WorldWideScience

Sample records for physiologically impossible movement

  1. Impossible body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusero, L

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY This play tells the story of one woman coming to terms with her "poly" identity through a journey into the multiple layers of love, race, sex, appearance and Otherness. The one-woman show Impossible Body was first performed for a reading series sponsored by "Onstage" at the University of Colorado, Boulder, in February 1997. A revised version was developed and staged at the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma, Washington in April 1997. The current script, from which these excerpts are taken, was first presented at the Queer Studies Conference in Boulder, Colorado.

  2. Impossible Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S.

    2003-03-01

    Every 225 million years the Earth, and all the life on it, completes one revolution around the Milky Way Galaxy. During this remarkable journey, life is influenced by calamitous changes. Comets and asteroids strike the surface of the Earth, stars explode, enormous volcanoes erupt, and, more recently, humans litter the planet with waste. Many animals and plants become extinct during the voyage, but humble microbes, simple creatures made of a single cell, survive this journey. This book takes a tour of the microbial world, from the coldest and deepest places on Earth to the hottest and highest, and witnesses some of the most catastrophic events that life can face. Impossible Extinction tells this remarkable story to the general reader by explaining how microbes have survived on Earth for over three billion years. Charles Cockell received his doctorate from the University of Oxford, and is currently a microbiologist with rhe Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute (SETI), based at the British Antarctic Survey in Cambridge, UK. His research focusses on astrobiology, life in the extremes and the human exploration of Mars. Cockell has been on expeditions to the Arctic, Antarctic, Mongolia, and in 1993 he piloted a modified insect-collecting ultra-light aircraft over the Indonesian rainforests. He is Chair of the Twenty-one Eleven Foundation for Exploration, a charity that supports expeditions that forge links between space exploration and environmentalism.

  3. Physiologically Relevant Prosthetic Limb Movement Feedback for Upper and Lower Extremity Amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    upper arm (elbow movement), Upper leg (knee movement) and lower leg ( ankle movement) to provide a physiologically relevant sense of limb movement...Additionally a BOA cable tensioning system is passed through these plates and anchored to the external surface of the socket. When tension is applied the

  4. “Expressing my attitude and doing something impossible to make it happen ...” – Listening to the Voices of Hong Kong’s Umbrella Movement Protesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Nicholas Rühlig

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In autumn 2014 around 1.3 million mostly young citizens of Hong Kong occupied three districts of the city for 79 days. This movement became famous as the Umbrella Movement. Initially, the Umbrella Movement was almost exclusively perceived as a pro-democracy occupation because the democratization of the city’s polity was its core demand. However, over time the perception shifted and the movement was increasingly portrayed as part of a growing demand for more autonomy from mainland China. This rising “localism” is often associated with anti-Chinese sentiments including racism. This article aims to demonstrate that the Umbrella Movement’s call for democracy is indeed part of a broader agenda for more self-determination. This agenda, however, is not necessarily racist. Instead, the Umbrella Movement was a very plural one. The Umbrella Movement’s agenda does, however, comprise not only questions of democratization but also three additional dimensions, namely socio-economic, identity-political and institutional issues. The article aims to present the plurality of the Umbrella Movement by referring to and quoting a multitude of interviews with protesters which are intended to give the occupiers a “voice” in all their diversity. Finally, the article aims to conclude on the achievements of the movement in all four dimensions and outlines possible future directions.

  5. Segregation of Form, Color, Movement, and Depth: Anatomy, Physiology, and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Margaret; Hubel, David

    1988-05-01

    Anatomical and physiological observations in monkeys indicate that the primate visual system consists of several separate and independent subdivisions that analyze different aspects of the same retinal image: cells in cortical visual areas 1 and 2 and higher visual areas are segregated into three interdigitating subdivisions that differ in their selectivity for color, stereopsis, movement, and orientation. The pathways selective for form and color seem to be derived mainly from the parvocellular geniculate subdivisions, the depth- and movement-selective components from the magnocellular. At lower levels, in the retina and in the geniculate, cells in these two subdivisions differ in their color selectivity, contrast sensitivity, temporal properties, and spatial resolution. These major differences in the properties of cells at lower levels in each of the subdivisions led to the prediction that different visual functions, such as color, depth, movement, and form perception, should exhibit corresponding differences. Human perceptual experiments are remarkably consistent with these predictions. Moreover, perceptual experiments can be designed to ask which subdivisions of the system are responsible for particular visual abilities, such as figure/ground discrimination or perception of depth from perspective or relative movement--functions that might be difficult to deduce from single-cell response properties.

  6. The path to presence in performance through movement, physiological response, and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis Preeshl

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Presence may occur when actors are alert and relaxed in performance. A positive mood is associated with physical activity, but little is known about how movement qualities affect mood and vital signs of actors. This study examined the effects of vibratory, pendular, abrupt, and sustained movement qualities on the Brief Mood Introspection Scale, and physiology. Undergraduate theatre (n = 25 and non-theatre majors (n = 24 engaged in protocols of four movement qualities: vibratory, pendular, abrupt and sustained. Mood and heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, and temperature were measured before and after four different movement protocols. The hypothesis that the sequence of vibratory, pendular, sustained, and abrupt increased the alert, relaxed state of Presence and Arousal was rejected. It was found that systolic blood pressure increased in men across protocols. A significant interaction was found between the participants’ major and “Tired.” Because Tired and Arousal indicate mental and/or physical energy, a relationship between MAJOR and “Tired,” combined with significant correlation between subjects and major, suggests that the protocols resulted in fatigue. Half of the mood variance is explained by the factor “major.” These two significant findings suggest a relationship between mood and major as well as blood pressure and gender.

  7. Study of heat transfer on physiological driven movement with CNT nanofluids and variable viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Kazmi, Naeem; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Mir, Nazir Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    With ongoing interest in CNT nanofluids and materials in biotechnology, energy and environment, microelectronics, composite materials etc., the current investigation is carried out to analyze the effects of variable viscosity and thermal conductivity of CNT nanofluids flow driven by cilia induced movement through a circular cylindrical tube. Metachronal wave is generated by the beating of cilia and mathematically modeled as elliptical wave propagation by Blake (1971). The problem is formulated in the form of nonlinear partial differential equations, which are simplified by using the dimensional analysis to avoid the complicacy of dimensional homogeneity. Lubrication theory is employed to linearize the governing equations and it is also physically appropriate for cilia movement. Analytical solutions for velocity, temperature and pressure gradient and stream function are obtained. The analytical results are numerically simulated by using the Mathematica Software and plotted the graphs for velocity profile, temperature profile, pressure gradient and stream lines for better discussion and visualization. This model is applicable in physiological transport phenomena to explore the nanotechnology in engineering the artificial cilia and ciliated tube/pipe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mapping (and modeling) physiological movements during EEG-fMRI recordings: the added value of the video acquired simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Andrea; Vaudano, Anna Elisabetta; Benuzzi, Francesca; Serafini, Marco; Gessaroli, Giuliana; Farinelli, Valentina; Nichelli, Paolo Frigio; Meletti, Stefano

    2015-01-15

    During resting-state EEG-fMRI studies in epilepsy, patients' spontaneous head-face movements occur frequently. We tested the usefulness of synchronous video recording to identify and model the fMRI changes associated with non-epileptic movements to improve sensitivity and specificity of fMRI maps related to interictal epileptiform discharges (IED). Categorization of different facial/cranial movements during EEG-fMRI was obtained for 38 patients [with benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes (BECTS, n=16); with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE, n=17); focal symptomatic/cryptogenic epilepsy (n=5)]. We compared at single subject- and at group-level the IED-related fMRI maps obtained with and without additional regressors related to spontaneous movements. As secondary aim, we considered facial movements as events of interest to test the usefulness of video information to obtain fMRI maps of the following face movements: swallowing, mouth-tongue movements, and blinking. Video information substantially improved the identification and classification of the artifacts with respect to the EEG observation alone (mean gain of 28 events per exam). Inclusion of physiological activities as additional regressors in the GLM model demonstrated an increased Z-score and number of voxels of the global maxima and/or new BOLD clusters in around three quarters of the patients. Video-related fMRI maps for swallowing, mouth-tongue movements, and blinking were comparable to the ones obtained in previous task-based fMRI studies. Video acquisition during EEG-fMRI is a useful source of information. Modeling physiological movements in EEG-fMRI studies for epilepsy will lead to more informative IED-related fMRI maps in different epileptic conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Physiological modules for generating discrete and rhythmic movements: action identification by a dynamic recurrent neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoetxea, Ana; Leurs, Françoise; Hoellinger, Thomas; Cebolla, Ana M; Dan, Bernard; McIntyre, Joseph; Cheron, Guy

    2014-01-01

    In this study we employed a dynamic recurrent neural network (DRNN) in a novel fashion to reveal characteristics of control modules underlying the generation of muscle activations when drawing figures with the outstretched arm. We asked healthy human subjects to perform four different figure-eight movements in each of two workspaces (frontal plane and sagittal plane). We then trained a DRNN to predict the movement of the wrist from information in the EMG signals from seven different muscles. We trained different instances of the same network on a single movement direction, on all four movement directions in a single movement plane, or on all eight possible movement patterns and looked at the ability of the DRNN to generalize and predict movements for trials that were not included in the training set. Within a single movement plane, a DRNN trained on one movement direction was not able to predict movements of the hand for trials in the other three directions, but a DRNN trained simultaneously on all four movement directions could generalize across movement directions within the same plane. Similarly, the DRNN was able to reproduce the kinematics of the hand for both movement planes, but only if it was trained on examples performed in each one. As we will discuss, these results indicate that there are important dynamical constraints on the mapping of EMG to hand movement that depend on both the time sequence of the movement and on the anatomical constraints of the musculoskeletal system. In a second step, we injected EMG signals constructed from different synergies derived by the PCA in order to identify the mechanical significance of each of these components. From these results, one can surmise that discrete-rhythmic movements may be constructed from three different fundamental modules, one regulating the co-activation of all muscles over the time span of the movement and two others elliciting patterns of reciprocal activation operating in orthogonal directions.

  10. Physiological modules for generating discrete and rhythmic movements: component analysis of EMG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoetxea, Ana; Leurs, Françoise; Hoellinger, Thomas; Cebolla, Ana Maria; Dan, Bernard; Cheron, Guy; McIntyre, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A central question in Neuroscience is that of how the nervous system generates the spatiotemporal commands needed to realize complex gestures, such as handwriting. A key postulate is that the central nervous system (CNS) builds up complex movements from a set of simpler motor primitives or control modules. In this study we examined the control modules underlying the generation of muscle activations when performing different types of movement: discrete, point-to-point movements in eight different directions and continuous figure-eight movements in both the normal, upright orientation and rotated 90°. To test for the effects of biomechanical constraints, movements were performed in the frontal-parallel or sagittal planes, corresponding to two different nominal flexion/abduction postures of the shoulder. In all cases we measured limb kinematics and surface electromyographic activity (EMG) signals for seven different muscles acting around the shoulder. We first performed principal component analysis (PCA) of the EMG signals on a movement-by-movement basis. We found a surprisingly consistent pattern of muscle groupings across movement types and movement planes, although we could detect systematic differences between the PCs derived from movements performed in each shoulder posture and between the principal components associated with the different orientations of the figure. Unexpectedly we found no systematic differences between the figure eights and the point-to-point movements. The first three principal components could be associated with a general co-contraction of all seven muscles plus two patterns of reciprocal activation. From these results, we surmise that both "discrete-rhythmic movements" such as the figure eight, and discrete point-to-point movement may be constructed from three different fundamental modules, one regulating the impedance of the limb over the time span of the movement and two others operating to generate movement, one aligned with the

  11. Monetary shocks and stock returns: identification through the impossible trinity

    OpenAIRE

    Ali K. Ozdagli; Yifan Yu

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify how monetary policy shocks affect stock prices by using Mundell and Fleming's theory of the "Impossible Trinity." According to this theory, it is impossible to simultaneously have a fixed exchange rate, free capital movement (an absence of capital controls), and an independent monetary policy. The authors present evidence that Hong Kong's monetary policy is heavily dependent on the monetary policy of the United States, a stance which is consistent with this the...

  12. The Path to Presence in Performance through Movement, Physiological Response, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preeshl, Artemis; George, Gwen; Hicks, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Presence may occur when actors are alert and relaxed in performance. A positive mood is associated with physical activity, but little is known about how movement qualities affect mood and vital signs of actors. This study examined the effects of vibratory, pendular, abrupt, and sustained movement qualities on the Brief Mood Introspection Scale,…

  13. Sahlqvist theory for impossible worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmigiano, A.; Sourabh, S.; Zhao, Z.

    2017-01-01

    We extend unified correspondence theory to Kripke frames with impossible worlds and their associated regular modal logics. These are logics the modal connectives of which are not required to be normal: only the weaker properties of additivity ◊x∨◊y=◊(x∨y) and multiplicativity □x∧□y=□(x∧y) are

  14. Censored: Whistleblowers and impossible speech

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Kate

    2017-01-01

    What happens to a person who speaks out about corruption in their organization, and finds themselves excluded from their profession? In this article, I argue that whistleblowers experience exclusions because they have engaged in ‘impossible speech’, that is, a speech act considered to be unacceptable or illegitimate. Drawing on Butler’s theories of recognition and censorship, I show how norms of acceptable speech working through recruitment practices, alongside the actions of colleagues, can ...

  15. Impossibility results for distributed computing

    CERN Document Server

    Attiya, Hagit

    2014-01-01

    To understand the power of distributed systems, it is necessary to understand their inherent limitations: what problems cannot be solved in particular systems, or without sufficient resources (such as time or space). This book presents key techniques for proving such impossibility results and applies them to a variety of different problems in a variety of different system models. Insights gained from these results are highlighted, aspects of a problem that make it difficult are isolated, features of an architecture that make it inadequate for solving certain problems efficiently are identified

  16. Radiotherapy for stomach cancer: the dosimetric consequences of physiological movement of organs at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, C.; Joon, D.L.; Joon, M.L.; Quong, G.; Feigen, M.; Wada, M.; Choy, T.; Chui, T.; Mantle, C.; Viotto, A.; Rolfo, A.; Rykers, K.; Grace, M.; Fernando, W.; Liu, G.; Khoo, V.; Chao, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    To assess the impact of movement of the liver and kidneys (organs at risk) on the dose volume histogram (DVH) when treating stomach cancer with radiation therapy. Immediate serial CT non-contrast and contrast scans are obtained as part of the planning process for treating stomach cancer with radiation in the neo-adjuvant and adjuvant setting at our institution. In a series of five patients the liver and right and left kidneys were contoured on both sets of scans. The maximal translational movement in three planes and volume changes of each structure was measured. The maximum, minimum and mean dose was calculated and compared for each organ at risk in both scans. To assess the change in the DVH, the following dose volume parameters were analysed: V50Gy, V35Gy, V30Gy, and V10GY for liver; V50Gy, V30Gy, V23Gy and V15Gy for both kidneys. A complete analysis of results will be presented

  17. Thermal (dis)comfort experienced from physiological movements across indoor, transitional and outdoor spaces in Singapore: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Heng, Su; Chow, Winston

    2017-04-01

    Human thermal comfort research is important as climate discomfort can adversely affect both health and work productivity in cities; however, such biometeorological work in low-latitude urban areas is still relatively unstudied hitherto. In the tropical metropolis of Singapore, a suite of policies have been implemented aimed at improving environmental sustainability via increasing car-free commutes and pedestrian movement during work/school journeys, with the consequence that individuals will likely have increased personal exposure through a variety of spaces (and climates) during typical daily activities. As such, research into exploring the thermal (dis)comfort experienced during pedestrian movements across these indoor, outdoor and transitional (semi-outdoor) spaces would yield interesting applied biometerological insights. This pilot study thus investigates how pedestrian thermal comfort varies spatially across a university campus, and how the physical intensity of pedestrian travel affects thermal comfort across these spaces. Over a 10-week period, we profiled six students for both their objective and subjective pedestrian thermal comfort during traverses across different spaces. Data were obtained through use of (a.) of a heat stress sensor, (b.) a fitness tracker, and (b.) a questionnaire survey to record traverse measurements of the microclimate, their physiological data, and their perceived microclimate comfort respectively. Measured climate and physiological data were used to derive commonly-used thermal comfort indices like wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and physiological equivalent temperature (PET). Further, interviews were conducted with all six subjects at the end of the fieldwork period to ascertain details on individual acclimatization behavior and adaptation strategies. The results indicate that (a.) more than 50% of the microclimatic conditions within each indoor, semi-outdoor, and outdoor space exceeded heat stress thresholds of both PET and

  18. Operationalizing the Impossible: The Responsibility to Protect Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    colonies. However one question remained; what acts constitute the authority to wage a just punitive war? According to Grotius, natural law dually...of this formerly communist nation immediately resulted in the creation of the nations of Slovenia and Croatia who

  19. Impossible Geometric Constructions: A Calculus Writing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awtrey, Chad

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses a writing project that offers students the opportunity to solve one of the most famous geometric problems of Greek antiquity; namely, the impossibility of trisecting the angle [pi]/3. Along the way, students study the history of Greek geometry problems as well as the life and achievements of Carl Friedrich Gauss. Included is…

  20. Movement pattern and physiological response in recreational small-sided football - effect of number of players with a fixed pitch size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen; Hagman, Marie von Ahnen

    2018-01-01

    Recreational soccer is an effective health-promoting activity, but it is unclear how different game formats influence internal and external load. Thus, to be able to advise how to maximise the outcome of recreational football, we examined movement pattern and physiological response in 11 untrained...... men (32.6 ± 6.7 yrs, 23.3 ± 4.9 fat%, 43.4 ± 5.3 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) during three football sessions comprising 4 × 12 min of 3v3, 5v5 or 7v7 with a constant pitch size of 20 × 40 m. Movement pattern, heart rate (HR), blood lactate and RPE were measured during and after the 12-min periods. Greater (P...

  1. Voting over law enforcement: Mission impossible

    OpenAIRE

    İnal , Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Median voter theorem has been used in many economic environments including law enforcement. Assumptions of the median voter theorem, however, are generally violated in lawenforcement models. Moreover, it is impossible to have agents with "opposite equilibrium preferences" over enforcement levels in law enforcement models. These limitations on the use of preferences over law enforcement raises questions about the robustness and validity of law enforcement models.

  2. The impossible trinity: Where does India stand?

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeswari Sengupta

    2015-01-01

    The Global Financial Crisis of 2008 and the heightened macroeconomic and financial volatility that followed the crisis raised important questions about the current international financial architecture as well as about individual countries’ external macroeconomic policies. Policy- makers dealing with the global crisis have been confronted with the ‘impossible trinity’ or the ‘Trilemma’, a potent paradigm of open economy macroeconomics asserting that a country may not target the exchange rate, ...

  3. Individualized margins in 3D conformal radiotherapy planning for lung cancer: analysis of physiological movements and their dosimetric impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, François; Beaulieu, Luc; Fortin, André

    2008-01-01

    In conformal radiotherapy planning for lung cancer, respiratory movements are not taken into account when a single computed tomography (CT) scan is performed. This study examines tumor movements to design individualized margins to account for these movements and evaluates their dosimetric impacts on planning volume. Fifteen patients undergoing CT-based planning for radical radiotherapy for localized lung cancer formed the study cohort. A reference plan was constructed based on reference gross, clinical, and planning target volumes (rGTV, rCTV, and rPTV, respectively). The reference plans were compared with individualized plans using individualized margins obtained by using 5 serial CT scans to generate individualized target volumes (iGTV, iCTV, and iPTV). Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy was used for plan generation using 6- and 23-MV photon beams. Ten plans for each patient were generated and dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were calculated. Comparisons of volumetric and dosimetric parameters were performed using paired Student t-tests. Relative to the rGTV, the total volume occupied by the superimposed GTVs increased progressively with each additional CT scans. With the use of all 5 scans, the average increase in GTV was 52.1%. For the plans with closest dosimetric coverage, target volume was smaller (iPTV/rPTV ratio 0.808) but lung irradiation was only slightly decreased. Reduction in the proportion of lung tissue that received 20 Gy or more outside the PTV (V20) was observed both for 6-MV plans (-0.73%) and 23-MV plans (-0.65%), with p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively. In conformal RT planning for the treatment of lung cancer, the use of serial CT scans to evaluate respiratory motion and to generate individualized margins to account for these motions produced only a limited lung sparing advantage.

  4. Individualized Margins in 3D Conformal Radiotherapy Planning for Lung Cancer: Analysis of Physiological Movements and Their Dosimetric Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, Francois; Beaulieu, Luc; Fortin, Andre

    2008-01-01

    In conformal radiotherapy planning for lung cancer, respiratory movements are not taken into account when a single computed tomography (CT) scan is performed. This study examines tumor movements to design individualized margins to account for these movements and evaluates their dosimetric impacts on planning volume. Fifteen patients undergoing CT-based planning for radical radiotherapy for localized lung cancer formed the study cohort. A reference plan was constructed based on reference gross, clinical, and planning target volumes (rGTV, rCTV, and rPTV, respectively). The reference plans were compared with individualized plans using individualized margins obtained by using 5 serial CT scans to generate individualized target volumes (iGTV, iCTV, and iPTV). Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy was used for plan generation using 6- and 23-MV photon beams. Ten plans for each patient were generated and dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were calculated. Comparisons of volumetric and dosimetric parameters were performed using paired Student t-tests. Relative to the rGTV, the total volume occupied by the superimposed GTVs increased progressively with each additional CT scans. With the use of all 5 scans, the average increase in GTV was 52.1%. For the plans with closest dosimetric coverage, target volume was smaller (iPTV/rPTV ratio 0.808) but lung irradiation was only slightly decreased. Reduction in the proportion of lung tissue that received 20 Gy or more outside the PTV (V20) was observed both for 6-MV plans (-0.73%) and 23-MV plans (-0.65%), with p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively. In conformal RT planning for the treatment of lung cancer, the use of serial CT scans to evaluate respiratory motion and to generate individualized margins to account for these motions produced only a limited lung sparing advantage

  5. Sustainability between Necessity, Contingency and Impossibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Bruckmeier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable use of natural resources seems necessary to maintain functions and services of eco- and social systems in the long run. Efforts in policy and science for sustainable development have shown the splintering of local, national and global strategies. Sustainability becomes contingent and insecure with the actors´ conflicting knowledge, interests and aims, and seems even impossible through the “rebound”-effect. To make short and long term requirements of sustainability coherent requires critical, comparative and theoretical analysis of the problems met. For this purpose important concepts and theories are discussed in this review of recent interdisciplinary literature about resource management.

  6. Effect of Boards in Small-Sided Street Soccer Games on Movement Pattern and Physiological Response in Recreationally Active Young Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten B; Brix, Jonathan; Hagman, Marie

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated whether street soccer might be proposed as an alternative to recreational small-sided games on grass as a health-enhancing activity, and specifically the effects of the boards surrounding the pitch. Eleven recreationally active young males (28.4±4.2 (±SD) yrs, 19.......9±4.2% body fat, 47.7±6.0 mlminkg), after familiarization, completed one to two sessions of 20x13-m 3v3 street soccer games with boards (WB) and one to two sessions without boards (WOB) in a randomized order. Movement pattern was measured using GPS and heart rate recordings, blood sampling and RPE scales were...... after WB than after WOB (7.1±1.0 vs. 5.5±1.2, p game formats to expect short- and long-term health improvements as a result of regular participation. Boards affected movement pattern and physiological demands, producing higher...

  7. Impossibility of secure two-party classical computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colbeck, Roger

    2007-01-01

    We present attacks that show that unconditionally secure two-party classical computation is impossible for many classes of function. Our analysis applies to both quantum and relativistic protocols. We illustrate our results by showing the impossibility of oblivious transfer

  8. Though Arrow Says It’s Impossible, It Happens Everyday

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Gani

    2004-01-01

    Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem shows that transitive social preference is impossible. This note shows that in the general case of exchange, social preference need not be transitive. Indeed, it shows that social preference must be non-transitive to allow gainful exchange to maximize social welfare. Thus though Arrow says it is impossible, it actually happens everyday and everywhere.

  9. Quantification of physiological, movement, and technical outputs during a novel small-sided game in young team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the physiological responses, time-motion characteristics, and technical executions associated with a novel non-sport-specific small-sided game (SSG) in young team sport players. On 6 separate occasions, 12 young male team sport athletes (mean ± SD: age, 13.0 ± 0.3 years; height, 157.4 ± 4.9 cm; body mass, 47.0 ± 5.0 kg; and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, 55.1 ± 4.6 ml·kg·min) completed various "bucketball" SSG formats (i.e., 3 vs. 3, 4 vs. 4, and 6 vs. 6) twice each. Heart rate (HR) was measured during each SSG at 5-second intervals. Time-motion characteristics were measured using global positioning systems. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were recorded immediately after the SSGs using the Borg scale (RPEs, 6-20). Technical skill executions were measured using a high-speed digital video camera. Analysis revealed a tendency for the 3 vs. 3 games to elicit higher HRs (88.3 ± 4.3) than either 4 vs. 4 (85.9 ± 4.9) or 6 vs. 6 formats (85.9 ± 3.2). Total distance traveled at 13-17.9 km·h was more during 6 vs. 6 than 3 vs. 3 games (very likely substantial true difference, 97%), and total possessions and number of catches, passes, and shots were all higher in 3 vs. 3 compared with 4 vs. 4 and 6 vs. 6 games. There was no difference in RPE between the game formats. The results of this study indicate that 3 vs. 3 non-sport-specific SSGs provide higher stimulus for aerobic fitness adaptation and technical improvement than 4 vs. 4 and 6 vs. 6 formats, and their use for training young team sport athletes is recommended.

  10. Live Webcast from CERN - Mission Impossible 3?

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    It is a beautiful sunny autumn day, 21 November 2000. The place is CERN's Microcosm exhibition where around 50 pupils from the International School in Geneva and the Collège du Leman have gathered to dive into the mystery of antimatter production and take part in CERN's second Live Webcast of the series 'The Antimatter Factory'. The first was broadcast on 18 November. The webcast is played in the mood of Mission Impossible with music and teasers from this famous television and cinema series. The mission here is not to save the planet but to understand how and why antimatter is produced at CERN. In the Webcast studio, Paola Catapano, Rolf Landua and Mick Storr answer questions posed by students in Italy and Finland thanks to video-conferencing. Paola Catapano, Visit and Exhibitions group leader, dressed like a Bond girl Rolf Landua, spokesman of the ATHENA experiment and Mick Storr Head of Technical Training lead the show. The place starts buzzing and we peep into the antimatter factory (AD) and a...

  11. Communicating uncertainty in hydrological forecasts: mission impossible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Maria-Helena; Mathevet, Thibault; Thielen, Jutta; Pappenberger, Florian

    2010-05-01

    scenarios, is essential. We believe that the efficient communication of uncertainty in hydro-meteorological forecasts is not a mission impossible. Questions remaining unanswered in probabilistic hydrological forecasting should not neutralize the goal of such a mission, and the suspense kept should instead act as a catalyst for overcoming the remaining challenges.

  12. Links among impossible differential, integral and zero correlation linear cryptanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bing; Liu, Zhiqiang; Rijmen, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    is to fix this gap and establish links between impossible differential cryptanalysis and integral cryptanalysis. Firstly, by introducing the concept of structure and dual structure, we prove that a → b is an impossible differential of a structure E if and only if it is a zero correlation linear hull...... linear hull always indicates the existence of an integral distinguisher. With this observation we improve the number of rounds of integral distinguishers of Feistel structures, CAST-256, SMS4 and Camellia. Finally, we conclude that an r-round impossible differential of E always leads to an r...

  13. The impossible interview with the man of the hidden biological structures. Interview by Paolo Mazzarello.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golgi, Camillo

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents an "impossible interview" to Professor Camillo Golgi, placed in time in December 1906. The Italian Professor Golgi from Pavia has been awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine ex aequo with the Spanish anatomist Santiago Ramón y Cajal. Both scientists have obtained the award for their work on the anatomy of the nervous system. However, they have opposite views on the mechanisms underlying nervous functions. Golgi believes that the axons stained by his "black reaction" form a continuous anatomical or functional network along which nervous impulses propagate. Ramón y Cajal is the paladin of the neuron theory, a hypothesis questioned by Golgi in his Nobel lecture of Tuesday, December 11. After the ceremony, an independent journalist has interviewed Professor Golgi in the Grand Hotel in Stockholm. Excerpts about his education, his main scientific discoveries, and his personal life are here given (reconstructing the "impossible interview" on the basis of Golgi's original writings).

  14. The highs and lows of object impossibility: effects of spatial frequency on holistic processing of impossible objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Erez; Avidan, Galia; Ganel, Tzvi

    2015-02-01

    Holistic processing, the decoding of a stimulus as a unified whole, is a basic characteristic of object perception. Recent research using Garner's speeded classification task has shown that this processing style is utilized even for impossible objects that contain an inherent spatial ambiguity. In particular, similar Garner interference effects were found for possible and impossible objects, indicating similar holistic processing styles for the two object categories. In the present study, we further investigated the perceptual mechanisms that mediate such holistic representation of impossible objects. We relied on the notion that, whereas information embedded in the high-spatial-frequency (HSF) content supports fine-detailed processing of object features, the information conveyed by low spatial frequencies (LSF) is more crucial for the emergence of a holistic shape representation. To test the effects of image frequency on the holistic processing of impossible objects, participants performed the Garner speeded classification task on images of possible and impossible cubes filtered for their LSF and HSF information. For images containing only LSF, similar interference effects were observed for possible and impossible objects, indicating that the two object categories were processed in a holistic manner. In contrast, for the HSF images, Garner interference was obtained only for possible, but not for impossible objects. Importantly, we provided evidence to show that this effect could not be attributed to a lack of sensitivity to object possibility in the LSF images. Particularly, even for full-spectrum images, Garner interference was still observed for both possible and impossible objects. Additionally, performance in an object classification task revealed high sensitivity to object possibility, even for LSF images. Taken together, these findings suggest that the visual system can tolerate the spatial ambiguity typical to impossible objects by relying on information

  15. The Impossible Trinity and Capital Flows in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Grenville

    2011-01-01

    The Impossible Trinity doctrine still holds a powerful sway over policymakers, advisors (particularly the International Monetary Fund [IMF]) and academia. In East Asia over the past decade, however, most countries have been able to maintain open capital markets, monetary policy independence, and a fair degree of management over their exchange rates. This is because the Impossible Trinity model does not fit the actual circumstances very closely. Capital flows are dominated by factors other ...

  16. Six Impossible Things: Fractional Charge From Laughlin's Wave Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, Keshav N.

    2010-01-01

    The Laughlin's wave function is found to be the zero-energy ground state of a δ-function Hamiltonian. The finite negative value of the ground state energy which is 91 per cent of Wigner value, can be obtained only when Coulomb correlations are introduced. The Laughlin's wave function is of short range and it overlaps with that of the exact wave functions of small (number of electrons 2 or 5) systems. (i) It is impossible to obtain fractional charge from Laughlin's wave function. (ii) It is impossible to prove that the Laughlin's wave function gives the ground state of the Coulomb Hamiltonian. (iii) It is impossible to have particle-hole symmetry in the Laughlin's wave function. (iv) It is impossible to derive the value of m in the Laughlin's wave function. The value of m in ψ m can not be proved to be 3 or 5. (v) It is impossible to prove that the Laughlin's state is incompressible because the compressible states are also likely. (vi) It is impossible for the Laughlin's wave function to have spin. This effort is directed to explain the experimental data of quantum Hall effect in GaAs/AlGaAs.

  17. Physiological, movement and technical demands of centre-wicket Battlezone, traditional net-based training and one-day cricket matches: a comparative study of sub-elite cricket players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Will; Dascombe, Ben; Duffield, Rob

    2014-01-01

    This study compared physiological, physical and technical demands of Battlezone, traditional cricket training and one-day matches. Data were initially collected from 11 amateur, male cricket players (age: 22.2 ± 3.3 year, height: 1.82 ± 0.06 m body mass: 80.4 ± 9.8 kg) during four Battlezone and four traditional cricket training sessions encompassing different playing positions. Heart rate, blood lactate concentration, rating of perceived exertion and movement patterns of players were measured. Retrospective video analysis was performed to code for technical outcomes. Similar data were collected from 42 amateur, male cricket players (23.5 ± 4.7 year, 1.81 ± 0.07 m, 81.4 ± 11.4 kg) during one-day matches. Significant differences were found between Battlezone, traditional cricket training and one-day matches within each playing position. Specifically, Battlezone invoked the greatest physiological and physical demands from batsmen in comparison to traditional cricket training and one-day matches. However, the greatest technical demand for batsmen was observed during traditional cricket training. In regards to the other playing positions, a greater physiological, physical and technical demand was observed during Battlezone and traditional training than during one-day matches. These results suggest that the use of Battlezone and traditional cricket training provides players with a suitable training stimulus for replicating the physiological, physical and technical demands of one-day cricket.

  18. Two Impossibility Results on the Converse Consistency Principle in Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Youngsub Chun

    1999-01-01

    We present two impossibility results on the converse consistency principle in the context of bargaining. First, we show that there is no solution satis-fying Pareto optimality, contraction independence, and converse consistency. Next, we show that there is no solution satisfying Pareto optimality, strong individual rationality, individual monotonicity, and converse consistency.

  19. The Possibility of Impossible Stairways and Greener Grass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorneveld, M.

    2007-01-01

    In classical game theory, players have finitely many actions and evaluate outcomes of mixed strategies using a von Neumann-Morgenstern utility function. Allowing a larger, but countable, player set introduces a host of phenomena that are impossible in finite games. Firstly, in coordination games,

  20. Safety in Markets: An Impossibility Theorem for Dutch Books

    OpenAIRE

    Leeat Yariv; David Laibson

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the extent to which markets constrain intertemporal preferences. First, we show that without transaction costs, agents are immune to exploitation in competitive markets. In particular, a sequence of trades leaving any market participant strictly worse off (termed a money losing Dutch book) is generically impossible. When transaction costs exist in the market, Dutch books are plausible only when agents have inaccurate beliefs about their own future behavior. Thus, markets a...

  1. On the impossibility of creating the quantum correlations with computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinduska, M.

    1991-01-01

    It is indicated that Feynman's proof about the impossibility of creating the quantum correlations with computers does not hold if the general transformations of the probability measure of the treated systems do not for a group. In the paper the consequences of this fact are considered in relation to the Bell inequalities and to the models of relative probability measure on the concave surfaces. 5 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. Statistical separability and the impossibility of the superluminal quantum communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiren

    2004-01-01

    The authors analyse the relation and the difference between the quantum correlation of two points in space and the communication between them. The statistical separability of two points in the space is defined and proven. From this statistical separability, authors prove that the superluminal quantum communication between different points is impossible. To emphasis the compatibility between the quantum theory and the relativity, authors write the von Neumann equation of density operator evolution in the multi-time form. (author)

  3. Managing the Impossible Trinity: The Case of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Soo Khoon

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how Malaysia manages the impossible trinity, the conjecture that a country cannot simultaneously maintain an open capital account, an exchange rate stability and monetary policy independence. Only two out of these three goals can be mutually consistent and policy makers have to decide which third goal to give up. The paper shows how Malaysia adopts an intermediate regime -- a regime that enables policy makers to manage all the three goals simultaneously. The impact of the...

  4. China and the Impossible Trinity: Economic Transition and the Internationalization of the Renminbi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guorui Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the recent formal inclusion of the Renminbi (RMB into the IMF’s Special Drawing Right (SDR currency basket, prospects for further internationalization of the RMB are improving. However, as China attempts to simultaneously undergo an economic transition into a more balanced growth model, and the internationalization of its currency, pressures are mounting from the impossible trinity. The latter is based on the Mundell-Flemming model. The latter posits a policy-choice problem in which a country cannot simultaneously have unfettered capital movement, an independent monetary policy, and a fixed exchange rate system. Naturally, three baskets of policy combinations are possible. Historical events such as the Asian financial crisis (1997-1998 have demonstrated that countries are strictly bound by the impossible trinity. The paper posits that China should opt for the policy basket of a fully liberalized capital account, fully liberalized interest rates, and maintain its current basket peg exchange rate regime but eventually allow for a greater spread. The policy sequence should begin with the liberalization of the interest rates while maintaining the current level of capital controls. Once adequate time has been given to allow the domestic financial and economic system to adjust and consolidate itself, the liberalization of the capital account should be the next goal. Finally, the basket peg exchange rate regime should be allowed a greater float. While the interest rates and the capital account are undergoing liberalization, the exchange rate should operate as a policy tool so as to minimize shocks to the domestic economic system. The policy basket and sequence have been chosen because they are conducive to a risk-averse economic transition from the current export-led growth model. The paper visits the cases of Hong Kong, the United States, and the European Union to examine their policy choice vis-à-vis the impossible trinity in order to make a

  5. A short impossibility proof of quantum bit commitment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiribella, Giulio, E-mail: gchiribella@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Center for Quantum Information, Institute for Interdisciplinary Information Sciences, Tsinghua University (China); D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro, E-mail: dariano@unipv.it [QUIT group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Perinotti, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.perinotti@unipv.it [QUIT group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Schlingemann, Dirk, E-mail: d.schlingemann@tu-bs.de [ISI Foundation, Quantum Information Theory Unit, Viale S. Severo 65, 10133 Torino (Italy); Werner, Reinhard, E-mail: Reinhard.Werner@itp.uni-hannover.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2013-06-17

    Bit commitment protocols, whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone, are generally held to be impossible on the basis of a concealment–bindingness tradeoff (Lo and Chau, 1997 [1], Mayers, 1997 [2]). A strengthened and explicit impossibility proof has been given in D'Ariano et al. (2007) [3] in the Heisenberg picture and in a C{sup ⁎}-algebraic framework, considering all conceivable protocols in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged. In the present Letter we provide a new impossibility proof in the Schrödinger picture, greatly simplifying the classification of protocols and strategies using the mathematical formulation in terms of quantum combs (Chiribella et al., 2008 [4]), with each single-party strategy represented by a conditioned comb. We prove that assuming a stronger notion of concealment—for each classical communication history, not in average—allows Alice's cheat to pass also the worst-case Bob's test. The present approach allows us to restate the concealment–bindingness tradeoff in terms of the continuity of dilations of probabilistic quantum combs with the metric given by the comb discriminability-distance.

  6. A short impossibility proof of quantum bit commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiribella, Giulio; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Schlingemann, Dirk; Werner, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Bit commitment protocols, whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone, are generally held to be impossible on the basis of a concealment–bindingness tradeoff (Lo and Chau, 1997 [1], Mayers, 1997 [2]). A strengthened and explicit impossibility proof has been given in D'Ariano et al. (2007) [3] in the Heisenberg picture and in a C ⁎ -algebraic framework, considering all conceivable protocols in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged. In the present Letter we provide a new impossibility proof in the Schrödinger picture, greatly simplifying the classification of protocols and strategies using the mathematical formulation in terms of quantum combs (Chiribella et al., 2008 [4]), with each single-party strategy represented by a conditioned comb. We prove that assuming a stronger notion of concealment—for each classical communication history, not in average—allows Alice's cheat to pass also the worst-case Bob's test. The present approach allows us to restate the concealment–bindingness tradeoff in terms of the continuity of dilations of probabilistic quantum combs with the metric given by the comb discriminability-distance.

  7. Von Neumann's impossibility proof: Mathematics in the service of rhetorics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieks, Dennis

    2017-11-01

    According to what has become a standard history of quantum mechanics, in 1932 von Neumann persuaded the physics community that hidden variables are impossible as a matter of principle, after which leading proponents of the Copenhagen interpretation put the situation to good use by arguing that the completeness of quantum mechanics was undeniable. This state of affairs lasted, so the story continues, until Bell in 1966 exposed von Neumann's proof as obviously wrong. The realization that von Neumann's proof was fallacious then rehabilitated hidden variables and made serious foundational research possible again. It is often added in recent accounts that von Neumann's error had been spotted almost immediately by Grete Hermann, but that her discovery was of no effect due to the dominant Copenhagen Zeitgeist. We shall attempt to tell a story that is more historically accurate and less ideologically charged. Most importantly, von Neumann never claimed to have shown the impossibility of hidden variables tout court, but argued that hidden-variable theories must possess a structure that deviates fundamentally from that of quantum mechanics. Both Hermann and Bell appear to have missed this point; moreover, both raised unjustified technical objections to the proof. Von Neumann's argument was basically that hidden-variables schemes must violate the ;quantum principle; that physical quantities are to be represented by operators in a Hilbert space. As a consequence, hidden-variables schemes, though possible in principle, necessarily exhibit a certain kind of contextuality. As we shall illustrate, early reactions to Bohm's theory are in agreement with this account. Leading physicists pointed out that Bohm's theory has the strange feature that pre-existing particle properties do not generally reveal themselves in measurements, in accordance with von Neumann's result. They did not conclude that the ;impossible was done; and that von Neumann had been shown wrong.

  8. The PM1 neurons, movement sensitive centrifugal visual brain neurons in the locust: anatomy, physiology, and modulation by identified octopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael

    2009-02-01

    The locust's optic lobe contains a system of wide-field, multimodal, centrifugal neurons. Two of these cells, the protocerebrum-medulla-neurons PM4a and b, are octopaminergic. This paper describes a second pair of large centrifugal neurons (the protocerebrum-medulla-neurons PM1a and PM1b) from the brain of Locusta migratoria based on intracellular cobalt fills, electrophysiology, and immunocytochemistry. They originate and arborise in the central brain and send processes into the medulla of the optic lobe. Double intracellular recording from the same cell suggests input in the central brain and output in the optic lobe. The neurons show immunoreactivity to gamma-amino-butyric acid and its synthesising enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase. The PM1 cells are movement sensitive and show habituation to repeated visual stimulation. Bath application of octopamine causes the response to dishabituate. A very similar effect is produced by electrical stimulation of one of an octopaminergic PM4 neuron. This effect can be blocked by application of the octopamine antagonists, mianserin and phentolamine. This readily accessible system of four wide-field neurons provides a system suitable for the investigation of octopaminergic effects on the visual system at the cellular level.

  9. Quantum voting and violation of Arrow's impossibility theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ning; Yunger Halpern, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    We propose a quantum voting system in the spirit of quantum games such as the quantum prisoner's dilemma. Our scheme enables a constitution to violate a quantum analog of Arrow's impossibility theorem. Arrow's theorem is a claim proved deductively in economics: Every (classical) constitution endowed with three innocuous-seeming properties is a dictatorship. We construct quantum analogs of constitutions, of the properties, and of Arrow's theorem. A quantum version of majority rule, we show, violates this quantum Arrow conjecture. Our voting system allows for tactical-voting strategies reliant on entanglement, interference, and superpositions. This contribution to quantum game theory helps elucidate how quantum phenomena can be harnessed for strategic advantage.

  10. Impossible cartographies: approaching Raúl Ruiz’s cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Goddard

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Raúl Ruiz (1931-2011, while considered one of the world’s most significant filmmakers by several film critics, is yet to be the subject of any thorough academic engagement with his work in English. My book Impossible Cartographies sets out on this task by mapping, as fully as possible, Ruiz’s cinematic trajectory across more than five decades of prolific work ranging from his earliest work in Chile to high budget ‘European’ costume dramas culminating in the recent Mysteries of Lisbon (2010. It does this by treating Ruiz’s work, with its surrealist, magic realist, popular cultural and neo-Baroque sources, as a type of ‘impossible’ cinematic cartography, mapping real, imaginary and virtual spaces, and crossing between different cultural contexts, aesthetic strategies, and technical media. In argues that across the different phases of Ruiz’s work identified, there are key continuities such as the invention of singular cinematic images and the interrogation of their possible and impossible combinations. This article will present some of the key themes of Ruiz’s cinema and use ideas of virtual cartography, tableaux vivants and the neo-baroque to illuminate a range of Ruiz’s films from the Hypothesis of the Stolen Painting (1978 to Mysteries of Lisbon, his last major project.

  11. Electromyography and the study of sports movements: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarys, J P; Cabri, J

    1993-10-01

    Within electromyography (EMG), a particular specialty has been developed wherein the aim is to use EMG for the study of muscular function and co-ordination. This area of research is usually called kinesiological EMG. The general aims of kinesiological EMG are to analyse the function and co-ordination of muscles in different movements and postures, in healthy subjects as well as in the disabled, in skilled actions as well as during training, in humans as well as in animals, under laboratory conditions as well as during daily or vocational activities. This is often done by a combination of electromyographical and kinesiological or biomechanical measurement techniques. Because there are over 400 skeletal muscles in the human body and both irregular and complex involvement of the muscles may occur in neuromuscular diseases and in voluntary occupational or sports movements, it is impossible to sample all of the muscles of the entire body during the performance of complex motor skills. In addition, the measurement of kinesiological EMG in sport and specific field circumstances, such as the track and/or soccer field, the alpine ski slope, the swimming pool and the ice rink, demands a specific technological and methodological approach, adaptable to both the field and the sport circumstances. Sport movement techniques and skills, training approaches and methods, ergonomic verification of the human-machine interaction have, amongst others, a highly specialized muscular activity in common. The knowledge of such muscular action in all its aspects, its evaluation and its feedback should allow for the optimization of movement, of sports materials, of training possibilities and, in the end, of sports performance. Drawing conclusions from a review of the EMG research of 32 sports, covering over 100 different complex skills, including methodological approaches, is an impossible task. We have attempted to set standards concerning the EMG methodology at the beginning of this review

  12. Bowel Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out of ... what you eat and drink. Sometimes a bowel movement isn't normal. Diarrhea happens when stool passes ...

  13. An impossibility theorem for parameter independent hidden variable theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leegwater, Gijs

    2016-05-01

    Recently, Roger Colbeck and Renato Renner (C&R) have claimed that '[n]o extension of quantum theory can have improved predictive power' (Colbeck & Renner, 2011, 2012b). If correct, this is a spectacular impossibility theorem for hidden variable theories, which is more general than the theorems of Bell (1964) and Leggett (2003). Also, C&R have used their claim in attempt to prove that a system's quantum-mechanical wave function is in a one-to-one correspondence with its 'ontic' state (Colbeck & Renner, 2012a). C&R's claim essentially means that in any hidden variable theory that is compatible with quantum-mechanical predictions, probabilities of measurement outcomes are independent of these hidden variables. This makes such variables otiose. On closer inspection, however, the generality and validity of the claim can be contested. First, it is based on an assumption called 'Freedom of Choice'. As the name suggests, this assumption involves the independence of an experimenter's choice of measurement settings. But in the way C&R define this assumption, a no-signalling condition is surreptitiously presupposed, making the assumption less innocent than it sounds. When using this definition, any hidden variable theory violating parameter independence, such as Bohmian Mechanics, is immediately shown to be incompatible with quantum-mechanical predictions. Also, the argument of C&R is hard to follow and their mathematical derivation contains several gaps, some of which cannot be closed in the way they suggest. We shall show that these gaps can be filled. The issue with the 'Freedom of Choice' assumption can be circumvented by explicitly assuming parameter independence. This makes the result less general, but better founded. We then obtain an impossibility theorem for hidden variable theories satisfying parameter independence only. As stated above, such hidden variable theories are impossible in the sense that any supplemental variables have no bearing on outcome probabilities

  14. Younger Dryas Boundary (YDB) impact : physical and statistical impossibility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick

    2010-08-01

    The YDB impact hypothesis of Firestone et al. (2007) is so extremely improbable it can be considered statistically impossible in addition to being physically impossible. Comets make up only about 1% of the population of Earth-crossing objects. Broken comets are a vanishingly small fraction, and only exist as Earth-sized clusters for a very short period of time. Only a small fraction of impacts occur at angles as shallow as proposed by the YDB impact authors. Events that are exceptionally unlikely to take place in the age of the Universe are 'statistically impossible'. The size distribution of Earth-crossing asteroids is well-constrained by astronomical observations, DoD satellite bolide frequencies, and the cratering record. This distribution can be transformed to a probability density function (PDF) for the largest expected impact of the past 20,000 years. The largest impact of any kind expected over the period of interest is 250 m. Anything larger than 2 km is exceptionally unlikely (probability less than 1%). The impact hypothesis does not rely on any sound physical model. A 4-km diameter comet, even if it fragmented upon entry, would not disperse or explode in the atmosphere. It would generate a crater about 50 km in diameter with a transient cavity as deep as 10 km. There is no evidence for such a large, young crater associated with the YDB. There is no model to suggest that a comet impact of this size is capable of generating continental-wide fires or blast damage, and there is no physical mechanism that could cause a 4-km comet to explode at the optimum height of 500 km. The highest possible altitude for a cometary optimum height is about 15 km, for a 120-m diameter comet. To maximize blast and thermal damage, a 4-km comet would have to break into tens of thousands fragments of this size and spread out over the entire continent, but that would require lateral forces that greatly exceed the drag force, and would not conserve energy. Airbursts are

  15. Theory of impossible worlds: Toward a physics of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscema, Paolo Massimo; Sacco, Pier Luigi; Della Torre, Francesca; Massini, Giulia; Breda, Marco; Ferilli, Guido

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce an innovative approach to the fusion between datasets in terms of attributes and observations, even when they are not related at all. With our technique, starting from datasets representing independent worlds, it is possible to analyze a single global dataset, and transferring each dataset onto the others is always possible. This procedure allows a deeper perspective in the study of a problem, by offering the chance of looking into it from other, independent points of view. Even unrelated datasets create a metaphoric representation of the problem, useful in terms of speed of convergence and predictive results, preserving the fundamental relationships in the data. In order to extract such knowledge, we propose a new learning rule named double backpropagation, by which an auto-encoder concurrently codifies all the different worlds. We test our methodology on different datasets and different issues, to underline the power and flexibility of the Theory of Impossible Worlds.

  16. Dictatorship, liberalism and the Pareto rule: Possible and impossible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boričić Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis has shaken belief in the capacity of neoliberal 'free market' policies. Numerous supports of state intervention have arisen, and the interest for social choice theory has revived. In this paper we consider three standard properties for aggregating individual into social preferences: dictatorship, liberalism and the Pareto rule, and their formal negations. The context of the pure first-order classical logic makes it possible to show how some combinations of the above mentioned conditions, under the hypothesis of unrestricted domain, form simple and reasonable examples of possible or impossible social choice systems. Due to their simplicity, these examples, including the famous 'liberal paradox', could have a particular didactic value.

  17. Impossible Subjects: LGBTIQ Experiences in Australian Pentecostal-Charismatic Churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. C. Jennings

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the product of in-depth interviews with 20 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex, and Queer (LGBTIQ people who identify, or formerly identified, as members of Pentecostal-Charismatic Christian (PCC churches. Interviewees typically found themselves confronted with a number of choices (not necessarily mutually exclusive: remain closeted, come out but commit to remaining celibate, undergo “SOCE” (Sexual Orientation Conversion Efforts therapy, or leave. Most left their churches, often after agonising attempts to reconcile their faith and their sexuality. Several of the practices adopted by Australian PCC churches exclude LGBTIQ people from full participation in their own congregations, rendering them “impossible subjects.” Australian Pentecostalism’s surprisingly egalitarian history, wherein the spiritually authorised ministry of women was both recognised and celebrated, suggests another, more inclusive way forward in regard to this vexed issue.

  18. Performance specifications: the nearly impossible versus the merely difficult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Darrel G.

    2000-08-01

    Affordability is the objective of acquisition reform. The institution of 'performance' specifications in lieu of 'design' specifications is a key strategy. Design of a cockpit display, for example, is left to the prime contractor based on a performance requirement stated by the government. The prime delegates to the integrator. The integrator develops the display and bill of materials provided by vendors. There is no feedback loop from the vendors to the ultimate customer, the government. As a result of this situation a communication gap exists: the government, primes, and integrators have concluded that they should pay commodity prices for custom displays. One step in the closing of this gap is the establishment of cross- cutting common reference performance specifications for aerospace and defense displays. The performance specification for cockpit displays is nearly impossible to achieve -- the last ounce of technology and more is required. Commodity markets, such as consumer notebook computers, are based on but a fraction of currently available technology -- companies 'bank' technology and roll it out across several 18-month product generations. Ruggedized consumer displays can be used in aerospace and defense applications other than the cockpit, such as mission crew stations. The performance specification for non-cockpit aerospace and defense applications is merely difficult. Acquisition reform has been defined by the Secretary of Defense to mean DoD should leverage the commercial market to the maximal extent possible. For the achievement of this end, an entirely different approach is wanted for cockpit displays versus large platform mission displays. That is, the nearly impossible requires a different design and business approach from the merely difficult.

  19. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  20. Sleep-related movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, Giovanni; Gigli, Gian Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Several movement disorders may occur during nocturnal rest disrupting sleep. A part of these complaints is characterized by relatively simple, non-purposeful and usually stereotyped movements. The last version of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders includes these clinical conditions (i.e. restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleep-related leg cramps, sleep-related bruxism and sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder) under the category entitled sleep-related movement disorders. Moreover, apparently physiological movements (e.g. alternating leg muscle activation and excessive hypnic fragmentary myoclonus) can show a high frequency and severity impairing sleep quality. Clinical and, in specific cases, neurophysiological assessments are required to detect the presence of nocturnal movement complaints. Patients reporting poor sleep due to these abnormal movements should undergo non-pharmacological or pharmacological treatments.

  1. A cosmological solution to the Impossibly Early Galaxy Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yennapureddy, Manoj K.; Melia, Fulvio

    2018-06-01

    To understand the formation and evolution of galaxies at redshifts 0 ≲ z ≲ 10, one must invariably introduce specific models (e.g., for the star formation) in order to fully interpret the data. Unfortunately, this tends to render the analysis compliant to the theory and its assumptions, so consensus is still somewhat elusive. Nonetheless, the surprisingly early appearance of massive galaxies challenges the standard model, and the halo mass function estimated from galaxy surveys at z ≳ 4 appears to be inconsistent with the predictions of ΛCDM, giving rise to what has been termed "The Impossibly Early Galaxy Problem" by some workers in the field. A simple resolution to this question may not be forthcoming. The situation with the halos themselves, however, is more straightforward and, in this paper, we use linear perturbation theory to derive the halo mass function over the redshift range 0 ≲ z ≲ 10 for the Rh = ct universe. We use this predicted halo distribution to demonstrate that both its dependence on mass and its very weak dependence on redshift are compatible with the data. The difficulties with ΛCDM may eventually be overcome with refinements to the underlying theory of star formation and galaxy evolution within the halos. For now, however, we demonstrate that the unexpected early formation of structure may also simply be due to an incorrect choice of the cosmology, rather than to yet unknown astrophysical issues associated with the condensation of mass fluctuations and subsequent galaxy formation.

  2. Possible and impossible solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irmay, S.

    1998-01-01

    Flow of isochoric constant-viscosity fluids obeys continuity and the Navier-Stokes equations. They are difficult to solve being nonlinear with a nonslip boundary condition at solid walls. Berker presented many solutions, but some of them, e.g. irrotational velocity, contradict the repulsion condition. Radial flow, possible between two nonparallel planes, is shown to be impossible in a cone, though an approximate solution exists. Parallel (equidistant) streamlines are possible only if rectilinear, concentric or coaxial circles, or helices of equal inclination on coaxial cylinders. Two-way flows resemble ideal and Stokes flows. The author presents some spatial jets impacting on a fixed or parallelly moving boundary. A general unsteady spatial solution near a plane boundary is expressed as power series of z, distance from the wall, which shows most boundary layer solutions to be valid only up to z 2 terms. Uniform steady-state flow at a constant piezo metric gradient in the x-direction, between nonparallel planes, has a definite solution only up to second-order terms in (y,z), due to undefined boundary condition at ∞. Acceleration averaged over time gives insight into the properties of pseudoturbulent or chaotic (turbulent) flows. Turbulent shear is redefined and Reynolds (turbulent) stresses loose their meaning

  3. Reexamination of quantum bit commitment: The possible and the impossible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Kretschmann, Dennis; Schlingemann, Dirk; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2007-01-01

    Bit commitment protocols whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone are generally held to be impossible. We give a strengthened and explicit proof of this result. We extend its scope to a much larger variety of protocols, which may have an arbitrary number of rounds, in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged, and which may include aborts and resets. Moreover, we do not consider the receiver to be bound to a fixed 'honest' strategy, so that 'anonymous state protocols', which were recently suggested as a possible way to beat the known no-go results, are also covered. We show that any concealing protocol allows the sender to find a cheating strategy, which is universal in the sense that it works against any strategy of the receiver. Moreover, if the concealing property holds only approximately, the cheat goes undetected with a high probability, which we explicitly estimate. The proof uses an explicit formalization of general two-party protocols, which is applicable to more general situations, and an estimate about the continuity of the Stinespring dilation of a general quantum channel. The result also provides a natural characterization of protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unlimited available technology and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present such a protocol whose security, perhaps surprisingly, relies on decoherence in the receiver's laboratory

  4. Reexamination of quantum bit commitment: The possible and the impossible

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Kretschmann, Dennis; Schlingemann, Dirk; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2007-09-01

    Bit commitment protocols whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone are generally held to be impossible. We give a strengthened and explicit proof of this result. We extend its scope to a much larger variety of protocols, which may have an arbitrary number of rounds, in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged, and which may include aborts and resets. Moreover, we do not consider the receiver to be bound to a fixed “honest” strategy, so that “anonymous state protocols,” which were recently suggested as a possible way to beat the known no-go results, are also covered. We show that any concealing protocol allows the sender to find a cheating strategy, which is universal in the sense that it works against any strategy of the receiver. Moreover, if the concealing property holds only approximately, the cheat goes undetected with a high probability, which we explicitly estimate. The proof uses an explicit formalization of general two-party protocols, which is applicable to more general situations, and an estimate about the continuity of the Stinespring dilation of a general quantum channel. The result also provides a natural characterization of protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unlimited available technology and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present such a protocol whose security, perhaps surprisingly, relies on decoherence in the receiver’s laboratory.

  5. Movement - uncoordinated

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... Smooth graceful movement requires a balance between different muscle groups. A part of the brain called the cerebellum manages this balance.

  6. Slope movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    2009-01-01

    On this poster some reasons of slope movements on the territory of the Slovak Republic are presented. Slope movements induced deterioration of land and forests, endangering of towns villages, and communications as well as hydro-engineering structures. Methods of preventing and stabilisation of slope movements are presented.

  7. From experimental systems to evolutionary biology: an impossible journey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morange, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The historical approach to the sciences has undergone a sea change during recent decades. Maybe the major contribution of Hans-Jörg Rheinberger to this movement was his demonstration of the importance of experimental systems, and of their transformations, in the development of the sciences. To describe these transformations, Hans-Jörg borrows metaphors from evolutionary biology. I want to argue that evolutionary biologists can find in these recent historical studies plenty of models and concepts to address unresolved issues in their discipline. At a time when transdisciplinarity is highly praised, it is useful to provide a precise description of the obstacles that have so far prevented this exchange.

  8. Rice Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.A. Counce; Davidi R. Gealy; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2002-01-01

    Physiology occurs tn physical space through chemical reactions constrained by anatomy and morphology, yet guided by genetics. Physiology has been called the logic of life. Genes encode structural and fimcdonal proteins. These proteins are subsequently processed to produce enzymes that direct and govern the biomechanical processes involved in the physiology of the...

  9. Movement - uncontrolled or slow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dystonia; Involuntary slow and twisting movements; Choreoathetosis; Leg and arm movements - uncontrollable; Arm and leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements

  10. 78 FR 46410 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel IMPOSSIBLE DREAM; Invitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2013 0084] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel IMPOSSIBLE DREAM; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... of the vessel IMPOSSIBLE DREAM is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Day, Multiple Day, Week...

  11. Maintaining a Distinction Between Possible and Impossible Topics of Conversation in the Outpatient Respiratory Medical Clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgitte Skov Jensen, Lone; Larsen, Kristian; Konradsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    by maintaining a distinction between possible and impossible topics to counseling. Three subcategories explaining the effort that maintain the impossible and possible topics separated were identified: (a) an effort to maintain the diseased lungs as the main task in counseling, (b) navigating interactions...

  12. (ImPossible Conversations? Activism, Childhood and Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevasti-Melissa Nolas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers an analytical exploration and points of connection between the categories of activism, childhood and everyday life. We are concerned with the lived experiences of activism and childhood broadly defined and especially with the ways in which people become aware, access, orient themselves to, and act on issues of common concern; in other words what connects people to activism. The paper engages with childhood in particular because childhood remains resolutely excluded from practices of public life and because engaging with activism from the marginalized position of children’s everyday lives provides an opportunity to think about the everyday, lived experiences of activism. Occupying a space ‘before method’, the paper engages with autobiographical narratives of growing up in the Communist left in the USA and the historical events of occupying Greek schools in the 1990s. These recounted experiences offer an opportunity to disrupt powerful categories currently in circulation for thinking about activism and childhood. Based on the analysis it is argued that future research on the intersections of activism, childhood and everyday life would benefit from exploring the spatial and temporal dimension of activism, to make visible the unfolding biographical projects of activists and movements alike, while also engaging with the emotional configurations of activists’ lives and what matters to activists, children and adults alike.

  13. Evidence for similar early but not late representation of possible and impossible objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Erez; Hadad, Bat-Sheva; Avidan, Galia; Ganel, Tzvi

    2015-01-01

    The perceptual processes that mediate the ability to efficiently represent object 3D structure are still not fully understood. The current study was aimed to shed light on these processes by utilizing spatially possible and impossible objects that could not be created in real 3D space. Despite being perceived as exceptionally unusual, impossible objects still possess fundamental Gestalt attributes and valid local depth cues that may support their initial successful representation. Based on this notion and on recent findings from our lab, we hypothesized that the initial representation of impossible objects would involve common mechanisms to those mediating typical object perception while the perceived differences between possible and impossible objects would emerge later along the processing hierarchy. In Experiment 1, participants preformed same/different classifications of two markers superimposed on a display containing two objects (possible or impossible). Faster reaction times were observed for displays in which the markers were superimposed on the same object (“object-based benefit”). Importantly, this benefit was similar for possible and impossible objects, suggesting that the representations of the two object categories rely on similar perceptual organization processes. Yet, responses for impossible objects were slower compared to possible objects. Experiment 2 was designed to examine the origin of this effect. Participants classified the location of two markers while exposure duration was manipulated. A similar pattern of performance was found for possible and impossible objects for the short exposure duration, with differences in accuracy between these two types of objects emerging only for longer exposure durations. Overall, these findings provide evidence that the representation of object structure relies on a multi-level process and that object impossibility selectively impairs the rendering of fine-detailed description of object structure. PMID

  14. Prediction and outcomes of impossible mask ventilation: a review of 50,000 anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheterpal, Sachin; Martin, Lizabeth; Shanks, Amy M; Tremper, Kevin K

    2009-04-01

    There are no existing data regarding risk factors for impossible mask ventilation and limited data regarding its incidence. The authors sought to determine the incidence, predictors, and outcomes associated with impossible mask ventilation. The authors performed an observational study over a 4-yr period. For each adult patient undergoing a general anesthetic, preoperative patient characteristics, detailed airway physical exam, and airway outcome data were collected. The primary outcome was impossible mask ventilation defined as the inability to exchange air during bag-mask ventilation attempts, despite multiple providers, airway adjuvants, or neuromuscular blockade. Secondary outcomes included the final, definitive airway management technique and direct laryngoscopy view. The incidence of impossible mask ventilation was calculated. Independent (P impossible mask ventilation were identified by performing a logistic regression full model fit. Over a 4-yr period from 2004 to 2008, 53,041 attempts at mask ventilation were recorded. A total of 77 cases of impossible mask ventilation (0.15%) were observed. Neck radiation changes, male sex, sleep apnea, Mallampati III or IV, and presence of beard were identified as independent predictors. The receiver-operating-characteristic area under the curve for this model was 0.80 +/- 0.03. Nineteen impossible mask ventilation patients (25%) also demonstrated difficult intubation, with 15 being intubated successfully. Twelve patients required an alternative intubation technique, including two surgical airways and two patients who were awakened and underwent successful fiberoptic intubation. Impossible mask ventilation is an infrequent airway event that is associated with difficult intubation. Neck radiation changes represent the most significant clinical predictor of impossible mask ventilation in the patient dataset.

  15. Protest movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucht, D.

    1989-01-01

    The author describes the development of protest movements in postwar Germay and outlines two essential overlapping 'flow cycles'. The first of these was characterised by the restaurative postwar years. It culminated and ended in the students' revolt. This revolt is at the same time the start of a second cycle of protest which encompasses all subsequent individual movement and is initated by an economic, political and sociocultural procrastination of modernisation. This cycle culminates in the late 70s and early 80s and clearly lost momentum over the last few years. The follwoing phases and themes are described profoundly: against restauration and armament in the 1950; the revolutionary impatience of the students' movement, politisation of everyday life by the womens' movement and citizens' action groups, antinuclear- and ecological movement, differentiation and stabilisation of the movement in the 70s and 80s; break-up and continuity in the German protest behaviour. The paper contains a detailed chronicle of protest activities since 1945. (orig.) [de

  16. Holistic processing of impossible objects: evidence from Garner's speeded-classification task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Erez; Avidan, Galia; Ganel, Tzvi

    2013-12-18

    Holistic processing, the decoding of the global structure of a stimulus while the local parts are not explicitly represented, is a basic characteristic of object perception. The current study was aimed to test whether such a representation could be created even for objects that violate fundamental principles of spatial organization, namely impossible objects. Previous studies argued that these objects cannot be represented holistically in long-term memory because they lack coherent 3D structure. Here, we utilized Garner's speeded classification task to test whether the perception of possible and impossible objects is mediated by similar holistic processing mechanisms. To this end, participants were asked to make speeded classifications of one object dimension while an irrelevant dimension was kept constant (baseline condition) or when this dimension varied (filtering condition). It is well accepted that ignoring the irrelevant dimension is impossible when holistic perception is mandatory, thus the extent of Garner interference in performance between the baseline and filtering conditions serves as an index of holistic processing. Critically, in Experiment 1, similar levels of Garner interference were found for possible and impossible objects implying holistic perception of both object types. Experiment 2 extended these results and demonstrated that even when depth information was explicitly processed, participants were still unable to process one dimension (width/depth) while ignoring the irrelevant dimension (depth/width, respectively). The results of Experiment 3 replicated the basic pattern found in Experiments 1 and 2 using a novel set of object exemplars. In Experiment 4, we used possible and impossible versions of the Penrose triangles in which information about impossibility is embedded in the internal elements of the objects which participant were explicitly asked to judge. As in Experiments 1-3, similar Garner interference was found for possible and

  17. A multidimensional analysis of physiological and mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... investigates the various physiological and mechanical techniques employed by archers of varying skill levels. ... Keywords: archery; muscle activations; heart rate; bow movement; postural sway ...

  18. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  19. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well defined...... note onsets and short interaction times between player and instrument do not allow for much adjustment once a stroke is initiated. The paper surveys research that shows a close relationship between movement and sound production, and how playing conditions such as tempo and the rebound after impact...

  20. Stereotypic movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Active Movement Warm-Up Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up routines can be used with all grade levels…

  2. Movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenders, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis describes the measurement of brain-tissue functions in patients with movement disorders using positron emission tomography (PET). This scanning technique is a method for direct in vivo quantitation of the regional tissue content of positron emitting radionuclides in brain (or other organs) in an essentially non-invasive way. Ch. 2 outlines some general features of PET and describes the scanner which has been used for the studies in this thesis. Also the tracer methodology, as applied to data investigations of movement disorders, are discussed. Ch. 3 contains the results of the PET investigations which were performed in the study of movement disorders. The results are presented in the form of 12 papers. The main goals of these studies were the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Steele-Richardson-Olzewski syndrome and special case reports. Ch. 4 summarizes the results of these publications and Ch. 5 concludes the main part of this thesis with a general discussion of movement disorders in relation to PET investigations. 697 refs.; 60 figs.; 31 tabs

  3. Psychodynamic Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...

  4. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear...... as possible operational moves....

  5. The Face of Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between the physiology of the emotions and the display of character in Victorian Britain. Charles Bell and others had begun to link certain physiological functions, such as respiration, with the expression of feelings such as fear, regarding the heart and other internal organs as instruments by which the emotions were made visible. But a purely functional account of the emotions, which emerged through the development of reflex physiology during the second half of the century, would dramatically alter the nature of feelings and the means of observing them. At the same time, instinctual or acquired sympathy, which had long underpinned the accurate reading of expressions, became a problem to be surmounted by new 'objectively'. Graphic recording instruments measuring a variety of physiological functions and used with increasing frequency in clinical diagnostics became of fundamental importance for tracing the movement of feelings during the period prior to the development of cinematography. They remained, in the form of devices such as the polygraph, a crucial and controversial means of measuring affective states, beneath the potentially deceptive surface of the body.

  6. Mission impossible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, D

    In response to a UNICEF request, the Overseas Development Administration of the United Kingdom recruited, briefed, and sent nine nurses to Angola with the goal of immunizing 70,000 children and 95,000 women. The nurses, however, stayed in a capital city hotel for their first week in Angola due to security problems instead of going directly to their front line destinations. It also became clear that competent Angolan staff were available to handle the task. Help was instead needed in establishing the cold chain and retraining. These needs certainly did not necessitate exposing nine expatriate nurses to unsafe conditions. After four weeks on site, the nurses noted in debriefing the inadequacy of their first aid kits for the conditions. Both nurses and the administration acknowledge that the initiative was unsuccessful. Practical support in the form of radio equipment, useful first-aid kits, and security were absent. The administration also realizes that future initiatives must be based upon more up-to-date information and be better planned. The presence of the nurses may, however, have encouraged indigenous nurses with whom they came in contact.

  7. Mission impossible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per; Nielsen, Eskild Holm

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the holistic approach to the environment within environmental impact assessment (EIA). Based on a comprehensive evaluation of the EIA regulations in Denmark, an important observation is that the environmental concept, from being broad in the initial stages, is narrowed...... considerably in subsequent phases of the EIA process. Although the EIA process starts out as very holistic, ultimately we find that mitigation measures and the regulatory efforts largely mirror traditional regulations, such as the law of environmental protection and other sectoral legislation. The article...

  8. Impossible Frontiers

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Thomas J.; Lo, Andrew W.

    2009-01-01

    A key result of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is that the market portfolio---the portfolio of all assets in which each asset's weight is proportional to its total market capitalization---lies on the mean-variance efficient frontier, the set of portfolios having mean-variance characteristics that cannot be improved upon. Therefore, the CAPM cannot be consistent with efficient frontiers for which every frontier portfolio has at least one negative weight or short position. We call such ...

  9. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  10. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  11. Physiological pseudomyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R

    1990-08-01

    Objective refraction through plus fogging lenses and base-in prisms revealed that normally accommodation is not completely relaxed when the stimulus to accommodation is zero. The myopic shift in the refractive error due to this focus error of accommodation was defined as physiological pseudomyopia. Two previously established features of accommodation are responsible for this behavior: (1) accommodation acts as a proportional control system for steady-state responses; and (2) the rest focus of accommodation is nonzero. It is proposed that the hyperopic shift in refraction observed in cycloplegia is the result of elimination of physiological pseudomyopia.

  12. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bent...

  13. Automatic duress alarms through physiological response monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehrig, S.C.

    1977-07-01

    Physiological response monitoring under controlled conditions can provide an effective means for passively determining if the wearer is under moderate to severe stresses. By monitoring the heart rate (HR) and galvanic skin response (GSR) of an individual, it is possible to detect in real time the increase in heart rate and GSR levels due to physiological reactions to mental duress. With existing physiological monitoring equipment, however, the work load of the wearer must be well defined since it is impossible, without additional data, to distinguish mental duress responses from those resulting from moderate physical exertion. Similarly, environmental conditions should be constrained within set limits to avoid masking increases in GSR levels due to metntal stress from those associated with increased perspiration. These constraints should not prove overly restrictive and would allow an integrated security system utilizing physiological monitoring equipment to provide an effective real time, automated early warning system for detection of mental duress or death of the wearer

  14. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  15. Environmental physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. Subject areas include: the effects of environmental pollutants on homeostasis of the hematopoietic system; pollutant effects on steroid metabolism; pollutant effects on pulmonary macrophages; effects of toxic gases on lung cells; the development of immunological methods for assessing lung damage at the cellular level; the response of erythropoietin concentration to various physiological changes; and the study of actinide metabolism in monkey skeletons

  16. Value preserving quantum measurements: impossibility theorems and lower bounds for the distortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Trieste Univ.; Rimini, A.; Weber, T.

    1982-11-01

    Extending previous works on the subject, we consider the problem of the limitations to ideal quantum measurements arising from the presence of additive conservation laws. We derive impossibility theorems and lower bounds for the deviations from the ideal schemes, with particular reference to the distorting case. (author)

  17. Curiosity and exploratory behaviour towards possible and impossible events in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotsky, Eugene

    2010-08-01

    In four experiments with 4-, 6-, and 9-year-old children and adults, the hypothesis was tested that, all other conditions being equal, a novel and unusual event elicits stronger curiosity and exploratory behaviour if its suggested explanation involves an element of the supernatural than if it does not (the impossible over possible effect - the I/P effect). Participants were shown an unusual phenomenon (a spontaneous disintegration of a physical object in an apparently empty box) framed in the context of either a magical (the impossible event) or scientific (the possible event) explanation. In the verbal trial, participants showed a clear understanding of the difference between the effect of genuine magic and the effect of a trick. In the behavioural trial, both children and adults showed the I/P effect. They were more likely to run the risk of losing their valuable objects in order to explore the impossible event than the possible event. Follow-up experiments showed that the I/P effect couldn't be explained as an artifact of the different degrees of cost of exploratory behaviour in the possible and impossible conditions or as a result of misinterpreting magic as tricks. The I/P effect emerged when the cost of exploratory behaviour was moderate and disappeared when the cost was perceived as too high or too low.

  18. The (related-key) impossible boomerang attack and its application to the AES block cipher

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a 128-bit block cipher with a user key of 128, 192 or 256 bits, released by NIST in 2001 as the next-generation data encryption standard for use in the USA. It was adopted as an ISO international standard in 2005. Impossible differential cryptanalysis and

  19. 17th century arguments for the impossibility of the indefinite and the definite circle quadrature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The classical problem of the quadrature (or equivalently the rectification) of the circle enjoyed a renaissance in the second half of the 17th century. The new analytic methods provided the means for the discovery of infinite expressions of and for the first attempts to prove impossibility statem...

  20. Possibility, impossibility, and cheat sensitivity of quantum-bit string commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhrman, H.; Christandl, M.; Hayden, P.; Lo, H.-K.; Wehner, S.

    2008-01-01

    Unconditionally secure nonrelativistic bit commitment is known to be impossible in both the classical and the quantum worlds. But when committing to a string of n bits at once, how far can we stretch the quantum limits? In this paper, we introduce a framework for quantum schemes where Alice commits

  1. Do the Youth Olympic Games promote Olympism? Analysing a mission (im)possible from a local youth perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Martin; Walde, Janette; Scheiber, Sabrina; Nagiller, Roman; Tappeiner, Gottfried

    2018-04-23

    On the basis of the Youth Olympic Games (YOG), we assess if and how the youth in the communities of the YOG host cities have been influenced concerning their perception of the Olympic values (OV) and the Olympic movement (OM). Special attention of the study is paid to the analysis of intervention mechanisms which the local youth underwent (e.g. attending the YOG on-site, participating in school programmes). Our study was conducted among 1004 adolescents living in the host region three years after the Innsbruck 2012 YOG had been staged. Our analyses extend the corresponding literature by (1) showing that the YOG and the involvement of the local youth in such an event have the power of creating an interest in the OM and its events, but do not have the power to influence the young citizens' perception of the OV significantly; (2) illustrating that the perception adolescents have of the OV depend mainly on their socio-demographic background, their a priori interest in sports events, social capital (norms, institutional trust) and the extent to which the youngsters follow the event in the different media; and (3) corroborating the hypothesis that intervention programmes (e.g. school programmes) for promoting (Olympic) values and ideals should not be single, obligatory and isolated activities. We conclude that it is not surprising that the International Olympic Committee has reformulated the goals for the YOG in the Olympic Agenda 2020, as some goals relating to the promotion of the OV might have been a mission impossible.

  2. Analysis of knee movement with low-field MR equipment. A normal volunteer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yoko; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo; Aoki, Ikuo; Yamada, Takashi.

    1994-01-01

    This study was performed to make a normal standard by analyzing knee movement in detail. An open low-field unit was used for 23 healthy knee joints. With three-dimensional Fourier transformation (3DFT) gradient echo sequence, 50 sagittal slices of 4.5 mm in thickness were obtained at four flexion angles: 0, 30, 60, and 90 degrees (lateral position). Although the tension ratio of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (ACL, PCL) increased during knee flexion, the change in the tension ratio was significantly different between the ACL and PCL. The femur-ACL angle and femur-PCL angle were parallel with the knee flexion angle, but the tibia-ACL angle and tibia-PCL angle changed complexly. The lateral and medial condyles rolled and slid during knee flexion, and the medial side moved more than the lateral side, consistent with rotation of the lower thigh. The difference in backward movement distance on the tibia between the two condyles was significantly larger in females than in males. This might explain the dominance of knee osteoarthritis in women. Although the lateral position is not completely physiological, we could show initial cinematic data of up to 90 degrees of knee flexion using open-type MRI, which is impossible with high- and middle-field machines. (author)

  3. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  4. Temporomandibular joint movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, M.; Itou, S.; Ishii, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Kawamura, Y.; Matsuda, T.; Hayashi, N.; Ishii, J.

    1992-01-01

    Ten temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 5 healthy volunteers and 19 TMJs of internal derangements in 16 patients with splint therapy were examined with MR imaging. T1-weighted images were obtained only in the closed mouth position, and gradient recalled acquisition in steady state (GRASS) images were obtained in active opening and closing phases, allowing a pseudodynamic display of TMJ movement. All patients received protrusive splint treatment. The usefulness of MR imaging to assess the efficacy of splint therapy was evaluated. Corrected disk position with the splint in place was clearly demonstrated in 9 TMJs, corresponding with elimination of reciprocal clicking. Ten other TMJs of anterior disk displacement without reduction showed uncorrected disk position by the splint. This information could confirm the therapeutic efficacy, or suggest other treatment alternatives. GRASS MR imaging can provide accurate and physiologic information about disk function in initial and follow-up assessment of protrusive splint therapy. (orig.)

  5. Physiological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  6. Maintaining a Distinction Between Possible and Impossible Topics of Conversation in the Outpatient Respiratory Medical Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lone Birgitte Skov; Larsen, Kristian; Konradsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to generate a grounded theory explaining patterns of behavior among health care professionals (HCPs) during interactions with patients in outpatient respiratory medical clinics. The findings suggest that the HCPs managed contradictory expectations to the interaction by maintaining a distinction between possible and impossible topics to counseling. Three subcategories explaining the effort that maintain the impossible and possible topics separated were identified: (a) an effort to maintain the diseased lungs as the main task in counseling, (b) navigating interactions to avoid strong emotions of suffering in patients to reveal, (c) avoiding the appearance of the non-alterable life circumstances of the patients. The HCPs' attitudes toward what patients could be offered generated a distance and a difficulty during counseling and created further suffering in the patients but likewise a discomfort and frustration among the HCPs.

  7. Simple proof of the impossibility of bit commitment in generalized probabilistic theories using cone programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Jamie; Selby, John

    2018-04-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic task, in which Alice commits a bit to Bob such that she cannot later change the value of the bit, while, simultaneously, the bit is hidden from Bob. It is known that ideal bit commitment is impossible within quantum theory. In this work, we show that it is also impossible in generalized probabilistic theories (under a small set of assumptions) by presenting a quantitative trade-off between Alice's and Bob's cheating probabilities. Our proof relies crucially on a formulation of cheating strategies as cone programs, a natural generalization of semidefinite programs. In fact, using the generality of this technique, we prove that this result holds for the more general task of integer commitment.

  8. The Impossible Trinity on Steroids: Inflation Targeting and Exchange Rate Management in Emerging Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltenbrunner, A; Painceira, JP

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to the debate on macroeconomic management and capital account regulations in developing and emerging countries (DECs). It argues that the recommendation by neoclassical economists and international financial institutions (IFIs) to combine an inflation targeting regime with exchange rate management, whilst maintaining open capital accounts, is both impossible and potentially counterproductive. This, it shows with extensive semi-structured interviews with currency traders...

  9. The Empirics of International Monetary Transmission: Identification and the Impossible Trinity

    OpenAIRE

    Bluedorn, John C.; Bowdler, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The transmission of monetary policy across borders is central to many open economy models. Research has tried to evaluate the “impossible trinity” through estimating international interest rate linkages under alternative exchange rate regimes using realized base country interest rates. Such interest rates include anticipated and endogenous elements, which need not propagate internationally. We compare international interest rate responses under pegged and non-pegged regimes to identified, una...

  10. Logical and historical determination of the Arrow and Sen impossibility theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boričić Branislav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available General classification of mathematical statements divides them into universal, those of the form xA , and existential ЭxA ones. Common formulations of impossibility theorems of K. J. Arrow and A. K. Sen are represented by the statements of the form "there is no x such that A". Bearing in mind logical equivalence of formulae ¬ЭxA and x¬A, we come to the conclusion that the corpus of impossibility theorems, which appears in the theory of social choice, could make a specific and recognizable subclass of universal statements. In this paper, on the basis of the established logical and methodological criteria, we point to a sequence of extremely significant "impossibility theorems", reaching throughout the history of mathematics to the present days and the famous results of Arrow and Sen in field of mathematical economics. We close with specifying the context which makes it possible to formulate the results of Arrow and Sen accurately, presenting a new direct proof of Sen’s result, with no reliance on the notion of minimal liberalism. .

  11. Predicting Distress-Induced Eating With Self-Reports: Mission Impossible or a Piece of Cake? [comment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van

    2010-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Assessing yourself as an emotional eater: Mission impossible?" by C. Evers, D. T. D. de Ridder, and M. A. Adriaanse (see record 2009-20990-009). Results of a functional MRI study (Bohon, Stice, & Spoor, 2009) contradict the assertion that it is "impossible" to

  12. Applied physiology of triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, M L; Douglas, P S

    1995-04-01

    cycling and running, comparison studies have not been done. Economy of motion in swimming, cycling and running have all been found to be correlated with comparable event performance. Training to improve swimming economy can be done without prior exercise, but training to improve swimming economy can be done without prior exercise, but training to improve cycling and running economy should take the multimode nature of a triathlon into consideration. That is, swimming should precede cycling economy training, and cycling should precede running economy training. Cardiovascular, metabolic and neuromuscular adaptations are the main physiological correlates of improved movement economy. Since exercise-induced stress on most physiological systems is based on relative, rather than absolute, exercise intensity, training and racing intensities are frequently quantified as a percentage of maximal capacity of %VO2max.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  13. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  14. Functional Movement Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Patient Organizations International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) See all related organizations Publications Order NINDS Publications Definition Psychogenic movement is an unwanted muscle movement such ...

  15. Justice foundations for the Comprehensive Law Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Authors examining the developing dispute resolution alternatives to the adversarial system have identified nine converging "vectors" or alternatives in what has been termed the Comprehensive Law Movement. These authors have sought to understand how the developing vectors can remain separate and vibrant movements while sharing common ground. Some analyze these developments as being within law and legal practice, others see them as alternative approaches to law, and still others take a combined approach. It will be impossible to understand how these vectors have meaningful differences from law and legal practice if the search is limited to looking within law and legal practice. It will be impossible to understand how these vectors have meaningful commonalities with law and legal practice if the search is limited to looking external to law and legal practice. Instead of comparing the vectors with the adversarial system, higher order criteria are required. What is needed is a comprehensive and internally consistent super-system of norms; one that can be used to evaluate the adversarial system and the evolving vectors on an equal footing. An Aristotelian natural law virtue theory of justice can: (a) provide a functional guiding definition of justice; (b) serve as a comprehensive and internally consistent super-system of norms; and (c) provide the theoretical and evaluative foundation required to clarify the relationships among the adversarial system and the developing vectors. Finally, it will become clear why the Comprehensive Law Movement might be more appropriately conceptualized as the Comprehensive Justice Movement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  17. Gazing toward humans: a study on water rescue dogs using the impossible task paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aniello, Biagio; Scandurra, Anna; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Valsecchi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have assessed the role of life experiences, including learning opportunities, living conditions and the quality of dog-human relationships, in the use of human cues and problem-solving ability. The current study investigates how and to what extent training affects the behaviour of dogs and the communication of dogs with humans by comparing dogs trained for a water rescue service and untrained pet dogs in the impossible task paradigm. Twenty-three certified water rescue dogs (the water rescue group) and 17 dogs with no training experience (the untrained group) were tested using a modified version of the impossible task described by Marshall-Pescini et al. in 2009. The results demonstrated that the water rescue dogs directed their first gaze significantly more often towards the owner and spent more time gazing toward two people compared to the untrained pet dogs. There was no difference between the dogs of the two groups as far as in the amount of time spent gazing at the owner or the stranger; neither in the interaction with the apparatus attempting to obtain food. The specific training regime, aimed at promoting cooperation during the performance of water rescue, could account for the longer gazing behaviour shown toward people by the water rescue dogs and the priority of gazing toward the owner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Zero-gravity movement studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badler, N. I.; Fishwick, P.; Taft, N.; Agrawala, M.

    1985-01-01

    The use of computer graphics to simulate the movement of articulated animals and mechanisms has a number of uses ranging over many fields. Human motion simulation systems can be useful in education, medicine, anatomy, physiology, and dance. In biomechanics, computer displays help to understand and analyze performance. Simulations can be used to help understand the effect of external or internal forces. Similarly, zero-gravity simulation systems should provide a means of designing and exploring the capabilities of hypothetical zero-gravity situations before actually carrying out such actions. The advantage of using a simulation of the motion is that one can experiment with variations of a maneuver before attempting to teach it to an individual. The zero-gravity motion simulation problem can be divided into two broad areas: human movement and behavior in zero-gravity, and simulation of articulated mechanisms.

  19. Electromyography physiology engineering and noninvasive applications

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Philip; John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Featuring contributions from key innovators working in the field today, Electromyography reveals the broad applications of EMG data in areas as diverse as neurology, ergonomics, exercise physiology, rehabilitation, movement analysis, biofeedback, and myoelectric control of prostheses." "Electromyography offers physiologists, medical professionals, and students in biomedical engineering a new window into the possibilities of this technology."--Jacket.

  20. An Anatomico -physiological Principle Governing the Direction of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dogmatic statements about the direction of the folds are often made. Radiologists have long been aware of mucosal movements, but after the fundamental work of Forssell, no further views have been put forward. Radiological procedures have been used to investigate the normal, macroscopic, physiological movements of ...

  1. Virtually Impossible: Deleuze and Derrida on the Political Problem of Islands (and Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Williams

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is commonplace to think of an island as a discreetly bounded unit. Selected writings on islands by the poststructuralist philosophers Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Derrida reveal the island variously to be both real and imaginary, mythological and scientific, but as most problematic when constituted in political terms as an indivisible, sovereign entity. These two thinkers’ more broadly developed concepts of the virtual and the impossible, respectively, are seen to disrupt any assumptions about the fixity and closure of the island polity. Instead they emphasize its actualization through processual relations that can be difficult yet dynamic and decisive in effecting the move from being to becoming-other. As the possibilities for instituting more ethical as well as different political relations open up, the question of island studies remaining in its currently coherent, familiar form is raised for consideration.

  2. On the (Impossibility and Bliss of Telling My Dad, "I Love You"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wade Clarke

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available While fathers seldom say "I love you" to their son(s, there is also acknowledgment that sons rarely say it to their father. Confessions of love are like notes in a melody of previous affirmations, so what is it like for a son to say it, especially if large parts of his life are spent in "connective avoidance" with his dad? Writing on the (impossibility of eventually saying "I love you," just before he died, I offer a "blissfully poetic" account of the experience of saying it. I also reflect on the lingering significance it has had for my experience of loss and bereavement. Although this text offers no easy formula, it ends by showing what a text of bliss might eventually look like for a son in recovery. Addressing the questions, so what? And, now what, then? implications beyond the self are also considered.

  3. Impossibility criterion for obtaining pure entangled states from mixed states by purifying protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Pingxing; Liang Linmei; Li Chengzu; Huang Mingqiu

    2002-01-01

    Purifying noisy entanglement is a protocol that can increase the entanglement of a mixed state (as a source) at the expense of the entanglement of others (such as an ancilla) by collective measurement. A protocol with which one can get a pure entangled state from a mixed state is defined as purifying mixed states. We address a basic question: can one get a pure entangled state from a mixed state? We give a necessary and sufficient condition of purifying a mixed state by fit local operations and classical communication and show that for a class of source states and ancilla states in arbitrary bipartite systems purifying mixed states is impossible by finite rounds of purifying protocols. For 2x2 systems, it is proved that arbitrary states cannot be purified by individual measurement. The possible application and meaning of the conclusion are discussed

  4. Impossible meet-in-the-middle fault analysis on the LED lightweight cipher in VANETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Wei; Rijmen, Vincent; Tao, Zhi

    2018-01-01

    With the expansion of wireless technology, vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) are emerging as a promising approach for realizing smart cities and addressing many serious traffic problems, such as road safety, convenience, and efficiency. To avoid any possible rancorous attacks, employing lightwei......With the expansion of wireless technology, vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) are emerging as a promising approach for realizing smart cities and addressing many serious traffic problems, such as road safety, convenience, and efficiency. To avoid any possible rancorous attacks, employing....... A detailed analysis of the expected number of faults is used to uniquely determine the secret key. It is based on the propagation of truncated differentials and is surprisingly reminiscent of the computation of the complexity of a rectangle attack. It shows that the impossible meet-in-the-middle fault...

  5. About binding conditions for a system of three fermions and impossibility of existence of a trineutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byidasyuk, Yu.M.; Simenog, Yi.V.; Simenog, Yi.V.

    2007-01-01

    Conditions of the existence of a three-fermion bound state are investigated for the states with nonzero angular momentum L = 1 and a wide class of interaction potentials. It is shown that the binding of three fermions with purely attractive potentials or the standard attractive potentials at high distances and a short-range repulsion is impossible if two of the fermions are unbound. Moreover, this system is even farther from a bound state when the parameters of potentials are in agreement with the low-energy two-neutron data. The possibility for a bound state of a three-fermion system with L = 1 without bound subsystems to exist is demonstrated for the potentials with two attractive regimes. But there exists no bound trineutron for the realistic neutron-neutron interaction even with two regimes of attractions, in contrast to a tetraneutron considered in [9

  6. The Impossible Trinity of Denial. European Economic Governance in a Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István BENCZES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The first ten years of the Economic and Monetary Union were a remarkable success story. Nevertheless, the European financial-cum-sovereign- debt-crisis made it clear that the original design of European economic governance is not feasible any longer. The crisis compelled Europeans to admit that the implicit consent of Maastricht on a triple denial with regard to the single currency area, i.e., (1 no exit, (2 no bail-out, and (3 no default, is no longer tenable. By introducing the concept of the ‘impossible trinity of denial’, the current paper argues that pursuing these three goals simultaneously is not attainable, and that one of these should be sacrificed in order for the single currency to survive the current crisis. Also, supranational institutions should enjoy more control over crisis resolution in the future.

  7. Plant Physiology: Redefining the Enigma of Metabolism in Stomatal Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Michael R

    2016-02-08

    Stomata open at the leaf epidermis, driven by solute accumulation in the surrounding guard cells. Transmembrane ion transport has long been recognised to contribute to this process. A new study makes it clear that guard cells also metabolise starch to accelerate opening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stereotypic movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001548.htm Stereotypic movement disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes ...

  9. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...

  10. Overview of Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Delirium Additional Content Medical News Overview of Movement Disorders By Hector A. Gonzalez-Usigli, MD, Professor ... Neurology, HE UMAE Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente; Movement Disorders Clinic, Neurology at IMSS Alberto Espay, MD, ...

  11. Independence of Movement Preparation and Movement Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haith, Adrian M; Pakpoor, Jina; Krakauer, John W

    2016-03-09

    Initiating a movement in response to a visual stimulus takes significantly longer than might be expected on the basis of neural transmission delays, but it is unclear why. In a visually guided reaching task, we forced human participants to move at lower-than-normal reaction times to test whether normal reaction times are strictly necessary for accurate movement. We found that participants were, in fact, capable of moving accurately ∼80 ms earlier than their reaction times would suggest. Reaction times thus include a seemingly unnecessary delay that accounts for approximately one-third of their duration. Close examination of participants' behavior in conventional reaction-time conditions revealed that they generated occasional, spontaneous errors in trials in which their reaction time was unusually short. The pattern of these errors could be well accounted for by a simple model in which the timing of movement initiation is independent of the timing of movement preparation. This independence provides an explanation for why reaction times are usually so sluggish: delaying the mean time of movement initiation relative to preparation reduces the risk that a movement will be initiated before it has been appropriately prepared. Our results suggest that preparation and initiation of movement are mechanistically independent and may have a distinct neural basis. The results also demonstrate that, even in strongly stimulus-driven tasks, presentation of a stimulus does not directly trigger a movement. Rather, the stimulus appears to trigger an internal decision whether to make a movement, reflecting a volitional rather than reactive mode of control. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363007-10$15.00/0.

  12. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement......-based interaction we will briefly introduce and discuss how learning, mapping and multi-user interaction are important when designing movement based interaction....

  13. Recent crustal movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelzer, H.

    Calculation of temporal height changes for the determination of recent vertical crustal movements in northern, western, and southern Germany is described. Precise geodetic measurements and their analysis for the determination of recent crustal movements in north-eastern Iceland, western Venezuela, and central Peru are described. Determination of recent vertical crustal movements by leveling and gravity data; geodetic modeling of deformations and recent crustal movements; geodetic modeling of plate motions; and instrumental developments in geodetic measuring are discussed.

  14. Social movements and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  15. De Copia: On Narcissism, Echo, and the Im-Possible Female Friendship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Plonowska Ziarek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two interrelated questions that I would like to explore in the context of Pleshette DeArmitt’s work. The first one pertains to the intellectual stakes in the eloquent style of her writing, its elegance and playfulness, which accompanies the philosophical order of argumentation. And the second one refers to the issue of female friendship. How can one discuss such friendship without resorting to merely biographical, historical, or autobiographical terms? Yet what kind of philosophical theories of female friendship could I possibly refer to? Perhaps to none. DeArmitt, whose life has created so many friendships, did not live long enough to write about friendship, at least not directly. And yet I would like to suggest that her captivating—the adjective that I use here deliberately—book, The Right to Narcissism: A Case for Im-possible Self-Love, leaves us traces of female friendship in her philosophical argument that narcissistic self-love is inseparable from the love of another.   

  16. Atom land guided tour through the strange (and impossibly small) world of particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Butterworth, Jon

    2018-01-01

    For fans of Seven Brief Lessons on Physics and Astrophysics for People in a Hurry: a richly conjured world, in map and metaphor, of particle physics. Atom Land brings the impossibly small world of particle physics to life, taking readers on a guided journey through the subatomic world. Readers will sail the subatomic seas in search of electron ports, boson continents, and hadron islands. The sea itself is the quantum field, complete with quantum waves. Beware dark energy and extra dimensions, embodied by fantastical sea creatures prowling the far edges of the known world. Your tour guide through this whimsical—and highly instructive— world is Jon Butterworth, leading physicist at CERN (the epicenter of today’s greatest findings in physics). Over a series of journeys, he shows how everything fits together, and how a grasp of particle physics is key to unlocking a deeper understanding of many of the most profound mysteries—and science’s possible answers—in the known universe.

  17. The State of the Otolaryngology Match: A Review of Applicant Trends, "Impossible" Qualifications, and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Sarah N; Schmalbach, Cecelia E; Laury, Adrienne M

    2017-06-01

    Objective This State of the Art Review aims (1) to define recent qualifications of otolaryngology resident applicants by focusing on United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) status, and research/publications and (2) to summarize the current literature regarding the relationship between these measures and performance in residency. Data Sources Electronic Residency Application Service, National Residency Matching Program, PubMed, Ovid, and GoogleScholar. Review Methods Electronic Residency Application Service and National Residency Matching Program data were analyzed to evaluate trends in applicant numbers and qualifications. Additionally, a literature search was performed with the aforementioned databases to identify relevant articles published in the past 5 years that examined USMLE Step 1 scores, AOA status, and research/publications. Conclusions Compared with other highly competitive fields over the past 3 years, the only specialty with decreasing applicant numbers is otolaryngology, with the rest remaining relatively stable or slightly increased. Additionally, USMLE Step 1 scores, AOA status, and research/publications do not reliably correlate with performance in residency. Implications for Practice The consistent decline in applications for otolaryngology residency is concerning and reflects a need for change in the current stereotype of the "ideal" otolaryngology applicant. This includes consideration of additional selection measures focusing on noncognitive and holistic qualities. Furthermore, otolaryngology faculty should counsel medical students that applying in otolaryngology is not "impossible" but rather a feasible and worthwhile endeavor.

  18. A nuclear-armed Iran: a difficult but not impossible policy problem - Lecture note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    This lecture note makes an analysis of a report by Barry R. Posen from The Century Foundation (TCF) and entitled: 'A nuclear-armed Iran: a difficult but not impossible policy problem' (28 Dec 2006). In this report, the author believes that diplomacy would be the ideal outcome in handling the nuclear bomb situation in Iran, but containment and deterrence will be effective if diplomacy fails. He challenges the common fears that arise from Iran's potential possession of a bomb: The fear that Iran would use nuclear threats against nonnuclear neighbors; The fear that Iran would use nuclear weapons to annihilate the state of Israel. To ensure effective deterrence, the United States would need to pursue a strategy of coexistence with a nuclear Iran. In order to do so, the US would have to renew its commitment to the security of the Middle East; US involvement would be required to prevent regional proliferation and to ensure the protection of Iran's neighbors. The present Lecture note analyzes and discusses the 4 threats of a nuclear Iran that need to be dissuaded: a risky and more violent foreign policy; the blackmailing of some neighbor countries; the supply of nuclear weapons to non-state actors; and nuclear strikes against Israel despite inevitable retaliatory measures

  19. Conversion and the Real: The (Im)Possibility of Testimonial Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sremac, Srdjan

    Although the spiritual vibration of conversion can be felt (by the curious outsider) through what conversion performers say in their testimonial discourse, what transforms the convert 'on stage' into a 'new being' and what is 'the real' ( le réel ) in conversion performance remain unclear. An important question in this connection is, What is 'real' in a conversion representation, both with respect to the convert's interaction with the audience and to the construction of social reality? Following Lacan's tripartite register of the imaginary, the symbolic, and the real, in this essay I argue that through testimonial discourse converts construct social reality as an answer to the impossibility of 'the real' in their performative discursive practice. In the first part, I question the constructed nature of testimonial representations-as well as some academic knowledge production that has governed conversion research in the last few decades-and how these representations encourage 'outsiders' to read the narrative repertoire as a negation or mirroring 'the real' of the conversion experience. In the second part, I apply Roland Barthes' analytic reflections on photography to conversion research, especially the notions of the studium (the common ground of cultural meanings) and the punctum (a personal experience that inspires private meaning). This brings me to a number of theorists (mostly never used in the field of religious conversion)-Jacques Lacan, Roland Barthes, and Slavoj Žižek-who are important to the perspective that is developed in this essay.

  20. Trends and missing parts in the study of movement ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoak, Marcel; Casagrandi, Renato; Nathan, Ran; Revilla, Eloy; Spiegel, Orr

    2008-12-09

    Movement is important to all organisms, and accordingly it is addressed in a huge number of papers in the literature. Of nearly 26,000 papers referring to movement, an estimated 34% focused on movement by measuring it or testing hypotheses about it. This enormous amount of information is difficult to review and highlights the need to assess the collective completeness of movement studies and identify gaps. We surveyed 1,000 randomly selected papers from 496 journals and compared the facets of movement studied with a suggested framework for movement ecology, consisting of internal state (motivation, physiology), motion and navigation capacities, and external factors (both the physical environment and living organisms), and links among these components. Most studies simply measured and described the movement of organisms without reference to ecological or internal factors, and the most frequently studied part of the framework was the link between external factors and motion capacity. Few studies looked at the effects on movement of navigation capacity, or internal state, and those were mainly from vertebrates. For invertebrates and plants most studies were at the population level, whereas more vertebrate studies were conducted at the individual level. Consideration of only population-level averages promulgates neglect of between-individual variation in movement, potentially hindering the study of factors controlling movement. Terminology was found to be inconsistent among taxa and subdisciplines. The gaps identified in coverage of movement studies highlight research areas that should be addressed to fully understand the ecology of movement.

  1. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  2. Plant Physiology in Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 Ep Heuvelink and Tijs Kierkels have been writing a continuing series of plant physiology articles for the Dutch horticultural journal Onder Glas and the international edition In Greenhouses. The book Plant Physiology in Greenhouses consists of 50 of their plant physiology articles. The

  3. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  4. Movement monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Yoneda, Yasuaki; Hanatsumi, Masaharu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device suitable to accurate recognition for the moving state of reactor core fuels as an object to be monitored in a nuclear power plant. Namely, the device of the present invention prepares each of scheduled paths for the movement of the object to be monitored and executed moving paths along with the movement based on the information of the movement obtained from scheduled information for the movement of the reactor core fuels as a object to be monitored and the actual movement of the object to be monitored. The results of the preparation are outputted. As an output mode, (1) the results of preparation for each of the paths for movement and the results of the monitoring obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are jointed and outputted, (2) images showing each of the paths for the movement are formed, and the formed images are displayed on a screen, and (3) each of the moving paths is prepared as an image, and the image is displayed together with the image of the regions before and after the movement of the object to be monitored. In addition, obtained images of each of the paths for the movement and the monitored images obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are joined and displayed. (I.S.)

  5. Classification of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahn, Stanley

    2011-05-01

    The classification of movement disorders has evolved. Even the terminology has shifted, from an anatomical one of extrapyramidal disorders to a phenomenological one of movement disorders. The history of how this shift came about is described. The history of both the definitions and the classifications of the various neurologic conditions is then reviewed. First is a review of movement disorders as a group; then, the evolving classifications for 3 of them--parkinsonism, dystonia, and tremor--are covered in detail. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  6. Sensation of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sensation of Movement will discuss the role of sensation in the control of action, bodily self-recognition, and sense of agency. Sensing movement is dependent on a range of information received by the brain, from signalling in the peripheral sensory organs to the establishment of higher order goals....... This volume will question whether one type of information is more relevant for the ability to sense and control movements, and demonstrate the importance of integrating neuroscientific knowledge with philosophical perspectives, in order to arrive at new insights into how sensation of movement can be studied...

  7. Assessment of acute physiological demand for soccer

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Daniel Barbosa; Pimenta, Eduardo Mendonça; Veneroso, Christiano Eduardo; Morandi, Rodrigo Figueiredo; Pacheco, Diogo Antônio Soares; Pereira, Emerson Rodrigues; Coelho, Leonardo Gomes Martins; Silami-Garcia, Emerson

    2013-01-01

    Soccer is a sport practiced worldwide, on all continents. It is considered an intermittent activity of high intensity and long duration, in which movements that require great strength and speed, such as jumps and sprints, result in high levels of muscle microtrauma, hampering athletes' training and recovery. The present study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of changes in different markers of physiological demand resulting from a soccer match in healthy individuals. Ten healthy male physical e...

  8. Interpretation of Cannabis Findings in the Hair of Very Young Children: Mission Impossible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintz, Pascal; Ameline, Alice; Eibel, Aude; Gheddar, Laurie; Feisthauer, Emilie; Geraut, Annie; Berthelon, Laurent; Farrugia, Audrey; Raul, Jean-Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    Hair has been suggested since the middle of the 90's to be a suitable matrix to document repetitive exposure to cannabis. Because it is possible to detect Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in cannabis smoke, the identification of the metabolite, 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) has been considered to allow the discrimination of active use. Although the identification of an active compound in a child's hair shows contamination of the local environment, it is a challenge to discriminate between hair incorporation after ingestion or inhalation and environmental external deposition from dust, smoke, or even contaminated surfaces by hand contact. However, it is particularly important in case of children to correctly interpret the data, particularly for a realistic assessment of the health risk. We present here a series of hair tests for cannabis where the interpretation was almost impossible to establish. Hair specimens were collected during the autopsy of the 12 children, aged 2 to 24 months, either deceased from shaken baby syndrome (SBS, n=4), mechanic asphyxia (MA, n=1) or sudden infant death (SID, n=7) during January 2015 to April 2017. After decontamination, the hair specimens were tested for THC, CBN and CBD and THC-COOH. The whole length of hair was submitted to analysis. The amount of hair from children can be as low as 8 mg. This may affect the limit of quantitation of all drugs, but particularly THC-COOH. Eight from twelve hair tests were positive for cannabis markers, i.e. THC (39 to 1890 pg/mg, n=8), CBN (cannabis use during pregnancy), oral cannabis administration by the parents to achieve sedation, close contact to cannabis consumers (hands, bedding, dishes) and inhalation of side-stream smoke. Over-interpreting cannabis findings in hair can have very serious legal implication in child protection cases. Practicing scientists have the responsibility to inform the child protection authorities

  9. On the Computational Capabilities of Physical Systems. Part 1; The Impossibility of Infallible Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In this first of two papers, strong limits on the accuracy of physical computation are established. First it is proven that there cannot be a physical computer C to which one can pose any and all computational tasks concerning the physical universe. Next it is proven that no physical computer C can correctly carry out any computational task in the subset of such tasks that can be posed to C. This result holds whether the computational tasks concern a system that is physically isolated from C, or instead concern a system that is coupled to C. As a particular example, this result means that there cannot be a physical computer that can, for any physical system external to that computer, take the specification of that external system's state as input and then correctly predict its future state before that future state actually occurs; one cannot build a physical computer that can be assured of correctly 'processing information faster than the universe does'. The results also mean that there cannot exist an infallible, general-purpose observation apparatus, and that there cannot be an infallible, general-purpose control apparatus. These results do not rely on systems that are infinite, and/or non-classical, and/or obey chaotic dynamics. They also hold even if one uses an infinitely fast, infinitely dense computer, with computational powers greater than that of a Turing Machine. This generality is a direct consequence of the fact that a novel definition of computation - a definition of 'physical computation' - is needed to address the issues considered in these papers. While this definition does not fit into the traditional Chomsky hierarchy, the mathematical structure and impossibility results associated with it have parallels in the mathematics of the Chomsky hierarchy. The second in this pair of papers presents a preliminary exploration of some of this mathematical structure, including in particular that of prediction complexity, which is a 'physical computation

  10. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a

  11. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  12. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  13. The Nature and Structural Regularities of Financial Integration in the Global Dimension in the Context of «Impossible Trinity»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnova Iryna V.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to determine the nature of financial integration and to justify its place in the system of measures on state regulation intended to search for a balanced model of economic growth of the country through the impossible trilemma reflecting the impossibility of simultaneous implementation of three macro-economic policies in one country, namely financial openness, monetary independence and exchange rate stability. On the basis of synthesis, analysis and comparison of different interpretations, the concept of «financial integration» is clarified. There identified signs of integration of financial markets, such as: the uniformity of rules (transparency; equal access (availability; common operating environment (involvement; equity of prices (unity; uniformity of the reaction of financial assets on the impact of external trends and news (response. The policy of financial integration, in particular its component of the free movement of capital is designed to provide additional incentives to domestic economic growth by attracting external financial resources. To stimulate the economy and prevent the unstable volatility of exchange rate, many countries seek to achieve such macroeconomic goals as openness of financial markets, independence of the monetary policy and exchange rate stability. Since the monetary authorities may choose at any moment only two of the three goals, the Mundell-Fleming trilemma determines a possibility of three different combinations of monetary targeting. At present science has not developed a unified methodological approach to determination of indices of financial integration. To assess the dynamics of financial integration the following basic indices of integration are used: KAOPEN, FINREFORM, KASHI, etc. Based on the analysis of the mentioned indices in the context of different countries, there can be made a conclusion about a possibility of combination of different policies with a tendency towards

  14. Two-phase strategy of neural control for planar reaching movements: II--relation to spatiotemporal characteristics of movement trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Miya K; Shimansky, Yury P

    2013-09-01

    In the companion paper utilizing a quantitative model of optimal motor coordination (Part I, Rand and Shimansky, in Exp Brain Res 225:55-73, 2013), we examined coordination between X and Y movement directions (XYC) during reaching movements performed under three prescribed speeds, two movement amplitudes, and two target sizes. The obtained results indicated that the central nervous system (CNS) utilizes a two-phase strategy, where the initial and the final phases correspond to lower and higher precision of information processing, respectively, for controlling goal-directed reach-type movements to optimize the total cost of task performance including the cost of neural computations. The present study investigates how two different well-known concepts used for describing movement performance relate to the concepts of optimal XYC and two-phase control strategy. First, it is examined to what extent XYC is equivalent to movement trajectory straightness. The data analysis results show that the variability, the movement trajectory's deviation from the straight line, increases with an increase in prescribed movement speed. In contrast, the dependence of XYC strength on movement speed is opposite (in total agreement with an assumption of task performance optimality), suggesting that XYC is a feature of much higher level of generality than trajectory straightness. Second, it is tested how well the ballistic and the corrective components described in the traditional concept of two-component model of movement performance match with the initial and the final phase of the two-phase control strategy, respectively. In fast reaching movements, the percentage of trials with secondary corrective submovement was smaller under larger-target shorter-distance conditions. In slower reaching movements, meaningful parsing was impossible due to massive fluctuations in the kinematic profile throughout the movement. Thus, the parsing points determined by the conventional submovement analysis

  15. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.; Ferreira, Luciana C.; Sequeira, Ana M.M.; Meekan, Mark G.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W. Don; Caley, M. Julian; Costa, Daniel P.; Eguí luz, Victor M.; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S.; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C.; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L.; Lowe, Christopher G.; Madsen, Peter T.; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A.; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Sims, David W.; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N.; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N.; Thums, Michele

    2016-01-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-03-12

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Space-Derived Imagery and a Commercial Remote Sensing Industry: Impossible Dream or Inevitable Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Felsher

    sector entities. Will the template now fashioned by the U.S. -- that of licensing private industry to build, fly, and operate remote sensing satellites as well as to distribute their imagery worldwide -- be replicated by other nations? Eventually, yes. Availability of the World Wide Web is an international communications reality. Availability of world wide imaging will be just as real. And much of that imagery will be marketed, sold, and distributed via that same global Internet. I feel that as an expected outcome of our technological age, we can ensure not only our own national security but international security as well, by assuring worldwide accessibility to worldwide space- derived image information. This requires -- in fact demands -- the presence of a viable international remote sensing industry. It is not impossible; It is inevitable.

  18. Gravity effects on endogenous movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Anders; Antonsen, Frank

    Gravity effects on endogenous movements A. Johnsson * and F. Antonsen *+ * Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,NO-7491, Trond-heim, Norway, E-mail: anders.johnsson@ntnu.no + Present address: Statoil Research Center Trondheim, NO-7005, Trondheim, Norway Circumnutations in stems/shoots exist in many plants and often consists of more or less regular helical movements around the plumb line under Earth conditions. Recent results on circumnu-tations of Arabidopsis in space (Johnsson et al. 2009) showed that minute amplitude oscilla-tions exist in weightlessness, but that centripetal acceleration (mimicking the gravity) amplified and/or created large amplitude oscillations. Fundamental mechanisms underlying these results will be discussed by modeling the plant tissue as a cylinder of cells coupled together. As a starting point we have modeled (Antonsen 1998) standing waves on a ring of biological cells, as first discussed in a classical paper (Turing 1952). If the coupled cells can change their water content, an `extension' wave could move around the ring. We have studied several, stacked rings of cells coupled into a cylinder that together represent a cylindrical plant tissue. Waves of extensions travelling around the cylinder could then represent the observable circumnutations. The coupling between cells can be due to cell-to-cell diffusion, or to transport via channels, and the coupling can be modeled to vary in both longitudinal and transversal direction of the cylinder. The results from ISS experiments indicate that this cylindrical model of coupled cells should be able to 1) show self-sustained oscillations without the impact of gravity (being en-dogenous) and 2) show how an environmental factor like gravity can amplify or generate the oscillatory movements. Gravity has been introduced in the model by a negative, time-delayed feed-back transport across the cylinder. This represents the physiological reactions to acceler

  19. Islamic Puritanism Movements in Indonesia as Transnational Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Baskara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Islamic puritanism movements are the movements compelling to return to the teachings of Quran and Sunnah, as the pure teachings of Islam and abandon even abolish other teachings outside the teachings of Quran and Sunnah. The movements of Islamic puritanism can be considered as transnational movements because they spread their teachings and ideologies, create organizations, networks, and provide financial supports across nations. This paper describes Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia and their transnational connections. Some Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia can be considered as part of Islamic transnational movements, in which most of the movements are centered in the Middle East. In Indonesia, Islamic puritanism movements firstly appeared in the beginning of the nineteenth century, called Padri movement in West Sumatra. It was then continued to the emergence of Islamic organizations in the twentieth century. Recently, Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia mostly take form as Salafism-Wahabism movements.

  20. The Irish Women's Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Ireland’s long history of patriarchy is matched by the ongoing evolution of its women’s movements. Today’s complex, transnational feminism finds its precursor in the colonial era. The first wave of the Irish women’s movement dates from the mid-19th century, with the franchise secured for women in 1918 while still under British colonial rule. First-wave feminists played a role in the nationalist movement, but their demands were sidelined later, during the construction of a conserva...

  1. Music and movement

    OpenAIRE

    Nasev, Lence

    2012-01-01

    Rhythm is one of the fundamental elements without which music would not exist. In plays with singing, a child learns to synchronize its movements with the rhythm of music from a very early age. The skill of movement plays a major role in the learning of music and thus deserves an important place in the school curriculum. In this paper, an overview is made of the most important music pedagogues who introduced movement, and at the same time perceived its importance in learning musical conte...

  2. Advances in physiological computing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairclough, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    This edited collection will provide an overview of the field of physiological computing, i.e. the use of physiological signals as input for computer control. It will cover a breadth of current research, from brain-computer interfaces to telemedicine.

  3. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  4. Imagining the impossible before breakfast: The relation between creativity, dissociation, and sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalena eVan Heugten - Van Der Kloet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dissociative symptoms have been related to higher Rapid Eye Movement (REM sleep density, a sleep phase during which hyperassociativity may occur. This may enhance artistic creativity during the day. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a creative photo contest to explore the relation between dissociation, sleep, and creativity. During the contest, participants (N=72 took one photo per day for five consecutive days, based on specific daily themes (consisting of single words and the instruction to take as creative a photo as possible each day. Furthermore, they completed daily measures of state dissociation and a short sleep diary. The photos and their captions were ranked by two professional photographers and two clinical psychologists based on creativity, originality, bizarreness, and quality. We expected that dissociative people would rank higher in the contest compared with low-dissociative participants, and that the most original photos would be taken on days when the participants scored highest on acute dissociation.We found that acute dissociation predicted a higher ranking on creativity. Poorer sleep quality and fewer hours of sleep predicted more bizarreness in the photos and captions. None of the trait measures could predict creativity.In sum, acute dissociation related to enhanced creativity. These findings contribute to our understanding of dissociative symptomatology.

  5. Emotion Monitoring – Verification of Physiological Characteristics Measurement Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Landowska Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns measurement procedures on an emotion monitoring stand designed for tracking human emotions in the Human-Computer Interaction with physiological characteristics. The paper addresses the key problem of physiological measurements being disturbed by a motion typical for human-computer interaction such as keyboard typing or mouse movements. An original experiment is described, that aimed at practical evaluation of measurement procedures performed at the emotion monitoring stand...

  6. The French ecological movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansen, Bernard

    1977-01-01

    The analysis of the ecological Movement in France is presented: its organisation, its topics, its position with respect to the main political trends. The accent is put in particular on the antinuclear contestation [fr

  7. Movement and personality development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida M. Aylamazyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of the movement in the process of shaping the personality, its importance as a mechanism for personality development is considered. The issue of the movement has always occupied a central place in Russian psychology. However, subsequently the movement began to be considered primarily as an executive action in human life. The role of movement in personality development can vary depending on the level it occupies in the hierarchical structure of activity, and also on the type of movement, its character, and the way it is constructed. Under certain conditions, the movement can express the attitude of the subject to the surrounding world and people. Many foreign and Russian psychologists point to a special place of the postural tonic component of the motor movement, the posture in personal regulation. The posture reflects his/her personal attitudes, the system of relationships, and, above all, the emotional attitude or emotional assessment of the current situation, the interest in the actions performed. Mastering the tonic level of motor management is based on the emotional regulation, so the ability to regulate one’s own pose is an important stage in the personality development. Posture tonic regulation of motor movements in humans reveals a qualitatively different character than in animals, this being due to the person’s facing the task of mastering his’her posture, arbitrary retention of the body in one or another position. Maintaining a vertical posture requires constant activity at an arbitrary and involuntary level of mental regulation. Mastering the posture of an unstable equilibrium presupposes the emergence of the «I» and is the last stage of the development. The way a person solves the motor task of maintaining the vertical position of the body reflects his/her specific personal strategy or attitude.

  8. Rooted in Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses to and ...... period of European prehistory. In so doing, the text not only addresses transmission and reception, but also the conceptualization of mobility within a world which was literally Rooted in Movement....

  9. Paraneoplastic autoimmune movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Thien Thien

    2017-11-01

    To provide an overview of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders presenting with various movement disorders. The spectrum of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders has been expanding with the discovery of new antibodies against cell surface and intracellular antigens. Many of these paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders manifest as a form of movement disorder. With the discovery of new neuronal antibodies, an increasing number of idiopathic or neurodegenerative movement disorders are now being reclassified as immune-mediated movement disorders. These include anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis which may present with orolingual facial dyskinesia and stereotyped movements, CRMP-5 IgG presenting with chorea, anti-Yo paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration presenting with ataxia, anti-VGKC complex (Caspr2 antibodies) neuromyotonia, opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome, and muscle rigidity and episodic spasms (amphiphysin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, glycine receptor, GABA(A)-receptor associated protein antibodies) in stiff-person syndrome. Movement disorders may be a presentation for paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders. Recognition of these disorders and their common phenomenology is important because it may lead to the discovery of an occult malignancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear movement in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2017-12-11

    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Antiglobalization movements and their critics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    inequity, organize transnationally, and maintain a critical stance toward significant aspects of the state system. For this reason, many supporters favor other terms such as alterglobalization movement, global justice movement , or simply the movement of movements . Critics accuse the movements...... of ideological incoherence, self-interested protectionism, and illiberal and undemocratic political methods, and point to Western liberal elite dominance within the movements. The debate has ...

  12. Mathematical modeling of acid-base physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, Rossana; Boron, Walter F

    2015-01-01

    pH is one of the most important parameters in life, influencing virtually every biological process at the cellular, tissue, and whole-body level. Thus, for cells, it is critical to regulate intracellular pH (pHi) and, for multicellular organisms, to regulate extracellular pH (pHo). pHi regulation depends on the opposing actions of plasma-membrane transporters that tend to increase pHi, and others that tend to decrease pHi. In addition, passive fluxes of uncharged species (e.g., CO2, NH3) and charged species (e.g., HCO3(-), [Formula: see text] ) perturb pHi. These movements not only influence one another, but also perturb the equilibria of a multitude of intracellular and extracellular buffers. Thus, even at the level of a single cell, perturbations in acid-base reactions, diffusion, and transport are so complex that it is impossible to understand them without a quantitative model. Here we summarize some mathematical models developed to shed light onto the complex interconnected events triggered by acids-base movements. We then describe a mathematical model of a spherical cells-which to our knowledge is the first one capable of handling a multitude of buffer reactions-that our team has recently developed to simulate changes in pHi and pHo caused by movements of acid-base equivalents across the plasma membrane of a Xenopus oocyte. Finally, we extend our work to a consideration of the effects of simultaneous CO2 and HCO3(-) influx into a cell, and envision how future models might extend to other cell types (e.g., erythrocytes) or tissues (e.g., renal proximal-tubule epithelium) important for whole-body pH homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A neural command circuit for grooming movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Stefanie; Franconville, Romain; Simpson, Julie H; Seeds, Andrew M

    2015-09-07

    Animals perform many stereotyped movements, but how nervous systems are organized for controlling specific movements remains unclear. Here we use anatomical, optogenetic, behavioral, and physiological techniques to identify a circuit in Drosophila melanogaster that can elicit stereotyped leg movements that groom the antennae. Mechanosensory chordotonal neurons detect displacements of the antennae and excite three different classes of functionally connected interneurons, which include two classes of brain interneurons and different parallel descending neurons. This multilayered circuit is organized such that neurons within each layer are sufficient to specifically elicit antennal grooming. However, we find differences in the durations of antennal grooming elicited by neurons in the different layers, suggesting that the circuit is organized to both command antennal grooming and control its duration. As similar features underlie stimulus-induced movements in other animals, we infer the possibility of a common circuit organization for movement control that can be dissected in Drosophila.

  14. Oklahoma Is a Moving Train: On Trump and the (Impossible) Demand for "Neutral" Classrooms in a Red State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Erin; Gordon, Sarah; Job, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The co authors of this article write that their own roles as teacher educators, student advocates, and social movement workers provide motivation for engaging in critical conversations to make sense of education in the era of Trump. They wonder how they should engage pedagogically with their contemporary political movement deep in the heart of…

  15. Multiculturalism or Multibodism: On the Impossible Intersections of Race and Gender in the American White Feminist and Black Nationalist Discourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewumi, Oyeronke

    1999-01-01

    Examines the discounting of African American women in both feminist and black nationalist discourses, despite the civil rights and women's movements of the 1960s and the rhetoric of multiculturalism and identity politics that developed following these movements. Accounts for the marginalization of African American women in race and gender…

  16. [Scenes in movement. Movement disorders on film].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares Romero, J

    2010-03-01

    There are publications in which various neurological diseases are analysed on film. However, no references have been found on movement disorders in this medium. A total of 104 documents were collected and reviewed using the internet movie data base (IMDb). The majority were associated with dystonia, Parkinson's and tics, were American commercial productions, and the most common genre was drama. The cinema usually depicts old men with developed Parkinson's disease. However, motor complications only appear in 19% and non-motor symptoms in 14%. The image of dystonia is generally that of a young man, with disabling dystonia secondary to childhood cerebral palsy. Tics appear associated with Tourette's syndrome, with the excessive use of obscene expressions and with very few references to other important aspects of this syndrome, such as mood and behavioural changes. The majority of tremors portrayed on film are associated with Parkinsonism and are not pathological. Myoclonus appears anecdotically and is normally symptomatic. Parkinson's disease is the type of movement disorder that the cinema portrays with greater neurological honesty and in a more dignified manner.

  17. The anti-islamic Polemic and the almost impossibility of an Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando, Josep

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Peter The Venerable during his voyage to Hispania between 1142-1143 conceived the idea of translating to Latin the known texts concerning Mohammed life and doctrine. The aim was to build up information in orde to better refute Islam. In the second half of the century thirteen a proselytizing and missionary movement directed by the Orders of the Franciscans and Dominicans, that created centers of studies, the so called Studia Linguarum. To this epoch there belongs the Dominican Ramon Martí (1230-11284/85, author of a work who contains the first antiislamic part (De origine et progressu et fine Machometi et quadruplici reprobatione eius, also known like De Secta Machometi and the second explanatory part of the Christian faith (Explanatio Simboli Apostolorum. This Ramon Martí's work determined the antiislamic genre, up to the point that inspired others, or simply it was an object of plagiarism and appointments without any reference to his author. Both parts of this work have come to us as two independent writings.

    Pere el Venerable, durant el seu viatge a Hispània entre 1142-1143, va concebre la idea de traduir a la llengua llatina els textos coneguts que feien referència a la vida i doctrina de Mahoma. La finalitat era obtenir informació per a una millor refutació de l’Islam. A la segona meitat del segle XIII neix un moviment proselitista i missional dirigit per les ordes Franciscana i Dominicana, que crearen centres d'estudis, els anomenats Studia Linguarum. A aquesta etapa pertany Ramon Martí (1230-1484/85, autor d’una obra que conté una primera part antiislámica (De origine et progressu et fine Machometi et quadruplici reprobatione eius, també coneguda com De Secta Machometi y una segona part expositiva de la fe cristiana (Explanatio Simboli Apostolorum. Aquesta obra va condicionar el gènere literari antiislàmic, fins al punt d’inspirarne altres obres o, simplement,

  18. Recovering What Was Forgotten: Sexuality and Radical Politics in the Homosexual Liberation Movement in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Serrano Amaya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available What was the meaning of “liberation” in the Homosexual Liberation Movement that emerged in Colombia at the end of the 1970s? El Otro, a homosexual magazine published at that time, is analyzed as a space where a particular discourse about sexuality took form based on the publication’s radical politics. In this discourse, the relationship between sexuality and liberation was understood as revolution, pragmatics, pedagogy and bond, however it became impossible to continue these countercultural liberation politics as rights discourses came to dominate the gay and lesbian movements in 1980s.

  19. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  20. Endogenous Pyrogen Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisel, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the physiology of endogenous pyrogen (EP), the fever-producing factor of cellular origin. Included are: its hormone-like role, its molecular nature, bioassay procedures, cellular production and mechanisms of EP action. (SA)

  1. Eye mechanics and their implications for eye movement control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, Ansgar Roald

    2002-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the investigation of the mechanical properties of the oculomotor system and the implications of these properties for eye movement control. The investigation was conducted by means of computer models and simulations. This allowed us to combine data from anatomy, physiology

  2. Precision of jaw-closing movements for different jaw gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Daniel; Becker, Georg; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos N; Eberhard, Lydia; Fingerhut, Christopher; Rammelsberg, Peter; Schindler, Hans J

    2014-02-01

    Jaw-closing movements are basic components of physiological motor actions precisely achieving intercuspation without significant interference. The main purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that, despite an imperfect intercuspal position, the precision of jaw-closing movements fluctuates within the range of physiological closing movements indispensable for meeting intercuspation without significant interference. For 35 healthy subjects, condylar and incisal point positions for fast and slow jaw-closing, interrupted at different jaw gaps by the use of frontal occlusal plateaus, were compared with uninterrupted physiological jaw closing, with identical jaw gaps, using a telemetric system for measuring jaw position. Examiner-guided centric relation served as a clinically relevant reference position. For jaw gaps ≤4 mm, no significant horizontal or vertical displacement differences were observed for the incisal or condylar points among physiological, fast, and slow jaw-closing. However, the jaw positions under these three closing conditions differed significantly from guided centric relation for nearly all experimental jaw gaps. The findings provide evidence of stringent neuromuscular control of jaw-closing movements in the vicinity of intercuspation. These results might be of clinical relevance to occlusal intervention with different objectives. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  3. Biophysics and cell physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, P.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on research activities in the fields of physiology and low-temperature biology of mammalian embryos; effects of sub-zero temperatures on eggs and embryos of sea urchins; survival of frozen-thawed human red cells; effects of radiation on physiology of Escherichia coli; transfer of triplet electronic energy in dinucleotides; effects of x radiation on DNA degradation; energy deposition by neutrons; photosynthesis; excision repair of uv-induced pyrimidine dimers in DNA of plant cells

  4. Physiology of Ramadan fasting

    OpenAIRE

    Shokoufeh Bonakdaran

    2016-01-01

    Considering the emphasis of Islam on the importance of fasting, Muslims attempt to fast from dawn until sunset during the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting is associated with several benefits for normal and healthy individuals. However, it could pose high risks to the health of diabetic patients due to certain physiological changes. This study aimed to compare the physiological changes associated with fasting in healthy individuals and diabetic patients during Ramadan. Furthermore, we reviewed t...

  5. Efficient computing procedures and impossibility to solve the problem of exact prediction of events in the quantum world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namiot, V.A.; Chernavskii, D.S.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known, that in the classical mechanics the dynamic chaos is possible. When it takes place, the exact prediction of events in the future appears impossible. But in the quantum theory the dynamic chaos (connected with perturbations of the initial conditions) formally is absent. Nevertheless, as it is shown in this Letter, in case of the quantum theory there are other reasons related directly to so-called paradoxes of formal logic which do not allow one to predict the future precisely

  6. Personalized physiological medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Can

    2017-12-28

    This paper introduces the concept of personalized physiological medicine that is specifically directed at the needs of the critically ill patient. This differs from the conventional view of personalized medicine, characterized by biomarkers and gene profiling, instead focusing on time-variant changes in the pathophysiology and regulation of various organ systems and their cellular and subcellular constituents. I propose that personalized physiological medicine is composed of four pillars relevant to the critically ill patient. Pillar 1 is defined by the frailty and fitness of the patient and their physiological reserve to cope with the stress of critical illness and therapy. Pillar 2 involves monitoring of the key physiological variables of the different organ systems and their response to disease and therapy. Pillar 3 concerns the evaluation of the success of resuscitation by assessment of the hemodynamic coherence between the systemic and microcirculation and parenchyma of the organ systems. Finally, pillar 4 is defined by the integration of the physiological and clinical data into a time-learning adaptive model of the patient to provide feedback about the function of organ systems and to guide and assess the response to disease and therapy. I discuss each pillar and describe the challenges to research and development that will allow the realization of personalized physiological medicine to be practiced at the bedside for critically ill patients.

  7. Studying Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; McCurdy, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The research method of participant observation has long been used by scholars interested in the motivations, dynamics, tactics and strategies of social movements from a movement perspective. Despite participant observation being a common research method, there have been very few efforts to bring...... together this literature, which has often been spread across disciplines. This makes it difficult to identify the various challenges (and their interrelation) facing participant observers. Consequently, this article first reviews how participant observation roles have been conceptualised in general...... and then draws specific links to how the method has been used in the study of activism and social movements. In doing so, this article brings together key academic debates on participant observation, which have been considered separately, such as insider/outsider and overt/covert, but not previously been brought...

  8. Movement as utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián

    2009-10-01

    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination.

  9. Movement Without Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fortuna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Johnson Simon, an artist based in West Palm Beach, FL, provided the cover art for the Fall 2017 edition of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy (OJOT. “Dancing in Motion” is a 36” x 60” painting made from acrylic on canvas. Johnson always wanted to become a dancer. He was born with cerebral palsy, and therefore physical limitations make it difficult for Johnson to coordinate his body movements. Through use of vibrant colors and bold strokes, Johnson’s expressionist paintings evoke movement and motion. Occupational therapy helped Johnson discover his artistic abilities. Painting empowered him to move without limitations

  10. Eye movement analysis for activity recognition using electrooculography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulling, Andreas; Ward, Jamie A; Gellersen, Hans; Tröster, Gerhard

    2011-04-01

    In this work, we investigate eye movement analysis as a new sensing modality for activity recognition. Eye movement data were recorded using an electrooculography (EOG) system. We first describe and evaluate algorithms for detecting three eye movement characteristics from EOG signals-saccades, fixations, and blinks-and propose a method for assessing repetitive patterns of eye movements. We then devise 90 different features based on these characteristics and select a subset of them using minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) feature selection. We validate the method using an eight participant study in an office environment using an example set of five activity classes: copying a text, reading a printed paper, taking handwritten notes, watching a video, and browsing the Web. We also include periods with no specific activity (the NULL class). Using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier and person-independent (leave-one-person-out) training, we obtain an average precision of 76.1 percent and recall of 70.5 percent over all classes and participants. The work demonstrates the promise of eye-based activity recognition (EAR) and opens up discussion on the wider applicability of EAR to other activities that are difficult, or even impossible, to detect using common sensing modalities.

  11. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E

    2008-12-09

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. "Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever." (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.).

  12. Multimodal movement prediction - towards an individual assistance of patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Andrea Kirchner

    Full Text Available Assistive devices, like exoskeletons or orthoses, often make use of physiological data that allow the detection or prediction of movement onset. Movement onset can be detected at the executing site, the skeletal muscles, as by means of electromyography. Movement intention can be detected by the analysis of brain activity, recorded by, e.g., electroencephalography, or in the behavior of the subject by, e.g., eye movement analysis. These different approaches can be used depending on the kind of neuromuscular disorder, state of therapy or assistive device. In this work we conducted experiments with healthy subjects while performing self-initiated and self-paced arm movements. While other studies showed that multimodal signal analysis can improve the performance of predictions, we show that a sensible combination of electroencephalographic and electromyographic data can potentially improve the adaptability of assistive technical devices with respect to the individual demands of, e.g., early and late stages in rehabilitation therapy. In earlier stages for patients with weak muscle or motor related brain activity it is important to achieve high positive detection rates to support self-initiated movements. To detect most movement intentions from electroencephalographic or electromyographic data motivates a patient and can enhance her/his progress in rehabilitation. In a later stage for patients with stronger muscle or brain activity, reliable movement prediction is more important to encourage patients to behave more accurately and to invest more effort in the task. Further, the false detection rate needs to be reduced. We propose that both types of physiological data can be used in an and combination, where both signals must be detected to drive a movement. By this approach the behavior of the patient during later therapy can be controlled better and false positive detections, which can be very annoying for patients who are further advanced in

  13. Surface electromyography physiology, engineering and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Farina, Dario

    2016-01-01

    The book presents a quantitative approach to the study and use of noninvasively detected electromyographic (EMG) signals, as well as their numerous applications in various aspects of the life sciences. Surface Electromyography: Physiology, Engineering, and Applications is an update of Electromyography: Physiology, Engineering, and Noninvasive Applications (Wiley-IEEE Press, 2004) and focuses on the developments that have taken place over the last decade. The first nine chapters deal with the generation, detection, understanding, interpretation, and modeling of EMG signals. Detection technology, with particular focus on EMG imaging techniques that are based on two-dimensional electrode arrays are also included in the first half of the book. The latter 11 chapters deal with applications, which range fro monitoring muscle fatigue, electrically elicited contractions, posture analysis, prevention of work-related and child-delivery-related neuromuscular disorders, ergonomics, movement analysis, physical therapy, ex...

  14. Assessment of acute physiological demand for soccer

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Barbosa Coelho; Eduardo Mendonça Pimenta; Christiano Eduardo Veneroso; Rodrigo Figueiredo Morandi; Diogo Antônio Soares Pacheco; Emerson Rodrigues Pereira; Leonardo Gomes Martins Coelho; Emerson Silami Garcia

    2013-01-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n6p667 Soccer is a sport practiced worldwide, on all continents. It is considered an intermittent activity of high intensity and long duration, in which movements that require great strength and speed, such as jumps and sprints, result in high levels of muscle microtrauma, hampering athletes’ training and recovery. The present study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of changes in different markers of physiological demand resulting from a socce...

  15. Rationality in Human Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Megan K; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2016-01-01

    It long has been appreciated that humans behave irrationally in economic decisions under risk: they fail to objectively consider uncertainty, costs, and rewards and instead exhibit risk-seeking or risk-averse behavior. We hypothesize that poor estimates of motor variability (influenced by motor task) and distorted probability weighting (influenced by relevant emotional processes) contribute to characteristic irrationality in human movement decisions.

  16. The Matter of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2015-01-01

    This contribution concerns itself with the design and realisation of architectures that operate with material dynamics. It presents this concern as a counter to the consideration of movement in architecture as something conceptualised from the position of the observer. The contribution draws upon...

  17. Knowledge through movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kjær; Moser, T.

    2003-01-01

    In: Children and adolescents in movement - perspectives and ideas. The Danish Ministry of Culture, pages 150 - 162. 2003 Short description: the article debunks a lot of the myths surrounding body and learning, and replace them with a vision about another kind of learning. The aim is to reintroduce...

  18. Mungiki as Youth Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Like many other African countries, Kenya has a large and growing youth population. Some of the youths are mobilized into militant and political networks; one of these is the Mungiki movement. The article explores Mungiki’s combination of politics, religion and Kikuyu traditions. Using the examples...

  19. The Evidence Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rieper, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    The evidence movement and the idea of systematic reviews, defined as summaries of the results of already existing evaluation and research projects, have gained considerable support in recent years as many international as well as national evidence-producing organizations have been established...

  20. Managing Movement as Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrell, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The associate director of education at Hubbard Street Dance Chicago recounts her learning and teaching through managing the Movement as Partnership program. Included are detailed descriptions of encounters with teachers and students as they create choreography reflective of their inquiry into integrating dance and literacy arts curriculum in the…

  1. Music, Movement, and Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…

  2. Editorial: Body Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Assuncao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the juxtaposition between physical bodies and the gameworld is ever more fluid. Virtual Reality headsets are available at game stores with more AAA games being created for the format. The release of the Nintendo Switch and its dynamic JoyCon controllers reintroduce haptic movement based controls.  Pokémon GO’s augmented reality took gamers outdoors and has encouraged the Harry Potter franchise to follow in its mobile footsteps. Each development encourages a step further into the digital world. At the same time, the movement of bodies always has political dimensions. We live in a world where walls seem like solutions to the movement of bodies, while the mere meeting of bodies elsewhere – for sex, marriage and other reasons – is still forbidden by many states’ rules. Games and game-like interfaces have shown the ability to bend those rules, and to sometimes project other worlds and rule systems over our world in order to make bodies move and meet. For this special issue on ‘Body Movements’, Press Start invited authors to focus on embodiment, body movements, political bodies, community bodies, virtual bodies, physical bodies, feminine, masculine, trans- bodies, agency or its lack, and anything else in between. The response to this invitation was variegated, and provocative, as outlined here.

  3. Morocco's February 20 Movement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-20

    Feb 20, 2018 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2017 ... revolted several times, namely in big cities like Casablanca, Marrakech or .... region in order to take advantage of their experience and acquire a regional ..... Undoubtedly, with social networking, the dynamics of protest movements.

  4. [Architecture and movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivallan, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  5. Dance movement therapy in the concept of expressive arts-therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Martinec, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Dance Movement Therapy is a complementary method which includes using and analyzing of different aspects of body-experience and body-expression such us movement, mimics, pantomime, touch… In Dance Movement Therapy body is dominant media of therapeutic process. So this kind of therapy may have positive influence on physiological awareness, body expression of emotions, inducing unconscious impulses, and improving new strategies of behaviour through exploring new patterns and qualities of mov...

  6. Human physiology in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  7. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive......, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant...... Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from...

  8. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences (Niger. J. Physiol. Sci.) is a biannual publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria. It covers diverse areas of research in physiological sciences, publishing reviews in current research areas and original laboratory and clinical research in physiological sciences. Other websites ...

  9. [Neuropsychiatry Of Movement Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela-Rojas, Juan Manuel; Barrios Vincos, Gustavo Adolfo; Martínez Gallego, Melisa Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    Movement disorders can be defined as neurological syndromes presenting with excessive or diminished automatic or voluntary movements not related to weakness or spasticity. Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD) are well-known examples of these syndromes. The high prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hallucinations, delusions, impulsivity, sleep disorders, apathy and cognitive impairment mean that these conditions must be regarded as neuropsychiatric diseases. In this article, we review neuroanatomical (structural and functional), psychopathological and neuropsychological aspects of PD and HD. The role of fronto-subcortical loops in non-motor functions is particularly emphasised in order to understand the clinical spectrum of both diseases, together with the influence of genetic, psychological and psychosocial aspects. A brief description of the main psychopharmacological approaches for both diseases is also included. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Simulated Exercise Physiology Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Pivarnik, James M.

    This book consists of a lab manual and computer disks for either Apple or IBM hardware. The lab manual serves as "tour guide" for the learner going through the various lab experiences. The manual contains definitions, proper terminology, and other basic information about physiological principles. It is organized so a step-by-step procedure may be…

  11. Physiology Flies with Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Amita

    2017-11-30

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for elucidating molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock. From studies beginning in fruit flies, we now know that circadian regulation pervades most biological processes and has strong ties to human health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Personalized physiological medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ince, Can

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of personalized physiological medicine that is specifically directed at the needs of the critically ill patient. This differs from the conventional view of personalized medicine, characterized by biomarkers and gene profiling, instead focusing on time-variant

  13. Physiological responses to hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Thomas; Thoresen, Marianne

    2015-04-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is the only treatment currently recommended for moderate or severe encephalopathy of hypoxic‒ischaemic origin in term neonates. Though the effects of hypothermia on human physiology have been explored for many decades, much of the data comes from animal or adult studies; the latter originally after accidental hypothermia, followed by application of controlled hypothermia after cardiac arrest or trauma, or during cardiopulmonary bypass. Though this work is informative, the effects of hypothermia on neonatal physiology after perinatal asphyxia must be considered in the context of a prolonged hypoxic insult that has already induced a number of significant physiological sequelae. This article reviews the effects of therapeutic hypothermia on respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic parameters, including glycaemic control and feeding requirements. The potential pitfalls of blood‒gas analysis and overtreatment of physiological changes in cardiovascular parameters are also discussed. Finally, the effects of hypothermia on drug metabolism are covered, focusing on how the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and dosing requirements of drugs frequently used in neonatal intensive care may change during therapeutic hypothermia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impossible promise: the child and the androgyne in Thomas Kilroy's The Secret Fall of Constance Wilde and My Scandalous Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lanters

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In The Secret Fall of Constance Wilde and My Scandalous Life, the impossible ideals of perfect harmony between the sexes and perfect innocence are symbolically represented by the figures of the Androgyne and the child. In a process that illustrates the Wildean paradox that "each man kills the thing he loves," Oscar and Constance Wilde on the one hand, Alfred Douglas and Olive Custance on the other, fight each other over possession of their children, in that very act destroying both the ideal of androgynous harmony and that of childish innocence. Only by performing their worst nightmares, embracing the darkness within themselves, and acknowledging that innocence contains its own corruption, can the characters restore some form of equilibrium.

  15. "Not a good look": Impossible Dilemmas for Young Women Negotiating the Culture of Intoxication in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lin; Griffin, Christine; Shankar, Avi

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates young women's alcohol consumption in the United Kingdom within a widespread culture of intoxication in relation to recent debates about postfeminism and contemporary femininity. Young women are faced with an "impossible dilemma," arising from the contradiction between a hedonistic discourse of alcohol consumption and postfeminist discourse around attaining and maintaining the "right" form of hypersexual heterosexual femininity. Drawing on a recent interview study with 24 young white working-class and middle-class women in the South-West of England, we explore how young women inhabit the dilemmas of contemporary femininity in youth drinking cultures, striving to achieve the "right" form of hypersexual femininity and an "optimum" level of drunkenness.

  16. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  17. Anti-nuclear movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedig, W.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear power, heralded in the years after World War II as the answer to the world's energy needs, has in more recent times become the focus of intense ecological, political and economic debate. In this study, the current worldwide opposition to nuclear power is examined from its origins in expert dissent to the widespread development of grassroots activity. Chapter headings include: Social Movements: A Theoretical Framework; Creating the Preconditions for Public Protest; Local and Regional Opposition: Mobilizing the Grass Roots; Local Opposition and the Politicization of Nuclear Power; The Use of Local Opposition as a Political Resource; Local Opposition and Social Movement Analysis; The Removal of Political Stimuli: The Unpolitics of Nuclear Siting; Analyzing Host Community Attitudes: The Survey Evidence; Attitudes and Political Action of Nuclear Host Communities: Approaches and Explanations; Novel Siting Approaches and their Political Implications; Siting and Social Movement Analysis; Patterns and Outcomes of Nuclear Energy Conflicts; The Future of the Nuclear Energy Conflict. Throughout the text, analysis and theory are blended with detailed accounts of the growth and activities of individual anti-nuclear organizations in different countries. (author)

  18. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  19. Social Movements and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francisca Pinheiro Coelho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study approaches the relationship between social movements and institutions in Brazil concerning three different stages of the process of re-democratization: the political transition; the National Constituent Assembly; and the new Constitutional Order. The general question is: what is the interface, reciprocity or conflict, between social movements and institutions in this context of social change? The paper examines the different roles of social movements and institutions in each specific period: in the pre-democratization moment, the movement for direct elections for president, Diretas-Já, is analyzed; in the National Constituent Assembly, the movement in defense for free public education is examined;  in the new constitutional order, the pro-reform political movement is studied.  The work focuses on the scope of the studies on social movements and democracy.  It belongs to the field of the studies about the representativeness and legitimacy of the demands of social movements in the context of democracy and its challenges. Key words: social movement, institution, reciprocity, conflict, democracy.   Social Movements and Institutions                               Resumen El estudio aborda la relación entre los movimientos sociales e instituciones en Brasil en tres etapas diferentes del proceso de redemocratización en las últimas décadas: la transición política; la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente; y el nuevo orden constitucional. La pregunta general es: ¿cuál es la relación, la reciprocidad o el conflito, entre los movimientos sociales y las instituciones en este contexto de cambio social? El artículo examina los diferentes roles de los movimientos sociales e instituciones en cada período específico: en el momento de la transición política analiza el movimiento de las elecciones directas para presidente, las Diretas-Já; en la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente aborda el movimiento en

  20. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  1. Arqueología de la ausencia de Lucila Quieto. Un viaje hacia la imagen imposible = Archaeology of absence of Lucila Quieto: a trip to the impossible image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Alonso Riveiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Desde los años noventa del pasado siglo proliferan los artistas que trabajan a partir de la recuperación “pequeña memoria”, la más intima, frecuentemente asociada a la revisitación de momentos traumáticos. Sus obras, generadas en un pasado todavía abierto, actúan en el presente del espectador como mecanismos de duelo colectivo pero también como eficaces armas de acción política: así el arte (conmueve y nos mueve. El presente estudio pretende analizar estos movimientos tomando como ejemplo la obra Arqueología de la Ausencia de la argentina Lucila Quieto, creada a partir de las fotografías de los “desaparecidos” durante la dictadura argentina. Para ello se usará la metáfora del viaje: un viaje que comienza en el ámbito privado con el deseo de suplir una ausencia en el álbum familiar, remonta el tiempo para crear la imagen capaz de suplir esa ausencia en un lugar y un espacio imposibles y vuelve al presente en que alcanza al espectador en cuanto objeto de experiencia estética en este presente pero también, en cuanto objeto de acción política en el futuro.From the nineties on many artists work on the recovery of «small memories», the most personal memory, related to the revisitation of traumatic moments. Their works of art, which have been created in a past that continues to lack closure, act in the present of the spectators as a collective mourning mechanism, as well as an effective weapon for political action. Thus, the art moves and makes you move. This study analyses those movements and the starting point is the Archaeology of Absence by the Argentine artist Lucila Quieto, created with family pictures of the «desaparecidos» during the Argentina’s dictatorship. So, I will use the metaphor of the journey: a journey that starts in the private sphere with the desire to recuperate an absence in the family album, continues to create the image able to supply this absence in an impossible place and space and

  2. Eye Movement Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis: Pathogenesis, Modeling, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Serra

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS commonly causes eye movement abnormalities that may have a significant impact on patients’ disability. Inflammatory demyelinating lesions, especially occurring in the posterior fossa, result in a wide range of disorders, spanning from acquired pendular nystagmus (APN to internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO, among the most common. As the control of eye movements is well understood in terms of anatomical substrate and underlying physiological network, studying ocular motor abnormalities in MS provides a unique opportunity to gain insights into mechanisms of disease. Quantitative measurement and modeling of eye movement disorders, such as INO, may lead to a better understanding of common symptoms encountered in MS, such as Uhthoff’s phenomenon and fatigue. In turn, the pathophysiology of a range of eye movement abnormalities, such as APN, has been clarified based on correlation of experimental model with lesion localization by neuroimaging in MS. Eye movement disorders have the potential of being utilized as structural and functional biomarkers of early cognitive deficit, and possibly help in assessing disease status and progression, and to serve as platform and functional outcome to test novel therapeutic agents for MS. Knowledge of neuropharmacology applied to eye movement dysfunction has guided testing and use of a number of pharmacological agents to treat some eye movement disorders found in MS, such as APN and other forms of central nystagmus.

  3. Segmenting Trajectories by Movement States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, M.; Kruckenberg, H.; Kölzsch, A.; Timpf, S.; Laube, P.

    2013-01-01

    Dividing movement trajectories according to different movement states of animals has become a challenge in movement ecology, as well as in algorithm development. In this study, we revisit and extend a framework for trajectory segmentation based on spatio-temporal criteria for this purpose. We adapt

  4. FUNdamental Movement in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linley

    2001-01-01

    Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…

  5. The earliest history of diaphragm physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, J P; Debru, A; Grassino, A E; Whitelaw, W A

    1994-12-01

    The diaphragm was recognized as a distinct anatomical structure in the earliest Greek writings. However, the precise description of wounds suffered by warriors during the Trojan war by Homer was not tied to any particular function. The diaphragm was assimilated to the region that harbours thought. The first physiologic explanations of respiration by Empedocles in the 5th century BC and the concepts introduced by Plato and Hippocrates did not include a significant participation of the diaphragm. Aristole was the first to link respiration to a particular organ and a specific movement of the thorax. However, he considered that it was the heart which caused the lungs to expand by heating them, and the lungs in turn forced the thorax to dilate, a concept which was to survive until the 17th century. As in Aristole's theory the diaphragm played no role in respiration and was just a fence separating the thorax from the abdomen. A major break through occurred in Alexandria in the 4th and 3rd century BC: Herophilus was the first to recognize that muscles were the agents of movement and Erasistratus performed animal experiments which showed that the respiratory muscles were the agents of respiratory movements, thus opening the way to the later discoveries of Galen.

  6. Churn Possibilities and Impossibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Foreback , Dianne; Nesterenko , Mikhail; Tixeuil , Sébastien

    2018-01-01

    Churn is processes joining or leaving the peer-to-peer overlay network. We study handling of various churn variants. Cooperative churn requires leaving processes to participate in the churn algorithm while adversarial churn allows the processes to just quit. Infinite churn considers unbounded number of churning processes throughout a single computation. Unlimited churn does not place a bound on the number of concurrently churning processes. Fair churn handling requires that each churn request...

  7. The Impossible Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Unique Data Collected on Double Asteroid Antiope Combining precise observations obtained by ESO's Very Large Telescope with those gathered by a network of smaller telescopes, astronomers have described in unprecedented detail the double asteroid Antiope, which is shown to be a pair of rubble-pile chunks of material, of about the same size, whirling around one another in a perpetual pas de deux. The two components are egg-shaped despite their very small sizes. The asteroid (90) Antiope was discovered in 1866 by Robert Luther from Dusseldorf, Germany. The 90th asteroid ever discovered, its name comes from Greek mythology. In 2000, William Merline and his collaborators found that the asteroid was composed of two similarly-sized components, making it a truly 'double' asteroid, one of the very first of this kind in the main belt of asteroids that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. ESO PR Photo 18a/07 ESO PR Photo 18a/07 The Antiope Doublet "The way double asteroids have formed in the main belt is still unclear," says Pascal Descamps, from the Paris Observatory and lead-author of the paper presenting the new results. "The Antiope system provides us with a unique opportunity to know more about this class of objects and we decided to study it in detail," he adds. Descamps, with colleague Franck Marchis from the University of California at Berkeley, USA, therefore initiated a large campaign of observations for more than two and a half years starting in January 2003. They used the NACO instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal for the larger part, while using one of the Keck telescopes for some additional observations in 2005. NACO allows the astronomers to perform adaptive optics observations, providing images that are mostly free from the blurring effect of the atmosphere. With these, it was always possible to separate clearly the two components of the Antiope system, thereby obtaining a large set of very precise measurements of their positions. "With this unique set of data, we could determine with utmost precision the course of the two pieces of cosmic rock as they turn around each other," says Marchis. "We found that the two objects are separated by 171 km, and that they perform their celestial dance in 16.5 hours. In fact, we now know this orbital period with a precision of better than half a second." With the orbit determined, the astronomers could derive the total mass of the system: 828 millions million tons, and found the two objects were rotating around their own axes at the same speed as they orbit each other. Thus, in the same way than the Moon does to the Earth, they always present to each other the same side (something astronomers call 'tidal locking'). Moreover, the two asteroids rotate in the same plane as they orbit each other. ESO PR Photo 18b/07 ESO PR Photo 18b/07 Double Asteroid (NACO/VLT) The adaptive optics observations could, however, never resolve the shape of the individual components as they are too small. "But with the new orbit, we could precisely predict that from the end of May to the end of November 2005 the system would present eclipses and occultations," says Marchis. "Such 'mutual events' are unique opportunities to learn a great deal about this double asteroid." The astronomers invited observers around the world to turn their eyes on the asteroid pair to measure the drops in brightness resulting from the predicted events. Over the six-month period, amateurs and professionals from as far afield as Brazil, Chile, France, Réunion Island, South Africa, and the USA, observed repeated occultations as well as shadows passing over one of the pair. With this new data, Descamps, Marchis and their team, found enough evidence that the two mountain-like chunks of material forming the Antiope system have the shape of ellipsoids, that is, slightly deformed spheres, almost similar in size: 93.0 x 87.0 x 83.6 km and 89.4 x 82.8 x 79.6 km, respectively. Each asteroid in the pair is thus roughly the size of a large city. Perhaps the most astonishing result is the fact that the two components have a shape close to the one predicted by the French scientist Edouard Roche in 1849 for self-gravitating, rotating fluid objects orbiting each other and tidally locked. Of course, the asteroids are not gaseous nor liquids, they are solids, but their internal structure must be so loose that their bodies can readjust themselves due to the gravitational influence of the companion. The scientists were also able to derive the density of the objects, only a quarter higher than the density of water. This means the asteroids are very porous, having 30 percent empty space, and thereby suggesting a rubble-pile structure. This structure could explain why it was easier for the asteroids to reach equilibrium shapes, while being so small. "Despite this intensive study, the origin of this unique doublet still remains a mystery," says Descamps. "The formation of such a large double system is an improbable event and represents a formidable challenge to theory. One possibility is that a parent body was spun up so much that it took the shape of an apple core, then split into two similar-sized pieces." More Information This work is reported in a paper published in the journal Icarus ("Figure of the double Asteroid 90 Antiope from adaptive optics and lightcurve observations", by P. Descamps et al.). The team is composed of P. Descamps, F. Marchis, F. Vachier, F. Colas, J. Berthier, D. Hestroffer, R. Viera-Martins, and M. Birlan (Observatoire de Paris, France), T. Michalowski and M. Polinska (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland), M. Assafin (Observatorio do Valongo/UFRJ, Brazil), P.B. Dunckel (Rattlesnake Creek Observatory, USA), W. Pych (Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Warsaw, Poland), J.-P. Teng-Chuen-Yu, A. Peyrot, B. Payet, J. Dorseuil, Y. Léonie, and T. Dijoux (Makes Observatory, Réunion Island, France). F. Marchis is also at the University of California at Berkeley, USA.

  8. Teleportation the impossible leap

    CERN Document Server

    Darling, David

    2005-01-01

    An authoritative, entertaining examination of the ultimate thrill ride Until recently the stuff of sci-fi fiction and Star Trek reruns, teleportation has become a reality-for subatomic particles at least. In this eye-opening book, science author David Darling follows the remarkable evolution of teleportation, visiting the key labs that have cradled this cutting-edge science and relating the all-too-human stories behind its birth. He ties in the fast emerging fields of cryptography and quantum computing, tackles some thorny philosophical questions (for instance, can a soul be teleported?)

  9. Fukushinobyl, the impossible catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boceno, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    With the emergence of variety of health and environmental crisis or catastrophes (Seveso, Bhopal, Chernobyl, AIDS, contaminated blood, mad cow, influenzas), the author proposes thoughts about the fact that it seems we are not in the era of industrial societies any longer, but in that of societies of risk. He more particularly focuses on Chernobyl and Fukushima to analyse how a social framework is built up to integrate forms of institutionalisation of multifaceted vulnerability, these institutional logics becoming latent social pathologies. In this respect, he more particularly discusses the catastrophic share of nuclear. He shows how what can be considered as a risk is socialised, dissimulated by priority, and then addresses the management of consequences of Chernobyl and how it is used to address the Japanese present situation. He notably outlines a kind of collusion between the WHO and the IAEA about nuclear issues. In his respect, he recalls a statement made by the WHO saying that, from a mental health point of view, the most satisfying solution for the future of pacific uses of nuclear energy would be the emergence of a new generation who would have learned to cope with ignorance and uncertainty

  10. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  11. Nearly automatic motion capture system for tracking octopus arm movements in 3D space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelman, Ido; Galun, Meirav; Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Yekutieli, Yoram; Hochner, Binyamin; Flash, Tamar

    2009-08-30

    Tracking animal movements in 3D space is an essential part of many biomechanical studies. The most popular technique for human motion capture uses markers placed on the skin which are tracked by a dedicated system. However, this technique may be inadequate for tracking animal movements, especially when it is impossible to attach markers to the animal's body either because of its size or shape or because of the environment in which the animal performs its movements. Attaching markers to an animal's body may also alter its behavior. Here we present a nearly automatic markerless motion capture system that overcomes these problems and successfully tracks octopus arm movements in 3D space. The system is based on three successive tracking and processing stages. The first stage uses a recently presented segmentation algorithm to detect the movement in a pair of video sequences recorded by two calibrated cameras. In the second stage, the results of the first stage are processed to produce 2D skeletal representations of the moving arm. Finally, the 2D skeletons are used to reconstruct the octopus arm movement as a sequence of 3D curves varying in time. Motion tracking, segmentation and reconstruction are especially difficult problems in the case of octopus arm movements because of the deformable, non-rigid structure of the octopus arm and the underwater environment in which it moves. Our successful results suggest that the motion-tracking system presented here may be used for tracking other elongated objects.

  12. Normal movement selectivity in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J

    2010-05-13

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Movement selectivity is a defining characteristic of neurons involved in movement perception, including mirror neurons, and, as such, these findings argue against a mirror system dysfunction in autism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Circadian physiology of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-11-25

    A majority of mammalian genes exhibit daily fluctuations in expression levels, making circadian expression rhythms the largest known regulatory network in normal physiology. Cell-autonomous circadian clocks interact with daily light-dark and feeding-fasting cycles to generate approximately 24-hour oscillations in the function of thousands of genes. Circadian expression of secreted molecules and signaling components transmits timing information between cells and tissues. Such intra- and intercellular daily rhythms optimize physiology both by managing energy use and by temporally segregating incompatible processes. Experimental animal models and epidemiological data indicate that chronic circadian rhythm disruption increases the risk of metabolic diseases. Conversely, time-restricted feeding, which imposes daily cycles of feeding and fasting without caloric reduction, sustains robust diurnal rhythms and can alleviate metabolic diseases. These findings highlight an integrative role of circadian rhythms in physiology and offer a new perspective for treating chronic diseases in which metabolic disruption is a hallmark. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. The tactile movement aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins, M; Favorov, O

    1994-01-01

    The existence of a tactile movement aftereffect was established in a series of experiments on the palmar surface of the hand and fingers of psychophysical observers. During adaptation, observers cupped their hand around a moving drum for up to 3 min; following this period of stimulation, they typically reported an aftereffect consisting of movement sensations located on and deep to the skin, and lasting for up to 1 min. Preliminary experiments comparing a number of stimulus materials mounted on the drum demonstrated that a surface approximating a low-spatial-frequency square wave, with a smooth microtexture, was especially effective at inducing the aftereffect; this adapting stimulus was therefore used throughout the two main experiments. In Experiment 1, the vividness of the aftereffect produced by 2 min of adaptation was determined under three test conditions: with the hand (1) remaining on the now stationary drum; (2) in contact with a soft, textured surface; or (3) suspended in air. Subjects' free magnitude estimates of the peak vividness of the aftereffect were not significantly different across conditions; each subject experienced the aftereffect at least once under each condition. Thus the tactile movement aftereffect does not seem to depend critically on the ponditions of stimulation that obtain while it is being experienced. In Experiment 2, the vividness and duration of the aftereffect were measured as a function of the duration of the adapting stimulus. Both measures increased steadily over the range of durations explored (30-180 sec). In its dependence on adapting duration, the aftereffect resembles the waterfall illusion in vision. An explanation for the tactile movement aftereffect is proposed, based on the model of cortical dynamics of Whitsel et al. (1989, 1991). With assumed modest variation of one parameter across individuals, this application of the model is able to account both for the data of the majority of subjects, who experienced the

  15. Fetal body movement monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1990-03-01

    Recording fetal activity serves as an indirect measure of central nervous system integrity and function. The coordination of whole body movement, which requires complex neurologic control, is likely similar to that of the newborn infant. Short-term observations of the fetus are best performed using real-time ultrasound imaging. Monitoring fetal motion has been shown to be clinically worthwhile in predicting impending death or compromise, especially when placental insufficiency is longstanding. The presence of a vigorous fetus is reassuring. Perceived inactivity requires a reassessment of any underlying antepartum complication and a more precise evaluation by fetal heart rate testing or real-time ultrasonography before delivery is contemplated.

  16. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise......-slavery movements had raised awareness, this political emergence was even easier. Indeed the fight against ‘slave mentalities’ was everywhere a major challenge and a crucial step to mobilize groups of slave status under a united force. As this article argues changes in political structures and changes in political...

  17. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    makes its movement decisions relative to the group centroid. The basic idea is framed within the flexible class of hidden Markov models, extending previous work on modelling animal movement by means of multi-state random walks. While in simulation experiments parameter estimators exhibit some bias......, to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual......Group dynamic movement is a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognised, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However...

  18. Camera Movement in Narrative Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2007-01-01

    section unearths what characterizes the literature on camera movement. The second section of the dissertation delineates the history of camera movement itself within narrative cinema. Several organizational principles subtending the on-screen effect of camera movement are revealed in section two...... but they are not organized into a coherent framework. This is the task that section three meets in proposing a functional taxonomy for camera movement in narrative cinema. Two presumptions subtend the taxonomy: That camera movement actively contributes to the way in which we understand the sound and images on the screen......, commentative or valuative manner. 4) Focalization: associating the movement of the camera with the viewpoints of characters or entities in the story world. 5) Reflexive: inviting spectators to engage with the artifice of camera movement. 6) Abstract: visualizing abstract ideas and concepts. In order...

  19. The emergence of Applied Physiology within the discipline of Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M

    2016-08-01

    Despite the availability and utilization of the physiology textbooks authored by Albrecht von Haller during the 18th century that heralded the modern age of physiology, not all physicians or physiologists were satisfied with its presentation, contents, or application to medicine. Initial reasons were fundamental disagreements between the "mechanists," represented by Boerhaave, Robinson, and von Haller, and the "vitalists," represented by the faculty and graduates of the Montpellier School of Medicine in France, notably, Bordeu and Barthez. Subsequently, objections originated from Europe, United Kingdom, and the United States in publications that focused not only on the teaching of physiology to medical and secondary students, but on the specific applications of the content of physiology to medicine, health, hygiene, pathology, and chronic diseases. At the turn of the 20th century, texts began to appear with applied physiology in their titles and in 1926, physician Samson Wright published a textbook entitled Applied Physiology that was intended for both medical students and the medical profession. Eleven years later, physicians Best and Taylor published The Physiological Basis of Medical Practice: A University of Toronto Texbook in Applied Physiology Although both sets of authors defined the connection between applied physiology and physiology, they failed to define the areas of physiology that were included within applied physiology. This was accomplished by the American Physiological Society (APS) Publications Committee in 1948 with the publication of the Journal of Appplied Physiology, that stated the word "applied" would broadly denote human physiology whereas the terms stress and environment would broadly include work, exercise, plus industrial, climatic and social factors. NIH established a study section (SS) devoted to applied physiology in 1964 which remained active until 2001 when it became amalgamated into other SSs. Before the end of the 20th century when

  20. Genetics Home Reference: congenital mirror movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Congenital mirror movement disorder Congenital mirror movement disorder Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Congenital mirror movement disorder is a condition in which intentional movements ...

  1. Theoretical Calculation and Experimental Verification Demonstrated the Impossibility of Finding Haptens Identifying Triphenylmethane Dyes and Their Leuco Metabolites Simultaneously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Xin Kong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Detection of triphenylmethane dyes (TDs, especially the widely used malachite green (MG and crystal violet (CV, plays an important role in safety control of aquatic products. There are two chromatic forms of TDs: oxidized or reduced. Usually, only one form can be detected by reported ELISA antibodies. In this article, molecular shape superimposing and quantum mechanics calculation were employed to elucidate the differences between MG, CV, and their reduced chromatic forms (leucomalachite green, LMG and leucocrystal violet, LCV. A potential hapten was rationally designed and synthesized. Polyclonal antibodies were raised through immunizing New Zealand white rabbits and BALB/C mice. We tested the cross-reactivity ratios between the hapten and TDs. The cross-reactivity ratios were correlated with the difference in surface electrostatic potential. The determination coefficients (r2 of the correlations are 0.901 and 0.813 for the rabbit and mouse antibody, respectively. According to this linear model, the significant difference in the atomic charge seemed to make it impossible to find a hapten that can produce antibodies with good cross-reactivities with both reduced and oxidized TDs.

  2. Physiology of woody plants

    CERN Document Server

    Hazewinkel, Michiel; Pallardy, Stephen G

    1996-01-01

    This completely revised classic volume is an up-to-date synthesis of the intensive research devoted to woody plants. Intended primarily as a text for students and a reference for researchers, this interdisciplinary book should be useful to a broad range of scientists from agroforesters, agronomists, and arborists to plant pathologists, ecophysiologists, and soil scientists. Anyone interested in plant physiology will find this text invaluable. Key Features * Includes supplementary chapter summaries and lists of general references * Provides a solid foundation of reference information * Thoroughly updated classic text/reference.

  3. Tracking the Poster Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2015-01-01

    Summary: This article considers the display of posters as a distinctive activity and defining aspect of British modernism between the two wars, looking to a cardinal event, the Exhibition of British and Foreign Posters at the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1931. This manifestation was the first...... in the Museum to expose the poster-image as a medium in its own artistic, technical, historical and popular right; the article examines the event as a sign holding core characteristics of a ‘poster movement’ prevailing during the interwar years. The period made a varied scene for exhibitions promoting...... commercial and graphic design of various kinds of which British and Foreign Posters offers a particularly rich example. The exhibition attracted commercial, artistic and curatorial forces substantiating the idea of a movement, and approached commercial art from a perspective that raised new awareness towards...

  4. The Circular Camera Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used...... repeatedly to convey the feeling of a man and a woman falling in love. This raises the question of why producers and directors choose certain stylistic features to narrate certain categories of content. Through the analysis of several short film and TV clips, this article explores whether...... or not there are perceptual aspects related to specific stylistic features that enable them to be used for delimited narrational purposes. The article further attempts to reopen this particular stylistic debate by exploring the embodied aspects of visual perception in relation to specific stylistic features...

  5. Material and Affective Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2014-01-01

    . The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich realms...... of individual experiences of school and everyday school life as it unfolds in and beyond the formal teaching situations. The chapter follows in the wake of a growing attention to the aspects of everyday life and lived life at school in the history of education. It also develops tools for and demonstrates how...... the use of spoken memories is a rewarding source for the writing about school from the pupils’ perspective....

  6. Emotion Monitoring – Verification of Physiological Characteristics Measurement Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landowska Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns measurement procedures on an emotion monitoring stand designed for tracking human emotions in the Human-Computer Interaction with physiological characteristics. The paper addresses the key problem of physiological measurements being disturbed by a motion typical for human-computer interaction such as keyboard typing or mouse movements. An original experiment is described, that aimed at practical evaluation of measurement procedures performed at the emotion monitoring stand constructed at GUT. Different locations of sensors were considered and evaluated for suitability and measurement precision in the Human- Computer Interaction monitoring. Alternative locations (ear lobes and forearms for skin conductance, blood volume pulse and temperature sensors were proposed and verified. Alternative locations proved correlation with traditional locations as well as lower sensitiveness to movements like typing or mouse moving, therefore they can make a better solution for monitoring the Human-Computer Interaction.

  7. Urban agriculture: long-term strategy or impossible dream?: Lessons from Prospect Farm in Brooklyn, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotti, T

    2015-04-01

    Proponents of urban agriculture have identified its potential to improve health and the environment but in New York City and other densely developed and populated urban areas, it faces huge challenges because of the shortage of space, cost of land, and the lack of contemporary local food production. However, large portions of the city and metropolitan region do have open land and a history of agricultural production in the not-too-distant past. Local food movements and concerns about food security have sparked a growing interest in urban farming. Policies in other sectors to address diet-related illnesses, environmental quality and climate change may also provide opportunities to expand urban farming. Nevertheless, for any major advances in urban agriculture, significant changes in local and regional land use policies are needed. These do not appear to be forthcoming any time soon unless food movements amplify their voices in local and national food policy. Based on his experiences as founder of a small farm in Brooklyn, New York and his engagement with local food movements, the author analyzes obstacles and opportunities for expanding urban agriculture in New York. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical features of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, C Y

    1983-08-01

    The descriptive aspects of all types of movement disorders and their related syndromes and terminologies used in the literature are reviewed and described. This comprises the features of (a) movement disorders secondary to neurological diseases affecting the extrapyramidal motor system, such as: athetosis, chorea, dystonia, hemiballismus, myoclonus, tremor, tics and spasm, (b) drug induced movement disorders, such as: akathisia, akinesia, hyperkinesia, dyskinesias, extrapyramidal syndrome, and tardive dyskinesia, and (c) abnormal movements in psychiatric disorders, such as: mannerism, stereotyped behaviour and psychomotor retardation. It is intended to bring about a more comprehensive overview of these movement disorders from a phenomenological perspective, so that clinicians can familiarize with these features for diagnosis. Some general statements are made in regard to some of the characteristics of movement disorders.

  9. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  10. Physiology of bile secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller, Alejandro

    2008-10-07

    The formation of bile depends on the structural and functional integrity of the bile-secretory apparatus and its impairment, in different situations, results in the syndrome of cholestasis. The structural bases that permit bile secretion as well as various aspects related with its composition and flow rate in physiological conditions will first be reviewed. Canalicular bile is produced by polarized hepatocytes that hold transporters in their basolateral (sinusoidal) and apical (canalicular) plasma membrane. This review summarizes recent data on the molecular determinants of this primary bile formation. The major function of the biliary tree is modification of canalicular bile by secretory and reabsorptive processes in bile-duct epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) as bile passes through bile ducts. The mechanisms of fluid and solute transport in cholangiocytes will also be discussed. In contrast to hepatocytes where secretion is constant and poorly controlled, cholangiocyte secretion is regulated by hormones and nerves. A short section dedicated to these regulatory mechanisms of bile secretion has been included. The aim of this revision was to set the bases for other reviews in this series that will be devoted to specific issues related with biliary physiology and pathology.

  11. Normal Movement Selectivity in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements, but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Moveme...

  12. The Explanatory Range of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    2005-01-01

    Drawing a distinction between systemic and functional explanations of movement in general, I shall argue that the Chomskyan view of movement in language is originally functional. With the advent of the Minimimalist Program, however, it has become systemic, but no argument for this change has been...... forthcoming. I'll then present data (from Danish) to sustain the view that only functional type explanations of movement can be empirically motivated, and these only if movement is reinterpreted as transition states between representations of different kinds....

  13. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...

  14. Land movement monitoring at the Mavropigi lignite mine using spaceborne D-InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Eirini; Tripolitsiotis, Achilleas; Steiakakis, Chrysanthos; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Mertikas, Stelios; Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Schilizzi, Pavlos

    2013-08-01

    This paper examines the capability of remote sensing radar interferometry to monitor land movements, as it varies with time, in areas close to open pit lignite mines. The study area is the "Mavropigi" lignite mine in Ptolemais, Northern Greece; whose continuous operation is of vital importance to the electric power supply of Greece. The mine is presently 100-120m deep while horizontal and vertical movements have been measured in the vicinity of the pit. Within the mine, ground geodetic monitoring has revealed an average rate of movement amounting to 10-20mm/day at the southeast slopes. In this work, differential interferometry (DInSAR), using 19 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of ALOS satellite, has been applied to monitor progression of land movement caused my mining within the greater area of "Mavropigi" region. The results of this work show that DInSAR can be used effectively to capture ground movement information, well before signs of movements can be observed visually in the form of imminent fissures and tension cracks. The advantage of remote sensing interferometry is that it can be applied even in inaccessible areas where monitoring with ground equipment is either impossible or of high-cost (large areas).

  15. Movement Matters: Observing the Benefits of Movement Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Melani Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Montessori's first premise is that movement and cognition are closely entwined, and movement can enhance thinking and learning (Lillard, 2005). Children must move, and practice moving, to develop strength, balance, and the stability needed to fully participate in the rigors of daily life. It is imperative for young children's motor…

  16. Social-movement analysis of the American antinuclear movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Utilizing data from a survey of participants at the May 6, 1979 antinuclear rally in Washington, DC (N = 420), this dissertation explored some of the major structural and ideological characteristics of the American Antinuclear Movement. By organizing the data around three of the key analytical concepts in the study of social movements - mobilization, recruitment, and ideology - the author was able to derive from the demonstration sample a descriptive and illustrative analysis of those individuals, organizations, and processes involved in the national antinuclear crusade. Given that few researchers have actively studied the antinuclear movement beyond the scope of local or regional protests, this work constitutes the only empirical study to date examining a cross section of the movement's participants from a sociological perspective. It is also one of the few attempts to use a national demonstration as a social laboratory for the study of a social movement in general. In terms of the mobilization variables examined in the study, it was found that organizational networks, past movement activism, and individual resources were important factors in the May 6 mobilization effort. While less than one-half of the demonstrators were part of the antinuclear organizational network per se, most of them had been active in the major protest movements of the 1960's and 1970's. The demonstrators were relatively high in socio-economic resources and had occupational or educational schedules conducive to creating the necessary discretionary time for movement participation

  17. From photography to cinematography: recording movement and gait in a neurological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Geneviève

    2002-09-01

    The major challenge of photography has been freezing movement, to transform it into a fixed image or series of images. Very soon, photographers became interested in movement itself and tried to use photography as a tool to analyze movement. At the early stages, physicians interested in movement, perhaps surprisingly, made important technical contributions. Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine, by Duchenne, the first book with physiological experiments illustrated by photographs, is a landmark in this historical development. At the Salpêtrière, thanks to Charcot, photography officially entered clinical neurology. Medical journals with photographs were actively developed by Bourneville. Londe established a clinical photographic laboratory and published the first book on medical photography. The study of animal and human movement by Muybridge and Marey in the 1880s led to chronophotography and later cinematography. Clinicians such as Dercum and Richer took advantage of these new techniques to study pathological movement and gait in neurological diseases.

  18. Physiological markers of motor inhibition during human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Julie; Greenhouse, Ian; Labruna, Ludovica; Ivry, Richard B.

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies in humans have shown that many behaviors engage processes that suppress excitability within the corticospinal tract. Inhibition of the motor output pathway has been extensively studied in the context of action stopping, where a planned movement needs to be abruptly aborted. Recent TMS work has also revealed markers of motor inhibition during the preparation of movement. Here, we review the evidence for motor inhibition during action stopping and action preparation, focusing on studies that have used TMS to monitor changes in the excitability of the corticospinal pathway. We discuss how these physiological results have motivated theoretical models of how the brain selects actions, regulates movement initiation and execution, and switches from one state to another. PMID:28341235

  19. Home geriatric physiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Toshiyo

    2012-10-01

    In an ageing society, the elderly can be monitored with numerous physiological, physical and passive devices. Sensors can be installed in the home for continuous mobility assistance and unobtrusive disease prevention. This review presents several modern sensors, which improve the quality of life and assist the elderly, disabled people and their caregivers. The main concept of geriatric sensors is that they are capable of providing assistance without limiting or disturbing the subject's daily routine, giving him or her greater comfort, pleasure and well-being. Furthermore, this review includes associated technologies of wearable/implantable monitoring systems and the 'smart-house' project. This review concludes by discussing future challenges of the future aged society.

  20. Home geriatric physiological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Toshiyo

    2012-01-01

    In an ageing society, the elderly can be monitored with numerous physiological, physical and passive devices. Sensors can be installed in the home for continuous mobility assistance and unobtrusive disease prevention. This review presents several modern sensors, which improve the quality of life and assist the elderly, disabled people and their caregivers. The main concept of geriatric sensors is that they are capable of providing assistance without limiting or disturbing the subject's daily routine, giving him or her greater comfort, pleasure and well-being. Furthermore, this review includes associated technologies of wearable/implantable monitoring systems and the ‘smart-house’ project. This review concludes by discussing future challenges of the future aged society. (topical review)

  1. Physiology for engineers applying engineering methods to physiological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formulated and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies. Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reacti...

  2. Spatial memory and animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, William F; Lewis, Mark A; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Avgar, Tal; Benhamou, Simon; Breed, Greg; LaDage, Lara; Schlägel, Ulrike E; Tang, Wen-wu; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Forester, James; Mueller, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Memory is critical to understanding animal movement but has proven challenging to study. Advances in animal tracking technology, theoretical movement models and cognitive sciences have facilitated research in each of these fields, but also created a need for synthetic examination of the linkages between memory and animal movement. Here, we draw together research from several disciplines to understand the relationship between animal memory and movement processes. First, we frame the problem in terms of the characteristics, costs and benefits of memory as outlined in psychology and neuroscience. Next, we provide an overview of the theories and conceptual frameworks that have emerged from behavioural ecology and animal cognition. Third, we turn to movement ecology and summarise recent, rapid developments in the types and quantities of available movement data, and in the statistical measures applicable to such data. Fourth, we discuss the advantages and interrelationships of diverse modelling approaches that have been used to explore the memory-movement interface. Finally, we outline key research challenges for the memory and movement communities, focusing on data needs and mathematical and computational challenges. We conclude with a roadmap for future work in this area, outlining axes along which focused research should yield rapid progress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements...

  4. Compensatory eye movements in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Alphen (Arjan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection

  5. Movement Patterns in Educational Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Nielsen, Thorsten B.

    2018-01-01

    Although movement is essential in location-based games to get from one point of interest to the next, it is seldom taken into account for the game design and the selection of locations. Instead, player movement is usually analyzed after the fact, i.e. when the game is ready to play. In this paper......-based educational games....

  6. Music and Movement. Beginnings Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cindy; Moore, Thomas; Carlton, Elizabeth B.; Kranowitz, Carol Stock

    2000-01-01

    Four articles address music and movement in early childhood education: (1) "For the Love of Music--and Children"(Cindy Smith); (2) "Music: The Great Connector" (Thomas Moore); (3) "Learning through Music: The Support of Brain Research" (Elizabeth B. Carlton); and (4) "Music and Movement Bring Together Children of…

  7. Physiology of Sedentary Behavior and Its Relationship to Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyfault, John P; Du, Mengmeng; Kraus, William E; Levine, James A; Booth, Frank W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This paper reports on the findings and recommendations of the “Physiology of Sedentary Behavior and its Relationship to Health Outcomes” group, a part of a larger workshop entitled Sedentary Behavior: Identifying Research Priorities sponsored by the National Heart, and Lung and Blood Institute and the National Institute on Aging, which aimed to establish sedentary behavior research priorities. Methods The discussion within our workshop lead to the formation of critical physiological research objectives related to sedentary behaviors, that if appropriately researched would greatly impact our overall understanding of human health and longevity. Results and Conclusions Primary questions are related to physiological “health outcomes” including the influence of physical activity vs. sedentary behavior on function of a number of critical physiological systems (aerobic capacity, skeletal muscle metabolism and function, telomeres/genetic stability, and cognitive function). The group also derived important recommendations related to the “central and peripheral mechanisms” that govern sedentary behavior and how energy balance has a role in mediating these processes. General recommendations for future sedentary physiology research efforts include that studies of sedentary behavior, including that of sitting time only, should focus on the physiological impact of a “lack of human movement” in contradistinction to the effects of physical movement and that new models or strategies for studying sedentary behavior induced adaptations and links to disease development are needed to elucidate underlying mechanism(s). PMID:25222820

  8. The ecological movement in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccoen, L.B.C.

    1977-01-01

    The anti-nuclear movements in France are part of a broader movement which, following common usage, the author calls the Ecological Movement. In France, the movement can be divided into a fairly small politically oriented core, numerous and varied associations for the defence of the environment, and a number of consumer associations. The movement cannot be classified politically, which accounts for the attitude of the political parties - distrust of the ''ecologists'', but considerable interest in them as voters. Those with responsibility for power generation must explain to the population at large the energy problem and the importance of economic growth in raising wages and reducing unemployment. They must also explain why nuclear power generation is one of the safest technologies existing at present. (author)

  9. On Biometrics With Eye Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youming; Juhola, Martti

    2017-09-01

    Eye movements are a relatively novel data source for biometric identification. When video cameras applied to eye tracking become smaller and more efficient, this data source could offer interesting opportunities for the development of eye movement biometrics. In this paper, we study primarily biometric identification as seen as a classification task of multiple classes, and secondarily biometric verification considered as binary classification. Our research is based on the saccadic eye movement signal measurements from 109 young subjects. In order to test the data measured, we use a procedure of biometric identification according to the one-versus-one (subject) principle. In a development from our previous research, which also involved biometric verification based on saccadic eye movements, we now apply another eye movement tracker device with a higher sampling frequency of 250 Hz. The results obtained are good, with correct identification rates at 80-90% at their best.

  10. Eye movement perimetry in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trope, G E; Eizenman, M; Coyle, E

    1989-08-01

    Present-day computerized perimetry is often inaccurate and unreliable owing to the need to maintain central fixation over long periods while repressing the normal response to presentation of peripheral stimuli. We tested a new method of perimetry that does not require prolonged central fixation. During this test eye movements were encouraged on presentation of a peripheral target. Twenty-three eyes were studied with an Octopus perimeter, with a technician monitoring eye movements. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity 23%. The low specificity was due to the technician's inability to accurately monitor small eye movements in the central 6 degrees field. If small eye movements are monitored accurately with an eye tracker, eye movement perimetry could become an alternative method to standard perimetry.

  11. Post-traumatic shoulder movement disorders: A challenging differential diagnosis between organic and functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sanjay; Nahab, Fatta; Aldred, Jason; Nutt, John; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral trauma may be a trigger for the development of various movement disorders though the pathophysiology remains controversial and some of these patients have a functional (psychogenic) disorder. We report 3 cases of shoulder movement disorders following trauma to the shoulder region. Physiology was done in all the patients to extend the physical examination. Two patients had history of recurrent shoulder dislocation and were diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. One patient had shoulder injury following repeated falls while performing as a cheerleader. In two patients there were some clinical features suggesting a functional etiology, but physiological studies in all three failed to produce objective evidence of a functional nature. Shoulder movement following trauma is uncommon. Diagnosis in such cases is challenging considering the complex pathophysiology. The movements can be associated with prolonged pain and handicap, and once established they appear resistant to treatment. PMID:25197686

  12. Selective Retrograde Venous Revascularization of the Myocardium when PCI or CABG Is Impossible: Investigation in a Porcine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Christian H; Nørgaard, Martin A; Gøtze, Jens P

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of nourishing the myocardium through selective retrograde coronary venous bypass grafting (CVBG) with an off-pump technique and evaluated various methods of monitoring the physiological effects of this procedure. In a porcine model, the left internal mammary artery...... tension decreased, but with time some recovery was seen. Cardiac troponin T was elevated. Histological analysis showed ischemic changes. In control pigs, microdialysis was performed for 1.5 hours up to LAD artery ligation, after which all pigs died in ventricular fibrillation arrest. No increase...

  13. Procedures of Exercise Physiology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Phillip A.; Fortney, Suzanne; Greenisen, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Squires, William

    1998-01-01

    This manual describes the laboratory methods used to collect flight crew physiological performance data at the Johnson Space Center. The Exercise Countermeasures Project Laboratory is a standard physiology laboratory; only the application to the study of human physiological adaptations to spaceflight is unique. In the absence of any other recently published laboratory manual, this manual should be a useful document staffs and students of other laboratories.

  14. Physiological and psychological assessment of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihashi, R.; Ohira, Masayoshi; Kimura, Teiji; Fujiwara, Takayuki

    The psycho-physiological effects of several sound stimulations were investigated to evaluate the relationship between a psychological parameter, such as subjective perception, and a physiological parameter, such as the heart rate variability (HRV). Eight female students aged 21-22 years old were tested. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and the movement of the chest-wall for estimating respiratory rate were recorded during three different sound stimulations; (1) music provided by a synthesizer (condition A); (2) birds twitters (condition B); and (3) mechanical sounds (condition C). The percentage power of the low-frequency (LF; 0.05<=0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF; 0.15<=0.40 Hz) components in the HRV (LF%, HF%) were assessed by a frequency analysis of time-series data for 5 min obtained from R-R intervals in the ECG. Quantitative assessment of subjective perception was also described by a visual analog scale (VAS). The HF% and VAS value for comfort in C were significantly lower than in either A and/or B. The respiratory rate and VAS value for awakening in C were significantly higher than in A and/or B. There was a significant correlation between the HF% and the value of the VAS, and between the respiratory rate and the value of the VAS. These results indicate that mechanical sounds similar to C inhibit the para-sympathetic nervous system and promote a feeling that is unpleasant but alert, also suggesting that the HRV reflects subjective perception.

  15. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  16. Smolt physiology and endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  17. Polyamines in plant physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galston, A. W.; Sawhney, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing.

  18. Clinical physiology grand rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jeremy; Schwartzstein, Richard; Irish, Julie; Almeida, Jacqueline; Roberts, David

    2013-04-01

    Clinical Physiology Grand Rounds (CPGR) is an interactive, case-based conference for medical students designed to: (1) integrate preclinical and clinical learning; (2) promote inductive clinical reasoning; and (3) emphasise students as peer teachers. CPGR specifically encourages mixed learning level student interactions and emphasises the use of concept mapping. We describe the theoretical basis and logistical considerations for an interactive, integrative, mixed-learner environment such as CPGR. In addition, we report qualitative data regarding students' attitudes towards and perceptions of CPGR. Medical students from first to fourth year participate in a monthly, interactive conference. The CPGR was designed to bridge gaps and reinforce linkages between basic science and clinical concepts, and to incorporate interactive vertical integration between preclinical and clinical students. Medical education and content experts use Socratic, interactive teaching methods to develop real-time concept maps to emphasise the presence and importance of linkages across curricula. Student focus groups were held to assess attitudes towards and perceptions of the mixed-learner environment and concept maps in CPGR. Qualitative analyses of focus group transcripts were performed to develop themes and codes describing the students' impressions of CPGR. CPGR is a case-based, interactive conference designed to help students gain an increased appreciation of linkages between basic science and clinical medicine concepts, and an increased awareness of clinical reasoning thought processes. Success is dependent upon explicit attention being given to goals for students' integrated learning. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  19. Building the bridge between animal movement and population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Juan M; Moorcroft, Paul R; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Frair, Jacqueline L; Kie, John G; Powell, Roger A; Merrill, Evelyn H; Haydon, Daniel T

    2010-07-27

    While the mechanistic links between animal movement and population dynamics are ecologically obvious, it is much less clear when knowledge of animal movement is a prerequisite for understanding and predicting population dynamics. GPS and other technologies enable detailed tracking of animal location concurrently with acquisition of landscape data and information on individual physiology. These tools can be used to refine our understanding of the mechanistic links between behaviour and individual condition through 'spatially informed' movement models where time allocation to different behaviours affects individual survival and reproduction. For some species, socially informed models that address the movements and average fitness of differently sized groups and how they are affected by fission-fusion processes at relevant temporal scales are required. Furthermore, as most animals revisit some places and avoid others based on their previous experiences, we foresee the incorporation of long-term memory and intention in movement models. The way animals move has important consequences for the degree of mixing that we expect to find both within a population and between individuals of different species. The mixing rate dictates the level of detail required by models to capture the influence of heterogeneity and the dynamics of intra- and interspecific interaction.

  20. Movement disorders in hereditary ataxias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Ruiz, Pedro J; Mayo, David; Hernandez, Jaime; Cantarero, Susana; Ayuso, Carmen

    2002-10-15

    Movement disorders are well known features of some dominant hereditary ataxias (HA), specially SCA3/Machado-Joseph disease and dentatorubropallidolusyan atrophy. However, little is known about the existence and classification of movement disorders in other dominant and recessive ataxias. We prospectively studied the presence of movement disorders in patients referred for HA over the last 3 years. Only those patients with a confirmed family history of ataxia were included. We studied 84 cases of HA, including 46 cases of recessive and 38 cases of dominant HA. Thirty out of 46 cases of recessive HA could be classified as: Friedreich ataxia (FA), 29 cases; vitamin E deficiency, 1 case. Twenty-three out of 38 cases of dominant HA could be classified as: SCA 2, 4 cases; SCA 3, 8 cases; SCA 6, 4 cases; SCA 7, 6 cases and SCA 8, 1 case. We observed movement disorders in 20/38 (52%) patients with dominant HA and 25/46 (54%) cases with recessive HA, including 16 patients (16/29) with FA. In general, postural tremor was the most frequent observed movement disorder (27 cases), followed by dystonia (22 cases). Five patients had akinetic rigid syndrome, and in 13 cases, several movement disorders coexisted. Movement disorders are frequent findings in HA, not only in dominant HA but also in recessive HA. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. Does the cerebellum initiate movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, W T

    2014-02-01

    Opinion is divided on what the exact function of the cerebellum is. Experiments are summarized that support the following views: (1) the cerebellum is a combiner of multiple movement factors; (2) it contains anatomically fixed permanent focal representation of individual body parts (muscles and segments) and movement modes (e.g., vestibular driven vs. cognitive driven); (3) it contains flexible changing representations/memory of physical properties of the body parts including muscle strength, segment inertia, joint viscosity, and segmental interaction torques (dynamics); (4) it contains mechanisms for learning and storage of the properties in item no. 3 through trial-and-error practice; (5) it provides for linkage of body parts, motor modes, and motordynamics via the parallel fiber system; (6) it combines and integrates the many factors so as to initiate coordinated movements of the many body parts; (7) it is thus enabled to play the unique role of initiating coordinated movements; and (8) this unique causative role is evidenced by the fact that: (a) electrical stimulation of the cerebellum can initiate compound coordinated movements; (b) in naturally initiated compound movements, cerebellar discharge precedes that in downstream target structures such as motor cerebral cortex; and (c) cerebellar ablation abolishes the natural production of compound movements in the awake alert individuals.

  2. Jellyfish movement data - Determining Movement Patterns of Jellyfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is to determine horizontal and vertical movement patterns of two jellyfish species in Hood Canal, in relation to environmental variables. It is being...

  3. Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMiki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.

  4. Dance movement therapy for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkou, Vicky; Meekums, Bonnie

    2017-02-03

    Dementia is a collective name for different degenerative brain syndromes which, according to Alzheimer's Disease International, affects approximately 35.6 million people worldwide. The latest NICE guideline for dementia highlights the value of diverse treatment options for the different stages and symptoms of dementia including non-pharmacological treatments. Relevant literature also argues for the value of interventions that acknowledge the complexity of the condition and address the person as a whole, including their physical, emotional, social and cognitive processes. At the same time, there is growing literature that highlights the capacity of the arts and embodied practices to address this complexity. Dance movement therapy is an embodied psychological intervention that can address complexity and thus, may be useful for people with dementia, but its effectiveness remains unclear. To assess the effects of dance movement therapy on behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional symptoms of people with dementia in comparison to no treatment, standard care or any other treatment. Also, to compare different forms of dance movement therapy (e.g. Laban-based dance movement therapy, Chacian dance movement therapy or Authentic Movement). Searches took place up to March 2016 through ALOIS, Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement's Specialized Register, which covers CENTRAL, a number of major healthcare databases and trial registers, and grey literature sources. We checked bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews, and contacted professional associations, educational programmes and experts from around the world. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language, including cross-over design and cluster-RCTs for inclusion. Studies considered had to include people with dementia, in any age group and in any setting, with interventions delivered by a dance movement therapy practitioner who (i) had received formal training (ii) was a dance movement

  5. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation negatively...... influences the subjective perception of air movement. With occupants feeling warmer than neutral, at temperatures above 23oC or at raised activity levels, humans generally do not feel draught at air velocities typical for indoor environments (up to around 0.4 m/s). In the higher temperature range, very high...

  6. Determination of maximum physiologic thyroid uptake and correlation with 24-hour RAI uptake value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duldulao, M.; Obaldo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In hyperthyroid patients, thyroid uptake values are overestimated, sometimes approaching or exceeding 100%. This is physiologically and mathematically impossible. This study was undertaken to determine the maximum physiologic thyroid uptake value through a proposed simple method using a gamma camera. Methodology: Twenty-two patients (17 females and 5 males), with ages ranging from 19-61 y/o (mean age ± SD; 41 ± 12), with 24-hour uptake value of >50%, clinically hyperthyroid and referred for subsequent radioactive iodine therapy were studied. The computed maximum physiologic thyroid uptake was compared with the 24-hour uptake using the paired Student t-test and evaluated using linear regression analysis. Results: The computed physiologic uptake correlated poorly with the 24-hour uptake value. However, in the male subgroup, there was no statistically significant difference between the two (p=0.77). Linear regression analysis gives the following relationship: physiologic uptake (%) = 77.76 - 0.284 (24-hour RAI uptake value). Conclusion: Provided that proper regions of interest are applied with correct attenuation and background subtraction, determination of physiologic thyroid uptake may be obtained using the proposed method. This simple method may be useful prior to I-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism especially when a single uptake determination is performed. (author)

  7. Structural and biomechanical basis of mitochondrial movement in eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Min Wu,1 Aruna Kalyanasundaram,2 Jie Zhu1 1Laboratory of Biomechanics and Engineering, Institute of Biophysics, College of Science, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China; 2College of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Mitochondria serve as energy-producing organelles in eukaryotic cells. In addition to providing the energy supply for cells, the mitochondria are also involved in other processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, information transfer, and apoptosis, and play an important role in regulation of cell growth and the cell cycle. In order to achieve these functions, the mitochondria need to move to the corresponding location. Therefore, mitochondrial movement has a crucial role in normal physiologic activity, and any mitochondrial movement disorder will cause irreparable damage to the organism. For example, recent studies have shown that abnormal movement of the mitochondria is likely to be the reason for Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. So, in the cell, especially in the particular polarized cell, the appropriate distribution of mitochondria is crucial to the function and survival of the cell. Mitochondrial movement is mainly associated with the cytoskeleton and related proteins. However, those components play different roles according to cell type. In this paper, we summarize the structural basis of mitochondrial movement, including microtubules, actin filaments, motor proteins, and adaptin, and review studies of the biomechanical mechanisms of mitochondrial movement in different types of cells. Keywords: mitochondrial movement, microtubules, actin filaments, motor proteins, adaptin

  8. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite the universal use of bowel preparation before colonoscopy and colorectal surgery, the physiologic effects have not been described in a standardized setting. This study was designed to investigate the physiologic effects of bowel preparation. METHODS: In a prospective study, 12...

  9. Surgical management of movement disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    together as movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease, dystonia, essential tremor) is with medication and, in some, with ... Stereotactic lesioning of basal ganglia and/or thalamic targets ... and there is some concern related to suicide.

  10. Neuroimaging findings in movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topalov, N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Neuroimaging methods are of great importance for the differential diagnostic delimitation of movement disorders associated with structural damage (neoplasms, ischemic lesions, neuroinfections) from those associated with specific pathophysiological mechanisms (dysmetabolic disorders, neurotransmitter disorders). Learning objective: Presentation of typical imaging findings contributing to nosological differentiation in groups of movement disorders with similar clinical signs. In this presentation are discussed neuroimaging findings in Parkinson‘s disease, atypical parkinsonian syndromes (multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration), parkinsonism in genetically mediated diseases (Wilson’s disease, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration – PKAN), vascular parkinsonism, hyperkinetic movement disorders (palatal tremor, Huntington‘s chorea, symptomatic chorea in ischemic stroke and diabetes, rubral tremor, ballismus, hemifacial spasm). Contemporary neuroimaging methods enable support for diagnostic and differential diagnostic precision of a number of hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders, which is essential for neurological clinical practice

  11. Eye Movements When Viewing Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eHiggins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads, before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet. Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.

  12. Healthy Movements: Your Body's Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body, are governed by the same basic physical laws,” says Dr. Jeffrey Weiss, a biomechanics expert at ... for movement disorders such as cerebral palsy and Parkinson’s disease. Joints are a common source of problems ...

  13. Game Movement as Enactive Focalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam Shibolet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates thought on game narrative and embodied cognition, in order to consider the significance of movement to the embodied narrative experience of games. If games are a mode of ‘environmental storytelling’, determining the player’s mobile situatedness within the gamespace is of crucial importance. The metaphor of game design as narrative architecture should be expanded to include te the design of movement dynamics, alongside geographical gamespace. I suggest a theoretical infrastructure that aims to enable further analysis of movement design’s role in this scope. The theory of enactive perception asserts that all perception is inherently negotiated through embodied understanding of moving within environment. According to this model, by giving meaning to perception, movement is also directly related to the structure of consciousness and thought. Cognitive definitions of ‘narrative’ that integrate embodiment are applied to argue it can relevantly account for part of thought’s role in enactive perception. Mieke Bal’s concept of focalization (1997 broaches narrative perspective by underscoring the constant “movement of the look”. For enactive perception, such mobility should be understood as inseparable from the movement of the body even when perspective could appear detached from embodiment. Therefore, I offer the supplementary concept of “enactive focalization” – narrative perception as interpreted through the interconnected dynamics or perspectival and physical movement. To exemplify my ideas and the potential of future research in this scope, I discuss the uniquely effective and affective movement dynamic design of Journey. This paper concludes by reflecting on enactive focalization in light of the increased utilization of embodiment in the contemporary digital media landscape.

  14. Vestibular feedback maintains reaching accuracy during body movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Raymond F.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Reaching movements can be perturbed by vestibular input, but the function of this response is unclear.Here, we applied galvanic vestibular stimulation concurrently with real body movement while subjects maintained arm position either fixed in space or fixed with respect to their body.During the fixed‐in‐space conditions, galvanic vestibular stimulation caused large changes in arm trajectory consistent with a compensatory response to maintain upper‐limb accuracy in the face of body movement.Galvanic vestibular stimulation responses were absent during the body‐fixed task, demonstrating task dependency in vestibular control of the upper limb.The results suggest that the function of vestibular‐evoked arm movements is to maintain the accuracy of the upper limb during unpredictable body movement, but only when reaching in an earth‐fixed reference frame. Abstract When using our arms to interact with the world, unintended body motion can introduce movement error. A mechanism that could detect and compensate for such motion would be beneficial. Observations of arm movements evoked by vestibular stimulation provide some support for this mechanism. However, the physiological function underlying these artificially evoked movements is unclear from previous research. For such a mechanism to be functional, it should operate only when the arm is being controlled in an earth‐fixed rather than a body‐fixed reference frame. In the latter case, compensation would be unnecessary and even deleterious. To test this hypothesis, subjects were gently rotated in a chair while being asked to maintain their outstretched arm pointing towards either earth‐fixed or body‐fixed memorized targets. Galvanic vestibular stimulation was applied concurrently during rotation to isolate the influence of vestibular input, uncontaminated by inertial factors. During the earth‐fixed task, galvanic vestibular stimulation produced large polarity‐dependent corrections in arm

  15. THE MOVEMENT SYSTEM IN EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Barbara J; Sulavik, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Although many physical therapists have begun to focus on movement and function in clinical practice, a significant number continue to focus on impairments or pathoanatomic models to direct interventions. This paradigm may be driven by the current models used to direct and guide curricula used for physical therapist education. The methods by which students are educated may contribute to a focus on independent systems, rather than viewing the body as a functional whole. Students who enter practice must be able to integrate information across multiple systems that affect a patient or client's movement and function. Such integration must be taught to students and it is the responsibility of those in physical therapist education to embrace and teach the next generation of students this identifying professional paradigm of the movement system. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to describe the current state of the movement system in physical therapy education, suggest strategies for enhancing movement system focus in entry level education, and envision the future of physical therapy education related to the movement system. Contributions by a student author offer depth and perspective to the ideas and suggestions presented. 5.

  16. The movement ecology of seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A; Krauss, Siegfried L; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

    2014-11-22

    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space-time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified.

  17. Movement games in sports training of children

    OpenAIRE

    Komoň, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Title: Movement Games in Sports Training of Children Objectives: Create a systemized inventory of movement games. Movement games categorized according to which football skills can developed. Verify popularity of the each movement game in simple questionnaire. Methods: The literature search and data analysis. Also, quantitative research in the form of a simple questionnaire. Results: Systematized inventory of 39 movement games with methodological descriptions. Each movement game has feedback i...

  18. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  19. Unsolvable Problems of Biology: It Is Impossible to Create Two Identical Organisms, to Defeat Cancer, or to Map Organisms onto Their Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdlov, E D

    2018-04-01

    The review is devoted to unsolvable problems of biology. 1) Problems unsolvable due to stochastic mutations occurring during DNA replication that make it impossible to create two identical organisms or even two identical complex cells (Sverdlov, E. D. (2009) Biochemistry (Moscow), 74, 939-944) and to "defeat" cancer. 2) Problems unsolvable due to multiple interactions in complex systems leading to the appearance of unpredictable emergent properties that prevent establishment of unambiguous relationships between the genetic architecture and phenotypic manifestation of the genome and make impossible to predict with certainty responses of the organism, its parts, or pathological processes to external factors. 3) Problems unsolvable because of the uncertainty principle and observer effect in biology, due to which it is impossible to obtain adequate information about cells in their tissue microenvironment by isolating and analyzing individual cells. In particular, we cannot draw conclusions on the properties of stem cells in their niches based on the properties of stem cell cultures. A strategy is proposed for constructing the pattern most closely approximated to the relationship of genotypes with their phenotypes by designing networks of intermediate phenotypes (endophenotypes).

  20. Major component analysis of dynamic networks of physiologic organ interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kang K L; Ma, Qianli D Y; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Bartsch, Ronny P

    2015-01-01

    The human organism is a complex network of interconnected organ systems, where the behavior of one system affects the dynamics of other systems. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse physiologic systems under varied conditions is a challenge due to the complexity in the output dynamics of the individual systems and the transient and nonlinear characteristics of their coupling. We introduce a novel computational method based on the concept of time delay stability and major component analysis to investigate how organ systems interact as a network to coordinate their functions. We analyze a large database of continuously recorded multi-channel physiologic signals from healthy young subjects during night-time sleep. We identify a network of dynamic interactions between key physiologic systems in the human organism. Further, we find that each physiologic state is characterized by a distinct network structure with different relative contribution from individual organ systems to the global network dynamics. Specifically, we observe a gradual decrease in the strength of coupling of heart and respiration to the rest of the network with transition from wake to deep sleep, and in contrast, an increased relative contribution to network dynamics from chin and leg muscle tone and eye movement, demonstrating a robust association between network topology and physiologic function. (paper)

  1. Impaired sense of agency in functional movement disorders: An fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatta B Nahab

    Full Text Available The sense of agency (SA is an established framework that refers to our ability to exert and perceive control over our own actions. Having an intact SA provides the basis for the human perception of voluntariness, while impairments in SA are hypothesized to lead to the perception of movements being involuntary that may be seen many neurological or psychiatric disorders. Individuals with functional movement disorders (FMD experience a lack of control over their movements, yet these movements appear voluntary by physiology. We used fMRI to explore whether alterations in SA in an FMD population could explain why these patients feel their movements are involuntary. We compared the FMD group to a control group that was previously collected using an ecologically valid, virtual-reality movement paradigm that could modulate SA. We found selective dysfunction of the SA neural network, whereby the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and pre-supplementary motor area on the right did not respond differentially to the loss of movement control. These findings provide some of the strongest evidence to date for a physiological basis underlying these disabling disorders.

  2. Understanding movement data and movement processes: current and emerging directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Robert S; Loarie, Scott R; Colchero, Fernando; Best, Benjamin D; Boustany, Andre; Conde, Dalia A; Halpin, Patrick N; Joppa, Lucas N; McClellan, Catherine M; Clark, James S

    2008-12-01

    Animal movement has been the focus on much theoretical and empirical work in ecology over the last 25 years. By studying the causes and consequences of individual movement, ecologists have gained greater insight into the behavior of individuals and the spatial dynamics of populations at increasingly higher levels of organization. In particular, ecologists have focused on the interaction between individuals and their environment in an effort to understand future impacts from habitat loss and climate change. Tools to examine this interaction have included: fractal analysis, first passage time, Lévy flights, multi-behavioral analysis, hidden markov models, and state-space models. Concurrent with the development of movement models has been an increase in the sophistication and availability of hierarchical bayesian models. In this review we bring these two threads together by using hierarchical structures as a framework for reviewing individual models. We synthesize emerging themes in movement ecology, and propose a new hierarchical model for animal movement that builds on these emerging themes. This model moves away from traditional random walks, and instead focuses inference on how moving animals with complex behavior interact with their landscape and make choices about its suitability.

  3. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  4. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  5. Antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    This is a social anthropological analysis of the antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee. This social movement was determined to halt the construction of proposed nuclear power plants in Tennessee, especially one the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) intended to build in Middle Tennessee. The data for the study were gathered by participant-observation interviewing, and the examination of documents from February 1973 through March 1975. The treatment of the data is based on transactional analysis and portions of the network model. This social movement was composed of a series of informally organized cells connected by a loose network of people who visited and talked with one another. Individual cells tended to be organized on a geographical basis, as was communication. Activity-initiators, however, often contacted antinuclear personnel in other Middle Tennessee cells. Movement activity for many of the antinuclear activists was short-lived. The strategic maneuvers of the movement utilized all the structurally and legally possible alternatives and the nuclear opponents hoped that the public would pressure public officials to oppose nuclear plants. Although the antinuclear activists worked very hard, they did not succeed in halting the planned construction of the Middle Tennessee nuclear plant. Indeed, they had not succeeded in the summer of 1977

  6. Movement of the patient and the cone beam computed tomography scanner: objectives and possible solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanzelka, T.; Dušek, J.; Ocásek, F.; Kučera, J.; Šedý, Jiří; Beneš, J.; Pavlíková, G.; Foltán, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 6 (2013), s. 769-773 ISSN 2212-4403 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cone beam computed tomography * movement artifacts * dry-run scan Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.265, year: 2013

  7. Medication effects on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartzela, T.N.; Turp, J.C.; Motschall, E.; Maltha, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recently, several reviews have been published on the effects of medications on bone physiology and the clinical side effects in orthodontics. However, the effects of medications on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement have not been evaluated. METHODS: A systematic literature review

  8. Human Posture and Movement Prediction based on Musculoskeletal Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farahani, Saeed Davoudabadi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This thesis explores an optimization-based formulation, so-called inverse-inverse dynamics, for the prediction of human posture and motion dynamics performing various tasks. It is explained how this technique enables us to predict natural kinematic and kinetic patterns for human posture...... and motion using AnyBody Modeling System (AMS). AMS uses inverse dynamics to analyze musculoskeletal systems and is, therefore, limited by its dependency on input kinematics. We propose to alleviate this dependency by assuming that voluntary postures and movement strategies in humans are guided by a desire...... expenditure, joint forces and other physiological properties derived from the detailed musculoskeletal analysis. Several attempts have been made to uncover the principles underlying motion control strategies in the literature. In case of some movements, like human squat jumping, there is almost no doubt...

  9. Individual differences in impulsivity predict anticipatory eye movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Cirilli

    Full Text Available Impulsivity is the tendency to act without forethought. It is a personality trait commonly used in the diagnosis of many psychiatric diseases. In clinical practice, impulsivity is estimated using written questionnaires. However, answers to questions might be subject to personal biases and misinterpretations. In order to alleviate this problem, eye movements could be used to study differences in decision processes related to impulsivity. Therefore, we investigated correlations between impulsivity scores obtained with a questionnaire in healthy subjects and characteristics of their anticipatory eye movements in a simple smooth pursuit task. Healthy subjects were asked to answer the UPPS questionnaire (Urgency Premeditation Perseverance and Sensation seeking Impulsive Behavior scale, which distinguishes four independent dimensions of impulsivity: Urgency, lack of Premeditation, lack of Perseverance, and Sensation seeking. The same subjects took part in an oculomotor task that consisted of pursuing a target that moved in a predictable direction. This task reliably evoked anticipatory saccades and smooth eye movements. We found that eye movement characteristics such as latency and velocity were significantly correlated with UPPS scores. The specific correlations between distinct UPPS factors and oculomotor anticipation parameters support the validity of the UPPS construct and corroborate neurobiological explanations for impulsivity. We suggest that the oculomotor approach of impulsivity put forth in the present study could help bridge the gap between psychiatry and physiology.

  10. Unobstructive Body Area Networks (BAN) for efficient movement monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felisberto, Filipe; Costa, Nuno; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Pereira, António

    2012-01-01

    The technological advances in medical sensors, low-power microelectronics and miniaturization, wireless communications and networks have enabled the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks: the so-called wireless body area networks (WBAN). These networks can be used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment. The data gathered by these networks contributes to improve users' quality of life and allows the creation of a knowledge database by using learning techniques, useful to infer abnormal behaviour. In this paper we present a wireless body area network architecture to recognize human movement, identify human postures and detect harmful activities in order to prevent risk situations. The WBAN was created using tiny, cheap and low-power nodes with inertial and physiological sensors, strategically placed on the human body. Doing so, in an as ubiquitous as possible way, ensures that its impact on the users' daily actions is minimum. The information collected by these sensors is transmitted to a central server capable of analysing and processing their data. The proposed system creates movement profiles based on the data sent by the WBAN's nodes, and is able to detect in real time any abnormal movement and allows for a monitored rehabilitation of the user.

  11. Yarbus, Eye Movements, and Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W Tatler

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus.

  12. 45 CFR 400.119 - Interstate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interstate movement. 400.119 Section 400.119... Services § 400.119 Interstate movement. After the initial placement of an unaccompanied minor, the same procedures that govern the movement of nonrefugee foster cases to other States apply to the movement of...

  13. Conceptualizing Learning in the Climate Justice Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluttz, Jenalee; Walter, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This article extends Scandrett et al.'s conceptual framework for social movement learning to understand learning and knowledge creation in the climate justice movement. Drawing on radical pluralist theoretical approaches to social movement learning, learning in the climate justice movement is conceptualized at the micro, meso, and macro levels,…

  14. Followership in Ecology/Environment Social Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.

    The paper analyzes the failure of the ecology/environmental movement to develop into a social movement and to generate a mass following. The movement has had difficulty not only in organizing collective behavior but also in maintaining the necessary momentum to change into a full-fledged social movement. Obvious reasons are that ecologists…

  15. Analysis of artifact and infrequent physiological uptake in 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianran; Zhao Chunlei; Qian Gennian; Chen Ziqian; Wang Kaitang; You Xueyu; Zheng Chunyu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the artifact and infrequent physiological uptake in PET/CT with its imaging and formation features. Methods: The data of PET/CT imaging were retrospectively analyzed and classified based on their cause. Besides, the infrequent physiological uptakes were also analyzed. Results: Artifacts could be classified into natural and technological causes. In natural causes, respiratory movement and high-density matters artifacts were frequently found, whereas in technological cause, the truncation, radioactive leakage and pollution commonly appeared. Infrequent physiological uptakes included uterine endometrium, breast and fat uptakes. Conclusions: The imaging features of artifact in PET can be divided into 'hot' or 'cold' area while infrequent physiological uptakes mainly are 'hot' area. Among the cause of artifact formation, CT-based attenuation corrected physical factor is the commonest. The infrequent physiological uptake somewhat relates to technological error. (authors)

  16. Correcting slightly less simple movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Aivar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets in sequence suggests that whole sequences of movements are planned together. Planning related segments of a movement together makes it possible to optimise the whole sequence, but it means that some parts are planned quite long in advance, so that it is likely that they will have to be modified. In the present study we examined how people respond to changes that occur while they are moving to the first target of a sequence. Subjects moved a stylus across a digitising tablet. They moved from a specified starting point to two targets in succession. The first of these targets was always at the same position but it could have one of two sizes. The second target could be in one of two different positions and its size was different in each case. On some trials the first target changed size, and on some others the second target changed size and position, as soon as the subject started to move. When the size of the first target changed the subjects slowed down the first segment of their movements. Even the peak velocity, which was only about 150 ms after the change in size, was lower. Beside this fast response to the change itself, the dwell time at the first target was also affected: its duration increased after the change. Changing the size and position of the second target did not influence the first segment of the movement, but also increased the dwell time. The dwell time was much longer for a small target, irrespective of its initial size. If subjects knew in advance which target could change, they moved faster than if they did not know which could change. Taken together, these

  17. Reforma agrária: o impossível diálogo sobre a História possível Agrarian Reform: the impossible dialogue about the possible History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Souza Martins

    1999-10-01

    , being the government only a proxy for the reform, does not indicate the debility of the democratic State in doing the reform. It only indicates that the civil society, through some organization and popular movement, started to have a new role in the structure of the Brazilian State.

  18. The importance of physiological ecology in conservation biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, C.R.; Nussear, K.E.; Esque, T.C.; Dean-Bradley, K.; DeFalco, L.A.; Castle, K.T.; Zimmerman, L.C.; Espinoza, R.E.; Barber, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    involved with stress can result in disease. Finally, our new syntheses evince a new hypothesis. Free molecules of the stress hormone corticosterone can inhibit immunity, and the abundance of "free corticosterone" in the blood (thought to be the active form of the hormone) is regulated when the corticosterone molecules combine with binding globulins. The sex hormone, testosterone, combines with the same binding globulin. High levels of testosterone, naturally occurring in the breeding season, may be further enhanced in populations at high densities, and the resulting excess testosterone may compete with binding globulins, thereby releasing corticosterone and reducing immunity to disease. This sequence could result in physiological and pathological phenomena leading to population cycles with a period that would be essentially impossible to observe in desert tortoise. Such cycles could obscure population fluctuations of anthropogenic origin. ?? 2006 The Author(s).

  19. Multiobjective Traffic Signal Control Model for Intersection Based on Dynamic Turning Movements Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The real-time traffic signal control for intersection requires dynamic turning movements as the basic input data. It is impossible to detect dynamic turning movements directly through current traffic surveillance systems, but dynamic origin-destination (O-D estimation can obtain it. However, the combined models of dynamic O-D estimation and real-time traffic signal control are rare in the literature. A framework for the multiobjective traffic signal control model for intersection based on dynamic O-D estimation (MSC-DODE is presented. A state-space model using Kalman filtering is first formulated to estimate the dynamic turning movements; then a revised sequential Kalman filtering algorithm is designed to solve the model, and the root mean square error and mean percentage error are used to evaluate the accuracy of estimated dynamic turning proportions. Furthermore, a multiobjective traffic signal control model is put forward to achieve real-time signal control parameters and evaluation indices. Finally, based on practical survey data, the evaluation indices from MSC-DODE are compared with those from Webster method. The actual and estimated turning movements are further input into MSC-DODE, respectively, and results are also compared. Case studies show that results of MSC-DODE are better than those of Webster method and are very close to unavailable actual values.

  20. Hyolaryngeal excursion as the physiological source of swallowing accelerometry signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoratto, D C B; Chau, T; Steele, C M

    2010-01-01

    Swallowing dysfunction, or dysphagia, is a serious condition that can result from any structural or neurological impairment (such as stroke, neurodegenerative disease or brain injury) that affects the swallowing mechanism. The gold-standard method of instrumental swallowing assessment is an x-ray examination known as the videofluoroscopic swallowing study, which involves radiation exposure. Consequently, there is interest in exploring the potential of less invasive methods, with lesser risks of biohazard, to accurately detect swallowing abnormalities. Accelerometry is one such technique, which measures the epidermal vibration signals on a patient's neck during swallowing. Determining the utility of accelerometry signals for detecting dysphagia requires an understanding of the physiological source of the vibrations that are measured on the neck during swallowing. The purpose of the current study was to determine the extent to which movement of the hyoid bone and larynx contributes to the vibration signal that is registered during swallowing accelerometry. This question was explored by mapping the movement trajectories of the hyoid bone and the arytenoid cartilages from lateral videofluoroscopy recordings collected during thin liquid swallowing, and comparing these trajectories to time-linked signals obtained from a dual-axis accelerometer placed on the neck, just anterior to the cricoid cartilage. Participants for this study included 43 adult patients referred for videofluoroscopic swallowing studies to characterize the nature and severity of suspected neurogenic dysphagia. A software program was created to allow frame-by-frame tracking of structural movement on the videofluoroscopy recordings. These movement data were then compared to the integrated acceleration data using multiple linear regressions. The results concur with previous studies, implicating hyolaryngeal excursion as the primary physiological source of swallowing accelerometry signals, with both

  1. Study on Driver Visual Physiological Characteristics in Urban Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the integrated traffic environment, human factor is always a main factor of the three elementary factors, besides the vehicle and road factor. The driver physiological and psychological characteristics have an important impact especially on traffic safety in urban road traffic conditions. Some typical traffic scenes in condition of urban road, such as light signal control at intersection, overtaking, and passing, are selected for condition analysis. An eye movement apparatus was used to obtain driver eye closure, blink frequency, and other visual physiological indicators in the traffic conditions of urban road. The regular patterns of driver visual characteristics in the corresponding scenes were analyzed in detail to provide data and theoretical support for the further research on traffic safety of urban environment from the viewpoint of driver psychology and behavior.

  2. Flexible carbon nanotube nanocomposite sensor for multiple physiological parameter monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2016-10-16

    The paper presents the design, development, and fabrication of a flexible and wearable sensor based on carbon nanotube nanocomposite for monitoring specific physiological parameters. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used as the substrate with a thin layer of a nanocomposite comprising functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and PDMS as electrodes. The sensor patch functionalized on strain-sensitive capacitive sensing from interdigitated electrodes which were patterned with a laser on the nanocomposite layer. The thickness of the electrode layer was optimized regarding strain and conductivity. The sensor patch was connected to a monitoring device from one end and attached to the body on the other for examining purposes. Experimental results show the capability of the sensor patch used to detect respiration and limb movements. This work is a stepping stone of the sensing system to be developed for multiple physiological parameters.

  3. Flexible carbon nanotube nanocomposite sensor for multiple physiological parameter monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the design, development, and fabrication of a flexible and wearable sensor based on carbon nanotube nanocomposite for monitoring specific physiological parameters. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used as the substrate with a thin layer of a nanocomposite comprising functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and PDMS as electrodes. The sensor patch functionalized on strain-sensitive capacitive sensing from interdigitated electrodes which were patterned with a laser on the nanocomposite layer. The thickness of the electrode layer was optimized regarding strain and conductivity. The sensor patch was connected to a monitoring device from one end and attached to the body on the other for examining purposes. Experimental results show the capability of the sensor patch used to detect respiration and limb movements. This work is a stepping stone of the sensing system to be developed for multiple physiological parameters.

  4. Physiological Signaling and Structure of the HGF Receptor MET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Baldanzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The “hepatocyte growth factor” also known as “scatter factor”, is a multifunctional cytokine with the peculiar ability of simultaneously triggering epithelial cell proliferation, movement and survival. The combination of those proprieties results in the induction of an epithelial to mesenchymal transition in target cells, fundamental for embryogenesis but also exploited by tumor cells during metastatization. The hepatocyte growth factor receptor, MET, is a proto-oncogene and a prototypical transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor. Inhere we discuss the MET molecular structure and the hepatocyte growth factor driven physiological signaling which coordinates epithelial proliferation, motility and morphogenesis.

  5. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  6. Noun Phrase Structure and Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna; Vikner, Sten

    2011-01-01

    /solch to follow the article. We discuss two possible syntactic derivations, predicate raising (e.g. Corver 1998, Bennis, Corver & den Dikken 1998) and XP movement from an attributive adjective position within the nominal (e.g. Matushansky 2002). The analysis links up with the morphological agreement facts...

  7. Ketotic hyperglycemia with movement disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha Awasthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chorea, hemichorea-hemiballismus and severe partial seizures may be the presenting features of nonketotic hyperglycemia in older adults with type 2 diabetes, but cases in young adults with type 1 diabetes are rare. We hereby report a very rare case of diabetic ketosis with movement disorder in a young patient.

  8. Population consequences of aggregative movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Turchin

    1989-01-01

    Gregarious behaviour is an important factor influencing survival and reproduction of animals, as well as population interactions. In this paper I develop a model of movement with attraction or repulsion between conspecifics. To facilitate its use in empirical studies, the model is based on experimentally measurable features of individual behaviour.

  9. Actuating movement in refined wearables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toeters, M.J.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays it is quite possible to deploy textiles as sensors and avoid traditional hard sensors. Actuation (movement) turns out more difficult. It is advantageous to combine sensing and actuation, similar to ecological perception theory. Although several actuators are known: SMA, voice coil, motors,

  10. THE INTERNATIONAL WALDORF SCHOOL MOVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VON BARAVALLE, HERMANN

    AN HISTORICAL REVIEW OF THE WALDORF SCHOOL PLAN TRACES THE MOVEMENT FROM ITS FOUNDING IN STUTTGART, GERMANY IN 1919, BY THE WALDORF ASTORIA COMPANY AND UNDER THE DIRECTION OF RUDOLF STEINER, TO ITS INTRODUCTION INTO SWITZERLAND, OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, THE AMERICAS, AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, AND SOUTH AFRICA, A TOTAL OF 175 SCHOOLS AS OF 1963. THE…

  11. Physiology of fish endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plisetskaya, E M

    1989-06-01

    From the very beginning of physiological studies on the endocine pancreas, fish have been used as experimental subjects. Fish insulin was one of the first vertebrate insulins isolated and one of the first insulins whose primary and then tertiary structures were reported. Before a second pancreatic hormone, glucagon, was characterized, a physiologically active 'impurity', similar to that in mammalian insulin preparations, was found in fish insulins.Fish have become the most widely used model for studies of biosynthesis and processing of the pancreatic hormones. It seems inconceivable, therefore, that until the recent past cod and tuna insulins have been the only purified piscine islet hormones available for physiological experiments. The situation has changed remarkably during the last decade.In this review the contemporary status of physiological studies on the fish pancreas is outlined with an emphasis on the following topics: 1) contents of pancreatic peptides in plasma and in islet tissue; 2) actions of piscine pancreatic hormones in fish; 3) specific metabolic consequences of an acute insufficiency of pancreatic peptides; 4) functional interrelations among pancreatic peptides which differ from those of mammals. The pitfalls, lacunae and the perspectives of contemporary physiological studies on fish endocrine pancreas are outlined.

  12. Assessment of acute physiological demand for soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barbosa Coelho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n6p667 Soccer is a sport practiced worldwide, on all continents. It is considered an intermittent activity of high intensity and long duration, in which movements that require great strength and speed, such as jumps and sprints, result in high levels of muscle microtrauma, hampering athletes’ training and recovery. The present study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of changes in different markers of physiological demand resulting from a soccer match in healthy individuals. Ten healthy male physical education students participated in the study and were evaluated in two matches: the semi-final and final games of the college tournament at the federal university where they studied. Blood samples were collected from each volunteer pre- and post-match. Cortisol, IL-6 and CK concentrations were increased after the match (p < 0.05. Testosterone and alpha-actin concentrations did not change. Our results indicate that changes in some of the acute response markers evaluated in players before and after competitive soccer matches provide important information for planning training or recovery, as well as nutritional strategies for improving performance.

  13. Assessment of acute physiological demand for soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barbosa Coelho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Soccer is a sport practiced worldwide, on all continents. It is considered an intermittent activity of high intensity and long duration, in which movements that require great strength and speed, such as jumps and sprints, result in high levels of muscle microtrauma, hampering athletes’ training and recovery. The present study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of changes in different markers of physiological demand resulting from a soccer match in healthy individuals. Ten healthy male physical education students participated in the study and were evaluated in two matches: the semi-final and final games of the college tournament at the federal university where they studied. Blood samples were collected from each volunteer pre- and post-match. Cortisol, IL-6 and CK concentrations were increased after the match (p < 0.05. Testosterone and alpha-actin concentrations did not change. Our results indicate that changes in some of the acute response markers evaluated in players before and after competitive soccer matches provide important information for planning training or recovery, as well as nutritional strategies for improving performance.

  14. Stimulating Student Interest in Physiology: The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ) was initiated in 2003 during the author's last sabbatical from the University of Malaya. At this inaugural event, there were just seven competing teams from Malaysian medical schools. The challenge trophy for the IMSPQ is named in honor of Prof. A. Raman, who was the first Malaysian Professor of…

  15. From Physiology to Prevention: Further remarks on a physiological imperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Jouanjean

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Physiology, is the fundamental and functional expression of life. It is the study of all the representative functions of Man in all his capacities, and in particular, his capacity to work. It is very possible to establish a link between a physiological and physiopathological state, the capacity of work and the economy, which can be understood as the articulation between the physiological capacities of Man and the production of work. If these functions are innately acquired by Man they are likewise maintained by regulatory functions throughout life. The stability of these regulatory mechanisms represent the state of good health. The management of this state, constitutes Primary Prevention where both chronic and acute physiopathology defines an alteration in these regulatory mechanisms. We deduce from this reasoning that a tripartite management adapted to the physiological situation is viable and that by choosing parameters specific to individual and collective behavior, it is possible to inject, and combine, at each level and to each demand in order to budget a healthcare system in a more balanced and equitable way. 

  16. The Limits of Exercise Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Brendan M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-01-01

    Many of the established positive health benefits of exercise have been documented by historical discoveries in the field of exercise physiology. These investigations often assess limits: the limits of performance, or the limits of exercise-induced health benefits. Indeed, several key findings have...... been informed by studying highly trained athletes, in addition to healthy or unhealthy people. Recent progress has been made in regard to skeletal muscle metabolism and personalized exercise regimes. In this perspective, we review some of the historical milestones of exercise physiology, discuss how...

  17. Early Christian movements: Jesus movements and the renewal of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Horsley

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the origins and development of the earliest Jesus movements within the context of persistent conflict between the Judean and Galilean peasantry and their Jerusalem and Roman rulers. It explores the prominence of popular prophetic and messianic movements and shows how the earliest movements that formed in response to Jesus’ mission exhibit similar features and patterns. Jesus is not treated as separate from social roles and political-economic relationships. Viewing Jesus against the background of village communities in which people lived, the Gospels are understood as genuine communication with other people in historical social contexts. The article argues that the net effect of these interrelated factors of theologically determined New Testament interpretation is a combination of assumptions and procedures that would be unacceptable in the regular investigation of history. Another version of the essay was published in Horsley, Richard A (ed, A people’s history of Christianity, Volume 1: Christian origins, 23-46. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress.

  18. Eye-movements and ongoing task processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2003-06-01

    This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory.

  19. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences (Niger. J. Physiol. Sci.) is a biannual publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria. It covers diverse areas of research in physiological sciences, publishing reviews in current research areas and original laboratory and clinical research in physiological ...

  20. FROM PHYSIOLOGICAL TO PATHOLOGICAL METEOSENSITIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Yabluchanskiy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the problem of physiological and pathological meteosensitivity (meteodependency or meteopathy.We introduce and discuss the definition for individual meteodependency, define factors, mechanisms, clinical signs, diagnosis, and approaches to prophylaxy and treatment of individual pathological meteosensitivity.

  1. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  2. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  3. Electronic Textbook in Human Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broering, Naomi C.; Lilienfield, Lawrence S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development of an electronic textbook in human physiology at the Georgetown University Medical Center Library that was designed to enhance learning and visualization through a prototype knowledge base of core instructional materials stored in digital format on Macintosh computers. The use of computers in the medical curriculum is…

  4. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunao eUchida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. Thus, research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960’s, with a focus primarily on sleep EEG (CNS sleep changes. Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. More recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. As physical exercise mostly affects somatic functions, endocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS changes that occur during sleep should be affected by daytime exercise. Since endocrinological, metabolic and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, building from standard polysomnographic (PSG techniques. Incorporating measures of somatic physiology in the quantitative assessment of sleep could further our understanding of sleep's function as an auto-regulatory, global phenomenon.

  5. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals Andreas...825-2025 email: andreas.fahlman@tamucc.edu Peter L. Tyack School of Biology Sea Mammal Research Unit Scottish Oceans Institute...OBJECTIVES This project is separated into three aims: Aim 1: Develop a new generation of tags/data logger for marine mammals that will

  6. Nitric oxide: a physiologic messenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, C J; Dinerman, J L; Snyder, S H

    1994-02-01

    To review the physiologic role of nitric oxide, an unusual messenger molecule that mediates blood vessel relaxation, neurotransmission, and pathogen suppression. A MEDLINE search of articles published from 1987 to 1993 that addressed nitric oxide and the enzyme that synthesizes it, nitric oxide synthase. Animal and human studies were selected from 3044 articles to analyze the clinical importance of nitric oxide. Descriptions of the structure and function of nitric oxide synthase were selected to show how nitric oxide acts as a biological messenger molecule. Biochemical and physiologic studies were analyzed if the same results were found by three or more independent observers. Two major classes of nitric oxide synthase enzymes produce nitric oxide. The constitutive isoforms found in endothelial cells and neurons release small amounts of nitric oxide for brief periods to signal adjacent cells, whereas the inducible isoform found in macrophages releases large amounts of nitric oxide continuously to eliminate bacteria and parasites. By diffusing into adjacent cells and binding to enzymes that contain iron, nitric oxide plays many important physiologic roles. It regulates blood pressure, transmits signals between neurons, and suppresses pathogens. Excess amounts, however, can damage host cells, causing neurotoxicity during strokes and causing the hypotension associated with sepsis. Nitric oxide is a simple molecule with many physiologic roles in the cardiovascular, neurologic, and immune systems. Although the general principles of nitric oxide synthesis are known, further research is necessary to determine what role it plays in causing disease.

  7. Exoskeleton for assisting human movement

    OpenAIRE

    García Armada, Elena; Cestari, Manuel; Sanz Merodio, Daniel; Carrillo, Xavier Alberto

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to an exoskeleton for assisting human movement, which can be fitted to the user in terms of dimensions, tension and ranges of joint motion, either manually or automatically. Said exoskeleton can be fitted to the user in the anteroposterior direction in the sagittal plane, with the user in a horizontal or sitting position, without requiring a functional transfer. The exoskeleton has a modular design which is compatible with human biomechanics and reproduces a natural...

  8. BrainSignals Revisited: Simplifying a Computational Model of Cerebral Physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Caldwell

    Full Text Available Multimodal monitoring of brain state is important both for the investigation of healthy cerebral physiology and to inform clinical decision making in conditions of injury and disease. Near-infrared spectroscopy is an instrument modality that allows non-invasive measurement of several physiological variables of clinical interest, notably haemoglobin oxygenation and the redox state of the metabolic enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. Interpreting such measurements requires the integration of multiple signals from different sources to try to understand the physiological states giving rise to them. We have previously published several computational models to assist with such interpretation. Like many models in the realm of Systems Biology, these are complex and dependent on many parameters that can be difficult or impossible to measure precisely. Taking one such model, BrainSignals, as a starting point, we have developed several variant models in which specific regions of complexity are substituted with much simpler linear approximations. We demonstrate that model behaviour can be maintained whilst achieving a significant reduction in complexity, provided that the linearity assumptions hold. The simplified models have been tested for applicability with simulated data and experimental data from healthy adults undergoing a hypercapnia challenge, but relevance to different physiological and pathophysiological conditions will require specific testing. In conditions where the simplified models are applicable, their greater efficiency has potential to allow their use at the bedside to help interpret clinical data in near real-time.

  9. Movement of global warming issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Taishi

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), and the movement of the global warming issues as seen from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Conference of the Parties: COP) and the policy discussions in Japan. From the Fifth Assessment Report published by IPCC, it shows the following items: (1) increasing trends of greenhouse effect gas emissions during 1970 and 2010, (2) trends in world's greenhouse effect gas emissions according to income segment, and (3) factor analysis of changes in greenhouse effect gas emissions. Next, it takes up the greenhouse gas emission scenario of IPCC, shows the scenario due to temperature rise pattern, and introduces the assumption of emission reduction due to BECCS. Regarding the 2 deg. scenario that has become a hot topic in international negotiations, it describes the reason for difficulties in its implementation. In addition, as the international trends of global warming, it describes the agreement of numerical targets for emissions at COP3 (Kyoto Conference) and the subsequent movements. Finally, it introduces Japan's measures against global warming, as well as the future movement. (A.O.)

  10. Migratory Behavior and Physiological Development as Potential Determinants of Life History Diversity in Fall Chinook Salmon in the Clearwater River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F. [U.S. Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, 5501-A Cook-Underwood Road Cook Washington 98605 USA; Kock, Tobias J. [U.S. Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, 5501-A Cook-Underwood Road Cook Washington 98605 USA; Connor, William P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Post Office Box 18 Ahsahka Idaho 81530 USA; Richmond, Marshall C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Post Office Box 999 Richland Washington 99352 USA; Perkins, William A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Post Office Box 999 Richland Washington 99352 USA

    2018-03-01

    We studied the influence of behavior, water velocity, and physiological development on the downstream movement of subyearling fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in free-flowing and impounded reaches of the Clearwater and Snake rivers as potential mechanisms that might explain life history diversity in this stock. Movement rates and the percentage of radio-tagged fish that moved faster than the average current velocity were highest in the free-flowing Clearwater River compared to impounded reaches. This provided support for our hypothesis that water velocity is a primary determinant of downstream movement regardless of a fish’s physiological development. In contrast, movement rates slowed and detections became fewer in impounded reaches where velocities were much lower. The percentage of fish that moved faster than the average current velocity continued to decline and reached zero in the lower-most reach of Lower Granite Reservoir suggesting that behavioral disposition to move downstream was low. These findings contrast those of a similar, previous study of Snake River subyearlings in spite of hydrodynamic conditions being similar. Physiological differences between Snake and Clearwater river migrants shed light on this disparity. Subyearlings from the Clearwater River were parr-like in their development and never showed an increase in gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity as did smolts from the Snake River. The later emergence timing and cooler rearing temperatures in the Clearwater River may suppress normal physiological development that causes many fish to delay downstream movement and adopt a yearling life history strategy.

  11. Immersion in Movement-Based Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Marco; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; van Dijk, Betsy; Nijholt, Anton

    The phenomenon of immersing oneself into virtual environments has been established widely. Yet to date (to our best knowledge) the physical dimension has been neglected in studies investigating immersion in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In movement-based interaction the user controls the interface via body movements, e.g. direct manipulation of screen objects via gestures or using a handheld controller as a virtual tennis racket. It has been shown that physical activity affects arousal and that movement-based controllers can facilitate engagement in the context of video games. This paper aims at identifying movement features that influence immersion. We first give a brief survey on immersion and movement-based interfaces. Then, we report results from an interview study that investigates how users experience their body movements when interacting with movement-based interfaces. Based on the interviews, we identify four movement-specific features. We recommend them as candidates for further investigation.

  12. Communication Theory and the Consumer Movement-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Defines and traces the origins of the consumer movement and uses communication theories to explain the effects of the movement. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (MH)

  13. Functional jerks, tics, and paroxysmal movement disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreissen, Y. E. M.; Cath, D C; Tijssen, M A J; Hallet, Mark; Stone, Jon; Carson, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Functional jerks are among the most common functional movement disorders. The diagnosis of functional jerks is mainly based on neurologic examination revealing specific positive clinical signs. Differentiation from other jerky movements, such as tics, organic myoclonus, and primary paroxysmal

  14. An Integrative Model for the Neural Mechanism of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coubard, Olivier A

    2016-01-01

    Since the seminal report by Shapiro that bilateral stimulation induces cognitive and emotional changes, 26 years of basic and clinical research have examined the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in anxiety disorders, particularly in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present article aims at better understanding EMDR neural mechanism. I first review procedural aspects of EMDR protocol and theoretical hypothesis about EMDR effects, and develop the reasons why the scientific community is still divided about EMDR. I then slide from psychology to physiology describing eye movements/emotion interaction from the physiological viewpoint, and introduce theoretical and technical tools used in movement research to re-examine EMDR neural mechanism. Using a recent physiological model for the neuropsychological architecture of motor and cognitive control, the Threshold Interval Modulation with Early Release-Rate of rIse Deviation with Early Release (TIMER-RIDER)-model, I explore how attentional control and bilateral stimulation may participate to EMDR effects. These effects may be obtained by two processes acting in parallel: (i) activity level enhancement of attentional control component; and (ii) bilateral stimulation in any sensorimotor modality, both resulting in lower inhibition enabling dysfunctional information to be processed and anxiety to be reduced. The TIMER-RIDER model offers quantitative predictions about EMDR effects for future research about its underlying physiological mechanisms.

  15. An integrative model for the neural mechanism of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier A. Coubard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the seminal report by Shapiro that bilateral stimulation induces cognitive and emotional changes, twenty-six years of basic and clinical research have examined the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR in anxiety disorders, particularly in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. The present article aims at better understanding EMDR neural mechanism. I first review procedural aspects of EMDR protocol and theoretical hypothesis about EMDR effects, and develop the reasons why the scientific community is still divided about EMDR. I then slide from psychology to physiology describing eye movements/emotion interaction from the physiological viewpoint, and introduce theoretical and technical tools used in movement research to re-examine EMDR neural mechanism. Using a recent physiological model for the neuropsychological architecture of motor and cognitive control, the Threshold Interval Modulation with Early Release-Rate of rIse Deviation with Early Release – TIMER-RIDER – model, I explore how attentional control and bilateral stimulation may participate to EMDR effects. These effects may be obtained by two processes acting in parallel: (i activity level enhancement of attentional control component; and (ii bilateral stimulation in any sensorimotor modality, both resulting in lower inhibition enabling dysfunctional information to be processed and anxiety to be reduced. The TIMER-RIDER model offers quantitative predictions about EMDR effects for future research about its underlying physiological mechanisms.

  16. The speed-curvature power law of movements: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Myrka; Matic, Adam; Flash, Tamar; Gomez-Marin, Alex; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    Several types of curvilinear movements obey approximately the so called 2/3 power law, according to which the angular speed varies proportionally to the 2/3 power of the curvature. The origin of the law is debated but it is generally thought to depend on physiological mechanisms. However, a recent paper (Marken and Shaffer, Exp Brain Res 88:685-690, 2017) claims that this power law is simply a statistical artifact, being a mathematical consequence of the way speed and curvature are calculated. Here we reject this hypothesis by showing that the speed-curvature power law of biological movements is non-trivial. First, we confirm that the power exponent varies with the shape of human drawing movements and with environmental factors. Second, we report experimental data from Drosophila larvae demonstrating that the power law does not depend on how curvature is calculated. Third, we prove that the law can be violated by means of several mathematical and physical examples. Finally, we discuss biological constraints that may underlie speed-curvature power laws discovered in empirical studies.

  17. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  18. 49 CFR 195.424 - Pipe movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe movement. 195.424 Section 195.424... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.424 Pipe movement. (a) No operator may move any line pipe, unless... in the line section involved are joined by welding unless— (1) Movement when the pipeline does not...

  19. 30 CFR 250.602 - Equipment movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment movement. 250.602 Section 250.602... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.602 Equipment movement. The movement of well-workover rigs and related equipment on and off a platform or from well to well on...

  20. 49 CFR 236.776 - Movement, trailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, trailing. 236.776 Section 236.776 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Movement, trailing. The movement of a train over the points of a switch which face in the direction in...

  1. 30 CFR 250.502 - Equipment movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment movement. 250.502 Section 250.502... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.502 Equipment movement. The movement of well-completion rigs and related equipment on and off a platform or from well to well...

  2. 49 CFR 236.774 - Movement, facing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, facing. 236.774 Section 236.774 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Movement, facing. The movement of a train over the points of a switch which face in a direction opposite to...

  3. 9 CFR 92.3 - Movement restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement restrictions. 92.3 Section 92... ANIMAL PRODUCTS: PROCEDURES FOR REQUESTING RECOGNITION OF REGIONS § 92.3 Movement restrictions. Whenever... exist and the EC imposes prohibitions or other restrictions on the movement of animals or animal...

  4. Mixed movements/performance-based drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2011-01-01

    Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. As one in a series working with architectonic implementation in relation to body and movements, the actual project relates body-movement and dynamic drawing and presents the material as interactive ‘space-time-tables’....

  5. Transformers: Movement Experiences for Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagovic, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…

  6. Movement Education Framework (MEF) Made EZ!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiller-Abels, Karen; Bridges, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    All physical educators want to provide lessons that foster success. Particularly essential to the movement education framework is not only providing lessons that foster motor success, but also to develop knowledge about movement to help the learner develop skill in executing all different types of movement. The framework and examples provided in…

  7. Salmon carcass movements in forest streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke Strobel; Daniel R. Shivley; Brett B. Roper

    2009-01-01

    The movements of salmon carcasses over time were studied in two forest streams in the context of a large-scale salmon carcass supplementation program. The objectives were to assess both the level of treatment after stream flows had displaced carcasses and to evaluate whether the magnitude of carcass movements outside of a given reach could be predicted. The movements...

  8. Differential metabolic profiles associated to movement behaviour of stream-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Oromi

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that can contribute in the fish movement strategies and the associated behaviour can be complex and related to the physiology, genetic and ecology of each species. In the case of the brown trout (Salmo trutta, in recent research works, individual differences in mobility have been observed in a population living in a high mountain river reach (Pyrenees, NE Spain. The population is mostly sedentary but a small percentage of individuals exhibit a mobile behavior, mainly upstream movements. Metabolomics can reflect changes in the physiological process and can determine different profiles depending on behaviour. Here, a non-targeted metabolomics approach was used to find possible changes in the blood metabolomic profile of S. trutta related to its movement behaviour, using a minimally invasive sampling. Results showed a differentiation in the metabolomic profiles of the trouts and different level concentrations of some metabolites (e.g. cortisol according to the home range classification (pattern of movements: sedentary or mobile. The change in metabolomic profiles can generally occur during the upstream movement and probably reflects the changes in metabolite profile from the non-mobile season to mobile season. This study reveals the contribution of the metabolomic analyses to better understand the behaviour of organisms.

  9. Differential metabolic profiles associated to movement behaviour of stream-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oromi, Neus; Jové, Mariona; Pascual-Pons, Mariona; Royo, Jose Luis; Rocaspana, Rafel; Aparicio, Enric; Pamplona, Reinald; Palau, Antoni; Sanuy, Delfi; Fibla, Joan; Portero-Otin, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms that can contribute in the fish movement strategies and the associated behaviour can be complex and related to the physiology, genetic and ecology of each species. In the case of the brown trout (Salmo trutta), in recent research works, individual differences in mobility have been observed in a population living in a high mountain river reach (Pyrenees, NE Spain). The population is mostly sedentary but a small percentage of individuals exhibit a mobile behavior, mainly upstream movements. Metabolomics can reflect changes in the physiological process and can determine different profiles depending on behaviour. Here, a non-targeted metabolomics approach was used to find possible changes in the blood metabolomic profile of S. trutta related to its movement behaviour, using a minimally invasive sampling. Results showed a differentiation in the metabolomic profiles of the trouts and different level concentrations of some metabolites (e.g. cortisol) according to the home range classification (pattern of movements: sedentary or mobile). The change in metabolomic profiles can generally occur during the upstream movement and probably reflects the changes in metabolite profile from the non-mobile season to mobile season. This study reveals the contribution of the metabolomic analyses to better understand the behaviour of organisms.

  10. Physiological Motion and Registration of Abnormalities in Liver During Focused Ultrasound Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sunita; Rh, Abhilash

    Continuous deformation and dislocation of soft tissues in the abdominal and thoracic region presents a major issue for effective targeting of all non-invasive ablative modalities such as radiotherapy/surgery and Focused Ultrasound Surgery. Most significant among these is the movement of the target organs due to physiological processes such as respiration. The movement is found to be most significant for liver and kidneys. We studied movement and compensation strategies with the aim to implement them during ultrasound ablation using our robotic system for targeted FUS dose delivery. The motion pattern of the liver can be assumed to be in a single plane as it closely follows the movement of the diaphragm. However, the movement of kidneys is three dimensional and follows complicated patterns. Kidney motion is highly subject specific and has poor repeatability. In our research, we quantify the relation of liver movement and the breathing pattern so as to achieve real-time movement compensation using a prediction-correlation approach.

  11. PHYSIOLOGY OF ACID BASE BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid-base, electrolyte, and metabolic disturbances are common in the intensive care unit. Almost all critically ill patients often suffer from compound acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Successful evaluation and management of such patients requires recognition of common patterns (e.g., metabolic acidosis and the ability to dissect one disorder from another. The intensivists needs to identify and correct these condition with the easiest available tools as they are the associated with multiorgan failure. Understanding the elements of normal physiology in these areas is very important so as to diagnose the pathological condition and take adequate measures as early as possible. Arterial blood gas analysis is one such tool for early detection of acid base disorder. Physiology of acid base is complex and here is the attempt to simplify it in our day to day application for the benefit of critically ill patients.

  12. What makes a movement a gesture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Miriam A; Wakefield, Elizabeth M; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Theories of how adults interpret the actions of others have focused on the goals and intentions of actors engaged in object-directed actions. Recent research has challenged this assumption, and shown that movements are often interpreted as being for their own sake (Schachner & Carey, 2013). Here we postulate a third interpretation of movement-movement that represents action, but does not literally act on objects in the world. These movements are gestures. In this paper, we describe a framework for predicting when movements are likely to be seen as representations. In Study 1, adults described one of three scenes: (1) an actor moving objects, (2) an actor moving her hands in the presence of objects (but not touching them) or (3) an actor moving her hands in the absence of objects. Participants systematically described the movements as depicting an object-directed action when the actor moved objects, and favored describing the movements as depicting movement for its own sake when the actor produced the same movements in the absence of objects. However, participants favored describing the movements as representations when the actor produced the movements near, but not on, the objects. Study 2 explored two additional features-the form of an actor's hands and the presence of speech-like sounds-to test the effect of context on observers' classification of movement as representational. When movements are seen as representations, they have the power to influence communication, learning, and cognition in ways that movement for its own sake does not. By incorporating representational gesture into our framework for movement analysis, we take an important step towards developing a more cohesive understanding of action-interpretation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Physiological Studies of Arctic Carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    All transmitters were maintained in a cold sterilant ( benzalkonium chloride ) until implanted in a bear. Radio-transmitters for monitoring temperature...body was unknown, particularly during the winter when bears are in dens and there is a generalized reduction in metabolism and other physiological... reduction in core body temperature from summer to winter closely agrees with those reported earlier for bears maintained in captivity under simulated

  14. System Theory and Physiological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R W

    1963-05-03

    Engineers and physiologists working together in experimental and theoretical studies predict that the application of system analysis to biological processes will increase understanding of these processes and broaden the base of system theory. Richard W. Jones, professor of electrical engineering at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, and John S. Gray, professor of physiology at Northwestern's Medical School, discuss these developments. Their articles are adapted from addresses delivered in Chicago in November 1962 at the 15th Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology.

  15. A Bayesian Combined Model for Time-Dependent Turning Movement Proportions Estimation at Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-dependent turning movement flows are very important input data for intelligent transportation systems but are impossible to be detected directly through current traffic surveillance systems. Existing estimation models have proved to be not accurate and reliable enough during all intervals. An improved way to address this problem is to develop a combined model framework that can integrate multiple submodels running simultaneously. This paper first presents a back propagation neural network model to estimate dynamic turning movements, as well as the self-adaptive learning rate approach and the gradient descent with momentum method for solving. Second, this paper develops an efficient Kalman filtering model and designs a revised sequential Kalman filtering algorithm. Based on the Bayesian method using both historical data and currently estimated results for error calibration, this paper further integrates above two submodels into a Bayesian combined model framework and proposes a corresponding algorithm. A field survey is implemented at an intersection in Beijing city to collect both time series of link counts and actual time-dependent turning movement flows, including historical and present data. The reported estimation results show that the Bayesian combined model is much more accurate and stable than other models.

  16. Talking the Talk: The Construction of Activist Capital in Argentinian Popular Social Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Palumbo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the socialization and construction of social and political capital in popular movements in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. To analyze this case, we employ a theoretical framework which draws on the concepts of activist social capital and political socialization. These concepts serve to illuminate the native Argentinian concept of “talking the talk”, which is a key skill that contributes to the construction of one’s social capital as an activist. We argue that this know how is particularly important in determining one’s trajectory as an activist. However, understanding how to employ political discourse requires the adoption of a gender lens given that the mastery of “talking the talk” represents a greater challenge for female activists who have to overcome the impossibility of speaking. The reflections developed in this article problematize the everyday politics and practices of popular social movements given that the know-how of “talking the talk” contributes to the crystallization of the gendered social division of labor in social movements.

  17. Measuring Group Synchrony: A Cluster-Phase Method for Analyzing Multivariate Movement Time-Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eRichardson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A new method for assessing group synchrony is introduced as being potentially useful for objectively determining degree of group cohesiveness or entitativity. The cluster-phase method of Frank and Richardson (2010 was used to analyze movement data from the rocking chair movements of six-member groups who rocked their chairs while seated in a circle facing the center. In some trials group members had no information about others’ movements (their eyes were shut or they had their eyes open and gazed at a marker in the center of the group. As predicted, the group level synchrony measure was able to distinguish between situations where synchrony would have been possible and situations where it would be impossible. Moreover, other aspects of the analysis illustrated how the cluster phase measures can be used to determine the type of patterning of group synchrony, and, when integrated with multi-level modeling, can be used to examine individual-level differences in synchrony and dyadic level synchrony as well.

  18. « Faire parler les Dieux ». De la démocratie impossible au problème de la religion civile chez Rousseau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Litwin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Au sens strict, la démocratie est pour Jean-Jacques Rousseau la forme de gouvernement où les corps du gouvernement et du peuple souverain sont identiques. Rousseau jugeant cette forme de gouvernement impossible, les commentateurs opposent à cette acception du terme une acception plus large : « démocratie » désignerait non plus la forme du gouvernement, mais celle de la souveraineté populaire elle-même. Cet article réfute cette interprétation encore trop formelle. Partant du constat que la démocratie est impossible comme forme de gouvernement, sauf pour « un peuple de dieux », je montre d’une part que son idée doit moins se comprendre comme forme que principe de gouvernement, et d’autre part que l’emploi du législateur s’identifie rigoureusement à la mise en application initiale de ce principe. Je dégage ensuite la relation entre ce sens principiel du concept de démocratie et la vertu politique dont Rousseau reprend de façon critique le concept à Montesquieu. Dans la dernière partie, je discute du problème que pose cette conception de la démocratie et de la vertu – qui suppose qu’on mette la loi au-dessus de l’homme – dans le contexte historique et moral de l’Europe moderne où la vertu ne peut plus s’appuyer sur un ressort religieux national.

  19. The BUMP model of response planning: intermittent predictive control accounts for 10 Hz physiological tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Robin T; Neilson, Peter D

    2010-10-01

    Physiological tremor during movement is characterized by ∼10 Hz oscillation observed both in the electromyogram activity and in the velocity profile. We propose that this particular rhythm occurs as the direct consequence of a movement response planning system that acts as an intermittent predictive controller operating at discrete intervals of ∼100 ms. The BUMP model of response planning describes such a system. It forms the kernel of Adaptive Model Theory which defines, in computational terms, a basic unit of motor production or BUMP. Each BUMP consists of three processes: (1) analyzing sensory information, (2) planning a desired optimal response, and (3) execution of that response. These processes operate in parallel across successive sequential BUMPs. The response planning process requires a discrete-time interval in which to generate a minimum acceleration trajectory to connect the actual response with the predicted future state of the target and compensate for executional error. We have shown previously that a response planning time of 100 ms accounts for the intermittency observed experimentally in visual tracking studies and for the psychological refractory period observed in double stimulation reaction time studies. We have also shown that simulations of aimed movement, using this same planning interval, reproduce experimentally observed speed-accuracy tradeoffs and movement velocity profiles. Here we show, by means of a simulation study of constant velocity tracking movements, that employing a 100 ms planning interval closely reproduces the measurement discontinuities and power spectra of electromyograms, joint-angles, and angular velocities of physiological tremor reported experimentally. We conclude that intermittent predictive control through sequential operation of BUMPs is a fundamental mechanism of 10 Hz physiological tremor in movement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Examining Age-Related Movement Representations for Sequential (Fine-Motor) Finger Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila; Bobbio, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Theory suggests that imagined and executed movement planning relies on internal models for action. Using a chronometry paradigm to compare the movement duration of imagined and executed movements, we tested children aged 7-11 years and adults on their ability to perform sequential finger movements. Underscoring this tactic was our desire to gain a…

  1. Human physiological models of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Gary S

    2007-12-01

    Despite the wide prevalence and important consequences of insomnia, remarkably little is known about its pathophysiology. Available models exist primarily in the psychological domain and derive from the demonstrated efficacy of behavioral treatment approaches to insomnia management. However, these models offer little specific prediction about the anatomic or physiological foundation of chronic primary insomnia. On the other hand, a growing body of data on the physiology of sleep supports a reasonably circumscribed overview of possible pathophysiological mechanisms, as well as the development of physiological models of insomnia to guide future research. As a pragmatic step, these models focus on primary insomnia, as opposed to comorbid insomnias, because the latter is by its nature a much more heterogeneous presentation, reflecting the effects of the distinct comorbid condition. Current understanding of the regulation of sleep and wakefulness in mammalian brain supports four broad candidate areas: 1) disruption of the sleep homeostat; 2) disruption of the circadian clock; 3) disruption of intrinsic systems responsible for the expression of sleep states; or 4) disruption (hyperactivity) of extrinsic systems capable of over-riding normal sleep-wake regulation. This review examines each of the four candidate pathophysiological mechanisms and the available data in support of each. While studies that directly test the viability of each model are not yet available, descriptive data on primary insomnia favor the involvement of dysfunctional extrinsic stress-response systems in the pathology of primary chronic insomnia.

  2. Klismaphilia--a physiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, J

    1982-10-01

    Dr. Joanne Denko coined the work klismaphilia to describe the practices of some of her patients who enjoyed the use of enemas as a sexual stimulant. Since then questions occasionally appear in the professional literature asking about the relationship between enemas and sexual pleasure. This paper considers some of the physiological aspects of the human sexual apparatus that relate to anal sensitivity and explores why klismaphilia can be sexually grafifying. The paper starts with a discussion of the physiological basis for anal sensitivity and anal masturbation in both the human male and the human female. The paper then goes on to relate all this to the sexual sensations received from an enema, and discusses the similarities and differences between all these types of stimulation. Some of the psychological aspects of klismaphilia are also considered in relationship to the physiology involved. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of masked anal masturbation among the population at large. A comprehensive list of references from the literature is given to support these findings.

  3. Physiology of in vitro culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesús Cañal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture procedures described up to the eighties, did not made any mention to the environmental control of in vitro plant development. However, growth rate, development and many of the physiologic-morphologic features of the in vitro grown plants are influenced by the culture vessel. The increasing knowledge about the environmental control of culture vessels under sterile conditions, is helping to change micorpropagation procedures. The in vitro environment with lower rate ventilation, brings about low flow rates of matter and energy, with minimum variations of temperature, high relative humidity and large daily changes of the concentration of CO2 inside the culture vessel. The type of culture vessel (size, shape, fabric and closing system can influence the evolution of the atmosphere along the time of culture. Although submitted to different stresses factors plant can be grown in vitro, but plants can be faulty in their anatomy, morphology and physiology. As a consequence, these plants shown a phenotype unable to survive to ex vitro conditions. Different strategies can be used to control the atmosphere along the different phases of micropropagation, in heterotrophic, mixotrophic or autotrophic cultures. The election of the best strategy will be based on different factors as species, number of transplantes required, or quality-price relationship. enviromental control, tissue culture, micropropagation Keywords: in vitro enviromental, characteristic physiology,

  4. Stereotypic movement disorder: easily missed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Roger D; Soltanifar, Atefeh; Baer, Susan

    2010-08-01

    To expand the understanding of stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) and its differentiation from tics and autistic stereotypies. Forty-two children (31 males, mean age 6y 3mo, SD 2y 8mo; 11 females, mean age 6y 7mo, SD 1y 9mo) consecutively diagnosed with SMD, without-self-injurious behavior, intellectual disability, sensory impairment, or an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), were assessed in a neuropsychiatry clinic. A list of probe questions on the nature of the stereotypy was administered to parents (and to children if developmentally ready). Questionnaires administered included the Stereotypy Severity Scale, Short Sensory Profile, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised, and the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire. The stereotyped movement patterns were directly observed and in some cases further documented by video recordings made by parents. The probe questions were used again on follow-up at a mean age of 10 years 7 months (SD 4y 4mo). Mean age at onset was 17 months. Males exceeded females by 3:1. Family history of a pattern of SMD was reported in 13 and neuropsychiatric comorbidity in 30 (attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder in 16, tics in 18, and developmental coordination disorder in 16). Obsessive-compulsive disorder occurred in only two. The Short Sensory Profile correlated with comorbidity (p<0.001), the Stereotypy Severity Scale (p=0.009), and the Repetitive Behavior Scale (p<0.001); the last correlated with the Stereotypy Severity Scale (p=0.001). Children (but not their parents) liked their movements, which were usually associated with excitement or imaginative play. Mean length of follow-up was 4 years 8 months (SD 2y 10mo). Of the 39 children followed for longer than 6 months, the behavior stopped or was gradually shaped so as to occur primarily privately in 25. Misdiagnosis was common: 26 were initially referred as tics, 10 as ASD, five as compulsions, and one as epilepsy. Co-occurring facial

  5. Brownian movement and molecular reality

    CERN Document Server

    Perrin, Jean

    2005-01-01

    How do we know that molecules really exist? An important clue came from Brownian movement, a concept developed in 1827 by botanist Robert Brown, who noticed that tiny objects like pollen grains shook and moved erratically when viewed under a microscope. Nearly 80 years later, in 1905, Albert Einstein explained this ""Brownian motion"" as the result of bombardment by molecules. Einstein offered a quantitative explanation by mathematically estimating the average distance covered by the particles over time as a result of molecular bombardment. Four years later, Jean Baptiste Perrin wrote Brownia

  6. Case vignettes of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, C Y

    1983-08-01

    This paper reports five movement disorders cases to serve as a basis for discussion of the problems encountered in the clinical management of these cases, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in these disorders as presented. Case 1 is a description of the subjective experience of a patient with acute orofacial dystonia from promethazine. Case 2 is the use of clonazepam is post-head injury tics. Case 3 is the complication from discontinuation of haloperidol and benztropine mesylate treatment. Case 4 is myoclonus in subacute sclerosing Panencephalitis, and Case 5 is rebound tremor from withdrawal of a beta-adrenergic blocker.

  7. Movement of the diaphragm during radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Masayuki; Fujioka, Tomio; Sakurai, Makoto; Nakajima, Toshifumi; Onoyama, Yasuto.

    1991-01-01

    Movement of the target volume during the exposure to radiation results in decreased accuracy in radiotherapy. We carried out the quantitative evaluation of the movement of the diaphragm during the radiation therapy. Seventy seven patients, who received radiation therapy for lung cancer from December 1988 to February 1990 at the Osaka-prefectural Habikino Hospital, were studied. The movement was recorded with a sonoprinter at the time of treatment planning for radiotherapy, and the length of movement was evaluated at 6 points on the diaphragm. In a study of 402 points in 77 patients, the average movement was 12 mm, and the maximum movement was 40 mm. At the 17% of the points, the movement exceeded 20 mm. The largest movement was observed at the outer point of the right lung. Movement was greater in men than in women. Performance status was not related to the degree of movement. We concluded that in chest and abdominal irradiation, movement caused by respiration is not negligible, and synchronized radiotherapy should be developed in the future. (author)

  8. Positive expiratory pressure - Common clinical applications and physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagevik Olsén, Monika; Lannefors, Louise; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2015-03-01

    Breathing out against resistance, in order to achieve positive expiratory pressure (PEP), is applied by many patient groups. Pursed lips breathing and a variety of devices can be used to create the resistance giving the increased expiratory pressure. Effects on pulmonary outcomes have been discussed in several publications, but the expected underlying physiology of the effect is seldom discussed. The aim of this article is to describe the purpose, performance, clinical application and underlying physiology of PEP when it is used to increase lung volumes, decrease hyperinflation or improve airway clearance. In clinical practice, the instruction how to use an expiratory resistance is of major importance since it varies. Different breathing patterns during PEP increase or reduce expiratory flow, result in movement of EPP centrally or peripherally and can increase or decrease lung volume. It is therefore necessary to give the right instructions to obtain the desired effects. As the different PEP techniques are being used by diverse patient groups it is not possible to give standard instructions. Based on the information given in this article the instructions have to be adjusted to give the optimal effect. There is no consensus regarding optimal treatment frequency and number of cycles included in each treatment session and must also be individualized. In future research, more precise descriptions are needed about physiological aims and specific instructions of how the treatments have been performed to assure as good treatment quality as possible and to be able to evaluate and compare treatment effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Threat affects risk preferences in movement decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Megan K.; Ahmed, Alaa A.

    2015-01-01

    Emotional states such as sadness, anger, and threat have been shown to play a critical role in decision-making processes. Here we addressed the question of whether risk preferences are influenced by postural threat and whether this influence generalizes across motor tasks. We examined risk attitudes in the context of arm-reaching (ARM) and whole-body (WB) leaning movements, expecting that increased postural threat would lead to proportionally similar changes in risk-sensitivity for each motor task. Healthy young adults were shown a series of two-alternative forced-choice lotteries, where they were asked to choose between a riskier lottery and a safer lottery on each trial. Our lotteries consisted of different monetary rewards and target sizes. Subjects performed each choice task at ground level and atop an elevated platform. In the presence of this postural threat, increased physiological arousal was correlated with decreased movement variability. To determine risk-sensitivity, we quantified the frequency with which a subject chose the riskier lottery and fit lottery responses to a choice model based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT). Subjects exhibited idiosyncratic changes in risk-sensitivity between motor tasks and between elevations. However, we found that overweighting of small probabilities increased with postural threat in the WB task, indicating a more cautious, risk-averse strategy is ascribed to the possibility of a fall. Subjects were also more risk-seeking in the WB movements than in ARM at low elevation; this behavior does not seem to derive from consistent distortions in utility or probability representations but may be explained by subjects' inaccurate estimation of their own motor variability. Overall, our findings suggest that implicit threat can modify risk attitudes in the motor domain, and the threat may induce risk-aversion in salient movement tasks. PMID:26106311

  10. Threat affects risk preferences in movement decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K. O'Brien

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional states such as sadness, anger, and threat have been shown to play a critical role in decision-making processes. Here we addressed the question of whether risk preferences are influenced by postural threat and whether this influence generalizes across motor tasks. We examined risk attitudes in the context of arm-reaching and whole-body leaning movements, expecting that increased postural threat would lead to proportionally similar changes in risk-sensitivity for each motor task. Healthy young adults were shown a series of two-alternative forced-choice lotteries, where they were asked to choose between a riskier lottery and a safer lottery on each trial. Our lotteries consisted of different monetary rewards and target sizes. Subjects performed each choice task at ground level and atop an elevated platform. In the presence of this postural threat, increased physiological arousal was correlated with decreased movement variability. To determine risk-sensitivity, we quantified the frequency with which a subject chose the riskier lottery and fit lottery responses to a choice model based on cumulative prospect theory. Subjects exhibited idiosyncratic changes in risk-sensitivity between motor tasks and between elevations. However, we found that overweighting of small probabilities increased with postural threat in the whole-body task, indicating a more cautious, risk-averse strategy is ascribed to the possibility of a fall. Subjects were also more risk-seeking in the whole-body movements than in arm-reaching at low elevation; this behavior does not seem to derive from consistent distortions in utility or probability representations but may be explained by subjects’ inaccurate estimation of their own motor variability. Overall, our findings suggest that implicit threat can modify risk attitudes in the motor domain, and the threat may induce risk-aversion in salient movement tasks.

  11. Threat affects risk preferences in movement decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Megan K; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2015-01-01

    Emotional states such as sadness, anger, and threat have been shown to play a critical role in decision-making processes. Here we addressed the question of whether risk preferences are influenced by postural threat and whether this influence generalizes across motor tasks. We examined risk attitudes in the context of arm-reaching (ARM) and whole-body (WB) leaning movements, expecting that increased postural threat would lead to proportionally similar changes in risk-sensitivity for each motor task. Healthy young adults were shown a series of two-alternative forced-choice lotteries, where they were asked to choose between a riskier lottery and a safer lottery on each trial. Our lotteries consisted of different monetary rewards and target sizes. Subjects performed each choice task at ground level and atop an elevated platform. In the presence of this postural threat, increased physiological arousal was correlated with decreased movement variability. To determine risk-sensitivity, we quantified the frequency with which a subject chose the riskier lottery and fit lottery responses to a choice model based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT). Subjects exhibited idiosyncratic changes in risk-sensitivity between motor tasks and between elevations. However, we found that overweighting of small probabilities increased with postural threat in the WB task, indicating a more cautious, risk-averse strategy is ascribed to the possibility of a fall. Subjects were also more risk-seeking in the WB movements than in ARM at low elevation; this behavior does not seem to derive from consistent distortions in utility or probability representations but may be explained by subjects' inaccurate estimation of their own motor variability. Overall, our findings suggest that implicit threat can modify risk attitudes in the motor domain, and the threat may induce risk-aversion in salient movement tasks.

  12. Physiology of excitable membranes: proceedings of the 28th International Congress of Physiological Sciences, Budapest, 1980

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salánki, J; Meves, H

    1981-01-01

    ... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Regulatory Functions of the CNS. Principles of Motion and Organization Regulatory Functions of the CNS. Subsystems Physiology of Non-excitable Cells Physiology...

  13. Towards Individualized Physiology Lecturing in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye Samuel

    1 (1): 13 - 16. Journal of African Association of Physiological Sciences ... import from validated text format question series and seamless use of any computer program or internet .... Silverthorn D U, Human Physiology, an Integrated. Approach ...

  14. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educational - Medicine Prize Related The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to people and ... this page MLA style: "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine – Educational". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media ...

  15. Physiological determinants of human acute hypoxia tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    AbstractIntroduction. We investigated possible physiological determinants of variability in hypoxia tolerance in subjects given a 5-minute normobaric exposure to 25,000 ft equivalent. Physiological tolerance to hypoxia was defined as the magnitude of...

  16. Archives: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 19 of 19 ... Archives: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Physiology of High-Altitude Acclimatization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Sonam Chawla1 Shweta Saxena2. Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Delhi; Experimental Biology Division Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences Defence Research and Development Organisation Lucknow Road, Timarpur Delhi 110054 ...

  18. Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults is available for download and contains physiological parameters values for healthy older human adults (age 60...

  19. Photoperiod control of downstream movements of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Stich, Daniel S.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first direct observations that photoperiod controls the initiation of downstream movement in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts. Under simulated natural day length (LDN) conditions and seasonal increases in temperature, smolts increased their downstream movements five-fold for a period of 1 month in late spring. Under the same conditions, parr did not show changes in downstream movement behaviour. When given a shortened day length (10L:14D) beginning in late winter, smolts did not increase the number of downstream movements. An early increase in day length (16L:8D) in late winter resulted in earlier initiation and termination of downstream movements compared to the LDN group. Physiological status and behaviour were related but not completely coincident: gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity increased in all treatments and thyroid hormone was elevated prior to movement in 16L:8D treatment. The most parsimonious model describing downstream movement of smolts included synergistic effects of photoperiod treatment and temperature, indicating that peak movements occurred at colder temperatures in the 16L:8D treatment than in LDN, and temperature did not influence movement of smolts in the 10L:14D treatment. The complicated interactions of photoperiod and temperature are not surprising since many organisms have evolved to rely on correlations among environmental cues and windows of opportunity to time behaviours associated with life-history transitions. These complicated interactions, however, have serious implications for phenological adjustments and persistence ofS. salar populations in response to climate change.

  20. Wind energy in France: impossible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie-Josette, R.

    2005-01-01

    Since the end of 2004, the European Union is the first producer of wind energy in the world (34205 MW), far beyond the USA (6740 MW) and India (2110 MW). Three countries are in the pole position: Germany (16629 MW), Spain (8263 MW) and Denmark (3117 MW). On the other hand, despite a voluntarist policy, the other countries encounter administrative and local difficulties in the development of wind energy. This is the case with France which has the second biggest potential wind resource of Europe, behind the UK. The French situation is explained by its centralized energy system, by the priority given to nuclear power, by important wind variations, and by a bad image of wind turbines in general (aesthetic, environmental). This situation should change in the future with the scheduling of pluri-annual investments, with adapted tariffs and with improved administrative procedures. (J.S.)

  1. Asia confronts the impossible trinity.

    OpenAIRE

    Patnaik, Ila; Shah, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    This book makes concrete macroeconomic policy recommendations for Asian economies aimed at minimizing the impacts of an economic and financial downturn, and setting the stage for an early return to sustainable growth. The focus is on short-term measures related to the cycle. The three main areas addressed are: monetary policy measures to achieve both macroeconomic and financial stability; exchange rate policy and foreign exchange reserve management, including the potential for regional exchan...

  2. Bengt Saltin and exercise physiology: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    This perspective highlights some of the key contributions of Professor Bengt Saltin (1935-2014) to exercise physiology. The emergence of exercise physiology from work physiology as his career began is discussed as are his contributions in a number of areas. Saltin's open and question-based style of leadership is a model for the future of our field.

  3. Lacrimal system physiology: radioisotope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rossi, G.; Salvatori, M.; Focosi, F.; Dickmann, A.

    1982-01-01

    Lacrimal scintigraphy was used to illustrate the physiology of the lacrimal drainage system in 37 normal patients. Sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate was dropped on to the conjunctive near the lateral chantus and serial images were displayed dynamically on a video display. It was concluded that this technique provides a very sensitive and reproducible test of the functional status of nasolacrimal drainage along with a graphic documentation at any given time and thus could be extremely useful in the diagnosis of lacrimal pathology. (U.K.)

  4. Chemostat Culture for Yeast Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Emily O; Dunham, Maitreya J

    2017-07-05

    The use of chemostat culture facilitates the careful comparison of different yeast strains growing in well-defined conditions. Variations in physiology can be measured by examining gene expression, metabolite levels, protein content, and cell morphology. In this protocol, we show how a combination of sample types can be collected during harvest from a single 20-mL chemostat in a ministat array, with special attention to coordinating the handling of the most time-sensitive sample types. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. Deriving Animal Movement Behaviors Using Movement Parameters Extracted from Location Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Teimouri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology for distinguishing between three types of animal movement behavior (foraging, resting, and walking based on high-frequency tracking data. For each animal we quantify an individual movement path. A movement path is a temporal sequence consisting of the steps through space taken by an animal. By selecting a set of appropriate movement parameters, we develop a method to assess movement behavioral states, reflected by changes in the movement parameters. The two fundamental tasks of our study are segmentation and clustering. By segmentation, we mean the partitioning of the trajectory into segments, which are homogeneous in terms of their movement parameters. By clustering, we mean grouping similar segments together according to their estimated movement parameters. The proposed method is evaluated using field observations (done by humans of movement behavior. We found that on average, our method agreed with the observational data (ground truth at a level of 80.75% ± 5.9% (SE.

  6. The Anti-Doping Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, Stuart E; Miller, Geoffrey D; Eichner, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Historical reports of doping in sports date as far back as the ancient Greek Olympic Games. The anti-doping community considers doping in sports to be cheating and a violation of the spirit of sport. During the past century, there has been an increasing awareness of the extent of doping in sports and the health risks of doping. In response, the anti-doping movement has endeavored to educate athletes and others about the health risks of doping and promote a level playing field. Doping control is now undertaken in most countries around the world and at most elite sports competitions. As athletes have found new ways to dope, however, the anti-doping community has endeavored to strengthen its educational and deterrence efforts. It is incumbent upon sports medicine professionals to understand the health risks of doping and all doping control processes. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Teaching Movement Activities as Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2017-01-01

    subjects the teaching style should be characterized by more variation and motivate the pupils. Research has shown that there is a correlation between physical activity and intellectual capital (e.g. educational attainment and academic performance), physical capital (e.g. physical fitness and reduction...... of the risk for diseases and risk factors) and emotional capital (e.g. fun, enjoyment and self-esteem) (Bailey, Hillman, Arent, & Petitpas, 2013). The school reform prescribes that all pupils from grade 1-9 must have at least 45 minutes of movement activities in average every day.Next to the well-known PE...... without prerequisites but part of discourses and at the same time individual interpretations of specific practices. The teaching role is something that is constantly produced and reproduced in the bodily interaction. Understanding teaching as performativity means that teachers are not acting in certain...

  8. Plant movements and climate warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Frenne, Pieter; Coomes, David A.; De Schrijver, An

    2014-01-01

    environments can establish in nonlocal sites. •We assess the intraspecific variation in growth responses to nonlocal soils by planting a widespread grass of deciduous forests (Milium effusum) into an experimental common garden using combinations of seeds and soil sampled in 22 sites across its distributional...... range, and reflecting movement scenarios of up to 1600 km. Furthermore, to determine temperature and forest-structural effects, the plants and soils were experimentally warmed and shaded. •We found significantly positive effects of the difference between the temperature of the sites of seed and soil...... collection on growth and seedling emergence rates. Migrant plants might thus encounter increasingly favourable soil conditions while tracking the isotherms towards currently ‘colder’ soils. These effects persisted under experimental warming. Rising temperatures and light availability generally enhanced plant...

  9. NMR spectroscopic studies of intrinsically disordered proteins at near-physiological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, S.; Kummerle, S.; Hosek, T.; Pierattelli, R.; Felli, I.C.; Solyom, Z.; Brutscher, B.

    2013-01-01

    We have shown here that 13 C-start 13 -C detected experiments do not suffer from fast hydrogen exchange between amide and solvent protons in IDP samples studied at close to physiological conditions, thus enabling us to recover information that would be difficult or even impossible to obtain through amide 1 H-detected experiments. Furthermore, in favourable cases the fast hydrogen exchange rates can even be turned into a spectroscopic advantage. By combining longitudinal 1 H relaxation optimized BEST-type techniques with 13 C-direct detection pulse schemes, important sensitivity improvements can be achieved, and experimental times can be significantly reduced. This opens up new applications for monitoring chemical shift changes in IDPs upon interaction to a binding partner, chemical modification, or by changing the environment, under sample conditions that were inaccessible by conventional techniques. (authors)

  10. The golden age of rapid eye movement sleep discoveries. 1. Lucretius--1964.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesmann, C

    2001-10-01

    Although there were several premonitory signs of a sleep stage with dreaming, it was only in 1953 that such a stage was identified with certainty. This paper analyses the observations and research related to this dreaming stage (rapid eye movement sleep) until 1964. During these 11 years of research, the main psychological and physiological characteristics of this sleep stage were first described. Where the few results or discussions were later questioned, today's current state of knowledge is briefly outlined.

  11. Low- and high-frequency subcortical SEP amplitude reduction during pure passive movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insola, Angelo; Padua, Luca; Mazzone, Paolo; Valeriani, Massimiliano

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of pure passive movement on both cortical and subcortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). Median nerve SEPs were recorded in 8 patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) and two patients with essential tremor. PD patients underwent electrode implantation in the subthalamic (STN) nucleus (3 patients) and pedunculopontine (PPTg) nucleus (5 patients), while 2 patients with essential tremor were implanted in the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus. In anesthetized patients, SEPs were recorded at rest and during a passive movement of the thumb of the stimulated wrist from the intracranial electrode contacts and from the scalp. Also the high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) were analyzed. Amplitudes of both deep and scalp components were decreased during passive movement, but the reduction was higher at cortical than subcortical level. Also the HFOs were reduced by movement. The different amount of the movement-related decrease suggests that the cortical SEP gating is not only the result of a subcortical somatosensory volley attenuation, but a further mechanism acting at cortical level should be considered. Our results are important for understanding the physiological mechanism of the sensory-motor interaction during passive movement. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Migratory behavior and physiological development as potential determinants of life history diversity in fall Chinook Salmon in the Clearwater River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Connor, William P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.

    2018-01-01

    We studied the influence of behavior, water velocity, and physiological development on the downstream movement of subyearling fall‐run Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in both free‐flowing and impounded reaches of the Clearwater and Snake rivers as potential mechanisms that might explain life history diversity in this stock. Movement rates and the percentage of radio‐tagged fish that moved faster than the average current velocity were higher in the free‐flowing Clearwater River than in impounded reaches. This supports the notion that water velocity is a primary determinant of downstream movement regardless of a fish's physiological development. In contrast, movement rates slowed and detections became fewer in impounded reaches, where water velocities were much lower. The percentage of fish that moved faster than the average current velocity continued to decline and reached zero in the lowermost reach of Lower Granite Reservoir, suggesting that the behavioral disposition to move downstream was low. These findings contrast with those of a similar, previous study of Snake River subyearlings despite similarity in hydrodynamic conditions between the two studies. Physiological differences between Snake and Clearwater River migrants shed light on this disparity. Subyearlings from the Clearwater River were parr‐like in their development and never showed the increase in gill Na+/K+‐ATPase activity displayed by smolts from the Snake River. Results from this study provide evidence that behavioral and life history differences between Snake and Clearwater River subyearlings may have a physiological basis that is modified by environmental conditions.

  13. Physiological Effects of Touching Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumi Ikei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the physiological effects of touching wood with the palm, in comparison with touching other materials on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Eighteen female university students (mean age, 21.7  ±  1.6 years participated in the study. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentrations were measured in the left/right prefrontal cortex using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV was used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF component of HRV, which reflected parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF/HF ratio, which reflected sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated white oak, marble, tile, and stainless steel were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed, participants touched the materials for 90 s. As a result, tactile stimulation with white oak significantly (1 decreased the oxy-Hb concentration in the left/right prefrontal cortex relative to marble, tile, and stainless steel and (2 increased ln(HF-reflected parasympathetic nervous activity relative to marble and stainless steel. In conclusion, our study revealed that touching wood with the palm calms prefrontal cortex activity and induces parasympathetic nervous activity more than other materials, thereby inducing physiological relaxation.

  14. Physiological aspects of forest disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, H.

    1986-01-01

    Many kinds of forest disease having the most varied causes are currently classified as 'forest die-back'. These include for one part diseases of obvious etiology: infectious diseases, damage from frost and drought, as well as harmful effects of defined air pollutants from known sources. But apart from this, a fast growing tendency is noted for extensive damage to appear whose origin is not yet clearly elucidated and which are probably the result of many factors, in other words, which can be termed as 'chain disease'. A striking fact is that any scientist who has so far attributed that last-mentioned disease condition of forests to any single decisive cause, has chosen one from his own specific scientific field. Physiologic-biochemical analysis of the damage symptoms is impaired by the fact that trees are, for obvious biological reasons, difficult objects for providing precise data. Yet reliable statements can be made on the paths by which wet and dry depositions penetrate into the plant organs, the penetration of pollutants into the cell, their points of attack in cells and tissue (above all photosynthesis, material transport, and hormone balance), and their influence on the correlations between the individual organs. Particular attention should be paid to possible or indirect effects on the mycorrhiza of forest trees, i.e. on the symbiosis between roots and fungi. The physiologic-biochemical investigations and considerations reported provide circumstantial evidence, but no proof regarding the causes hitherto unexplained. (orig.) [de

  15. Environmental Physiology and Diving Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Bosco

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Man’s experience and exploration of the underwater environment has been recorded from ancient times and today encompasses large sections of the population for sport enjoyment, recreational and commercial purpose, as well as military strategic goals. Knowledge, respect and maintenance of the underwater world is an essential development for our future and the knowledge acquired over the last few dozen years will change rapidly in the near future with plans to establish secure habitats with specific long-term goals of exploration, maintenance and survival. This summary will illustrate briefly the physiological changes induced by immersion, swimming, breath-hold diving and exploring while using special equipment in the water. Cardiac, circulatory and pulmonary vascular adaptation and the pathophysiology of novel syndromes have been demonstrated, which will allow selection of individual characteristics in order to succeed in various environments. Training and treatment for these new microenvironments will be suggested with description of successful pioneers in this field. This is a summary of the physiology and the present status of pathology and therapy for the field.

  16. Parametric HMMs for Movement Recognition and Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Dennis; Krüger, Volker

    2009-01-01

    , we develop an exemplar-based parametric hidden Markov model (PHMM) that allows to represent movements of a particular type. Since we use model interpolation to reduce the necessary amount of training data, we had to develop a method to setup local models in a synchronized way. In our experiments we......A common problem in human movement recognition is the recognition of movements of a particular type (semantic). E.g., grasping movements have a particular semantic (grasping) but the actual movements usually have very different appearances due to, e.g., different grasping directions. In this paper...... to recover the movement type, and, e.g., the object position a human is pointing at. Our experiments show the flexibility of the PHMMs in terms of the amount of training data and its robustness in terms of noisy observation data. In addition, we compare our PHMM to an other kind of PHMM, which has been...

  17. Integrating individual movement behaviour into dispersal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Simone K; Wissel, Christian; Conradt, Larissa; Frank, Karin

    2007-04-21

    Dispersal functions are an important tool for integrating dispersal into complex models of population and metapopulation dynamics. Most approaches in the literature are very simple, with the dispersal functions containing only one or two parameters which summarise all the effects of movement behaviour as for example different movement patterns or different perceptual abilities. The summarising nature of these parameters makes assessing the effect of one particular behavioural aspect difficult. We present a way of integrating movement behavioural parameters into a particular dispersal function in a simple way. Using a spatial individual-based simulation model for simulating different movement behaviours, we derive fitting functions for the functional relationship between the parameters of the dispersal function and several details of movement behaviour. This is done for three different movement patterns (loops, Archimedean spirals, random walk). Additionally, we provide measures which characterise the shape of the dispersal function and are interpretable in terms of landscape connectivity. This allows an ecological interpretation of the relationships found.

  18. Movement-based Interaction in Camera Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present three concepts that address movement-based interaction using camera tracking. Based on our work with several movement-based projects we present four selected applications, and use these applications to leverage our discussion, and to describe our three main concepts space......, relations, and feedback. We see these as central for describing and analysing movement-based systems using camera tracking and we show how these three concepts can be used to analyse other camera tracking applications....

  19. Outcomes of Social Movements and Protest Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Giugni, Marco; Bosi, Lorenzo; Uba, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Scholarship has left the study of the consequences of social movements in the background for a long time, focusing instead on movement emergence, characteristics, and dynamics. Since the mid-1970s, however, scholars have paid an increasing interest in how social movements and protest activities may produce change at various levels. The existing literature can be ordered according to the kind of consequence addressed. In this regard, one can roughly distinguish between political, biographical,...

  20. Assessment of acute physiological demand for soccer.

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Daniel Barbosa; Pimenta, Eduardo Mendonça; Veneroso, Christiano Eduardo; Pacheco, Diogo Antônio Soares; Pereira, Emerson Rodrigues; Coelho, Leonardo Gomes Martins; Silami-Garcia, Emerson

    2013-01-01

    Soccer is a sport practiced worldwide, on all continents. It is considered an intermittent activity of high intensity and long duration, in which movements that require great strength and speed, such as jumps and sprints, result in high levels of muscle microtrauma, hampering athletes’ training and recovery. The present study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of changes in different markers of physiological demand resulting from a soccer match in healthy individuals. Ten healthy male physical e...

  1. Physiological, Nutritional and Performance Profiles of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Andreato, Leonardo V; Santos, Jonatas FS; Esteves, Jo?o VDC; Panissa, Valeria LG; Julio, Ursula F; Franchini, Emerson

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study analysed the physiological, nutritional and performance profiles of athletes practicing Brazilian jiu-jitsu. To this end, 15 athletes that practiced Brazilian jiu-jitsu (aged: 28 ? 5 years; 8 brown belts and 7 black belts; training experience: 11 ? 4 years) underwent anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype), dietary evaluation (24 h recall) and physical fitness tests (movement time, dynamometer handgrip, kimono grip strength, vertical jump and sit-and-...

  2. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P; Liu, Kang K L; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2015-01-01

    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems.

  3. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Liu, Kang K. L.; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2015-01-01

    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems. PMID:26555073

  4. Subthalamic nucleus detects unnatural android movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Hirata, Masayuki; Kasaki, Masashi; Alimardani, Maryam; Matsushita, Kojiro; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2017-12-19

    An android, i.e., a realistic humanoid robot with human-like capabilities, may induce an uncanny feeling in human observers. The uncanny feeling about an android has two main causes: its appearance and movement. The uncanny feeling about an android increases when its appearance is almost human-like but its movement is not fully natural or comparable to human movement. Even if an android has human-like flexible joints, its slightly jerky movements cause a human observer to detect subtle unnaturalness in them. However, the neural mechanism underlying the detection of unnatural movements remains unclear. We conducted an fMRI experiment to compare the observation of an android and the observation of a human on which the android is modelled, and we found differences in the activation pattern of the brain regions that are responsible for the production of smooth and natural movement. More specifically, we found that the visual observation of the android, compared with that of the human model, caused greater activation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). When the android's slightly jerky movements are visually observed, the STN detects their subtle unnaturalness. This finding suggests that the detection of unnatural movements is attributed to an error signal resulting from a mismatch between a visual input and an internal model for smooth movement.

  5. Airport Movement Area Closure Planner, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR research develops an automation tool improving temporary and permanent runway closure management. The Movement Area Closure Planner (MACP) provides airport...

  6. The physiology of keystroke dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Nguyen, Quang; Reynolds, Joseph; Horner, William; Szu, Harold

    2011-06-01

    A universal implementation for most behavioral Biometric systems is still unknown since some behaviors aren't individual enough for identification. Habitual behaviors which are measurable by sensors are considered 'soft' biometrics (i.e., walking style, typing rhythm), while physical attributes (i.e., iris, fingerprint) are 'hard' biometrics. Thus, biometrics can aid in the identification of a human not only in cyberspace but in the world we live in. Hard biometrics have proven to be a rather successful form of identification, despite a large amount of individual signatures to keep track of. Virtually all soft biometric strategies, however, share a common pitfall. Instead of the classical pass/fail decision based on the measurements used by hard biometrics, a confidence threshold is imposed, increasing False Alarm and False Rejection Rates. This unreliability is a major roadblock for large scale system integration. Common computer security requires users to log-in with a six or more digit PIN (Personal Identification Number) to access files on the disk. Commercially available Keystroke Dynamics (KD) software can separately calculate and keep track of the mean and variance for each time travelled between each key (air time), and the time spent pressing each key (touch time). Despite its apparent utility, KD is not yet a robust, fault-tolerant system. We begin with a simple question: how could a pianist quickly control so many different finger and wrist movements to play music? What information, if any, can be gained from analyzing typing behavior over time? Biology has shown us that the separation of arm and finger motion is due to 3 long nerves in each arm; regulating movement in different parts of the hand. In this paper we wish to capture the underlying behavioral information of a typist through statistical memory and non-linear dynamics. Our method may reveal an inverse Compressive Sensing mapping; a unique individual signature.

  7. Degeneration of rapid eye movement sleep circuitry underlies rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dillon; Peever, John

    2017-05-01

    During healthy rapid eye movement sleep, skeletal muscles are actively forced into a state of motor paralysis. However, in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder-a relatively common neurological disorder-this natural process is lost. A lack of motor paralysis (atonia) in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder allows individuals to actively move, which at times can be excessive and violent. At first glance this may sound harmless, but it is not because rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients frequently injure themselves or the person they sleep with. It is hypothesized that the degeneration or dysfunction of the brain stem circuits that control rapid eye movement sleep paralysis is an underlying cause of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. The link between brain stem degeneration and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder stems from the fact that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder precedes, in the majority (∼80%) of cases, the development of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, which are known to initially cause degeneration in the caudal brain stem structures where rapid eye movement sleep circuits are located. Furthermore, basic science and clinical evidence demonstrate that lesions within the rapid eye movement sleep circuits can induce rapid eye movement sleep-specific motor deficits that are virtually identical to those observed in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review examines the evidence that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is caused by synucleinopathic neurodegeneration of the core brain stem circuits that control healthy rapid eye movement sleep and concludes that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is not a separate clinical entity from synucleinopathies but, rather, it is the earliest symptom of these disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and

  8. Slow pre-movement cortical potentials do not reflect individual response to therapy in writer's cramp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuner, K E; Peller, M; Knutzen, A

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP) provide a physiological correlate that indicates the response to treatment in patients with writer's cramp. METHODS: In 21 patients with writer's cramp, who underwent 4 weeks of limb immobilization followed by re...... apart. RESULTS: Patients benefited from the therapeutical intervention (Zeuner et al., 2008). They showed no abnormalities of the MRCPs at baseline. In controls, MRCPs did not significantly change after 4 weeks. In patients, immobilization and re-training had no effect on MRCPs. There was no correlation......-training for 8 weeks, we recorded MRCPs preceding a self-initiated brisk finger abduction movement. MRCP measurements of pre-movement activity were performed at baseline, after the end of immobilization and four and 8 weeks of re-training. We examined 12 controls, who received no intervention, twice 4 weeks...

  9. Using the reactive scope model to understand why stress physiology predicts survival during starvation in Galápagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L Michael

    2012-05-01

    Even though the term "stress" is widely used, a precise definition is notoriously difficult. Notwithstanding this difficulty, stress continues to be an important concept in biology because it attempts to describe how animals cope with environmental change under emergency conditions. Without a precise definition, however, it becomes nearly impossible to make testable a priori predictions about how physiological and hormonal systems will respond to emergency conditions and what the ultimate impact on the animal will be. The reactive scope model is a recent attempt to formulate testable predictions. This model provides a physiological basis to explain why corticosterone negative feedback, but not baseline corticosterone concentrations, corticosterone responses to acute stress, or the interrenal capacity to secrete corticosterone, is correlated with survival during famine conditions in Galápagos marine iguanas. Reactive scope thus provides a foundation for interpreting and predicting physiological stress responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physiological, behavioral, and ecological aspects of migration in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, Amanda; Avens, Larisa

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal movements between foraging, breeding, and overwintering sites occur in a wide variety of reptile species. Terrestrial snakes, lizards, and turtles migrate short distances (\\20 km) between seasonal habitats, whereas fully aquatic marine turtles migrate hundreds to thousands of kilometers between foraging and breeding areas. The purpose of this article is to summarize aspects of migratory physiology and behavior in reptiles, particularly with regards to energetics and sensory mechanisms for navigation and orientation. We discuss the influence of aerobic scope, endurance, and cost of transport on migratory capacity, the effects of temperature and circulating hormones on activity and behavior, and mechanisms of detecting and transducing environmental cues to successfully navigate and orient toward a goal during migration. Topics worthy of further research are highlighted in the text, and we conclude with a discussion of how information on migration patterns of reptiles may be used to manage and conserve threatened populations.

  11. CH2 - Lighting and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Altomonte

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the designed performances of the new CH2 building in Melbourne, Australia. CH2 is an environmentally significant project that involves biomimicry of natural systems to produce indoor conditions that are conducive to user comfort, health and productivity. This paper focuses on lighting and physiology and examines the solutions chosen for artificial and natural lighting and the likely effects these will have on building occupants. The purpose of the paper is to critically comment on the adopted strategy and, cognisance of contemporary thinking in lighting design, to judge the effectiveness of this aspect of the project with a view to later verification and post-occupancy review. The paper concludes that CH2 is an exemplar of lighting innovation that provides valuable lessons to designers of office buildings, particularly in the Melbourne CSD.

  12. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger David John

    2012-01-01

    damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses......Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged...... by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner...

  13. Fetal Eye Movements on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitek, Ramona; Kasprian, Gregor; Lindner, Christian; Stuhr, Fritz; Weber, Michael; Schöpf, Veronika; Brugger, Peter C.; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Furtner, Julia; Bettelheim, Dieter; Seidl, Rainer; Prayer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. Methods Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17–40 GW, three age groups [17–23 GW, 24–32 GW, 33–40 GW]). Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981): Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. Results In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%). Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03), Type Ia (p = 0.031), and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033). Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3–45%. Conclusions In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations. PMID:24194885

  14. Fetal eye movements on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitek, Ramona; Kasprian, Gregor; Lindner, Christian; Stuhr, Fritz; Weber, Michael; Schöpf, Veronika; Brugger, Peter C; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Furtner, Julia; Bettelheim, Dieter; Seidl, Rainer; Prayer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17-40 GW, three age groups [17-23 GW, 24-32 GW, 33-40 GW]). Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981): Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%). Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03), Type Ia (p = 0.031), and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033). Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3-45%. In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations.

  15. Cesium-137: A physiological disruptor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souidi, Maamar; Grison, Stephane; Dublineau, Isabelle; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Lestaevel, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Today, radiation protection is a major issue for the nuclear industry throughout the world, particularly in France. The 2011 disaster of Fukushima Dai-ichi has brought back to public attention questions about the risks associated with nuclear power for civilian purposes. The risk of accidental release of radioactive molecules, including cesium-137 ( 137 Cs), from these facilities cannot be completely eliminated. The non-cancer-related health consequences of chronic exposure to this radionuclide remain poorly understood. After absorption, cesium is distributed throughout the body. The toxicity of 137 Cs is due mainly to its radiological properties. Studies in humans report that 137 Cs impairs the immune system and induces neurological disorders. Children appear more susceptible than adults to its toxic effects. In animals, and most particularly in rodents, low-dose internal contamination disrupts the sleep-wake cycle, but without behavioural disorders. Impairment of the cardiovascular system has also been observed. Physiologic systems such as the metabolism of vitamin D, cholesterol and steroid hormones are altered, although without leading to the emergence of diseases with clinical symptoms. Recently, a metabolomics study based on contamination levels comparable to those around Chernobyl after the accident showed that it is possible to identify individual rats chronically exposed to low doses of 137 Cs, even though the exposure was too low to affect the standard clinical markers. In conclusion, the scientific evidence currently available, particularly that from experimental animal models exposed to chronic contamination, suggests that 137 Cs is likely to affect many physiologic and metabolic functions. Thus, it could contribute, with other artificial substances in the environment, to increasing the risk of developing non-cancer diseases in some regions. (authors)

  16. The physiology of mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellizzeri, Franco M; Marcora, Samuele M

    2007-01-01

    Mountain biking is a popular outdoor recreational activity and an Olympic sport. Cross-country circuit races have a winning time of approximately equal 120 minutes and are performed at an average heart rate close to 90% of the maximum, corresponding to 84% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). More than 80% of race time is spent above the lactate threshold. This very high exercise intensity is related to the fast starting phase of the race; the several climbs, forcing off-road cyclists to expend most of their effort going against gravity; greater rolling resistance; and the isometric contractions of arm and leg muscles necessary for bike handling and stabilisation. Because of the high power output (up to 500W) required during steep climbing and at the start of the race, anaerobic energy metabolism is also likely to be a factor of off-road cycling and deserves further investigation. Mountain bikers' physiological characteristics indicate that aerobic power (VO2max >70 mL/kg/min) and the ability to sustain high work rates for prolonged periods of time are prerequisites for competing at a high level in off-road cycling events. The anthropometric characteristics of mountain bikers are similar to climbers and all-terrain road cyclists. Various parameters of aerobic fitness are correlated to cross-country performance, suggesting that these tests are valid for the physiological assessment of competitive mountain bikers, especially when normalised to body mass. Factors other than aerobic power and capacity might influence off-road cycling performance and require further investigation. These include off-road cycling economy, anaerobic power and capacity, technical ability and pre-exercise nutritional strategies.

  17. FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SCREENING: THE USE OF FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENTS AS AN ASSESSMENT OF FUNCTION ‐ PART 1

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Gray; Burton, Lee; Hoogenboom, Barbara J.; Voight, Michael

    2014-01-01

    To prepare an athlete for the wide variety of activities needed to participate in or return to their sport, the analysis of fundamental movements should be incorporated into screening in order to determine who possesses, or lacks, the ability to perform certain essential movements. In a series of two articles, the background and rationale for the analysis of fundamental movement will be provided. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS™) will be described, and any evidence related to its use will...

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF LOWER LIMB MOVEMENT ON UPPER LIMB MOVEMENT SYMMETRY WHILE SWIMMING THE BREASTSTROKE

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jaszczak

    2011-01-01

    This study 1) examined the influence of lower limb movement on upper limb movement symmetry, 2) determined the part of the propulsion phase displaying the greatest hand movement asymmetry, 3) diagnosed the range of upper limb propulsion phase which is the most prone to the influence of the lower limbs while swimming the breaststroke. Twenty-four participants took part in two tests. Half of them performed an asymmetrical leg movement. The propulsion in the first test was generated by four limb...

  19. Translational physiology: from molecules to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Douglas R

    2013-07-15

    The term 'translational research' was coined 20 years ago and has become a guiding influence in biomedical research. It refers to a process by which the findings of basic research are extended to the clinical research setting (bench to bedside) and then to clinical practice and eventually health policy (bedside to community). It is a dynamic, multidisciplinary research approach. The concept of translational physiology applies the translational research model to the physiological sciences. It differs from the traditional areas of integrative and clinical physiology by its broad investigative scope of basic research to community health. Translational physiology offers exciting opportunities, but presently is under-developed and -utilized. A key challenge will be to expand physiological research by extending investigations to communities of patients and healthy (or at risk) individuals. This will allow bidirectional physiological investigation throughout the translational continuum: basic research observations can be studied up to the population level, and mechanisms can be assessed by 'reverse translation' in clinical research settings and preclinical models based on initial observations made in populations. Examples of translational physiology questions, experimental approaches, roadblocks and strategies for promotion are discussed. Translational physiology provides a novel framework for physiology programs and an investigational platform for physiologists to study function from molecular events to public health. It holds promise for enhancing the completeness and societal impact of our work, while further solidifying the critical role of physiology in the biomedical research enterprise.

  20. Electrophysiologic Assessments of Involuntary Movements: Tremor and Myoclonus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Dong Park

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tremor is defined as a rhythmical, involuntary oscillatory movement of a body part. Although neurological examination reveals information regarding its frequency, regularity, amplitude, and activation conditions, the electrophysiological investigations help in confirming the tremor, in differentiating it from other hyperkinetic disorders like myoclonus, and may provide etiological clues. Accelerometer with surface electromyogram (EMG can be used to document the dominant frequency of a tremor, which may be useful as certain frequencies are more characteristic of specific etiologies than others hyperkinetic disorders. It may show rhythmic bursts, duration and activation pattern (alternating or synchronous. Myoclonus is a quick, involuntary movement. Electrophysiological studies may helpful in the evaluation of myoclonus, not only for confirming the clinical diagnosis but also for understanding the underlying physiological mechanisms. Electroencephalogram (EEG-EMG correlates can give us important information about myoclonus. Jerk-locked back-averaging and evoked potentials with recording of the long-latency, long-loop reflexes are currently available to study the pathophysiology of myoclonus.

  1. Effect of music-movement synchrony on exercise oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C J; Myers, T R; Karageorghis, C I

    2012-08-01

    Past research indicates that endurance is improved when exercise movements are synchronised with a musical beat, however it is unclear whether such benefits are associated with reduced metabolic cost. We compared oxygen consumption (.VO2) and related physiological effects of exercise conducted synchronously and asynchronously with music. Three music tracks, each recorded at three different tempi (123, 130, and 137 beats.min-1), accompanied cycle ergometry at 65 pedal revolutions.min-1. Thus three randomly-assigned experimental conditions were administered: slow tempo asynchronous, synchronous, and fast tempo asynchronous. Exercise response of .VO2, HR, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), to each condition was monitored in 10 untrained male participants aged 21.7±0.8 years (mean±SD) who cycled for 12 min at 70% maximal heart rate (HR). Mean .VO2 differed among conditions (P=0.008), being lower in the synchronous (1.80±0.22 L.min-1) compared to the slow tempo asynchronous condition (1.94±0.21 L.min-1; Pmusic than when musical tempo is slightly slower than the rate of cyclical movement.

  2. The clinical approach to movement disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdo, W.F.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Burn, D.J.; Quinn, N.P.; Bloem, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    Movement disorders are commonly encountered in the clinic. In this Review, aimed at trainees and general neurologists, we provide a practical step-by-step approach to help clinicians in their 'pattern recognition' of movement disorders, as part of a process that ultimately leads to the diagnosis.

  3. Detecting movement patterns using Brownian bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, K.; Sijben, S.; Arseneau, T.J.-M.; Willems, E.P.

    2012-01-01

    In trajectory data a low sampling rate leads to high uncertainty in between sampling points, which needs to be taken into account in the analysis of such data. However, current algorithms for movement analysis ignore this uncertainty and assume linear movement between sample points. In this paper we

  4. Towards a discursive analytics of movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frello, Birgitta

    2008-01-01

    examples taken from Danish media, it is shown that the study of movement cannot be separated from that of discursive power. Access to and control over physical movement is unequally distributed. However, so is access to and control over assessing which activities can meaningfully be given the label...

  5. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenck, C H; Montplaisir, J Y; Frauscher, B

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD...

  6. Movement initiation in groups of feral horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Hemelrijk, Charlotte

    Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be

  7. Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Historic Prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. ANALYSING SURFACE MOVEMENT DELAYS IN AN AIRPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Queuing effect can be in the different components of ground operations. Causes of surface – movement delays are long taxi – in and taxi – out operations during departure and arrival of aircraft. Surface movement delays in an airport are analyzed

  9. Historical Development of the Olympic Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Šiljak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Movement is a term that covers all areas related to the phenomenon of Olympism. From its creation, the Olympic Movement has had to follow and to respond to numerous challenges and changes of the 20th and 21st century. The successful work of the International Olympic Committee (IOC on the implementation of their projects related to world peace, the education of youth, equal inclusion of women in every aspect of the Movement, the establishment of the Women’s Commission, the Sport for All Commission, and the Sports and the Environment Commission are facts indicating that the IOC has a significant impact on the values of the Olympic Movement. In addition to equal participation of all athletes, today, the Olympic Movement provides Olympic solidarity, education and other programs. The basic method that was used in this study was the historical method, which includes heuristic, empirical and theoretical study of the origin and development of the IOC and its operation as part of the Olympic Movement. Research results indicate that the management of the IOCas a sporting organization that manages this Movement is directed at achieving the goal to contribute to building a more peaceful and better world by educating young people through sports, and in accordance with the Olympic values. With proper management, the IOChas improved sports and has grown into an organization that is at the head of the Olympic Movement.

  10. Fundamental Movement Skills and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Kerri L.; Reid, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Delays and deficits may both contribute to atypical development of movement skills by children with ASD. Fundamental movement skills of 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (ages 9-12 years) were compared to three typically developing groups using the "Test of Gross Motor Development" ("TGMD-2"). The group matched on chronological age…

  11. Implementing Intervention Movement Programs for Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Eleni; Bakle, Iliana; Zachopoulou, Evridiki

    2006-01-01

    The reported study aimed to identify the effects of two 10-week intervention programs on fundamental locomotor skill performance in kindergarten children. Seventy-five children with mean age 5.4 plus or minus 0.5 years participated. Experimental Group A followed a movement program, experimental Group B followed a music and movement program, and…

  12. Fundamental Movement Skill Proficiency amongst Adolescent Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Brien, Wesley; Belton, Sarahjane; Issartel, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Background: Literature suggests that physical education programmes ought to provide intense instruction towards basic movement skills needed to enjoy a variety of physical activities. Fundamental movement skills (FMS) are basic observable patterns of behaviour present from childhood to adulthood (e.g. run, skip and kick). Recent evidence indicates…

  13. Introduction: The Future of Social Movement Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenburg, Jacquelien Van; Roggeband, Conny; Stekelenburg, Jacquelien Van; Roggeband, Conny; Klandermans, Bert

    2013-01-01

    In The Future of Social Movement Research, some of the most influential scholars in the field provide a wide-ranging understanding of how social movements arise and persist, engendering unanswered questions pointing to new theoretical strands and fields of research. The resulting work is

  14. Using a developmental movement programme to enhance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brain research has shown that the brain is “plastic” in that it can adapt continuously, and its structure can be changed by certain kinds of stimulation, including movement. The body is a sensory-motor response system that causes the brain to organize itself. Movement is essential to learning and can be regarded as the door ...

  15. Social Movement Theory: Past, Present and Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stekelenburg, Jacquelien

    2009-01-01

    Mobilization against apartheid in South Africa, the campaign against blood diamonds, the women's movement in Liberia where Africa's first female head of State was elected in 2005 - these are all examples of socially based movements that have had a major effect on Africa's recent history. Yet the

  16. Movers and shakers : social movements in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.; Kessel, van W.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mobilization against apartheid in South Africa, the campaign against blood diamonds, the women's movement in Liberia where Africa's first female head of State was elected in 2005 - these are all examples of socially based movements that have had a major effect on Africa's recent history. Yet the

  17. Surgical management of movement disorders | Enslin | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Movement disorders are usually treated by neurologists, and appropriately so. The first-line management of all conditions that are grouped together as movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease, dystonia, essential tremor) is with medication and, in some, with rehabilitative strategies, such as occupational therapy, ...

  18. The Ecology Movement after Ten Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, Betty; Gerlach, Luther P.

    1981-01-01

    Summarized are responses to a 1980 "Natural History""You and the Ecology Movement" questionnaire on ecological problems and the environmental movement. Returns indicate that concern for environmental quality is still very much in evidence, but some new directions and emphases are apparent. (WB)

  19. Mechanistic movement models to understand epidemic spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofana, Abdou Moutalab; Hurford, Amy

    2017-05-05

    An overlooked aspect of disease ecology is considering how and why animals come into contact with one and other resulting in disease transmission. Mathematical models of disease spread frequently assume mass-action transmission, justified by stating that susceptible and infectious hosts mix readily, and foregoing any detailed description of host movement. Numerous recent studies have recorded, analysed and modelled animal movement. These movement models describe how animals move with respect to resources, conspecifics and previous movement directions and have been used to understand the conditions for the occurrence and the spread of infectious diseases when hosts perform a type of movement. Here, we summarize the effect of the different types of movement on the threshold conditions for disease spread. We identify gaps in the literature and suggest several promising directions for future research. The mechanistic inclusion of movement in epidemic models may be beneficial for the following two reasons. Firstly, the estimation of the transmission coefficient in an epidemic model is possible because animal movement data can be used to estimate the rate of contacts between conspecifics. Secondly, unsuccessful transmission events, where a susceptible host contacts an infectious host but does not become infected can be quantified. Following an outbreak, this enables disease ecologists to identify 'near misses' and to explore possible alternative epidemic outcomes given shifts in ecological or immunological parameters.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Exploratory Visual Analysis for Animal Movement Ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingsby, A.; van Loon, E.

    2016-01-01

    Movement ecologists study animals' movement to help understand their behaviours and interactions with each other and the environment. Data from GPS loggers are increasingly important for this. These data need to be processed, segmented and summarised for further visual and statistical analysis,

  1. Automatic Removal of Physiological Artifacts in EEG: The Optimized Fingerprint Method for Sports Science Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, David B; Tamburro, Gabriella; Fiedler, Patrique; Haueisen, Jens; Comani, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Data contamination due to physiological artifacts such as those generated by eyeblinks, eye movements, and muscle activity continues to be a central concern in the acquisition and analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) data. This issue is further compounded in EEG sports science applications where the presence of artifacts is notoriously difficult to control because behaviors that generate these interferences are often the behaviors under investigation. Therefore, there is a need to develop effective and efficient methods to identify physiological artifacts in EEG recordings during sports applications so that they can be isolated from cerebral activity related to the activities of interest. We have developed an EEG artifact detection model, the Fingerprint Method, which identifies different spatial, temporal, spectral, and statistical features indicative of physiological artifacts and uses these features to automatically classify artifactual independent components in EEG based on a machine leaning approach. Here, we optimized our method using artifact-rich training data and a procedure to determine which features were best suited to identify eyeblinks, eye movements, and muscle artifacts. We then applied our model to an experimental dataset collected during endurance cycling. Results reveal that unique sets of features are suitable for the detection of distinct types of artifacts and that the Optimized Fingerprint Method was able to correctly identify over 90% of the artifactual components with physiological origin present in the experimental data. These results represent a significant advancement in the search for effective means to address artifact contamination in EEG sports science applications.

  2. Effect of Canister Movement on Water Turbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIMBLE, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Requirements for evaluating the adherence characteristics of sludge on the fuel stored in the K East Basin and the effect of canister movement on basin water turbidity are documented in Briggs (1996). The results of the sludge adherence testing have been documented (Bergmann 1996). This report documents the results of the canister movement tests. The purpose of the canister movement tests was to characterize water turbidity under controlled canister movements (Briggs 1996). The tests were designed to evaluate methods for minimizing the plumes and controlling water turbidity during fuel movements leading to multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading. It was expected that the test data would provide qualitative visual information for use in the design of the fuel retrieval and water treatment systems. Video recordings of the tests were to be the only information collected

  3. Affective Body Movements (for Robots) Across Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Humans are very good in expressing and interpreting emotions from a variety of different sources like voice, facial expression, or body movements. In this article, we concentrate on body movements and show that those are not only a source of affective information but might also have a different i...... with a study on creating an affective knocking movement for a humanoid robot and give details about a co-creation experiment for collecting a cross-cultural database on affective body movements and about the probabilistic model derived from this data....... interpretation in different cultures. To cope with these multiple viewpoints in generating and interpreting body movements in robots, we suggest a methodological approach that takes the cultural background of the developer and the user into account during the development process. We exemplify this approach...

  4. Movement Sonification: Audiovisual benefits on motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Processes of motor control and learning in sports as well as in motor rehabilitation are based on perceptual functions and emergent motor representations. Here a new method of movement sonification is described which is designed to tune in more comprehensively the auditory system into motor perception to enhance motor learning. Usually silent features of the cyclic movement pattern "indoor rowing" are sonified in real time to make them additionally available to the auditory system when executing the movement. Via real time sonification movement perception can be enhanced in terms of temporal precision and multi-channel integration. But beside the contribution of a single perceptual channel to motor perception and motor representation also mechanisms of multisensory integration can be addressed, if movement sonification is configured adequately: Multimodal motor representations consisting of at least visual, auditory and proprioceptive components - can be shaped subtly resulting in more precise motor control and enhanced motor learning.

  5. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskins, Bryan L

    2013-01-01

    The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs closely examines forty-three unique case studies on movement patterns down stairwells. These studies include observations made during evacuation drills, others made during normal usage, interviews with people after fire evacuations, recommendations made from compiled studies, and detailed results from laboratory studies. The methodology used in each study for calculating density and movement speed, when known, are also presented, and this book identifies an additional seventeen variables linked to altering movement speeds. The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs is intended for researchers as a reference guide for evaluating pedestrian evacuation dynamics down stairwells. Practitioners working in a related field may also find this book invaluable.

  7. Physiology of Normal Sleep: From Young to Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Mohan Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human sleep, defined on the basis of electroencephalogram (EEG, electromyogram(EMG and electrooculogram (EOG, is divided into rapid eye movement (REM sleepand four stages of non–rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. Collective monitoring andrecording of physiological data during sleep is called polysomnography. Sleep whichnormally starts with a period of NREM alternates with REM, about 4-5 times, everynight. Sleep pattern changes with increasing age. Newborns sleep for about 14-16hours in a day of 24 hours. Although there is a wide variation among individuals, sleepof 7-8.5 hours is considered fully restorative in adults. Apart from restorative andrecovery function, energy conservation could be one of the functions of sleep. The roleof sleep in neurogenesis, memory consolidation and brain growth has been suggested.Though progress in medical science has vastly improved our understanding of sleepphysiology, we still do not know all the functions of sleep.Key words : electroencephalogram, electromyogram, electrooculogram,polysomnography, REM sleep, non–REM sleep, newborns, circadian rhythm, autoregulation,sleep function

  8. Intragroup emotions: physiological linkage and social presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eJärvelä

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion – communicative expression and physiological state – to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member’s physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence.

  9. Intragroup Emotions: Physiological Linkage and Social Presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Simo; Kätsyri, Jari; Ravaja, Niklas; Chanel, Guillaume; Henttonen, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion-communicative expression and physiological state-to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression) and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology) was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member's physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence.

  10. Intragroup Emotions: Physiological Linkage and Social Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Simo; Kätsyri, Jari; Ravaja, Niklas; Chanel, Guillaume; Henttonen, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion—communicative expression and physiological state—to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression) and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology) was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member's physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence. PMID:26903913

  11. Constraining movement alters the recruitment of motor processes in mental rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, David

    2013-02-01

    Does mental rotation depend on the readiness to act? Recent evidence indicates that the involvement of motor processes in mental rotation is experience-dependent, suggesting that different levels of expertise in sensorimotor interactions lead to different strategies to solve mental rotation problems. Specifically, experts in motor activities perceive spatial material as objects that can be acted upon, triggering covert simulation of rotations. Because action simulation depends on the readiness to act, movement restriction should therefore disrupt mental rotation performance in individuals favoring motor processes. In this experiment, wrestlers and non-athletes judged whether pairs of three-dimensional stimuli were identical or different, with their hands either constrained or unconstrained. Wrestlers showed higher performance than controls in the rotation of geometric stimuli, but this difference disappeared when their hands were constrained. However, movement restriction had similar consequences for both groups in the rotation of hands. These findings suggest that expert's advantage in mental rotation of abstract objects is based on the readiness to act, even when physical manipulation is impossible.

  12. Ancient Chinese medicine and mechanistic evidence of acupuncture physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Edward S; Li, Pei-Wen; Nilius, Bernd; Li, Geng

    2011-11-01

    Acupuncture has been widely used in China for three millennia as an art of healing. Yet, its physiology is not yet understood. The current interest in acupuncture started in 1971. Soon afterward, extensive research led to the concept of neural signaling with possible involvement of opioid peptides, glutamate, adenosine and identifying responsive parts in the central nervous system. In the last decade scientists began investigating the subject with anatomical and molecular imaging. It was found that mechanical movements of the needle, ignored in the past, appear to be central to the method and intracellular calcium ions may play a pivotal role. In this review, we trace the technique of clinical treatment from the first written record about 2,200 years ago to the modern time. The ancient texts have been used to introduce the concepts of yin, yang, qi, de qi, and meridians, the traditional foundation of acupuncture. We explore the sequence of the physiological process, from the turning of the needle, the mechanical wave activation of calcium ion channel to beta-endorphin secretion. By using modern terminology to re-interpret the ancient texts, we have found that the 2nd century B.C.: physiologists were meticulous investigators and their explanation fits well with the mechanistic model derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confocal microscopy. In conclusion, the ancient model appears to have withstood the test of time surprisingly well confirming the popular axiom that the old wine is better than the new.

  13. Monitoring physiology and behavior using Android in phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Telmo; Brás, Susana; Soares, Sandra C; Fernandes, José Maria

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present an Android-based system Application - AWARE - for the assessment of the person's physiology and behavior outside of the laboratory. To accomplish this purpose, AWARE delivers context dependent audio-visual stimuli, embedded into the subject's real-world perception, via marker/vision-based augmented reality (AR) technology. In addition, it employs external measuring resources connected via Bluetooth, as well as the smartphone's integrated resources. It synchronously acquires the experiment's video (camera input with AR overlay), physiologic responses (with a dedicated ECG measuring device) and behavior (through movement and location, with accelerometer/gyroscope and GPS, respectively). Psychological assessment is heavily based on laboratory procedures, even though it is known that these settings disturb the subjects' natural reactions and condition. The major idea of this application is to evaluate the participant condition, mimicking his/her real life conditions. Given that phobias are rather context specific, they represent the ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of a mobile system application. AWARE allowed presenting AR stimuli (e.g., 3D spiders) and quantifying the subjects' reactions non-intrusively (e.g., heart rate variation) - more emphatic in the phobic volunteer when presented with spider vs non phobic stimulus. Although still a proof of concept, AWARE proved to be flexible, and straightforward to setup, with the potential to support ecologically valid monitoring experiments.

  14. Current Migration Movements in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zlatković Winter

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available After a brief historical review of migrations in Europe, the paper focuses on current migration trends and their consequences. At the end of the 1950s, Western Europe began to recruit labour from several Mediterranean countries – Italy, Spain, Portugal and former Yugoslavia, and later from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Turkey. Some countries, such as France, Great Britain and the Netherlands, recruited also workers from their former colonies. In 1970 Germany had the highest absolute number of foreigners, followed by France, and then Switzerland and Belgium. The total number of immigrants in Western Europe was twelve million. During the 1970s mass recruitment of foreign workers was abandoned, and only the arrival of their family members was permitted, which led to family reunification in the countries of employment. Europe closed its borders, with the result that clandestine migration increased. The year 1989 was a turning point in the history of international migrations. The political changes in Central and Eastern Europe brought about mass migration to the West, which culminated in the so-called “mass movement of 1989–1990”. The arrival of ethnic Germans in Germany, migration inside and outside of the territory of the former Soviet Union, an increase in the number of asylum seekers and displaced persons, due to armed conflicts, are – according to the author – the main traits of current migration. The main part of the paper discusses the causes and effects of this mass wave, as well as trends in labour migration, which is still present. The second part of the paper, after presenting a typology of migrations, deals with the complex processes that brought about the formation of new communities and led to the phenomenon of new ethnic minorities and to corresponding migration policies in Western European countries that had to address these issues.

  15. Factors associated with the impossibility to obtain reliable liver stiffness measurements by means of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography—Analysis of a cohort of 1031 subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bota, Simona, E-mail: bota_simona1982@yahoo.com; Sporea, Ioan, E-mail: isporea@umft.ro; Sirli, Roxana, E-mail: roxanasirli@gmail.com; Popescu, Alina, E-mail: alinamircea.popescu@gmail.com; Danila, Mirela, E-mail: mireladanila@gmail.com; Jurchis, Ana, E-mail: ana.jurchis@yahoo.com; Gradinaru-Tascau, Oana, E-mail: bluonmyown@yahoo.com

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography is a non-invasive technique for liver fibrosis assessment. Aim: To assess the feasibility of ARFI elastography in a large cohort of subjects and to identify factors associated with impossibility to obtain reliable liver stiffness (LS) measurements by means of this technique. Methods: Our retrospective study included 1031 adult subjects with or without chronic liver disease. In each subject LS was assessed by means of ARFI elastography. Failure of ARFI measurements was defined if no valid measurement was obtained after at least 10 shots and unreliable in the following situations: fewer than 10 valid shots; or median value of 10 valid measurements with a success rate (SR) < 60% and/or an interquartile range interval (IQR) ≥ 30%. Results: Failure of LS measurements by means of ARFI was observed in 4 subjects (0.3%), unreliable measurements in 66 subjects (6.4%), so reliable measurements were obtained in 961 subjects (93.3%). In univariant analysis, the following risk factors were associated with failed and unreliable measurements: age over 58 years (OR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.30–0.80, p = 0.005), male gender (OR = 0.58; 95% CI 0.34–0.94, p = 0.04), BMI > 27.7 kg/m{sup 2} (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.13–0.41, p < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis all the factors mentioned above were independently associated with the risk of failed and unreliable measurements. Conclusions: Reliable LS measurements by means of ARFI elastography were obtained in 93.3% of cases. Older age, higher BMI and male gender were associated with the risk of failed and unreliable measurements, but their influence is limited as compared with Transient Elastography.

  16. Physiological and Environmental Sensor Skin Stamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future exploration missions will require astronauts to autonomously monitor physiological and atmospheric conditions. Recent technological advances in the developing...

  17. Stereotypical reaching movements of the octopus involve both bend propagation and arm elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanassy, S; Botvinnik, A; Flash, T; Hochner, B

    2015-05-13

    force (<0.0016 for an average strain along the arm of around 0.5). This was not observed and moreover such extremely low value does not seem to be physiologically possible. Hence the assumptions made in applying the dynamic model to behaviors such as static arm stiffening that leads to arm extension through bend propagation and the patterns of activation used to simulate such behaviors should be modified to account for movements combining bend propagation and arm elongation.

  18. Movement recognition technology as a method of assessing spontaneous general movements in high risk infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMarcroft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is associated with increased risks of neurological and motor impairments such as cerebral palsy. The risks are highest in those born at the lowest gestations. Early identification of those most at risk is challenging meaning that a critical window of opportunity to improve outcomes through therapy-based interventions may be missed. Clinically, the assessment of spontaneous general movements is an important tool which can be used for the prediction of movement impairments in high risk infants.Movement recognition aims to capture and analyze relevant limb movements through computerized approaches focusing on continuous, objective, and quantitative assessment. Different methods of recording and analyzing infant movements have recently been explored in high risk infants. These range from camera-based solutions to body-worn miniaturized movement sensors used to record continuous time-series data that represent the dynamics of limb movements. Various machine learning methods have been developed and applied to the analysis of the recorded movement data. This analysis has focused on the detection and classification of atypical spontaneous general movements. This paper aims to identify recent translational studies using movement recognition technology as a method of assessing movement in high risk infants. The application of this technology within pediatric practice represents a growing area of inter-disciplinary collaboration which may lead to a greater understanding of the development of the nervous system in infants at high risk of motor impairment.

  19. A Somatic Movement Approach to Fostering Emotional Resiliency through Laban Movement Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle P. Tsachor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although movement has long been recognized as expressing emotion and as an agent of change for emotional state, there was a dearth of scientific evidence specifying which aspects of movement influence specific emotions. The recent identification of clusters of Laban movement components which elicit and enhance the basic emotions of anger, fear, sadness and happiness indicates which types of movements can affect these emotions (Shafir et al., 2016, but not how best to apply this knowledge. This perspective paper lays out a conceptual groundwork for how to effectively use these new findings to support emotional resiliency through voluntary choice of one's posture and movements. We suggest that three theoretical principles from Laban Movement Analysis (LMA can guide the gradual change in movement components in one's daily movements to somatically support shift in affective state: (A Introduce new movement components in developmental order; (B Use LMA affinities-among-components to guide the expansion of expressive movement range and (C Sequence change among components based on Laban's Space Harmony theory to support the gradual integration of that new range. The methods postulated in this article have potential to foster resiliency and provide resources for self-efficacy by expanding our capacity to adapt emotionally to challenges through modulating our movement responses.

  20. [Anatomy and physiology of sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cour, F; Droupy, S; Faix, A; Methorst, C; Giuliano, F

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge of the physiology of male and female sexuality has advanced considerably. Initially there is always desire with its biological neuroendocrine components and its emotional field which is particularly marked in women. There is a distinction between "spontaneous" sexual desire related to intrinsic affective, cognitive stimuli, and fantasies, and "reactive" sexual desire in response to physical arousal. There are similarities between men and women concerning the activation of cerebral zones in sexual arousal contexts in laboratory conditions. The neural pathways for sexual arousal are similar between men and women, bringing into play the sympathetic centres of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord and, at the sacral level, the parasympathetic center and the motoneurons controlling the muscular contractions of the pelviperineal striated muscles. Genital sensitivity is mainly transmitted by the pudendal nerve in both men and women. Sexual arousal in men consists of penile erection, and ejaculation accompanied with orgasm. In women, sexual arousal causes increase in blood to flow to the vagina leading to lubrication and to the vulva leading to the erection of the clitoris and vulvar hyperaemia. The orgasm which can be multiple in women is accompanied by contractions of the striated perineal muscles. Several neurotransmitters are closely involved in the control of sexuality at the central level: dopamine, ocytocin, serotonin, and peripheral: nitric oxide and noradrenaline in men, vasoactive intestinal peptide and neuropeptide Y in women. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  2. Computational Modeling of Space Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Griffin, Devon W.

    2016-01-01

    The Digital Astronaut Project (DAP), within NASAs Human Research Program, develops and implements computational modeling for use in the mitigation of human health and performance risks associated with long duration spaceflight. Over the past decade, DAP developed models to provide insights into space flight related changes to the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and the musculoskeletal system. Examples of the models and their applications include biomechanical models applied to advanced exercise device development, bone fracture risk quantification for mission planning, accident investigation, bone health standards development, and occupant protection. The International Space Station (ISS), in its role as a testing ground for long duration spaceflight, has been an important platform for obtaining human spaceflight data. DAP has used preflight, in-flight and post-flight data from short and long duration astronauts for computational model development and validation. Examples include preflight and post-flight bone mineral density data, muscle cross-sectional area, and muscle strength measurements. Results from computational modeling supplement space physiology research by informing experimental design. Using these computational models, DAP personnel can easily identify both important factors associated with a phenomenon and areas where data are lacking. This presentation will provide examples of DAP computational models, the data used in model development and validation, and applications of the model.

  3. Physiology of the hormetic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totter, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Beneficial (hormetic) effects of ionizing radiation have been largely ignored in developing radiobiological theory, chiefly because a suitable explanatory hypothesis is lacking. Examination of the relevant literature has revealed that food restriction effects in animals resemble those of low-level, low-LET, whole-body ionizing radiation exposure (without food restriction) in two major respects: increased longevity and change in the variance of longevity. These physiological changes can be interpreted as resulting from alteration of the steady-state flux of oxygen radicals which affect the endocrine balance. Oxy-radical-producing, low-level ionizing radiation exposure (whole body) is interpreted by the body as excess food intake, thus lowering the appetite and reducing caloric intake which, in turn, increases longevity. The greater variance in longevity accompanying increases in the median age at death with food restriction alters the ratio of long-lived to short-lived descendants and hastens the population's adaptation to semi-permanently diminished rates of food supply. Less variance and earlier mean ages at death result from an increased rate of food supply. Whole-body ionizing radiation exposure results in a mixed response, because it reduces caloric intake while signaling that an increase has occurred

  4. Food, physiology and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varum, F J O; Hatton, G B; Basit, A W

    2013-12-05

    Gastrointestinal physiology is dynamic and complex at the best of times, and a multitude of known variables can affect the overall bioavailability of drugs delivered via the oral route. Yet while the influences of food and beverage intake as just two of these variables on oral drug delivery have been extensively documented in the wider literature, specific information on their effects remains sporadic, and is not so much contextually reviewed. Food co-ingestion with oral dosage forms can mediate several changes to drug bioavailability, yet the precise mechanisms underlying this have yet to be fully elucidated. Likewise, the often detrimental effects of alcohol (ethanol) on dosage form performance have been widely observed experimentally, but knowledge of which has only moderately impacted on clinical practice. Here, we attempt to piece together the available subject matter relating to the influences of both solid and liquid foodstuffs on the gastrointestinal milieu and the implications for oral drug delivery, with particular emphasis on the behaviour of modified-release dosage forms, formulation robustness and drug absorption. Providing better insight into these influences, and exemplifying cases where formulations have been developed or modified to circumvent their associated problems, can help to appropriately direct the design of future in vitro digestive modelling systems as well as oral dosage forms resilient to these effects. Moreover, this will help to better our understanding of the impact of food and alcohol intake on normal gut behaviour and function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Virtual physiological human: training challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Patricia V; Narracott, Andrew V; McCormack, Keith; Bisbal, Jesus; Martin, Carlos; Bijnens, Bart; Brook, Bindi; Zachariou, Margarita; Freixa, Jordi Villà I; Kohl, Peter; Fletcher, Katherine; Diaz-Zuccarini, Vanessa

    2010-06-28

    The virtual physiological human (VPH) initiative encompasses a wide range of activities, including structural and functional imaging, data mining, knowledge discovery tool and database development, biomedical modelling, simulation and visualization. The VPH community is developing from a multitude of relatively focused, but disparate, research endeavours into an integrated effort to bring together, develop and translate emerging technologies for application, from academia to industry and medicine. This process initially builds on the evolution of multi-disciplinary interactions and abilities, but addressing the challenges associated with the implementation of the VPH will require, in the very near future, a translation of quantitative changes into a new quality of highly trained multi-disciplinary personnel. Current strategies for undergraduate and on-the-job training may soon prove insufficient for this. The European Commission seventh framework VPH network of excellence is exploring this emerging need, and is developing a framework of novel training initiatives to address the predicted shortfall in suitably skilled VPH-aware professionals. This paper reports first steps in the implementation of a coherent VPH training portfolio.

  6. Anatomical physiology of spatial extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciçek, Metehan; Gitelman, Darren; Hurley, Robert S E; Nobre, Anna; Mesulam, Marsel

    2007-12-01

    Neurologically intact volunteers participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment that simulated the unilateral (focal) and bilateral (global) stimulations used to elicit extinction in patients with hemispatial neglect. In peristriate areas, attentional modulations were selectively sensitive to contralaterally directed attention. A higher level of mapping was observed in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In these areas, there was no distinction between contralateral and ipsilateral focal attention, and the need to distribute attention globally led to greater activity than either focal condition. These physiological characteristics were symmetrically distributed in the IPS and IFG, suggesting that the effects of unilateral lesions in these 2 areas can be compensated by the contralateral hemisphere. In the IPL, the greater activation by the bilateral attentional mode was seen only in the right hemisphere. Its contralateral counterpart displayed equivalent activations when attention was distributed to the right, to the left, or bilaterally. Within the context of this experiment, the IPL of the right hemisphere emerged as the one area where unilateral lesions can cause the most uncompensated and selective impairment of global attention (without interfering with unilateral attention to either side), giving rise to the phenomenon of extinction.

  7. A comprehensive physiologically based pharmacokinetic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Published physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models from peer-reviewed articles are often well-parameterized, thoroughly-vetted, and can be utilized as excellent resources for the construction of models pertaining to related chemicals. Specifically, chemical-specific parameters and in vivo pharmacokinetic data used to calibrate these published models can act as valuable starting points for model development of new chemicals with similar molecular structures. A knowledgebase for published PBPK-related articles was compiled to support PBPK model construction for new chemicals based on their close analogues within the knowledgebase, and a web-based interface was developed to allow users to query those close analogues. A list of 689 unique chemicals and their corresponding 1751 articles was created after analysis of 2,245 PBPK-related articles. For each model, the PMID, chemical name, major metabolites, species, gender, life stages and tissue compartments were extracted from the published articles. PaDEL-Descriptor, a Chemistry Development Kit based software, was used to calculate molecular fingerprints. Tanimoto index was implemented in the user interface as measurement of structural similarity. The utility of the PBPK knowledgebase and web-based user interface was demonstrated using two case studies with ethylbenzene and gefitinib. Our PBPK knowledgebase is a novel tool for ranking chemicals based on similarities to other chemicals associated with existi

  8. Development of a system to monitor laryngeal movement during swallowing using a bend sensor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Swallowing dysfunction (also known as dysphagia, which results in a deterioration of nutritional intake, slows rehabilitation and causes aspiration pneumonia, is very common following neurological impairments. Although videofluorographic (VF examination is widely used for detecting aspiration, an objective and non-invasive method for assessing swallowing function has yet to be established because of a lack of adequate devices and protocols. In this paper, a bend sensor whose resistance is altered by bending was introduced to monitor swallowing-related laryngeal movement. METHODS: Six healthy male volunteers were recruited in the present study. Specific time points on the signal waveform produced by the bend sensor were defined to describe laryngeal movement by differential analysis. Additionally, the physiological significance of the obtained waveform was confirmed by analyzing the sequential correlations between the signal waveform from the bend sensor and hyoid bone kinetics simultaneously recorded by VF. RESULTS: Seven time points were successfully defined on the signal waveform to reference laryngeal movement. Each time point was well correlated with certain VF events, with evidence of no significant time lags, and there were positive correlations between waveform time points and matched VF events. Furthermore, obvious similarities were noticed between the duration of each phase on the signal waveform and the duration of the matched hyoid bone activity. CONCLUSIONS: The present monitoring system using a bend sensor might be useful for observing the temporal aspects of laryngeal movement during swallowing, and it was well coordinated with hyoid bone movement.

  9. Quantifying selective elbow movements during an exergame in children with neurological disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hedel, Hubertus J A; Häfliger, Nadine; Gerber, Corinna N

    2016-10-21

    It is difficult to distinguish between restorative and compensatory mechanisms underlying (pediatric) neurorehabilitation, as objective measures assessing selective voluntary motor control (SVMC) are scarce. We aimed to quantify SVMC of elbow movements in children with brain lesions. Children played an airplane game with the glove-based YouGrabber system. Participants were instructed to steer an airplane on a screen through a cloud-free path by correctly applying bilateral elbow flexion and extension movements. Game performance measures were (i) % time on the correct path and (ii) similarity between the ideal flight path and the actually flown path. SVMC was quantified by calculating a correlation coefficient between the derivative of the ideal path and elbow movements. A therapist scored whether the child had used compensatory movements. Thirty-three children with brain lesions (11 girls; 12.6 ± 3.6 years) participated. Clinical motor and cognitive scores correlated moderately with SVMC (0.50-0.74). Receiver Operating Characteristics analyses showed that SVMC could differentiate well and better than clinical and game performance measures between compensatory and physiological movements. We conclude that a simple measure assessed while playing a game appears promising in quantifying SVMC. We propose how to improve the methodology, and how this approach can be easily extended to other joints.

  10. An ocular biomechanic model for dynamic simulation of different eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, J; Hossny, M; Nahavandi, S; Del Porto, L

    2018-04-11

    Simulating and analysing eye movement is useful for assessing visual system contribution to discomfort with respect to body movements, especially in virtual environments where simulation sickness might occur. It can also be used in the design of eye prosthesis or humanoid robot eye. In this paper, we present two biomechanic ocular models that are easily integrated into the available musculoskeletal models. The model was previously used to simulate eye-head coordination. The models are used to simulate and analyse eye movements. The proposed models are based on physiological and kinematic properties of the human eye. They incorporate an eye-globe, orbital suspension tissues and six muscles with their connective tissues (pulleys). Pulleys were incorporated in rectus and inferior oblique muscles. The two proposed models are the passive pulleys and the active pulleys models. Dynamic simulations of different eye movements, including fixation, saccade and smooth pursuit, are performed to validate both models. The resultant force-length curves of the models were similar to the experimental data. The simulation results show that the proposed models are suitable to generate eye movement simulations with results comparable to other musculoskeletal models. The maximum kinematic root mean square error (RMSE) is 5.68° and 4.35° for the passive and active pulley models, respectively. The analysis of the muscle forces showed realistic muscle activation with increased muscle synergy in the active pulley model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Human movement is both diffusive and directed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Padgham

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of the built environment on human movement requires quantifying spatial structure in a general sense. Because of the difficulty of this task, studies of movement dynamics often ignore spatial heterogeneity and treat movement through journey lengths or distances alone. This study analyses public bicycle data from central London to reveal that, although journey distances, directions, and frequencies of occurrence are spatially variable, their relative spatial patterns remain largely constant, suggesting the influence of a fixed spatial template. A method is presented to describe this underlying space in terms of the relative orientation of movements toward, away from, and around locations of geographical or cultural significance. This produces two fields: one of convergence and one of divergence, which are able to accurately reconstruct the observed spatial variations in movement. These two fields also reveal categorical distinctions between shorter journeys merely serving diffusion away from significant locations, and longer journeys intentionally serving transport between spatially distinct centres of collective importance. Collective patterns of human movement are thus revealed to arise from a combination of both diffusive and directed movement, with aggregate statistics such as mean travel distances primarily determined by relative numbers of these two kinds of journeys.

  12. The relationship between change and religious movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Suolinna

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Change constitutes different things for the groups, as the position of one group may improve, but that of another deteriorate. Social change is a consequence of how the different groups act, and their actions again depend on their social and economic interests. In other words, there are groups in society (social classes, professional groups, the agrarian population, industrial workers, which come more or less openly in conflict with each other when looking after their interests. Thus this way of thinking is based on a conflict model. One sees social change as a consequence of people trying to protect their social and economic interests. Viewed this way even religious organizations and movements are involved in protecting the interests of social groups. However, the interesting point in this connection is that religious movements differ from political movements and groups, as the religious movements express the social interests of a group more indirectly than the political movements. The religious movements gather people from similar living conditions, and so to speak, prepare them for political work. They defend and justify the way of living of a group, and thus give ideological material for political groupings. They may also form coalitions with political groups and parties. The author analyzes Laestadianism from this point of view. Before going into the connection between religious dynamics and social change it is necessary to present a few general features of Laestadianism as a religious movement of the peasant population.

  13. The scoring of movements in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Arthur S; Lavigne, Gilles; Hening, Wayne; Picchietti, Daniel L; Allen, Richard P; Chokroverty, Sudhansu; Kushida, Clete A; Bliwise, Donald L; Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2007-03-15

    The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) has separated sleep-related movement disorders into simple, repetitive movement disorders (such as periodic limb movements in sleep [PLMS], sleep bruxism, and rhythmic movement disorder) and parasomnias (such as REM sleep behavior disorder and disorders of partial arousal, e.g., sleep walking, confusional arousals, night terrors). Many of the parasomnias are characterized by complex behaviors in sleep that appear purposeful, goal directed and voluntary but are outside the conscious awareness of the individual and therefore inappropriate. All of the sleep-related movement disorders described here have specific polysomnographic findings. For the purposes of developing and/or revising specifications and polysomnographic scoring rules, the AASM Scoring Manual Task Force on Movements in Sleep reviewed background literature and executed evidence grading of 81 relevant articles obtained by a literature search of published articles between 1966 and 2004. Subsequent evidence grading identified limited evidence for reliability and/or validity for polysomnographic scoring criteria for periodic limb movements in sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder, and sleep bruxism. Published scoring criteria for rhythmic movement disorder, excessive fragmentary myoclonus, and hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation were empirical and based on descriptive studies. The literature review disclosed no published evidence defining clinical consequences of excessive fragmentary myoclonus or hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation. Because of limited or absent evidence for reliability and/or validity, a standardized RAND/UCLA consensus process was employed for recommendation of specific rules for the scoring of sleep-associated movements.

  14. New social movements as a political subculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwick, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The contribution is based on a topical panel set especially adjusted to the requirements of political culture research, electoral research, and movement research. The book is centered around empirically verified findings of political-cultural modernization and differentiation processes, and the development of German political culture. It was possible to empirically confirm the main thesis in particular: The new social movements call for rigid and quick social changes in emancipatory, equalitary, ecological and fundamental-democratic orientation. Apart from the Greens, an independent political subculture has formed itself, which is, even in the present phase with little movement-specific mobilization, politically effective and empirically ascertainable. (orig.) [de

  15. Memory and Culture in Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    on psychoanalytical, visual, and historical approaches. Movement scholars who focused on narrative, discourse, framing, and performance show how activists actively construct and mobilize collective memory. We know much less, however, about interactions between multiple layers and forms of remembering stored in images......, stories, or performances, or discursive forms. How do conflicting or contradictory memories about the past inside movement groups condition activists’ ability to speak, write, and even think about the future? While previous work conceived of memory in movements as a subcategory of narrative, discourse...

  16. Optical axis control system as unification of reflex and pursuit eye movements; Zentei dogan hansha, shikisei hansha, katsudosei undo wo togoshita gankyu undo seigyo model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakamatsu, H.; Zhang, X. [Tokyo Medical and Dental College, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-20

    In order to realize basic optic axis movements, by which a moving target can be caught in a central pit of retina, an oculomotor mathematical model is developed for horizontal movements of a head and an eyeball. An image signal from retina and an acceleration signal from semicircular ducts are used as control inputs to muscles of eyeball to realize appropriate eye movements taking into account the displacement of a head rotation. Reflex eye movements and smooth pursuit as autokinesis are discussed with consideration of their control performances which lead to automatic cooperation of an appropriate control system according to the movement types of an target. The optic axis is controlled by a unified eye movement system which is synthesized on the basis of various biological facts. It has a flexible dynamics characterized by variable parameters which imply anatomical structure and physiological mechanism given by the change of synaptic conductivities in flocculus. The basic physiological facts are presented under the corresponding anatomical and physiological conditions given by appropriate changes of mathematical description of the proposed model. 14 refs., 16 figs.

  17. Determination of mandibular border and functional movement protocols using an electromagnetic articulograph (EMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Ramon; Navarro, Pablo; Curiqueo, Aldo; Ottone, Nicolas E

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic articulograph (EMA) is a device that can collect movement data by positioning sensors at multiple points, measuring displacements of the structure in real time, as well as the acoustics and mechanics of speech using a microphone connected to the measurement system. The aim of this study is to describe protocols for the generation, measurement and visualization of mandibular border and functional movements in the three spatial planes (frontal, sagittal and horizontal) using the EMA. The EMA has transmitter coils that determine magnetic fields to collect information about movements from sensors located on different structures (tongue, palate, mouth, incisors, skin, etc.) and in every direction in an area of 300 mm. After measurement with the EMA, the information is transferred to a computer and read with the Visartico software to visualize the recording of the mandibular movements registered by the EMA. The sensors placed in the space between the three axes XYZ are observed, and then the plots created from the mandibular movements included in the corresponding protocol can be visualized, enabling interpretation of these data. Four protocols for the obtaining of images of the opening and closing mandibular movements were defined and developed, as well as border movements in the frontal, sagittal and horizontal planes, managing to accurately reproduce Posselt's diagram and Gothic arch on the latter two axes. Measurements with the EMA will allow more exact data to be collected in relation to the mandibular clinical physiology and morphology, which will permit more accurate diagnoses and application of more precise and adjusted treatments in the future.

  18. Determination of mandibular border and functional movement protocols using an electromagnetic articulograph (EMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Ramon; Navarro, Pablo; Curiqueo, Aldo; Ottone, Nicolas E

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic articulograph (EMA) is a device that can collect movement data by positioning sensors at multiple points, measuring displacements of the structure in real time, as well as the acoustics and mechanics of speech using a microphone connected to the measurement system. The aim of this study is to describe protocols for the generation, measurement and visualization of mandibular border and functional movements in the three spatial planes (frontal, sagittal and horizontal) using the EMA. The EMA has transmitter coils that determine magnetic fields to collect information about movements from sensors located on different structures (tongue, palate, mouth, incisors, skin, etc.) and in every direction in an area of 300 mm. After measurement with the EMA, the information is transferred to a computer and read with the Visartico software to visualize the recording of the mandibular movements registered by the EMA. The sensors placed in the space between the three axes XYZ are observed, and then the plots created from the mandibular movements included in the corresponding protocol can be visualized, enabling interpretation of these data. Four protocols for the obtaining of images of the opening and closing mandibular movements were defined and developed, as well as border movements in the frontal, sagittal and horizontal planes, managing to accurately reproduce Posselt’s diagram and Gothic arch on the latter two axes. Measurements with the EMA will allow more exact data to be collected in relation to the mandibular clinical physiology and morphology, which will permit more accurate diagnoses and application of more precise and adjusted treatments in the future. PMID:26884903

  19. Respiratory physiology during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, J

    1999-08-01

    Despite the rapid adaptation to extrauterine life, the respiratory system of an infant is not simply a miniaturized version of that of an adult, since the rapid somatic growth that occurs during the first year of life is accompanied by major developmental changes in respiratory physiology. The highly compliant chest wall of the infant results in relatively low transpulmonary pressures at end expiration with increased tendency of the small peripheral airways to close during tidal breathing. This not only impairs gas exchange and ventilation-perfusion balance, particularly in dependent parts of the lung, but, together with the small absolute size of the airways, renders the infant and young child particularly susceptible to airway obstruction. Premature airways are highly compliant structures compared with those of mature newborns or adults. This increased compliance can cause airway collapse, resulting in increased airways resistance, flow limitation, poor gas exchange and increased work of breathing. Although there is clear evidence that airway reactivity is present from birth, its role in wheezing lower respiratory tract illnesses in young infants may be overshadowed by pre-existing abnormalities of airway geometry and lung mechanics, or by pathological changes such as airway oedema and mucus hypersecretion. Attempts to assess age-related changes in airway reactivity or response to aerosol therapy in the very young is confounded by changes in breathing patterns and the fact that infants are preferential nose breathers. There is increasing evidence that pre-existing abnormalities of respiratory function, associated with adverse events during foetal life (including maternal smoking during pregnancy), and familial predisposition to wheezing are important determinants of wheezing illnesses during the first years of life. This emphasizes the need to identify and minimize any factors that threaten the normal development of the lung during this critical period if

  20. Physiologic profile of professional cricketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, James A; Ford, Paul A

    2010-11-01

    This study aims to provide a physiologic profile of professional cricketers and note positional differences at the start of the 2007/08 competitive season. Fifteen participants (9 bowlers, 6 batsmen) aged 25.0 ± 5.0 years (mean ± SD) took part in this study. Participants (bowlers and batsmen) completed a series of field-based fitness assessments: body composition (sum of 7 skinfolds, 72.5 ± 16.5 and 65.5 ± 19.3 mm, respectively), flexibility (sit and reach 8.1 ± 10.3 and 6.0 ± 6.2 cm, respectively), predicted maximal oxygen uptake (multistage shuttle run, 54.1 ± 2.8 and 56.1 ± 4.5 ml-1·kg-1·min-1, respectively), upper- (medicine ball throw, 7.7 ± 0.6 and 7.0 ± 0.1 m, respectively) and lower-body strength (countermovement jump, 45.7 ± 5.8 and 43.9 ± 4.1 cm, respectively), speed (sprint 17.7 m, 2.76 ± 0.6 and 2.77 ± 0.1 s, respectively), and explosive power (repeated jump, 31.0 ± 2.0 and 34.1 ± 4.8 cm, respectively). The data provided the physical fitness profile for each player, which, compared with normative data, identified that this cohort of professional cricketers had some superior fitness parameters compared with the general population, and where applicable, were comparable with other professional athletes. In addition, after effect size calculations, the results showed that some physical fitness differences existed between playing positions. Cricket professionals possess a superior level of physical fitness and strength, and conditioning coaches should seek to progress these physical parameters and further identify position-specific physical requirements to progress the modern game.