lote 2007. Para o lote 2008, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos. O teste de germinação apresentou correlação positiva para os tratamentos 0,5 TZ 2 h e 1 TZ 2 h. Para a emergência de plântulas em casa de vegetação, houve correlação positiva para o tratamento 0,5 TZ 2 h. O teste de tetrazólio permitiu a classificação dos lotes em quatro níveis de viabilidade, confirmando a eficiência do teste na avaliação da viabilidade de sementes de goiabeira-serrana.Brazilian guava, native fruit tree from Southern Brazil, has become relevant due to its potencial use as ecological and comercial. This article aims evaluate the physiological quality of Brazilian guava seeds by tetrazolium test. The work was divided in two parts. In the first, both lots were submitted to the germination test, index of speed germination, mean time of germination, emergency of seedlings in greenhouse, mean time of emergency and shoot length of seedlings. In the second part it was performed the tetrazolium test. Two concentrations of tetrazolium were used (0,5 e 1,0 and two times of imbibition (2 h e 4 h. To the lot 2007, the treatment 0,5 TZ 4 h obtained 73% of viable seeds

  7. The valuative tree

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Charles

    2004-01-01

    This volume is devoted to a beautiful object, called the valuative tree and designed as a powerful tool for the study of singularities in two complex dimensions. Its intricate yet manageable structure can be analyzed by both algebraic and geometric means. Many types of singularities, including those of curves, ideals, and plurisubharmonic functions, can be encoded in terms of positive measures on the valuative tree. The construction of these measures uses a natural tree Laplace operator of independent interest.

  8. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  9. Morocco - Fruit Tree Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Date Tree Irrigation Project: The specific objectives of this evaluation are threefold: - Performance evaluation of project activities, like the mid-term evaluation,...

  10. THERMAL TIME FOR REPRODUCTIVE PHENOLOGICAL STAGES OF PINEAPPLE GUAVA (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg Burret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso PARRA-CORONADO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop development of feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg Burret is mainly stimulated by temperature, but is also affected by other climatic factors. The determination of the development in terms of thermal time or growing degree days (GDD is more precise than calendar days. The aim of this study was to propose a phenological model for feijoa cv. Quimba, in which the base temperature (Tb for four different phenological stages and its duration in terms of GDD is estimated to predict the timing of anthesis, fruit setting and harvesting. During the years 2012 to 2014, in two localities of the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia, twenty trees per farm were labeled, dates of occurrence of phenological stages, starting from floral button were recorded. Tb was estimated using the method of minimum coefficient of variation, as well as duration of the four reproductive phenological stages in terms of GDD. The results showed that Tb and GDD vary depending on the stage of development of the crop; in general, an average of 2651 GDD and 189 days is required to reach the flower bud to the fruit harvest. The parameters of the regression analysis showed that the model successfully predicted phenological stages when estimated Tb for each of them was used, with high determination coefficient. Cross-validation showed good statistical fit between predicted and observed values; intercept was not significantly different from zero (p <0.05 and the slope was statistically equal to one TIEMPO TÉRMICO PARA ESTADOS FENOLÓGICOS REPRODUCTIVOS DE LA FEIJOA (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg Burret El desarrollo del cultivo de feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg Burret es principalmente estimulado por la temperatura, pero también es afectado por otros factores climáticos. La determinación del desarrollo en términos de tiempo térmico o grados día de crecimiento (GDC es más precisa que en días calendario. El objetivo de este estudio fue proponer un modelo fenológico para la feijoa

  11. The efficacy of Mentha arvensis L. and M. piperita L. essential oils in reducing pathogenic bacteria and maintaining quality characteristics in cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Guedes, Jossana Pereira; da Costa Medeiros, José Alberto; de Souza E Silva, Richard Sidney; de Sousa, Janaína Maria Batista; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-12-05

    This study evaluated the ability of the essential oil from Mentha arvensis L. (MAEO) and M. piperita L. (MPEO) to induce ≥5-log reductions in counts (CFU/mL) of E. coli, L. monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in Brain-Heart Infusion broth (BHIB) and cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple juices during refrigerated storage (4±0.5°C). The effects of the incorporation of these essential oils on some physicochemical and sensory parameters of juices were also evaluated. The incorporation of 5, 2.5, 1.25, or 0.625μL/mL of MAEO in BHIB caused a ≥5-log reduction in counts of E. coli and Salmonella Enteritidis after 24h of storage; but only 5μL/mL was able to cause the same reduction in counts of L.monocytogenes. The incorporation of 10μL/mL of MPEO in BHIB caused a ≥5-log reduction in counts of E. coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes after 24h of storage; smaller reductions were observed in BHIB containing 5, 2.5, and 1.25μL/mL of MPEO. Similar reductions were observed when the MAEO or MPEO was incorporated at the same concentrations in mango juice. The incorporation of MAEO or MPEO at all tested concentrations in cashew, guava, and pineapple juices resulted in a ≥5-log reduction in pathogen counts within 1h. The incorporation of MAEO and MPEO (0.625 and 1.25μL/mL, respectively) in fruit juices did not induce alterations in °Brix, pH, and acidity, but negatively affected the taste, aftertaste, and overall acceptance. The use of MAEO or MPEO at low concentrations could constitute an interesting tool to achieve the required 5-log reduction of pathogenic bacteria in cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple fruit juices. However, new methods combining the use of MAEO or MPEO with other technologies are necessary to reduce their negative impacts on specific sensory properties of these juices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Conservação pós-colheita de frutos de goiabeira, variedade Paluma Post-harvest conservation of fruit of guava, var. Paluma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Neto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando aumentar a vida útil de frutos da goiabeira (Psidium guajava L., variedade Paluma, nos primeiros dezesseis dias pós-colheita, foi realizado, no município de Petrolina, PE, região do Vale do São Francisco, um estudo para determinar o efeito da concentração de cálcio (Ca, do ambiente de armazenamento e do tipo de embalagem, na vida útil da goiaba. Foram estudados dois ambientes de armazenamento (condições naturais e ambiente refrigerado, três concentrações de Ca (0,5, 1,0 e 1,5% e dois tipos de embalagem do fruto (saco de polietileno transparente e saco de papel- manteiga. Doze tratamentos foram testados no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, num arranjo fatorial 3x2x2. Foram determinados os parâmetros: perda de peso e da cor verde da casca do fruto, e o teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Verificou-se que frutos da variedade Paluma colhidos "de vez" (frutos completamente desenvolvidos, mas com a casca verde mantiveram suas características comerciais por até dezesseis dias de armazenamento quando foram embalados em saco de polietileno transparente e sem furo, e armazenado em ambiente refrigerado a 10ºC, e 90% de umidade relativa.The study was undertaken to increase the shelf life of fruits of guava (Psidium guajava L. var. Paluma in the post-harvest period in the São Francisco River Valley (Petrolina, PE, Brazil. Effects of calcium (Ca concentration, storing condition and fruit wrapping material in the shelf life of fruit of guava were studied. Twelve treatments were tested in a randomized complete block design, in a 2 x 3 x2 factorial arrangement, comprising the following variables: two storing conditions (natural temperature and refrigerated, three Ca concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% and two fruit wrapping materials (transparent poliethylene bag and impervious paper bag. The following guava parameters were evaluated: weight and peel green color losses and total soluble solids. It was observed

  13. Are trees long-lived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Trees and tree care can capture the best of people's motivations and intentions. Trees are living memorials that help communities heal at sites of national tragedy, such as Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center. We mark the places of important historical events by the trees that grew nearby even if the original tree, such as the Charter Oak in Connecticut or...

  14. Fragmentation of random trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalay, Z; Ben-Naim, E

    2015-01-01

    We study fragmentation of a random recursive tree into a forest by repeated removal of nodes. The initial tree consists of N nodes and it is generated by sequential addition of nodes with each new node attaching to a randomly-selected existing node. As nodes are removed from the tree, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely, a forest. We study statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest, and find that the fraction of remaining nodes m characterizes the system in the limit N→∞. We obtain analytically the size density ϕ s of trees of size s. The size density has power-law tail ϕ s ∼s −α with exponent α=1+(1/m). Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, and the fragmentation process is unusual in that exponent α increases continuously with time. We also extend our analysis to the case where nodes are added as well as removed, and obtain the asymptotic size density for growing trees. (paper)

  15. The tree BVOC index

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Simpson; E.G. McPherson

    2011-01-01

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes...

  16. Tree growth visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Linsen; B.J. Karis; E.G. McPherson; B. Hamann

    2005-01-01

    In computer graphics, models describing the fractal branching structure of trees typically exploit the modularity of tree structures. The models are based on local production rules, which are applied iteratively and simultaneously to create a complex branching system. The objective is to generate three-dimensional scenes of often many realistic- looking and non-...

  17. Flowering T Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adansonia digitata L. ( The Baobab Tree) of Bombacaceae is a tree with swollen trunk that attains a dia. of 10m. Leaves are digitately compound with leaflets up to 18cm. long. Flowers are large, solitary, waxy white, and open at dusk. They open in 30 seconds and are bat pollinated. Stamens are many. Fruit is about 30 cm ...

  18. Fault tree graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, L.; Wynholds, H.W.; Porterfield, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Described is an operational system that enables the user, through an intelligent graphics terminal, to construct, modify, analyze, and store fault trees. With this system, complex engineering designs can be analyzed. This paper discusses the system and its capabilities. Included is a brief discussion of fault tree analysis, which represents an aspect of reliability and safety modeling

  19. Tree biology and dendrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    1996-01-01

    Dendrochemistry, the interpretation of elemental analysis of dated tree rings, can provide a temporal record of environmental change. Using the dendrochemical record requires an understanding of tree biology. In this review, we pose four questions concerning assumptions that underlie recent dendrochemical research: 1) Does the chemical composition of the wood directly...

  20. Individual tree control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey A. Holt

    1989-01-01

    Controlling individual unwanted trees in forest stands is a readily accepted method for improving the value of future harvests. The practice is especially important in mixed hardwood forests where species differ considerably in value and within species individual trees differ in quality. Individual stem control is a mechanical or chemical weeding operation that...

  1. Trees and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Dettenmaier, Megan; Kuhns, Michael; Unger, Bethany; McAvoy, Darren

    2017-01-01

    This fact sheet describes the complex relationship between forests and climate change based on current research. It explains ways that trees can mitigate some of the risks associated with climate change. It details the impacts that forests are having on the changing climate and discuss specific ways that trees can be used to reduce or counter carbon emissions directly and indirectly.

  2. Structural Equation Model Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  3. Matching Subsequences in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2009-01-01

    Given two rooted, labeled trees P and T the tree path subsequence problem is to determine which paths in P are subsequences of which paths in T. Here a path begins at the root and ends at a leaf. In this paper we propose this problem as a useful query primitive for XML data, and provide new...

  4. Environmental tritium in trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of environmental tritium in the free water and organically bound hydrogen of trees growing in the vicinity of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) has been studied. The regional dispersal of HTO in the atmosphere has been observed by surveying the tritium content of leaf moisture. Measurement of the distribution of organically bound tritium in the wood of tree ring sequences has given information on past concentrations of HTO taken up by trees growing in the CRNL Liquid Waste Disposal Area. For samples at background environmental levels, cellulose separation and analysis was done. The pattern of bomb tritium in precipitation of 1955-68 was observed to be preserved in the organically bound tritium of a tree ring sequence. Reactor tritium was discernible in a tree growing at a distance of 10 km from CRNL. These techniques provide convenient means of monitoring dispersal of HTO from nuclear facilities. (author)

  5. Generalising tree traversals and tree transformations to DAGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil

    2017-01-01

    We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal or a tree transformation and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead. The resul......We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal or a tree transformation and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead...... as the complementing theory with a number of examples....

  6. Reguladores vegetais na conservação pós-colheita de goiabas 'Paluma' Growth regulators on 'Paluma' guavas postharvest conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA APARECIDA LIMA

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da aplicação exógena de solução de ácido giberélico (GA, 6-benzilaminopurina (6-BAP ou ácido indol-3-acético (IAA a 100 ou 200 mg L-1 e de CaCl2 a 1% ou 2%, na conservação pós-colheita de goiabas-'Paluma', por infiltração a vácuo (500 mmHg.20 minutos-1. Os frutos tratados foram armazenados ao ambiente (21,6ºC, 73,4% UR e analisados, periodicamente, física e quimicamente. Os tratamentos com cloreto de cálcio a 1% ou 2% foram os melhores na conservação destas goiabas, pois propiciou-lhes vida útil comercial de 7 dias, o que corresponde a aumento de um dia na vida de prateleira, quando comparados com os demais tratamentos. Os tratamentos utilizados não apresentaram efeitos significativos na evolução da coloração e da firmeza dos frutos durante o amadurecimento.The effects of the application effects of gibberelic acid, 6-benzilaminopurine (6-BAP, and indol-3-acetic acid (IAA at 100 or 200 mg L-1 and calcium chloride at 1% or 2% by vacuum infiltration (500 mmHg.20 minute-1, on postharvest 'Paluma' guavas were studied. The fruits were stored at 21,6ºC, 73,4% UR and periodically analyzed physic and chemically. The treatments with 1% or 2% CaCl2 were the best with 'Paluma' guavas, showing a shelflife of 7 days, increasing its in one day, when compared with other treatments. These treatments did not affect significantly the evolution of color and firmess during the ripening.

  7. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae) in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza-Filho, M.F.; Raga, A. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: miguelf@biologico.sp.gov.br; Azevedo-Filho, J.A. [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Monte Alegre do Sul, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Leste Paulista; Strikis, P.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia; Guimaraes, J.A. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Zucchi, R.A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2009-02-15

    This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. pendula (Bezzi), N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis), as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti), D. brasiliensis (Szepligeti), Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brethes), Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower), Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut), and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchoa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years. (author)

  8. A recursive algorithm for trees and forests

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Song; Guo, Victor J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Trees or rooted trees have been generously studied in the literature. A forest is a set of trees or rooted trees. Here we give recurrence relations between the number of some kind of rooted forest with $k$ roots and that with $k+1$ roots on $\\{1,2,\\ldots,n\\}$. Classical formulas for counting various trees such as rooted trees, bipartite trees, tripartite trees, plane trees, $k$-ary plane trees, $k$-edge colored trees follow immediately from our recursive relations.

  9. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  10. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  11. The gravity apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldama, Mariana Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion. (paper)

  12. Visualizing phylogenetic tree landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgenbusch, James C; Huang, Wen; Gallivan, Kyle A

    2017-02-02

    Genomic-scale sequence alignments are increasingly used to infer phylogenies in order to better understand the processes and patterns of evolution. Different partitions within these new alignments (e.g., genes, codon positions, and structural features) often favor hundreds if not thousands of competing phylogenies. Summarizing and comparing phylogenies obtained from multi-source data sets using current consensus tree methods discards valuable information and can disguise potential methodological problems. Discovery of efficient and accurate dimensionality reduction methods used to display at once in 2- or 3- dimensions the relationship among these competing phylogenies will help practitioners diagnose the limits of current evolutionary models and potential problems with phylogenetic reconstruction methods when analyzing large multi-source data sets. We introduce several dimensionality reduction methods to visualize in 2- and 3-dimensions the relationship among competing phylogenies obtained from gene partitions found in three mid- to large-size mitochondrial genome alignments. We test the performance of these dimensionality reduction methods by applying several goodness-of-fit measures. The intrinsic dimensionality of each data set is also estimated to determine whether projections in 2- and 3-dimensions can be expected to reveal meaningful relationships among trees from different data partitions. Several new approaches to aid in the comparison of different phylogenetic landscapes are presented. Curvilinear Components Analysis (CCA) and a stochastic gradient decent (SGD) optimization method give the best representation of the original tree-to-tree distance matrix for each of the three- mitochondrial genome alignments and greatly outperformed the method currently used to visualize tree landscapes. The CCA + SGD method converged at least as fast as previously applied methods for visualizing tree landscapes. We demonstrate for all three mtDNA alignments that 3D

  13. Characterization of phenolic and other polar compounds in peel and flesh of pink guava (Psidium guajava L. cv. 'Criolla') by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Garbanzo, Carolina; Zimmermann, Benno F; Schulze-Kaysers, Nadine; Schieber, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Pink guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a highly consumed fruit in tropical countries. Despite of interesting research on health effects of this fruit, investigations into the profile of secondary plant metabolites are scarce. In this study, the phenolic compounds in the peel and flesh of pink guava were characterized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detection. Sixty phenolic compounds were characterized by MS 2 and classified as ellagitannins, flavones, flavonols, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, dihydrochalcones, and anthocyanidins, and non-flavonoids such as phenolic acid derivatives, stilbenes, acetophenones, and benzophenones. Forty-two polyphenols are reported for the first time in both peel and flesh, and twenty-four compounds were detected for the first time in P. guajava, e.g., phlorizin, nothofagin, astringin, chrysin-C-glucoside, valoneic acid bilactone, cinnamoyl-glucoside, and two dimethoxycinnamoyl-hexosides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Caracterización morfológica de accesiones silvestres de guayaba Morphologic characterization of wild accesions of guava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Jiménez Lozano

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la caracterización morfológica de 22 accesiones silvestres de guayaba Psidium guajava L. 14 colectadas en el municipio de Restrepo (Valle del Cauca, seis en Armenia (Quindío y dos en Pereira (Risaralda. Se utilizaron 12 descriptores cuantitativos y 10 cualitativos de tallo, hojas y frutos; el análisis de agrupamiento se hizo mediante el coeficiente de Dice-Nei-Li y el promedio aritmético no ponderado (UPGMA. La mayor variabilidad se halló en los descriptores peso de la pulpa (CV = 55.92%, peso (CV = 45.23%, y acidez del fruto (CV = 44.75%. El análisis de agrupamientos con base en caracteres cuantitativos permitió establecer cuatro grupos: las accesiones del grupo A (Armenia, presentaron valores promedio de los descriptores de la calidad del fruto (grados Brix, acidez del fruto y relación grados Brix/acidez y valores altos de contenido de pulpa. La mayoría de accesiones del grupo C (Restrepo tuvieron altos valores de calidad del fruto y bajo contenido de pulpa. El grupo B, constituido por accesiones de Armenia y Pereira, se diferenció por valores bajos en los descriptores de rendimiento del fruto (peso del fruto, de la pulpa y diámetro de la cavidad seminal. Las accesiones del grupo D (Restrepo mostraron valores promedios en calidad y rendimiento del fruto. Los descriptores cuantitativos se reunieron en tres variables sintéticas para rendimiento y calidad del fruto que representaron 76.86% de la variabilidad total.Quantitative and qualitative morphologic characterization of 22 wild accessions of guava Psidium guajava L. collected in Restrepo (Valle del Cauca, Armenia (Quindío and Pereira (Risaralda was done. Twelve (12 quantitative and ten (10 qualitative descriptors of stem, leaves and fruits were used. The Dice- Nei Li coefficient and the UPGMA was used for the cluster analysis. Dendrograms and principal components analysis were used. The highest variability was associated with fruit descriptors, pulp weight (CV = 55

  15. Tree-growth analyses to estimate tree species' drought tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilmann, B.; Rigling, A.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is challenging forestry management and practices. Among other things, tree species with the ability to cope with more extreme climate conditions have to be identified. However, while environmental factors may severely limit tree growth or even cause tree death, assessing a tree

  16. Big trees, old trees, and growth factor tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2018-01-01

    The potential for a tree to reach a great size and to live a long life frequently captures the public's imagination. Sometimes the desire to know the age of an impressively large tree is simple curiosity. For others, the date-of-tree establishment can make a big diff erence for management, particularly for trees at historic sites or those mentioned in property...

  17. A bijection between phylogenetic trees and plane oriented recursive trees

    OpenAIRE

    Prodinger, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees are binary nonplanar trees with labelled leaves, and plane oriented recursive trees are planar trees with an increasing labelling. Both families are enumerated by double factorials. A bijection is constructed, using the respective representations a 2-partitions and trapezoidal words.

  18. A Suffix Tree Or Not a Suffix Tree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starikovskaya, Tatiana; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the structure of suffix trees. Given an unlabeled tree r on n nodes and suffix links of its internal nodes, we ask the question “Is r a suffix tree?”, i.e., is there a string S whose suffix tree has the same topological structure as r? We place no restrictions on S, in part...

  19. A hexane fraction of guava Leaves (Psidium guajava L.) induces anticancer activity by suppressing AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin/ribosomal p70 S6 kinase in human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Nae Hyung; Park, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Sung-Moo; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Nam, Dongwoo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Mosaddik, Ashik; Cho, Somi K; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2012-03-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer effects of guava leaf extracts and its fractions. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were also determined. In the present study, we set out to determine whether the anticancer effects of guava leaves are linked with their ability to suppress constitutive AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal p70 S6 kinase (S6K1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation pathways in human prostate cancer cells. We found that guava leaf hexane fraction (GHF) was the most potent inducer of cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in PC-3 cells. The molecular mechanism or mechanisms of GHF apoptotic potential were correlated with the suppression of AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and MAPK signaling pathways. This effect of GHF correlated with down-regulation of various proteins that mediate cell proliferation, cell survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Analysis of GHF by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry tentatively identified 60 compounds, including β-eudesmol (11.98%), α-copaene (7.97%), phytol (7.95%), α-patchoulene (3.76%), β-caryophyllene oxide (CPO) (3.63%), caryophylla-3(15),7(14)-dien-6-ol (2.68%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (1.90%), α-terpineol (1.76%), and octadecane (1.23%). Besides GHF, CPO, but not phytol, also inhibited the AKT/mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Overall, these findings suggest that guava leaves can interfere with multiple signaling cascades linked with tumorigenesis and provide a source of potential therapeutic compounds for both the prevention and treatment of cancer.

  20. Changes in bananas and guavas after irradiation by dental X-ray equipment; Alterações em bananas e goiabas após irradiação por equipamento odontológico de raios X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, S.M.; Silva, R.S., E-mail: simonemattosantos@gmail.com [Universidade do Grande Rio (UNIGRANRIO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Radiologia; Oliveira, J.S.; Gomes, A.S [Fculdade Casa Branca (FACAB), SP (Brazil). Pós-graduação em Proteção Radiológica em Aplicações Médicas, Industriais e Nucleares

    2017-07-01

    Food irradiation is a process in which foods are subjected to controlled doses of ionizing radiation. The main advantage is the destruction of microorganisms, maintaining their characteristics longer. The objective of this study was to verify if the low energy range of X - rays emitted by periapical dental equipment is capable of generating some alteration in the maturation and / or decay time of fruits such as bananas and guavas. The methodology included the purchase of bananas and green guavas, transported to the Laboratory of Dental Radiology of the University of Grande Rio, to expose the existing equipment in the facility. A batch of bananas was separated to be irradiated and one not to be irradiated (control group). The same happened with two guavas. Each type of fruit was irradiated on 06/18/2016 at 2:35 pm, selecting 70 kVp and 15 mAs on the control panel. Fruit characteristics, such as color and texture, were observed and recorded for 17 days. It was observed on the 14{sup th} day that the bananas of the control group presented more yellowish color and brown color, indicating a high degree of ripening and at the end of the stipulated time they showed rot. The irradiated bananas presented brown coloration, but without signs of rotting. Guavas, irradiated and control, were rotted at the end of the 17 days, but control at a higher grade. It is concluded that even the low energetic band of the beam emitted by the periapical dental equipment is able to alter the time of maturation and decay of the fruits. Non-utility for commercial purposes is emphasized.

  1. NLCD 2001 - Tree Canopy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The National Land Cover Database 2001 tree canopy layer for Minnesota (mapping zones 39-42, 50-51) was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the...

  2. Trees for future forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, Albin

    Climate change creates new challenges in forest management. The increase in temperature may in the long run be beneficial for the forests in the northern latitudes, but the high rate at which climate change is predicted to proceed will make adaptation difficult because trees are long living sessile...... organisms. The aim of the present thesis is therefore to explore genetic resilience and phenotypic plasticity mechanisms that allows trees to adapt and evolve with changing climates. The thesis focus on the abiotic factors associated with climate change, especially raised temperatures and lack...... age of these tree species and the uncertainty around the pace and effect of climate, it remains an open question if the native populations can respond fast enough. Phenotypic plasticity through epigenetic regulation of spring phenology is found to be present in a tree species which might act...

  3. Value tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.; Renn, O.; Winterfeldt, D. von; Kotte, U.

    1985-01-01

    What are the targets and criteria on which national energy policy should be based. What priorities should be set, and how can different social interests be matched. To answer these questions, a new instrument of decision theory is presented which has been applied with good results to controversial political issues in the USA. The new technique is known under the name of value tree analysis. Members of important West German organisations (BDI, VDI, RWE, the Catholic and Protestant Church, Deutscher Naturschutzring, and ecological research institutions) were asked about the goals of their organisations. These goals were then ordered systematically and arranged in a hierarchical tree structure. The value trees of different groups can be combined into a catalogue of social criteria of acceptability and policy assessment. The authors describe the philosophy and methodology of value tree analysis and give an outline of its application in the development of a socially acceptable energy policy. (orig.) [de

  4. Multiscale singularity trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somchaipeng, Kerawit; Sporring, Jon; Johansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We propose MultiScale Singularity Trees (MSSTs) as a structure to represent images, and we propose an algorithm for image comparison based on comparing MSSTs. The algorithm is tested on 3 public image databases and compared to 2 state-of-theart methods. We conclude that the computational complexity...... of our algorithm only allows for the comparison of small trees, and that the results of our method are comparable with state-of-the-art using much fewer parameters for image representation....

  5. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  6. studies about the colombian reality under conditions of the capitalist exploitation - conservation of the guava; Estudios sobre la realidad colombiana bajo las condiciones de la explotacion capitalista - conservacion de la guayaba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonilla O, German; Parra T, Nilton; Zetina M, Claudia M

    1991-07-01

    Effect of the ionizing radiations in the Conservation of the Guava (Psidium guava-L) in fresh as treatment post-crop. The food radiations is a physical process of conservation, that has for object to prolong the useful life of the products nutritious treaties, maintaining in appropriate form the nutritional characteristics and organoleptic. The ionization treatment consists on irradiation of high constituted energy of photons or quick electrons. The main types of rays used in the ionization treatment are: the photons, the quick electrons and the photons x. The center of gamma radiation has as energy source a cylinder of Co-60 that it diffuses rays gamma in the space and it irradiates the products. The irradiation of any aliment until a dose of 10 kGy, it doesn't present any toxicological risk and it doesn't introduce difficulties of nutritional or biological order. The IAEA has as primordial mission; the to hurry and to increase the peace and the prosperity in the whole world. The common guava is a fruit it would originate of tropical America, it is in the tropics and subtropics and it is of commercial importance in the national and international environment.

  7. Tree felling 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    With a view to creating new landscapes and making its population of trees safer and healthier, this winter CERN will complete the tree-felling campaign started in 2010.   Tree felling will take place between 15 and 22 November on the Swiss part of the Meyrin site. This work is being carried out above all for safety reasons. The trees to be cut down are at risk of falling as they are too old and too tall to withstand the wind. In addition, the roots of poplar trees are very powerful and spread widely, potentially damaging underground networks, pavements and roadways. Compensatory tree planting campaigns will take place in the future, subject to the availability of funding, with the aim of creating coherent landscapes while also respecting the functional constraints of the site. These matters are being considered in close collaboration with the Geneva nature and countryside directorate (Direction générale de la nature et du paysage, DGNP). GS-SE Group

  8. Benefit-based tree valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson

    2007-01-01

    Benefit-based tree valuation provides alternative estimates of the fair and reasonable value of trees while illustrating the relative contribution of different benefit types. This study compared estimates of tree value obtained using cost- and benefit-based approaches. The cost-based approach used the Council of Landscape and Tree Appraisers trunk formula method, and...

  9. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  10. Tree manipulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishina, K.; Takenaka, C.; Ishizuka, S.; Hashimoto, S.; Yagai, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Some forest operations such as thinning and harvesting management could cause changes in N cycling and N2O emission from soils, since thinning and harvesting managements are accompanied with changes in aboveground environments such as an increase of slash falling and solar radiation on the forest floor. However, a considerable uncertainty exists in effects of thinning and harvesting on N2O fluxes regarding changes in belowground environments by cutting trees. To focus on the effect of changes in belowground environments on the N2O emissions from soils, we conducted a tree manipulation experiment in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) stand without soil compaction and slash falling near the chambers and measured N2O flux at 50 cm and 150 cm distances from the tree trunk (stump) before and after cutting. We targeted 5 trees for the manipulation and established the measurement chambers to the 4 directions around each targeted tree relative to upper slope (upper, left, right, lower positions). We evaluated the effect of logging on the emission by using hierarchical Bayesian model. HB model can evaluate the variability in observed data and their uncertainties in the estimation with various probability distributions. Moreover, the HB model can easily accommodate the non-linear relationship among the N2O emissions and the environmental factors, and explicitly take non-independent data (nested structure of data) for the estimation into account by using random effects in the model. Our results showed tree cutting stimulated N2O emission from soils, and also that the increase of N2O flux depended on the distance from the trunk (stump): the increase of N2O flux at 50 cm from the trunk (stump) was greater than that of 150 cm from the trunk. The posterior simulation of the HB model indicated that the stimulation of N2O emission by tree cut- ting could reach up to 200 cm in our experimental plot. By tree cutting, the estimated N2O emission at 0-40 cm from the trunk doubled

  11. Steiner trees in industry

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Ding-Zhu

    2001-01-01

    This book is a collection of articles studying various Steiner tree prob­ lems with applications in industries, such as the design of electronic cir­ cuits, computer networking, telecommunication, and perfect phylogeny. The Steiner tree problem was initiated in the Euclidean plane. Given a set of points in the Euclidean plane, the shortest network interconnect­ ing the points in the set is called the Steiner minimum tree. The Steiner minimum tree may contain some vertices which are not the given points. Those vertices are called Steiner points while the given points are called terminals. The shortest network for three terminals was first studied by Fermat (1601-1665). Fermat proposed the problem of finding a point to minimize the total distance from it to three terminals in the Euclidean plane. The direct generalization is to find a point to minimize the total distance from it to n terminals, which is still called the Fermat problem today. The Steiner minimum tree problem is an indirect generalization. Sch...

  12. Caracterização e descrição da estrutura anatômica do lenho de seis espécies arbóreas com potencial medicinal Characterization and description of wood anatomical structure in six tree species with medicinal potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A caracterização morfoanatômica e a correta identificação das plantas medicinais são fundamentais para o controle de qualidade dos fitoterápicos. No presente trabalho é caracterizada a anatomia do lenho visando à identificação de seis espécies arbóreas com potencial medicinal. As amostras do lenho foram extraídas por método não destrutivo do tronco das árvores das espécies desenvolvidas em áreas de preservação. Em laboratório as amostras do lenho foram processadas para análises microscópicas do lenho, aplicando as metodologias para estudos de anatomia. Os resultados mostraram que o parênquima axial foi o parâmetro anatômico mais efetivo para a distinção das espécies através da análise do seu lenho. No trabalho discute-se a importância da aplicação da anatomia do lenho como ferramenta na identificação de espécies arbóreas medicinais.The morphoanatomical characterization and the correct identification of medicinal plants are fundamental for the quality control of phytotherapics. In the present work, wood anatomy was characterized in order to identify six tree species with medicinal potential. Wood samples were collected through a non-destructive method from the trunk of trees developed in conservation areas. In the laboratory, wood samples were processed for microscopic analysis by applying the methods for anatomical studies. Axial parenchyma was the most effective anatomical parameter to distinguish species through wood analysis. In this work, the importance of wood anatomy as a tool for the identification of medicinal tree species was discussed.

  13. Curva de crescimento e marcha de absorção de macronutrientes em mudas de goiabeira Growth and macronutrient uptake curves in guava seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudenir Facincani Franco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de mudas de goiabeira com adequado estado nutricional determina o sucesso da implantação de um pomar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar crescimento e acúmulo de macronutrientes em mudas de duas cultivares de goiabeira obtidas por estaquia herbácea. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. Assim, foram utilizadas como parcelas duas cultivares de goiabeira (Paluma e Século XXI e, como subparcelas, sete coletas de plantas ao longo do período experimental (120 dias, em solução nutritiva. As plantas foram avaliadas quinzenalmente quanto a: altura, número de folhas, diâmetro do caule, área foliar e massa de matéria seca (folhas, caule e raízes. Nos diferentes órgãos das mudas, determinou-se o acúmulo de macronutrientes. Houve acúmulo quadrático de matéria seca das mudas de goiabeira com o tempo de cultivo. A muda de goiabeira da cultivar Século XXI tem maior exigência de macronutrientes que a da cultivar Paluma, e o período de maior exigência é a partir dos 75 e 45 dias, para ambas as cultivares. O acúmulo de macronutrientes pelas mudas de goiabeira das cultivares Paluma e Século XXI foi de: K (726 e 696, N (552 e 585, Ca (293 e 302, S (73 e 66, P (64 e 66 e Mg (39 e 41 mg por planta, respectivamente.The use of guava seedlings with adequate nutritional status determines the success of an orchard installation. This study was conducted to determine plant growth and macronutrient accumulation in herbaceous seedlings of two guava cultivars. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design in split-plots with three replications. Plots consisted of the two guava cultivars (Paluma and Século XXI in nutrient solution and the sub-plots were the seven sampling dates in a 120 day period. Plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter, leaf area and dry mass (leaves, stem and roots were determined biweekly. The accumulation of

  14. Visualization of Uncertain Contour Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Contour trees can represent the topology of large volume data sets in a relatively compact, discrete data structure. However, the resulting trees often contain many thousands of nodes; thus, many graph drawing techniques fail to produce satisfactory results. Therefore, several visualization methods...... were proposed recently for the visualization of contour trees. Unfortunately, none of these techniques is able to handle uncertain contour trees although any uncertainty of the volume data inevitably results in partially uncertain contour trees. In this work, we visualize uncertain contour trees...... by combining the contour trees of two morphologically filtered versions of a volume data set, which represent the range of uncertainty. These two contour trees are combined and visualized within a single image such that a range of potential contour trees is represented by the resulting visualization. Thus...

  15. Generic Ising trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, Bergfinnur Jøgvan; Napolitano, George Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove that they......The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove...... that they exhibit no spontaneous magnetization. Furthermore, the values of the Hausdorff and spectral dimensions of the underlying trees are calculated and found to be, respectively,¯dh =2 and¯ds = 4/3....

  16. ColorTree: a batch customization tool for phylogenic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hua; Lercher, Martin J

    2009-07-31

    Genome sequencing projects and comparative genomics studies typically aim to trace the evolutionary history of large gene sets, often requiring human inspection of hundreds of phylogenetic trees. If trees are checked for compatibility with an explicit null hypothesis (e.g., the monophyly of certain groups), this daunting task is greatly facilitated by an appropriate coloring scheme. In this note, we introduce ColorTree, a simple yet powerful batch customization tool for phylogenic trees. Based on pattern matching rules, ColorTree applies a set of customizations to an input tree file, e.g., coloring labels or branches. The customized trees are saved to an output file, which can then be viewed and further edited by Dendroscope (a freely available tree viewer). ColorTree runs on any Perl installation as a stand-alone command line tool, and its application can thus be easily automated. This way, hundreds of phylogenic trees can be customized for easy visual inspection in a matter of minutes. ColorTree allows efficient and flexible visual customization of large tree sets through the application of a user-supplied configuration file to multiple tree files.

  17. Abelhas (Hymenoptera: apoidea visitantes das flores de goiaba em pomar comercial in Salinas, MG Bee diversity in a commercial guava orchard in Salinas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire Alves Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As abelhas são responsáveis por cerca de 80% a 100% da polinização de culturas agrícolas, especialmente aquelas relacionadas com a produção de sementes e frutos. A investigação da diversidade de abelhas em pomares de goiaba pode ser subsídio para estratégias de incremento da produtividade. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de goiaba (Psidium guajava, em pomar comercial em Salinas (MG. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em maio de 2005 e foram coletadas as abelhas visitantes das flores nos horários entre 6h e 18h, totalizando-se 44 horas de coleta. Coletaram-se 705 abelhas de 17 espécies, sendo Trigona spinipes a mais freqüente e dominante na cultura da goiaba. Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata e Tetragonisca angustula foram consideradas acessórias. Aproximadamente 84% dos indivíduos foram coletados da manhã, de 6h às 10h.Pollination is an important factor in agricultural systems, especially in growing fruits and seed production, which depend greatly on bee visiting during blossom season; highly successful gains within these activities varies between 80 and nearly 100 per cent, owing to the bees. The assessment of bee diversity in commercial orchards of guava may contribute to a more desirable strategic design and consequent improvement of production. The aim of the study was identify the diversity of visiting bees to guava flowers (Psidium guajava in a commercial orchard in Salinas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The work was carried during blossom season of May - 2005. Field works occurred between 6:00 am to 6:00 pm, counting with 44 hours of collection, when 705 bees were collected. The richness observed was of 17 species, the most frequent and dominant being Trigona spinipes. Among the collection there were some considered accessory species: Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula. Most of individual bees have been captured

  18. A parallel buffer tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitchinava, Nodar; Zeh, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    We present the parallel buffer tree, a parallel external memory (PEM) data structure for batched search problems. This data structure is a non-trivial extension of Arge's sequential buffer tree to a private-cache multiprocessor environment and reduces the number of I/O operations by the number of...... in the optimal OhOf(psortN + K/PB) parallel I/O complexity, where K is the size of the output reported in the process and psortN is the parallel I/O complexity of sorting N elements using P processors....

  19. Embedding complete ternary tree in hypercubes using AVL trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Choudum; I. Raman (Indhumathi)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractA complete ternary tree is a tree in which every non-leaf vertex has exactly three children. We prove that a complete ternary tree of height h, TTh, is embeddable in a hypercube of dimension . This result coincides with the result of [2]. However, in this paper, the embedding utilizes

  20. Portraits of Tree Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balgooy, van M.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    With the publication of the second volume of the series ‘Malesian Seed Plants’, entitled ‘Portraits of Tree Families’, I would like to refer to the Introduction of the first volume, ‘Spot-characters’ for a historical background and an explanation of the aims of this series. The present book treats

  1. P{owering 'Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Melia dubia Cav. of Meliaceae is a large deciduous tree. Leaves are compound with toothed leaflets. Flowers are small, greenish-yellow in much-branched inflorescences. Fruits are green, ellipsoidal with a single seed covered by hard portion ( as in a mango fruit) and surrounded by fleshy pulp outside. The bark is bitter ...

  2. Programming macro tree transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.

    2013-01-01

    transducers can be concisely represented in Haskell, and demonstrate the benefits of utilising such an approach with a number of examples. In particular, tree transducers afford a modular programming style as they can be easily composed and manipulated. Our Haskell representation generalises the original...

  3. Chapter 5 - Tree Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2014-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. Extremely high mortality, however, can also be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  4. A Universal Phylogenetic Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a universal phylogenetic tree suitable for use in high school and college-level biology classrooms. Illustrates the antiquity of life and that all life is related, even if it dates back 3.5 billion years. Reflects important evolutionary relationships and provides an exciting way to learn about the history of life. (SAH)

  5. Base tree property

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balcar, B.; Doucha, Michal; Hrušák, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2015), s. 69-81 ISSN 0167-8094 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : forcing * Boolean algebras * base tree Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.614, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11083-013-9316-2

  6. Multiquarks and Steiner trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    A brief review review is presented of models tentatively leading to stable multiquarks. A new attempt is presented, based on a Steiner-tree model of confinement, which is inspired by by QCD. It leads to more attraction than the empirical colour-additive model used in earlier multiquark calculations, and predict several multiquark states in configurations with different flavours.

  7. Tree Transduction Tools for Cdec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Matthews

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a collection of open source tools for learning tree-to-string and tree-to-tree transducers and the extensions to the cdec decoder that enable translation with these. Our modular, easy-to-extend tools extract rules from trees or forests aligned to strings and trees subject to different structural constraints. A fast, multithreaded implementation of the Cohn and Blunsom (2009 model for extracting compact tree-to-string rules is also included. The implementation of the tree composition algorithm used by cdec is described, and translation quality and decoding time results are presented. Our experimental results add to the body of evidence suggesting that tree transducers are a compelling option for translation, particularly when decoding speed and translation model size are important.

  8. Selecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Close, David

    2015-01-01

    Because of the permanency of trees and their importance in the landscape, care must be taken to select the best species for each situation. This publication goes over how to choose landscape trees that are shade tolerant.

  9. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...... tighter bounding volume hierarchies and therefore fewer intersection checks. Computational results indicate that the efficiency of the adjustable chain trees is significantly improved compared to the traditional chain trees....

  10. Introduction to fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, R.E.; Lambert, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    An elementary, engineering oriented introduction to fault tree analysis is presented. The basic concepts, techniques and applications of fault tree analysis, FTA, are described. The two major steps of FTA are identified as (1) the construction of the fault tree and (2) its evaluation. The evaluation of the fault tree can be qualitative or quantitative depending upon the scope, extensiveness and use of the analysis. The advantages, limitations and usefulness of FTA are discussed

  11. Quickly Screening for Potential α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Guava Leaves Tea by Bioaffinity Ultrafiltration Coupled with HPLC-ESI-TOF/MS Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Liu, Yufeng; Luo, You; Huang, Kuiying; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2018-02-14

    Guava leaves tea (GLT) has a potential antihyperglycemic effect. Nevertheless, it is unclear which compound plays a key role in reducing blood sugar. In this study, GLT extract (IC 50 = 19.37 ± 0.21 μg/mL) exhibited a stronger inhibitory potency against α-glucosidase than did acarbose (positive control) at IC 50 = 178.52 ± 1.37 μg/mL. To rapidly identify the specific α-glucosidase inhibitor components from GLT, an approach based on bioaffinity ultrafiltration combined with high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (BAUF-HPLC-ESI-TOF/MS) was developed. Under the optimal bioaffinity ultrafiltration conditions, 11 corresponding potential α-glucosidase inhibitors with high affinity degrees (ADs) were screened and identified from the GLT extract. Quercetin (IC 50 = 4.51 ± 0.71 μg/mL) and procyanidin B3 (IC 50 = 28.67 ± 5.81 μg/mL) were determined to be primarily responsible for the antihyperglycemic effect, which further verified the established screening method. Moreover, structure-activity relationships were discussed. In conclusion, the BAUF-HPLC-ESI-TOF/MS method could be applied to determine the potential α-glucosidase inhibitors from complex natural products quickly.

  12. Fermentation and complex enzyme hydrolysis for improving the total soluble phenolic contents, flavonoid aglycones contents and bio-activities of guava leaves tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Luo, You; Wu, Yanan; Liu, Yan; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2018-10-30

    There are both soluble and insoluble-bound forms of phenolics in tea-leaf products. In order to increase total soluble phenolics contents, guava leaves tea (GLT) was first fermented with Monascus anka and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and then hydrolyzed with complex enzymes. The changes in phenolics profiles, antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase in processed GLT were investigated. Compared with the un-fermented GLT, fermentation and complex enzymatic processing (FE) significantly increased the total phenolics, total flavonoids, quercetin and kaempferol contents by 2.1, 2.0, 13.0 and 6.8 times, respectively. After the FE, a major proportion of phenolics existed in the soluble form. Quercetin was released in the highest amount among different phenolics. In addition, soluble phenolic extracts from GLT following FE exhibited a highest antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase. The paper suggested an improved method for processing GLT into high-value products rich in phenolics and flavonoids aglycones with enhanced health benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of heat stress on some reproductive parameters of male cavie (Cavia porcellus) and mitigation strategies using guava (Psidium guajava) leaves essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoula, Ferdinand; Guemdjo Tekam, Maryvonne; Kenfack, Augustave; Tadondjou Tchingo, Cyrille D'Alex; Nouboudem, Sandrine; Ngoumtsop, Herman; Tsafack, Borice; Teguia, Alexis; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Galeotti, Marco; Tchoumboue, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    Climate changes, particularly the increase of temperature are among the main causes behind the decline of fertility in humans as well as animals. In this study, the effects of heat stress on some reproductive parameters of male cavies and mitigation strategies using guava leaves essential oil (GLEO) were studied. For this purpose, 40 male cavies aged 2.5-3 months and weighing between 348 and 446g were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each and subjected to the following temperatures: Ambient temperature (20-25°C) for the control group, 35°C for group 1, 45°C for group 2 and 45°C+100µl GLEO/kg body weight, administered by gavage to animals for group 3. Exposure time of heat was 7h per day for 60 days. Results reveal that the relative weights of testes, epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicles were hardly affected by the temperature levels considered (P>0.05). The mass and individual sperm motility was significantly lower (Pleaves essential oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Re-Think Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, Jim

    1993-01-01

    The Re-Think Tree is a simple framework to help individuals assess and improve their behaviors related to environmental issues. The branches of the tree in order of priority are refuse, reduce, re-use, and recycle. Roots of the tree include such things as public opinion, education, and watchdog groups. (KS)

  15. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  16. Rectilinear Full Steiner Tree Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariasen, Martin

    1999-01-01

    The fastest exact algorithm (in practice) for the rectilinear Steiner tree problem in the plane uses a two-phase scheme: First, a small but sufficient set of full Steiner trees (FSTs) is generated and then a Steiner minimum tree is constructed from this set by using simple backtrack search, dynamic...

  17. Inferences from growing trees backwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Kent A. McDonald

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to illustrate how longitudinal stress wave techniques can be useful in tracking the future quality of a growing tree. Monitoring the quality of selected trees in a plantation forest could provide early input to decisions on the effectiveness of management practices, or future utilization options, for trees in a plantation. There will...

  18. Genetic transformation of forest trees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    In this review, the recent progress on genetic transformation of forest trees were discussed. Its described also, different applications of genetic engineering for improving forest trees or understanding the mechanisms governing genes expression in woody plants. Key words: Genetic transformation, transgenic forest trees, ...

  19. TREE SELECTING AND TREE RING MEASURING IN DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Akbulut

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Dendrochronology is a method of dating which makes use of the annual nature of tree growth. Dendrochronology may be divided into a number of subfields, each of which covers one or more aspects of the use of tree ring data: dendroclimatology, dendrogeomorphology, dendrohydrology, dendroecology, dendroarchaelogy, and dendrogylaciology. Basic of all form the analysis of the tree rings. The wood or tree rings can aid to dating past events about climatology, ecology, geology, hydrology. Dendrochronological studies are conducted either on increment cores or on discs. It may be seen abnormalities on tree rings during the measurement like that false rings, missing rings, reaction wood. Like that situation, increment cores must be extracted from four different sides of each tree and be studied as more as on tree.

  20. Tree Colors: Color Schemes for Tree-Structured Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennekes, Martijn; de Jonge, Edwin

    2014-12-01

    We present a method to map tree structures to colors from the Hue-Chroma-Luminance color model, which is known for its well balanced perceptual properties. The Tree Colors method can be tuned with several parameters, whose effect on the resulting color schemes is discussed in detail. We provide a free and open source implementation with sensible parameter defaults. Categorical data are very common in statistical graphics, and often these categories form a classification tree. We evaluate applying Tree Colors to tree structured data with a survey on a large group of users from a national statistical institute. Our user study suggests that Tree Colors are useful, not only for improving node-link diagrams, but also for unveiling tree structure in non-hierarchical visualizations.

  1. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

    2014-03-06

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  2. Quality of minimally processed guava with different types of cut, sanification and packing Qualidade de goiaba processada minimamente com diferentes tipos de corte, sanificação e embalagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Silva Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this project was to evaluate the sanitization effect on the quality of minimally processed guava. Initially, research was carried out with consumers in a supermarket to verify preferences of packaging for guava. Following this, the guava cv. Paluma underwent two sanitization sequences using dehydrated sodium dichloroisocyanurate compound, in 50 ppm concentration, sanitization prior to (S1 and after (S2 being cut; removal of excess water; conditioning in PET packaging and PSPVC and storage at 3 ºC ± 1 ºC. Physicochemical analysis - [pH, total soluble solids (SST, total labeled acidity (ATT, ascorbic acid (AA, total sugars (AT and reducers (AR], textural sensorial and microbiological analyses were used to monitor the quality of the products. The consumers preferred the guava cut in halves with pulp and packed in PET, although this packaging promoted condensation of water vapor on the inner surface of the lid, compromising the appearance of the product. The two sanitization sequences and the two kinds of packaging did not significantly affect the pH, SST, ATT, SST/ATT, texture and AA values. The AT and AR tenors increased significantly in the MP guavas stored in the PSPVC package. Both sanitizations were efficient in the bacterial control of the indicators of the hygienicsanitary conditions, although the S1 sanitization proved to be more efficient in the control of autochthonous aerobic microbiota (aerobic mesophylic microorganisms. It can be concluded that guava cv. Paluma packed in PSPVC can be conserved for 6 days when stored at 3 ºC.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da sanitização sobre a qualidade de goiabas minimamente processadas. Inicialmente, foi realizada uma pesquisa com consumidores em um supermercado para verificar a preferência em relação a tipos de cortes e tipos de embalagens para goiabas. Após essa etapa, goiabas cv. Paluma passaram por duas sequências de sanificação com o composto clorado

  3. Fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Suggestion are made concerning the method of the fault tree analysis, the use of certain symbols in the examination of system failures. This purpose of the fault free analysis is to find logical connections of component or subsystem failures leading to undesirable occurrances. The results of these examinations are part of the system assessment concerning operation and safety. The objectives of the analysis are: systematical identification of all possible failure combinations (causes) leading to a specific undesirable occurrance, finding of reliability parameters such as frequency of failure combinations, frequency of the undesirable occurrance or non-availability of the system when required. The fault tree analysis provides a near and reconstructable documentation of the examination. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Tree-level formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhuber, Andreas; Spence, Bill; Travaglini, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    We review two novel techniques used to calculate tree-level scattering amplitudes efficiently: MHV diagrams, and on-shell recursion relations. For the MHV diagrams, we consider applications to tree-level amplitudes and focus in particular on the N=4 supersymmetric formulation. We also briefly describe the derivation of loop amplitudes using MHV diagrams. For the recursion relations, after presenting their general proof, we discuss several applications to massless theories with and without supersymmetry, to theories with massive particles, and to graviton amplitudes in general relativity. This article is an invited review for a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to 'Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories'. (review)

  5. Tree Rings: Timekeepers of the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, R. L.; McGowan, J.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science issues, this booklet describes the uses of tree rings in historical and biological recordkeeping. Separate sections cover the following topics: dating of tree rings, dating with tree rings, tree ring formation, tree ring identification, sample collections, tree ring cross dating, tree…

  6. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  7. Irradiation and passive modified atmosphere on the post-harvest quality of guavas ‘Pedro Sato’. = Irradiação e atmosfera modificada passiva na qualidade pós-colheita de goiabas ‘Pedro Sato’ .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André José de Campos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation associated with modified atmosphere on postharvest quality of guavas ‘Pedro Sato’. It was used guavas from the region of Vista Alegre do Alto/São Paulo/Brazil. After harvest, the fruits were immediately transported to the Fruit and Vegetables Laboratory from the Agroindustrial Management and Technology Department, Agronomic Sciences College - UNESP - Botucatu / SP, where they were kept at 10 ° C and 90-95% RH in cold storage, for 28 days. It was used the randomized design, with factorial scheme 5 x 5, three repetitions. The first factor consisted of the following effects: control 1 (without package or irradiation, control 2 (polystyrene package/PS + package low density polyethylene/LDPE and without irradiation, treatment 1 (PS + LDPE and 0.2 kGy , treatment 2 (PS + LDPE and 0.6 kGy and treatment 3 (PS + LDPE and 1.0 kGy. The second factor consisted of the evaluation periods: 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The analyses were: firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, maturity index, pH, respiration rate. Concluded that high doses of irradiation promoted a negative effect on physical-chemical characteristics of guava ‘Pedro Sato’, verifying that only the lowest dose associated with modified atmosphere provided fruits with higher quality and acceptability, due to higher maturation rate and soluble solids obtained. Regarding the days of analysis, there were no positive effect of the treatments during storage, where only the early days promoted better values for the variables studied.

  8. Impact of edible chitosan-cassava starch coatings enriched with Lippia gracilis Schauer genotype mixtures on the shelf life of guavas (Psidium guajava L.) during storage at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino, Alana Bezerra; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Santana, Luciana Cristina Lins de Aquino

    2015-03-15

    The effect of edible chitosan-cassava starch (CH-CS) coatings containing a mixture of Lippia gracilis Schauer genotypes (EOM) on the shelf life of guavas during storage at room temperature for 10 days was studied. Sixteen formulations were prepared with a range of chitosan and essential oil mixtures concentrations, and the in vitro antimicrobial activity was tested. Formulations containing 2.0% cassava starch, 2.0% chitosan and 1.0%, 2.0% or 3.0% EOM were most effective in inhibiting the growth of the majority of bacteria. The edible CH-CS coating and CH-CS with 1.0% (CH-CS-EOM1) or 3.0% EOM (CH-CS-EOM3) were added to guavas and the shelf life was evaluated. On the tenth day of storage, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and mould and yeast counts were statistically lower (p<0.05) in the CH-CS-EOM1- or CH-CS-EOM3-coated fruits than CH-CS-coated fruits. In addition, fruits coated with CH-CS or CH-CS-EOM showed no significant changes of total soluble solids content, while CH-CS-EOM-coated fruits showed lower titratable acidity than CH-CS-coated fruits at the end of storage. CH-CS-EOM3-coated guavas showed lower a(∗) and b(∗) values and higher L(∗) and hue values than those with other coatings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Recursive Trees for Practical ORAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moataz Tarik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new, general data structure that reduces the communication cost of recent tree-based ORAMs. Contrary to ORAM trees with constant height and path lengths, our new construction r-ORAM allows for trees with varying shorter path length. Accessing an element in the ORAM tree results in different communication costs depending on the location of the element. The main idea behind r-ORAM is a recursive ORAM tree structure, where nodes in the tree are roots of other trees. While this approach results in a worst-case access cost (tree height at most as any recent tree-based ORAM, we show that the average cost saving is around 35% for recent binary tree ORAMs. Besides reducing communication cost, r-ORAM also reduces storage overhead on the server by 4% to 20% depending on the ORAM’s client memory type. To prove r-ORAM’s soundness, we conduct a detailed overflow analysis. r-ORAM’s recursive approach is general in that it can be applied to all recent tree ORAMs, both constant and poly-log client memory ORAMs. Finally, we implement and benchmark r-ORAM in a practical setting to back up our theoretical claims.

  10. Mathematical foundations of event trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, Ioannis A.

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical foundation from first principles of event trees is presented. The main objective of this formulation is to offer a formal basis for developing automated computer assisted construction techniques for event trees. The mathematical theory of event trees is based on the correspondence between the paths of the tree and the elements of the outcome space of a joint event. The concept of a basic cylinder set is introduced to describe joint event outcomes conditional on specific outcomes of basic events or unconditional on the outcome of basic events. The concept of outcome space partition is used to describe the minimum amount of information intended to be preserved by the event tree representation. These concepts form the basis for an algorithm for systematic search for and generation of the most compact (reduced) form of an event tree consistent with the minimum amount of information the tree should preserve. This mathematical foundation allows for the development of techniques for automated generation of event trees corresponding to joint events which are formally described through other types of graphical models. Such a technique has been developed for complex systems described by functional blocks and it is reported elsewhere. On the quantification issue of event trees, a formal definition of a probability space corresponding to the event tree outcomes is provided. Finally, a short discussion is offered on the relationship of the presented mathematical theory with the more general use of event trees in reliability analysis of dynamic systems

  11. Making CSB + -Trees Processor Conscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Michael; Pedersen, Anders Uhl; Bonnet, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    of the CSB+-tree. We argue that it is necessary to consider a larger group of parameters in order to adapt CSB+-tree to processor architectures as different as Pentium and Itanium. We identify this group of parameters and study how it impacts the performance of CSB+-tree on Itanium 2. Finally, we propose......Cache-conscious indexes, such as CSB+-tree, are sensitive to the underlying processor architecture. In this paper, we focus on how to adapt the CSB+-tree so that it performs well on a range of different processor architectures. Previous work has focused on the impact of node size on the performance...... a systematic method for adapting CSB+-tree to new platforms. This work is a first step towards integrating CSB+-tree in MySQL’s heap storage manager....

  12. Submodular unsplittable flow on trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamaszek, Anna Maria; Chalermsook, Parinya; Ene, Alina

    2016-01-01

    We study the Unsplittable Flow problem (UFP) on trees with a submodular objective function. The input to this problem is a tree with edge capacities and a collection of tasks, each characterized by a source node, a sink node, and a demand. A subset of the tasks is feasible if the tasks can...... simultaneously send their demands from the source to the sink without violating the edge capacities. The goal is to select a feasible subset of the tasks that maximizes a submodular objective function. Our main result is an O(k log n)-approximation algorithm for Submodular UFP on trees where k denotes...... the pathwidth of the given tree. Since every tree has pathwidth O(log n), we obtain an O(log2 n) approximation for arbitrary trees. This is the first non-trivial approximation guarantee for the problem and it matches the best approximation known for UFP on trees with a linear objective function. Our main...

  13. (Almost) practical tree codes

    KAUST Repository

    Khina, Anatoly

    2016-08-15

    We consider the problem of stabilizing an unstable plant driven by bounded noise over a digital noisy communication link, a scenario at the heart of networked control. To stabilize such a plant, one needs real-time encoding and decoding with an error probability profile that decays exponentially with the decoding delay. The works of Schulman and Sahai over the past two decades have developed the notions of tree codes and anytime capacity, and provided the theoretical framework for studying such problems. Nonetheless, there has been little practical progress in this area due to the absence of explicit constructions of tree codes with efficient encoding and decoding algorithms. Recently, linear time-invariant tree codes were proposed to achieve the desired result under maximum-likelihood decoding. In this work, we take one more step towards practicality, by showing that these codes can be efficiently decoded using sequential decoding algorithms, up to some loss in performance (and with some practical complexity caveats). We supplement our theoretical results with numerical simulations that demonstrate the effectiveness of the decoder in a control system setting.

  14. Marcha de absorção dos micronutrientes para mudas de goiabeiras cultivares Paluma e Século XXI Micronutrient uptake in ‘Paluma’ and ‘Século XXI’ guava cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudenir Facincani Franco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da marcha de absorção dos micronutrientes em mudas de goiabeira garante melhor eficiência da adubação. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a marcha de absorção de micronutrientes em mudas de duas cultivares de goiabeira. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em parcelas subdivididas com três repetições. Assim, foram utilizadas como tratamentos principais duas cultivares de goiabeira (Paluma e Século XXI obtidas por estacas herbáceas e como subparcelas, sete coletas de plantas, ao longo do período experimental (120 dias. Nos diferentes órgãos das mudas (folhas, caule e raízes, avaliou-se o acúmulo de micronutrientes, a cada quinze dias. A muda de goiabeira da cultivar Século XXI é mais exigente em micronutrientes do que as mudas da cultivar Paluma. O acúmulo médio de micronutrientes pelas mudas de goiabeira obedeceu à seguinte seqüência: Fe>Mn>Zn>B>Cu, sendo maior nas folhas para B, Cu, Mn e Zn, e nas raízes para Fe. O acúmulo de micronutrientes para as cultivares Paluma e Século XXI em µg por planta foi de: B (632 e 783, Cu (134 e 158, Fe (8103 e 5534, Mn (3052 e 3709 e Zn (760 e 997 respectivamente.Understanding micronutrient uptake in guava cuttings guarantees efficient fertilization. This research was undertaken to measure micronutrient uptake in cuttings from two guava cultivars. The experimental design was arranged in split-plots with three replications. Plots were represented by herbaceous cuttings from the guava cultivars 'Paluma' and 'Século XXI', while split-plots were the seven sampling dates during a 120-day period in nutritive solution. Accumulation of micronutrients was determined in the different plant organs every two weeks. The guava cultivar 'Século XXI' has higher micronutrient requirements than 'Paluma'. The mean micronutrient accumulation followed the order: Fe>Mn>Zn>B>Cu. The accumulation of B, Cu, Mn and Zn was higher in leaves, while Fe was more accumulated in roots

  15. Biologia da mosca‑das‑frutas sul‑americana em frutos de mirtilo, amoreira‑preta, araçazeiro e pitangueira Biology of South American fruit fly in blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Bisognin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a biologia de Anastrepha fraterculus em frutos de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei, amoreira‑preta (Rubus spp., araçazeiro (Psidium cattleyanum e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora. O experimento foi realizado em laboratório, em condições controladas de temperatura (25±2ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotófase (12 horas, para determinação dos parâmetros biológicos do inseto nos estágios de desenvolvimento imaturos e adultos. Anastrepha fraterculus completa o ciclo biológico em todos hospedeiros estudados, embora os frutos nativos (pitanga e araçá ofereçam melhores condições para seu desenvolvimento. Os parâmetros biológicos determinados para as fases imaturas foram semelhantes nos quatro hospedeiros. Insetos criados em pitanga e araçá apresentam, na fase adulta, maior período de oviposição, fecundidade e longevidade de fêmeas, em comparação aos criados em mirtilo e amora‑preta. O ritmo diário de oviposição é mais prolongado e uniforme nos insetos criados em araçá e pitanga, o que mostra que A. fraterculus está mais bem adaptada a estas frutas, nativas da região Sul.The objective of this work was to describe the biology of Anastrepha fraterculus in blueberry (Vaccinium ashei, blackberry (Rubus spp., strawberry guava (Psidium cattleyanum and Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora fruits. The experiment was carried out in laboratory under controlled conditions of temperature (25±2ºC, relative humidity (70±10%, and photophase (12 hours to determine insect biological parameters in immature and adult development stages. Anastrepha fraterculus finishes its biological cycle in all studied hosts; however, the Brazilian native fruits (strawberry guava and Surinam cherry provide better conditions for development of the insect. Biological parameters determined for immature development stadium were similar in the four hosts. Insects reared in Surinam cherry and strawberry guava showed, in the

  16. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage - increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  17. On Determining if Tree-based Networks Contain Fixed Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Maria; Anipchenko-Ulaj, Olga; Ashfaq, Aisha; Chiu, Joyce; Kaiser, Mahedi; Ohsawa, Max Shoji; Owen, Megan; Pavlechko, Ella; St John, Katherine; Suleria, Shivam; Thompson, Keith; Yap, Corrine

    2016-05-01

    We address an open question of Francis and Steel about phylogenetic networks and trees. They give a polynomial time algorithm to decide if a phylogenetic network, N, is tree-based and pose the problem: given a fixed tree T and network N, is N based on T? We show that it is [Formula: see text]-hard to decide, by reduction from 3-Dimensional Matching (3DM) and further that the problem is fixed-parameter tractable.

  18. Trees in the city: valuing street trees in Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.H. Donovan; D.T. Butry

    2010-01-01

    We use a hedonic price model to simultaneously estimate the effects of street trees on the sales price and the time-on-market (TOM) of houses in Portland. Oregon. On average, street trees add $8,870 to sales price and reduce TOM by 1.7 days. In addition, we found that the benefits of street trees spill over to neighboring houses. Because the provision and maintenance...

  19. Efeito do cloreto de cálcio na pós-colheita de goiaba Cortibel Calcium chloride application in the post-harvest of guavas Cortibel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Terra Werner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi prolongar o período de conservação e manter a qualidade de goiabas (Psidium guajava L. Cortibel, por meio da aplicação de diferentes concentrações de cloreto de cálcio. Os frutos foram separados em quatro lotes, o controle (sem cálcio e os tratamentos, que receberam a aplicação de CaCl2 a 1%, 2% e 3% (p/v por imersão durante 15 minutos para posterior análise de perda de massa fresca, pH, determinação de firmeza, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável, relação entre sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável, quantidade de clorofilas a e b e carotenóides, teor de ácido ascórbico na casca e na polpa e atividade da pectinametilesterase. A concentração de 1% foi responsável pela menor perda de massa fresca, maior firmeza e menor atividade da pectinametilesterase, demonstrando que o cálcio é importante para conservação do fruto, uma vez que atua na regulação do seu amadurecimento. Essa concentração retardou a perda de coloração e manteve o maior teor de ácido ascórbico na casca sem, contudo, diferir estatisticamente das outras concentrações no teor de sólidos solúveis totais e pH. Além disso, verifica-se que maiores concentrações de cálcio não beneficiam as características pós-colheita de goiaba.The objective of this work was to extend the conservation period and maintain the quality of guavas (Psidium guajava L. Cortibel, through the application of different concentrations of calcium chloride. The fruits were divided into four lots, the control (without calcium and treatments, which received the application of CaCl2 to 1%, 2% and 3% (p/v by immersion for 15 minutes. The parameters evaluated were fresh weight loss, pH, determination of firmness, total soluble solids content, total titratable acidity, ratio total soluble solids and total titratable acidity, amount of chlorophyll a and b and carotenoid, ascorbic acid content in the rind and pulp and

  20. Systolic trees and systolic language recognition by tree automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinby, M

    1983-01-01

    K. Culik II, J. Gruska, A. Salomaa and D. Wood have studied the language recognition capabilities of certain types of systolically operating networks of processors (see research reports Cs-81-32, Cs-81-36 and Cs-82-01, Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada). In this paper, their model for systolic VLSI trees is formalised in terms of standard tree automaton theory, and the way in which some known facts about recognisable forests and tree transductions can be applied in VLSI tree theory is demonstrated. 13 references.

  1. Unique bioactive polyphenolic profile of guava (Psidium guajava) budding leaf tea is related to plant biochemistry of budding leaves in early dawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Huang; Hsieh, Chiu-Lan; Wang, Hui-Er; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Peng, Robert Y

    2013-03-15

    Guava leaf tea (GLT), exhibiting a diversity of medicinal bioactivities, has become a popularly consumed daily beverage. To improve the product quality, a new process was recommended to the Ser-Tou Farmers' Association (SFA), who began field production in 2005. The new process comprised simplified steps: one bud-two leaves were plucked at 3:00-6:00 am, in the early dawn period, followed by withering at ambient temperature (25-28 °C), rolling at 50 °C for 50-70 min, with or without fermentation, then drying at 45-50 °C for 70-90 min, and finally sorted. The product manufactured by this new process (named herein GLTSF) exhibited higher contents (in mg g(-1), based on dry ethyl acetate fraction/methanolic extract) of polyphenolics (417.9 ± 12.3) and flavonoids (452.5 ± 32.3) containing a compositional profile much simpler than previously found: total quercetins (190.3 ± 9.1), total myricetin (3.3 ± 0.9), total catechins (36.4 ± 5.3), gallic acid (8.8 ± 0.6), ellagic acid (39.1 ± 6.4) and tannins (2.5 ± 9.1). We have successfully developed a new process for manufacturing GLTSF with a unique polyphenolic profile. Such characteristic compositional distribution can be ascribed to the right harvesting hour in the early dawn and appropriate treatment process at low temperature, avoiding direct sunlight. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. A summary of information on the rust Puccinia psidii Winter (guava rust) with emphasis on means to prevent introduction of additional strains to Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    The neotropical rust fungus Puccinia psidii(P. psidii) was originally described from the host common guava in its native Brazil but has been found since on hosts throughout the myrtle family (Myrtaceae), including a dramatic host jump to nonnative Eucalyptus plantations. Most rust fungi are able to live only on a very narrow range of host species. P. psidii is unusual both for having a broad host range and for the intensity of its damage to susceptible young growth. This rust first got a foothold in the United States in Florida more than three decades ago. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has since considered it a nonactionable, nonreportable pest. Hawaii and Florida are the only two states with native species in the myrtle family. Over a period of 30 years, this rust has done little damage to any of the scattered native Myrtaceae in Florida, although the host range of the rust has gradually grown to about 30 mostly nonnative species in the family, apparently because of increasing genetic variety of the rust by repeated introductions. However, Florida’s native Myrtaceae are among the roughly 1,100 neotropical species that are largely resistant to P. psidii. The 3,000 species of non-neotropical Myrtaceae of the Pacific, Australia, Asia, and Africa are expected to prove much more vulnerable to P. psidii. Little is known about the genetics or genetic strains of P. psidii, although existing literature shows that there are numerous strains that have differential ability to infect suites of host plants.

  3. Tree felling: a necessary evil

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    CERN started a campaign of tree felling in 2010 for safety reasons, and it will continue this year in various parts of the Meyrin site. As in previous years, the trees cut down in 2013 will be recycled and some will be replaced.   Diseased tree that had to be cut down on the Meyrin site. In association with the Geneva nature and countryside directorate (Direction générale de la nature et du paysage, DGNP), CERN commissioned the Geneva school of landscaping, engineering and architecture (Haute école du paysage, d’ingénierie et d’architecture, HEPIA) to compile an inventory of the trees on the Meyrin site. In total, 1285 trees (excluding poplars) were recorded. 75.5% of these trees were declared to be in a good state of health (i.e. 971 trees), 21.5% in a moderate state of health (276 trees) and 3% in a poor state of health (38 trees). As for the poplars, the 236 specimens recorded on the Meyrin site were judged to be too old, to...

  4. Human decision error (HUMDEE) trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrom, L.T.

    1993-01-01

    Graphical presentations of human actions in incident and accident sequences have been used for many years. However, for the most part, human decision making has been underrepresented in these trees. This paper presents a method of incorporating the human decision process into graphical presentations of incident/accident sequences. This presentation is in the form of logic trees. These trees are called Human Decision Error Trees or HUMDEE for short. The primary benefit of HUMDEE trees is that they graphically illustrate what else the individuals involved in the event could have done to prevent either the initiation or continuation of the event. HUMDEE trees also present the alternate paths available at the operator decision points in the incident/accident sequence. This is different from the Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP) event trees. There are many uses of these trees. They can be used for incident/accident investigations to show what other courses of actions were available and for training operators. The trees also have a consequence component so that not only the decision can be explored, also the consequence of that decision

  5. Phylogenetic trees and Euclidean embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, Mark; Rhodes, John A

    2017-01-01

    It was recently observed by de Vienne et al. (Syst Biol 60(6):826-832, 2011) that a simple square root transformation of distances between taxa on a phylogenetic tree allowed for an embedding of the taxa into Euclidean space. While the justification for this was based on a diffusion model of continuous character evolution along the tree, here we give a direct and elementary explanation for it that provides substantial additional insight. We use this embedding to reinterpret the differences between the NJ and BIONJ tree building algorithms, providing one illustration of how this embedding reflects tree structures in data.

  6. Occurrence of leguminous trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkbride, J.H.; Arkcoll, D.B.A.; Turnbull, J.W.; Magalhaes, L.M.S.; Fernandes, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Five papers from the symposium are presented. Kirkbride, J.H. Jr.; Legumes of the cerrado. pp 23-46 (Refs. 55) A review is given. Some 548 legume species in 59 genera are listed that have been reported from cerrado vegetation. Felker, P.; Legume trees in semi-arid and arid areas. pp 47-59 (Refs. 41) A review is given of worldwide research activities. Arkcoll, D.B.; A comparison of some fast growing species suitable for woodlots in the wet tropics. pp 61-68 (Refs. 9) Studies are described near Manaus on intensive silviculture (for fuelwood production) of Eucalyptus deglupta, Cedrelinga catanaeformis (catenaeformis), Jacaranda copaia, and Inga edulis. Turnbull, J.W.; Six phyllodinous Acacia species for planting in the humid tropical lowlands. pp 69-73 (Refs. 14) Distribution, ecology, growth, and utilization are described for A. auriculiformis, A. mangium, A. aulacocarpa, A. crassicarpa, A. cincinnata, and A. polystachya. Magalhaes, L.M.S., Fernandes, N.P.; Experimental stands of leguminous trees in the Manaus region. pp 75-79 (Refs. 8) Performance up to age 20 yr of Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Dalbergia nigra, Dinizia excelsa, Dipteryx odorata, Dipteryx sp., Diplotropis sp., Eperua bijuga, Pithecellobium racemosum, Vouacapoua pallidior, and Hymenaea sp. is described.

  7. The Steiner tree problem

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, FK; Winter, P

    1992-01-01

    The Steiner problem asks for a shortest network which spans a given set of points. Minimum spanning networks have been well-studied when all connections are required to be between the given points. The novelty of the Steiner tree problem is that new auxiliary points can be introduced between the original points so that a spanning network of all the points will be shorter than otherwise possible. These new points are called Steiner points - locating them has proved problematic and research has diverged along many different avenues. This volume is devoted to the assimilation of the rich field of intriguing analyses and the consolidation of the fragments. A section has been given to each of the three major areas of interest which have emerged. The first concerns the Euclidean Steiner Problem, historically the original Steiner tree problem proposed by Jarník and Kössler in 1934. The second deals with the Steiner Problem in Networks, which was propounded independently by Hakimi and Levin and has enjoyed the most...

  8. Genealogy and gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmuson, Marianne

    2008-02-01

    Heredity can be followed in persons or in genes. Persons can be identified only a few generations back, but simplified models indicate that universal ancestors to all now living persons have occurred in the past. Genetic variability can be characterized as variants of DNA sequences. Data are available only from living persons, but from the pattern of variation gene trees can be inferred by means of coalescence models. The merging of lines backwards in time leads to a MRCA (most recent common ancestor). The time and place of living for this inferred person can give insights in human evolutionary history. Demographic processes are incorporated in the model, but since culture and customs are known to influence demography the models used ought to be tested against available genealogy. The Icelandic data base offers a possibility to do so and points to some discrepancies. Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome patterns give a rather consistent view of human evolutionary history during the latest 100 000 years but the earlier epochs of human evolution demand gene trees with longer branches. The results of such studies reveal as yet unsolved problems about the sources of our genome.

  9. Distributed Merge Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther

    2013-01-08

    Improved simulations and sensors are producing datasets whose increasing complexity exhausts our ability to visualize and comprehend them directly. To cope with this problem, we can detect and extract significant features in the data and use them as the basis for subsequent analysis. Topological methods are valuable in this context because they provide robust and general feature definitions. As the growth of serial computational power has stalled, data analysis is becoming increasingly dependent on massively parallel machines. To satisfy the computational demand created by complex datasets, algorithms need to effectively utilize these computer architectures. The main strength of topological methods, their emphasis on global information, turns into an obstacle during parallelization. We present two approaches to alleviate this problem. We develop a distributed representation of the merge tree that avoids computing the global tree on a single processor and lets us parallelize subsequent queries. To account for the increasing number of cores per processor, we develop a new data structure that lets us take advantage of multiple shared-memory cores to parallelize the work on a single node. Finally, we present experiments that illustrate the strengths of our approach as well as help identify future challenges.

  10. Visualizing Individual Tree Differences in Tree-Ring Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Trouillier

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Averaging tree-ring measurements from multiple individuals is one of the most common procedures in dendrochronology. It serves to filter out noise from individual differences between trees, such as competition, height, and micro-site effects, which ideally results in a site chronology sensitive to regional scale factors such as climate. However, the climate sensitivity of individual trees can be modulated by factors like competition, height, and nitrogen deposition, calling attention to whether average chronologies adequately assess climatic growth-control. In this study, we demonstrate four simple but effective methods to visually assess differences between individual trees. Using individual tree climate-correlations we: (1 employed jitter plots with superimposed metadata to assess potential causes for these differences; (2 plotted the frequency distributions of climate correlations over time as heat maps; (3 mapped the spatial distribution of climate sensitivity over time to assess spatio-temporal dynamics; and (4 used t-distributed Stochastic Neighborhood Embedding (t-SNE to assess which trees were generally more similar in terms of their tree-ring pattern and their correlation with climate variables. This suite of exploratory methods can indicate if individuals in tree-ring datasets respond differently to climate variability, and therefore, should not solely be explored with climate correlations of the mean population chronology.

  11. Tree Size Comparison of Some Important Street Trees Growing at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    More research is needed on these trees for healthy environment of city. The present ..... use and CO2 emissions from power plants. Environ. Poll. .... Anna. Bot., 65:567-574. Kozlowski, T.T., 1971. Growth and Development of. Trees. Vol. 1.

  12. Relating phylogenetic trees to transmission trees of infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ypma, Rolf J F; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco

    2013-11-01

    Transmission events are the fundamental building blocks of the dynamics of any infectious disease. Much about the epidemiology of a disease can be learned when these individual transmission events are known or can be estimated. Such estimations are difficult and generally feasible only when detailed epidemiological data are available. The genealogy estimated from genetic sequences of sampled pathogens is another rich source of information on transmission history. Optimal inference of transmission events calls for the combination of genetic data and epidemiological data into one joint analysis. A key difficulty is that the transmission tree, which describes the transmission events between infected hosts, differs from the phylogenetic tree, which describes the ancestral relationships between pathogens sampled from these hosts. The trees differ both in timing of the internal nodes and in topology. These differences become more pronounced when a higher fraction of infected hosts is sampled. We show how the phylogenetic tree of sampled pathogens is related to the transmission tree of an outbreak of an infectious disease, by the within-host dynamics of pathogens. We provide a statistical framework to infer key epidemiological and mutational parameters by simultaneously estimating the phylogenetic tree and the transmission tree. We test the approach using simulations and illustrate its use on an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The approach unifies existing methods in the emerging field of phylodynamics with transmission tree reconstruction methods that are used in infectious disease epidemiology.

  13. DIF Trees: Using Classification Trees to Detect Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    A nonparametric tree classification procedure is used to detect differential item functioning for items that are dichotomously scored. Classification trees are shown to be an alternative procedure to detect differential item functioning other than the use of traditional Mantel-Haenszel and logistic regression analysis. A nonparametric…

  14. Picking a tree: habitat use by the tree agama, Acanthocercus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied tree agama (Acanthocercus a. atricollis) habitat use in the Magaliesberg mountain range in northern South Africa using sightings of marked individuals, and in a few cases, radio-telemetry. Acanthocercus a. atricollis preferentially selected thorn trees (46%; Acacia karroo), followed by common sugarbush (10%; ...

  15. Sugar fractionation and pectin content during the ripening of guava cv. Pedro Sato Fracionamento de açúcares e teor de pectina durante o amadurecimento de goiaba cv. Pedro Sato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato de Abreu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Guava is one of the most complete and balanced fruits in in terms of s nutritional value. Highly perishable, due to its intense metabolism during ripening, its shelf life can reach 3 to 5 days under room temperature. The firmness of the green and mature fruits is due mainly to the pectin polymers. The loss of firmness during the guava ripening is due to hydrolytic enzyme activity, which promotes intense solubilization of the cell wall pectins. Given the above, with the purpose of trying to explain the rapid firmness decrease, the centesimal composition and sugar fraction of the guava fruit were determined during ripening at room temperature. The guavas were picked at the half-mature stage and stored for 8 days at 22 ± 1 ºC and 78 ± 1% relative humidity. The analyses conducted were: centesimal composition, sugar fractionation, and infrared absorption spectrometry. The results showed that the guava sugars did not vary during ripening. The estimated pectin levels (5.7% were higher than those mentioned in the literature (2.4%, which can better explain the role of the pectin in the fruit firmness.A goiaba é uma das mais completas e equilibradas frutas no que diz respeito ao valor nutritivo. Altamente perecível, devido ao seu intenso metabolismo durante o amadurecimento, tem vida útil que pode chegar de 3 até 5 dias sob temperatura ambiente. A firmeza dos frutos verdes e maduros é devida principalmente aos polímeros de pectina. A perda de firmeza durante o amadurecimento da goiaba é devido à atividade de enzimas hidrolíticas, que promovem intensa solubilização das pectinas constituintes da parede celular. Diante do exposto, com a finalidade de tentar explicar a rápida diminuição da firmeza, determinou-se a composição centesimal dos frutos da goiaba e fez-se um fracionamento dos açúcares durante o amadurecimento em temperatura ambiente. Foram colhidas goiabas no estádio "de vez" e armazenadas por 8 dias à temperatura de 22 ± 1

  16. Calagem na nutrição de cálcio e no desenvolvimento do sistema radicular da goiabeira Effect of the liming on the nutrition and the development of the guava root system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de Mello Prado

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de calcário em solos ácidos promove maior desenvolvimento do sistema radicular das plantas e consequentemente, melhora a absorção de água e nutrientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de calcário no solo, no desenvolvimento do sistema radicular e na nutrição de cálcio de goiabeiras cultivadas em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico ácido. Analisaram-se amostras de solo coletadas em quatro pontos eqüidistantes, a 75 cm do tronco, nas camadas de 0-20 e 20-40 cm de profundidade, de parcelas que receberam 0, 3,7 e 7,4 t ha-1 de calcário. O calcário foi aplicado em pré-plantio, incorporado com arado de aivecas e grade aradora, na camada de 0-30 cm de profundidade. Durante o segundo e o terceiro ano de cultivo da goiabeira, avaliaram-se os efeitos da calagem nas propriedades químicas do solo. Aos 42 meses após a incorporação do calcário (terceiro ano de cultivo da goiabeira, realizou-se a amostragem das raízes com trado cilíndrico serrilhado para a avaliação da matéria seca e do teor de cálcio radicular e e também realizou-se a amostragem de folhas. A calagem promoveu a correção da acidez do solo, aumentando a saturação por bases, com conseqüente incremento da disponibilidade e absorção de cálcio pela planta, proporcionando maior desenvolvimento do sistema radicular da goiabeira. Concentrações de cálcio próximas de 30 mmol c dm-3 no solo e teor desse nutriente de 7,5 g kg-1 nas raízes, estiveram associados ao maior crescimento radicular da goiabeira.The application of lime in acid soils improves the plant root system and, consequently, enhances water and nutrients absorption by the plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of lime application on the development of root system and calcium nutrition of guava plants cultivated in an acid distrofic Red Latosol (Typic Hapludox. Soil samples were collected in four equidistant points, at 75 cm of the trunk

  17. Desidratação por imersão-impregnação e secagem por convecção de goiaba Osmotic dehydration and convective drying of guava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características físico-químicas e sensoriais de goiabas in natura e submetidas à desidratação por imersão-impregnação e à secagem complementar por convecção, além de avaliar a estabilidade da cor das goiabas secadas após 30, 60 e 90 dias de armazenamento sob refrigeração. Amostras de goiaba foram imersas em soluções de sacarose a 0,4 e 0,5 g mL-1, sacarose a 0,3 g mL-1 + sucralose a 0,2 g L-1, açúcar invertido a 41% (p/p e açúcar invertido sem diluição. Foram avaliados sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável, pH, cor, aroma, aparência, sabor e textura. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais das amostras aumentou linearmente em função do tempo de imersão, sem efeito significativo do tipo de açúcar empregado no preparo da solução. A preservação do teor de ácido cítrico foi mais pronunciada em soluções menos concentradas de sacarose. Amostras secadas não submetidas à desidratação osmótica exibiram maior alteração de cor do que aquelas previamente desidratadas. Soluções de sacarose são mais eficazes na estabilidade da cor do que as de açúcar invertido. As goiabas submetidas à desidratação por imersão-impregnação tiveram boa aceitação sensorial, e aquelas secadas apenas por convecção não foram aceitas pelos provadores.The objective of this work was to assess physicochemical and sensory properties of fresh and osmotically dehydrated guava submitted to convective air drying. Color stability of the dried fruits was also analyzed after 30, 60 and 90 days of storage under refrigeration. Guava slices were immersed into solutions of sucrose at 0.4 and 0.5 g mL-1, of sucrose 0.3 g mL-1 + sucralose at 0.2 g L-1, of inverted sugar at 41% (w/w and undiluted inverted sugar syrup. Total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, pH, color, aroma, appearance, flavor and texture were evaluated. Soluble solids increased linearly in function of immersion time with

  18. Two Trees: Migrating Fault Trees to Decision Trees for Real Time Fault Detection on International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charles; Alena, Richard L.; Robinson, Peter

    2004-01-01

    We started from ISS fault trees example to migrate to decision trees, presented a method to convert fault trees to decision trees. The method shows that the visualizations of root cause of fault are easier and the tree manipulating becomes more programmatic via available decision tree programs. The visualization of decision trees for the diagnostic shows a format of straight forward and easy understands. For ISS real time fault diagnostic, the status of the systems could be shown by mining the signals through the trees and see where it stops at. The other advantage to use decision trees is that the trees can learn the fault patterns and predict the future fault from the historic data. The learning is not only on the static data sets but also can be online, through accumulating the real time data sets, the decision trees can gain and store faults patterns in the trees and recognize them when they come.

  19. Better trees through systematic breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Z. Callaham

    1957-01-01

    Today I would like to tell you briefly about the efforts of forest geneticists to improve the quality of forest trees. What do we mean by quality? Here, the consumer has the first word. The trees we produce are primarily for timber production, and the timber growing and wood-using industries give us our guidelines. Nevertheless, many of the characteristics sought by...

  20. Tree physiology and bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; Gerard Sapes; Anna Sala; Sharon Hood

    2015-01-01

    Irruptive bark beetles usually co-occur with their co-evolved tree hosts at very low (endemic) population densities. However, recent droughts and higher temperatures have promoted widespread tree mortality with consequences for forest carbon, fire and ecosystem services (Kurz et al., 2008; Raffa et al., 2008; Jenkins et al., 2012). In this issue of New Phytologist,...

  1. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  2. Boosted decision trees and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coadou, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Decision trees are a machine learning technique more and more commonly used in high energy physics, while it has been widely used in the social sciences. After introducing the concepts of decision trees, this article focuses on its application in particle physics. (authors)

  3. Who pays for tree improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom D. Byram; E. M. Raley

    2011-01-01

    Tree improvement has been one of the most successful collaborative research efforts in history, eliciting participation from a wide variety of players. This effort has included state forestry agencies, research universities, integrated forest industries, and the USDA Forest Service. Tree improvement was organized through cooperatives whose objectives were to distribute...

  4. Mean-field lattice trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgs, C.; Chayes, J.T.; Hofstad, van der R.W.; Slade, G.

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a mean-field model of lattice trees based on embeddings into d of abstract trees having a critical Poisson offspring distribution. This model provides a combinatorial interpretation for the self-consistent mean-field model introduced previously by Derbez and Slade [9], and provides an

  5. Modelling tree biomasses in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repola, J.

    2013-06-01

    Biomass equations for above- and below-ground tree components of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) and birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were compiled using empirical material from a total of 102 stands. These stands (44 Scots pine, 34 Norway spruce and 24 birch stands) were located mainly on mineral soil sites representing a large part of Finland. The biomass models were based on data measured from 1648 sample trees, comprising 908 pine, 613 spruce and 127 birch trees. Biomass equations were derived for the total above-ground biomass and for the individual tree components: stem wood, stem bark, living and dead branches, needles, stump, and roots, as dependent variables. Three multivariate models with different numbers of independent variables for above-ground biomass and one for below-ground biomass were constructed. Variables that are normally measured in forest inventories were used as independent variables. The simplest model formulations, multivariate models (1) were mainly based on tree diameter and height as independent variables. In more elaborated multivariate models, (2) and (3), additional commonly measured tree variables such as age, crown length, bark thickness and radial growth rate were added. Tree biomass modelling includes consecutive phases, which cause unreliability in the prediction of biomass. First, biomasses of sample trees should be determined reliably to decrease the statistical errors caused by sub-sampling. In this study, methods to improve the accuracy of stem biomass estimates of the sample trees were developed. In addition, the reliability of the method applied to estimate sample-tree crown biomass was tested, and no systematic error was detected. Second, the whole information content of data should be utilized in order to achieve reliable parameter estimates and applicable and flexible model structure. In the modelling approach, the basic assumption was that the biomasses of

  6. Decision trees in epidemiological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Venkatasubramaniam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many studies, it is of interest to identify population subgroups that are relatively homogeneous with respect to an outcome. The nature of these subgroups can provide insight into effect mechanisms and suggest targets for tailored interventions. However, identifying relevant subgroups can be challenging with standard statistical methods. Main text We review the literature on decision trees, a family of techniques for partitioning the population, on the basis of covariates, into distinct subgroups who share similar values of an outcome variable. We compare two decision tree methods, the popular Classification and Regression tree (CART technique and the newer Conditional Inference tree (CTree technique, assessing their performance in a simulation study and using data from the Box Lunch Study, a randomized controlled trial of a portion size intervention. Both CART and CTree identify homogeneous population subgroups and offer improved prediction accuracy relative to regression-based approaches when subgroups are truly present in the data. An important distinction between CART and CTree is that the latter uses a formal statistical hypothesis testing framework in building decision trees, which simplifies the process of identifying and interpreting the final tree model. We also introduce a novel way to visualize the subgroups defined by decision trees. Our novel graphical visualization provides a more scientifically meaningful characterization of the subgroups identified by decision trees. Conclusions Decision trees are a useful tool for identifying homogeneous subgroups defined by combinations of individual characteristics. While all decision tree techniques generate subgroups, we advocate the use of the newer CTree technique due to its simplicity and ease of interpretation.

  7. Decision trees in epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramaniam, Ashwini; Wolfson, Julian; Mitchell, Nathan; Barnes, Timothy; JaKa, Meghan; French, Simone

    2017-01-01

    In many studies, it is of interest to identify population subgroups that are relatively homogeneous with respect to an outcome. The nature of these subgroups can provide insight into effect mechanisms and suggest targets for tailored interventions. However, identifying relevant subgroups can be challenging with standard statistical methods. We review the literature on decision trees, a family of techniques for partitioning the population, on the basis of covariates, into distinct subgroups who share similar values of an outcome variable. We compare two decision tree methods, the popular Classification and Regression tree (CART) technique and the newer Conditional Inference tree (CTree) technique, assessing their performance in a simulation study and using data from the Box Lunch Study, a randomized controlled trial of a portion size intervention. Both CART and CTree identify homogeneous population subgroups and offer improved prediction accuracy relative to regression-based approaches when subgroups are truly present in the data. An important distinction between CART and CTree is that the latter uses a formal statistical hypothesis testing framework in building decision trees, which simplifies the process of identifying and interpreting the final tree model. We also introduce a novel way to visualize the subgroups defined by decision trees. Our novel graphical visualization provides a more scientifically meaningful characterization of the subgroups identified by decision trees. Decision trees are a useful tool for identifying homogeneous subgroups defined by combinations of individual characteristics. While all decision tree techniques generate subgroups, we advocate the use of the newer CTree technique due to its simplicity and ease of interpretation.

  8. Totally optimal decision trees for Boolean functions

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    We study decision trees which are totally optimal relative to different sets of complexity parameters for Boolean functions. A totally optimal tree is an optimal tree relative to each parameter from the set simultaneously. We consider the parameters

  9. Are There Infinite Irrigation Trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernot, M.; Caselles, V.; Morel, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    In many natural or artificial flow systems, a fluid flow network succeeds in irrigating every point of a volume from a source. Examples are the blood vessels, the bronchial tree and many irrigation and draining systems. Such systems have raised recently a lot of interest and some attempts have been made to formalize their description, as a finite tree of tubes, and their scaling laws [25], [26]. In contrast, several mathematical models [5], [22], [10], propose an idealization of these irrigation trees, where a countable set of tubes irrigates any point of a volume with positive Lebesgue measure. There is no geometric obstruction to this infinitesimal model and general existence and structure theorems have been proved. As we show, there may instead be an energetic obstruction. Under Poiseuille law R(s) = s -2 for the resistance of tubes with section s, the dissipated power of a volume irrigating tree cannot be finite. In other terms, infinite irrigation trees seem to be impossible from the fluid mechanics viewpoint. This also implies that the usual principle analysis performed for the biological models needs not to impose a minimal size for the tubes of an irrigating tree; the existence of the minimal size can be proven from the only two obvious conditions for such irrigation trees, namely the Kirchhoff and Poiseuille laws.

  10. Maximum Gene-Support Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Shan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomes and genes diversify during evolution; however, it is unclear to what extent genes still retain the relationship among species. Model species for molecular phylogenetic studies include yeasts and viruses whose genomes were sequenced as well as plants that have the fossil-supported true phylogenetic trees available. In this study, we generated single gene trees of seven yeast species as well as single gene trees of nine baculovirus species using all the orthologous genes among the species compared. Homologous genes among seven known plants were used for validation of the finding. Four algorithms—maximum parsimony (MP, minimum evolution (ME, maximum likelihood (ML, and neighbor-joining (NJ—were used. Trees were reconstructed before and after weighting the DNA and protein sequence lengths among genes. Rarely a gene can always generate the “true tree” by all the four algorithms. However, the most frequent gene tree, termed “maximum gene-support tree” (MGS tree, or WMGS tree for the weighted one, in yeasts, baculoviruses, or plants was consistently found to be the “true tree” among the species. The results provide insights into the overall degree of divergence of orthologous genes of the genomes analyzed and suggest the following: 1 The true tree relationship among the species studied is still maintained by the largest group of orthologous genes; 2 There are usually more orthologous genes with higher similarities between genetically closer species than between genetically more distant ones; and 3 The maximum gene-support tree reflects the phylogenetic relationship among species in comparison.

  11. Screening of tomato varieties for fruit tree based Agroforestry system

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hossain

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with four tomato varieties under a six year old orchard was accomplished at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU) research farm during October 2011 to April 2012. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Four tomato varieties (BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 8, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 15) were grown under guava, mango, olive and control. Results showed that light availability in co...

  12. Linking and Cutting Spanning Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís M. S. Russo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of uniformly generating a spanning tree for an undirected connected graph. This process is useful for computing statistics, namely for phylogenetic trees. We describe a Markov chain for producing these trees. For cycle graphs, we prove that this approach significantly outperforms existing algorithms. For general graphs, experimental results show that the chain converges quickly. This yields an efficient algorithm due to the use of proper fast data structures. To obtain the mixing time of the chain we describe a coupling, which we analyze for cycle graphs and simulate for other graphs.

  13. Tree Ordination as Invented Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery Morrow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The symbolic ordination of trees as monks in Thailand is widely perceived in Western scholarship to be proof of the power of Buddhism to spur ecological thought. However, a closer analysis of tree ordination demonstrates that it is not primarily about Buddhist teaching, but rather is an invented tradition based on the sanctity of Thai Buddhist symbols as well as those of spirit worship and the monarchy. Tree ordinations performed by non-Buddhist minorities in Thailand do not demonstrate a religious commitment but rather a political one.

  14. Tree Coding of Bilevel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Presently, sequential tree coders are the best general purpose bilevel image coders and the best coders of halftoned images. The current ISO standard, Joint Bilevel Image Experts Group (JBIG), is a good example. A sequential tree coder encodes the data by feeding estimates of conditional...... is one order of magnitude slower than JBIG, obtains excellent and highly robust compression performance. A multipass free tree coding scheme produces superior compression results for all test images. A multipass free template coding scheme produces significantly better results than JBIG for difficult...... images such as halftones. By utilizing randomized subsampling in the template selection, the speed becomes acceptable for practical image coding...

  15. Multiple-purpose trees for pastoral farming in New Zealand: with emphasis on tree legumes. [Lucerne Tree: Medick Tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D J.G.; Macfarlane, R P

    1979-01-01

    The potential for soil conservation and agroforestry of several native and exotic legumes is discussed. Flowering period, chemical composition of leaves/pods, hardiness to frost and drought, timber value, forage potential for livestock and bees, ornamental value and other products are tabulated with information on up to 38 species. Two low-growing species that have proved useful for slope stabilization as well as forage are tree lucerne (Cytisus palmensis) and tree medick (Medicago arborea), the latter being shrubby and more suitable for cold districts. Gleditsia triacanthos is recommended as a shade and fodder tree for farm pasture.

  16. Generalising tree traversals to DAGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil

    2015-01-01

    We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead. The resulting graph traversals avoid...... is not sound. Therefore, we complement our implementation of the recursion scheme with a number of correspondence theorems that ensure soundness for various classes of traversals. We illustrate the practical applicability of the implementation as well as the complementing theory with a number of examples....

  17. Tree-growth analyses to estimate tree species' drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilmann, Britta; Rigling, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Climate change is challenging forestry management and practices. Among other things, tree species with the ability to cope with more extreme climate conditions have to be identified. However, while environmental factors may severely limit tree growth or even cause tree death, assessing a tree species' potential for surviving future aggravated environmental conditions is rather demanding. The aim of this study was to find a tree-ring-based method suitable for identifying very drought-tolerant species, particularly potential substitute species for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Valais. In this inner-Alpine valley, Scots pine used to be the dominating species for dry forests, but today it suffers from high drought-induced mortality. We investigate the growth response of two native tree species, Scots pine and European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), and two non-native species, black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. var. menziesii), to drought. This involved analysing how the radial increment of these species responded to increasing water shortage (abandonment of irrigation) and to increasingly frequent drought years. Black pine and Douglas fir are able to cope with drought better than Scots pine and larch, as they show relatively high radial growth even after irrigation has been stopped and a plastic growth response to drought years. European larch does not seem to be able to cope with these dry conditions as it lacks the ability to recover from drought years. The analysis of trees' short-term response to extreme climate events seems to be the most promising and suitable method for detecting how tolerant a tree species is towards drought. However, combining all the methods used in this study provides a complete picture of how water shortage could limit species.

  18. TreeCluster: Massively scalable transmission clustering using phylogenetic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Moshiri, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Background: The ability to infer transmission clusters from molecular data is critical to designing and evaluating viral control strategies. Viral sequencing datasets are growing rapidly, but standard methods of transmission cluster inference do not scale well beyond thousands of sequences. Results: I present TreeCluster, a cross-platform tool that performs transmission cluster inference on a given phylogenetic tree orders of magnitude faster than existing inference methods and supports multi...

  19. Moose?tree interactions: rebrowsing is common across tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Mathisen, Karen Marie; Milner, Jos M.; Skarpe, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Background Plant strategies to resist herbivory include tolerance and avoidance. Tolerance strategies, such as rapid regrowth which increases the palatability of new shoots, can lead to positive feedback loops between plants and herbivores. An example of such a positive feedback occurs when moose (Alces alces) browse trees in boreal forests. We described the degree of change in tree morphology that accumulated over time in response to repeated browsing by moose, using an index of accumulated ...

  20. Resummed tree heptagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The form factor program for the regularized space-time S-matrix in planar maximally supersymmetric gauge theory, known as the pentagon operator product expansion, is formulated in terms of flux-tube excitations propagating on a dual two-dimensional world-sheet, whose dynamics is known exactly as a function of 't Hooft coupling. Both MHV and non-MHV amplitudes are described in a uniform, systematic fashion within this framework, with the difference between the two encoded in coupling-dependent helicity form factors expressed via Zhukowski variables. The nontrivial SU(4) tensor structure of flux-tube transitions is coupling independent and is known for any number of charged excitations from solutions of a system of Watson and Mirror equations. This description allows one to resum the infinite series of form factors and recover the space-time S-matrix exactly in kinematical variables at a given order of perturbation series. Recently, this was done for the hexagon. Presently, we successfully perform resummation for the seven-leg tree NMHV amplitude. To this end, we construct the flux-tube integrands of the fifteen independent Grassmann component of the heptagon with an infinite number of small fermion-antifermion pairs accounted for in NMHV two-channel conformal blocks.

  1. Random ancestor trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a network growth model in which the genealogy controls the evolution. In this model, a new node selects a random target node and links either to this target node, or to its parent, or to its grandparent, etc; all nodes from the target node to its most ancient ancestor are equiprobable destinations. The emerging random ancestor tree is very shallow: the fraction g n of nodes at distance n from the root decreases super-exponentially with n, g n = e −1 /(n − 1)!. We find that a macroscopic hub at the root coexists with highly connected nodes at higher generations. The maximal degree of a node at the nth generation grows algebraically as N 1/β n , where N is the system size. We obtain the series of nontrivial exponents which are roots of transcendental equations: β 1 ≅1.351 746, β 2 ≅1.682 201, etc. As a consequence, the fraction p k of nodes with degree k has an algebraic tail, p k ∼ k −γ , with γ = β 1 + 1 = 2.351 746

  2. Trees as metal scavengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, N.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Tree roots extract metal ions form wet soils in two different ways. At the soil/root hair interface soluble ions in contact with the cellulose wall move through it and enter the cell through the plasmalemma; the semi permeable membrane that encloses every living cell. Some ions, especially those that are part of cellular metabolic processes eg. Na, K, Fe, Mg, S move into the cytoplasm, are bound into organic complexes and travel from cell to cell within the cytoplasm. This requires energy, and the amount of any of these metabolically active ions taken in tends to be regulated by the plant. The movement of the ions from cell to cell is slow, selective, and regulated by requirements of synthesis of for example Mg in the chlorophyll molecule. This means that more Mg is transported to cells of leaves than of cells of roots. This movement of ions is simplistic, or within the cytoplasm. Other ions are swept along in the transpiration stream and enter the complex plumbing system that brings water to the leaves for metabolism and cooling. Water in this apoplastic pathway travels within the pipes (xylem) of the wood and in the cellulose of the walls. It travels along essentially non-living parts of the plant. Ions such as As, Pb, Ni, Cr accumulate in sites such as leaves and bark. Analysis of plant parts can indicate the presence of heavy metals and can give an indication of ore bodies within the root zone

  3. The Tree of Industrial Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to bring forth an interaction between evolutionary economics and industrial systematics. The suggested solution is to reconstruct the "family tree" of the industries. Such a tree is based on similarities, but it may also reflect the evolutionary history in industries....... For this purpose the paper shows how matrices of input-output coefficients can be transformed into binary characteristics matrices and to distance matrices, and it also discusses the possible evolutionary meaning of this translation. Then these derived matrices are used as inputs to algorithms for the heuristic...... finding of optimal industrial trees. The results are presented as taxonomic trees that can easily be compared with the hierarchical structure of existing systems of industrial classification....

  4. Fremont Tree-Well Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Fremont Tree-Well Filter Spine project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  5. Algorithms for Decision Tree Construction

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The study of algorithms for decision tree construction was initiated in 1960s. The first algorithms are based on the separation heuristic [13, 31] that at each step tries dividing the set of objects as evenly as possible. Later Garey and Graham [28] showed that such algorithm may construct decision trees whose average depth is arbitrarily far from the minimum. Hyafil and Rivest in [35] proved NP-hardness of DT problem that is constructing a tree with the minimum average depth for a diagnostic problem over 2-valued information system and uniform probability distribution. Cox et al. in [22] showed that for a two-class problem over information system, even finding the root node attribute for an optimal tree is an NP-hard problem. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  6. Decision tree modeling using R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2016-08-01

    In machine learning field, decision tree learner is powerful and easy to interpret. It employs recursive binary partitioning algorithm that splits the sample in partitioning variable with the strongest association with the response variable. The process continues until some stopping criteria are met. In the example I focus on conditional inference tree, which incorporates tree-structured regression models into conditional inference procedures. While growing a single tree is subject to small changes in the training data, random forests procedure is introduced to address this problem. The sources of diversity for random forests come from the random sampling and restricted set of input variables to be selected. Finally, I introduce R functions to perform model based recursive partitioning. This method incorporates recursive partitioning into conventional parametric model building.

  7. Visualizing Contour Trees within Histograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Many of the topological features of the isosurfaces of a scalar volume field can be compactly represented by its contour tree. Unfortunately, the contour trees of most real-world volume data sets are too complex to be visualized by dot-and-line diagrams. Therefore, we propose a new visualization...... that is suitable for large contour trees and efficiently conveys the topological structure of the most important isosurface components. This visualization is integrated into a histogram of the volume data; thus, it offers strictly more information than a traditional histogram. We present algorithms...... to automatically compute the graph layout and to calculate appropriate approximations of the contour tree and the surface area of the relevant isosurface components. The benefits of this new visualization are demonstrated with the help of several publicly available volume data sets....

  8. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  9. Generic physical protection logic trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle

  10. Border trees of complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villas Boas, Paulino R; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Travieso, Gonzalo; Fontoura Costa, Luciano da

    2008-01-01

    The comprehensive characterization of the structure of complex networks is essential to understand the dynamical processes which guide their evolution. The discovery of the scale-free distribution and the small-world properties of real networks were fundamental to stimulate more realistic models and to understand important dynamical processes related to network growth. However, the properties of the network borders (nodes with degree equal to 1), one of its most fragile parts, remained little investigated and understood. The border nodes may be involved in the evolution of structures such as geographical networks. Here we analyze the border trees of complex networks, which are defined as the subgraphs without cycles connected to the remainder of the network (containing cycles) and terminating into border nodes. In addition to describing an algorithm for identification of such tree subgraphs, we also consider how their topological properties can be quantified in terms of their depth and number of leaves. We investigate the properties of border trees for several theoretical models as well as real-world networks. Among the obtained results, we found that more than half of the nodes of some real-world networks belong to the border trees. A power-law with cut-off was observed for the distribution of the depth and number of leaves of the border trees. An analysis of the local role of the nodes in the border trees was also performed

  11. Generic physical protection logic trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  12. Objective consensus from decision trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Pra, Alan Dal; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties

  13. Objective consensus from decision trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Dal Pra, Alan; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2014-12-05

    Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties.

  14. Longest common extensions in trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2016-01-01

    to trees and suggest a few applications of LCE in trees to tries and XML databases. Given a labeled and rooted tree T of size n, the goal is to preprocess T into a compact data structure that support the following LCE queries between subpaths and subtrees in T. Let v1, v2, w1, and w2 be nodes of T...... such that w1 and w2 are descendants of v1 and v2 respectively. - LCEPP(v1, w1, v2, w2): (path-path LCE) return the longest common prefix of the paths v1 ~→ w1 and v2 ~→ w2. - LCEPT(v1, w1, v2): (path-tree LCE) return maximal path-path LCE of the path v1 ~→ w1 and any path from v2 to a descendant leaf. - LCETT......(v1, v2): (tree-tree LCE) return a maximal path-path LCE of any pair of paths from v1 and v2 to descendant leaves. We present the first non-trivial bounds for supporting these queries. For LCEPP queries, we present a linear-space solution with O(log* n) query time. For LCEPT queries, we present...

  15. Longest Common Extensions in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2015-01-01

    to trees and suggest a few applications of LCE in trees to tries and XML databases. Given a labeled and rooted tree T of size n, the goal is to preprocess T into a compact data structure that support the following LCE queries between subpaths and subtrees in T. Let v1, v2, w1, and w2 be nodes of T...... such that w1 and w2 are descendants of v1 and v2 respectively. - LCEPP(v1, w1, v2, w2): (path-path LCE) return the longest common prefix of the paths v1 ~→ w1 and v2 ~→ w2. - LCEPT(v1, w1, v2): (path-tree LCE) return maximal path-path LCE of the path v1 ~→ w1 and any path from v2 to a descendant leaf. - LCETT......(v1, v2): (tree-tree LCE) return a maximal path-path LCE of any pair of paths from v1 and v2 to descendant leaves. We present the first non-trivial bounds for supporting these queries. For LCEPP queries, we present a linear-space solution with O(log* n) query time. For LCEPT queries, we present...

  16. Resposta de mudas de goiabeira à aplicação de escória de siderurgia como corretivo de acidez do solo Response of guava plants to basic slag application as corrective of soil acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de Mello Prado

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A escória de siderurgia pode constituir-se em uma fonte alternativa de Ca e Mg, bem como corretivo de acidez do solo, melhorando o estado nutricional de mudas de goiabeira, podendo contribuir para o sucesso da implantação de um pomar. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da escória de siderurgia nas alterações dos atributos químicos do solo, na nutrição das plantas e no crescimento de mudas de goiabeira. Para tanto, instalou-se um experimento em Taquaritinga-SP, em condições de vasos, com doses crescentes de escória de siderurgia: zero; metade; uma vez; uma vez e meia; duas vezes e duas vezes e meia a dose para elevar a saturação por bases para 70%. Após 90 dias da incubação da escória no solo, procedeu-se o plantio das mudas de goiabeira (cv. Paluma, propagadas vegetativamente por estaquia, em substrato de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo ácido (vaso com 2,8 dm³, cultivando-as por 105 dias. A aplicação de escória de siderurgia elevou os valores de pH, SB, V%, e as concentrações de Ca, Mg e P, diminuindo H+Al do solo. Nas mudas de goiabeira, houve aumento significativo na altura, no número de folhas, na área foliar, nas concentrações de Ca, Mg e P da parte aérea e das raízes das plantas e, conseqüentemente, na matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes. Portanto, a escória de siderurgia mostrou-se viável na produção de mudas de goiabeira como corretivo de acidez do solo e fonte de nutrientes (Ca e Mg .The basic slag can consist in alternative source of Ca and Mg, as well as conecting soil acidity improving the nutricional state of guava plants, and determining the success of the implantation of an orchard. The present work was carried out to evaluate the basic slag in chemical attributes in soil in the nutrition of plants and the production of guava plants. By the way, an experiment was conducted in Taquaritinga-SP, in pot conditions, with increasing doses of basic slag: zero; half; once, once and

  17. Evaluación poscosecha y estimación de vida útil de guayaba fresca utilizando el modelo de Weibull Postharvest evaluation and estimate of shelf-life of fresh guava using the Weibull model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos García Mogollón

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La guayaba (Psidium guajava L. es una fruta tropical susceptible de sufrir alteraciones indeseables que afectan su vida útil debido a condiciones inadecuadas de almacenamiento y acondicionamiento. En este trabajo se estimó la vida útil de guayaba en fresco utilizando el modelo probabilístico de Weibull y se valuó la calidad de los frutos durante almacenamiento en diferentes condiciones de temperatura y empaque. La evaluación poscosecha se hizo por 15 días con guayabas variedad regional roja. Se utilizó un dise&#ntilde;o completamente al azar con arreglo factorial consistente en tres factores: tiempo de almacenamiento con seis niveles (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 y 15 días, temperatura de almacenamiento con dos niveles: ambiente (37 °C y humedad relativa (HR entre 85 y 90% y refrigeración (9±2 °C y HR de 85 - 90%; dos tipo de empaques: bandeja de poliestireno con film plástico de PVC y 'foil' de aluminio. Durante la evaluación sensorial en el periodo de almacenamiento se usó una escala estructurada de tres puntos grado de satisfacción. El modelo de Weibull demostró ser adecuado para predecir la vida útil de la guayaba fresca basados en los criterios de ajustes, límites de confianza de aceptación y fallo. Durante el periodo de almacenamiento se observó que el factor tiempo, la temperatura y el tipo de empaque tienen un efecto estadístico significativo (P Guava is a tropical fruit susceptible to undesirable alterations that affect the shelf-life due to inadequate conditions of storage and packing. In this work the shelf-life of guava in fresh using the probabilistic model of Weibull was considered and the quality of the fruits was estimated during storage to different conditions of temperature and packing. The postharvest evaluation was made during 15 days with guavas variety `Red Regional´. The completely randomized design and factorial design with 3 factors: storage time with 6 levels (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 days, storage temperature with

  18. Factors that influence Christmas tree sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Pendleton; Lawrence D. Garrett

    1970-01-01

    An analysis of the metropolitan Christmas tree market in Winston-Salem, N. C., shows that to sell more trees, Christmas tree retailers should locate their lots on heavily traveled streets in business areas, have adequate parking facilities, advertise, and have attractive displays of trees. Retailers who follow these practices can expect to receive higher prices for...

  19. Critical wind speed at which trees break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, E.; Ponomarenko, A.; Dehandschoewercker, É.; Quéré, D.; Clanet, C.

    2016-02-01

    Data from storms suggest that the critical wind speed at which trees break is constant (≃42 m /s ), regardless of tree characteristics. We question the physical origin of this observation both experimentally and theoretically. By combining Hooke's law, Griffith's criterion, and tree allometry, we show that the critical wind speed indeed hardly depends on the height, diameter, and elastic properties of trees.

  20. Field guide to red tree vole nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon B. Lesmeister; James K. Swingle

    2017-01-01

    Surveys for red tree vole (Arborimus longicaudus) nests require tree climbing because the species is a highly specialized arboreal rodent that live in the tree canopy of coniferous forests in western Oregon and northwestern California. Tree voles are associated with old coniferous forest (≥80 years old) that are structurally complex, but are often...

  1. Mitered fractal trees: constructions and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, T.; Verhoeff, K.; Bosch, R.; McKenna, D.; Sarhangi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Tree-like structures, that is, branching structures without cycles, are attractive for artful expression. Especially interesting are fractal trees, where each subtree is a scaled and possibly otherwise transformed version of the entire tree. Such trees can be rendered in 3D by using beams with a

  2. Critical wind speed at which trees break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, E; Ponomarenko, A; Dehandschoewercker, É; Quéré, D; Clanet, C

    2016-02-01

    Data from storms suggest that the critical wind speed at which trees break is constant (≃42m/s), regardless of tree characteristics. We question the physical origin of this observation both experimentally and theoretically. By combining Hooke's law, Griffith's criterion, and tree allometry, we show that the critical wind speed indeed hardly depends on the height, diameter, and elastic properties of trees.

  3. Microwave sensing of tree trunks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, Jana; Mertens, Laurence; Lambot, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    The main subject of this research is the observation of the inner part of living tree trunks using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Trees are everyday part of human life and therefore it is important to pay attention to the tree conditions. The most obvious consequence of the poor tree condition is dead or injury caused by falling tree. The trunk internal structure is divided into three main parts: heartwood, sapwood and bark, which make this medium highly anisotropic and heterogeneous. Furthermore, the properties of the wood are not only specie-dependent but also depend on genetic and on environmental conditions. In urban areas the main problem for the stability of the trees relies in the apparition of decays provoked by fungi, insect or birds. This results in cavities or decreasing of the support capacity of the tree. GPR has proved itself to be a very powerful electromagnetic tool for non-destructive detection of buried objects. Since the beginning of the 20th century it has been used in several different areas (archaeology, landmine detection, civil engineering, ...). GPR uses the principle of the scattering of the electromagnetic waves that are radiated from a transmitting antenna. Then the waves propagate through the medium and are reflected from the object and then they are received by a receiving antenna. The velocity of the scattered signal is determined primarily by the permittivity of the material. The optimal functionality of the GPR was investigated using the numerical simulation tool gprMax2D. This tool is based on a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) numerical model. Subsequently, the GPR functionality was tested using the laboratory model of a decayed tree trunk. Afterwards, the results and lessons learnt in the simplified tests will be used in the processing of the real data and will help to achieve deeper understanding of them. The laboratory model of the tree trunk was made by plastic or carton pipes and filled by sand. Space inside the model

  4. Competição de genótipos de goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. na região do submédio São Francisco Evaluation of guava genotypes in the submiddle of San Francisco Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Neto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar e selecionar genótipos de goiabeira que possam incrementar o sistema de produção da cultura na região do Submédio São Francisco foi desenvolvido na Estação Experimental de Bebedouro, base física da Embrapa Semi-Árido, em Petrolina-PE, um experimento em blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos (Paluma, Red Fleshed, Surubim, Red Selection of Florida e Ruby Supreme e cinco repetições. Considerando os resultados obtidos relativos a primeira e segunda poda de frutificação e análise conjunta dos dois anos de produção, observou-se que a variedade Surubim apresentou tendência de maior produção e maior número de frutos, entre os genótipos estudados.The objective of this study was to discriminate and select guava genotypes to improve the crop production system in the Submiddle of San Francisco Valley. An experiment was carried out at the Bebedouro Experimental Sation that belongs to Embrapa Semiarid in Petrolina, State of Pernambuco, with five genotypes of guava: Paluma, Red Fleshed, Surubim, Red Selection of Florida and Ruby Supreme. A randomized block design was used as statistical model with five treataments, and five repetitions. The results, related to the first and the second fruit set prunings and two year of combined analyses for fruit yield, indicated that Surubim variety tended to higher yield and greater number of fruits among the five genotypes tested.

  5. Colourings of (k-r,k-trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Borowiecki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trees are generalized to a special kind of higher dimensional complexes known as \\((j,k\\-trees ([L. W. Beineke, R. E. Pippert, On the structure of \\((m,n\\-trees, Proc. 8th S-E Conf. Combinatorics, Graph Theory and Computing, 1977, 75-80], and which are a natural extension of \\(k\\-trees for \\(j=k-1\\. The aim of this paper is to study\\((k-r,k\\-trees ([H. P. Patil, Studies on \\(k\\-trees and some related topics, PhD Thesis, University of Warsaw, Poland, 1984], which are a generalization of \\(k\\-trees (or usual trees when \\(k=1\\. We obtain the chromatic polynomial of \\((k-r,k\\-trees and show that any two \\((k-r,k\\-trees of the same order are chromatically equivalent. However, if \\(r\

  6. A bicriterion Steiner tree problem on graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujošević Mirko B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a formulation of bicriterion Steiner tree problem which is stated as a task of finding a Steiner tree with maximal capacity and minimal length. It is considered as a lexicographic multicriteria problem. This means that the bottleneck Steiner tree problem is solved first. After that, the next optimization problem is stated as a classical minimums Steiner tree problem under the constraint on capacity of the tree. The paper also presents some computational experiments with the multicriteria problem.

  7. Tree Notation: an antifragile program notation

    OpenAIRE

    Yunits, Breck

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents Tree Notation, a new simple, universal syntax. Language designers can invent new programming languages, called Tree Languages, on top of Tree Notation. Tree Languages have a number of advantages over traditional programming languages. We include a Visual Abstract to succinctly display the problem and discovery. Then we describe the problem--the BNF to abstract syntax tree (AST) parse step--and introduce the novel solution we discovered: a new family of 2D programming langu...

  8. Short Tree, Long Tree, Right Tree, Wrong Tree: New Acquisition Bias Corrections for Inferring SNP Phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaché, Adam D; Banbury, Barbara L; Felsenstein, Joseph; de Oca, Adrián Nieto-Montes; Stamatakis, Alexandros

    2015-11-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are useful markers for phylogenetic studies owing in part to their ubiquity throughout the genome and ease of collection. Restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) methods are becoming increasingly popular for SNP data collection, but an assessment of the best practises for using these data in phylogenetics is lacking. We use computer simulations, and new double digest RADseq (ddRADseq) data for the lizard family Phrynosomatidae, to investigate the accuracy of RAD loci for phylogenetic inference. We compare the two primary ways RAD loci are used during phylogenetic analysis, including the analysis of full sequences (i.e., SNPs together with invariant sites), or the analysis of SNPs on their own after excluding invariant sites. We find that using full sequences rather than just SNPs is preferable from the perspectives of branch length and topological accuracy, but not of computational time. We introduce two new acquisition bias corrections for dealing with alignments composed exclusively of SNPs, a conditional likelihood method and a reconstituted DNA approach. The conditional likelihood method conditions on the presence of variable characters only (the number of invariant sites that are unsampled but known to exist is not considered), while the reconstituted DNA approach requires the user to specify the exact number of unsampled invariant sites prior to the analysis. Under simulation, branch length biases increase with the amount of missing data for both acquisition bias correction methods, but branch length accuracy is much improved in the reconstituted DNA approach compared to the conditional likelihood approach. Phylogenetic analyses of the empirical data using concatenation or a coalescent-based species tree approach provide strong support for many of the accepted relationships among phrynosomatid lizards, suggesting that RAD loci contain useful phylogenetic signal across a range of divergence times despite the

  9. Utilization of nitrogen fixing trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewbaker, J.L.; Beldt, R. van den; MacDicken, K.; Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O.; Escalante, G.; Herrera, R.; Aranguren, J.; Arkcoll, D.B.; Doebereinger, J. (cord.)

    1983-01-01

    Six papers from the symposium are noted. Brewbaker, J.L., Beldt, R. van den, MacDicken, K. Fuelwood uses and properties of nitrogen-fixing trees, pp 193-204, (Refs. 15). Includes a list of 35 nitrogen-fixing trees of high fuelwood value. Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O. Leguminous trees for shade, pp 205-222, (Refs. 68). Escalante, G., Herrera, R., Aranguren, J.; Nitrogen fixation in shade trees (Erythrina poeppigiana) in cocoa plantations in northern Venezuela, pp 223-230, (Refs. 13). Arkcoll, D.B.; Some leguminous trees providing useful fruits in the North of Brazil, pp 235-239, (Refs. 13). This paper deals with Parkia platycephala, Pentaclethra macroloba, Swartzia sp., Cassia leiandra, Hymenaea courbaril, dipteryz odorata, Inga edulis, I. macrophylla, and I. cinnamonea. Baggio, A.J.; Possibilities of the use of Gliricidia sepium in agroforestry systems in Brazil, pp 241-243; (Refs. 15). Seiffert, N.F.; Biological nitrogen and protein production of Leucaena cultivars grown to supplement the nutrition of ruminants, pp 245-249, (Refs. 14). Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru, L. campina grande (L. leucocephala), and L. cunningham (L. leucocephalae) were promising for use as browse by beef cattle in central Brazil.

  10. Isoprene emission from Indian trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, C. K.; Singh, Abhai Pratap

    2003-12-01

    Isoprene is the most dominant non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emitted by plants. NMVOCs play an important role in regulating the composition of atmospheric trace gases including global concentration of tropospheric ozone. Our present knowledge about NMVOCs emission is mainly from studies on temperate tree species. So far information on biogenic NMVOCs emission from tropical tree species is limited. In this study, isoprene emission rates from 40 tropical Indian tree species belonging to 33 genera and 17 families were measured for the first time using a dynamic flow through enclosure chamber technique. The isoprene emission rate from plants (30°C and PAR 1000 μmolm-2s-1) ranged from undetectable to 81.5 μg g-1 h-1 and values were found to be comparable with other studies on tropical tree species. Tree species screened for isoprene emission in the present study may be grouped into the four categories, proposed by [2001], namely, 18 species were negligible or BDL isoprene emitting (Morus alba Linn., which were earlier reported as BDL or non isoprene emitters in US [, 1998; , 2001] were found to be appreciably high isoprene emitters (0.61-21.60 μg g-1 h-1) in the present study.

  11. Automated Generation of Attack Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2014-01-01

    Attack trees are widely used to represent threat scenarios in a succinct and intuitive manner, suitable for conveying security information to non-experts. The manual construction of such objects relies on the creativity and experience of specialists, and therefore it is error-prone and impractica......Attack trees are widely used to represent threat scenarios in a succinct and intuitive manner, suitable for conveying security information to non-experts. The manual construction of such objects relies on the creativity and experience of specialists, and therefore it is error......-prone and impracticable for large systems. Nonetheless, the automated generation of attack trees has only been explored in connection to computer networks and levering rich models, whose analysis typically leads to an exponential blow-up of the state space. We propose a static analysis approach where attack trees...... are automatically inferred from a process algebraic specification in a syntax-directed fashion, encompassing a great many application domains and avoiding incurring systematically an exponential explosion. Moreover, we show how the standard propositional denotation of an attack tree can be used to phrase...

  12. Drawing Contour Trees in the Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, C; Schneider, D; Carr, Hamish; Scheuermann, G

    2011-11-01

    The contour tree compactly describes scalar field topology. From the viewpoint of graph drawing, it is a tree with attributes at vertices and optionally on edges. Standard tree drawing algorithms emphasize structural properties of the tree and neglect the attributes. Applying known techniques to convey this information proves hard and sometimes even impossible. We present several adaptions of popular graph drawing approaches to the problem of contour tree drawing and evaluate them. We identify five esthetic criteria for drawing contour trees and present a novel algorithm for drawing contour trees in the plane that satisfies four of these criteria. Our implementation is fast and effective for contour tree sizes usually used in interactive systems (around 100 branches) and also produces readable pictures for larger trees, as is shown for an 800 branch example.

  13. Totally optimal decision trees for Boolean functions

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2016-07-28

    We study decision trees which are totally optimal relative to different sets of complexity parameters for Boolean functions. A totally optimal tree is an optimal tree relative to each parameter from the set simultaneously. We consider the parameters characterizing both time (in the worst- and average-case) and space complexity of decision trees, i.e., depth, total path length (average depth), and number of nodes. We have created tools based on extensions of dynamic programming to study totally optimal trees. These tools are applicable to both exact and approximate decision trees, and allow us to make multi-stage optimization of decision trees relative to different parameters and to count the number of optimal trees. Based on the experimental results we have formulated the following hypotheses (and subsequently proved): for almost all Boolean functions there exist totally optimal decision trees (i) relative to the depth and number of nodes, and (ii) relative to the depth and average depth.

  14. Integrated fault tree development environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques are utilized in the nuclear industry to perform safety analyses of complex defense-in-depth systems. A major effort in PRA development is fault tree construction. The Integrated Fault Tree Environment (IFTREE) is an interactive, graphics-based tool for fault tree design. IFTREE provides integrated building, editing, and analysis features on a personal workstation. The design philosophy of IFTREE is presented, and the interface is described. IFTREE utilizes a unique rule-based solution algorithm founded in artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The impact of the AI approach on the program design is stressed. IFTREE has been developed to handle the design and maintenance of full-size living PRAs and is currently in use

  15. Interpreting the universal phylogenetic tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woese, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    The universal phylogenetic tree not only spans all extant life, but its root and earliest branchings represent stages in the evolutionary process before modern cell types had come into being. The evolution of the cell is an interplay between vertically derived and horizontally acquired variation. Primitive cellular entities were necessarily simpler and more modular in design than are modern cells. Consequently, horizontal gene transfer early on was pervasive, dominating the evolutionary dynamic. The root of the universal phylogenetic tree represents the first stage in cellular evolution when the evolving cell became sufficiently integrated and stable to the erosive effects of horizontal gene transfer that true organismal lineages could exist.

  16. Columnar apple tree named 'Moonlight'

    OpenAIRE

    Tupý, J. (Jaroslav); Louda, O. (Otto); Zima, J. (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    A new and distinct Malus domestica (Borkh.) apple tree variety is provided which exhibits a columnar tree type, weakly vigorous compact growth, predominant bearing on spurs and V.sub.f-resistance against scab. The new variety yields late maturing, medium-sized, globose-conical to conical fruits having good storage quality. The fruit color is yellow-green to yellow with a partial red to orange blush. The fruits have a yellow-colored firm flesh that is crisp and juicy with a good sweet/sour bal...

  17. Interpreting CNNs via Decision Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Quanshi; Yang, Yu; Wu, Ying Nian; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a method to learn a decision tree to quantitatively explain the logic of each prediction of a pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Our method boosts the following two aspects of network interpretability. 1) In the CNN, each filter in a high conv-layer must represent a specific object part, instead of describing mixed patterns without clear meanings. 2) People can explain each specific prediction made by the CNN at the semantic level using a decision tree, i.e....

  18. Usefulness of problem tree, objective tree and logical framework ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discussion has led to the conclusion that higher learning institutions are not adequately preparing graduates to face the increasing labor market demands in terms of skills and competitiveness. Having outlined the roots of the problem through the problem tree, the researchers proposed potential strategies to handle the ...

  19. DLRS: gene tree evolution in light of a species tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöstrand, Joel; Sennblad, Bengt; Arvestad, Lars; Lagergren, Jens

    2012-11-15

    PrIME-DLRS (or colloquially: 'Delirious') is a phylogenetic software tool to simultaneously infer and reconcile a gene tree given a species tree. It accounts for duplication and loss events, a relaxed molecular clock and is intended for the study of homologous gene families, for example in a comparative genomics setting involving multiple species. PrIME-DLRS uses a Bayesian MCMC framework, where the input is a known species tree with divergence times and a multiple sequence alignment, and the output is a posterior distribution over gene trees and model parameters. PrIME-DLRS is available for Java SE 6+ under the New BSD License, and JAR files and source code can be downloaded from http://code.google.com/p/jprime/. There is also a slightly older C++ version available as a binary package for Ubuntu, with download instructions at http://prime.sbc.su.se. The C++ source code is available upon request. joel.sjostrand@scilifelab.se or jens.lagergren@scilifelab.se. PrIME-DLRS is based on a sound probabilistic model (Åkerborg et al., 2009) and has been thoroughly validated on synthetic and biological datasets (Supplementary Material online).

  20. Water Transport in Trees--An Artificial Laboratory Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman, K.; Razpet, N.; Cepic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Water transport in tall trees is an everyday phenomenon, seldom noticed and not completely understood even by scientists. As a topic of current research in plant physiology it has several advantages for presentation within school physics lectures: it is interdisciplinary and clearly shows the connection between physics and biology; the…

  1. Integrating cyber attacks within fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nai Fovino, Igor; Masera, Marcelo; De Cian, Alessio

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for quantitative security risk assessment of complex systems is presented, combining fault-tree analysis, traditionally used in reliability analysis, with the recently introduced Attack-tree analysis, proposed for the study of malicious attack patterns. The combined use of fault trees and attack trees helps the analyst to effectively face the security challenges posed by the introduction of modern ICT technologies in the control systems of critical infrastructures. The proposed approach allows considering the interaction of malicious deliberate acts with random failures. Formal definitions of fault tree and attack tree are provided and a mathematical model for the calculation of system fault probabilities is presented.

  2. Edge-Disjoint Fibonacci Trees in Hypercube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indhumathi Raman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fibonacci tree is a rooted binary tree whose number of vertices admit a recursive definition similar to the Fibonacci numbers. In this paper, we prove that a hypercube of dimension h admits two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-2, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-4 and so on, as subgraphs. The result shows that an algorithm with Fibonacci trees as underlying data structure can be implemented concurrently on a hypercube network with no communication latency.

  3. On Tree-Based Phylogenetic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Louxin

    2016-07-01

    A large class of phylogenetic networks can be obtained from trees by the addition of horizontal edges between the tree edges. These networks are called tree-based networks. We present a simple necessary and sufficient condition for tree-based networks and prove that a universal tree-based network exists for any number of taxa that contains as its base every phylogenetic tree on the same set of taxa. This answers two problems posted by Francis and Steel recently. A byproduct is a computer program for generating random binary phylogenetic networks under the uniform distribution model.

  4. Human action analysis with randomized trees

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Gang; Liu, Zicheng

    2014-01-01

    This book will provide a comprehensive overview on human action analysis with randomized trees. It will cover both the supervised random trees and the unsupervised random trees. When there are sufficient amount of labeled data available, supervised random trees provides a fast method for space-time interest point matching. When labeled data is minimal as in the case of example-based action search, unsupervised random trees is used to leverage the unlabelled data. We describe how the randomized trees can be used for action classification, action detection, action search, and action prediction.

  5. Integrating cyber attacks within fault trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nai Fovino, Igor [Joint Research Centre - EC, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, Ispra, VA (Italy)], E-mail: igor.nai@jrc.it; Masera, Marcelo [Joint Research Centre - EC, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, Ispra, VA (Italy); De Cian, Alessio [Department of Electrical Engineering, University di Genova, Genoa (Italy)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper, a new method for quantitative security risk assessment of complex systems is presented, combining fault-tree analysis, traditionally used in reliability analysis, with the recently introduced Attack-tree analysis, proposed for the study of malicious attack patterns. The combined use of fault trees and attack trees helps the analyst to effectively face the security challenges posed by the introduction of modern ICT technologies in the control systems of critical infrastructures. The proposed approach allows considering the interaction of malicious deliberate acts with random failures. Formal definitions of fault tree and attack tree are provided and a mathematical model for the calculation of system fault probabilities is presented.

  6. Recursive algorithms for phylogenetic tree counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavryushkina, Alexandra; Welch, David; Drummond, Alexei J

    2013-10-28

    In Bayesian phylogenetic inference we are interested in distributions over a space of trees. The number of trees in a tree space is an important characteristic of the space and is useful for specifying prior distributions. When all samples come from the same time point and no prior information available on divergence times, the tree counting problem is easy. However, when fossil evidence is used in the inference to constrain the tree or data are sampled serially, new tree spaces arise and counting the number of trees is more difficult. We describe an algorithm that is polynomial in the number of sampled individuals for counting of resolutions of a constraint tree assuming that the number of constraints is fixed. We generalise this algorithm to counting resolutions of a fully ranked constraint tree. We describe a quadratic algorithm for counting the number of possible fully ranked trees on n sampled individuals. We introduce a new type of tree, called a fully ranked tree with sampled ancestors, and describe a cubic time algorithm for counting the number of such trees on n sampled individuals. These algorithms should be employed for Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo inference when fossil data are included or data are serially sampled.

  7. A Metric on Phylogenetic Tree Shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colijn, C; Plazzotta, G

    2018-01-01

    The shapes of evolutionary trees are influenced by the nature of the evolutionary process but comparisons of trees from different processes are hindered by the challenge of completely describing tree shape. We present a full characterization of the shapes of rooted branching trees in a form that lends itself to natural tree comparisons. We use this characterization to define a metric, in the sense of a true distance function, on tree shapes. The metric distinguishes trees from random models known to produce different tree shapes. It separates trees derived from tropical versus USA influenza A sequences, which reflect the differing epidemiology of tropical and seasonal flu. We describe several metrics based on the same core characterization, and illustrate how to extend the metric to incorporate trees' branch lengths or other features such as overall imbalance. Our approach allows us to construct addition and multiplication on trees, and to create a convex metric on tree shapes which formally allows computation of average tree shapes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  8. TreePOD: Sensitivity-Aware Selection of Pareto-Optimal Decision Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlbacher, Thomas; Linhardt, Lorenz; Moller, Torsten; Piringer, Harald

    2018-01-01

    Balancing accuracy gains with other objectives such as interpretability is a key challenge when building decision trees. However, this process is difficult to automate because it involves know-how about the domain as well as the purpose of the model. This paper presents TreePOD, a new approach for sensitivity-aware model selection along trade-offs. TreePOD is based on exploring a large set of candidate trees generated by sampling the parameters of tree construction algorithms. Based on this set, visualizations of quantitative and qualitative tree aspects provide a comprehensive overview of possible tree characteristics. Along trade-offs between two objectives, TreePOD provides efficient selection guidance by focusing on Pareto-optimal tree candidates. TreePOD also conveys the sensitivities of tree characteristics on variations of selected parameters by extending the tree generation process with a full-factorial sampling. We demonstrate how TreePOD supports a variety of tasks involved in decision tree selection and describe its integration in a holistic workflow for building and selecting decision trees. For evaluation, we illustrate a case study for predicting critical power grid states, and we report qualitative feedback from domain experts in the energy sector. This feedback suggests that TreePOD enables users with and without statistical background a confident and efficient identification of suitable decision trees.

  9. Identifying the rooted species tree from the distribution of unrooted gene trees under the coalescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Elizabeth S; Degnan, James H; Rhodes, John A

    2011-06-01

    Gene trees are evolutionary trees representing the ancestry of genes sampled from multiple populations. Species trees represent populations of individuals-each with many genes-splitting into new populations or species. The coalescent process, which models ancestry of gene copies within populations, is often used to model the probability distribution of gene trees given a fixed species tree. This multispecies coalescent model provides a framework for phylogeneticists to infer species trees from gene trees using maximum likelihood or Bayesian approaches. Because the coalescent models a branching process over time, all trees are typically assumed to be rooted in this setting. Often, however, gene trees inferred by traditional phylogenetic methods are unrooted. We investigate probabilities of unrooted gene trees under the multispecies coalescent model. We show that when there are four species with one gene sampled per species, the distribution of unrooted gene tree topologies identifies the unrooted species tree topology and some, but not all, information in the species tree edges (branch lengths). The location of the root on the species tree is not identifiable in this situation. However, for 5 or more species with one gene sampled per species, we show that the distribution of unrooted gene tree topologies identifies the rooted species tree topology and all its internal branch lengths. The length of any pendant branch leading to a leaf of the species tree is also identifiable for any species from which more than one gene is sampled.

  10. GumTree: Data reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, Hugh [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: hrz@ansto.gov.au; Hathaway, Paul [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Hauser, Nick [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Fei, Yang [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Franceschini, Ferdi [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Lam, Tony [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    2006-11-15

    Access to software tools for interactive data reduction, visualisation and analysis during a neutron scattering experiment enables instrument users to make informed decisions regarding the direction and success of their experiment. ANSTO aims to enhance the experiment experience of its facility's users by integrating these data reduction tools with the instrument control interface for immediate feedback. GumTree is a software framework and application designed to support an Integrated Scientific Experimental Environment, for concurrent access to instrument control, data acquisition, visualisation and analysis software. The Data Reduction and Analysis (DRA) module is a component of the GumTree framework that allows users to perform data reduction, correction and basic analysis within GumTree while an experiment is running. It is highly integrated with GumTree, able to pull experiment data and metadata directly from the instrument control and data acquisition components. The DRA itself uses components common to all instruments at the facility, providing a consistent interface. It features familiar ISAW-based 1D and 2D plotting, an OpenGL-based 3D plotter and peak fitting performed by fityk. This paper covers the benefits of integration, the flexibility of the DRA module, ease of use for the interface and audit trail generation.

  11. Tree value conversion standards revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul S. DeBald; Martin E. Dale; Martin E. Dale

    1991-01-01

    Updated tree value conversion standards (TVCS) are presented for 12 important hardwood species of the oak-hickory forest. These updated standards-developed for each species by butt-log grade, merchantable height, and diameter at breast height-reflect the changes in lumber prices and in conversion costs which have occurred since 1976 when the original TVCS were...

  12. Induction of Ordinal Decision Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor); V. Popova (Viara)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the problem of monotone decision trees from the point of view of the multicriteria decision aid methodology (MCDA). By taking into account the preferences of the decision maker, an attempt is made to bring closer similar research within machine learning and MCDA.

  13. Are there tides within trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisahn, Joachim

    2018-01-24

    Tree stem diameters and electrical stem potentials exhibit rhythmic variations with periodicities of 24-25 h. Under free-running conditions of constant light or darkness these rhythms were suggested to be mediated by the lunisolar gravitational force. To further unravel the regulation of tree stem diameter dilatations, many of the published time courses of diameter variations were re-evaluated in conjunction with the contemporaneous time courses of the lunisolar tidal acceleration. This was accomplished by application of the Etide program, which estimates, with high temporal resolution, local gravitational changes as a consequence of the diurnal variations of the lunisolar gravitational force due to the orbits and relative positions of Earth, Moon and Sun. In all instances investigated, it was evident that a synchronism exists between the times of the turning points of both the lunisolar tide and stem diameter variations when the direction of extension changes. This finding of synchrony documents that the lunisolar tide is a regulator of the tree stem diameter dilatations. Under the described experimental conditions, rhythms in tree stem diameter dilations and electrical stem potentials are controlled by the lunisolar gravitational acceleration. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Tree improvement and environmental forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren T. Doolittle

    1971-01-01

    I was invited to talk to you about some of the things tree improvement can do to help our forest environment. Now I do not claim to have a corner on the market for ideas that geneticists can use in our environment, and I know that a number of scholarly papers have been presented previously on this subject.

  15. Eucalyptus as a landscape tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Douglas Hamilton

    1983-01-01

    Ninety-two species of Eucalyptus were evaluated at the University of California re- search station in San Jose. The purpose: to find acceptable new street and park trees. Growth rates and horticultural characteristics were noted. Forty-three species were studied in locations statewide to evaluate site adaptation and landscape usefulness; flooded, cold, dry, saline....

  16. A Distributed Spanning Tree Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karl Erik; Jørgensen, Ulla Lundin; Nielsen, Sven Hauge

    We present a distributed algorithm for constructing a spanning tree for connected undirected graphs. Nodes correspond to processors and edges correspond to two-way channels. Each processor has initially a distinct identity and all processors perform the same algorithm. Computation as well...

  17. Trees of Our National Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Presented is a description of the creation of the National Forests system, how trees grow, managing the National Forests, types of management systems, and managing for multiple use, including wildlife, water, recreation and other uses. Included are: (1) photographs; (2) line drawings of typical leaves, cones, flowers, and seeds; and (3)…

  18. The Trees that surround us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M. E. G.; Rodrigues, M. A. S.

    2012-04-01

    In our school the activities linked with sciences are developed in a partnership with other school subjects. Interdisciplinary projects are always valued from beginning to end of a project. It is common for teachers of different areas to work together in a Science project. Research of English written articles is very important not only for the development of our students' scientific literacy but also as a way of widening knowledge and a view on different perspectives of life instead of being limited to research of any articles in Portuguese language. In this study we are going to collect data about the predominant tree species in the region, especially the invasive trees from the acacia species, the native tree species and the commercial species. We are going to study the reasons for the appearance of each species and draw a chart of soil occupation in the council. This chart will also allow the study of the distribution and use of land for each tree species. This research work is the first stage for a contribution to warn the town council of the dangers of the invasive species to the future economy of the council.

  19. Wellhead and tree standards updated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dach, A.J. Jr.; Haeberle, T.

    1996-01-01

    Revisions in the API 6A, 17th Edition, have resolved a number of long-term problems and expanded its scope and coverage of wellhead and christmas tree equipment. The 17th Edition, Feb. 1, 1996, represents the state-of-the-art in international requirements for wellhead and christmas tree equipment. The design, materials, and quality control aspects of API 6A have all been improved with an emphasis on making the document more acceptable around the world. However, there are unresolved issues that raise many questions about the future direction of efforts aimed at international standardization of wellhead and christmas tree equipment. Unfortunately, these unresolved issues confuse both manufacturers and companies purchasing this equipment. This ultimately increases wellhead and christmas tree costs, so it is to everyone's advantage to resolve these issues. This article describes the significant revisions that are included in API 6A, 17th Edition. Also discussed are the regulatory, standardization, and customer acceptance issues that cloud the future of API 6A, 17th Edition

  20. The Tree of Life Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbrath, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    Middle-school students are just beginning to recognize their place in the world. That is why this author believes it is important to incorporate their world into their art. In this article, the author discusses the "Tree of Life" project, which she developed for her students in order to make them aware of various environmental issues, and how to…