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Sample records for phytogeography

  1. Aspects of the phytogeography of African Pteridophyta

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    E. A. C. L. E. Schelpe

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available A diversity of distribution patterns exhibited by African pteridophytes on intercontinental and continental scales are presented. Occasional random dispersal among the Pteridophyta over long distances is accepted. The ecological importance of the gametophyte phase is inferred. Future progress in the elucidation of African fern phytogeography will require a broader alpha-taxonomic pan-African base and the plotting of many more distribution maps.

  2. Phytogeography of the tropical north-east African mountains

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    I. Friis

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The tropical north-east African mountains are tentatively divided into four phytochoria, the formal rank of which is not defined. The division is based on patterns of distribution and endemism in the region. The recognition of a distinct Afromontane phytochorion is now well established (Chapman & White, 1970; Werger, 1978; White, 1978. However, there is still very little information on the phytogeography of the individual mountains or mountain systems. This study hopes to fill a little of the gap by analysing distribution patterns and patterns of endemism in the flora of the tropical north-east African mountains. The north-east African mountain system is the largest in tropical Africa (see e.g. map in White, 1978. At the core of this system is the large Ethiopian massif, around which are located various mountains and mountain chains. These include the Red Sea Hills in the Sudan, the mountain chain in northern Somalia, the south-west Arabian mountains, and the Imatong mountains of south-east Sudan. The latter are often referred to the East African mountain system (White, 1978 but. as I will point out later, they also have a close connection with the south-west highlands of Ethiopia. The paper presents some results of my study of the mountain flora of tropical north-east Africa, particularly the forest species. Where no source is indicated, the data are from my own unpublished studies.

  3. Diversity and phytogeography of vascular epiphytes in a tropical-subtropical transition island, Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, R.; Wolf, J.H.D.

    2009-01-01

    We present the first checklist of vascular epiphytes in Taiwan, based on herbarium specimens, literature records, and field observations. Epiphyte phytogeography was analyzed using Takhtajan's modified division in floristic regions. We ascertain the presence of 336 species of vascular epiphytes (24

  4. Phytogeography of African Commelinaceae

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    R. B. Faden

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Africa (including Madagascar has nearly twice as many species of Commelinaceae as any other continent (approximately 270 species, or about 40% of the total in the family. Of the 17 genera which are native, seven (Anthericopsis, Coleotrype, Palisota, Polyspatha, Pseudoparis, Stanfieldiella and  Triceratella are endemic, the highest percentage generic endemism of any continent. Within Africa gcneric diversity is slightly higher in western than in eastern tropical floras. Species richness, however, is greatest in eastern Africa, mainly due to a high diversity of species of Commelina and Aneilema. Africa shares more genera with Asia (nine than with any other continent. Only one African genus, Buforrestia, is neither endemic nor shared with Asia. Its western African/northeastern South American distribution is unique in the family. Besides Buforrestia, only five other genera of Commelinaceae (out of a total of 50 in the family, occur in both the Old and New Worlds. These genera.  Aneilema, Commelina, Floscopa, Murdannia and  Pollia are all very widespread in the Old World, occurring in Australia and Asia in addition to Africa (both continental and Madagascar. Madagascar is relatively poor in species (31. but these include the endemic Madagascan genus Pseudoparis, the sole African species of Rhopalephora, and the largest number of species of the Afro-Malagasy endemic genus Coleotrype. The high rate of generic endemism of Commelinaceae in Africa probably indicates that Africa was one of the ancient centres of diversity for the family. The high species diversity is more likely due to relatively recent radiations by genera pre-adapted to survival in non-forest habitats. The occurrence of only a small number of genera on both sides of the Atlantic suggests that the Commelinaceae have been evolving independently in the eastern and western hemispheres for a long period.

  5. Phytogeography of Passerina (Thymelaeaceae

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    C. L. Bredenkamp

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Passerina L. comprises 20 species and four subspecies of microphyllous. wind-pollinated shrubs. Once considered cos­mopolitan, the genus as currently defined, is endemic to southern Africa. Endemism within the genus is highest in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR, where all members show morphological and anatomical adaptations to the winter rainfall and dry warm summers of the Mediterranean or semi-Mediterranean climate of the region. The Western Cape is the centre of diversity for Passerina, from where certain species extend to the west, north and east. The outlier populations of Passerina montana Thoday on the interior plateau of South Africa and Zimbabwe, as well as the Auas Moutains in Namibia, most probably origi­nated in the CFR and formed part of a previously wider northern temperate Afromontane grassland-dominated vegetation during the Quartemary, of which relicts remained in the high mountain areas. P. burchellii Thoday and P. paludosa Thoday have the most restricted distribution and are regarded as Vulnerable. All other species are either widespread or under no im­mediate threat.

  6. Phytogeography of Pelargonium

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    J. J. A. van der Walt

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of the approximately 2(H species of Pelargonium oeeurs in Africa. About SO per cent of the species are endemic to the winter rainfall region of the Cape Province, and the centre of distribution lies in the south-western Cape. The distribution of the individual sections are discussed with the aid of distribution maps. The centre of distribution of most sections is in the south-western Cape, hut a few sections are centred in the eastern and western Cape. Several sections are represented by a few species in the summer rainfall region of southern Africa. As no fossils of Pelargonium are known, deductions about the origin of the genus can only be based on the present distribution of species, according to which arguments in favour of both a northern and a southern origin can he supported.

  7. Phytogeography of Pelargonium

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    J. J. A. van der Walt

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of the approximately 2(H species of Pelargonium oeeurs in Africa. About SO per cent of the species are endemic to the winter rainfall region of the Cape Province, and the centre of distribution lies in the south-western Cape. The distribution of the individual sections are discussed with the aid of distribution maps. The centre of distribution of most sections is in the south-western Cape, hut a few sections are centred in the eastern and western Cape. Several sections are represented by a few species in the summer rainfall region of southern Africa. As no fossils of Pelargonium are known, deductions about the origin of the genus can only be based on the present distribution of species, according to which arguments in favour of both a northern and a southern origin can he supported.

  8. The Phytogeography of New Guinea Solanum (Solanaceae)

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    Symon, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Solanaceae, of which Solanum is the type species, comprise a southern hemisphere family. A general biogeographical introduction is given, with an account of plate tectonics and a discussion of Wallace’s Line and the geographic history of New Guinea. The widely accepted sections of Solanum are di

  9. On the phytogeography of Coniferales in the European Cenozoic

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    Ferguson, David K.

    1967-01-01

    It has been shown that there were more coniferous genera to be found in Europe during the Tertiary than there are at the present-day. Some of the genera now occur only in America and the Far East. Many such genera were present in the Neogene of Europe and one of these, Tsuga, remained in Europe into

  10. On the phytogeography of coniferales in the European cenozoic

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    Ferguson, David K.

    1967-01-01

    It has been shown that there were more coniferous genera to be found in Europe during the Tertiary than there are at the present-day. Some of the genera now occur only in America and the Far East. Many such genera were present in the Neogene of Europe and one of these, Tsuga, remained in Europe into

  11. Graminees du Cameroun. Vol. 1, Phytogeographie et paturages. Vol. 2, Flore.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zon, van der A.P.M.

    1992-01-01

    The grasses are one of the most important plant families of Cameroon. The dry savanas of the North and the mountainous areas of central and western Cameroon are extensive grass areas which are of utmost importance for cattle and fauna in general.Several of the importantant traditional agricultural c

  12. The phytogeography of Mount Kulal, Kenya, with special reference to Compositae, Leguminosae and Gramineae

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    F. N. Hepper

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Mt Kulal, in the lowlying desert of NE Kenya, reaches an altitude of 2 295 m. A synopsis of the vegetation types occurring there is provided, with totals of the species recorded in each type. The three families are analysed phytogeographically and observations are made about their chorology. A conclusion is reached that Mt Kulal is a stepping stone for the distribution of montane plants between highland East Africa and Ethiopia and not an outlier of either bloc.

  13. A contribution to the phytogeography of the Angmagssalik area, East Greenland, with special reference to Chionophily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, de J.G.

    1968-01-01

    As delimited by Polunin (1951), the Arctic is situated on the Northern hemisphere North of (1) a line 50 miles North of the coniferous forest line, (2) the Northern limit of microphanerophytic growth, or (3) the Nordenskjöld line, according to the formula V = 9-0,1K. According to this delimination t

  14. PHYTOGEOGRAPHY OF QUERCUS SUBER L. IN LAZIO (CENTRAL ITALY: A CAUSALISTIC APPROACH

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    B. SCHIRONE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive statistical approach to the causalistic distribution of Quercus suber in Lazio (Central Italy, based on presence/absence data and mean values of an array of environmental variables standardized on a geographical 6,9 x 5,5 Km grid, shows that only temperature, precipitation, elevation and slope are significant. At this scale, soil conditions and aspect are apparently no limiting factors to the colonization ability of the species. A simulated potential range, based on this parameterization, identifies a larger area than the one occupied by the species today. It suggests that competition and human disturbance might account for the large gaps and discontinuities in the real range. Since inland disjunct outposts still lie either outside or at the boundary of this simulated range, their establishment is likely to have originated under macroclimatic conditions different from the present day ones.

  15. PHYTOGEOGRAPHY OF QUERCUS SUBER L. IN LAZIO (CENTRAL ITALY: A CAUSALISTIC APPROACH

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    F. SPADA

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive statistical approach to the causalistic distribution of Quercus suber in Lazio (Central Italy, based on presence/absence data and mean values of an array of environmental variables standardized on a geographical 6,9 x 5,5 Km grid, shows that only temperature, precipitation, elevation and slope are significant. At this scale, soil conditions and aspect are apparently no limiting factors to the colonization ability of the species. A simulated potential range, based on this parameterization, identifies a larger area than the one occupied by the species today. It suggests that competition and human disturbance might account for the large gaps and discontinuities in the real range. Since inland disjunct outposts still lie either outside or at the boundary of this simulated range, their establishment is likely to have originated under macroclimatic conditions different from the present day ones.

  16. The phytogeography and ecotourism potential of the eastern province of lower part of the "Köprü river" basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Bastürk; Akis, Ayhan

    2012-04-01

    Köprü River Basin is located in the western Taurus mountains in south-western Turkey. The area is in the Mediterranean phytogeographical region. The climate in the area is typically Mediterranean: mild and rainy in winter, hot and dry in summer. Xerophytic plants can easily grow in this climate. Pinus brutia forests are common in the study area. Maquis and garique elements with sclerophyll character also occur in the region. The study aims to determine the distribution of the vegetation in the eastern province of lower part of the "Köprü River" Basin. The factors which affect the distribution of vegetation are climate, landforms and soils. In order to determine the plant growth and climate relationship, the climatic data were analyzed. As well as the geological and geomorphological conditions, the soils were investigated and the effects of these factors on vegetation cover were analyzed. The region also has various attributes for the development of ecotourism, including canyons, forests and historical places. The region has a great potential for many different social, cultural, and scientific activities related to ecotourism. These are highland tourism, rafting, botanic tourism, trekking, and climbing. In order to make ecotourism available for local people to benefit, ecotourism should be developed and introduced to the world. Moreover, plans for the sustainability of the resources should be made. The study highlights the ecotourism potential of the area which is of social, economic, and ecological importance for the region.

  17. Phytogeography of Quercus subg.Cyclobalanopsis%青冈亚属植物的地理分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳; 周浙昆

    2001-01-01

    Quercus subg. Cyclobalanopsis(Oerst.) Schneid. is an importantconstituent of broad leaved evergreen forests in subtropical and tropical regions of Asia. It contains 122 species distrbuted primarily within the Tropical Asia (Indo-Malaysia) phytogeographic province. A number of species were analyzed to develop a biogeographical and phytogenetic context for the diversity within subg. Cyclobalanopsis. Southern China and the north northern part of the Indo-Chine Peninsula show the highest species diversity and may be considered the two centers of diversity. A number of species in Malaysia were observed to have some plesiomorphic characters, and this region may be considered the center of origin and a key area of endemism. On the island of Borneo, the area of Kalimantan is richest in endemic species and the fossil species record resemble this fact. In contrast, the endemic species from Hainan and Taiwan are more derived. The endemic species of Yunnan represent a mixture of neoendemics and paleoendemics. The formation of patterns of endemism in Cyclobalanopsis is due primarily to geographical isolation and the complex history of climatic and geological changes. Also we have discussed vicariance of Cyclobalanopsis: Q.glauca & Q.schottkyana, Q.gilva & Q.delavayi, Q.sessifolia & Q.augustinii are vicariance species between Sino-Japan and Sino-Himalaya.%对壳斗科青冈亚属(Quercussubg.Cyclobalanopsis)植物分布区内各地区的分布作了分析和统计。通过分析,认为中国南部、西南部和中南半岛北部,即印度支那植物地区,是青冈亚属植物地理分布的分布区中心。基于其形态、现代分布和地史资料,马来西亚地区分布有许多性状较原始的类群,是青冈亚属原始类群的保存中心。青冈亚属植物中有许多地区性特有种,它们的分布区很狭窄,集中分布在加里曼丹、台湾、海南和云南东南部,其产生的原因主要是地理隔离,如海峡、高山等,以及气候和地史的复杂性。青冈亚属植物还存在许多替代现象,如青冈(Q.glauca)和滇青冈(Q.schottkyana)、赤皮青冈(Q.gilva)和黄毛青冈(Q.delavayi)、云山青冈(Q.sessifolia)和窄叶青冈(Q.augustinii)为中国-日本分布式和中国-喜马拉雅分布式之间的替代。

  18. Phytogeography of the copper and cobalt flora of Upper Shaba (Zaire, with emphasis on its endemism, origin and evolution mechanisms

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    F. P. Malaisse

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Copper and cobalt ore deposits occur on at least a hundred outcrops scattered in the Shaban Copperbow, an area of 2 000 square kilometres, in the metallogenic Province of Southern Central Africa. With more than 200 species, this flora includes a large number (42 of endemic species of various degrees. Some species are known from only one site, many are located on neighbouring outcrops, others occur on all the ore deposits. Present migratory pathways have been traced for some species and are reported. The relative importance of palaeoendemism and neoendemism is discussed. The origin of these endemics, as well as that of other plants is to be found in several adjacent floras such as that of steppe-savannas developed on more or less poorly aerated soils (Kalahari sands or dambos overlaying laterite, dwarf vegetation on siliceous cellular rocks and miombo woodlands on poor hydromorphic soils. Examples are given for each vegetation type. Systematic details, leaf anatomy and phytogeochemistry data support these hypotheses, which are illustrated for several closely related taxa.

  19. Experimental hybridization and chromosome pairing in Kosteletzkya (Malvaceae, Malvoideae, Hibisceae, and possible implications for phylogeny and phytogeography in the genus

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    Orland Blanchard, Jr.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Kosteletzkya C. Presl, 1835 (Malvaceae, Malvoideae, Hibisceae includes 17 species, all but two of which are about evenly distributed between Africa and the northern Neotropics. Fifteen of the species were brought into cultivation and used in a hybridization program in an attempt to shed light on evolutionary and phytogeographic relationships in the genus. Chromosome pairing (x = 19 at meiosis was examined in 51 of the 56 interspecific hybrids that were produced, and the seven New World species, all diploids, were found to exhibit nearly complete pairing among themselves, indicating that they share a genome. By contrast the three African diploids showed low levels of chromosome pairing in crosses among themselves, leading to the recognition here of three distinct genomes, newly designated A, B and G. The African B-genome diploid, K. buettneri Gürke, 1889, was found to share its genome with the New World species. Four other African species are known to be tetraploids and a fifth, a hexaploid. The results of chromosome pairing in hybrids among all of the African species at all ploidy levels, plus the discovery of a spontaneously tetraploidized experimental intergenomic African diploid hybrid, suggest that three of the four tetraploids and the single hexaploid might all be allopolyploids built on the three known extant genomes. The fourth tetraploid paired poorly or moderately with these three genomes. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that Kosteletzkya arose in Africa, radiated at the diploid level, underwent natural interspecific hybridization, produced two tiers of allopolyploids, and at some more recent time dispersed a B-genome diploid to the New World where it underwent another radiation at the diploid level. Structural features of the fruits suggest adaptations for passive distribution by animals, potentially over long distances.

  20. Phytogeography of the vascular páramo flora of Ramal de Guaramacal (Andes, Venezuela) and its ties to other páramo floras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuello, N.L.; Cleef, A.M.; Aymard, G.

    2010-01-01

    Ramal de Guaramacal is an outlier and lower elevation mountain range located at the northeastern end of the Venezuelan Andes. Phytogeographical patterns and affinities of the low altitude and wet vascular páramo flora of Ramal de Guaramacal, have been studied with emphasis in to the analysis of the

  1. First fossil record of Alphonsea Hk. f. & T. (Annonaceae) from the Late Oligocene sediments of Assam, India and comments on its phytogeography.

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    Srivastava, Gaurav; Mehrotra, Rakesh C

    2013-01-01

    A new fossil leaf impression of Alphonsea Hk. f. & T. of the family Annonaceae is described from the Late Oligocene sediments of Makum Coalfield, Assam, India. This is the first authentic record of the fossil of Alphonsea from the Tertiary rocks of South Asia. The Late Oligocene was the time of the last significant globally warm climate and the fossil locality was at 10°-15°N palaeolatitude. The known palaeoflora and sedimentological studies indicate a fluvio-marine deltaic environment with a mosaic of mangrove, fluvial, mire and lacustrine depositional environments. During the depositional period the suturing between the Indian and Eurasian plates was not complete to facilitate the plant migration. The suturing was over by the end of the Late Oligocene/beginning of Early Miocene resulting in the migration of the genus to Southeast Asia where it is growing profusely at present. The present study is in congruence with the earlier published palaeofloral and molecular phylogenetic data. The study also suggests that the Indian plate was not only a biotic ferry during its northward voyage from Gondwana to Asia but also a place for the origin of several plant taxa.

  2. First fossil record of Alphonsea Hk. f. & T. (Annonaceae from the Late Oligocene sediments of Assam, India and comments on its phytogeography.

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    Gaurav Srivastava

    Full Text Available A new fossil leaf impression of Alphonsea Hk. f. & T. of the family Annonaceae is described from the Late Oligocene sediments of Makum Coalfield, Assam, India. This is the first authentic record of the fossil of Alphonsea from the Tertiary rocks of South Asia. The Late Oligocene was the time of the last significant globally warm climate and the fossil locality was at 10°-15°N palaeolatitude. The known palaeoflora and sedimentological studies indicate a fluvio-marine deltaic environment with a mosaic of mangrove, fluvial, mire and lacustrine depositional environments. During the depositional period the suturing between the Indian and Eurasian plates was not complete to facilitate the plant migration. The suturing was over by the end of the Late Oligocene/beginning of Early Miocene resulting in the migration of the genus to Southeast Asia where it is growing profusely at present. The present study is in congruence with the earlier published palaeofloral and molecular phylogenetic data. The study also suggests that the Indian plate was not only a biotic ferry during its northward voyage from Gondwana to Asia but also a place for the origin of several plant taxa.

  3. Study on the Phytogeography of Yibicuo Swamp-wetland in Sichuan: Spermatophyte Floristic Geography%四川亿比措湿地植物地理研究-种子植物区系地理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炎周; 袁万军

    2008-01-01

    文章对亿比措湿地种子植物区系,分别在科和属的水平上进行了分析.结果表明,该区系的基本特点是温带性质,以北温带分布型为主,与周围地区有密切联系,并有温带植物区系向热带植物区系过渡的倾向.

  4. 云南西双版纳橡胶林群落种子植物区系研究%On Floristic Phytogeography of Seed Plants in Rubber Forests in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岩香甩; 田耀华; 陈国云; 周会平

    2016-01-01

    Rubber plantation is one of the most important artificial communities in Yunnan ,especially in Xishuangbanna .The flora of seed plants of undergrowth vegetation in rubber forests has been surveyed , and the areal types and floristic characteristics analyzed . T he results show that there are 443 species of wild seed plants ,belonging to 306 genera of 88 families .In the floristic composition of seed plants ,the families of tropical distribution make up 60 .23% .Statistics of the genus areal‐types show s that the genera of tropical distribution make up 83 .99% .The species of tropical distribution make up 83 .30% ,and the species of tropical Asia distribution occupy 51 .92% .This flora is the closest affinity to the tropical flora , and it is a part of the flora of Tropical Asia .There are 27 families and 21 genera belong to cosmopolitan , occupy 30 .68% and 6 .86% ,w hich indicating the transitional characteristic .In under the condition of seri‐ous disturbance ,but there are 42 species are endemic to China ,and 17 species and 4 species are endemic to Yunnan and local region .%橡胶林是西双版纳最主要的人工群落之一.该文对云南西双版纳橡胶林群落开展植物多样性调查,整理该群落种子植物名录,并对其分布区类型和区系特征等进行研究与分析.结果表明:该群落共有种子植物88科306属443种,热带分布科占总科数的60.23%,热带分布属占总属数的83.99%,热带分布种占总种数的83.30%,其中51.92%为热带亚洲分布的种类;从分布区类型反映了西双版纳橡胶林群落植物区系与热带植物区系保持着紧密的联系,并且是热带亚洲植物区系的一部分;世界广布科27科,占总科数的30.68%,世界广布属21属,占总属数的6.86%,表现出了一定的过渡性特点;在遭受严重人为干扰的情况下,橡胶林群落尚保存着中国特有种42种,其中云南特有种17种,狭域特有种4种.

  5. Vegetation patterns and environmental gradients in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adomou, A.

    2005-01-01

    Key words: West Africa, Benin, vegetation patterns, floristic areas, phytogeography, chorology, floristic gradients, climatic factors, water availability, Dahomey Gap, threatened plants, biodiversity, conservation.Understanding plant species distribution patterns and the underlying factors is a cruc

  6. Florística e fitogeografia da vegetação arbustiva subcaducifólia da Chapada de São José, Buíque, PE, Brasil Floristics and phytogeography of semideciduous vegetation on the São José plateau, Buíque, Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Ana Paula de Souza Gomes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento da flora angiospérmica de um trecho de vegetação arbustiva subcaducifólia na Chapada de São José, Buíque, Pernambuco, com a finalidade de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a flora daquela chapada, bem como compreender suas relações florísticas com outros conjuntos vegetacionais do Nordeste, especialmente no semi-árido. A flora angiospérmica foi composta por 192 táxons, distribuídos em 130 gêneros e 60 famílias. Euphorbiaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Myrtaceae, Mimosaceae, Fabaceae e Cactaceae foram as mais representativas em número de espécies. A análise de agrupamento revelou que o tipo de substrato exerce uma forte influência na repartição espacial das espécies dentro do semi-árido e confirmou a existência de um conjunto de espécies indicadoras das áreas sedimentares, formado por Caesalpinia microphylla Mart. (Caesalpiniaceae, Bocoa mollis (Benth. R.S. Cowan (Fabaceae, Byrsonima gardneriana A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae e Zanthoxylum stelligerum Turic. (Rutaceae. A flora da área de estudo é relacionada com a da caatinga do cristalino, caatinga de áreas sedimentares e carrasco. Todavia, o alto número de espécies de Myrtaceae, raras na caatinga, o carácter subcaducifólio da vegetação e a presença de Cactaceae e Bromeliaceae, típicas da caatinga, sugerem que a área de estudo representa o final de um gradiente que se inicia em áreas sedimentares situadas em menores altitudes.A floristic survey was carried out in a semideciduous vegetation on São José plateau with the objective of amplifying the knowledge of its angiospermic flora and establishing its relationship with other vegetations types in the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil. The flora was composed by 192 taxa belonging to 130 genera and 60 families. Euphorbiaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Myrtaceae, Mimosaceae Fabaceae and Cactaceae were the families with the highest numbers of species. A cluster analysis indicated influence of the soil type in the distribution of species in the semi-arid region and separated a group of indicator species associated to sandy soils, composed of Caesalpinia microphylla Mart. (Caesalpiniaceae, Bocoa mollis (Benth. R.S. Cowan (Fabaceae, Byrsonima gardneriana A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae and Zanthoxylum stelligerum Turic. (Rutaceae. The flora of the area was related to that of the thorn (caatinga and non thorn deciduous vegetation (carrasco growing in areas with sandy soils. However, the high number of Myrtaceae species, unusual in caatinga, and the semideciduous character of the vegetation and presence of Cactaceae and Bromeliaceae suggest that the study area probably represents the end of a gradient that begins in sedimentary areas placed at smaller altitudes.

  7. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    2002-01-01

    Acacia is, with almost 1000 species, the largest genus of vascular plants in Australia. The present double volume is the outcome of many years of work resulting in this impressive book on the Australian Wattles. In the introduction brief discussions on Classification and Phylogeny, Phytogeography, F

  8. Book reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    2003-01-01

    The mycoflora of Nepal, a remote and not easily accessible country, has been poorly known so far. This book offers a welcome compilation of current knowledge, brought together by the author, and supplemented with his extensive own research. Introductory chapters deal with the phytogeography and

  9. The mountain vegetation of South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos-Tubée, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    THE MOUNTAIN VEGETATION OF SOUTH PERU: SYNTAXONOMY, ECOLOGY, PHYTOGEOGRAPHY AND CONSERVATION This thesis presents an overview and revision of plant communities from xerophytic and mountain landscapes in the dry Andes of South Peru. The revision is based on comparison of the collecte

  10. NOTES ON THE SYSTEMATY OF SOLOMON ISLANDS' PLANTS AND SOME OF THEIR NEW GUINEA RELATIVES. XI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Stone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary to a revision of the Myrsinaceae of the British Solomon Islands, we have found it necessary to name and validate the two large undescribed species of Tapeinosperma Hook.f., diagnoses of which are given in this paper, in order that their names may be available for use in connection with studies of the phytogeography of the Solomon Islands.

  11. The mountain vegetation of South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos-Tubée, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    THE MOUNTAIN VEGETATION OF SOUTH PERU: SYNTAXONOMY, ECOLOGY, PHYTOGEOGRAPHY AND CONSERVATION This thesis presents an overview and revision of plant communities from xerophytic and mountain landscapes in the dry Andes of South Peru. The revision is based on comparison of the

  12. A New Basal Sauropod Dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Niger and the Early Evolution of Sauropoda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Kristian; Ortega, Francisco; Fierro, Ignacio; Joger, Ulrich; Kosma, Ralf; Marín Ferrer, José Manuel; Ide, Oumarou Amadou; Maga, Abdoulaye

    2009-01-01

    Background The early evolution of sauropod dinosaurs is poorly understood because of a highly incomplete fossil record. New discoveries of Early and Middle Jurassic sauropods have a great potential to lead to a better understanding of early sauropod evolution and to reevaluate the patterns of sauropod diversification. Principal Findings A new sauropod from the Middle Jurassic of Niger, Spinophorosaurus nigerensis n. gen. et sp., is the most complete basal sauropod currently known. The taxon shares many anatomical characters with Middle Jurassic East Asian sauropods, while it is strongly dissimilar to Lower and Middle Jurassic South American and Indian forms. A possible explanation for this pattern is a separation of Laurasian and South Gondwanan Middle Jurassic sauropod faunas by geographic barriers. Integration of phylogenetic analyses and paleogeographic data reveals congruence between early sauropod evolution and hypotheses about Jurassic paleoclimate and phytogeography. Conclusions Spinophorosaurus demonstrates that many putatively derived characters of Middle Jurassic East Asian sauropods are plesiomorphic for eusauropods, while South Gondwanan eusauropods may represent a specialized line. The anatomy of Spinophorosaurus indicates that key innovations in Jurassic sauropod evolution might have taken place in North Africa, an area close to the equator with summer-wet climate at that time. Jurassic climatic zones and phytogeography possibly controlled early sauropod diversification. PMID:19756139

  13. A new basal sauropod dinosaur from the middle Jurassic of Niger and the early evolution of sauropoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Remes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The early evolution of sauropod dinosaurs is poorly understood because of a highly incomplete fossil record. New discoveries of Early and Middle Jurassic sauropods have a great potential to lead to a better understanding of early sauropod evolution and to reevaluate the patterns of sauropod diversification. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new sauropod from the Middle Jurassic of Niger, Spinophorosaurus nigerensis n. gen. et sp., is the most complete basal sauropod currently known. The taxon shares many anatomical characters with Middle Jurassic East Asian sauropods, while it is strongly dissimilar to Lower and Middle Jurassic South American and Indian forms. A possible explanation for this pattern is a separation of Laurasian and South Gondwanan Middle Jurassic sauropod faunas by geographic barriers. Integration of phylogenetic analyses and paleogeographic data reveals congruence between early sauropod evolution and hypotheses about Jurassic paleoclimate and phytogeography. CONCLUSIONS: Spinophorosaurus demonstrates that many putatively derived characters of Middle Jurassic East Asian sauropods are plesiomorphic for eusauropods, while South Gondwanan eusauropods may represent a specialized line. The anatomy of Spinophorosaurus indicates that key innovations in Jurassic sauropod evolution might have taken place in North Africa, an area close to the equator with summer-wet climate at that time. Jurassic climatic zones and phytogeography possibly controlled early sauropod diversification.

  14. E. A. C. L. E. (Ted Scheipe (1924-1985 — a biography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Prof. E.A.C.L.E. Scheipe was born in Durban on 27 July 1924 and died in Cape Town on  12 October 1985. He studied at the University of Natal and at Oxford, England. He was awarded an M.Sc. (S. Afr. for a thesis on the ecology of the Natal Drakensberg and a D. Phil. (Oxon. for a thesis on the ecology of bryophytes. For a brief period he was Curator of the Fielding Herbarium, Oxford. In  1953 he was appointed Lecturer in Botany at the University of Cape Town, until in  1973 he was awarded a full professorship (ad hominem and the title of Director of the Bolus Herbarium. Here he established a school of taxonomy and promoted  22  theses. His main fields of research were the taxonomy and phytogeography of Pteridophyta (especially African groups and of Orchidaceae.He has  112 publications to his credit and collected over 7 000 numbers in various regions of Africa, in Europe and the Himalayas. He was a keen gardener and was active in several societies promoting horticulture, orchidology and nature conservation. He was a member of several scientific committees and was repeatedly honoured for his work.Three children were born from his marriage to Sybella Gray, also a botanist.

  15. Disjunct distribution of vascular plants between southwestern area and Taiwan area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Ye

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Disjunct distributional patterns and the formative mechanisms resulting in distinct flora has been an important focus in the field of phytogeography. In this study, we compared vascular plant checklists of the Chinese mainland and Taiwan, and analyzed the formation mechanisms of the discontinuous taxa between southwestern area and Taiwan area in China. We documented 198 total species (including infraspecies in 129 genera and 56 families disjunctly distributed in southwestern area and Taiwan area in China, among which 22 genera in 15 families have species-pairs with a disjunct distribution between the two regions, including six genera of ferns, one of gymnosperm, seven dicotyledons, and eight monocotyledons. The disjunct taxa are mainly herbaceous, most of which are ferns and orchids. These disjunct taxa are mainly distributed in the center-northeastern Taiwan area, and three regions of the mainland China, including eastern Sichuan–western Hubei, western Sichuan–northwestern Yunnan–southeastern Xizang, and southeastern Yunnan–western Guangxi–southwestern Guizhou. These taxa are generally distributed along an altitudinal gradient ranging from 1,550 m to 2,350 m. We believe that these disjunct patterns may have been derived from three possible origins including a northern temperate origin, southwestern China origin, and/or tropical Asia origin.

  16. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE DISTRIBUTION OF FICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. H. CORNER

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ficus displays many problems fundamental to the distribution of tro-pical plants. As a natural g-enus, one of the most derived of its family, it shows that these problems refer not to the origin of the genus or of its major groups, but to the subsequent course of sectional evolution. Detailed morphological revision must, therefore, precede phytogeography. The facts, here epitomised, are based on monographic revision of the species of Asia and Australasia, and have not been called from other writings. Seed-dispersal in Ficus must be accompanied by dispersal of the pollinating wasp. It seems true, as Beccari pointed out, that the large banyans have an advantage in this respect over small trees impeded by the dense forest.Two subgenera, Pharmaeosycea and Urostigma, suggest a southern migration, but the third subgenus Ficus suggests a northern origin and dispersal. Pharmaeosycea, hitherto regarded as American, has 46 species in Asia and Australasia, and it comprises most of the fig-flora of New Caledonia (26 species in all, 20 endemic species of Pharmaeosycea. Ficus prolixa (Polynesia seems related to sect. Americana of Urostigma. The F. elastica group (Queensland, Papua, Solomon Islands seems related to the African sect. Bibracteata of Urostigma. The F, benghalensis group parallels the distribution of the Dipterocarpaceae, but does not occur inAfrica.

  17. E. A. C. L. E. (Ted Scheipe (1924-1985 — a biography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Prof. E.A.C.L.E. Scheipe was born in Durban on 27 July 1924 and died in Cape Town on  12 October 1985. He studied at the University of Natal and at Oxford, England. He was awarded an M.Sc. (S. Afr. for a thesis on the ecology of the Natal Drakensberg and a D. Phil. (Oxon. for a thesis on the ecology of bryophytes. For a brief period he was Curator of the Fielding Herbarium, Oxford. In  1953 he was appointed Lecturer in Botany at the University of Cape Town, until in  1973 he was awarded a full professorship (ad hominem and the title of Director of the Bolus Herbarium. Here he established a school of taxonomy and promoted  22  theses. His main fields of research were the taxonomy and phytogeography of Pteridophyta (especially African groups and of Orchidaceae.He has  112 publications to his credit and collected over 7 000 numbers in various regions of Africa, in Europe and the Himalayas. He was a keen gardener and was active in several societies promoting horticulture, orchidology and nature conservation. He was a member of several scientific committees and was repeatedly honoured for his work.Three children were born from his marriage to Sybella Gray, also a botanist.

  18. Cytogeography of Callisia section Cuthbertia (Commelinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan E. Molgo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the distribution of cytotypes across the geographic distribution of polyploid complexes can provide valuable information about the evolution of biodiversity. Here, the phytogeography of cytotypes in section Cuthbertia (Small, 1903 Hunt, 1986 is investigated. A total of 436 voucher specimens was georeferenced; 133 new specimens were collected. Based on flow cytometry data, DNA content of all cytotypes in section Cuthbertia was estimated. Utilizing chromosome counts and flow cytometric analysis, cytotype distribution maps were generated. Two disjunct groups of populations of diploid Callisia graminea (Small, 1903 Tucker, 1989 were discovered; tetraploid C. graminea ranges broadly from the coastal plain of North Carolina through central Florida. One hexaploid C. graminea individual was recorded in South Carolina, and numerous individuals of hexaploid C. graminea were found in central Florida. Diploid C. ornata (Small, 1933 Tucker, 1989 occurs in eastern Florida; previously unknown tetraploid and hexaploid populations of C. ornata were discovered in western and central Florida, respectively. Diploid C. rosea (Ventenat, 1800 Hunt, 1986 occurs in Georgia and the Carolinas, with populations occurring on both sides of the Fall Line. The cytotype and species distributions in Callisia are complex, and these results provide hypotheses, to be tested with morphological and molecular data, about the origins of the polyploid cytotypes.

  19. Epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain of southern Brazil: latitudinal effects on the plant community

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    Letícia S. Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Community structure and spatial distribution of epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants along the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. A total of 440 trees were sampled in fifty-seven 10 x 10 m plots. Each phorophyte was divided into five ecological zones (strata, where all species of epiphytic ferns were recorded. A total of 34 species representing 18 genera in six families were recorded. Polypodiaceae was the most represented family with 17 species, and Microgramma vacciniifolia had the highest epiphytic importance value. Characteristic holoepiphyte was the predominant ecological category, representing 70 % of the species. Ordination analysis showed a gradual change in floristic composition between ecological zones with richness differing significantly between strata. We observed that with increasing latitude there was a decrease in mean temperature and total rainfall, but an increase in frosts. These climatic and phytogeography changes result in a reduction in species richness and a change in the structure of epiphytic fern communities in a north-to-south direction. The importance of swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain to the diversity of epiphytic ferns is discussed.

  20. First discovery of fossil winged seeds of Pinus L. (family Pinaceae) from the Indian Cenozoic and its palaeobiogeographic significance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahasin Ali Khan; Subir Bera

    2017-07-01

    The occurrences of Pinus L. (family Pinaceae) megafossils (cones and leaf remains) have been abundantly documented from the Cenozoic sediments of eastern Asia (Japan and China), but none has been confirmed from the Indian Cenozoic till date. Here, we describe Pinus arunachalensis Khan and Bera, sp. nov. on the basis of seed remains from the middle to late Miocene Siwalik sediments of the Dafla Formation exposed around West Kameng district in Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya. Seeds are winged, broadly oblong to oval in outline, 1.3–1.5 cm long and 0.4–0.6 cm broad (in the middle part), located basipetally and symmetrically to wing, cellular pattern of wing is seemingly undulatory and parallel with the long axis of the wing. So far, this report provides the first ever fossil record of Pinus winged seeds from India. This record suggests that Pinus was an important component of tropical-subtropical evergreen forest in the area during the Miocene and this group subsequently declined from the local vegetation probably because of the gradual intensification of MSI (monsoon index) from the Miocene to the present. We also review the historical phytogeography and highlight the phytogeographic implication of this genus.

  1. First discovery of fossil winged seeds of Pinus L. (family Pinaceae) from the Indian Cenozoic and its palaeobiogeographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahasin Ali; Bera, Subir

    2017-07-01

    The occurrences of Pinus L. (family Pinaceae) megafossils (cones and leaf remains) have been abundantly documented from the Cenozoic sediments of eastern Asia (Japan and China), but none has been confirmed from the Indian Cenozoic till date. Here, we describe Pinus arunachalensis Khan and Bera, sp. nov. on the basis of seed remains from the middle to late Miocene Siwalik sediments of the Dafla Formation exposed around West Kameng district in Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya. Seeds are winged, broadly oblong to oval in outline, 1.3-1.5 cm long and 0.4-0.6 cm broad (in the middle part), located basipetally and symmetrically to wing, cellular pattern of wing is seemingly undulatory and parallel with the long axis of the wing. So far, this report provides the first ever fossil record of Pinus winged seeds from India. This record suggests that Pinus was an important component of tropical-subtropical evergreen forest in the area during the Miocene and this group subsequently declined from the local vegetation probably because of the gradual intensification of MSI (monsoon index) from the Miocene to the present. We also review the historical phytogeography and highlight the phytogeographic implication of this genus.

  2. Human-Induced Landscape Changes Homogenize Atlantic Forest Bird Assemblages through Nested Species Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas Vallejos, Marcelo Alejandro; Padial, André Andrian; Vitule, Jean Ricardo Simões

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of quantitative assessments of homogenization using citizen science data is particularly important in the Neotropics, given its high biodiversity and ecological peculiarity, and whose communities may react differently to landscape changes. We looked for evidence of taxonomic homogenization in terrestrial birds by investigating patterns of beta diversity along a gradient of human-altered landscapes (HAL), trying to identify species associated with this process. We analyzed bird data from 87 sites sampled in a citizen science program in the south Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Regional-scale taxonomic homogenization was assessed by comparing beta diversity among sites in different HALs (natural, rural or urban landscapes) accounting for variation derived from geographical distance and zoogeographical affinities by georeferencing sites and determining their position in a phytogeographical domain. Beta diversity was calculated by multivariate dispersion and by testing compositional changes due to turnover and nestedness among HALs and phytogeographical domains. Finally, we assessed which species were typical for each group using indicator species analysis. Bird homogenization was indicated by decreases in beta diversity following landscape changes. Beta diversity of rural sites was roughly half that of natural habitats, while urban sites held less than 10% of the natural areas' beta diversity. Species composition analysis revealed that the turnover component was important in differentiating sites depending on HAL and phytogeography; the nestedness component was important among HALs, where directional species loss is maintained even considering effects of sampling effort. A similar result was obtained among phytogeographical domains, indicating nested-pattern dissimilarity among compositions of overlapping communities. As expected, a few native generalists and non-native urban specialists were characteristic of rural and urban sites. We generated

  3. Fitogeografía de la mancomunidad de Almoguera (Guadalajara (II. Estudio especial de las formaciones de matorrales gipsícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Abad Alonso, Juan Javier

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This study continues an other previous on the Phytogeography of a Southern Alcarria Sector (Pasturage Community of Almoguera. It determines the scrub on gypsiferous soils by means of a convergent approach between the geographical and phytosociological methods to vegetation survey: scrub of Ononis tridentate, scrub of Gypsophila sp., gypsicolous tomillares and mixed scrub.

    [es] Este trabajo continúa un estudio anterior de carácter fitogeográfico. A partir de un enfoque convergente entre los métodos geográfico y fitosociológico para el estudio de la vegetación, se determinan las formaciones de matorrales gipsícolas de un sector de la Baja Alcarria (Mancomunidad de Almoguera: chucarrales, jabunales, tomillares gipsícolas y matorrales ecotónicos. [fr] Phytogéographie de la Communauté de pâturages d´Almoguera (II. Étude spécial des formations de matorrales sur gypses. Ce travail poursuit un autre antérieur sur la Phytogéographie d'un secteur de la Basse Alcarrie (Communauté de pâturages d'Almoguera. A partir d'une demarche convergente entre les méthodes géographique et phytosicologique pour l'étude de la végétation, on a déterminé formations sur gypses: matorrales d'Ononis tridentata, matorrales á'Gypsophila sp., tomillares gypseuses et matorrales de transition.

  4. Fitogeografía de la Mancomunidad de Almoguera (III. Estudio especial de herbazales climatófilos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Abad Alonso, Juan Javier

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This study continues an other previous on the Phytogeography of a Southern Alcarria Sector (Pasturage Community of Almoguera. It determines herbaceous formations by means of a convergent approach between the geographical and phytosociological methods to vegetation survey: Formations of Stipa tenacissima, nanotherophytic ephemeral meadows, subnitrophilous meadows, nitrophilous meadows, nitrophilous grasslands and other meadows of transition.

    [es] Este trabajo continúa dos estudios anteriores de carácter fitogeográfico. A partir de un enfoque convergente entre los métodos geográfico y fitosociológico para el estudio de la vegetación, se determinan formaciones vegetales de herbazales en un sector de la Baja Alcarria (Mancomunidad de Almoguera: espartizales, herbazales efímeros nanoterofíticos, herbazales ruderales subnitrófilos, herbazales ruderal-arvenses nitrófilos, praderas-gramadales nitrófilas y otros herbazales de significado dinámico y ecotónico. [fr] Phytogéographie de la Communauté de pâturages d Almoguera (III. Étude spécial deformations herbacées climatophiles. Ce travail poursuit un autre antérieur sur la Phytogéographie d'un secteur de la Basse Alcarrie (Communauté de pâturages d'Almoguera. A partir d'une demarche convergente entre les méthodes géographique et phytosicologique pour l'étude de la végétation, on a déterminé formations herbacées: formations de Stipa tenacissima, pelouses éphémères nanothérophytiques, pelouses rudérales subnitrophiles, pelouses rudéral-arvenses nitrophiles, prairies nitrophiles et d'autres formations herbacées de transition.

  5. Palaeoenvironments during a terminal Oligocene or early Miocene transgression in a fluvial system at the southwestern tip of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D. L.; Neumann, F. H.; Cawthra, H. C.; Carr, A. S.; Scott, L.; Durugbo, E. U.; Humphries, M. S.; Cowling, R. M.; Bamford, M. K.; Musekiwa, C.; MacHutchon, M.

    2017-03-01

    A multi-proxy study of an offshore core in Saldanha Bay (South Africa) provides new insights into fluvial deposition, ecosystems, phytogeography and sea-level history during the late Paleogene-early Neogene. Offshore seismic data reveal bedrock topography, and provide evidence of relative sea levels as low as - 100 m during the Oligocene. 3D landscape reconstruction reveals hills, plains and an anastomosing river system. A Chattian or early Miocene age for the sediments is inferred from dinoflagellate taxa Distatodinium craterum, Chiropteridium lobospinosum, Homotryblium plectilum and Impagidinium paradoxum. The subtropical forest revealed by palynology includes lianas and vines, evergreen trees, palms and ferns, implying higher water availability than today, probably reduced seasonal drought and stronger summer rainfall. From topography, sedimentology and palynology we reconstruct Podocarpaceae-dominated forests, Proto-Fynbos, and swamp/riparian forests with palms and other angiosperms. Rhizophoraceae present the first South African evidence of Palaeogene/Neogene mangroves. Subtropical woodland-thicket with Combretaceae and Brachystegia (Peregrinipollis nigericus) probably developed on coastal plains. Some of the last remaining Gondwana elements on the sub-continent, e.g., Araucariaceae, are recorded. Charred particles signal fires prior to the onset of summer dry climate at the Cape. Marine and terrestrial palynomorphs, together with organic and inorganic geochemical proxy data, suggest a gradual glacio-eustatic transgression. The data shed light on Southern Hemisphere biogeography and regional climatic conditions at the Palaeogene-Neogene transition. The proliferation of the vegetation is partly ascribed to changes in South Atlantic oceanographic circulation, linked to the closure of the Central American Seaway and the onset of the Benguela Current 14 Ma.

  6. Human-Induced Landscape Changes Homogenize Atlantic Forest Bird Assemblages through Nested Species Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas Vallejos, Marcelo Alejandro; Padial, André Andrian; Vitule, Jean Ricardo Simões

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of quantitative assessments of homogenization using citizen science data is particularly important in the Neotropics, given its high biodiversity and ecological peculiarity, and whose communities may react differently to landscape changes. We looked for evidence of taxonomic homogenization in terrestrial birds by investigating patterns of beta diversity along a gradient of human-altered landscapes (HAL), trying to identify species associated with this process. We analyzed bird data from 87 sites sampled in a citizen science program in the south Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Regional-scale taxonomic homogenization was assessed by comparing beta diversity among sites in different HALs (natural, rural or urban landscapes) accounting for variation derived from geographical distance and zoogeographical affinities by georeferencing sites and determining their position in a phytogeographical domain. Beta diversity was calculated by multivariate dispersion and by testing compositional changes due to turnover and nestedness among HALs and phytogeographical domains. Finally, we assessed which species were typical for each group using indicator species analysis. Bird homogenization was indicated by decreases in beta diversity following landscape changes. Beta diversity of rural sites was roughly half that of natural habitats, while urban sites held less than 10% of the natural areas’ beta diversity. Species composition analysis revealed that the turnover component was important in differentiating sites depending on HAL and phytogeography; the nestedness component was important among HALs, where directional species loss is maintained even considering effects of sampling effort. A similar result was obtained among phytogeographical domains, indicating nested-pattern dissimilarity among compositions of overlapping communities. As expected, a few native generalists and non-native urban specialists were characteristic of rural and urban sites. We generated

  7. δ18O and δD variations in some volcanic lakes on the Cameroon Volcanic Line (West-Africa: generating isotopic baseline data for volcano monitoring and surveillance in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Issa

    2014-06-01

    preeminent, role relative to the other factors. Consequently, the interplay between climatology, phytogeography, hydrology and morphometry might help shape the isotopic composition of the lakes. 

  8. Large-scale phytogeographical patterns in East Asia in relation to latitudinal and climatic gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, H.; Song, J.-S.; Krestov, P.; Guo, Q.; Wu, Z.; Shen, X.; Guo, X.

    2003-01-01

    northerly flora are a subset of the genera present in a more southerly flora. Main conclusions: The large-scale patterns of phytogeography in East Asia are strongly related to latitude, which covaries with several climatic variables such as temperature. Evolutionary processes such as the adaptation of plants to cold climates and current and past land connections are likely responsible for the observed latitudinal patterns.

  9. Fitogeografía de la Sierra Monte Grande, Charcas, San Luis Potosí, México

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    Reyes Agüero J. Antonio

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Monte Grande is a small (41.8 km mountain range located at the southernmost part of the northern plateau of Mexico. It has a dry climate and its vegetation is characterized by pinyon woodland, oak scrub and three kinds of xerophytic scrub. Based on its flora of 397 species, we analyzed the historie phytogeography of Monte Grande, using only the taxa (families, genera and species that have a restricted distribution. At the family level, we identified three patterns of distribution: 1 from North America to northern South America; 2 mostly in the American continent; 3 families related to the Mediterranean region. At the genus level, five patterns were identified: 1 endemic of arid and semiarid lands of Mexico and adjacent regions of the United States; 2 from southern United States to Central America; 3 broadly distributed, but highly related to the Antillean region; 4 with Mediterranean relations; 5 disjunct or vicariant between the arid lands of North and South America. At the species level, nine patterns of distribution were identified: 1 septentrional plateau; 2 meridional plateau; 3 all plateaus and adjacent regions; 4 all plateaus-Sierra Madre de Oaxaca; 5 all plateaus-northwestern coast plain; 6 all plateaus-both coastal plains; 7 all plateaus-northeastern coastal plain; 8 Mexican xerophytic region; 9 all plateaus-both sierras Madre. These patterns are unlikely to be accidental, as they agree with recent theories about the process that led to the present landform configuration of the American Continent. On the basis of this interpretation, we postulate a major role of the Caribbean and the Former Mediterranean in the florigenesis of present linages of the arid and semiarid lands of Mexico.La sierra Monte Grande, con una extensión de 41.8 km, se localiza en el sur de la altiplanicie septentrional de México. Tiene un clima seco (8So y en ella prevalecen los matorrales xerófilos, piñonares y encinares. A partir de su flora, compuesta por 397

  10. Research on Spermatophyte Flora in the Xilingol Desert Steppe%锡林郭勒荒漠草地种子植物区系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳秀贤; 刘果厚; 刘慧娟; 扈顺

    2011-01-01

    The local flora structure and the distribution characteristics of seed plants in the Xilingol desert steppe were studied based on wild vegetable survey by processing the data,analyzing the plant families,genera and species and applying the methods of botany and phytogeography.It is suggested to protect and utilize rationally the wild plant resources in the study area,and an important reference is provided as the scientific basis to protect the local plant species.The results show that the local plants belong to the desert steppe flora.So far 348 endemic species in 180 genera and 55 families in the Xilingol desert steppe were recorded.In which there were 4 species in 2 genera and 2 families of Gymnosperm and 344 species(including 31 varieties) in 178 genera and 53 families of Angiosperm.Composed by the families and genera,the plurimotypic families(including more than 10 species),monotypic genera and oligotypic genera were the main part of the local flora and the main sources of flora complexity and species diversity to be as the widely distributed local species.At family level,the proportion of Gramineae,Compositae,Leguminosae,Chenopodiaceae,Cruciferae and Polygonaceae was the highest,there was a trend that the floristic element laid in big families of spermatophyte,and the dominance of plurimotypic families was evident.The proportion of 45 families with less than 10 species was 81.83% of the total families in the region.At genus level,although plurimotypic genera and plurotypic genera were the dominant species of local plant communities and the typical components,but they were not the main part,they had an important influence on the structure of flora and vegetable composition.The single-species genera and few-species genera are the main part of the local flora and the main sources of the local flora complexity and species diversity to be as the widely distributed local species.After analyzing the floristic geographical element of genera and species

  11. 紫距淫羊藿的地理分布新记录及形态描述%New records of Epimedium epsteinii (Berberidaceae) in Guangdong and Hubei provinces and morphologic description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳琴; 石慧君; 刘少雄; 胡生福

    2016-01-01

    obser-vation, statistics and description. E. epsteinii is regarded as an endemic species, which was restricted distribution in the Tianpingshan Mountains of Hunan Province. However, through the extensive field investigation, it was found that the species also distributed in Nanling National Forest Park ( Guangdong Province ) and Jianshi County ( Hubei Province). The new distribution was located in north and south of the Tianpingshan Mountains, respectively. The present report has significantly expanded the natural distribution range of E. epsteinii. Based on the‘population’ concept, exten-sive variation was observed among individuals and populations. Both the main quantitative traits, i.e. the plant height, inflorescence length, number of flowers, rhizome diameter, length and width of leaf, and color of flower were presented abundant variations. A correct species concept stems from a correct and thorough understanding of the nature of variation pattern of plants and its taxonomical value. Therefore, the populations not only are useful for taxonomical research, but also have great significance in contributing to a better understanding or interpretation of the variation pattern of the spe-cies. The new records of E. epsteinii in Guangdong and Hubei provinces will be useful for the resource utilization, and for further research on the spreading mechanism and phytogeography of genus Epimedium.

  12. Improved data for integrated modeling of global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann

    2011-12-01

    2011 Impacts of population growth, economic development, and technical change on global food production and consumption Agricult. Syst. 104 204-15 Verburg P H, Ellis E C and Letourneau A 2011 A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies Environ. Res. Lett. 6 034019 Woodward F I, Smith T M and Emanuel W R 1995 A global land primary productivity and phytogeography model Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 9 471-90

  13. DARWIN Y LA DOMESTICACIÓN DE PLANTAS EN LAS AMÉRICAS: EL CASO DEL MAÍZ Y EL FRÍJOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chacon Sanchez Maria Isabel

    2009-12-01

    ="ES-TRAD">ABSTRACT

     

    In the present article, the main contributions that Darwin and other scholars, contemporary and posterior to him, made on the subject of plant domestication, in special the geography of crop origins, are reviewed. The article also reviews recent studies where the archaeological and genetic evidence have complemented each other to give a better understanding of the origin of three of the oldest and most important pre-Columbian and current crops: maize, common bean and Lima bean. These crops are examples of contrasting domestication patterns: a single domestication event in the case of maize and multiple and independent domestication events in the case of the common and Lima bean. Finally, the relevance of the phenomenon of multiple domestication in the study of the origin of the domestication syndrome is discussed along with the contribution that the discipline known as Crop Evolution can make in advancing our knowledge about adaptation processes in wild populations and the future of genetic improvement and adoption of new crops relevant for human welfare.


    Key words: archaeology, genetics, domestication, crop evolution, phytogeography