WorldWideScience

Sample records for physiological society 21-22

  1. American neurophysiology and two nineteenth-century American Physiological Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, J Wayne

    2017-01-01

    This article contrasts two American Physiological Societies, one founded near the beginning of the nineteenth century in 1837 and the other founded near its end in 1887. The contrast allows a perspective on how much budding neuroscience had developed during the nineteenth century in America. The contrast also emphasizes the complicated structure needed in both medicine and physiology to allow neurophysiology to flourish. The objectives of the American Physiological Society of 1887 were (and are) to promote physiological research and to codify physiology as a discipline. These would be accomplished by making physiology much more inclusive than traditionally accepted by raising research standards, by giving prestige to its members, by providing members a source of professional interchange, by protecting its members from antivivisectionists, and by promoting physiology as fundamental to medicine. The quantity of neuroscientific experiments by its members was striking. The main organizers of the society were Silas Weir Mitchell, John Call Dalton, Henry Pickering Bowditch, and Henry Newell Martin. The objective of the American Physiological Society of 1837 was to disperse knowledge of the "laws of life" and to promote human health and longevity. The primary organizers were William Andrus Alcott and Sylvester Graham with the encouragement of John Benson. Its technique was to use physiological information, not create it as was the case in 1887. Its object was to disseminate the word that healthy eating will improve the quality of life.

  2. Recognition of American Physiological Society Members Whose Research Publications Had a Significant Impact on the Discipline of Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Society members whose research publication during the past 125 yr had an important impact on the discipline of physiology were featured at the American Physiological Society (APS)'s 125th Anniversary symposium. The daunting and challenging task of identifying and selecting significant publications was assumed by the Steering Committee of the…

  3. Historical Notes on the Emergence and Development of the Physiological Sciences Society in Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Jesús Sánchez Bouza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The development achieved by the scientific activity in the public health field, during the revolutionary period, promoted the origin of subsidiaries of scientific societies in different provinces of the country. In Cienfuegos the different medical specialties started to form their own chapters, among them, the Physiological Sciences. This paper is aimed at exposing the collected information about the emergence and development of the Scientific Society in Cienfuegos. A bibliographical review was realized and written testimonial sources were used (documents linked to the functioning of the mentioned organ. Elements related to the society, from its first Board of Directors, the main evidences found in scientific activities developed from its foundation, until its main contributions to the scientific work of the province.

  4. Monitoring physiology trainee needs to focus professional society responses: the APS Trainee Needs Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyas, Marsha L; Lowy, Melinda E; Sweazea, Karen L; Alvarez, Diego F

    2011-06-01

    In 2004 and 2007, the American Physiological Society (APS) Trainee Advisory Committee (TAC) conducted surveys of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and new investigators in physiology to identify topics and issues important to those trainees. Two major trends emerged from the data. First, trainees in 2007 expressed somewhat greater interest in professional development information than did those in 2004. Second, needs expressed by trainees in both years were closely related to their specific career development stage. Survey findings guided the TAC and other APS committees and groups to focus their efforts toward the issues that were of the greatest interest to trainees. It also led to improved communication with trainees and increased involvement of trainees in APS governance.

  5. Royal Society, Discussion on New Coal Chemistry, London, England, May 21, 22, 1980, Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    A discussion of new coal chemistry is presented. The chemical and physical structure of coal is examined in the first section, including structural studies of coal extracts, metal and metal complexes in coal and coal microporosity. The second section presents new advances in applied coal technology. The development of liquid fuels and chemicals from coal is given especial emphasis, with papers on the Sasol Synthol process, the Shell-Koppers gasification process, liquefaction and gasification in Germany, the Solvent Refined Coal process, the Exxon Donor Solvent liquefaction process and the Mobil Methanol-to-Gasoline process. Finally, some developments that will be part of the future of coal chemistry in the year 2000 are examined in the third section, including coal-based chemical complexes and the use of coal as an alternative source to oil for chemical feedstocks.

  6. The 34th Annual Fall Meeting of the American Physiological Society and the International Conference on Hydrogen Ion Transport in Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiologist, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provided are abstracts of papers presented at the annual American Physiological Society meeting and International Conference on Hydrogen Ion Transport in Epithelia. Papers are grouped by such topic areas as lung fluid balance, renal cardiovascular integration, smooth muscle physiology, neuroendocrines (pituitary), exercise physiology, mechanics of…

  7. APS at 125: A Look Back at the Founding of the American Physiological Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    has promoted and encouraged Physiological research.” By establishing this rule , the founders clearly drew a line between the professional physiologist...publication of original research as a prerequisite for membership (2). This rule was used extensively in the early years to exclude those without a sincere...the time, luminaries in the fields of medicine (e.g., Osler), anatomy and embryology (Minot), and bacteriol- ogy (Welch) were counted among the

  8. Physiology of man and animals in the Tenth Five-Year Plan: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Congress of the I. P. Pavlov All-Union Physiological Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    Research in the field of animal and human physiology is reviewed. The following topics on problems of physiological science and related fields of knowledge are discussed: neurophysiology and higher nervous activity, physiology of sensory systems, physiology of visceral systems, evolutionary and ecological physiology, physiological cybernetics, computer application in physiology, information support of physiological research, history and theory of development of physiology. Also discussed were: artificial intelligence, physiological problems of reflex therapy, correlation of structure and function of the brain, adaptation and activity, microcirculation, and physiological studies in nerve and mental diseases.

  9. Heart rate turbulence: standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use: International Society for Holter and Noninvasive Electrophysiology Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Axel; Malik, Marek; Schmidt, Georg; Barthel, Petra; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Lombardi, Federico; Müller, Alexander; Oto, Ali; Schneider, Raphael; Watanabe, Mari; Wichterle, Dan; Zareba, Wojciech

    2008-10-21

    This consensus statement has been compiled on behalf of the International Society for Holter and Noninvasive Electrophysiology. It reviews the topic of heart rate turbulence (HRT) and concentrates on technologies for measurement, physiologic background and interpretation, and clinical use of HRT. It also lists suggestions for future research. The phenomenon of HRT refers to sinus rhythm cycle-length perturbations after isolated premature ventricular complexes. The physiologic pattern of HRT consists of brief heart rate acceleration (quantified by the so-called turbulence onset) followed by more gradual heart rate deceleration (quantified by the so-called turbulence slope) before the rate returns to a pre-ectopic level. Available physiologic investigations confirm that the initial heart rate acceleration is triggered by transient vagal inhibition in response to the missed baroreflex afferent input caused by hemodynamically inefficient ventricular contraction. A sympathetically mediated overshoot of arterial pressure is responsible for the subsequent heart rate deceleration through vagal recruitment. Hence, the HRT pattern is blunted in patients with reduced baroreflex. The HRT pattern is influenced by a number of factors, provocations, treatments, and pathologies reviewed in this consensus. As HRT measurement provides an indirect assessment of baroreflex, it is useful in those clinical situations that benefit from baroreflex evaluation. The HRT evaluation has thus been found appropriate in risk stratification after acute myocardial infarction, risk prediction, and monitoring of disease progression in heart failure, as well as in several other pathologies.

  10. Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  11. Homer Wheelon, M.D., physiologist, artist, and poet: origins of the tailpieces in journals of the American Physiological Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Lawrence P; Schramm, Diana C; Jackson, F Wilson

    2006-12-01

    Since 1953, illustrations have been inserted as "tailpieces" at the ends of articles in The American Journal of Physiology and The Journal of Applied Physiology. The drawings were made by Homer Wheelon, a member of the American Physiological Society from 1919 until his death in 1960. Forty-five years after his death, Wheelon is unknown, but he contributed 32 publications to the medical literature and trained J. Earl Thomas, an important 20th century gastrointestinal physiologist. Wheelon was born into poverty in 1883 to itinerant Methodist preachers, circumstances that guided his education and career choices. Throughout his life, Wheelon exhibited a fondness and talent for art and photography and an unusual breadth of intellectual interests and knowledge. Wheelon received a bachelor's degree from the University of Washington, then studied at the University of Oregon, Northwestern University, and St. Louis University. Earning his M.D. from St. Louis University and assuming a faculty position there, Wheelon and his graduate student, Thomas, conducted widely recognized gastrointestinal research. Returning to Seattle in 1921, Wheelon became a highly respected physician and hospital administrator, but he also found time to indulge his interest in visual art and poetry. In 1933, inspired by observing a rabbit being used in a pregnancy test, Wheelon began to write and illustrate an epic, 322-page poem, Rabbit No. 202, illustrations from which became the journals' tailpieces. The present study traces Wheelon's personal life and scientific career in an attempt to understand this complex man and the origins of his unusual poem and its drawings.

  12. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  13. Workshop on Biological Integrity of Coral Reefs August 21-22, 2012, Caribbean Coral Reef Institute, Isla Magueyes, La Parguera, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes an EPA-sponsored workshop on coral reef biological integrity held at the Caribbean Coral Reef Institute in La Parguera, Puerto Rico on August 21-22, 2012. The goals of this workshop were to:• Identify key qualitative and quantitative ecological characterist...

  14. Workshop on Biological Integrity of Coral Reefs August 21-22, 2012, Caribbean Coral Reef Institute, Isla Magueyes, La Parguera, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes an EPA-sponsored workshop on coral reef biological integrity held at the Caribbean Coral Reef Institute in La Parguera, Puerto Rico on August 21-22, 2012. The goals of this workshop were to:• Identify key qualitative and quantitative ecological characterist...

  15. Multiple independent variants in 6q21-22 associated with susceptibility to celiac disease in the Dutch, Finnish and Hungarian populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Bevova, Marianna R.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Monsuur, Alienke; Koskinen, Lotta L. E.; van't Slot, Ruben; Mulder, Chris; Mearin, M. Luisa; Korponay-Szabo, Ilma R.; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle; Kere, Juha; Maki, Markku; Wijmenga, Cisca; Saavalainen, Paivi

    Celiac disease is an inflammatory enteropathy caused by intolerance to gluten. Previous linkage studies in the Dutch, Finnish and Hungarian populations have revealed a locus on chromosome 6q21-22 conferring susceptibility to celiac disease. This locus has previously been implicated in susceptibility

  16. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  17. Research agenda for frailty in older adults: toward a better understanding of physiology and etiology: summary from the American Geriatrics Society/National Institute on Aging Research Conference on Frailty in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Jeremy; Hadley, Evan C; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Newman, Anne B; Studenski, Stephanie A; Ershler, William B; Harris, Tamara; Fried, Linda P

    2006-06-01

    Evolving definitions of frailty, and improved understanding of molecular and physiological declines in multiple systems that may increase vulnerability in frail, older adults has encouraged investigators from many disciplines to contribute to this emerging field of research. This article reports on the results of the 2004 American Geriatrics Society/National Institute on Aging conference on a Research Agenda on Frailty in Older Adults, which brought together a diverse group of clinical and basic scientists to encourage further investigation in this area. This conference was primarily focused on physical and physiological aspects of frailty. Although social and psychological aspects of frailty are critically important and merit future research, these topics were largely beyond the scope of this meeting. Included in this article are sections on the evolving conceptualization and definitions of frailty; physiological underpinnings of frailty, including the potential contributions of inflammatory, endocrine, skeletal muscle, and neurologic system changes; potential molecular and genetic contributors; proposed animal models; and integrative, system biology approaches that may help to facilitate future frailty research. In addition, several specific recommendations as to future directions were developed from suggestions put forth by participants, including recommendations on definition and phenotype development, methodological development to perform clinical studies of individual-system and multiple-system vulnerability to stressors, development of animal and cellular models, application of population-based studies to frailty research, and the development of large collaborative networks in which populations and resources can be shared. This meeting and subsequent article were not meant to be a comprehensive review of frailty research; instead, they were and are meant to provide a more-targeted research agenda-setting process.

  18. Autism Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En Español Register today for the 49th Annual Autism Society National Conference Please plan on joining us ... Today Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ...

  19. Planetary Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  20. Response of the Ionospheric F-region in the Latin American Sector During the Intense Geomagnetic Storm of 21-22 January 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Crowley, G.; Pillat, V. G.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Abalde, J. R.; Bittencourt, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Ionospheric storms are closely associated with geomagnetic storms and are an extreme example of space weather events. The response of the ionosphere to storms is rather complicated. In the present investigation, we have studied the response of the ionospheric F-region in the Latin American sector during the intense geomagnetic storm of 21-22 January 2005 (with storm sudden commencement (SSC) at 1712 UT on 21 January). This geomagnetic storm is anomalous (minimum Dst reached -105 nT at 0700 UT on 22 January) because the main phase occurred during the northward excursion of the Bz component of interplanetary magnetic fields (IMFs). The monthly mean F10.7 solar flux for the month of January 2005 was 99.0 sfu. The ionospheric F-region parameters observed at Ramey (18.5 N, 67.1 W; RAM), Puerto Rico, Jicamarca (12.0 S, 76.8 W; JIC), Peru, Manaus (2.9 S, 60.0 W; MAN), and São José dos Campos (23.2 S, 45.9 W; SJC), Brazil, during 21-22 January (geomagnetically disturbed) and 25 January (geomagnetically quiet) have been analyzed. Both JIC and MAN, the equatorial stations, show unusually rapid uplifting of the F-region peak heights(hpF2/hmF2) and a decrease in the NmF2 coincident with the time of SSC. At both RAM and SJC an uplifting of the F-region peak height is observed at about 2000 UT. The low-latitude station SJC shows a coincident decrease in NmF2 with the uplifting, whereas the mid-latitude station RAM shows a decrease in NmF2 earlier than the uplifting. Also, the observed variations in the F-region ionospheric parameters are compared with the TIMEGCM model run for 21-22 January and the model results show both similarities and differences from the observed results. Average GPS-TEC (21-22 and 25 January) and phase fluctuations (21, 22, 25, 26 January) observed at Belem (1.5 S, 48.5 W; BELE), Brasilia (15.9 S, 47.9 W; BRAZ), Presidente Prudente (22.3o S, 51.4 W; UEPP), and Porto Alegre (30.1 S, 51.1 W; POAL), Brazil, are also presented. These GPS stations belong to

  1. Studies of ionospheric F-region response in the Latin American sector during the geomagnetic storm of 21-22 January 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Crowley, G.; Kikuchi, T.; Huang, C.-S.; Pillat, V. G.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Abalde, J. R.; Bittencourt, J. A.

    2011-05-01

    In the present investigation, we have studied the response of the ionospheric F-region in the Latin American sector during the intense geomagnetic storm of 21-22 January 2005. This geomagnetic storm has been considered "anomalous" (minimum Dst reached -105 nT at 07:00 UT on 22 January) because the main storm phase occurred during the northward excursion of the Bz component of interplanetary magnetic fields (IMFs). The monthly mean F10.7 solar flux for the month of January 2005 was 99.0 sfu. The F-region parameters observed by ionosondes at Ramey (RAM; 18.5° N, 67.1° W), Puerto Rico, Jicamarca (JIC; 12.0° S, 76.8° W), Peru, Manaus (MAN; 2.9° S, 60.0° W), and São José dos Campos (SJC; 23.2° S, 45.9° W), Brazil, during 21-22 January (geomagnetically disturbed) and 25 January (geomagnetically quiet) have been analyzed. Both JIC and MAN, the equatorial stations, show unusually rapid uplifting of the F-region peak heights (hpF2/hmF2) and a decrease in the NmF2 coincident with the time of storm sudden commencement (SSC). The observed variations in the F-region ionospheric parameters are compared with the TIMEGCM model run for 21-22 January and the model results show both similarities and differences from the observed results. Average GPS-TEC (21, 22 and 25 January) and phase fluctuations (21, 22, 25, 26 January) observed at Belem (BELE; 1.5° S, 48.5° W), Brasilia (BRAZ; 15.9° S, 47.9° W), Presidente Prudente (UEPP; 22.3° S, 51.4° W), and Porto Alegre (POAL; 30.1° S, 51.1° W), Brazil, are also presented. These GPS stations belong to the RBMC/IBGE network of Brazil. A few hours after the onset of the storm, large enhancements in the VTEC and NmF2 between about 20:00 and 24:00 UT on 21 January were observed at all the stations. However, the increase in VTEC was greatest at the near equatorial station (BELE) and enhancements in VTEC decreased with latitude. It should be pointed out that no phase fluctuations or spread-F were observed in the Latin American

  2. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  3. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  4. Analysis of a Heavy Rainfall Event over Beijing During 21-22 July 2012 Based on High Resolution Model Analyses and Forecasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Huiling; JIANG Xiaoman; XUE Ming; CHEN Xi; TAN Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    The heaviest rainfall over 61 yr hit Beijing during 21-22 July 2012. Characterized by great rainfall amount and intensity, wide range, and high impact, this record-breaking heavy rainfall caused dozens of deaths and extensive damage. Despite favorable synoptic conditions, operational forecasts underestimated the precipitation amount and were late at predicting the rainfall start time. To gain a better understanding of the performance of mesoscale models, verification of high-resolution forecasts and analyses from the WRF-based BJ-RUCv2.0 model with a horizontal grid spacing of 3 km is carried out. The results show that water vapor is very rich and a quasi-linear precipitation system produces a rather concentrated rain area. Moreover, model forecasts are first verified statistically using equitable threat score and BIAS score. The BJ-RUCv2.0 forecasts under-predict the rainfall with southwestward displacement error and time delay of the extreme precipitation. Further quantitative analysis based on the contiguous rain area method indicates that major errors for total precipitation (> 5 mm h-1) are due to inaccurate precipitation location and pattern, while forecast errors for heavy rainfall (> 20 mm h-1) mainly come from precipitation intensity. Finally, the possible causes for the poor model performance are discussed through diagnosing large-scale circulation and physical parameters (water vapor flux and instability conditions) of the BJ-RUCv2.0 model output.

  5. Cryptozoology Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Reports of Loch Ness monsters, Bigfoot, and the Yeti spring u p from time to time, sparking scientific controversy about the veracity of these observations. Now an organization has been established to help cull, analyze, and disseminate information on the alleged creatures. The International Society of Cryptozoology, formed at a January meeting at the U.S. National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, will serve as the focal point for the investigation, analysis, publication, and discussion of animals of unexpected form or size or of unexpected occurrences in time or space.

  6. Genetic variants associated with circulating MMP1 levels near matrix metalloproteinase genes on chromosome 11q21-22 in Taiwanese: interaction with obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background MMP1 is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. We aimed to elucidate genetic determinants of inflammatory marker levels, including circulating MMP1, in Taiwanese, and their association with obesity. Methods Five genetic polymorphisms around matrix metalloproteinase genes on chromosome 11q21-22 region were genotyped in 519 subjects. Results After adjusting for clinical covariates, two polymorphisms were significantly associated with MMP1 levels, rs1799750 and rs495366, using an additive inheritance model (P = 1.5x10-4 and P = 2.57x10-5, respectively). Using dominant model, minor alleles of rs1799750 and rs495366 were associated with higher MMP1 levels (P = 1.3x10-4 and P = 1.95x10-5, respectively). In haplotype analysis, two haplotypes inferred from five SNPs (A2GATA and A1GATG) were associated with MMP1 levels (P = 5x10-4 and P = 8.47x10-5, respectively). Subgroup and interaction analysis revealed an association of rs1799750 and rs495366 with MMP1 levels only in non-obese subjects (P = 6.66x10-6 and P = 4.38x10-5, respectively, and interaction P = 0.008 for rs1799750). Haplotype interaction analysis also showed significant interaction for haplotype A1GATG (interaction P = 0.003). Conclusions Genotypes/haplotypes around MMP1 locus are associated with MMP1 levels in Taiwanese. Further, since genotypes/haplotypes near MMP1 locus interact with obesity to set MMP1 levels, genetic determinants for MMP1 level may be different between obese and non-obese individuals. PMID:23497408

  7. Investigation of Sea Surface Temperature and local topography effects on coastal fog: Case study of 21-22 January 2008 event on the west coast of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Driss; Bergot, Thierry; El Khlifi, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    The life cycle of fog over coastal regions is very sensitive to the heterogeneity of the landform and to the vicinity to the Ocean. Thus, the influence of the sea surface temperature (SST) and local topography on the evolution of a coastal fog is assessed in this study by performing sensitivity experiments. To achieve this, the numerical simulations are performed with the three-dimensional research model Meso-NH. This fog event occurred at the Grand Casablanca region, in the northwest coast of Morocco, during the night of 21-22 January 2008 and last more than 12 hours. It was analyzed using standard meteorological observations from the two synoptic stations of the region, the observed radio-sounding at the coastal station, the MSG satellite imagery and the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis. The numerical simulation reproduced well the main features of this fog event since its formation to its dissipation. The numerical results demonstrated that this fog event was of a radiation type over land, due to the nocturnal radiative cooling and the turbulence. And one hour later near the coast, the fog was resulting from base lowering of Stratus low cloud, due to the cloud top cooling and the vertical turbulent mixing. The sensitivity experiments to SST demonstrate that varying SST in space and time affects the spatial distribution of the fog layer over an area of about 20km around the coast. Besides, the SST governs the thermodynamic fluxes at the air-sea interface, and then affects the life cycle of this fog event, in particular in the mature and dissipation phases. On the other hand, the sensitivity experiments to local coastal topography demonstrated its impact on the speed and direction of wind in the boundary layer during the different phases of the life cycle of this fog event. Then, it was found that the heterogeneities of terrain over the coastal regions affect the horizontal extension of this fog event during the mature phase and its evolution during the dissipation

  8. Physiological Networks: towards systems physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Bashan, Amir; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Havlin, Shlomo; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2012-02-01

    The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiologic systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse systems with different types of interactions is a challenge. Here, we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiologic network. We find that each physiologic state is characterized by a specific network structure, demonstrating a robust interplay between network topology and function. Across physiologic states the network undergoes topological transitions associated with fast reorganization of physiologic interactions on time scales of a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate new dimensions to the field of systems physiology.

  9. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  10. Citizenship in civil society?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to provide a conceptual framework to complement and guide the empirical analysis of civil society. The core argument is that civil society must be understood, not as a category of (post)industrialized society, but as one of individualized society. Civil society is characterized by

  11. Society of Reproductive Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below are links to publications authored by ASRM and its affiliated societies. Latest Additions: Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility Robotic surgery The Intrauterine Device (IUD): A Long-acting ...

  12. Reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  13. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bent...

  14. Acupuncture in modern society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderploeg, Kristin; Yi, Xiaobin

    2009-03-01

    For at least 2,500 years, acupuncture has been an integral part of traditional Chinese medicine. However, recently as more people in western countries are diagnosed with chronic disease poorly treated with modern medical therapies, many are turning to acupuncture and other forms of alternative medical treatments. Based on the theory of harmonious flowing qi being the basis of good health, acupuncture focuses on restoring qi by manipulation of the complementary and opposing elements of yin and yang. However, in the modern medical community we struggle to with the concept of qi, given a lack of anatomic and histological evidence supporting its existence. However, with the surge in public interest in acupuncture, the scientific community begun heavy investigation of acupuncture's efficacy, as well as the physiologic basis behind it. Thus far, evidence supports the use of acupuncture in post-operative nausea and vomiting, postoperative dental pain, chronic pain conditions such as lower back pain, and possibly also such psychologic conditions as addiction. It is possible that by affecting afferent nerve signaling, acupuncture may influence the release of endogenous opioids to promote pain relief. This effect may be augmented by release of ACTH and cortisol, as well as through down-regulation of signaling through pain fibers. When treating patients who may utilize alternative forms of medicine, it is important that medical practitioners be educated in regards to the basic fundamental beliefs behind acupuncture, as well as the scientific evidence supporting its use and revealing its efficacy. The purpose of this review is to give western trained physicians exposure to history, basic knowledge and its clinical applications of acupuncture to accommodate accelerating interests in acupuncture in modern society.

  15. American Headache Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Applications are now being accepted for the 2017 International headache Society scheduled for January 20 - 22, 2017 at the ... READ MORE Sep 7 18th Congress of the International Headache Society Vancouver, BC Canada , Vancouver Convention Centre READ MORE ...

  16. Society for Vascular Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification with this new online course from the Society for Vascular Medicine. Learn more. Looking for a ... jobs are listed right now. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Vascular Medicine. All Rights Reserved.

  17. American Society of Nephrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stay safe! – @ASNKidney on Twitter ASN News Feed Society Events Interact With ASN rss Facebook Twitter YouTube ... Podcast ASN Communities Share ASN User Login © American Society of Nephrology top Text Size + - Translate Sitemap Terms ...

  18. Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We Represent Ambulatory and Office-Based Anesthesia The Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia provides educational opportunities, encourages research ... 6620 | E-mail: info@sambahq.org Copyright | 2016 Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia Home | Search | Terms | Privacy Policy | ...

  19. Ehlers-Danlos Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scientific Board Staff Volunteer Leaders The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Our History ... Message Boards Patient Resource Library The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Loose Connections ...

  20. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy ...

  1. International Transplant Nurses Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Mission of ITNS The International Transplant Nurses Society is committed to the promotion of excellence in ... 20-1589538 Copyright © 2006 - 2014 International Transplant Nurses Society (ITNS). No materials, including graphics, may be reused, ...

  2. American Urogynecologic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Site » PFD Registry » Contact Us American Urogynecologic Society 1100 Wayne Avenue, Suite 670 Silver Spring, MD ... Us | Privacy Policy | HONcode Accredited © 2016 American Urogynecologic Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Scoliosis Research Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoliosis Research Society Close Menu Member Login Become a Member Home Find a Specialist | Calendar Contact | Donate ... a Member Find a Specialist Calendar Contact Donate Scoliosis Research Society Dedicated to the optimal care of ...

  4. Physiological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  5. Reclaiming Society Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip E. Steinberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Learned societies have become aligned with commercial publishers, who have increasingly taken over the latter’s function as independent providers of scholarly information. Using the example of geographical societies, the advantages and disadvantages of this trend are examined. It is argued that in an era of digital publication, learned societies can offer leadership with a new model of open access that can guarantee high quality scholarly material whose publication costs are supported by society membership dues.

  6. Physiological and psychological assessment of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihashi, R.; Ohira, Masayoshi; Kimura, Teiji; Fujiwara, Takayuki

    The psycho-physiological effects of several sound stimulations were investigated to evaluate the relationship between a psychological parameter, such as subjective perception, and a physiological parameter, such as the heart rate variability (HRV). Eight female students aged 21-22 years old were tested. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and the movement of the chest-wall for estimating respiratory rate were recorded during three different sound stimulations; (1) music provided by a synthesizer (condition A); (2) birds twitters (condition B); and (3) mechanical sounds (condition C). The percentage power of the low-frequency (LF; 0.05<=0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF; 0.15<=0.40 Hz) components in the HRV (LF%, HF%) were assessed by a frequency analysis of time-series data for 5 min obtained from R-R intervals in the ECG. Quantitative assessment of subjective perception was also described by a visual analog scale (VAS). The HF% and VAS value for comfort in C were significantly lower than in either A and/or B. The respiratory rate and VAS value for awakening in C were significantly higher than in A and/or B. There was a significant correlation between the HF% and the value of the VAS, and between the respiratory rate and the value of the VAS. These results indicate that mechanical sounds similar to C inhibit the para-sympathetic nervous system and promote a feeling that is unpleasant but alert, also suggesting that the HRV reflects subjective perception.

  7. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  8. Potassium physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, S O

    1986-04-25

    Potassium is the most abundant exchangeable cation in the body. It exists predominantly in the intracellular fluid at concentrations of 140 to 150 meq/liter and in the extracellular fluid at concentrations of 3.5 to 5 meq/liter. The maintenance of the serum potassium concentration is a complex bodily function and results from the balance between intake, excretion, and distribution between intracellular and extracellular space. Ingested potassium is virtually completely absorbed from and minimally excreted through the intestine under nonpathologic circumstances. Renal excretion of potassium, which is the major chronic protective mechanism against abnormalities in potassium balance, depends on filtration, reabsorption, and a highly regulated distal nephron secretory process. Factors regulating potassium secretion include prior potassium intake, intracellular potassium, delivery of sodium chloride and poorly reabsorbable anions to the distal nephron, the urine flow rate, hormones such as aldosterone and beta-catecholamines, and the integrity of the renal tubular cell. The maintenance of distribution between the inside and outside of cells depends on the integrity of the cell membrane and its pumps, osmolality, pH, and the hormones insulin, aldosterone, beta 2-catecholamines, alpha-catecholamines, and prostaglandins. Both distribution across cell membranes and/or renal excretion of potassium may be altered by pharmacologic agents such as diuretics, alpha- and beta-catechol antagonists and agonists, depolarizing agents, and digitalis. Problems with hypokalemia and hyperkalemia can be analyzed on the basis of potassium physiology and pharmacology; proper treatment depends on an accurate analysis.

  9. Hypertension: physiology and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John E; Granger, Joey P; do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Dubinion, John; George, Eric; Hamza, Shereen; Speed, Joshua; Hall, Michael E

    2012-10-01

    Despite major advances in understanding the pathophysiology of hypertension and availability of effective and safe antihypertensive drugs, suboptimal blood pressure (BP) control is still the most important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and is globally responsible for more than 7 million deaths annually. Short-term and long-term BP regulation involve the integrated actions of multiple cardiovascular, renal, neural, endocrine, and local tissue control systems. Clinical and experimental observations strongly support a central role for the kidneys in the long-term regulation of BP, and abnormal renal-pressure natriuresis is present in all forms of chronic hypertension. Impaired renal-pressure natriuresis and chronic hypertension can be caused by intrarenal or extrarenal factors that reduce glomerular filtration rate or increase renal tubular reabsorption of salt and water; these factors include excessive activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, increased formation of reactive oxygen species, endothelin, and inflammatory cytokines, or decreased synthesis of nitric oxide and various natriuretic factors. In human primary (essential) hypertension, the precise causes of impaired renal function are not completely understood, although excessive weight gain and dietary factors appear to play a major role since hypertension is rare in nonobese hunter-gathers living in nonindustrialized societies. Recent advances in genetics offer opportunities to discover gene-environment interactions that may also contribute to hypertension, although success thus far has been limited mainly to identification of rare monogenic forms of hypertension. © 2012 American Physiological Society

  10. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  11. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  12. It's Difficult to Change the Way We Teach: Lessons from the Integrative Themes in Physiology Curriculum Module Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Thorn, Patti M.; Svinicki, Marilla D.

    2006-01-01

    The Integrative Themes in Physiology (ITIP) project was a National Science Foundation-funded collaboration between the American Physiological Society (APS) and the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS). The project goal was to create instructional resources that emphasized active learning in undergraduate anatomy and physiology classrooms.…

  13. It's Difficult to Change the Way We Teach: Lessons from the Integrative Themes in Physiology Curriculum Module Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Thorn, Patti M.; Svinicki, Marilla D.

    2006-01-01

    The Integrative Themes in Physiology (ITIP) project was a National Science Foundation-funded collaboration between the American Physiological Society (APS) and the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS). The project goal was to create instructional resources that emphasized active learning in undergraduate anatomy and physiology classrooms.…

  14. Fieldwork in Transforming Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Ed; Michailova, Snejina

    The contributors to this text discuss the personal and professional challenges of conducting fieldwork in the difficult, sometimes threatening contexts of the transforming societies of post-socialist Europe and China.......The contributors to this text discuss the personal and professional challenges of conducting fieldwork in the difficult, sometimes threatening contexts of the transforming societies of post-socialist Europe and China....

  15. The Tranquebarian Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niklas Thode

    2015-01-01

    of this development was the establishment of the Tranquebarian Society, the third learned society east of the Cape of Good Hope. The article examines the unique assemblage of scientific networks, people, instruments, institutions, and ideas of local and global origin that converged in Tranquebar, and it investigates...

  16. The Tranquebarian Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niklas Thode

    2015-01-01

    of this development was the establishment of the Tranquebarian Society, the third learned society east of the Cape of Good Hope. The article examines the unique assemblage of scientific networks, people, instruments, institutions, and ideas of local and global origin that converged in Tranquebar, and it investigates...

  17. American Society of Neuroradiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASNR American Society of Neuroradiology Forgot username or password ? .: International Day Of Radiology :. Tues, Nov 8 is International Day of Radiology. ... you celebrate, #neurorad? #IDoR2016 Once again, the European Society of Radiology has created a wonderful ... Tues, Nov ...

  18. Transformation of Neolithic Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Rune

    and prepared the way for the appearance of Bronze Age societies. The great era of megalithic architecture came to an end as the production and exchange of gold, copper and bronze objects became the driving force in the development of Copper and Bronze Age societies. This development also had a great influence...

  19. Refractions of Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmanovic, Daniella

    The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....

  20. [Human physiology: kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  1. The Society for Scandinavian Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grand, Karina Lykke

    2016-01-01

    The Society for Nordic Art & the Scandinavian Society [Selskabet for Nordisk Kunst & Skandinavisk Selskab]......The Society for Nordic Art & the Scandinavian Society [Selskabet for Nordisk Kunst & Skandinavisk Selskab]...

  2. Information society studies

    CERN Document Server

    Duff, Alistair S

    2013-01-01

    We are often told that we are ""living in an information society"" or that we are ""information workers."" But what exactly do these claims mean, and how might they be verified? In this important methodological study, Alistair S. Duff cuts through the rhetoric to get to the bottom of the ""information society thesis."" Wide-ranging in coverage, this study will be of interest to scholars in information science, communication and media studies and social theory. It is a key text for the newly-unified specialism of information society studies, and an indispensable guide to the future of this disc

  3. Fairness in society

    CERN Document Server

    Flomenbom, Ophir

    2011-01-01

    Models that explain the economical and political realities of nowadays societies should help all the world's citizens. Yet, the last four years showed that the current models are missing. Here we develop a dynamical society-deciders model showing that the long lasting economical stress can be solved when increasing fairness in nations. fairness is computed for each nation using indicators from economy and politics. Rather than austerity versus spending, the dynamical model suggests that solving crises in western societies is possible with regulations that reduce the stability of the deciders, while shifting wealth in the direction of the people. This shall increase the dynamics among socio-economic classes, further increasing fairness.

  4. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  5. Changing anthropology, changing society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, Heather

    2009-12-01

    Fifty years after the founding of the field of medical anthropology, the Society for Medical Anthropology of the American Anthropological Association held its first independent meeting on September 24-27, 2009, at Yale University.

  6. Valie EXPORT Society Rooseumis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Malmös Rooseumi Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuses näitus "Baltic Babel". Projekt koosneb Läänemeremaade linnades tegutsevate innovatiivsete gruppide aktsioonidest. Kuraator Charles Esche. Esinejatest (Eestist Valie Export Society: Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit)

  7. Valie EXPORT Society. Overlok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Valie EXPORT Society asutasid 23. okt. 1999. a. Frankfurdis Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets, kui olid külastanud austria naiskunstniku Valie Exporti näitust. Rühmituse aktsioonide kirjeldus

  8. American Society of Nephrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Week Abstracts In The Loop Request Missing Publication Advertising Opportunities Advocacy and public policy Legislative Action Center ... News Feed Society Events Interact With ASN rss Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr LinkedIn Podcast ASN Communities Share ...

  9. National Multiple Sclerosis Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join the Community Stay Informed Corporate Support National Multiple Sclerosis Society Meet the Challenge to end MS Give ... in MS Research November 2, 2016 View All Multiple Sclerosis News & Press View All Clinical Trial Alerts Every ...

  10. American Geriatrics Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Travel Award for Research Symposium on Pharmacotherapy and Older Adults with CVD November 10th, 2016 Need Help Understanding MACRA? Check Out this Free Toolkit ... © 2016 The American Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. Privacy Policy . Copyright & Permissions . Disclaimer .

  11. Valie EXPORT Society Rooseumis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Malmös Rooseumi Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuses näitus "Baltic Babel". Projekt koosneb Läänemeremaade linnades tegutsevate innovatiivsete gruppide aktsioonidest. Kuraator Charles Esche. Esinejatest (Eestist Valie Export Society: Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit)

  12. Valie EXPORT Society. Overlok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Valie EXPORT Society asutasid 23. okt. 1999. a. Frankfurdis Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets, kui olid külastanud austria naiskunstniku Valie Exporti näitust. Rühmituse aktsioonide kirjeldus

  13. Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care for You How to Use Apps and Social Media for Your Practice Why Participation in the STS ... STS_CTsurgery Surgeons Residents & Students Allied ... Hotel Discount for STS Members Copyright © 2016 The Society ...

  14. National Multiple Sclerosis Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an experience grounded in camaraderie and marked by passion, inspiration, determination and pure enjoyment. Register Now You ... Pinterest MS Connection About the Society Vision Careers Leadership Cultural Values Financials News Press Room MS Prevalence ...

  15. Changing Anthropology, Changing Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years after the founding of the field of medical anthropology, the Society for Medical Anthropology of the American Anthropological Association held its first independent meeting on September 24-27, 2009, at Yale University. PMID:20027281

  16. The Tranquebarian Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niklas Thode

    2015-01-01

    of this development was the establishment of the Tranquebarian Society, the third learned society east of the Cape of Good Hope. The article examines the unique assemblage of scientific networks, people, instruments, institutions, and ideas of local and global origin that converged in Tranquebar, and it investigates...... the fusion of local problems and radical ideas of enlightenment, education, and improvement that united government, mission, and merchants in Tranquebar in the quest for ‘useful knowledge’....

  17. Transnationalising Civil Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration- and citiz......The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration...

  18. Family in contemporary society

    OpenAIRE

    Rabije Murati

    2016-01-01

    The family is part of social change and, as such changes and transform into steps with modern trends of society. Family function in a given society is structured according to the overall changes that occur in all areas of social life, not neglecting family life. The contemporary conditions impose requirements that must be met to move forward with the times that follow. In particular, should highlight the social changes that are related to the growth and advancement of the educational and prof...

  19. History of the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroudis, Constantine; Williams, William G

    2015-10-01

    The Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society is a group of over 100 pediatric heart surgeons representing 72 institutions that specialize in the treatment of patients with congenital heart defects. The Society began in 1972 and incorporated as a not-for-profit charitable organization in 2004. It has become the face and voice of congenital heart surgery in North America. In 1985, the Society established a data center for multicenter clinical research studies to encourage congenital heart professionals to participate in improving outcomes for our patients. The goals of the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society are to stimulate the study of congenital cardiac physiology, pathology, and management options which are instantiated in data collection, multi-institutional studies, and scientific meetings. Honest and open discussion of problems with possible solutions to the challenges facing congenital heart professionals have been the strength of the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society. It is imperative for the growth of an organization to know from where it came in order to know to where it is going. The purpose of this article is to review the history of the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Myths and Truths from Exercise Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, H. Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses some of the common myths in the field of exercise physiology. Some of the myths are misconstrued facts that have developed over time, such as the myth of localized fat reduction. Other myths are unproved or collective beliefs used to justify a social institution; we see this occur in the form of "fitness fads." Society is…

  1. Consumption in the Information Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherebin, V. M.; Ermakova, N. A.; Makhrova, O. N.

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the economy in the developed countries make it possible to characterize them using concepts and terms such as the postindustrial society, the new economy, the service economy, the creative economy, the posteconomic society, the information society, the knowledge society, and the consumer society. Among these terms and…

  2. Consumption in the Information Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherebin, V. M.; Ermakova, N. A.; Makhrova, O. N.

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the economy in the developed countries make it possible to characterize them using concepts and terms such as the postindustrial society, the new economy, the service economy, the creative economy, the posteconomic society, the information society, the knowledge society, and the consumer society. Among these terms and…

  3. Physiological effects in aromatherapy

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow pot...

  4. Science and Society Colloquium

    CERN Multimedia

    Randi, J

    1991-01-01

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  5. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes...... of the century. 2, the laws and strategies of implementing regarding the regulation of civil societal institutions (folkeoplysningsloven) since the 1970’s this paper shows how civil society in 20th century Denmark was produced both conceptually and practically and how this entailed a specific vision and version...

  6. Science, technology and society

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, G

    2005-01-01

    We shall discuss some aspects of science and technology, their increasing role in the society, the fast advances in modern science, the apparent decrease of interest of the young generation in basic sciences, the importance of proper science popularization for better public education and awareness in scientific fields.

  7. Air pollution and society

    OpenAIRE

    Brimblecombe P.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  8. Connecting Science with Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    awareness of the important questions of our society reflected in scientific research and of the answers produced by these research activities. The CRIS2010 conference, entitled “Bringing Science to Society”, therefore seeks to highlight the role of Current Research Information Systems for communicating...

  9. Teaching Global Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Describes the course, "Global Society," for first-year International Studies students at a Massachusetts liberal arts college. The course, which takes a historical approach, informs students about the nature, history, and present characteristics of the global system, taking theoretical, historical, and critical approaches that stress the…

  10. Exploratory of society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederman, L.-E.; Conte, R.; Helbing, D.; Nowak, A.; Schweitzer, F.; Vespignani, A.

    2012-11-01

    A huge flow of quantitative social, demographic and behavioral data is becoming available that traces the activities and interactions of individuals, social patterns, transportation infrastructures and travel fluxes. This has caused, together with innovative computational techniques and methods for modeling social actions in hybrid (natural and artificial) societies, a qualitative change in the ways we model socio-technical systems. For the first time, society can be studied in a comprehensive fashion that addresses social and behavioral complexity. In other words we are in the position to envision the development of large data and computational cyber infrastructure defining an exploratory of society that provides quantitative anticipatory, explanatory and scenario analysis capabilities ranging from emerging infectious disease to conflict and crime surges. The goal of the exploratory of society is to provide the basic infrastructure embedding the framework of tools and knowledge needed for the design of forecast/anticipatory/crisis management approaches to socio technical systems, supporting future decision making procedures by accelerating the scientific cycle that goes from data generation to predictions.

  11. Education for Jobless Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorkin, Alexander M.

    2017-01-01

    The advent of societies with low employment rates will present a challenge to education. Education must move away from the discourse of skills and towards the discourse of meaning and motivation. The paper considers three kinds of non-waged optional labor that may form the basis of the future economy: prosumption, volunteering, and self-design.…

  12. Education for Jobless Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorkin, Alexander M.

    2017-01-01

    The advent of societies with low employment rates will present a challenge to education. Education must move away from the discourse of skills and towards the discourse of meaning and motivation. The paper considers three kinds of non-waged optional labor that may form the basis of the future economy: prosumption, volunteering, and self-design.…

  13. Libraries in Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Michael; Skouvig, Laura

    by Michel Foucault on discourse and power to the introduction of open shelves. Furthermore, the paper discusses current challenges facing the modern public library in coping with openness issues that follow from changes in society and advances in technology. These influences and developments are not least...

  14. Man--Society--Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxis, Linda A., Ed.

    The 32nd annual American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) Convention was held in Louisville in 1970. Topics for the AIAA general session addresses were: (1) "Industrial Arts--The Blender Between Social Form and Technical Function," (2) "Technology and Society: Present and Future Challenges," (3) "A Student-Oriented Industrial Arts," (4) "Man:…

  15. MARX EMBRYOLOGY OF SOCIETY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOUTERS, A

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a new interpretation of Marx's dialectical method. Marx conceived dialectics as a method for constructing a model of society. The way this model is developed is analogous to the way organisms develop according to the German embryologist Karl Ernst von Baer, and, indeed, Marx's

  16. National Down Syndrome Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DONATE HERE The ABLE Act is Now the Law of the Land! LEARN HOW TO PASS ABLE IN YOUR STATE! NDSS Your Way Join Our Independent Fundraising Program! The mission of the National Down Syndrome Society is to be the national advocate for the ...

  17. Digital Denmark: From Information Society to Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Falch, Morten

    2000-01-01

    The Danish Government recently issued a new policy report, Digital Denmark, on the "conversion to a network society", as a successor to its Information Society 2000 report (1994). This is part of a new round of information society policy vision statements that are, or will be forthcoming from...... for the next phase of information society development. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  19. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  20. l'Internet Society

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    1997-01-01

    Conference of Vinton "Vint" Gray Cerf in the Intercontinental Hostel. Vinton Gray Cerf (born June 23, 1943) is an American computer scientist who is commonly referred to as one of the "founding fathers of the Internet" for his key technical and managerial role, together with Bob Kahn, in the creation of the Internet and the TCP/IP protocols which it uses. He was also a co-founder (in 1992) of the Internet Society (ISOC) which is intended to both promote the views of ordinary users of the Internet, and also serve as an umbrella body for the technical groups developing the Internet (such as the Internet Engineering Task Force). He served as the first president of the Internet Society from 1992-1995.

  1. Connecting Science with Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    awareness of the important questions of our society reflected in scientific research and of the answers produced by these research activities. The CRIS2010 conference, entitled “Bringing Science to Society”, therefore seeks to highlight the role of Current Research Information Systems for communicating......CRIS2010, the 10th conference in the bi-annual series organized by euroCRIS, focuses on the connecting role of Current Research Information Systems (CRIS). Aalborg, Denmark where CRIS2010 is held, is located near the intersection of the Northern Sea and Kattegat, a place were not only the waters...... of two seas are exchanged, but also goods and culture. In a similar way, Current Research Information Systems are at the intersection between (publicly funded) research and society. They do not only connect actors, activities and results within the research domain but also play a crucial role in raising...

  2. Civil society sphericules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the communicative practice of a Tanzanian NGO, Femina. Based on a tripartite model of engagement (Madianou, 2012) integrating speech, action and understanding, and drawing on fieldwork on the communication practices of Femina, I critically assess the forms of civic engagement...... movement and a media initiative. In the context of the growing literature on social networking sites and their affordances, dynamics and structures, the case of Femina illustrates how a civil society sphericule emerges within the dynamic co-evolution of new and old media platforms. The study is furthermore...... an example of the difficult shift in civil society practice, from service provision to an agenda of public service monitoring, social accountability and community engagement....

  3. Evolvement of Classification Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hua

    2011-01-01

    As an independent industry, the emergence of the classification society was perhaps the demand of beneficial interests between shipowners, cargo owners and insurers at the earliest time. Today, as an indispensable link of the international maritime industry, class role has changed fundamentally. Start off from the demand of the insurersSeaborne trade, transport and insurance industries began to emerge successively in the 17th century. The massive risk and benefit brought by seaborne transport provided a difficult problem to insurers.

  4. Society and Social Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Harish

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Society is the source of immense power. Over the past few centuries humanity has record­ed phenomenal growth in its collective capacity for accomplishment, as reflected in the 12-fold growth in global per capita income since 1800. The remarkable achievements in living standards, longevity, science, technology, industry, education, democracy, human rights, peace and global governance are the result of the exponential development of the capacity of society to harness human energies and convert them into social power for productive purposes. Today, humanity possesses the power and capabilities needed to fully meet the multi-dimensional challenges confronting global society. The source of this energy is people. Human energy is transformed into social power by the increasing reach, frequency and complexity of human relationships. Society is a complex living network of organized relationships between people. Its power issues from channelizing our collective energies in productive ways by means of organizing principles such as coordination, systems, specialization of function, hierarchy of authority, and integration. This immense social power remains largely underutilized. Social science needs to evolve a comprehensive, trans-disciplinary understanding of the roots of social power and the process by which it is generated, distributed and applied. This knowledge is the essential foundation for formulating effective social policies capable of eradicating forever persistent poverty, unemployment and social inequality. This article is based on a series of lectures delivered by the author in the WAAS-WUC course on “Toward a Trans-disciplinary Science of Society” at Dubrovnik on September 1-3, 2014. It traces the development of social power in different fields to show that human and social capital are inexhaustible in potential. The more we harness them, the more they grow. Unleashing, directing, channeling and converting human potential into social

  5. Behaviorism and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Krapfl, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and...

  6. European Physical Society awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The winners of the 2004 Accelerator Prizes, awarded by the European Physical Society's Interdivisional Group on Accelerators (EPS-IGA), have been announced. Vladmir Shiltsev (Fermilab) and Igor Meshkov (JINR, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna) will be presented with their awards during the 9th European Particle Accelerator Conference, EPAC'04, on 8 July 2004 in Lucerne. Both physicists will also give a talk about their work. More details on: http://epac.web.cern.ch/

  7. Evolution, museums and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFadden, Bruce J

    2008-11-01

    Visitors to natural history museums have an incomplete understanding of evolution. Although they are relatively knowledgeable about fossils and geological time, they have a poor understanding of natural selection. Museums in the 21st century can effectively increase public understanding of evolution through interactive displays, novel content (e.g. genomics), engaging videos and cyberexhibits that communicate to a broad spectrum of society, both within the exhibit halls as well as outside the museum.

  8. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  9. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  10. Physiology of Visceral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, G F; Bielefeldt, Klaus

    2016-09-15

    Pain involving thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic organs is a common cause for physician consultations, including one-third of chronic pain patients who report that visceral organs contribute to their suffering. Chronic visceral pain conditions are typically difficult to manage effectively, largely because visceral sensory mechanisms and factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of visceral pain are poorly understood. Mechanistic understanding is particularly problematic in "functional" visceral diseases where there is no apparent pathology and pain typically is the principal complaint. We review here the anatomical organization of the visceral sensory innervation that distinguishes the viscera from innervation of all other tissues in the body. The viscera are innervated by two nerves that share overlapping functions, but also possess notably distinct functions. Additionally, the visceral innervation is sparse relative to the sensory innervation of other tissues. Accordingly, visceral sensations tend to be diffuse in character, are typically referred to nonvisceral somatic structures and thus are difficult to localize. Early arguments about whether the viscera were innervated ("sensate") and later, whether innervated by nociceptors, were resolved by advances reviewed here in the anatomical and functional attributes of receptive endings in viscera that contribute to visceral pain (i.e., visceral nociceptors). Importantly, the contribution of plasticity (i.e., sensitization) of peripheral and central visceral nociceptive mechanisms is considered in the context of persistent, chronic visceral pain conditions. The review concludes with an overview of the functional anatomy of visceral pain processing. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1609-1633, 2016. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Physiological effects in aromatherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapanee Hongratanaworakit

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow potential brain waves (contingent negativevariation, and eye blink rate or pupil functions, are used as indices for the measurement of the aroma effects

  12. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  13. Afghanistan, state and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kværnø, Ole

    In June 2007, the RAND Corporation and the Royal Danish Defence College hosted a conference titled “Afghanistan: State and Society, Great Power Politics, and the Way Ahead”. The two-day event, held in Copenhagen, was attended by more than 100 politicians, scholars, academics, and representative...... of both governmental and nongovernmental institutions from more than 20 states. Its theme was to discuss the problems that Afghanistan faces in the wake of the U.S.-led attack on al Qaeda training camps and the Taliban government; examine the challenges confronting the NATO International Security......-encompassing, long-term strategic approach....

  14. Disciplining Global Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Evans

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the puzzles of the current era is the divide between optimists and pessimists on the question of human rights. The prominence of human rights on the international political agenda sustains the optimist’s hopes for the future, while pessimists point to continued and widespread reports of civil, political, economic, social and cultural violations. This article looks at the tensions and apparent contradictions between these two approaches. Following a discussion on the construction of global human rights discourse(s, the article concludes that the pretensions of law act to mask the socioeconomic normative framework that acts to discipline global society.

  15. Disciplining Global Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Evans

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the puzzles of the current era is the divide between optimists and pessimists on the question of human rights. The prominence of human rights on the international political agenda sustains the optimist’s hopes for the future, while pessimists point to continued and widespread reports of civil, political, economic, social and cultural violations. This article looks at the tensions and apparent contradictions between these two approaches. Following a discussion on the construction of global human rights discourse(s, the article concludes that the pretensions of law act to mask the socioeconomic normative framework that acts to discipline global society.

  16. Advanced information society (9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Hiroki

    This article discusses the U.S. and European national strategies and policies for information society. Coping with the declining competitiveness in high-tech products and Japanese technological advantages both have been trying hard to strengthen technology base and to deregulate the telecommunications services markets. The U.S. approach in 1980's, unlike its liberalist principle, has been characterized by technological protectlonism and defense-oriented policies. European Communities' approach has been more comprehensive and systematic, investing heavily telecommunication infrastructure, deregulating domestic market, and promoting cooperation of member countries. However, both of these approaches have, so far, been unable to achieve a considerable success.

  17. Libraries in Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Michael; Skouvig, Laura

    understood in a library setting. Historically, openness in form of the open shelves played a crucial role in developing the modern public library. The paper examines this openness-centred library policy as adopted by Danish public libraries in the beginning of the 20th century by applying the theories...... by Michel Foucault on discourse and power to the introduction of open shelves. Furthermore, the paper discusses current challenges facing the modern public library in coping with openness issues that follow from changes in society and advances in technology. These influences and developments are not least...

  18. Popular Music and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    or the Russkii Rok-Klub v Amerike (Russian Rock Club of America).   This special edition of Popular Music and Society aims to present research on contemporary popular music (broadly defined) in the former Soviet republics and their diasporas.  A central issue will be how the musical landscape has changed since...... the collapse of the Soviet Union: What present trends can be observed?  How has the Soviet context influenced the popular music of today?  How is music performed and consumed?  How has the interrelationship between cultural industry and performers developed?  How are nationalist sensibilities affecting popular...

  19. Family in contemporary society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabije Murati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The family is part of social change and, as such changes and transform into steps with modern trends of society. Family function in a given society is structured according to the overall changes that occur in all areas of social life, not neglecting family life. The contemporary conditions impose requirements that must be met to move forward with the times that follow. In particular, should highlight the social changes that are related to the growth and advancement of the educational and professional standards, which will increase the overall impact on the family and its function. If you're looking for full responsibility of parents in the upbringing of children then it is necessary to see the conditions in which the family lives. For normal education and the rights of children with special meaning the number of members in the (quantity family. The tendency to a higher standard of economic life, a small number of children in the family and it is more than obvious that fewer family members or less have greater opportunity for parents to pay more attention to their children. One of the main roles of family, no matter where they are located in the city, village, developed or developing countries, by all means participate, intermediates and transfers the moral, social and other values in modern life.

  20. A history of the American Society for Clinical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joel D

    2009-04-01

    One hundred years ago, in 1909, the American Society for Clinical Investigation (ASCI) held its first annual meeting. The founding members based this new society on a revolutionary approach to research that emphasized newer physiological methods. In 1924 the ASCI started a new journal, the Journal of Clinical Investigation. The ASCI has also held an annual meeting almost every year. The society has long debated who could be a member, with discussions about whether members must be physicians, what sorts of research they could do, and the role of women within the society. The ASCI has also grappled with what else the society should do, especially whether it ought to take a stand on policy issues. ASCI history has reflected changing social, political, and economic contexts, including several wars, concerns about the ethics of biomedical research, massive increases in federal research funding, and an increasingly large and specialized medical environment.

  1. A history of the American Society for Clinical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joel D.

    2009-01-01

    One hundred years ago, in 1909, the American Society for Clinical Investigation (ASCI) held its first annual meeting. The founding members based this new society on a revolutionary approach to research that emphasized newer physiological methods. In 1924 the ASCI started a new journal, the Journal of Clinical Investigation. The ASCI has also held an annual meeting almost every year. The society has long debated who could be a member, with discussions about whether members must be physicians, what sorts of research they could do, and the role of women within the society. The ASCI has also grappled with what else the society should do, especially whether it ought to take a stand on policy issues. ASCI history has reflected changing social, political, and economic contexts, including several wars, concerns about the ethics of biomedical research, massive increases in federal research funding, and an increasingly large and specialized medical environment. PMID:19348041

  2. Chuo-kyoiku-shingikai dai 21, 22, 23, tokubetsuiinkai shingikeika chukan hokokusho (The Interim Reports of the 21st, 22nd, and 23rd Committees of the Central Council for Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Tokyo (Japan).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the reports of three committees of the Central Council for Education. The 21st Committee reports that school education in Japan has expanded in balance with the level of schooling of parents and society at large, in proportion to the economy, and within the per capita…

  3. Communicating Science to Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Samuel; Muller, Jennifer; Leather, Kimberley; Morgan, William; O'Meara, Simon; Topping, David; Booth, Alastair; Llyod, Gary; Young, Dominique; Bannan, Thomas; Simpson, Emma; Percival, Carl; Allen, Grant; Clark, Elaine; Muller, Catherine; Graves, Rosemarie

    2014-05-01

    "Nothing in science has any value to society if it is not communicated." So goes the 1952 quote from Anne Roe, the noted twentieth century American psychologist and writer. She went on to say that "scientists are beginning to learn their social obligations", and now over 60 years later there is certainly evidence to support her assertions. As scientists, by communicating our research to the general public we not only better inform the tax payer where their money is being spent, but are also able to help put into context the topical environmental challenges and issues that society faces, as well as inspiring a whole new generation of future scientists. This process of communication is very much a two-way street; by presenting our work to people outside of our usual spheres of contemporaries, we expose ourselves to alternative thoughts and insights that can inspire us, as scientists, to take another look at our research from angles that we had never before considered. This work presents the results and experiences from a number of public engagement and outreach activities across the UK, in which geoscientists engaged and interacted with members of the general public. These include the design and implementation of Raspberry Pi based outreach activities for several hundred high school students; the process of running a successful podcast (http://thebarometer.podbean.com); hosting and participating in science events for thousands of members of the general public (e.g. http://www.manchestersciencefestival.com and http://sse.royalsociety.org/2013); and creating a citizen science activity that involved primary school children from across the UK. In communicating their research it is imperative that scientists interact with their audience in an effective and engaging manner, whether in an international conference, a classroom, or indeed down the pub. This work also presents a discussion of how these skills can be developed at an early stage in the careers of a research

  4. Nuclear Research and Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggermont, G

    2000-07-01

    In 1998, SCK-CEN took the initiative to include social sciences and humanities into its research programme. Within this context, four projects were defined, respectively on sustainability and nuclear development; transgenerational ethics related to the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste; legal aspects and liability; emergency communication and risk perception. Two reflection groups were established, on expert culture and ethical choices respectively, in order to deepen insight while creating exchange of disciplinary approaches of the committed SCK-CEN researchers and social scientists. Within the context of SCK-CEN's social sciences and humanities programme, collaborations with various universities were initiated, teams consisting of young doctorate and post-doctorate researchers and university promotors with experience in interaction processes of technology with society were established and steering committees with actors and external experts were set up for each project. The objectives and main achievements in the four projects are summarised.

  5. Advanced information society(5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizawa, Ippei

    Based on the advancement of information network technology information communication forms informationalized society giving significant impact on business activities and life style in it. The information network has been backed up technologically by development of computer technology and has got great contribution by enhanced computer technology and communication equipments. Information is transferred by digital and analog methods. Technical development which has brought out multifunctioned modems of communication equipments in analog mode, and construction of advanced information communication network which has come out by joint work of computer and communication under digital technique, are described. The trend in institutional matter and standardization of electrical communication is also described showing some examples of value-added network (VAN).

  6. Science, Technology and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgstock, Martin; Burch, David; Forge, John; Laurent, John; Lowe, Ian

    1998-03-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the human, social and economic aspects of science and technology. It examines a broad range of issues from a variety of perspectives, using examples and experiences from around the world. The authors present complex issues, including the responsibilities of scientists, ethical dilemmas and controversies, the Industrial Revolution, economic issues, public policy, and science and technology in developing countries. The book ends with a thoughtful and provocative look toward the future. It features extensive guides to further reading, as well as a useful section on information searching skills. This book will provoke, engage, inform and stimulate thoughtful discussion about culture, society and science. Broad and interdisciplinary, it will be of considerable value to both students and teachers.

  7. Behaviorism and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapfl, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work.

  8. War and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upeniece V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A discussion of effects of war on society is desirable as it can stimulate nations and their politicians to refrain in their international and non-international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of the state. The prohibition of the use of force is a valid norm of customary international law and is fixed in the Charter of the United Nations. Any specific use of force can be lawful only if it is based on exceptions of this rule (action of self-defence under the Article 51 or action under specific authorization by the Security Council under Chapter VII. However the main issue is how to ensure that the other states respect this principle of non-use of force.

  9. Indicators of Information Society Measurement :

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Elwy

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The indicator of information society describe the infrastructure of information and communication technology ; as well as it’s use and it’s production in different estate of society. The importance economic and social of tic is crescent in modern society. and the presentation of tendency inform above the situation of information society . in this article we want to describe the indicator of tic in Algeria according to librarian’s vision in Mentouri university

  10. Advances in physiological computing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairclough, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    This edited collection will provide an overview of the field of physiological computing, i.e. the use of physiological signals as input for computer control. It will cover a breadth of current research, from brain-computer interfaces to telemedicine.

  11. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  12. Physiology of sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ron

    2007-07-01

    The elite athlete represents the extreme of the human gene pool, where genetic endowment is developed by an intensive training programme. Sport encompasses many different activities, calling for different physical and mental attributes. Understanding the physiology of exercise provides insights into normal physiological function.

  13. Physiological changes in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    SOMA-PILLAY, Priya; Catherine, Nelson-Piercy; Tolppanen, Heli; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Physiological changes occur in pregnancy to nurture the developing foetus and prepare the mother for labour and delivery. Some of these changes influence normal biochemical values while others may mimic symptoms of medical disease. It is important to differentiate between normal physiological changes and disease pathology. This review highlights the important changes that take place during normal pregnancy.

  14. CERN & Society launches donation portal

    CERN Document Server

    Cian O'Luanaigh

    2014-01-01

    The CERN & Society programme brings together projects in the areas of education and outreach, innovation and knowledge exchange, and culture and arts, that spread the CERN spirit of scientific curiosity for the inspiration and benefit of society. Today, CERN & Society is launching its "giving" website – a portal to allow donors to contribute to various projects and forge new relationships with CERN.   "The CERN & Society initiative in its embryonic form began almost three years ago, with the feeling that the laboratory could play a bigger role for the benefit of society," says Matteo Castoldi, Head of the CERN Development Office, who, with his team, is seeking supporters and ambassadors for the CERN & Society initiative. "The concept is not completely new – in some sense it is embedded in CERN’s DNA, as the laboratory helps society by creating knowledge and new technologies – but we would like to d...

  15. Fetal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychik, J

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of the fetus is physiologically different than the adult, mature system. Unique characteristics of the myocardium and specific channels of blood flow differentitate the physiology of the fetus from the newborn. Conditions of increased preload and afterload in the fetus, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, result in unique and complex pathophysiological states. Echocardiography has improved our understanding of human fetal cadiovasvular physiology in the normal and diseased states, and has expanded our capability to more effectively treat these disease processes.

  16. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  17. Paperless or vanishing society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner Luke, Joy

    2002-06-01

    In the 1940s color photography became available and within a few years, extremely popular. As people switched from black and white photographs made with the old metallic silver process to the new color films, pictures taken to record their lives and families began a slow disappearing act. The various color processes, coupled with the substrates they were printed on, affected their longevity, but many color photographs taken from the late 1950s through the 1970s, and even into the 1980s, faded not only when exposed to the light, but also when stored in the dark. Henry Wilhelm's excellent book 'The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs' documents this history in detail. Today we are making another transition in the storage of pictures and information. There are questions about the longevity of different types of digital storage, and also of the images printed by various types of inkjet printers, or by laser printers using colored toners. Very expensive and very beautiful works of art produced on Iris printers are appearing in art exhibitions. Some of these are referred to as Giclee prints and are offered on excellent papers. Artists are told the prints will last a lifetime; and if by change they don't it is only necessary to make another print. Henry Wilhelm has begun to test and rate these images for lightfastness; however, his test method was developed for examining longevity in colored photographs. It is of interest to find out how these prints will hold up in the tests required for fine art materials. Thus far companies producing digital inks and printers have not invested the time and money necessary to develop an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard method for evaluating the lightfastness of digital prints. However, it is possible to use ASTM D 5383, Standard Practice for Visual Determination of the Lightfastness of Art Materials by Art Technologists, to pinpoint colors that will fade in a short time, even though the test is not as

  18. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology PATIENTS Patient Information What Is SART? Risks of IVF Third Party Reproduction A Patient's Guide to Assisted Reproductive Technology Frequently Asked ...

  19. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much more! class="box-li"> Journal of Nuclear Cardiology Official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Clinical Guidelines Procedures, Appropriate Use Criteria, Information Statements ...

  20. Privacy and the Connected Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Khajuria, Samant; Skouby, Knud Erik

    the society. Enabling the vision of the connected society, researchers point in the direction of security and privacy as areas to challenge the vision. By use of the Internet of Things reference model as well as the vision of the connected society, this paper identifies privacy of the individual with respect...... to three selected areas: Shopping, connected cars and online gaming. The paper concludes that privacy is a complexity within the connected society vision and that thee is a need for more privacy use cases to shed light on the challenge....

  1. Physiological mechanisms of prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G

    2017-08-12

    Psychophysiological perspectives can provide unique insights into the nature and motivations of children's prosociality and inform our understanding of individual differences. Here, I review current research on prosociality involving some of the most common physiological measures in developmental psychology, including cortisol, various sympathetic nervous system measures, and high-frequency heart rate variability. The literature has been quite mixed, in part because the link between physiology and prosociality is context-dependent and person-dependent. However, recent advances are refining our understanding of the basic physiological mechanisms of prosociality. Resting physiology that contributes to a balance of regulation and vigilance prepares children to effectively cope with future social challenges, like noticing and attending to the needs of others. Experiencing some arousal is an important aspect of empathy-related responding, but physiological patterns of both heightened and hypoarousal can undermine prosociality. Physiological flexibility in response to others' needs may support emotional and behavioral flexibility important for prosociality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Violence in society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Pedro de Andrade Dores

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent interest in the sociology of violence has arisen at the same time that western societies are being urged to consider the profound social crisis provoked by global financial turmoil. Social changes demand the evo- lution of sociological practices. The analysis herein proposed, based on the studies of M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins, Violence: A Micro-sociological Theory (2008, concludes that violence is subject to sociological treatments cen- tered on the aggressors, on the struggles for power and on male gender. There is a lack of connection between prac- tical proposals for violence prevention and the sociol- ogy of violence. It is accepted that violence as a subject of study has the potential, as well as the theoretical and social centrality, to promote the debate necessary to bring social theory up to date. This process is more likely to oc- cur in periods of social transformation, when sociology is open to considering subjects that are still taboo in its study of violence, such as the female gender and the state. The rise of the sociology of violence confronts us with a dilemma. We can either collaborate with the construc- tion of a sub discipline that reproduces the limitations and taboos of current social theory, or we can use the fact that violence has become a “hot topic” as an opportunity to open sociology to themes that are taboo in social the- ory (such as the vital and harmonious character of the biological aspects of social mechanisms or the normative aspects of social settings. ResumenEl interés reciente en la sociología de la violencia ha surgido al mismo tiempo que las sociedades occidenta- les están requiriendo considerar la profunda crisis social provocada por la agitación financiera global. Los cambios sociales demandan la evolución de las prácticas socioló- gicas. El análisis aquí expuesto, basado en los estudios de M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins

  3. Public Libraries in postindustrial societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbeshausen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The article’s focus is on how public libraries are affected by structural changes in the wake of the transition to the knowledge society. Their attempts to match the knowledge society are illustrated by processes of sensemaking and sensegiving made in public libraries in Canada, the UK and Denmark....

  4. Colleges Enter the Information Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current Issues in Higher Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The implications for higher education of the U.S. transformation from an industrial to an information society are discussed in six papers. Russell Edgerton provides an overview in "Entering the Information Society: An Introduction." In "The Computer: An Enabling Instrument," Louis Robinson considers the current era of the personalization of the…

  5. Chinese Women Lawyers Society Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    ON November 12, 1993, the Chinese Women Lawyers Society was established in Beijing. The more than 10,000 women lawyers in the country were excited to have their own organization. Xu Weihua, secretary-general of the society and a lawyer working in the All-China Women’s Federation, said: "The society’s establishment will promote the participation of

  6. Education in the Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavia-Luciana Porumbeanu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the fundamental role which education has in the information society. The continuous evolution of information and communication technologies requires that all citizens have the necessary skills have to use these technologies and to access information for efficient individual functioning in the information society. In this context, the information literacy programmes have a growing importance.

  7. Emerging Artificial Societies Through Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, N.; Besten, M.; Bontovics, A.; Craenen, B.G.W.; Divina, F.; Eiben, A.E.; Griffioen, R.; Hévízi, G.; Lõrincz, A.; Paechter, B.; Schuster, S.; Schut, M.C.; Tzolov, C.; Vogt, P.; Yang, L.

    2006-01-01

    The NewTies project is implementing a simulation in which societies of agents are expected to develop autonomously as a result of individual, population and social learning. These societies are expected to be able to solve environmental challenges by acting collectively. The challenges are intended

  8. The governance of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza Juanes Sobradillo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the appropriate legislation for cooperative societies to which Article 129 of the Spanish Constitution refers, deepen the analysis of the organs of management and control based on the Spanish and Basque Laws on Cooperatives and the Statute for the European Cooperative Societies.

  9. Making the Good Society Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John

    2010-01-01

    Everyone is talking about civil society. Perhaps it's the election, and the shock of seeing more voters at the polling booths than anyone had expected. Now David Cameron's idea of a "big society" is being translated into some early policy measures. Does today's debate have anything to do with adult learning? The author believes that the…

  10. Social Science and Civil Society

    OpenAIRE

    Hogg, Eddy

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an overview of key social science approaches to civil society. It addresses in turn civil society organizations, volunteering, and philanthropy. For each, it looks at how they are defined, their scope, how social science approaches the study of them, and how social policy has sought to encourage or coordinate them.

  11. Neuropeptide physiology in helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, Angela; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic worms come from two distinct, distant phyla, Nematoda (roundworms) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms). The nervous systems of worms from both phyla are replete with neuropeptides and there is ample physiological evidence that these neuropeptides control vital aspects of worm biology. In each phyla, the physiological evidence for critical roles for helminth neuropeptides is derived from both parasitic and free-living members. In the nematodes, the intestinal parasite Ascaris suum and the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans have yielded most of the data; in the platyhelminths, the most physiological data has come from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) have many varied effects (excitation, relaxation, or a combination) on somatic musculature, reproductive musculature, the pharynx and motor neurons in nematodes. Insulin-like peptides (INSs) play an essential role in nematode dauer formation and other developmental processes. There is also some evidence for a role in somatic muscle control for the somewhat heterogeneous grouping ofpeptides known as neuropeptide-like proteins (NLPs). In platyhelminths, as in nematodes, FLPs have a central role in somatic muscle function. Reports of FLP physiological action in platyhelminths are limited to a potent excitation of the somatic musculature. Platyhelminths are also abundantly endowed with neuropeptide Fs (NPFs), which appear absent from nematodes. There is not yet any data linking platyhelminth NPF to any particular physiological outcome, but this neuropeptide does potently and specifically inhibit cAMP accumulation in schistosomes. In nematodes and platyhelminths, there is an abundance of physiological evidence demonstrating that neuropeptides play critical roles in the biology of both free-living and parasitic helminths. While it is certainly true that there remains a great deal to learn about the biology of neuropeptides in both phyla, physiological evidence presently available points

  12. What is the Knowledge Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to establish conceptual delimitations, more concordant to the theoretical acquisitions with regard to the knowledge society. The author considers it opportune to situate in the center of the definition of the concept of knowledge society the problem of prevalence in the typology of resources. Thus, the knowledge society appears as a form of organization in which scientific knowledge predominates, be that informatics as well. The concordances of essence are discovered through the discerning of the functional relationship knowledge society – global society. In the spectrum of meanings specific to this highway of post-postmodernist configuration of the world, the priorities of the project of the second modernity – the paradigmatic matrix of globalization – are approached. In fact, the study argues in favor of refocusing globalization on the humane, on its distinctive values which substantiate and lend sense to the evolutions of the world. Postreferentiality is the rational expression of humanity coming back to itself.

  13. Human physiology in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  14. Circadian physiology of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-11-25

    A majority of mammalian genes exhibit daily fluctuations in expression levels, making circadian expression rhythms the largest known regulatory network in normal physiology. Cell-autonomous circadian clocks interact with daily light-dark and feeding-fasting cycles to generate approximately 24-hour oscillations in the function of thousands of genes. Circadian expression of secreted molecules and signaling components transmits timing information between cells and tissues. Such intra- and intercellular daily rhythms optimize physiology both by managing energy use and by temporally segregating incompatible processes. Experimental animal models and epidemiological data indicate that chronic circadian rhythm disruption increases the risk of metabolic diseases. Conversely, time-restricted feeding, which imposes daily cycles of feeding and fasting without caloric reduction, sustains robust diurnal rhythms and can alleviate metabolic diseases. These findings highlight an integrative role of circadian rhythms in physiology and offer a new perspective for treating chronic diseases in which metabolic disruption is a hallmark.

  15. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from......Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive......, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant...

  16. [Dentist in an information society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Cuilenburg, J J

    1990-02-01

    Many commentators say that at present we are living in an information society, a society in which the main sources of national income are communication and information. This article aims at the question how the dentist's practice will be influenced by the information society. The dentist's role in the information society is described as an information broker between the dental science and the public, the patients. In that role the dentist is confronted with two developments, i.e. 'information overload' and 'rising expectations as to the possibilities of medical help'. The article concludes with a plea for 'good health education'. Against the background of the developments at the side of the public 'good health education' is not to be understood as 'more health information' for the public, but as 'more quality in health information'.

  17. American Society of Clinical Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Interest Mobile App Privacy Policy Privacy Policy Social Media Policy Sponsor Policy Terms of Use American Society of Clinical Oncology ASCO Annual Meeting Register and Reserve Your Hotel June 2-6, 2017 | Chicago, Illinois Hotel Reservation & ...

  18. School in the knowledge society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Levinsen, Karin

    2011-01-01

      Implementation of ICT in Danish and Nordic schools gradually moves from an industrial towards an emerging knowledge society school paradigm. Simultaneously it, digital literacy and the school's physical and social organization are constantly negotiated. In schools that proactively meet...

  19. Documentation in an information society

    OpenAIRE

    Bawden, D.

    2004-01-01

    The contributions of the theories and practices of “documentation”, located with the library/information disciplines, to the development of information society are real, but limited. The scope for further input is considerable.

  20. American Society for Dermatologic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work in your practice Promote your practice with marketing tools from the ASDS Branding Campaign. Free and ... new clinical research projects through its Cutting Edge Research Grant program. Learn ... methods. Copyright © 1971–2016. American Society for Dermatologic Surgery ( ...

  1. Science in Society in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlgaard, Niels; Bloch, Carter Walter

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a special section of Science and Public Policy on science in society in Europe. Based on extensive data collected for the Monitoring Policy and Research Activities on Science in Society in Europe (MASIS) project, contributions to this special section explore pertinent issues...... related to the location, role and responsibility of science across EU member states and associated countries. By developing analytical typologies and classifying countries, the collection of papers provides a novel and detailed picture of Europe. It reveals considerable variation regarding...... the interactions of science and society at the national level, and it offers a platform for international learning. The identification of patterns and trends concerning the place of science in society may also feed into emerging European discussions about ‘responsible research and innovation’....

  2. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery community and creating resources for survivors. Since 1977, we have partnered with survivors, families, health care professionals, burn centers, and the fire ...

  3. The Ambivalences of Civil Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Kaare Nielsen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the conceptual heterogeneity in the field of ‘civil society’ in the light of a distinction between positions that reflect civil society as a democratic-emancipatory category and positions that consider civil society from the perspective of the state: as an instrumental resource for the technocratic planning of the competitive nation state.The article discusses the implications and perspectives in these two different strategic scenarios for conceptualizing civil society. The argument is made that civil society in relation to democratic citizenship should basically rather be understood as a concept for specific, communicative principles for institutionalizing societal relations and organizing public experience than as an overall concept for third sector organizations.

  4. The Engineering Societies & Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional Engineer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Gives a description of what the major engineering societies (ASCE, ASME, AICHE, and IEEE) are doing in the area of continuing education. The description includes the short courses, their costs, duration, type and scope of the content. (GA)

  5. The Engineering Societies & Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional Engineer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Gives a description of what the major engineering societies (ASCE, ASME, AICHE, and IEEE) are doing in the area of continuing education. The description includes the short courses, their costs, duration, type and scope of the content. (GA)

  6. The Face of Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between the physiology of the emotions and the display of character in Victorian Britain. Charles Bell and others had begun to link certain physiological functions, such as respiration, with the expression of feelings such as fear, regarding the heart and other internal organs as instruments by which the emotions were made visible. But a purely functional account of the emotions, which emerged through the development of reflex physiology during the second half of the century, would dramatically alter the nature of feelings and the means of observing them. At the same time, instinctual or acquired sympathy, which had long underpinned the accurate reading of expressions, became a problem to be surmounted by new 'objectively'. Graphic recording instruments measuring a variety of physiological functions and used with increasing frequency in clinical diagnostics became of fundamental importance for tracing the movement of feelings during the period prior to the development of cinematography. They remained, in the form of devices such as the polygraph, a crucial and controversial means of measuring affective states, beneath the potentially deceptive surface of the body.

  7. Starting Physiology: Bioelectrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-01-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The…

  8. Physiology of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, David W; Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF Far from a simple absence of wakefulness, sleep is an active, regulated, and metabolically distinct state, essential for health and well-being. In this article, the authors review the fundamental anatomy and physiology of sleep and its regulation, with an eye toward interactions between sleep and metabolism.

  9. Integrative Physiology of Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Stephen M; Carey, Hannah V

    2016-03-15

    Extended bouts of fasting are ingrained in the ecology of many organisms, characterizing aspects of reproduction, development, hibernation, estivation, migration, and infrequent feeding habits. The challenge of long fasting episodes is the need to maintain physiological homeostasis while relying solely on endogenous resources. To meet that challenge, animals utilize an integrated repertoire of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses that reduce metabolic rates, maintain tissue structure and function, and thus enhance survival. We have synthesized in this review the integrative physiological, morphological, and biochemical responses, and their stages, that characterize natural fasting bouts. Underlying the capacity to survive extended fasts are behaviors and mechanisms that reduce metabolic expenditure and shift the dependency to lipid utilization. Hormonal regulation and immune capacity are altered by fasting; hormones that trigger digestion, elevate metabolism, and support immune performance become depressed, whereas hormones that enhance the utilization of endogenous substrates are elevated. The negative energy budget that accompanies fasting leads to the loss of body mass as fat stores are depleted and tissues undergo atrophy (i.e., loss of mass). Absolute rates of body mass loss scale allometrically among vertebrates. Tissues and organs vary in the degree of atrophy and downregulation of function, depending on the degree to which they are used during the fast. Fasting affects the population dynamics and activities of the gut microbiota, an interplay that impacts the host's fasting biology. Fasting-induced gene expression programs underlie the broad spectrum of integrated physiological mechanisms responsible for an animal's ability to survive long episodes of natural fasting.

  10. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium. Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium on “Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 10 to 14, 2011. The objective of the symposium w...

  11. Colonic Fermentation: A Neglected Topic in Human Physiology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeur, Jorgen; Berstad, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Human physiology textbooks tend to limit their discussion of colonic functions to those of absorbing water and electrolytes and storing waste material. However, the colon is a highly active metabolic organ, containing an exceedingly complex society of microbes. By means of fermentation, gastrointestinal microbes break down nutrients that cannot be…

  12. Colonic Fermentation: A Neglected Topic in Human Physiology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeur, Jorgen; Berstad, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Human physiology textbooks tend to limit their discussion of colonic functions to those of absorbing water and electrolytes and storing waste material. However, the colon is a highly active metabolic organ, containing an exceedingly complex society of microbes. By means of fermentation, gastrointestinal microbes break down nutrients that cannot be…

  13. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  14. Physiological attributes of triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriano, R; Bishop, D

    2010-05-01

    Triathlons of all distances can be considered endurance events and consist of the individual disciplines of swimming, cycling and running which are generally completed in this sequential order. While it is expected that elite triathletes would possess high values for submaximal and maximal measures of aerobic fitness, little is known about how these values compare with those of single-sport endurance athletes. Earlier reviews, conducted in the 1980s, concluded that triathletes possessed lower V(O2(max)) values than other endurance athletes. An update of comparisons is of interest to determine if the physiological capacities of elite triathletes now reflect those of single-sport athletes or whether these physiological capacities are compromised by the requirement to cross-train for three different disciplines. It was found that although differences in the physiological attributes during swimming, cycling and running are evident among triathletes, those who compete at an international level possess V(O2(max)) values that are indicative of success in endurance-based individual sports. Furthermore, various physiological parameters at submaximal workloads have been used to describe the capacities of these athletes. Only a few studies have reported the lactate threshold among triathletes with the majority of studies reporting the ventilatory threshold. Although observed differences among triathletes for both these submaximal measures are complicated by the various methods used to determine them, the reported values for triathletes are similar to those for trained cyclists and runners. Thus, from the limited data available, it appears that triathletes are able to obtain similar physiological values as single-sport athletes despite dividing their training time among three disciplines.

  15. Finnish Society of Soil Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Katri; Hänninen, Pekka; Soinne, Helena; Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Salo, Tapio; Pennanen, Taina

    2017-04-01

    In 1998 the organization of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) was renewed to better support national activities. That was also the new start in the operation of the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences, which became affiliated to the IUSS. The society was originally established in 1971 but it remained relatively inactive. Currently, there are around 200 members in the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences. The members of the executive board cover different fields of soil science from geology to microbiology. Mission statement of the society is to promote the soil sciences and their application in Finland, to act as a forum for creation of better links between soil scientists, interested end users and the public, and to promote distribution and appreciation of general and Finnish research findings in soil science. Every second year the society organizes a national two-day long conference. In 2017 the theme 'circular economy' collected all together 57 presentations. The members of the incoming student division carried responsibility in practical co-ordination committee, acting also as session chairs. In the intervening years the society organizes a weekend excursion to neighboring areas. Lately we have explored the use of biochar in landscaping of Stockholm.

  16. Abortion in a just society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, M E

    1993-01-01

    A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.

  17. SOCIETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    This group of photos were specially chosen from the works of two young photographers, Yan Xinfa and Zhai Dongfeng. Both love children, particularly children living in villages and small towns. They prefer to JnterwJne children closely with scenery in the countryside. They snap children fishing in rivers, climbing trees to catch birds, running with their dogs in the wind, gathering sugar cane and playing hide-and-seek in maize fields. Rural children seem to enjoy nature much more than urban children.

  18. SOCIETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Training for More Students Twelve vocational high schools will be built in the Pearl River Delta over the next few years to train up to 100,000 studentsfrom less-developed areas of south China’s Guangdong Province, to meet the soaring demand for skilled workers in the region, a local education official said on September 1.The delta region has long faced a shortage of labor, and skilled workers are now in particularly high demand as the region seeks to switch focus from labor-intensive manufacturing to value-added industries.

  19. SOCIETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    White Festival A winter Naadam as well as a fire sacrifice festival kicks off on December 23,2014,in Old Barag Banner(county)of Hulunbuir,a city of north China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.Human Rights Plan China has been working effectively toward goals set by the National Human

  20. SOCIETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Congress for Disabled The Fifth National Congress of the China Disabled Persons Federation (CDPF) was held in Beijing on November 11-13. A totalof 630 delegates representing China’s 83 million disabled people heard and discussed a work report by the CDPF before adopting amendments to the federation’s constitution.Deng Pufang, Chairman of the CDPF,said that the federation would enhance con-struction of its local branches. By the end oflast year, 90 percent of its branches in urbanareas and 40 percent in rural regions hadbeen established.The federation employs more than 94,000 full-time staff and more than 400,000 volun-teers in urban communities and villages.

  1. Tuna comparative physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jeffrey B; Dickson, Kathryn A

    2004-11-01

    Thunniform swimming, the capacity to conserve metabolic heat in red muscle and other body regions (regional endothermy), an elevated metabolic rate and other physiological rate functions, and a frequency-modulated cardiac output distinguish tunas from most other fishes. These specializations support continuous, relatively fast swimming by tunas and minimize thermal barriers to habitat exploitation, permitting niche expansion into high latitudes and to ocean depths heretofore regarded as beyond their range.

  2. Evolving society and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipesh Bhagabati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous issues related to culture, occupation, gender, caste, and health, to name a few, have faced harshness of society from time immemorial. Reasons are debatable, ranging from somewhat understandable to completely unacceptable. There is no doubt that society is dynamic and it has changed its view on many of the issues with passing time. Mental health is one such issue which society has neglected for quite a long time. Even today, mental health and mentally ill people face stigma and discrimination in their family, society, and at their workplace. People do not feel comfortable talking about mental health, even if they know that there cannot be any health without a healthy mind. But, as Albert Einstein has said “learn from yesterday, live for today, and hope for tomorrow”, everything is not lost. The mentally ill patients who were once abandoned and left on their own have now started to get humane care and attention. This article discusses this very pertinent topic of changing society and mental health.

  3. Neonatal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Michael H

    2013-11-01

    The pediatric surgeon deals with a large number and variety of congenital defects in neonates that frequently involve early surgical intervention and care. Because the neonatal cardiac physiology is unique, starting with the transition from fetal circulation and including differences in calcium metabolism and myocardial microscopic structure and function, it serves the pediatric surgeon well to have a sound understanding of these principles and how they directly and indirectly affect their plans and treatments. In addition, many patients will have associated congenital heart disease that can also dramatically influence not only the surgical and anesthetic care but also the timing and planning of procedures. Finally, the pediatric surgeon is often called upon to treat conditions and complications associated with complex congenital heart disease such as feeding difficulties, bowel perforations, and malrotation in heterotaxy syndromes. In this article, we will review several unique aspects of neonatal cardiac physiology along with the basic physiology of the major groups of congenital heart disease to better prepare the training and practicing pediatric surgeon for care of these complex and often fragile patients.

  4. EDUCATING FOR THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmundo Rocha Claudino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the information society and the implications for the field of education form the object of analysis of this article, therefore, seeks to outline the profile of the model of informational society, since its main historical precedents to its conceptualization. The characterization of the knowledge society, driven by technological change, highlights the rearrangement of the teaching-learning process from the deterritorialization / virtualization, requiring new practical knowledge of the transaction. We conclude that educate in cyberculture implies recognizing the paradigmatic crisis of the educational system, review postures and understand the technological advances as allies of new practices that expand the role of educator and humanitarian vocation to resize a new habitat.

  5. Big society, big data. The radicalisation of the network society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, V.

    2011-01-01

    During the British election campaign of 2010, David Cameron produced the idea of the ‘Big Society’ as a cornerstone of his political agenda. At the core of the idea is a stronger civil society and local community coupled with a more withdrawn government. Although many commentators have dismissed

  6. Big society, big data. The radicalisation of the network society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, V.

    2011-01-01

    During the British election campaign of 2010, David Cameron produced the idea of the ‘Big Society’ as a cornerstone of his political agenda. At the core of the idea is a stronger civil society and local community coupled with a more withdrawn government. Although many commentators have dismissed thi

  7. Information Era. Conscience Society. Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru TODOROI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ttendees will learn about the research and development which will be effected by scientists in the branch of Conscience Society creation in next decades of XXI century. Conscience is usually seen as linked to a morality inherent in all humans, to a beneficent universe and/or to divinity. It is increasingly conceived of as applying to the world as a whole and as a main feature of conscience society. It has motivated its numerous models, characteristics and functions of Conscience for creation the societal intelligent adaptable information systems in Conscience Society. The moral life is a vital part for the world to maintain a Conscience (civilized Society, so always keep in mind to: accept differences in others; respond promptly to others; leave some "free" time; care about others as if they were you; treat everyone similarly; never engage in violent acts; have an inner sense of thankfulness; have a sense of commitment. Creativity is a result of brain activity which differentiates individuals and could ensure an important competitive advantage for persons, for companies, for Society in general, and for Conscience Society in special. Very innovative branches – like software industry, computer industry, car industry – consider creativity as the key of business success. Natural Intelligence’ Creativity can develop basic creative activities, but Artificial Intelligence’ Creativity, and, especially, Conscience Intelligence’ Creativity should be developed and they could be enhanced over the level of Natural Intelligence. The basic idea for present communication represent the research results communicated at the last two annual AESM conferences [1] [2].

  8. The Physiology Undergraduate Major in the University of Arizona College of Medicine: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Erik J.; Atwater, Anne E.; Delamere, Nicholas A.; Dantzler, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The American Physiological Society (APS) and APS Council encourage the teaching of physiology at the undergraduate, graduate, and medical school levels to support the continued prominence of this area of science. One area identified by the APS Council that is of particular importance for the development of future physiologists (the…

  9. The Physiology Undergraduate Major in the University of Arizona College of Medicine: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Erik J.; Atwater, Anne E.; Delamere, Nicholas A.; Dantzler, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The American Physiological Society (APS) and APS Council encourage the teaching of physiology at the undergraduate, graduate, and medical school levels to support the continued prominence of this area of science. One area identified by the APS Council that is of particular importance for the development of future physiologists (the "physiology…

  10. Broadband society and generational changes

    CERN Document Server

    Colombo, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    The role generations play in accepting and shaping digital technologies, and possibly vice versa, is an increasingly relevant issue in contemporary society. For the first time in the academic debate, this volume outlines the theoretical issues and explores some results from empirical researches on the relationship between generations and the media in digital society. The first part of the book deals with the theoretical debate on generations, from Mannheim's to the revisiting of some classical notions shaped by disciplines as history, demography, marketing and sociology. The second part gather

  11. LIBRARY ROLES IN CHANGING SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Juchnevič

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Global economy, the development of information and communication technologies, new customer requirements for the quality of products and services encourages organizations to expand their practices, to make innovations, to use creative solutions and to perform new functions – to take on new roles. In this changing environment together with other organizations we have information institutions – libraries. They serve the society, therefore they have to correspond the society needs (Shera, 1976. Purpose – the purpose of this report is to analyze how changing society can influence the change of libraries roles in it. Design/methodology/approach –– research methodology based on the system and sociocultural systems theories (based on Grenier, 2005 and system approach. The chosen theory to validate the analysis is the generation changing theory. It says that society consists of groups of different age and different life experiences (history, technologies, political events, etc. individuals (Levickaitė, 2010. Marc Prensky (2001 claims that our current society can be divided into two groups. Chosen methods: analysis of scientific literature, synthesis, comparison and summarizing. Findings – The roles of libraries depends upon occurring changes in society. According to Marc Prensky (2001, it is possible to divide society in two groups, which are: the digital world immigrants and the digital word natives. The first group are the people born before the digital world establishment and expansion, they learned to use it at older age, usually at work or during their studies, and often they do not understand the necessity of new technologies in their lives (meaning they would not experience big discomfort without it. The second group, the natives of digital world, are people born after the expansion of information and communication technologies; they are able to see and also enjoy the meaning of using these technologies. It is lead to the library

  12. [Antiscientific attitudes in open society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Iglesias, Juan Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The social controversy created in regard to the use and experiments with transgenic seeds and organisms serves as an example to illustrate the effects and consequences that can lead to antiscientific attitudes, which have gained great force in contemporary society. It has been suggested that the same functional relationship, from which the Enlightenment, science, and liberalism were born, is currently being applied in the opposite direction, so that the current antiscientific attitudes, along with the support they receive from post-modern thought, can end up undermining the bases of an open and democratic society. The consequences of this phenomenon are already manifested by the approval of certain regulations that lack scientific basis.

  13. The pedagogicalization of ageing societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2011-01-01

    ' a' social' pedagogical' problem' involving' a' focus' on' social' pedagogical' interventions' throughout' the' life' course.'In'order'to'shape'the'future'of'society,'the'perspective'on' ageing'and'old'age'has'shifted'from'being'a'determined'process'to' becoming' a'modifiable' process' focusing' on......' the' processes' of' opti) mizing'and'realizing'people’s'potentials'lifelong.'Active'and'healthy' ageing' unfolds' the' cure' to' the' social' problem' of' contemporary' ageing'societies'in'order'to'make'tomorrows'life'in'old'age'better' than' it' is' today.' The' pedagogical' issues' relate' to' the...

  14. Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below are links to publications authored by ASRM and its affiliated societies. Latest Additions: Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility Robotic surgery The Intrauterine Device (IUD): A Long-acting ...

  15. Education in an Aging Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Harold R.

    1982-01-01

    As society ages, changes in education will include: the development of educational services for older people; the preparation of qualified personnel to serve the elderly; the education of the public about the processes of aging; and the acceleration of efforts to expand and deepen the knowledge base about aging. (MLW)

  16. Reconstructing Death in Postmodern Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Examines interaction between emerging thanatological movement and its sociohistorical context. Notes that thanatology will take on new shape as individuals and society attempt to cope with postmodernistic forces and deconstructive mentality. Considers prospect for authentic solidarity against distress in reconstructed death system. (Author/NB)

  17. Socialization for the Knowledge Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Alexander O.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to give an overview and present special features of socialization of the research type that prepares young people for life in the knowledge society. Methods of cultural and historical epistemology, of hermeneutic and structural-functional analysis of social action have been used in the study, as well as elements of the…

  18. White Resentment in Settler Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Teaching about the history and culture of aboriginal peoples in schools of white settler societies can serve as a counter to the dominant story that serves as the national narrative. Even though the actual teaching may well be among the least political and least disruptive type of curricular knowledge on offer, the inclusion of counter stories can…

  19. The American Montessori Society, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Gilbert E.

    2010-01-01

    This article offers a brief history of the establishment of the American Montessori Society (AMS) and takes a closer look at its structure. The history of AMS has essentially been a search for standards and a search for community in its efforts to further the welfare of children in America. It has been an indigenous effort by American parents, and…

  20. Science in the Information Society

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN will host the Role of Science in the Information Society (RSIS) conference on Monday and Tuesday, focusing on how science-driven information and communication technologies can help close the digital divide. There will be an army of bodyguards at CERN at the beginning of December. CERN will not only host the official visits, but also around 500 scientists, politicians, and members of civil society who will descend on the Main Auditorium for the Role of Science in the Information Society (RSIS) conference on 8-9 December. The RSIS conference hosted by CERN is a high-profile event focusing on how to make information technologies work for the greatest human benefit - a marked change from keeping a relatively low profile so far, making its discoveries available to all with little input in how they are applied. The RSIS, held 8-9 December at CERN, will be a Summit Event of the World Summit on the Information Society taking place at Palexpo on 9-13 December. RSIS participants will apply a scientific point of...

  1. Internal Conflicts in Muslim Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq Ali Shah

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of psychological theories and the social dynamics of the society help identify salient attributes and processes relevant to conflict among Muslims. The psychodynamic concept of personality and frustration-aggression hypothesis account for the socialization practices in the Muslim societies, emotional instability, unfavorable evaluation of those holding a different viewpoint and venting out one's aggression on the weaker. The tendency of the Muslims to praise their sect/tribe/religious group leads to a groupthink situation that polarizes intergroup relationships. The acts of categorization in group and out group, as postulated by the social identity theory, contribute towards the distorted perception of each other. The Islamic notions of brotherhood, unity and ethnic identity as means of personal identification and social interaction seems to have been forgotten by the Muslims. Though the Western social-psychological constructs are helpful in understanding the causes of conflict among Muslims, they are not germane to Muslim societies. The group belongingness and group favouritism is not necessarily a tool of discrimination and conflict but is an essential component of one's survival in a collectivist society. The Western theories also do not address the economic and political circumstances responsible for the multitude of conflicts among Muslims.

  2. Experts in science and society

    CERN Document Server

    Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2004-01-01

    In today's complex world, we have come to rely increasingly on those who have expertise in specific areas and can bring their knowledge to bear on crucial social, political and scientific questions. Taking the viewpoint that experts are consulted when there is something important at stake for an individual, a group, or society at large, Experts in Science and Society explores expertise as a relational concept. How do experts balance their commitment to science with that to society? How does a society actually determine that a person has expertise? What personal traits are valued in an expert? From where does the expert derive authority? What makes new forms of expertise emerge? These and related questions are addressed from a wide range of areas in order to be inclusive, as well as to demonstrate similarities across areas. Likewise, in order to be culturally comparative, this volume includes examples and discussions of experts in different countries and even in different time periods. The topics include the r...

  3. Understanding Class in Contemporary Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that claims about the death of class and the coming of the classless society are premature. Such claims are seldom genuinely empirical, and the theoretical argument often refers to a simple and therefore easily dismissible concept of class. By rejecting the concept of class...

  4. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  5. New concepts in white adipose tissue physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proença, A.R.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Laboratório de Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Limeira, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP (Brazil); Sertié, R.A.L. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, A.C. [Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Instituto Superior de Ciências Biomédicas, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil, Instituto Superior de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Campaãa, A.B.; Caminhotto, R.O.; Chimin, P.; Lima, F.B. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-03

    Numerous studies address the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). The interest surrounding the physiology of AT is primarily the result of the epidemic outburst of obesity in various contemporary societies. Briefly, the two primary metabolic activities of white AT include lipogenesis and lipolysis. Throughout the last two decades, a new model of AT physiology has emerged. Although AT was considered to be primarily an abundant energy source, it is currently considered to be a prolific producer of biologically active substances, and, consequently, is now recognized as an endocrine organ. In addition to leptin, other biologically active substances secreted by AT, generally classified as cytokines, include adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin, vaspin, visfatin, and many others now collectively referred to as adipokines. The secretion of such biologically active substances by AT indicates its importance as a metabolic regulator. Cell turnover of AT has also recently been investigated in terms of its biological role in adipogenesis. Consequently, the objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive critical review of the current literature concerning the metabolic (lipolysis, lipogenesis) and endocrine actions of AT.

  6. Vasogenic shock physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiria Gkisioti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sotiria Gkisioti, Spyros D MentzelopoulosDepartment of Intensive Care Medicine, University of Athens Medical School, Evaggelismos General Hospital, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Shock means inadequate tissue perfusion by oxygen-carrying blood. In vasogenic shock, this circulatory failure results from vasodilation and/or vasoplegia. There is vascular hyporeactivity with reduced vascular smooth muscle contraction in response to α1 adrenergic agonists. Considering vasogenic shock, one can understand its utmost importance, not only because of its association with sepsis but also because it can be the common final pathway for long-lasting, severe shock of any cause, even postresuscitation states. The effective management of any patient in shock requires the understanding of its underlying physiology and pathophysiology. Recent studies have provided new insights into vascular physiology by revealing the interaction of rather complicated and multifactorial mechanisms, which have not been fully elucidated yet. Some of these mechanisms, such as the induction of nitric oxide synthases, the activation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels, and vasopressin deficiency, have gained general acceptance and are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of vasodilatory shock. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the pathogenesis of vasogenic shock.Keywords: nitric oxide synthases, KATP channels, vasopressin, H2S, vasoplegic syndrome

  7. Physiology of bile secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alejandro Esteller

    2008-01-01

    The formation of bile depends on the structural and functional integrity of the bile-secretory apparatus and its impairment,in different situations,results in the syndrome of cholestasis.The structural bases that permit bile secretion as well as various aspects related with its composition and flow rate in physiological conditions will first be reviewed.Canalicular bile is produced by polarized hepatocytes that hold transporters in their basolateral (sinusoidal) and apical (canalicular) plasma membrane.This review summarizes recent data on the molecular determinants of this primary bile formation.The major function of the biliary tree is modification of canalicular bile by secretory and reabsorptive processes in bileduct epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) as bile passes through bile ducts.The mechanisms of fluid and solute transport in cholangiocytes will also be discussed.In contrast to hepatocytes where secretion is constant and poorly controlled,cholangiocyte secretion is regulated by hormones and nerves.A short section dedicated to these regulatory mechanisms of bile secretion has been included.The aim of this revision was to set the bases for other reviews in this series that will be devoted to specific issues related with biliary physiology and pathology.

  8. An official European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society research statement: interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Aryeh; Antoniou, Katerina M; Brown, Kevin K; Cadranel, Jacques; Corte, Tamera J; du Bois, Roland M; Lee, Joyce S; Leslie, Kevin O; Lynch, David A; Matteson, Eric L; Mosca, Marta; Noth, Imre; Richeldi, Luca; Strek, Mary E; Swigris, Jeffrey J; Wells, Athol U; West, Sterling G; Collard, Harold R; Cottin, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Many patients with an idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) have clinical features that suggest an underlying autoimmune process but do not meet established criteria for a connective tissue disease (CTD). Researchers have proposed differing criteria and terms to describe these patients, and lack of consensus over nomenclature and classification limits the ability to conduct prospective studies of a uniform cohort.The "European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society Task Force on Undifferentiated Forms of Connective Tissue Disease-associated Interstitial Lung Disease" was formed to create consensus regarding the nomenclature and classification criteria for patients with IIP and features of autoimmunity.The task force proposes the term "interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features" (IPAF) and offers classification criteria organised around the presence of a combination of features from three domains: a clinical domain consisting of specific extra-thoracic features, a serologic domain consisting of specific autoantibodies, and a morphologic domain consisting of specific chest imaging, histopathologic or pulmonary physiologic features.A designation of IPAF should be used to identify individuals with IIP and features suggestive of, but not definitive for, a CTD. With IPAF, a sound platform has been provided from which to launch the requisite future research investigations of a more uniform cohort. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  9. Love-hate for man-machine metaphors in Soviet physiology: from Pavlov to "physiological cybernetics".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerovitch, Slava

    2002-06-01

    This article reinterprets the debate between orthodox followers of the Pavlovian reflex theory and Soviet "cybernetic physiologists" in the 1950s and 60s as a clash of opposing man-machine metaphors. While both sides accused each other of "mechanistic," reductionist methodology, they did not see anything "mechanistic" about their own central metaphors: the telephone switchboard metaphor for nervous activity (the Pavlovians), and the analogies between the human brain and a computer (the cyberneticians). I argue that the scientific utility of machine analogies was closely intertwined with their philosophical and political meanings and that new interpretations of these metaphors emerged as a result of political conflicts and a realignment of forces within the scientific community and in society at large. I suggest that the constant travel of man-machine analogies, back and forth between physiology and technology has blurred the traditional categories of the "mechanistic" and the "organic" in Soviet neurophysiology, as perhaps in the history of physiology in general.

  10. Network Physiology: Mapping Interactions Between Networks of Physiologic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Bartsch, Ronny P.

    The human organism is an integrated network of interconnected and interacting organ systems, each representing a separate regulatory network. The behavior of one physiological system (network) may affect the dynamics of all other systems in the network of physiologic networks. Due to these interactions, failure of one system can trigger a cascade of failures throughout the entire network. We introduce a systematic method to identify a network of interactions between diverse physiologic organ systems, to quantify the hierarchical structure and dynamics of this network, and to track its evolution under different physiologic states. We find a robust relation between network structure and physiologic states: every state is characterized by specific network topology, node connectivity and links strength. Further, we find that transitions from one physiologic state to another trigger a markedly fast reorganization in the network of physiologic interactions on time scales of just a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. This reorganization in network topology occurs simultaneously and globally in the entire network as well as at the level of individual physiological systems, while preserving a hierarchical order in the strength of network links. Our findings highlight the need of an integrated network approach to understand physiologic function, since the framework we develop provides new information which can not be obtained by studying individual systems. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate the development of a new field, Network Physiology.

  11. Architecture for the silvering society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Jonas E; Rönn, Magnus

    Abstract In the context of the universal ageing process that is currently taking place in western society, the organization of architecture competitions that deals with space for dependent ageing comes of relevance. Based on the welfare regime theory, it could be argued that this type of architec......Abstract In the context of the universal ageing process that is currently taking place in western society, the organization of architecture competitions that deals with space for dependent ageing comes of relevance. Based on the welfare regime theory, it could be argued that this type...... by the Swedish Institute of Assistive Technology (SIAT), which administered the governmental allocation of 50 million SEK. The research material was accumulated by use of internet searches, interviews and questionnaires. The analysis applied pattern seeking and involved close reading, document analysis...

  12. Space Weather, Environment and Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Lilensten, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Our planet exists within a space environment affected by constantly changing solar atmosphere producing cosmic particles and electromagnetic waves. This "space weather" profoundly influences the performance of our technology because we primarily use two means for transmitting information and energy; namely, electromagnetic waves and electricity. On an everyday basis, we have developed methods to cope with the normal conditions. However, the sun remains a fiery star whose 'angry' outbursts can potentially destroy spacecrafts, kill astronauts, melt electricity transformers, stop trains, and generally wreak havoc with human activities. Space Weather is the developing field within astronomy that aims at predicting the sun’s violent activity and minimizing the impacts on our daily lives. Space Weather, Environment, and Societies explains why our technological societies are so dependent on solar activity and how the Sun disturbs the transmission of information and energy. Footnotes expand specific points and the ...

  13. The pedagogicalization of ageing societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2011-01-01

    ' the' processes' of' opti) mizing'and'realizing'people’s'potentials'lifelong.'Active'and'healthy' ageing' unfolds' the' cure' to' the' social' problem' of' contemporary' ageing'societies'in'order'to'make'tomorrows'life'in'old'age'better' than' it' is' today.' The' pedagogical' issues' relate' to' the......Transformations' in' the' age'profile'of' a'population' are' a' response' to' political' and' economic' structures' and' in' relation' to' public'services'older'people'become'a'burden'to'the'younger'work) ing'people.'The'construction'of'a'social'problem'in'relation'to'popu) lation' ageing' becomes......' a' social' pedagogical' problem' involving' a' focus' on' social' pedagogical' interventions' throughout' the' life' course.'In'order'to'shape'the'future'of'society,'the'perspective'on' ageing'and'old'age'has'shifted'from'being'a'determined'process'to' becoming' a'modifiable' process' focusing' on...

  14. Information Societies and Digital Divides

    CERN Document Server

    Sorj, Bernardo

    2008-01-01

    The book argues ICT are part of the set of goods and services that determine quality of life, social inequality and the chances for economic development. Therefore understanding the digital divide demands a broader discussion of the place of ICT within each society and in the international system. The author argues against the perspectives that either isolates ICT from other basic social goods (in particular education and employment) as well as those that argue that new technologies are luxury of a consumer society. Though the author accepts that new technologies are not a panacea for the problems of inequality, access to them become a condition of full integration of social life. Using examples mainly from Latin America, the work presents some general policy proposals on the fight against the digital divide which take in consideration other dimensions of social inequality and access to public goods. Bernardo Sorj was born in Montevideo, Uruguay. He is a naturalized Brazilian, living in Brazil since 1976. He ...

  15. Architecture for the silvering society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Jonas E; Rönn, Magnus

    Abstract In the context of the universal ageing process that is currently taking place in western society, the organization of architecture competitions that deals with space for dependent ageing comes of relevance. Based on the welfare regime theory, it could be argued that this type of architec......Abstract In the context of the universal ageing process that is currently taking place in western society, the organization of architecture competitions that deals with space for dependent ageing comes of relevance. Based on the welfare regime theory, it could be argued that this type......, since a spatial innovation is juxtaposed with sociopolitical reform work of the welfare regime. The present study is an explorative study of programming competition documents and winning entries that were part of the Swedish governmental initiative of 2010,” Growing older, Living well,” to innovate...

  16. Leadership in an Egalitarian Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rueden, Christopher; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard; Stieglitz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Leadership is instrumental to resolution of collective action dilemmas, particularly in large, heterogeneous groups. Less is known about the characteristics or effectiveness of leadership in small-scale, homogeneous, and relatively egalitarian societies, in which humans have spent most of our existence. Among Tsimane’ forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia, we (1) assess traits of elected leaders under experimental and naturalistic conditions and (2) test whether leaders impact collective action outcomes. We find that elected leaders are physically strong and have more kin and other exchange partners. Their ranks on physical dominance, kin support, and trustworthiness predict how well their groups perform, but only where group members have a history of collaborative interaction. Leaders do not take more of the spoils. We discuss why physically strong leaders can be compatible with egalitarianism, and we suggest that leaders in egalitarian societies may be more motivated by maintaining an altruistic reputation than by short-term rewards of collective action. PMID:25240393

  17. INFORMATION SOCIETY EVOLUTION AND EFFECTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2016-01-01

    The evolution and effects of the information society can be exemplified via many threads, both in hard and soft science, according to ones’ discipline and field. In this contribution, the speaker’s three decades of applied research acts as a vehicle to demonstrate development and impact via...... directly and creatively applying technical advances to affect life quality at a societal level. Illustrated is how empirical research successfully reaches beyond the walls of academia to directly affect individuals, groups and communities across abilities and ages. Developments that have led to patented...... commercial product, national and international projects, and industry startups (including impactful third party research investigations) form the basis for discussion. Beyond this, a wider more generic perspective reflects on product adoption that illustrate todays’ contemporary e-society tendencies where...

  18. INFORMATION SOCIETY AND KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihane BERISHA NAMANI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, technologies have changed our social and economic life. Society is becoming “knowledge society” and information and communication technology has played an important role. The economy is evolving out of classic model of the economy in the new economy known as “knowledge economy”. Information and communication technology is bringing changes to various sectors of economy. Business is undergoing a fundamental structural transformation and traditional business become more dependent on Internet related technologies. This paper describes the role and the importance of the use of information technology with special emphases how economy and business can benefit from information technology. This technology play a key role and influence society and have a great impact in all spheres of economy. This components are described and discussed while the use of this technology for business purposes are proposed as necessary.

  19. Human cloning and 'posthuman' society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Russell

    2005-01-01

    Since early 1997, when the creation of Dolly the sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer was announced in Nature, numerous government reports, essays, articles and books have considered the ethical problems and policy issues surrounding human reproductive cloning. In this article, I consider what response a modern liberal society should give to the prospect of human cloning, if it became safe and practical. Some opponents of human cloning have argued that permitting it would place us on a slippery slope to a repugnant future society, comparable to that portrayed in Aldous Huxley's novel, Brave New World. I conclude that, leaving aside concerns about safety, none of the psychological or social considerations discussed in this article provides an adequate policy justification for invoking the state's coercive powers to prevent human cloning.

  20. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita CIULEI

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethic...

  1. The Geochemical Society(GS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seth M.Davis

    2007-01-01

    @@ Mission The Geochemical Society is an international nonprofit organization for scientists involved in the practice,study and teaching of geochemistry.0ur principal roles are to understand and meet the needs of our members so as to provide them with programs and services that will help them be better geochemists;to empower geochemists through information,education,relationships and resources that will enrich their professional development and careers;and to advance the thought and application of geochemistry.

  2. [Civil bioethics in pluralistics societies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, A

    2000-01-01

    The author examines how Bioethics should be approached in a pluralist society. She argues that through the gradual discovery of shared ethical values and principles for judging which practices are humanizing and which or not, ever-more dense civil Bioethics helps bring out--in contrast to relativism and subjectivism--an ethical intersubjectiveness, the fundaments of which should be addressed by moral philosophy if it hopes to fulfill one of its main tasks.

  3. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita CIULEI

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethic...

  4. Architecture in the network society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    Under the theme Architecture in the Network Society, participants were invited to focus on the dialog and sharing of knowledge between architects and other disciplines and to reflect on, and propose, new methods in the design process, to enhance and improve the impact of information technology...... on architecture. This conference and the past history of eCAADe is an example on establishing a social network for the sharing of knowledge regarding the use of computers in architectural education and research....

  5. Participation of women in neurochemistry societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Marjorie B

    2002-11-01

    Women have made important scientific contributions to the field of neurochemistry, and they have also been leaders in neurochemical societies throughout the world. Here I discuss women's involvement and leadership in six neurochemistry societies: American Society for Neurochemistry, Argentine Society for Neurochemistry, International Society for Neurochemistry, European Society for Neurochemistry, Japanese Society for Neurochemistry, and Asian-Pacific Society for Neurochemistry. The number of women who have been active in these societies and the level of their activity vary considerably. Neurochemical societies in the Western hemisphere, i.e., the American and the Argentine Society for Neurochemistry, have much greater numbers of women who have held office, been on council, or engaged in other leadership activities than in the rest of the world. The limited participation of women in the Japanese Neurochemistry Society relates to Japanese cultural views and was not unexpected. However, the relatively few women leaders in the International Society for Neurochemistry was a surprise. The European Society had a somewhat better record of female participation than did the International Society. The reasons for these differences are partly cultural, but factors related to when each society was formed, how it is organized, and how elections are structured undoubtedly play a role. Further analysis of these observations would be of interest from a sociological and a women's studies point of view.

  6. Keeping a learned society young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Dawid

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging organizations - regardless of whether they are firms, faculties, societies, political bodies, teams, or national academies - seek ways to rejuvenate. This paper demonstrates that the best way to keep an organization young is through a mixed strategy of recruiting both young and old, and that, contrary to intuition, recruiting those of middle age is the least effective strategy for maintaining a younger age structure. The aging of learned societies is a problem in many national academies. Faced with rising life expectancy, particularly for older persons, the average age of academy members is increasing. Another reason for "overaging" is an increase in the age at election. In an organization with a fixed size, the annual intake is strictly determined by the number of deaths and the statutory retirement age. This can, among many learned societies, lead to a fundamental dilemma: the desire to maintain a young age structure, while still guaranteeing a high recruitment rate. We derive an optimal recruitment policy which is bimodal, i.e., it entails shifting recruitment partly to younger ages and partly to older ages, while decreasing the recruitment of middle-aged candidates. Although the optimization problem explicitly involves only the average age and the recruitment rate as objectives, the methodology implicitly allows us to take into consideration all other objectives (formal or informal used in the actual election practice.

  7. Equalitarian Societies are Economically Impossible

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Bojin; Shu, Wanneng; Wang, Jianmin; Li, Deyi

    2012-01-01

    The inequality of wealth distribution is a universal phenomenon in the civilized nations, and it is often imputed to the Matthew effect, that is, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer. Some philosophers unjustified this phenomenon and tried to put the human civilization upon the evenness of wealth. Noticing the facts that 1) the emergence of the centralism is the starting point of human civilization, i.e., people in a society were organized hierarchically, 2) the inequality of wealth emerges simultaneously, this paper proposes a wealth distribution model based on the hidden tree structure from the viewpoint of complex network. This model considers the organized structure of people in a society as a hidden tree, and the cooperations among human beings as the transactions on the hidden tree, thereby explains the distribution of wealth. This model shows that the scale-free phenomenon of wealth distribution can be produced by the cascade controlling of human society, that is, the inequality of wealth can pa...

  8. Physiological Effects of Ergot Alkaloid and Indole-Diterpene Consumption on Sheep under Hot and Thermoneutral Ambient Temperature Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Michelle L E; Kemp, Stuart; Dunshea, Frank R; Leury, Brian J

    2016-06-02

    A controlled feeding study was undertaken to determine the physiological and production effects of consuming perennial ryegrass alkaloids (fed via seed) under extreme heat in sheep. Twenty-four Merino ewe weaners (6 months; initial BW 30.8 ± 1.0 kg) were selected and the treatment period lasted 21 days following a 14 day acclimatisation period. Two levels of two factors were used. The first factor was alkaloid, fed at a nil (NilAlk) or moderate level (Alk; 80 μg/kg LW ergovaline and 20.5 μg/kg·LW lolitrem B). The second factor was ambient temperature applied at two levels; thermoneutral (TN; constant 21-22 °C) or heat (Heat; 9:00 AM-5:00 PM at 38 °C; 5:00 PM-9:00 AM at 21-22 °C), resulting in four treatments, NilAlk TN, NilAlk Heat, Alk TN and Alk Heat. Alkaloid consumption reduced dry matter intake ( p = 0.008), and tended to reduce liveweight ( p = 0.07). Rectal temperature and respiration rate were increased by both alkaloid and heat ( p < 0.05 for all). Respiration rate increased to severe levels when alkaloid and heat were combined, indicating the short term effects which may be occurring in perennial ryegrass toxicosis (PRGT) areas during severe weather conditions, a novel finding. When alkaloid ingestion and heat were administered separately, similar physiological responses occurred, indicating alkaloid ingestion causes a similar heat stress response to 38 °C heat.

  9. Single Cell Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Pierre; Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Kettunen, Petronella; Vriz, Sophie; Jullien, Ludovic; Bensimon, David

    The possibility to control at specific times and specific places the activity of biomolecules (enzymes, transcription factors, RNA, hormones, etc.) is opening up new opportunities in the study of physiological processes at the single cell level in a live organism. Most existing gene expression systems allow for tissue specific induction upon feeding the organism with exogenous inducers (e.g., tetracycline). Local genetic control has earlier been achieved by micro-injection of the relevant inducer/repressor molecule, but this is an invasive and possibly traumatic technique. In this chapter, we present the requirements for a noninvasive optical control of the activity of biomolecules and review the recent advances in this new field of research.

  10. [Physiology of the neuropeptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, M J; Martínez-Martos, J M; Mayas, M D; Carrera, M P; Ramírez- Expósito, M J

    In the present review, the characteristics of mammalian neuropeptides have been studied. Neuropeptides are widely distributed not only in the nervous system but also in the periphery. They are synthesised by neurons as large precursor molecules (pre propeptides) which have to be cleaved and modified in order to form the mature neuropeptides. Neuropeptides may exert actions as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and/or neurohormones. In the neurons, they coexist with classic transmitters and often with other peptides. After their releasing, they bind to especific receptors to exert their action in the target cell. Most of these receptors belongs to a family of G protein coupled receptors. Finally, peptidases are the enzymes involved in the degradation of neuropeptides. Conclusions. In the last years, the number of known neuropeptides and the understanding of their functions have been increased. With these data, present investigations are looking for the treatment of different pathologies associated with alterations in the physiology of neuropeptides.

  11. Postoperative Management of the Physiological Effects of Spinal Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Jennifer; Helwig, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Spinal anesthesia is a common regional anesthesia used in ambulatory and hospital settings. Spinal anesthesia has been shown to reduce postoperative pain and morbidity in certain populations. Understanding the physiological changes during spinal anesthesia can help predict and manage side effects including hypotension, bradycardia, decreased expiration, nausea, vomiting, and urinary retention. This article describes the physiological effects of spinal anesthesia in a body systems approach, describes how to assess the spinal level, and presents common side effects seen postoperatively and how to successfully manage and treat these patients. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Physiology for engineers applying engineering methods to physiological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formulated and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies. Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reacti...

  13. Network Physiology reveals relations between network topology and physiological function

    CERN Document Server

    Bashan, Amir; Kantelhardt, Jan W; Havlin, Shlomo; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; 10.1038/ncomms1705

    2012-01-01

    The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiologic systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse systems with different types of interactions is a challenge. Here, we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiologic network. We find that each physiologic state is characterized by a specific network structure, demonstrating a robust interplay between network topology and function. Across physiologic states the network undergoes topological transitions associated with fast reorganization of physiologic interactions on time scales of a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate the development of a new field, Network Physiology.

  14. Network physiology reveals relations between network topology and physiological function

    OpenAIRE

    Bashan, Amir; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Havlin, Shlomo; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2012-01-01

    The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiological systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse systems with different types of interactions is a challenge. Here we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiological network. We find that each physiological state is...

  15. 27 CFR 21.22 - Formula No. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gallons of either methyl isobutyl ketone, mixed isomers of nitropropane, or methyl n- butyl ketone; 0.125... gallon of either kerosene, deodorized kerosene, gasoline, unleaded gasoline, rubber hydrocarbon solvent...

  16. Trip to Fish Springs - August 21, 22, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses field survey results from several trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in August 1959. The following topics are outlined; water...

  17. Cardiovascular physiology and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Narayana S; Svatikova, Anna; Somers, Virend K

    2003-05-01

    Sleep is a natural periodic suspension of consciousness during which processes of rest and restoration occur. The cognitive, reparative and regenerative accompaniments of sleep appear to be essential for maintenance of health and homeostasis. This brief overview will examine the cardiovascular responses to normal and disordered sleep, and their physiologic and pathologic implications. In the past, sleep was believed to be a passive state. The tableau of sleep as it unfolds is anything but a passive process. The brain's activity is as complex as wakefulness, never "resting" during sleep. Following the demise of the 'passive theory of sleep' (the reticular activating system is fatigued during the waking day and hence becomes inactive), there arose the 'active theory of sleep' (sleep is due to an active general inhibition of the brain) (1). Hess demonstrated the active nature of sleep in cats, inducing "physiological sleep" with electrical stimulation of the diencephalon (2). Classical experiments of transection of the cat brainstem (3) at midpontine level inhibited sleep completely, implying that centers below this level were involved in the induction of sleep (1, 4). For the first time, measurement of sleep depth without awakening the sleeper using the electroencephalogram (EEG) was demonstrated in animals by Caton and in humans, by Berger (1). This was soon followed by discovery of the rapid eye movement sleep periods (REM) by Aserinski and Kleitman (5), demonstration of periodical sleep cycles and their association with REM sleep (6, 7). Multiple studies and steady discoveries (4) made polysomnography, with its ability to perform simultaneous whole night recordings of EEG, electromyogram (EMG), and electrooculogram (EOC), a major diagnostic tool in study of sleep disorders. This facility has been of further critical importance in allowing evaluation of the interaction between sleep and changes in hemodynamics and autonomic cardiovascular control. Consequently the

  18. Physiology of vitreous surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefánsson, Einar

    2009-02-01

    Vitreous surgery has various physiological and clinical consequences, both beneficial and harmful. Vitrectomy reduces the risk of retinal neovascularization, while increasing the risk of iris neovascularization, reduces macular edema and stimulates cataract formation. These clinical consequences may be understood with the help of classical laws of physics and physiology. The laws of Fick, Stokes-Einstein and Hagen-Poiseuille state that molecular transport by diffusion or convection is inversely related to the viscosity of the medium. When the vitreous gel is replaced with less viscous saline, the transport of all molecules, including oxygen and cytokines, is facilitated. Oxygen transport to ischemic retinal areas is improved, as is clearance of VEGF and other cytokines from these areas, thus reducing edema and neovascularization. At the same time, oxygen is transported faster down a concentration gradient from the anterior to the posterior segment, while VEGF moves in the opposite direction, making the anterior segment less oxygenated and with more VEGF, stimulating iris neovascularization. Silicone oil is the exception that proves the rule: it is more viscous than vitreous humour, re-establishes the transport barrier to oxygen and VEGF, and reduces the risk for iris neovascularization in the vitrectomized-lentectomized eye. Modern vitreous surgery involves a variety of treatment options in addition to vitrectomy itself, such as photocoagulation, anti-VEGF drugs, intravitreal steroids and release of vitreoretinal traction. A full understanding of these treatment modalities allows sensible combination of treatment options. Retinal photocoagulation has repeatedly been shown to improve retinal oxygenation, as does vitrectomy. Oxygen naturally reduces VEGF production and improves retinal hemodynamics. The VEGF-lowering effect of photocoagulation and vitrectomy can be augmented with anti-VEGF drugs and the permeability effect of VEGF reduced with corticosteroids

  19. Procedures of Exercise Physiology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Phillip A.; Fortney, Suzanne; Greenisen, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Squires, William

    1998-01-01

    This manual describes the laboratory methods used to collect flight crew physiological performance data at the Johnson Space Center. The Exercise Countermeasures Project Laboratory is a standard physiology laboratory; only the application to the study of human physiological adaptations to spaceflight is unique. In the absence of any other recently published laboratory manual, this manual should be a useful document staffs and students of other laboratories.

  20. Serbian society and gun culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions whether one characteristic of Serbian society is a gun culture. The first part of the paper deals with some theoretical concerns and closer explanation of what is understood by the term gun culture. Few different approaches to the issue are analyzed. The concept used has three main components of the gun culture: system of positive beliefs; social symbols embodied by the gun; agent "bearers" of gun culture. The second part of the paper presents results from Small Arms and Light Weapons survey conducted in 2004 in Serbia. The results were analyzed within the theoretical framework proposed in the first part of the paper.

  1. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita CIULEI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethics, business ethics etc. Classification-JEL: A23

  2. Security and the networked society

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This book examines technological and social events during 2011 and 2012, a period that saw the rise of the hacktivist, the move to mobile platforms, and the ubiquity of social networks. It covers key technological issues such as hacking, cyber-crime, cyber-security and cyber-warfare, the internet, smart phones, electronic security, and information privacy. This book traces the rise into prominence of these issues while also exploring the resulting cultural reaction. The authors' analysis forms the basis of a discussion on future technological directions and their potential impact on society. T

  3. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  4. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic.

  5. Physiology in Modelica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Mateják

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Modelica is an object-oriented language, in which models can be created and graphically represented by connecting instances of classes from libraries. These connections are not only assignments of values; they can also represent acausal equality. Even more, they can model Kirchhoff’s laws of circuits. In Modelica it is possible to develop library classes which are an analogy of electrical circuit components. The result of our work in this field is Physiolibrary (www.physiolibrary.org – a free, open-source Modelica library for human physiology. By graphical joining instances of Physiolibrary classes, user can create models of cardiovascular circulation, thermoregulation, metabolic processes, nutrient distribution, gas transport, electrolyte regulation, water distribution, hormonal regulation and pharmacological regulation. After simple setting of the parameters, the models are ready to simulate. After simulation, the user can examine variables as their values change over time. Representing the model as a diagram has also great educational advantages, because students are able to better understand physical principles when they see them modeled graphically.

  6. Smolt physiology and endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  7. Polyamines in plant physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galston, A. W.; Sawhney, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing.

  8. DOSHIC PHYSIOLOGY OF SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivprasad Chiplunkar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The balance of dosha  represents the healthy state and imbalance will cause various diseases. In normalcy doshas will be performing their own functions and individual doshas will be having their own specific sites. By telling the various sthana of each dosha, different function that is taken up by individual dosha in different sites has been highlighted.By mentioning ‘sparshanendriyam’ as one of the sthana of vata dosha the sensory functions of skin to vata dosha has been emphasised. By mentioning ‘sparshanam’ as one of the sthana of pittadosha, the function of colouring/pigmentation of skin, which is majorly carried out  by melanocytes by secreting melanin pigment has been highlighted. Meda is one among the sthanas of kapha dosha; this can be considered as the adipose tissue of skin/below skin. Since sweda is mala of meda it can be also considered as the secretions from the eccrine glands.With respect to skin, sensory functions, both tactile and thermal is carried out by vata dosha more specifically vyana vata, pigmentation to the skin carried out by meloncytes by secreting melanin, it is nothing but function of pitta dosha more specifically brajaka pitta with the help of udana vata and finally production of sweat in sweat glands is the function of kapha. So there is the need for further study and research regarding the sthanas of all three doshas in different structures/organs in the body and its physiology.

  9. Physiology of Volition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Mark

    The idea of free will is a conscious awareness of the brain concerning the nature of the movement that it produces. There is no evidence for it to be a driving force in movement generation. This review considers the physiology of movement generation and how the concepts of willing and agency might arise. Both the anatomical substrates and the timing of events are considered. Movement initiation and volition are not necessarily linked, and one line of evidence comes from consideration of patients with disorders of volition. Movement is generated subconsciously, and the conscious sense of willing the movement comes later, but the exact time of this event is difficult to assess because of the potentially illusory nature of introspection. The evidence suggests that movement is initiated in frontal lobe, particularly the mesial areas, and the sense of volition arises as the result of a corollary discharge from premotor and motor areas likely involving the parietal lobe. Agency probably involves a similar region in the parietal lobe and requires both the sense of volition and movement feedback.

  10. The human hair: from anatomy to physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffoli, Barbara; Rinaldi, Fabio; Labanca, Mauro; Sorbellini, Elisabetta; Trink, Anna; Guanziroli, Elena; Rezzani, Rita; Rodella, Luigi F

    2014-03-01

    Hair is a unique character of mammals and has several functions, from protection of the skin to sexual and social communication. In literature, there are various studies about hair that take into consideration different aspects within many fields of science, including biology, dermatology, cosmetics, forensic sciences, and medicine. We carried out a search of studies published in PubMed up to 2013. In this review, we summarized the principal anatomical and physiological aspects of the different types of human hair, and we considered the clinical significance of the different structures and the distribution of the hair in the human body. This review could be the basis for improvement and progression in the field of hair research. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. 中国生理学会八十周年回顾%Eighty years of Chinese Association for Physiological Sciences in retrospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚泰

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Chinese Association for Physiological Sciences (CAPS) celebrated her 80th anniversary last November. Eighty years ago, Dr. Robert K. S. Lim, Professor of Physiology at the Peking Union Medical College, in association with Dr. Wu Xian (Professor of Biochemistry) and Dr. B. E. Read (Professor of Pharmacology), sponsored the establishment of the Chinese Physiological Society.

  12. Performance in physiology evaluation: possible improvement by active learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrezor, Luís H

    2016-12-01

    The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages interaction with their peers, and stimulates thinking about physiological mechanisms. This study examined the performance of medical students on physiology over four semesters with and without active engagement methodologies. Four activities were used: a puzzle, a board game, a debate, and a video. The results show that engaging in activities with active methodologies before a physiology cognitive monitoring test significantly improved student performance compared with not performing the activities. We integrate the use of these methodologies with classic lectures, and this integration appears to improve the teaching/learning process in the discipline of physiology and improves the integration of physiology with cardiology and neurology. In addition, students enjoy the activities and perform better on their evaluations when they use them. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  13. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology position stand: Benefit and risk for promoting childhood physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmuir, Patricia E; Colley, Rachel C; Wherley, Valerie A; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-11-01

    Current guidelines recommend children accumulate 60 min of daily physical activity; however, highly publicized sudden-death events among young athletes raise questions regarding activity safety. An expert group convened (June 2012) to consider the safety of promoting increased physical activity for children, and recommended the publication of an evidence-based statement of current knowledge regarding the benefits and risks of physical activity for children. Recommendations for encouraging physical activity while maximizing the opportunity to identify children who have been prescribed a physical activity restriction include (1) professionals and (or) researchers that encourage children to change the type of physical activity or to increase the frequency, intensity, or duration of their activity should inquire whether a child has primary healthcare provider-prescribed activity limitations before the child's activity participation changes; (2) physical activity researchers should prioritize the development of evidence regarding the benefits and risks of childhood physical activity and inactivity, particularly data on the risks of sedentary lifestyles and physical activity-associated injury risks that accounts for the amount of activity performed, and the effectiveness of current risk-management strategies and screening approaches; (3) professionals and researchers should prioritize the dissemination of information regarding the benefits of physical activity and the risks of sedentary behaviour in children; and (4) parents and professionals should encourage all children to accumulate at least 60 min of physical activity daily. The recommendations are established as a minimum acceptable standard that is applicable to all physical activity opportunities organized for children, whether those opportunities occur in a community, school, or research setting.

  14. Genetic, molecular and physiological mechanisms involved in human obesity: Society for Endocrinology Medal Lecture 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Sadaf I

    2015-01-01

    The health consequences of obesity represent one of the major public health challenges of our time. Whilst the role of environmental drivers such as reduced physical activity and increased food intake is widely acknowledged, the importance of biological factors which influence individual variation in weight is less readily recognised. Considerable evidence suggests that genetic factors influence a person's weight in a given environment and that these genetic influences are more potent at the extremes of the body mass index (BMI) distribution. The discovery that genetic disruption of certain pathways can lead to severe obesity has informed our current understanding of how body weight is regulated by brain circuits that regulate appetite and energy expenditure. These studies provide a framework for investigating patients and ultimately may guide the development of more rational-targeted therapies for genetically susceptible individuals with severe obesity.

  15. Causality in physiological signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Kraemer, Jan F; Penzel, Thomas; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Kurths, Jürgen; Wessel, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Health is one of the most important non-material assets and thus also has an enormous influence on material values, since treating and preventing diseases is expensive. The number one cause of death worldwide today originates in cardiovascular diseases. For these reasons the aim of understanding the functions and the interactions of the cardiovascular system is and has been a major research topic throughout various disciplines for more than a hundred years. The purpose of most of today's research is to get as much information as possible with the lowest possible effort and the least discomfort for the subject or patient, e.g. via non-invasive measurements. A family of tools whose importance has been growing during the last years is known under the headline of coupling measures. The rationale for this kind of analysis is to identify the structure of interactions in a system of multiple components. Important information lies for example in the coupling direction, the coupling strength, and occurring time lags. In this work, we will, after a brief general introduction covering the development of cardiovascular time series analysis, introduce, explain and review some of the most important coupling measures and classify them according to their origin and capabilities in the light of physiological analyses. We will begin with classical correlation measures, go via Granger-causality-based tools, entropy-based techniques (e.g. momentary information transfer), nonlinear prediction measures (e.g. mutual prediction) to symbolic dynamics (e.g. symbolic coupling traces). All these methods have contributed important insights into physiological interactions like cardiorespiratory coupling, neuro-cardio-coupling and many more. Furthermore, we will cover tools to detect and analyze synchronization and coordination (e.g. synchrogram and coordigram). As a last point we will address time dependent couplings as identified using a recent approach employing ensembles of time series. The

  16. Applied physiology of cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, I E

    1984-01-01

    Historically, the bicycle has evolved through the stages of a machine for efficient human transportation, a toy for children, a finely-tuned racing machine, and a tool for physical fitness development, maintenance and testing. Recently, major strides have been made in the aerodynamic design of the bicycle. These innovations have resulted in new land speed records for human powered machines. Performance in cycling is affected by a variety of factors, including aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance, and body composition. Bicycle races range from a 200m sprint to approximately 5000km. This vast range of competitive racing requires special attention to the principle of specificity of training. The physiological demands of cycling have been examined through the use of bicycle ergometers, rollers, cycling trainers, treadmill cycling, high speed photography, computer graphics, strain gauges, electromyography, wind tunnels, muscle biopsy, and body composition analysis. These techniques have been useful in providing definitive data for the development of a work/performance profile of the cyclist. Research evidence strongly suggests that when measuring the cyclist's aerobic or anaerobic capacity, a cycling protocol employing a high pedalling rpm should be used. The research bicycle should be modified to resemble a racing bicycle and the cyclist should wear cycling shoes. Prolonged cycling requires special nutritional considerations. Ingestion of carbohydrates, in solid form and carefully timed, influences performance. Caffeine appears to enhance lipid metabolism. Injuries, particularly knee problems which are prevalent among cyclists, may be avoided through the use of proper gearing and orthotics. Air pollution has been shown to impair physical performance. When pollution levels are high, training should be altered or curtailed. Effective training programmes simulate competitive conditions. Short and long interval training, blended with long

  17. Assessing prebaccalaureate human physiology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, V L

    1998-12-01

    Two surveys were conducted between 1994 and 1996. The purpose of the initial survey was to obtain demographic information about prebaccaulareate human physiology courses. Of the 117 responding physiology departments, 50% offered human physiology at the prebaccalaureate level to 14,185 students during the 1994-1995 academic year. The mean was 245 students per year (+/- 30 SE). Class size was limited by 44% of the respondents. Prebaccaluareate human physiology was offered as a separate course from anatomy by 93% of the departments. Sixty-one percent scheduled the course once a year. The purpose of the second survey was to determine how physiology departments evaluated prebaccalaureate physiology courses and faculty. All responding departments utilized student feedback; 38% of the departments included physiology chair review, 38% peer review, and 9% allied health faculty review. Twenty-eight percent of allied health programs evaluated the course. Results indicated that, whereas a significant number of undergraduate students are enrolled in prebaccaluareate physiology courses annually, those courses appear to lack formal, consistent formative evaluation.

  18. European Planning for an Information Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Falch, Morten

    1996-01-01

    Article analysing the different programmes and plans for the development of information societies in Europe.......Article analysing the different programmes and plans for the development of information societies in Europe....

  19. Memory Book from Islamic Societies in Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Islamic Societies in Massachusetts

    2012-01-01

    Messages come from Harvard Islamic Society, Simmons Muslim Student Association, Tufts University Muslim Students Association, Islamic Society of Boston University, Westborough High School, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Shrewsbury High School

  20. CERN to host conference on information society

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN will host a conference on the Role of Science in the Information Society (RSIS) in December. This conference will focus on ensuring that the information society benefits people to the greatest extent possible, especially in developing regions.

  1. Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... membership and to apply online. SNIS Mission The Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery is dedicated to excellence in ... 703-691-2272 Fax 703-537-0650 © 2016 Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Research Foundation of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS) and the Society of American ... W. OIympic Blvd Suite 600 Los Angeles, CA 90064 USA webmaster@sages.org Tel: (310) 437- ...

  3. The European Mathematical Society Ethics Committee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Arne

    2011-01-01

    The Executive Committee of the European Mathematical Society created an Ethics Committee in the Spring of 2010.......The Executive Committee of the European Mathematical Society created an Ethics Committee in the Spring of 2010....

  4. Multiplex Modeling of the Society

    CERN Document Server

    Kertesz, Janos; Murase, Yohsuke; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kaski, Kimmo

    2016-01-01

    The society has a multi-layered structure, where the layers represent the different contexts. To model this structure we begin with a single-layer weighted social network (WSN) model showing the Granovetterian structure. We find that when merging such WSN models, a sufficient amount of inter-layer correlation is needed to maintain the relationship between topology and link weights, while these correlations destroy the enhancement in the community overlap due to multiple layers. To resolve this, we devise a geographic multi-layer WSN model, where the indirect inter-layer correlations due to the geographic constraints of individuals enhance the overlaps between the communities and, at the same time, the Granovetterian structure is preserved. Furthermore, the network of social interactions can be considered as a multiplex from another point of view too: each layer corresponds to one communication channel and the aggregate of all them constitutes the entire social network. However, usually one has information onl...

  5. Transfer your ideas to society!

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Science and technology labs are the ideal places for developing innovative solutions. However, inventors sometimes don’t realize that their ideas can find an application in industry, which can in turn have a technical and economic impact on society. Some researchers may think that disclosing an invention is a time-consuming process which is worth doing only in very special cases. But one thing is certain: it is always worth informing the Knowledge and Technology Transfer group, as they will give you the correct advice and support. Don’t be afraid of the paperwork… it can be highly rewarding!   Why should researchers at CERN bother to disclose their inventions to the Knowledge and Technology Transfer Group first? “Because when inventors do so, a process to transfer the technology to industry is set in motion” explains Henning Huuse, Patent Portfolio Manager in the KTT Group. To facilitate this transfer, patent protection can be a useful tool. &...

  6. Fluidity in the networked society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin Tweddell

    2011-01-01

    competencies. Both lifelong learning and digital literacy understood as "bildung" have emerged as central for the definitions of and standards for future key competencies. However, definitions and standards only tell us about the desired destination and outcome of digital competence building. They tell us...... for this small group of students – have proved to support the development of digital self-programming as a sustainable competence. In the autumn 2010 the study will be expanded to a larger group of students.......In the globalized economies e-permeation has become a basic condition in our everyday lives. ICT can no longer be understood solely as artefacts and tools and computer-related literacy are no longer restricted to the ability to operate digital tools for specific purposes. The network society...

  7. International Mass Spectrometry Society (IMSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, R G; Gelpi, E; Nibbering, N M

    2001-02-01

    This paper gives a brief description of the recently formalized International Mass Spectrometry Society (IMSS). It is presented here in order to increase awareness of the opportunities for collaboration in mass spectrometry in an international context. It also describes the recent 15th International Mass Spectrometry Conference, held August/September 2000, in Barcelona. Each of the authors is associated with the IMSS. The 15th Conference, which covers all of mass spectrometry on a triennial basis, was chaired by Professor Emilio Gelpi of the Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Barcelona. The outgoing and founding President of the IMSS is Professor Graham Cooks, Purdue University, and the incoming President is Professor Nico Nibbering, University of Amsterdam. Similar material has been provided to the Editors of other journals that cover mass spectrometry.

  8. Marx, Production, Society and Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lull, Vicente

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Social life is produced. Social life takes place before the fact of thinking about it. Drawing upon elements coming from utopian Socialism. British economy and, especially, Hegel’s philosophy, Marx proposed a set of dialectic categories addressed to thinking and to explaining how social life is produced, including in these dynamics the production of ourselves. In this paper, the guidelines of Marx’ thoughts are shown starting from the reading and analysis of his own texts. Also, the pertinence of the relationship between Marx and the research of society is argued through the material objects which make any society real: the archaeological research.

    La vida social se produce. La vida social es anterior al hecho de pensarla. Basándose en elementos procedentes del socialismo utópico, la economía británica y, sobre todo, la filosofía de Hegel, Marx propuso categorías dialécticas para pensar y explicar cómo se produce la vida social, y nosotros en ella. En este artículo se exponen las líneas básicas del pensamiento de Marx a partir de una lectura y análisis de sus propios textos, y se argumenta la pertinencia de la relación entre dicho pensamiento y la investigación de la sociedad a partir de los objetos materiales que la hicieron posible: la investigación arqueológica.

  9. Applied physiology of swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, J M; Montpetit, R R

    1986-01-01

    Scientific research in swimming over the past 10 to 15 years has been oriented toward multiple aspects that relate to applied and basic physiology, metabolism, biochemistry, and endocrinology. This review considers recent findings on: 1) specific physical characteristics of swimmers; 2) the energetics of swimming; 3) the evaluation of aerobic fitness in swimming; and 4) some metabolic and hormonal aspects related to swimmers. Firstly, the age of finalists in Olympic swimming is not much different from that of the participants from other sports. They are taller and heavier than a reference population of the same age. The height bias in swimming may be the reason for lack of success from some Asian and African countries. Experimental data point toward greater leanness, particularly in female swimmers, than was seen 10 years ago. Overall, female swimmers present a range of 14 to 19% body fat whereas males are much lower (5 to 10%). Secondly, the relationship between O2 uptake and crawl swimming velocity (at training and competitive speeds) is thought to be linear. The energy cost varies between strokes with a dichotomy between the 2 symmetrical and the 2 asymmetrical strokes. Energy expenditure in swimming is represented by the sum of the cost of translational motion (drag) and maintenance of horizontal motion (gravity). The cost of the latter decreases as speed increases. Examination of the question of size-associated effects on the cost of swimming using Huxley's allometric equation (Y = axb) shows an almost direct relationship with passive drag. Expressing energy cost in litres of O2/m/kg is proposed as a better index of technical swimming ability than the traditional expression of VO2/distance in L/km. Thirdly, maximal direct conventional techniques used to evaluate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) in swimming include free swimming, tethered swimming, and flume swimming. Despite the individual peculiarities of each method, with similar experimental conditions

  10. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  11. Languages in Contemporary Anglophone Caribbean Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Melva P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper Languages in Contemporary Anglophone Caribbean Societies examines how language is treated in Jamaica and other Anglophone Caribbean societies and the effects of a haphazard approach to language planning on the social dynamics of the society as well as the individual. It briefly explores how Language is handled in Francophone or…

  12. Civil Society Participation at CONFINTEA VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the participation of civil society in the Sixth International Conference on Adult Education held in Belem do Para, Brazil, 1-4 December 2009. As a foundation, the discussion first illuminates the important role that civil society in general plays in democratic issues and the relation between the state and society followed by…

  13. Strategic Directions of the Movement Disorder Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Hallett, M.D

    2000-01-01

    @@The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) is the international not-for-profit organization representing and serving clinicians, other health professionals, researchers and policy makers interested in the area of movement disorders. The Society is represented in 68 countries by approximately 1,500 members. The Society has developed regional sections and welcomes affiliation of regional Movement Disorder groups.

  14. Roots of the Pavlovian Society's missions of the past and present: the Pavlov dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furedy, John J

    2003-01-01

    This paper offers an interpretation of the relation between Pavlov's life and work and the missions of the Pavlovian Society, both past ("observation and observation") and present ("interdisciplinary research on the integrated organism"). I begin with an account of Pavlov's life and his influence on contemporary thought. I then indicate the relation of some of Pavlov's attitudes (e.g., his motto, his epistemological stance) to the Society's past mission. In the concluding and most controversial section, I argue for six guiding principles derived from Pavlov, to be applied to the Society's mission. These are: (a) a confident methodological behaviorism; (b) a significant role assigned to both physiological and psychological factors in the prediction and control of the integrated organism; (c) approximately equal taxonomic precision of physiological and psychological explanatory concepts; (d) distrust of teleological explanatory concepts; (e) rejection of psychology's instrumentalist "cognitive paradigm shift"; and (f) rejection of the representational theory of knowledge.

  15. Understanding the physiology of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2013-03-01

    The physiology of schizophrenia includes complex genetic and environmental interactions. Current treatment largely focuses on positive symptoms, but many patients with schizophrenia present with additional symptoms and conditions that hinder their social and occupational functioning. The study of the physiology of this disorder has expanded beyond dopamine dysfunction to include the glutamate, serotonin, and nicotinic/acetylcholine systems, as well as physiologic abnormalities such as diabetes and inflammation. Clinicians who understand these additional problem areas can incorporate them into their assessment and treatment plans for patients with schizophrenia. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  16. Food Safety - The Primary Objective of Human Society Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabita Cornelia Adamov

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Food has played, plays and will play a decisive role in the existence and development of human society. The level of food quality, causes physical, social and moral society health. In this sense food security is an essential goal of economic and social development, being an essential component of security of life and national security. Evolution of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, in terms of food security, was due not only changes in agriculture, but also came in response to the demands of society in general. Amoung these is growing concerns about hygiene and food safety and animal welfare. European consumers want safe and wholesome food and the EU wants to ensure that all its citizens consume food with high quality standards. Food safety policy has undergone an extensive refurbishment. The objective of this reform was to ensure that EU legislation on food safety is as complete as possible, and consumers benefit as much information about potential risks and measures to be taken to minimize them. The goal of a modern economy, is the correlation of quantitative and qualitative food production with consumer demand. It thus requires knowledge of the physiological needs of consumers, leading to demand for agricultural products.

  17. Science, Society, and Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. S.; Lohwater, T.

    2009-12-01

    The increased use of social networking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, as well as blogs and forums on the AAAS website (www.aaas.org). These tools allow scientists to more readily become engaged in policy by providing information on current science policy topics as well as methods of involvement. For example, members and the public can comment on policy-relevant stories from Science magazine’s ScienceInsider blog, download a weekly policy podcast, receive a weekly email update of policy issues affecting the scientific community, or watch a congressional hearing from their computer. AAAS resource websites and outreach programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/) and Science Careers (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org) also provide tools for scientists to become more personally engaged in communicating their findings and involved in the policy process.

  18. Sociodemographic aspect of society evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Viktorovna Nifanova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors have classified theories of human aging, having emphasized the theory of «cellular death» on the basis of generalization of an extensive theoretical and empirical material of domestic and foreign researchers. The main theories of specific duration of human life, the biological and social and economic criteria and health factors of causes of death and longevity are briefly presented. The achievements of the genetics of a human body aging are discussed. In the article, the author stopped on a problem of the human genofond stability and obvious delay of its biological evolution in the historical development. Despite a deep socialization of humanity, people remains in captivity of biological life, obey all the laws of the biological organization including those that keep it and provide it to following generations. The biological factors influencing reproduction of the population, unlike social factors, are more stable in time. Various socioeconomic and physiographic conditions interacted for a long time with biological factors, determine a certain life expectancy. In the modern conditions for forward development of society, the special value gets a question of the human potential realization — gold fund of of manufacture, science, culture. With a «century of biology» which starts with the development of molecular biology, genetics, biological cybernetics, the science has new opportunities for effective adaptation of human to new conditions

  19. Medical electronics and physiological measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, T.

    1989-07-01

    This article describes some recent developments in physiological measurement since the last `special issue' in 1978. Nine examples are given covering mature applications, new techniques and some `ideas for the future'. The need for good scientists in this interesting and challenging area is stressed. Physiological measurement is challenging because human physiology is complex. The examples described in this article illustrate some areas where cooperation between basic scientists, engineers, clinicians and, not least, patients has led to remarkable advances in our understanding of man and his physiology. Many challenges still lie ahead. There is no doubt that good quality graduates, with fresh minds and fresh enthusiasm, are needed to build on the foundation that has already been laid.

  20. Survey of Departments of Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, William F.

    1977-01-01

    Presents data of the 1976 survey of departments of physiology. Includes comparison to 1974 and 1975 data for number of academic positions available, department budgets, graduate students and post doctoral fellows, and salaries. (SL)

  1. Physiology of the fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, Torvid

    2005-12-01

    Our understanding of fetal circulatory physiology is based on experimental animal data, and this continues to be an important source of new insight into developmental mechanisms. A growing number of human studies have investigated the human physiology, with results that are similar but not identical to those from animal studies. It is time to appreciate these differences and base more of our clinical approach on human physiology. Accordingly, the present review focuses on distributional patterns and adaptational mechanisms that were mainly discovered by human studies. These include cardiac output, pulmonary and placental circulation, fetal brain and liver, venous return to the heart, and the fetal shunts (ductus venosus, foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus). Placental compromise induces a set of adaptational and compensational mechanisms reflecting the plasticity of the developing circulation, with both short- and long-term implications. Some of these aspects have become part of the clinical physiology of today with consequences for surveillance and treatment.

  2. Olfaction: anatomy, physiology and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Benignus, Vernon A.; Prah, James D.

    1982-01-01

    The anatomy, physiology and function of the olfactory system are reviewed, as are the normal effects of olfactory stimulation. It is speculated that olfaction may have important but unobtrusive effects on human behavior.

  3. Survey of Departments of Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, William F.

    1977-01-01

    Presents data of the 1976 survey of departments of physiology. Includes comparison to 1974 and 1975 data for number of academic positions available, department budgets, graduate students and post doctoral fellows, and salaries. (SL)

  4. Physiological Control of Germline Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbard, E. Jane Albert; Korta, Dorota Z.; Dalfó, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The intersection between developmental programs and environmental conditions that alter physiology is a growing area of research interest. The C. elegans germ line is emerging as a particularly sensitive and powerful model for these studies. The germ line is subject to environmentally regulated diapause points that allow worms to withstand harsh conditions both prior to and after reproduction commences. It also responds to more subtle changes in physiological conditions. Recent studies demons...

  5. Seasonal changes in reindeer physiology

    OpenAIRE

    A. Reeta Pösö

    2005-01-01

    The seasonal changes in the photoperiod, temperature and availability of food need to be converted to hormonal signals in order to induce adaptations in the physiology of the reindeer. The most reliable of the seasonal changes in the environment is the photoperiod, which affects the reindeer physiology through pineal gland and its hormone, melatonin. Usually there are large diurnal changes in the concentration of melatonin, but in the reindeer the daily rhythm disappears during the arctic sum...

  6. Physiologically relevant organs on chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Kyungsuk; Hong, Soon Gweon; Healy, Kevin E; Lee, Luke P

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in integrating microengineering and tissue engineering have generated promising microengineered physiological models for experimental medicine and pharmaceutical research. Here we review the recent development of microengineered physiological systems, or also known as "ogans-on-chips", that reconstitute the physiologically critical features of specific human tissues and organs and their interactions. This technology uses microengineering approaches to construct organ-specific microenvironments, reconstituting tissue structures, tissue-tissue interactions and interfaces, and dynamic mechanical and biochemical stimuli found in specific organs, to direct cells to assemble into functional tissues. We first discuss microengineering approaches to reproduce the key elements of physiologically important, dynamic mechanical microenvironments, biochemical microenvironments, and microarchitectures of specific tissues and organs in microfluidic cell culture systems. This is followed by examples of microengineered individual organ models that incorporate the key elements of physiological microenvironments into single microfluidic cell culture systems to reproduce organ-level functions. Finally, microengineered multiple organ systems that simulate multiple organ interactions to better represent human physiology, including human responses to drugs, is covered in this review. This emerging organs-on-chips technology has the potential to become an alternative to 2D and 3D cell culture and animal models for experimental medicine, human disease modeling, drug development, and toxicology.

  7. Financing Human Capital: Families & Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neantro Saavedra-Rivano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD describes human capital as “knowledge, skills, competencies and attributes embodied in individuals that facilitate the creation of personal, social and economic wellbeing.”* It follows from this interpretation that investment in human capital includes the sum of all costs that allow a new being to reach economic autonomy. In this paper we analyze the family and social dimensions of human capital and discuss how decisions on human capital formation are taken and how its associated costs are shared. The discussion leads us to identify an important paradox underlying human capital formation, namely the fact that while families are its main contributors the benefits of such investment go primarily to society as a whole. This paradox and its consequences are central to two very important current issues. The first issue, one that is common to many developed countries, is low female fertility which is the source, in particular, of population aging. The second issue, affecting chiefly developing countries, is the inequality of opportunities, a problem lying at the root of underdevelopment. Two options are discussed to respond to this dilemma, one based on redistributive programs and another on market solutions. The paper discusses the limits inherent to redistributive programs and goes on to present at length the alternative market solution. In a nutshell this consists of securitizing the human capital of individuals so as to finance the expenses leading to their upbringing, from birth to adulthood. In addition to describing this scheme the paper analyzes its advantages as well as the difficulties associated with its implementation. It concludes by exploring possible interpretations of the scheme and feasible routes for its adoption.

  8. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  9. The Knowledge Society: A Sustainability Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Hamdija Afgan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the knowledge society as a human structured organisation based on contemporary developed knowledge and representing new quality of life support systems. It implies the need for a full understanding of distribution of knowledge, access to information and the capability to transfer information into a knowledge. The understanding of knowledge is the central challenge when defining a knowledge society. From our present perception of knowledge society, it is of interest to emphasize the role of the knowledge society in future development of human society. The life support systems are essential pillars of human society development. In this respect knowledge society represents a new paradigm for future development and it is strongly correlated to sustainable development. For this reason the sustainability paradigm of knowledge society is a potential frame for human society development leading to social cohesion, economic competitiveness and stability, use of resources and economic development, safeguarding biodiversity and the ecosystem.In order to verify the mutual relation between knowledge society and sustainability, we have to introduce the difference between these two terms. The knowledge society is based on the agglomeration of eco-knowledge, env-knowledge and soc-knowledge, it may be evaluated as the complex knowledge of quality of life support systems. We have to introduce metrics which will allow us to present knowledge as the paradigm of the number of indicators for verifying progress made.Sustainability metrics are designed to consolidate measures of economic, environmental and social performance of any system. It can be understood as a pattern for evaluation of the available knowledge about systems and their performance. In particular the decision-making process for the selection of the system under consideration must be based on the available knowledge. The link between knowledge and sustainability makes it possible for

  10. Information Society Visions in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Kristensen, Thomas Myrup

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the information society visions put forward by the governments/administrations of the Nordic countries and compares them to the visions advanced at the EU-level. The paper suggests that the information society visions constitute a kind of common ideology for almost the whole...... political spectrum although it is characterised by a high degree of neo-liberal thinking. It is further argued that there is no distinctly Nordic model for an information society....

  11. Children's rights, parents' prerogatives, and society's obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, J C

    1999-01-01

    The thesis of this article is that parents do not need specifically defined rights. They have prerogatives that flow from the right of their children to nurturing and protective parenting. The idea of individual rights springs from the vulnerability of human beings in the face of stronger forces. The most vulnerable individuals are children. For this reason, human rights ought to begin with the rights of children in our society and in their families. This article discusses individual rights, society's expectations of parents and children, parental prerogatives and liabilities, parenthood as a developmental stage in the life cycle, parenthood as the foundation of society, and society's obligation to support parenthood.

  12. Mobilising Data in a Knowledge Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Bridgette; Finn, Rachel; Wadhwa, Kush; Bigagli, Lorenzo; Nativi, Stefano; Noorman, Merel

    2016-04-01

    We address how the open data movement is fostering change in institutions, in data, and in social participation in the mobilisation of knowledge society. The idea of a knowledge society has been raised over the last two decades but the transition to such as society has not been realised. Up to the present time, discussion about a knowledge society have largely focused on a knowledge economy and information society rather than a mobilisation to a knowledge society. These debates have, however, taken place before the rise of open data and big data and the development of an open data movement. We consider the role of the open data movement in fostering transformation to a knowledge society. The characteristics of the open data movement that include the strong conviction of the value of open data for society, the attention to the institutional aspects of making data open in an inclusive way, the practical focus on the technological infrastructure are key in mobilising a knowledge society. At the heart of any mobilisation is an emerging open data ecosystem and new ways of producing and using data - whether 'born digital' data, digitised data or big data - and how that data, when made openly available, can be used in a knowledgeable way by societal actors.

  13. Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navigate Home What is the Society Becoming a Member (US Membership) Becoming a Member (International Membership) International Task Force Mission and Vision Ethics & Endorsement Policy Message from ...

  14. Migration Dynamics in Artificial Agent Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjot Kaur

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An Artificial Agent Society can be defined as a collection of agents interacting with each other for some purpose and/or inhabiting a specific locality, possibly in accordance to some common norms/rules. These societies are analogous to human and ecological societies, and are an expanding and emerging field in research about social systems. Social networks, electronic markets and disaster management organizations can be viewed as such artificial (open agent societies and can be best understood as computational societies. Members of such artificial agent societies are heterogeneous intelligent software agents which are operating locally and cooperating and coordinating with each other in order to achieve goals of an agent society. These artificial agent societies have some kind of dynamics existing in them in terms of dynamics of Agent Migration, Role-Assignment, Norm- Emergence, Security and Agent-Interaction. In this paper, we have described the dynamics of agent migration process, starting from the various types of agent migration, causes or reasons for agent migration, consequences of agent migration, and an agent migration framework to model the its behavior for migration of agents between societies.

  15. Education in an Information Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-04-01

    Last month's editorial pointed out that higher education may well change significantly as a result of the tremendous impact that information technologies are having on society. It quoted a white paper (1) by Russell Edgerton, Director of the Education Program of the Pew Charitable Trusts. Edgerton argued that higher education is currently failing to meet three challenges: to provide higher quality education; to reduce costs; and to regain its former stature as an important player in shaping public policy. Edgerton recommended that the Pew Trusts should encourage colleges and universities to set more ambitious goals for undergraduate education, to enter the public arena and play a major role in the reform of K-12 education, and to develop an academic profession interested in working toward these goals. Four new aims for undergraduate education were identified: "encouraging institutions to take learning seriously, encouraging faculty to take pedagogy seriously, demonstrating that technology can be used to reduce costs as well as to enhance learning, and developing new incentives for continuous quality improvement." One wonders why institutions of higher education should need to be encouraged toward goals that seem obviously congruent with their mission and self interest, but today's colleges and universities seem more likely to respond to outside offers of funding than to develop their own plans of action. As members of the faculty of such institutions, it behooves us to consider what some of those outside influences are likely to be and what effects they are likely to have on us, on our institutions, and on our students. Higher education is seen as a growth market by Michael Dolence and Donald Norris (2). In 1995 they projected that in five years there would be an increase of 20 million full-time equivalent enrollments in the U.S. and more than 100 million world wide. However, this growth was not projected to be traditional, on-campus students. Most was expected to

  16. Did Educational Expansion Trigger the Development of an Education Society? Chances and Risks of a New Model of Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunberger, Sigrid

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the question of whether educational expansion leads to a new type of society, the education society. Taking into consideration the combined elements of three models of society (the post-industrial society, the knowledge society and the information society)--the chances and risks of an educational society will be elicited…

  17. Did Educational Expansion Trigger the Development of an Education Society? Chances and Risks of a New Model of Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunberger, Sigrid

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the question of whether educational expansion leads to a new type of society, the education society. Taking into consideration the combined elements of three models of society (the post-industrial society, the knowledge society and the information society)--the chances and risks of an educational society will be elicited…

  18. Physiological Studies of Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gunda

    industrial production by employing flow cytometry for viability assessment, cell size comparison, intracellular pH (pHi) determination and cell sorting. The physiological studies of L. lactis were complemented by examining the growth behavior, glucose consumption, lactate production, culturability on solid...... was found to facilitate the differentiation and accurate quantification of L. lactis cells in different physiological states, which agreed with the reproductive viability of reference samples and of exponential cells. The high viability of one particular L. lactis strain demonstrated its robustness during......, cell size comparison and pHi determination reflected the increasing physiological impairment during this accelerated stability test, while a preincubation in buffer led to inconsistent flow cytometric results. The comparison of reproductive and growth-independent viability suggested the presence...

  19. Secularized Society. Conscience and Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Grimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper‘s goal is to investigate secularized society by retracing its structure. What is hidden behind the notion of secularization? Our intention here is to analyse the social phenomenon of secularisation through the study of its ontology. The research will be on the identity issue, in the first place the living identity to see its resonance in social, cultural, religious and political areas. We will then arrive at the end of this paper, at the thesis – starting from the consciousness of self and the world – of a return to the authentic form of living together in reciprocal welcome as reason of personal enrichment. In such dynamics the forgiveness issue – taking into account Occidental history – will have a central, and, at the same time, redeeming role.Cette étude se propose d’étudier la société sécularisée, en retraçant sa structure. Qu’est-ce qui se cache derrière la notion de sécularisation? Ici nous entendons analyser le phénomène de la sécularisation sociale par l’intermédiaire de l’étude de son ontologie. La recherche portera sur la question de l’identité, en premier lieu sur l’identité vivante, pour voir ses résonances dans les domaines social, culturel, religieux et politique. Ainsi, nous arriverons à la thèse - à partir de la conscience du soi et du monde - pour un retour à une forme authentique du vivre ensemble dans un accueil réciproque en tant que raison d’enrichissement personnel. Dans cette dynamique la question du pardon – en tenant compte de l’histoire Occidental – aura un rôle centrale, et, en même temps, rédempteur.Il presente saggio si propone di investigare il tema della società secolarizzata ripercorrendone la struttura. Attorno alla nozione di secolarizzazione che cosa si nasconde? Si intende qui analizzare il fenomeno sociale della secolarizzazione studiandone l'ontologia. La riflessione muoverà perciò attorno al tema dell'identità, in prima istanza l

  20. Stimulating Student Interest in Physiology: The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ) was initiated in 2003 during the author's last sabbatical from the University of Malaya. At this inaugural event, there were just seven competing teams from Malaysian medical schools. The challenge trophy for the IMSPQ is named in honor of Prof. A. Raman, who was the first Malaysian Professor of…

  1. Pain: metaphor, body, and culture in Anglo-American societies between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Joanna

    2014-10-02

    This article explores the relationship between metaphorical languages, body, and culture, and suggests that such an analysis can reveal a great deal about the meaning and experience of pain in Anglo-American societies between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries. It uses concepts within embodied cognition to speculate on how historians can write a history of sensation. Bodies are actively engaged in the linguistic processes and social interactions that constitute painful sensations. Language is engaged in a dialogue with physiological bodies and social environments. And culture collaborates in the creation of physiological bodies and metaphorical systems.

  2. Pain: metaphor, body, and culture in Anglo-American societies between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between metaphorical languages, body, and culture, and suggests that such an analysis can reveal a great deal about the meaning and experience of pain in Anglo-American societies between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries. It uses concepts within embodied cognition to speculate on how historians can write a history of sensation. Bodies are actively engaged in the linguistic processes and social interactions that constitute painful sensations. Language is engaged in a dialogue with physiological bodies and social environments. And culture collaborates in the creation of physiological bodies and metaphorical systems.

  3. The Joint Society of Nephrology in Germany, Switzerland and Austria - Five Decades of Successful Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidland, August; Ritz, Eberhard; Lang, Florian

    2016-02-01

    The joint Society of Nephrology in Germany, Switzerland and Austria was founded on April 10th, 1961 in Wiesbaden. Board members were Hans Sarre, Kurt Kramer, Klaus Rother, Francois Reubi, Bruno Watschinger, Wolfgang Dutz, Ernst Wollheim and Karl Ullrich. The mission of the society was an intensive interaction between basic science of the kidney (anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, biochemistry and molecular biology) and clinical research in nephrology and hypertension. Every year scientific symposia took place in different venues in one of the three countries, except in the years between 1963-1987, when the congresses of the International Society of Nephrology took place. Practical issues of clinical nephrology, in particular renal replacement therapy (dialysis and transplantation), were covered since 1971 by a specific Working Group. In 1994 the Advisory Board (Kuratorium) of the Society of Nephrology was founded as a result of an initiative of Peter Weidmann (Bern). Its main goals were Update Seminars in Nephrology and Hypertensionin Eastern Europe, in part together with the Joint Action of Nephrology and an Eastern European ScholarshipProgram. Despite the prosperous work of this European society within nearly five decades in Germany a national society was founded as well, which combined all activities of nephrology in one organization. The German Society of Nephrology was founded in 2009.

  4. Body image in non-western societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.; Cash, T.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a range of body modification and conceptions of the body in non-Western societies. It also analyzes difficulties in applying the primarily Western psychological notion of body image to different societies. Body modification is a near human universal, but has many meanings and

  5. Values Connecting Societies and Water Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. van Ast (Jacko); J.J. Bouma (Jan Jaap); M. Bal (Mansee)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Introduction__ Water systems such as rivers and lakes have many important values for ecosystems and human societies. Both economical, social-ecological, cultural and political values are met by the water systems, connecting different activities in human society and ecosystem

  6. Body image in non-western societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.; Cash, T.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a range of body modification and conceptions of the body in non-Western societies. It also analyzes difficulties in applying the primarily Western psychological notion of body image to different societies. Body modification is a near human universal, but has many meanings and

  7. The Weeding of a Historical Society Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Cindy Steinhoff

    1992-01-01

    Describes a major deaccessioning (weeding) project begun in 1985 at the library of the Nebraska State Historical Society, including a brief history of the Society and the events leading to the decision to weed. Public controversy over the handling of the project, benefits of the weeding, and new acquisitions policies are also discussed. (MES)

  8. Remaking Public Spaces for Civil Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    The collective action predicaments of the time require citizens to participate in remaking the governance of civil society so that they can become engaged and cooperate together. Can citizens become makers of civil society? This article draws upon Hannah Arendt's "On Revolution" to provide a theory of remaking in which citizens come together to…

  9. Are Teachers Teaching for a Knowledge Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlberg, Pasi; Boce, Elona

    2010-01-01

    Many countries whose economies are in transition have initiated ambitious education reforms intended to modernize their education systems to better respond to the needs of new social and economic realities. Albania is a good example of a society that is emerging from a closed planned socialist system and moving fast to an open society and…

  10. The Knowledge Society and Educational Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunker, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    This article examines diverse approaches claiming to analyse new modes of connecting knowledge and society: to depict the rise of the knowledge society or dealing with the social analysis of a new type of capitalism in the shape of informational capitalism. Against these backgrounds it highlights the possible role of education in overcoming the…

  11. Just Say Know? Schooling the Knowledge Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinsky, John

    2005-01-01

    This review essay challenges the practice of rooting educational theory in the economic assumptions that underlie the current championing of a knowledge society. It examines the approaches of three recent works: one book, Andy Hargreaves's Teaching in a Knowledge Society, and two edited collections, Barry Smith's Liberal Education in a Knowledge…

  12. Knowledge Society Discourse and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valimaa, Jussi; Hoffman, David

    2008-01-01

    The growing importance of knowledge, research and innovation are changing the social role of universities in the globalized world. One of the most popular concepts used to approach these changes in post-industrial and post-modern societies is the concept of "Knowledge Society". In this paper, we will analyse the roles higher education is expected…

  13. Information Assurance and the Information Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Society is on the verge of a new era: the information age. Economical changes, a new way of looking at services and new types of conflict are forecasted. Some glimpses of these changes were noticed during the Persian Gulf War. Government decision units, organisations, society and critical industries

  14. Information Assurance and the Information Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Society is on the verge of a new era: the information age. Economical changes, a new way of looking at services and new types of conflict are forecasted. Some glimpses of these changes were noticed during the Persian Gulf War. Government decision units, organisations, society and critical industries

  15. State or Society? We Need Both

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jane; Appleton, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Big Society provides inspiration--working "bottom up" to promote "collective action, reciprocity and a new, more engaged relationship between local people and public services". With so much written about the theory of the Big Society, this seems like an ideal time to put a little more practical detail into the mix. The authors argue…

  16. Information Assurance and the Information Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Society is on the verge of a new era: the information age. Economical changes, a new way of looking at services and new types of conflict are forecasted. Some glimpses of these changes were noticed during the Persian Gulf War. Government decision units, organisations, society and critical industries

  17. America's Scholarly Societies Raise Their Flags Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrie, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Reports that greater numbers of scholarly societies, though American in name, are increasingly international in membership and outlook. Suggests that this trend has been driven by the expanding global outlook of scholars, the collapse of communism, and growth of the Internet. Efforts to encourage local professional societies, fears of American…

  18. ABOUT THE ROMANIAN SOCIETY FOR ENGINEERING GRAPHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMION Ionel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available SORGING is a non-profit, non-governmental society, opened to all professionals interested in Engineering Graphics and Design. It aims to promote the research, development and innovation activities, together with the dissemination of best practices and assistance for educational purposes. In this paper the research and educational activities of the Romanian Society for Engineering Graphics will be briefly reviewed.

  19. The Operations Research Society of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available way or another. ? One of the founding members of the society, Tom Rozwadowski, died trag- ically with his family in 1971. In his honor, the society established the Tom Rozwadowski award, which is awarded annually for the best paper published...

  20. Myth and Other Norms in World Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    This article uses the Thule Case at the Danish Supreme Court as an example of normativity in world society. Here norms, which may turn out to be important in world society could be myths of several kinds such as 'narrative normativity'. One myth may be that of (exclusive) sovereignty...

  1. The Information Society, Schools, and the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balle, Francis

    This report begins by examining the transition from the industrial society to the informatics society which began in the 1960s, when the newspaper's monopoly on information was destroyed by radio and television, followed by the development of an information-based economy. The salient features of the new area are identified as: (1) the ever…

  2. Education paradigm in information-oriented society

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimova, E.

    2011-01-01

    The article covers the role of knowledge as a value in information-oriented society. The author defines implications of education system modernization, and characterizes personal-oriented education paradigm as most suitable for information-oriented society. The conclusion of development personal characteristics through obtaining universal knowledge is drawn.

  3. Keeping our Surveillance Society Non-Totalitarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Jacobs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    In modern technologically advanced societies citizens leave numerous identifiable digital traces that are being stored, monitored and processed by both private and public parties. This has led to what is commonly called a 'surveillance society'. Increasingly, this abundance of (personal information is also being used to influence and control people. The active, deliberate, large scale control of people in their private lives is seen here as a key characteristic of a totalitarian society. The question (and also the concern arises whether the gradual move to a surveillance society will be followed by a (gradual move to a totalitarian society. The issues presented by the author are illustrated by several examples, with a focus on the technologies involved.

  4. Physiological indicators of pathologic video game use in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Dyer, W Justin; Densley, Rebecca; Money, Nathan M; Day, Randal D; Harper, James M

    2015-03-01

    Pathologic video game use (PVGU) has been associated with a host of negative psychological, physical, and social outcomes during adolescence; however, little research has examined physiological predictors of such use. The purpose of the study was to examine physiological predictors of the development of PVGU across adolescence. The article involves a 1-year longitudinal study across midadolescence. Participants were 374 adolescents and their parents from a large metropolitan area in the Northwest United States. PVGU was assessed via questionnaire, as were a number of control variables. A number of physiological indicators including respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and galvanic skin conductance (indices of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system activity, respectively) were measured during baseline, a cognitively stimulating task (Rubik's cube), and a family problem-solving task. Less RSA withdrawal to a cognitively simulating task was related to greater pathologic video game symptoms, but less RSA withdrawal to a family problem-solving task was associated with the presence of pathologic video game symptoms (p game symptoms (p < .01). These findings suggest that adolescents who do not find cognitive tasks stimulating physiologically have a greater severity of PVGU. Additionally, adolescents who show physiological signs of stress in a family task were more likely to have PVGU symptoms and only girls have more severe PVGU levels. This study is the first to show that physiological indicators predict PVGU over time in adolescence and has important implications regarding the prevention and treatment of PVGU in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Society and the rhino: A whole-of-society approach to wildlife crime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Society and the rhino: A whole-of-society approach to wildlife crime in South Africa. ... the sustainability of the tourism sector and the social stability of communities. ... Different aspects of the problem are interconnected, but stakeholders ...

  6. Physiological role of taurine--from organism to organelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, I H; Kristensen, D M; Holm, J B; Mortensen, O H

    2015-01-01

    Taurine is often referred to as a semi-essential amino acid as newborn mammals have a limited ability to synthesize taurine and have to rely on dietary supply. Taurine is not thought to be incorporated into proteins as no aminoacyl tRNA synthetase has yet been identified and is not oxidized in mammalian cells. However, taurine contributes significantly to the cellular pool of organic osmolytes and has accordingly been acknowledged for its role in cell volume restoration following osmotic perturbation. This review describes taurine homeostasis in cells and organelles with emphasis on taurine biophysics/membrane dynamics, regulation of transport proteins involved in active taurine uptake and passive taurine release as well as physiological processes, for example, development, lung function, mitochondrial function, antioxidative defence and apoptosis which seem to be affected by a shift in the expression of the taurine transporters and/or the cellular taurine content. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Biblical exegesis of headship: a challenge to Patriarchal understanding that impinges on women's rights in the church and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baloyi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to try and find out the real meaning of man�s (male headship of women, since that can help us to define the deep meaning of gender equality. A brief historical background will be followed by exegetical remarks on Ephesians 5:21-22 which is one of the texts that explains something about the concept of �headship of man�. Secondly, the meaning will help us to shape our understanding as to how we should handle the issue of women�s rights and gender equality in African Christian churches and families. The challenges that are faced by women because of the misunderstanding of the concept of headship will also be discussed. The movement of feminist theology and other movements are becoming vocal in African countries, because women feel that it is the church and the Bible which promote the subjection of women. Fiorenza (1986:67 says that oppression of women in society is a result of Christian male sexist theology.

  8. Electronic Textbook in Human Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broering, Naomi C.; Lilienfield, Lawrence S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development of an electronic textbook in human physiology at the Georgetown University Medical Center Library that was designed to enhance learning and visualization through a prototype knowledge base of core instructional materials stored in digital format on Macintosh computers. The use of computers in the medical curriculum is…

  9. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunao eUchida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. Thus, research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960’s, with a focus primarily on sleep EEG (CNS sleep changes. Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. More recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. As physical exercise mostly affects somatic functions, endocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS changes that occur during sleep should be affected by daytime exercise. Since endocrinological, metabolic and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, building from standard polysomnographic (PSG techniques. Incorporating measures of somatic physiology in the quantitative assessment of sleep could further our understanding of sleep's function as an auto-regulatory, global phenomenon.

  10. Physiological aspects of paired stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Durrer, D.

    1966-01-01

    Starling's law of the heart states that "the energy of contraction, however measured, is a function of the length of the muscle fibre" (Starling, 1915). This physiological property of myocardial and skeletal muscle enables the heart, within certain limits, to eject during each systole the amount

  11. The Limits of Exercise Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Brendan M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-01-01

    Many of the established positive health benefits of exercise have been documented by historical discoveries in the field of exercise physiology. These investigations often assess limits: the limits of performance, or the limits of exercise-induced health benefits. Indeed, several key findings have...

  12. Physiological specialization of Stagonospora nodorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septoriosis is a harmful disease of wheat, widespread all over the world, including Russia. Stagonospora nodorum (Berk.) Castellani and E.G. Germano is one of the main agents of Septoria wheat diseases. There is no information on physiological specialization of this pathogen. Not many authors stud...

  13. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    2005-01-01

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  14. Reproductive Physiology in Cetaceans (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews some works on reproductive physiology in cetaceans with special reference to dolphins from the following aspects: estrous cycle in female dolphins, hormonal profiles during pregnancy, testosterone levels and seasonality in testicular activity, ovulation induction and sperm collection and freezing.

  15. Applied physiology of water polo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H K

    1998-11-01

    Water polo has been played for over a century. While the rules of the game have evolved considerably over this time, the sport has consistently remained, physiologically, a highly demanding activity. Much attention has been paid to the technical and strategic elements of the game; however, despite the potential for improvements in athletic performance and the maintenance of athletes' health, there are few published studies (particularly in English) on the physical and physiological demands and adaptations to water polo training and competition. Game analyses have demonstrated that water polo is an 'intermittent' sport comprised of intense bursts of activity of movements required for playing water polo also place considerable demands on the neuromuscular system. Observations of the frequency and duration of the different activities, and of the physiological responses to participating in a water polo match, are initial sources of information for designing training programmes specific to the game and to the different playing positions. The physical and physiological attributes of elite water polo players offer some insight into the minimum requirements for participation and the adaptations that result from training and competition. Further systematic documentation and experimentation are required to facilitate the design and specification of individual training programmes and to better understand the long term effects of water polo on athletes' health.

  16. PHYSIOLOGIC BASIS OF NASAL OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilding, A. C.

    1950-01-01

    To be successful, intranasal operations must be so designed as to restore the normal physiologic function of the nose. It is impossible with impunity to operate upon the interior of the nose as though it were simply an air flue and on the sinuses as though they were boxes. PMID:15400563

  17. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals Andreas...825-2025 email: andreas.fahlman@tamucc.edu Peter L. Tyack School of Biology Sea Mammal Research Unit Scottish Oceans Institute...OBJECTIVES This project is separated into three aims: Aim 1: Develop a new generation of tags/data logger for marine mammals that will

  18. THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY AND THE INFORMATION SOCIETY. THE CURRENT SITUATION IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    STELIAC Nela; POP Ciprian-Viorel; Diana-Aderina MOISUC

    2012-01-01

    Currently, human societies are experiencing a new type of economy: the knowledge economy which is founded on a knowledge society. The main driver of social and economic growth is knowledge itself. The new economy requires a rethinking of the production theory in that traditional factors change into secondary factors, while knowledge becomes the main, essential, production factor. An information society is a prerequisite stage towards a knowledge society; hence it needs to be implemented first...

  19. The Physiological Foundations of the Wealth of Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    Evidence from economics, anthropology and biology testifies to a fundamental trade-off between the number of offspring (quantity) and amount of nutrition per child (quality). This leads to a theory of pre-industrial growth where body size as well as population size is endogenous. But when...... productive quality investments are undertaken the historical constancy of income per capita seems puzzling. Why didn't episodes of rising income instigate a virtuous circle of rising body size and productivity? To address this question we propose that societies are subject to a "physiological check......": if human body size rises, metabolic needs - our conceptualization of  "subsistence requirements" - rise. This mechanism turns out to be instrumental in explaining why income growth does not take hold and societies remain near an endogenously determined subsistence boundary. When we use the theory to shed...

  20. Paul Ehrlich: the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine 1908.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Anna; Tagarelli, Antonio; Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Lagonia, Paolo; Quattrone, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    We wish to commemorate Paul Ehrlich on the centennial of his being awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1908. His studies are now considered as milestones in immunology: the morphology of leukocytes; his side-chain theory where he defined the cellular receptor for first time; and his clarification of the difference between serum therapy and chemotherapy. Ehrlich also invented the first chemotherapeutic drug: compound 606, or Salvarsan. We have used some original documents from the Royal Society of London, where Ehrlich was a fellow, and from Leipzig University, where he took a degree in medicine.

  1. The Physiological Foundations of the Wealth of Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    Evidence from economics, anthropology and biology testifies to a fundamental trade-off between the number of offspring (quantity) and amount of nutrition per child (quality). This leads to a theory of pre-industrial growth where body size as well as population size is endogenous. But when...... productive quality investments are undertaken the historical constancy of income per capita seems puzzling. Why didn't episodes of rising income instigate a virtuous circle of rising body size and productivity? To address this question we propose that societies are subject to a "physiological check...

  2. Perspectives of Physiology as a Discipline from Senior-Level Millennial-Generation Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steury, Michael D.; Poteracki, James M.; Kelly, Kevin L.; Wehrwein, Erica A.

    2015-01-01

    In the last several decades, there has been a shift in the mindset of research structure from classical "systems or integrative biology" to more molecular focused "-omics" study. A recent topic of debate in physiological societies has been whether or not the "-omic" revolution has delivered in its promises in both…

  3. Adding Value to a Graduate Physiology Seminar by Focusing on Public Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocca, Thomas J.; Justice, Jamie N.; Seals, Douglas R.; Martens, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    A major goal of graduate education is the development of students as "stewards of the discipline," scholars who can create and preserve knowledge and responsibly translate it through writing, teaching, and practical applications. These qualities are consistent with the American Physiological Society's list of professional skills for…

  4. Adding Value to a Graduate Physiology Seminar by Focusing on Public Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocca, Thomas J.; Justice, Jamie N.; Seals, Douglas R.; Martens, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    A major goal of graduate education is the development of students as "stewards of the discipline," scholars who can create and preserve knowledge and responsibly translate it through writing, teaching, and practical applications. These qualities are consistent with the American Physiological Society's list of professional skills for…

  5. ROMANIAN KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY DEVELOPMENT. A PROPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela CERKEZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is an argument for the applicability of the Finnish model of knowledge society oriented public policy-making and not a detailed recommendation on the specific steps Romania should make in order to become a knowledge society. The article is elaborated as a synthesis of the Finnish knowledge society oriented public policies and an analysis of the adequacy of policy transfers from Finland to Romania. Data on Romania are not rich as the task of the article is not to make a diagnosis on Romania’s stage of development. Its main contribution consists of the identification of Finnish public measures meant to foster knowledge society that may be a best practice example for Romania. The introductory part briefly introduces the reader into the theoretical understanding of the concept of knowledge society. Then, I argue that there are several types of knowledge societies and Romania should look for European examples given the resemblance of the starting conditions. The main part of the paper presents the Finnish knowledge society development as an experience modeled by public intervention and I mirror these developments with the Romanian case. In the end, I explore the differences between the two countries that may interfere with the application of the Finnish model. Still, my conclusion is that those differences do not make the Finnish model less applicable. The efforts might need to be more intense and the results might show up later.

  6. [Gender equality activity in the Bioimaging Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzaki, Etsuko

    2013-09-01

    Gender equality activity in the Bioimaging Society was initiated in 2005 when it joined the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE). The Gender Equality Committee of the Bioimaging Society is acting on this issue by following the policy of the EPMEWSE, and has also been planning and conducting lectures at annual meetings of the society to gain the understanding, consents, and cooperation of the members of the society to become conscious of gender equality. Women's participation in the society has been promoted through the activities of the Gender Equality Committee, and the number of women officers in the society has since increased from two women out of 40 members in 2005 to five out of 44 in 2013. The activities of the Gender Equality Committee of the Japanese Association of Anatomists (JAA) have just started. There are more than 400 women belonging to the JAA. When these women members join together and collaborate, women's participation in the JAA will increase.

  7. Social Value Orientation and Capitalism in Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrier, Shibly; Kakinaka, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation and competition are core issues in various fields, since they are claimed to affect the evolution of human societies and ecological organizations. A long-standing debate has existed on how social behaviors and preferences are shaped with culture. Considering the economic environment as part of culture, this study examines whether the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, called “capitalism,” affects the evolution of people’s social preferences and behaviors. To test this argument, we implemented field experiments of social value orientation and surveys with 1002 respondents for three different areas of Bangladesh: (i) rural, (ii) transitional and (iii) capitalistic societies. The main result reveals that with the evolution from rural to capitalistic societies, people are likely to be less prosocial and more likely to be competitive. In a transitional society, there is a considerable proportion of “unidentified” people, neither proself nor prosocial, implying the potential existence of unstable states during a transformation period from rural to capitalistic societies. We also find that people become more proself with increasing age, education and number of children. These results suggest that important environmental, climate change or sustainability problems, which require cooperation rather than competition, will pose more danger as societies become capitalistic. PMID:27792756

  8. TRANSFORMATION OF BUSINESS CULTURE IN INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Mirzoeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural values are an important factor affecting functioning and efficiency of organizations. Most contemporary studies of business cultures focus on the differences in national cultures. However, global trends such as the shift from industrial to post-industrial, or information society, also influence the culturebusiness relations. Although there are a lot of theories of the information society, most of them discuss the differences related to the diffusion of information technology and/or the contents and intensity of information flows in media environment. The rise of the information society is accompanied by cultural transformations which include increased activity and participation in media space, cultural and informational heterogeneity and bricolage fostering personalized description of reality. M. Castells points to importance of networking both in society in general and in business in particular. He discusses four different cultural models underlying the information society: technomeritoraty, entrepreneurial culture, the cultures of hackers and virtual communities. These models determine ways of „doing business‟ in the Internet economics and the companies‟ relations to their environment. These models are equally important for the information society but implement different values. Although they typically share egalitarian norms, they may significantly differ in such cultural values as individualism/collectivism or the value of achievement and success. These differences cause inner tensions and conflicts in the information society and, particularly, in IT-related business activities.

  9. Social Value Orientation and Capitalism in Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrier, Shibly; Kotani, Koji; Kakinaka, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation and competition are core issues in various fields, since they are claimed to affect the evolution of human societies and ecological organizations. A long-standing debate has existed on how social behaviors and preferences are shaped with culture. Considering the economic environment as part of culture, this study examines whether the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, called "capitalism," affects the evolution of people's social preferences and behaviors. To test this argument, we implemented field experiments of social value orientation and surveys with 1002 respondents for three different areas of Bangladesh: (i) rural, (ii) transitional and (iii) capitalistic societies. The main result reveals that with the evolution from rural to capitalistic societies, people are likely to be less prosocial and more likely to be competitive. In a transitional society, there is a considerable proportion of "unidentified" people, neither proself nor prosocial, implying the potential existence of unstable states during a transformation period from rural to capitalistic societies. We also find that people become more proself with increasing age, education and number of children. These results suggest that important environmental, climate change or sustainability problems, which require cooperation rather than competition, will pose more danger as societies become capitalistic.

  10. TRANSFORMATION OF FAMILY IN MODERN RUSSIAN SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Anatolevna Otradnova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines concept of family in Russian society, changes in interpretation of family, connected with modern tendencies and processes in different sociocultural spheres.   The article is structured and has accurate limits of introduction, main part and conclusion. The relevance of the research is caused by present-day crisis tendencies connected with suicide actions, atomization and hedonization of society, value depreciation of family.  The object of the research is to analyze the conception of family and its transformation in condition of modern Russian society. The tasks are to determine the term family, to analyze approaches to understanding of the family and its genesis, detect some peculiarities of modern Russian society, research the transformation of interpretation of family in modern society; the matter of investigation is modern Russian society, the subject is the transformation of family structures; the following methods of research are used: historical and cultural approach, typological method, existential method, common logic procedures. The research contains author’s definition of the term family, historical and cultural analysis and typological explication of the approaches to interpretation of the problem, classification of family structures - which have been formed in Russian society- on the base of statistic and sociological data.   Some interweaving of concept family with the most important existential values (love, freedom, responsibility were investigated and some tendencies for further development of family relationship in Russian society were revealed, its problems and prospect were emphasized. The results of the investigation testify that modern types of matrimonial relationship differ in limitation of functionality, mutual responsibility, thereby it is possible to state that interpretation of family in modern Russian society has transformed.

  11. Network Physiology: Mapping interactions between complex physiological systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2016-01-01

    The human organism is an integrated network where multi-component organ systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact to optimize and coordinate their function. Organ-to-organ interactions occur at multiple levels and spatiotemporal time scales to produce distinct physiologic states: wake and sleep; light and deep sleep; consciousness and unconsciousness. Disrupting organ communications can lead to dysfunction of individual systems or to collapse of the entire organ...

  12. Sexism and gender inequality across 57 societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Mark J

    2011-11-01

    Theory predicts that individuals' sexism serves to exacerbate inequality in their society's gender hierarchy. Past research, however, has provided only correlational evidence to support this hypothesis. In this study, I analyzed a large longitudinal data set that included representative data from 57 societies. Multilevel modeling showed that sexism directly predicted increases in gender inequality. This study provides the first evidence that sexist ideologies can create gender inequality within societies, and this finding suggests that sexism not only legitimizes the societal status quo, but also actively enhances the severity of the gender hierarchy. Three potential mechanisms for this effect are discussed briefly.

  13. Technology and society. Technik und Gesellschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmutzer, M.E.A.; Winter, H.

    1981-01-01

    Subjects: Developments in semiconductor technology; Electrical engineering in the service of man; The influence of electronic data processing on the office of the future; Microelectronics - a challenge to technology and society; Social effects of computer technology; Innovations and developments in the field of biotechnology; From molecular genetics to genetic engineering; Technical innovatons from a (scientific and) sociological perspective; The problematic nature of technical constraints; Bioengineering and the arts; Arts - engineering - society; Artists' use of telecommunications; Engineering and society/engineering and the arts.

  14. THE COPYRIGHT IN THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel Ioan MURZEA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary society has imposed new demands in the development and application of copyright as a result of structural changes which occur as a result of developments in science, technology and especially communication technologies and of informatics. Legal doctrine highlights axiomatic truth according to which the “environment created by technological developments” brings forward the profound informational dimension of human being in the contemporary society. In this context the integration and the harmonization of legislation of the Member States of the European Union leads to a complex and dynamic process by which the copyright called to legally protect intellectual creation in contemporary society, acquires a universal vocation in the contemporary society, because there are no barriers or impediments in its spreading especially due to the phenomenon of multiplication and improvement of means of information and communication

  15. The Branding in the Consumption Society Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Olena L.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the main aspects of formation and development of brands in terms of consumption society. The features that exist in a given society and their impact on the development of branding have been analyzed. The views of the various authors have been explored and the authors’ own substantiation for the issues indicated has been presented. The main directions for the formation and use of brand as a marketing tool have been outlined, given the social manifestations of consumption society. The relationship between brand and consumer in terms of compartmentalizing products and in the context of consumer choice has been defined. A characterization of possible consumer choice models has been provided. Their impact on the effectiveness of branding has been determined. The importance of the social and psychological factors of branding, which dominate a consumption society, have been displayed and analyzed. The key priorities for building and developing successful brands have been formulated.

  16. March 2016 Arizona thoracic society ntoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The March 2016 Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, March 23, 2016 at the Scottsdale Shea Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. This was a dinner meeting with case presentations. There were 17 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, and radiology communities. Of note, Dr. Elijah Poulos drove from Flagstaff to attend the meeting. Dr. Rick Robbins gave a summary of ATS Hill Day and the possibility of collecting dues for the Arizona Thoracic Society along with American Thoracic Society dues. Dr. Robbins also presented the results of emailing the Table of Contents of the Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care to the ATS members in Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Nevada along with listing the contents in Inspirations the California Thoracic Society newsletter. The number of page views doubled over usual the following day. Dr. George Parides presented a short presentation on whether coccidioidomycosis nodules ...

  17. Technology and society building our sociotechnical future

    CERN Document Server

    Wetmore, Jameson M

    2009-01-01

    Technological change does not happen in a vacuum; decisions about which technologies to develop, fund, market, and use engage ideas about values as well as calculations of costs and benefits. This anthology focuses on the interconnections of technology, society, and values. It offers writings by authorities as varied as Freeman Dyson, Laurence Lessig, Bruno Latour, and Judy Wajcman that will introduce readers to recent thinking about technology and provide them with conceptual tools, a theoretical framework, and knowledge to help understand how technology shapes society and how society shapes technology. It offers readers a new perspective on such current issues as globalization, the balance between security and privacy, environmental justice, and poverty in the developing world. The careful ordering of the selections and the editors' introductions give Technology and Society a coherence and flow that is unusual in anthologies. The book is suitable for use in undergraduate courses in STS and other disciplines...

  18. International Society for Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and regenerative medicine community in the world. More stem cell research Take a closer look Recent Blogs View ... story independent nonprofit organization & the voice of the stem cell research community The International Society for Stem Cell ...

  19. CERN hosts Physics and Society Forum

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    On 28-29 March, CERN hosted the fifth edition of the European Physical Society's “Physics and Society” forum. The forum addresses the role of physicists in general society – be they in education, politics, industry or communication. This year, attendees looked at how physicists have adapted - and can continue to adapt - to work in the economic marketplace.   “The forums began back in 2006, as a special closing event for the 2005 World Year of Physics,” explains Martial Ducloy, former President of the French Physical Society and Chair of the EPS Forum Physics and Society. “We decided to keep the sessions going, as they gave physicists a venue to discuss the non-scientific issues that influence their daily work. As the world's largest international physics laboratory – and the venue for this year's EPS Council – CERN seemed the ideal place to host this year's forum.” The forum ...

  20. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slatore, Christopher G; Horeweg, Nanda; Jett, James R

    2015-01-01

    : In this research statement from the American Thoracic Society, a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, and patient advocates reviewed available evidence for pulmonary nodule evaluation, characterized six focus areas to direct future research efforts, and identified fundamental gaps in knowledge...

  1. The CERN & Society programme launches its newsletter

    CERN Multimedia

    Matteo Castoldi

    2016-01-01

    The newsletter will be issued quarterly. Sign up to remain informed about the latest initiatives of the CERN & Society programme!    The CERN & Society programme encompasses projects in the areas of education and outreach, innovation and knowledge exchange, and culture and creativity that spread the CERN spirit of scientific curiosity for the inspiration and benefit of society. The programme is funded primarily by the CERN & Society Foundation, a charitable foundation established by CERN and supported by individuals, trusts, organisations and commercial companies. The projects are inspired or enabled by CERN but lie outside of the Laboratory’s specific research mandate. We especially want to help young talent from around the world to flourish in the future. The programme is now launching its newsletter, which will be issued quarterly. Everybody who wants to be informed about CERN & Society’s activities, stay up-to-date with its latest in...

  2. Coevolution of nutrigenomics and society: ethical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.

    2011-01-01

    To optimize the coevolution of nutrigenomics and society (ie, the reciprocal stimulation of both developments), I analyzed chances for a fruitful match between normative concepts and strategies of both developments. Nutrigenomics embodies =3 normative concepts. First, food is exclusively interpreted

  3. Sociological theory and the knowledge society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation and its knowledge society are bringing about a major change in the entire social system and this, in turn, is creating several discontinuities in the social order in many parts of the world. In some countries, the traditional economy has been thrown out of equilibrium, in some others the political system has been destabilised and in all countries the existing social order based mostly on conformity has been dislocated or de-railed. This paper examines the prospect of sociological theory in the wake of Information Technology (IT and Knowledge Revolution (KR that are overtaking societies the world over and that are changing many of the traditional values and norms of behaviour of individuals and organisations in society. It tries to habilitate sociology and its theoretical underpinnings in the matrix of the Knowledge Society built on Information Technology.

  4. Innovation Habitat: Sustainable possibilities for the society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia de Bem Machado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary society is moving in the core of a reality in which sustainability needs to be thought out and inserted through practices carried out in different dimensions of society, such as organizations, public and private institutions. This paper aims to identify the contribution of innovation habitats (IH for sustainability in society. The methodology used was systematic review of scientific literature in one online database. As a result, it was identified: 47 scientific papers publicated since 2000, but more frequently in the last year, 2014, with 10 publications, without providing a reference author in the area. There was also a high number of papers about management and social sciences. It was noticed a short number of publications, empirical and theoretical, about practices to promote sustainable actions in the society, so this indicates the need of research on this kind of practices, with innovation environment as the driver.

  5. Sociological theory and the knowledge society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation and its knowledge society are bringing about a major change in the entire social system and this, in turn, is creating several discontinuities in the social order in many parts of the world.  In some countries, the traditional economy has been thrown out of equilibrium, in some others the political system has been destabilised and in all countries the existing social order based mostly on conformity has been dislocated or de-railed. This paper examines the prospect of sociological theory in the wake of Information Technology (IT and Knowledge Revolution (KR that are overtaking societies the world over and that are changing many of the traditional values and norms of behaviour of individuals and organisations in society. It tries to habilitate sociology and its theoretical underpinnings in the matrix of the Knowledge Society built on Information Technology.

  6. The German Physical Society Under National Socialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Walker, Mark

    2004-12-01

    The history of the German Physical Society from 1933 to 1945 is not the same as a comprehensive history of physics under Adolf Hitler, but it does reflect important aspects of physicists' work and life during the Third Reich.

  7. New Groups Study Science's Effect on Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Dermot A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the chief aims of the Council for Science and Society in London and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Vienna. Indicates that both groups are planning to function as a multinational interdisciplinary organization. (CC)

  8. American Chemical Society Annual Report 1985 (Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents a section of the American Chemical Society's annual reports dealing with precollege education, college/university education, continuing education, and professional training. Includes highlights of grants, project summaries, types of financial support, instructional materials, and other areas. (JN)

  9. Facebook: Networking the Community of Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    The article examines the significance of new "social media" like Facebook for the way we socialize, develop social identity, and shape society. Based on the work of Luhmann, the article proposes that community communication is fundamental to the selfregulation of our society and that this type...... of communication also provides the basis for the formation and maintenance of people’s social identity, so that they and society are in harmony. In contrast to community communication, the article explores the notion of network communication, which is classified as communication that may have some positive effects...... but that also may pose certain risks for modern society and for the development and maintenance of social identity. The article argues that communication through and about status updates on Facebook may be categorized as network communication, and finally it discusses whether and to what extent this kind...

  10. Transitional Justice, Culture and Society: Beyond Outreach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Ketelaars

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews Transitional Justice, Culture and Society: Beyond Outreach, edited by Clara Ramírez-Barat, International Center for Transitional Justice, New York: Social Science Research Council, 2014 ISBN 978-0-911400-02-1

  11. Problems of Education in Information Society

    OpenAIRE

    MINOH, Michihiko; 美濃, 導彦

    2011-01-01

    "Perspective on education in today’s highly advanced Information Society focusing upon principle and idea of education";SOKEN-OER 2nd Open Workshop February 24, 2011;The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)Rm.104;Hayama, Kanagawa

  12. Change of values in the consumer society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austruma S.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A common feature of our age is orientation of young people towards transitional values. Economic partnership of consumer society has a direct impact on values of society and even if the process of change of values can be affected by formers of education politics, economists and politicians, young people still choose values, which conform with their own lifestyle. Content of educational subjects is connected with study, succession of cultural values, study of classified knowledge and skills, which is also a prerequisite of formation of personality. Societies of all ages has formed according to the specific mechanism, accumulating and integrating general, notable at that time ideas, preserving and transforming their own social experience to the next generations. Each culture declares itself from its scale of values and norms. Priority of change of post material and material values changes together with conditions of cultural, historical and social-political life. Change of paradigms is change of viewpoint of the world, therefore conditions of value choice relate not only to separate groups, but to whole cultures. Young people, similar to other members of society, are forced to construct their own identity and to form their own life insurance strategies offered by the consumer society. Consumer society forms its values and it is creator of its own significance, but young people as social agents are reproducers of values of consumer society. Research results of World Value Surveys (WVS from six continents discovered big differences in value priorities between younger and older generations, which indicates not only inter-generation value change, but also changes in the whole society. The research “Value choice of young people in consumer society” in our country shows, that although the lifestyle of young people is pragmatic, traditional value – family is also one of the most often mentioned and important values in consumer society. But

  13. PHYSIOLOGY OF ACID BASE BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid-base, electrolyte, and metabolic disturbances are common in the intensive care unit. Almost all critically ill patients often suffer from compound acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Successful evaluation and management of such patients requires recognition of common patterns (e.g., metabolic acidosis and the ability to dissect one disorder from another. The intensivists needs to identify and correct these condition with the easiest available tools as they are the associated with multiorgan failure. Understanding the elements of normal physiology in these areas is very important so as to diagnose the pathological condition and take adequate measures as early as possible. Arterial blood gas analysis is one such tool for early detection of acid base disorder. Physiology of acid base is complex and here is the attempt to simplify it in our day to day application for the benefit of critically ill patients.

  14. Awareness of Turkish society about accessible tourism

    OpenAIRE

    BULGAN, Gülay

    2016-01-01

    Turkey is among the countries which cannot have a share of accessible tourism although it is challenging and has a big market in tourism. People with disabilities represent a significant market share and Turkey can have a share of this market to increase its tourism revenues. Aim of this study is to present the awareness level of Turkish society about accessible tourism. This study concluded that Turkish society has an awareness of accessible tourism, but tourism establishme...

  15. Civil Society, Democratic Space, and Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelmani Jaysawal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Civil Society envisages the growth of civilization in a way that the society is in “civilized form.” It has been prominent in Social science since time immemorial. Till 18th century, it was synonymous with the state or political society. It was more or less direct translation of Cicero’s Societas’ Civilis and Aristotle’s Koinonia politike. According to Karl Marx, “Civil Society embraces the whole material intercourse of individuals within a definite stage of development of productive forces.” Civil Society is an arena where modern man legitimately gratifies his self-interest and develops his individuality, but also learns the value of group action, social solidarity which educates him for citizenship and equips him to participate in the political sphere of the state. It provides “networks of civic engagement” within which reciprocity is learned and enforced, trust is generated. An active and diverse civil society plays a valuable role in advancement of democracy. It seeks to ensure that citizen’s interests are taken seriously. The social work intervention may not be democratically envisaged until it is promulgated by civic engagement through Civil Society. Methodology: This is a descriptive study which consists of secondary source of data collection based on reports, books, periodic journals, web-based articles. There have been utilized three case studies for reaching the findings of study. This article will highlight on role of civil society in providing democratic space and assisting social workers to ensure inclusive growth through conglomeration of state and individuals.

  16. Awareness of Turkish society about accessible tourism

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Turkey is among the countries which cannot have a share of accessible tourism although it is challenging and has a big market in tourism. People with disabilities represent a significant market share and Turkey can have a share of this market to increase its tourism revenues. Aim of this study is to present the awareness level of Turkish society about accessible tourism. This study concluded that Turkish society has an awareness of accessible tourism, but tourism establishme...

  17. Open source, collectivism, and Japanese society

    OpenAIRE

    Iitaka, Toshikazu

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about collectivism in the Network Society. Many researches about the Network Society evaluate collectivism, citing Japanese culture and Hacker culture as good models of such collectivism. However, some researchers, such as K. Abe in his analysis of “Seken,” criticize Japanese collectivism. Abe’s study pointed out the negative effect of Japanese collectivism on scientific progress. This paper will criticize Abe’s study and offer a new model for evaluating collec...

  18. Environmental and ecological citizenship in civil society

    OpenAIRE

    Humphreys, David

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from the work of Andrew Dobson, two notions of citizenship in civil society can be distinguished: environmental citizenship, which focuses on environmental rights and seeks to redefine the relationship between the state and the citizen; and ecological citizenship, which goes beyond a rights-based notion of citizenship to advocate the fair usage of ecological space across international borders. Using civil society initiatives to conserve forests, this article argues that these two noti...

  19. Anatomy and physiology of cisternostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iype Cherian; Giovanni Grasso; Antonio Bernardo; Sunil Munakomi

    2016-01-01

    Cisternostomy is defined as opening the basal cisterns to atmospheric pressure.This technique helps to reduce the intracranial pressure in severe head trauma as well as other conditions when the so-called sudden "brain swelling" troubles the surgeon.We elaborated the surgical anatomy of this procedure as well as the proposed physiology of how cisternostomy works.This novel technique may change the current trends in neurosurgery.

  20. Physiologie du risque face à l’Histoire, or, Health, Culture and Society: The possibilities of anthropology and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Jouanjean

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This review of published research (Health, Culture and Society – Rawat Publications, India, 2000 seeks to introduce the reader to the driving themes of a work establishing the link between human physiological functions and social represetations. In doing so the author articulates the topic of prevention within a broad and complex social, historical and anthropological framework.

  1. An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Policy Statement: Enhancing Implementation, Use, and Delivery of Pulmonary Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochester, Carolyn L; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Holland, Anne E; Lareau, Suzanne C; Marciniuk, Darcy D; Puhan, Milo A; Spruit, Martijn A; Masefield, Sarah; Casaburi, Richard; Clini, Enrico M; Crouch, Rebecca; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Garvey, Chris; Goldstein, Roger S; Hill, Kylie; Morgan, Michael; Nici, Linda; Pitta, Fabio; Ries, Andrew L; Singh, Sally J; Troosters, Thierry; Wijkstra, Peter J; Yawn, Barbara P; ZuWallack, Richard L

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has demonstrated physiological, symptom-reducing, psychosocial, and health economic benefits for patients with chronic respiratory diseases, yet it is underutilized worldwide. Insufficient funding, resources, and reimbursement; lack of healthcare professional, payer, and patient awareness and knowledge; and additional patient-related barriers all contribute to the gap between the knowledge of the science and benefits of PR and the actual delivery of PR services to suitable patients. The objectives of this document are to enhance implementation, use, and delivery of pulmonary rehabilitation to suitable individuals worldwide. Members of the American Thoracic Society (ATS) Pulmonary Rehabilitation Assembly and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) Rehabilitation and Chronic Care Group established a Task Force and writing committee to develop a policy statement on PR. The document was modified based on feedback from expert peer reviewers. After cycles of review and revisions, the statement was reviewed and formally approved by the Board of Directors of the ATS and the Science Council and Executive Committee of the ERS. This document articulates policy recommendations for advancing healthcare professional, payer, and patient awareness and knowledge of PR, increasing patient access to PR, and ensuring quality of PR programs. It also recommends areas of future research to establish evidence to support the development of an updated funding and reimbursement policy regarding PR. The ATS and ERS commit to undertake actions that will improve access to and delivery of PR services for suitable patients. They call on their members and other health professional societies, payers, patients, and patient advocacy groups to join in this commitment.

  2. Empowering the society through companies CSR agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Noor Adwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Topic of socioeconomic issue is one of the most widely discussed globally as it gives effects to occupation, education, income, wealth, and place of residence of individuals. These social challenges should be addressed and resolved because to enhance individuals’ contribution to economic and social life of their society and reduce social tensions and conflicts that negatively affects country’s economic development. For this reason, in the Eleventh Malaysia Plan (2016-2020, the Malaysian Government stresses on the importance of participation of companies in empowering society to improve socioeconomic that could support equitable society. The empowerment programs aim to improve the education, quality of life and wellbeing of individuals and groups in society through reducing wealth gap, racial imbalance and promoting employment equity. One way to initiate greater involvement of the companies in socioeconomic development of the society is through CSR agenda. Specifically, the CSR agenda through empowerment activities (such as trainings programs, educational sponsorship mentorship program and learning and development programs is believed to have a positive implication on society by way of improving wealth, education and skills of the individuals. Hence, this paper aims to develop measurement of empowerment in companies CSR agenda.

  3. Education for civil society or democracy

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    Avramović Zoran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a scholarly debate on theses which equate the concepts of "civil society" and "democracy". The main objection put forward against the concept of education for civil society is its ideological nature. The paper analyses theoretical and empirical difficulties of the concept. In the first place, "civil society" concept is not identical to "democracy" concept. The author contests the claim that a good citizen ideal is a general ideal of modern society. A claim is put forward that there is no significant pedagogical or didactic difference between a civil education teacher and teachers of other subjects. The paper also points out some outstanding problems in school practice of civil education as a proof that the concept does not have a valid theoretical foundation. The call for civil education not to be limited to a single subject has been contested by the argument that a single vision of a desirable society can lead into doctrinal and ideological bigotry and not democratic pluralistic society. .

  4. [C-peptide physiological effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpakov, A O; Granstrem, O K

    2013-02-01

    In the recent years there were numerous evidences that C-peptide, which was previously considered as a product of insulin biosynthesis, is one of the key regulators of physiological processes. C-peptide via heterotrimeric G(i/o) protein-coupled receptors activates a wide range of intracellular effector proteins and transcription factors and, thus, controls the inflammatory and neurotrophic processes, pain sensitivity, cognitive function, macro- and microcirculation, glomerular filtration. These effects of C-peptide are mainly expressed in its absolute or relative deficiency occurred in type 1 diabetes mellitus and they are less pronounced when the level of C-peptide is close to normal. Replacement therapy with C-peptide prevents many complications of type 1 diabetes, such as atherosclerosis, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and nephropathy. C-peptide interacts with the insulin hexamer complexes and induces their dissociation and, as a result, regulates the functional activity of the insulin signaling system. At the same time, C-peptide at the concentrations above physiological may demonstrate pro-inflammatory effects on the endothelial cells and cause atherosclerotic changes in the vessels, which should be considered in the study of pathogenic mechanisms of complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus, where the level of C peptide is increased, as well as in the development of approaches for C-peptide application in clinic. This review is devoted contemporary achievements and unsolved problems in the study of C-peptide, as an important regulator of physiological and biochemical processes.

  5. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos eKagias

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. Physiological stress can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner chemistry during normal development. For example, conditions such as intrinsic hypoxia and oxidative stress, which result from an increase in tissue mass, have to be confronted by developing embryos in order to complete their development. Finally, organisms face the challenge of stochastic accumulation of molecular damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses include changes in the expression of molecules such as transcription factors and microRNAs that regulate stress resistance and adaptation. Moreover, both intrinsic and extrinsic stresses have a tremendous impact on neuronal development and maintenance with implications in many diseases. Here, we review the responses of neurons to various physiological stressors at the molecular and cellular level.

  6. Physiology of psychogenic movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Psychogenic movement disorders (PMDs) are common, but their physiology is largely unknown. In most situations, the movement is involuntary, but in a minority, when the disorder is malingering or factitious, the patient is lying and the movement is voluntary. Physiologically, we cannot tell the difference between voluntary and involuntary. The Bereitschaftspotential (BP) is indicative of certain brain mechanisms for generating movement, and is seen with ordinarily voluntary movements, but by itself does not indicate that a movement is voluntary. There are good clinical neurophysiological methods available to determine whether myoclonus or tremor is a PMD. For example, psychogenic myoclonus generally has a BP, and psychogenic stimulus-sensitive myoclonus has a variable latency with times similar to normal reaction times. Psychogenic tremor will have variable frequency over time, be synchronous in the two arms, and might well be entrained with voluntary rhythmic movements. These facts suggest that PMDs share voluntary mechanisms for movement production. There are no definitive tests to differentiate psychogenic dystonia from organic dystonia, although one has been recently reported. Similar physiological abnormalities are seen in both groups. The question arises as to how a movement can be produced with voluntary mechanisms, but not be considered voluntary.

  7. Physiology of in vitro culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesús Cañal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture procedures described up to the eighties, did not made any mention to the environmental control of in vitro plant development. However, growth rate, development and many of the physiologic-morphologic features of the in vitro grown plants are influenced by the culture vessel. The increasing knowledge about the environmental control of culture vessels under sterile conditions, is helping to change micorpropagation procedures. The in vitro environment with lower rate ventilation, brings about low flow rates of matter and energy, with minimum variations of temperature, high relative humidity and large daily changes of the concentration of CO2 inside the culture vessel. The type of culture vessel (size, shape, fabric and closing system can influence the evolution of the atmosphere along the time of culture. Although submitted to different stresses factors plant can be grown in vitro, but plants can be faulty in their anatomy, morphology and physiology. As a consequence, these plants shown a phenotype unable to survive to ex vitro conditions. Different strategies can be used to control the atmosphere along the different phases of micropropagation, in heterotrophic, mixotrophic or autotrophic cultures. The election of the best strategy will be based on different factors as species, number of transplantes required, or quality-price relationship. enviromental control, tissue culture, micropropagation Keywords: in vitro enviromental, characteristic physiology,

  8. Physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ippei; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-08-01

    The heart must continuously pump blood to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients. To maintain the high energy consumption required by this role, the heart is equipped with multiple complex biological systems that allow adaptation to changes of systemic demand. The processes of growth (hypertrophy), angiogenesis, and metabolic plasticity are critically involved in maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Cardiac hypertrophy is classified as physiological when it is associated with normal cardiac function or as pathological when associated with cardiac dysfunction. Physiological hypertrophy of the heart occurs in response to normal growth of children or during pregnancy, as well as in athletes. In contrast, pathological hypertrophy is induced by factors such as prolonged and abnormal hemodynamic stress, due to hypertension, myocardial infarction etc. Pathological hypertrophy is associated with fibrosis, capillary rarefaction, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and cellular dysfunction (impairment of signaling, suppression of autophagy, and abnormal cardiomyocyte/non-cardiomyocyte interactions), as well as undesirable epigenetic changes, with these complex responses leading to maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. This review describes the key molecules and cellular responses involved in physiological/pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamical compensation in physiological circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Omer; Swisa, Avital; Glaser, Benjamin; Dor, Yuval; Alon, Uri

    2016-11-08

    Biological systems can maintain constant steady-state output despite variation in biochemical parameters, a property known as exact adaptation. Exact adaptation is achieved using integral feedback, an engineering strategy that ensures that the output of a system robustly tracks its desired value. However, it is unclear how physiological circuits also keep their output dynamics precise-including the amplitude and response time to a changing input. Such robustness is crucial for endocrine and neuronal homeostatic circuits because they need to provide a precise dynamic response in the face of wide variation in the physiological parameters of their target tissues; how such circuits compensate their dynamics for unavoidable natural fluctuations in parameters is unknown. Here, we present a design principle that provides the desired robustness, which we call dynamical compensation (DC). We present a class of circuits that show DC by means of a nonlinear feedback loop in which the regulated variable controls the functional mass of the controlling endocrine or neuronal tissue. This mechanism applies to the control of blood glucose by insulin and explains several experimental observations on insulin resistance. We provide evidence that this mechanism may also explain compensation and organ size control in other physiological circuits.

  10. Multimodal integration of anatomy and physiology classes: How instructors utilize multimodal teaching in their classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Gerald M., Jr.

    Multimodality is the theory of communication as it applies to social and educational semiotics (making meaning through the use of multiple signs and symbols). The term multimodality describes a communication methodology that includes multiple textual, aural, and visual applications (modes) that are woven together to create what is referred to as an artifact. Multimodal teaching methodology attempts to create a deeper meaning to course content by activating the higher cognitive areas of the student's brain, creating a more sustained retention of the information (Murray, 2009). The introduction of multimodality educational methodologies as a means to more optimally engage students has been documented within educational literature. However, studies analyzing the distribution and penetration into basic sciences, more specifically anatomy and physiology, have not been forthcoming. This study used a quantitative survey design to determine the degree to which instructors integrated multimodality teaching practices into their course curricula. The instrument used for the study was designed by the researcher based on evidence found in the literature and sent to members of three associations/societies for anatomy and physiology instructors: the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society; the iTeach Anatomy & Physiology Collaborate; and the American Physiology Society. Respondents totaled 182 instructor members of two- and four-year, private and public higher learning colleges collected from the three organizations collectively with over 13,500 members in over 925 higher learning institutions nationwide. The study concluded that the expansion of multimodal methodologies into anatomy and physiology classrooms is at the beginning of the process and that there is ample opportunity for expansion. Instructors continue to use lecture as their primary means of interaction with students. Email is still the major form of out-of-class communication for full-time instructors. Instructors with

  11. Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults is available for download and contains physiological parameters values for healthy older human adults (age 60...

  12. February 2014 Arizona Thoracic Society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The February 2014 Arizona Thoracic Society was a dinner meeting sponsored by Select Specialty Hospital and held on Wednesday, 2/26/2014 at Shea Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. There were 14 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, and radiology communities. Gerald Swartzberg was presented a plaque as the Arizona Thoracic Society clinician of the year by George Parides (Figure 1. A discussion was held about having a wine tasting in San Diego at the ATS International Conference. Peter Wagner (Slurping Around with PDW has agreed to lead the conference. It was decided to extend invitations to the New Mexico, Colorado and California Thoracic Societies along with the Mayo Clinic. A question was raised about guideline development. It was felt that we should review the Infectious Disease Society of America Valley Fever guidelines and determine if the Arizona Thoracic Society might have something to contribute. Three cases were presented: Lewis ...

  13. Teaching the Intersection of Climate and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, C.; Ting, M.; Orlove, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    As the first program of its kind, the M.A. in Climate and Society at Columbia University educates students on how climate affects society and vice versa. The 12-month interdisciplinary Master's program is designed to allow students from a wide variety of backgrounds to gain knowledge in climate science and a deep understanding of social sciences and how they related to climate. There are currently more than 250 alumni applying their skills in fields including energy, economics, disaster mitigation, journalism and climate research in more than a dozen countries worldwide. The presentation will highlight three key components of the program that have contributed to its growth and helped alumni become brokers that can effectively put climate science in the hands of the public and policymakers for the benefit of society. Those components include working with other academic departments at Columbia to successfully integrate social science classes into the curriculum; the development of the course Applications in Climate and Society to help students make an overt link between climate and its impacts on society; and providing students with hands-on activities with practitioners in climate-related fields.

  14. Official Statistics In a Modern Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie DUMITRESCU

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern democratic society cannot efficiently and rigorously function in the absence of a solid basis of relevant and reliable statistical data, allowing for an easy and user-friendly access. Representing a “public good”, in the contemporary society, the official statistical information is meant to serve the whole society, under the conditions of maximum transparency, impartiality and equal treatment of all the categories of data users.Official statistics should adapt itself to the changes taking place in the modern society and should comply with its increased demands for high quality information. On its turn, it imposes to both national and global statistical systems major tasks of structural changes in the activity of producing and disseminating official statistics, as well as in the communication with its partners from the informational fl ow upstream, but particularly from its downstream – these being the target recipients of statistical data.The article presents the vision on the official statistics role, functions and tasks in the modern society, as against the major challenges regarding the transformation of statistical information into knowledge, the promotion of statistical literacy and culture, ensuring the usefulness and the large scale use of statistical data.

  15. Kosovar Society through Secularism and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Dritero Arifi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will analyze the importance and the effects of religion, in Kosovar society. A great part of the paper, will analyze the social and the political relations in Post-War Kosovo. Initially it will elaborate religion and secularism, especially in theoreticall aspect, what impact have these definitions in modern societies. In order to explain what the importance of the religion in Kosovo is, we will focus on analyzing ethnical, social and political relations within Kosovo society. A considerable component of the paper is also, the elaboration of secularism in Kosovo conditions. This implies that the formulation of the problem and the objective of this research, are the substance of the paper’s theme, which is, religion in Kosovo; its definition and the outlook of the Kosovar society on religion. Is Kosovo post-war society more or less religious? That means the elements of Religions and Secularism will be part of the analysis of developments in post-war Kosovo.

  16. How Global is Global Civil Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Chandhoke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times the concept of global civil society has made its appearance on national and international intellectual, as well as political agendas, in a major way. It is of some interest that two other concepts, both of which call for transcendence of national boundaries in precisely the same way as global civil society does, have also made their appearance on the scene of intellectual debates at roughly the same time: the concept of cosmopolitanism and that of transnational justice. All three concepts have dramatically expanded the notion of commitment to one’s fellow beings beyond the nation state. And all three concepts have extended critiques of policies that violate the dignity of human beings from national governments to the practices of inter-national institutions such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Forum. In sum the inter-related concepts of global civil society, cosmopolitanism, and transnational justice have greatly enlarged the traditional domain of political theory. And yet for any political theorist who is acutely conscious of the phenomenon of power, these concepts are not unproblematic. For the practices of global civil society may just reinforce the intellectual and the moral power of the West over the postcolonial world. This is particularly true of say global human rights organizations. This paper will attempt to raise some questions of the concept and the practices of global civil society from the perspective of the countries of the South.

  17. Upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldum, Helge L; Kleveland, Per M; Fossmark, Reidar

    2015-06-01

    Nordic research on physiology and pathophysiology of the upper gastrointestinal tract has flourished during the last 50 years. Swedish surgeons and physiologists were in the frontline of research on the regulation of gastric acid secretion. This research finally led to the development of omeprazole, the first proton pump inhibitor. When Swedish physiologists developed methods allowing the assessment of acid secretion in isolated oxyntic glands and isolated parietal cells, the understanding of mechanisms by which gastric acid secretion is regulated took a great step forward. Similarly, in Trondheim, Norway, the acid producing isolated rat stomach model combined with a sensitive and specific method for determination of histamine made it possible to evaluate this regulation qualitatively as well as quantitatively. In Lund, Sweden, the identification of the enterochromaffin-like cell as the cell taking part in the regulation of acid secretion by producing and releasing histamine was of fundamental importance both physiologically and clinically. Jorpes and Mutt established a center at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm for the purification of gastrointestinal hormones in the 1960s, and Danes followed up this work by excelling in the field of determination and assessment of biological role of gastrointestinal hormones. A Finnish group was for a long period in the forefront of research on gastritis, and the authors' own studies on the classification of gastric cancer and the role of gastrin in the development of gastric neoplasia are of importance. It can, accordingly, be concluded that Nordic researchers have been central in the research on area of the upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases.

  18. Fish cardiovascular physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Johanna; Weber, E Scott; Marty, Gary D; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Fish patients with cardiovascular disorders present a challenge in terms of diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic options. Veterinarians can approach these cases in fish using methods similar to those employed for other companion animals. Clinicians who evaluate and treat fish in private, aquarium, zoologic, or aquaculture settings need to rely on sound clinical judgment after thorough historical and physical evaluation. Pharmacokinetic data and treatments specific to cardiovascular disease in fish are limited; thus, drug types and dosages used in fish are largely empiric. Fish cardiovascular anatomy, physiology, diagnostic evaluation, monitoring, common diseases, cardiac pathologic conditions, formulary options, and comprehensive references are presented with the goal of providing fish veterinarians with clinically relevant tools.

  19. Physiologic mastectomy via flank laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew J; Barrington, George M; Parish, Steve M

    2008-11-01

    Physiologic mastectomy can be used as a salvage procedure in cases of chronic suppurative mastitis, gangrenous mastitis, or chronic, severe mastitis associated with organisms liberating endotoxin or exotoxin. The surgical technique involves ligation of the major arterial blood supply (external pudendal artery) to the corresponding half of the mammary gland, which results in decreased systemic absorption of toxins and gland atrophy. The technique is performed with the cow standing, and it is relatively atraumatic. This procedure is a simple, yet effective alternative to radical mastectomy for unresponsive mastitis cases in genetically or otherwise valuable cattle.

  20. Bengt Saltin and exercise physiology: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    This perspective highlights some of the key contributions of Professor Bengt Saltin (1935-2014) to exercise physiology. The emergence of exercise physiology from work physiology as his career began is discussed as are his contributions in a number of areas. Saltin's open and question-based style of leadership is a model for the future of our field.

  1. Biology of VO2 max: looking under the physiology lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundby, C; Montero, D; Joyner, M

    2017-06-01

    In this review, we argue that several key features of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) should underpin discussions about the biological and reductionist determinants of its interindividual variability: (i) training-induced increases in VO2 max are largely facilitated by expansion of red blood cell volume and an associated improvement in stroke volume, which also adapts independent of changes in red blood cell volume. These general concepts are also informed by cross-sectional studies in athletes that have very high values for VO2 max. Therefore, (ii) variations in VO2 max improvements with exercise training are also likely related to variations in these physiological determinants. (iii) All previously untrained individuals will respond to endurance exercise training in terms of improvements in VO2 max provided the stimulus exceeds a certain volume and/or intensity. Thus, genetic analysis and/or reductionist studies performed to understand or predict such variations might focus specifically on DNA variants or other molecular phenomena of relevance to these physiological pathways. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Deconstructing the superorganism: social physiology, groundplans, and sociogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian R; Linksvayer, Timothy A

    2010-03-01

    Our understanding of insect societies is rapidly expanding due to an emphasis on integrative approaches. Emerging tools enabling the molecular dissection of social behavior, together with novel hypotheses for the evolution of eusociality, are emblematic of this progress. However, an obstacle to a truly integrative approach remains, as social physiology--the basis of group-level coordination--has generally been neglected by geneticists. In this paper, we begin a synthesis of these fields by first reviewing three classes of social insect organization that mark major transitions in increasing social complexity. We then develop an expansion of the superorganism concept in order to place eusociality into a broad evolutionary context, and we also interpret current molecular and genetic work on the evolution of eusociality. The ground plan hypothesis proposes that eusociality arose via simple changes in the regulation of ancestral gene sets affecting reproductive physiology and behavior, and we argue that this hypothesis is explanatory for the evolution of division of labor (social anatomy) but not for the regulatory systems that ensure group-level coordination of action (social physiology), which we propose is dependent on previously unrelated traits that are brought together into novel genetic networks. We conclude with a review of recent work in sociogenomics that supports our hypotheses.

  3. Physiological properties of brain-machine interface input signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutzky, Marc W; Flint, Robert D

    2017-08-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), also called brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), decode neural signals and use them to control some type of external device. Despite many experimental successes and terrific demonstrations in animals and humans, a high-performance, clinically viable device has not yet been developed for widespread usage. There are many factors that impact clinical viability and BMI performance. Arguably, the first of these is the selection of brain signals used to control BMIs. In this review, we summarize the physiological characteristics and performance-including movement-related information, longevity, and stability-of multiple types of input signals that have been used in invasive BMIs to date. These include intracortical spikes as well as field potentials obtained inside the cortex, at the surface of the cortex (electrocorticography), and at the surface of the dura mater (epidural signals). We also discuss the potential for future enhancements in input signal performance, both by improving hardware and by leveraging the knowledge of the physiological characteristics of these signals to improve decoding and stability. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Exploring the role of business in society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trilochan Sastry

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of late the idea that business is a ‘force for the good of society’ has come under scrutiny. The conventional view that as long as businesses act legally and ethically, they need not concern themselves with larger social goals is now being challenged the world over. Businesses are more conscious of the environment and sustainability, or of possible adverse impacts on society and consumers. In India, liberalisation in the 1990s led to Indian business becoming globally competitive. However, impressive growth rates have been accompanied by a growing gap between the rich and the poor. This has brought into sharp focus the role of business in society and the crucial question; to whom does the wealth created belong? Scholarly and practitioner perspectives on the subject are followed by a round table discussion with a panel of entrepreneurs from the corporate sector and leaders of civil society debating on several contentious issues.

  5. [High-performance society and doping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallien, C L

    2002-09-01

    Doping is not limited to high-level athletes. Likewise it is not limited to the field of sports activities. The doping phenomenon observed in sports actually reveals an underlying question concerning the notion of sports itself, and more widely, the society's conception of sports. In a high-performance society, which is also a high-risk society, doping behavior is observed in a large number of persons who may or may not participate in sports activities. The motivation is the search for individual success or profit. The fight against doping must therefore focus on individual responsibility and prevention in order to preserve athlete's health and maintain the ethical and educational value of sports activities.

  6. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE, PART OF THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORESCU ANA-MARIA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the role of electronic commerce in the digital economy, where information is the main resource. Internet, information society technology vector, made possible transition to a knowledge society at the beginning of XXI century. New economy involves transition from a traditional economy based on resources, to a knowledge-based economy. The development of information technology leads to major changes in the economic and social fields. In a world of globalization, e-commerce, part of the information society, manages to eliminate geographical barriers between participants at economic transactions. I presented e-commerce history, definitions. I pointed out the importance of this sector at european level by quantification of indicators. I used a theoretical research and qualitative analysis of the data. I presented values indicators at the european level, the lowest and highest value, and recorded values for Romania.

  7. Nicholson Medal Lecture: Scientists and Totalitarian Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li-Zhi

    1997-04-01

    In order to call for support for his policy in China from the scientific community outside of China, Li Peng, China's premier today and at the time of Tiananmen massacre in 1989, published an editorial of ``Science" magazine (July 5, 1996) titled ``Why China needs science ... and partners." This editorial brought a serious problem, which is originally faced by scientists in a totalitarian society, upon the scientific community in free societies outside. It is well known that the current attitude of the Chinese government toward science is what it was during the years of Mao and the Soviet Union: science is limited to provide instruments useful to the rulers, but any degree of freedom, such as to challenge ideas, required by science to change the totalitarian regime itself, is suppressed. Thus, the problem facing us is: how to help your colleagues and promote science in a totalitarian society, without becoming a partner of the injustices of that regime.

  8. Mineral resources of Peru's ancient societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Northern Peru has an exceptionally rich archaeological heritage that includes metalwork, ceramics and textiles. The success of at least a half-dozen pre-Columbian societies dating back 3,000 years and subsequent Spanish colonization in the 1400s has rested on the effective use of northern Peru's abundant resources. In the summer of 2000, my son Matt and I learned about that connection firsthand by volunteering at the Santa Rita B archaeological site in the Chao Valley near Trujillo in northern Peru. Riding donkey-back through the Andes and talking with local people, we got our hands dirty in the rich archaeology and geology of the area. We were able to correlate mineral occurrences to their various roles in society - opening a window into the region's fascinating past. From construction to metallurgy, pre-Columbian societies flourished and advanced because of their understanding and use of the available mineral resources.

  9. Women in European Culture and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah Leigh

    A new and major collection of documents, Women in European Culture and Society: A Sourcebook includes a range of transnational sources which encompass the history of women in Europe from the beginning of the eighteenth century to the present day. Including documents from across Europe, from Franc...... language into English for the first time. Ideal for use on its own or as a companion volume to Women in European Culture and Society: Gender, Skill and Identity since 1700, this sourcebook is an invaluable and essential collection showing how women lived throughout Europe.......A new and major collection of documents, Women in European Culture and Society: A Sourcebook includes a range of transnational sources which encompass the history of women in Europe from the beginning of the eighteenth century to the present day. Including documents from across Europe, from France...

  10. Locating Science in Society across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlgaard, Niels; Bloch, Carter Walter; Degn, Lise

    2012-01-01

    -level and individual-level data, we further show a connection between national differences and the public’s satisfaction with their own role as participants in science and technology. In countries where science communication culture is weak, where science plays a minor role in policy-making, and where institutions......In search of differences and similarities in relation to the role and location of science in European societies, we use empirical information from 37 countries as a platform for developing typologies concerning dimensions of science in society. These capture clusters of countries and reveal...... significant heterogeneity across Europe, providing a point of departure for international learning, while also demonstrating the challenges that the European institutions face in their promotion of a European Research Area, shared priorities and a common model of science in society. Combining national...

  11. The open society and its enemies

    CERN Document Server

    Popper, Karl Raimund

    2003-01-01

    Written in political exile during the Second World War and first published in 1945, Karl Popper's The Open Society and Its Enemies is one of the most influential books of the twentieth century. Hailed by Bertrand Russell as a 'vigorous and profound defence of democracy', its now legendary attack on the philosophies of Plato, Hegel and Marx exposed the dangers inherent in centrally planned political systems. Popper's highly accessible style, his erudite and lucid explanations of the thought of great philosophers and the recent resurgence of totalitarian regimes around the world are just three of the reasons for the enduring popularity of The Open Society and Its Enemies, and for why it demands to be read both today and in years to come. This is the second of two volumes of The Open Society and Its Enemies.

  12. Politics of Durkheim. Society, Humanity, State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Karsenti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay moves from the tension between society and humanity, between nationalism and cosmopolitism, in order to discuss the sociological concept of the State according to Emile Durkheim. The author criticizes Pierre Bourdieu who maintains that the Durkheimian State was only the expression of the French republican society at the end of the 19th century. The State should be instead for Durkheim the organized expression of the authority existing in every society. Unlike what happens in modern political theory, in particular in Hobbes and Rousseau, the sociological State is not the sum of the forces, but rather the result of a mental process that links individuals to their state organization. Precisely for this reason the state is «the organ of social thought», which allows subsequent deliberations through the mediation between rulers and ruled, without presupposing individuals but producing continuously the environment of their action.

  13. Ethics of Information Technologies in Knowledge Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2016-01-01

    , information science, and knowledge society in order to define responsibility and accountability. Although relations of causalities may be blurred and complex because of the auto-poetic development of computers and information systems we may still have to face the fact that human beings are fundamentally...... and violation of property and copyrights and here we face similar issues as when we talk about physical property rights although what happens is going on in cyberspace. Also we face fundamental problems about transparency, power and democracy of society as the result of the information revolution in knowledge....... This shows how it becomes more and more difficult for governments and organizations to hide information and that information is becoming more and more public. We can also talk about the present development as a technology-driven information revolution in knowledge society. The information overload...

  14. Women in European Culture and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah Leigh

    A new and major collection of documents, Women in European Culture and Society: A Sourcebook includes a range of transnational sources which encompass the history of women in Europe from the beginning of the eighteenth century to the present day. Including documents from across Europe, from Franc...... language into English for the first time. Ideal for use on its own or as a companion volume to Women in European Culture and Society: Gender, Skill and Identity since 1700, this sourcebook is an invaluable and essential collection showing how women lived throughout Europe.......A new and major collection of documents, Women in European Culture and Society: A Sourcebook includes a range of transnational sources which encompass the history of women in Europe from the beginning of the eighteenth century to the present day. Including documents from across Europe, from France...

  15. Educating Citizens in Late Modern Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Torben Spanget

    2011-01-01

    . The model is based on the fundamental belief that the overall aim of civic education in democratic, late modern and global societies is empowerment of the citizen in order to establish a self governing citizen who simultaneous is capable of managing and keeping together partly contradictory citizens tasks....... One is being a loyal subject in state and society affairs, a second is being an informed voter in state elections, a third is being a critical participant in state and society affairs and a forth is being an independent, innovative citizen outside state. The model is inspired by rather comprehensive......One way or the other democratic states need to take on the task of educating its rising generation in governmental affairs, societal matters and citizenship in order to sustain the democracy itself. This article presents a model for analysing civic education in late modern, globalised world...

  16. The Good Society: Lessons for Integrated Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neesham C.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue that philosophies of the good society can inform theories of integrated governance in two significant ways. Firstly, they can provide a reasonable foundation for legitimating forms of authority to govern a society across the government, corporate and civil sector. Secondly, they promote value systems that can be constitutive of a normative theory of integrated governance. In developing this argument, I explore conceptions of the good society put forward by Marquis de Condorcet, Adam Smith and Karl Marx, and evaluate the modalities in which the social projects proposed by these authors involve issues of integrated governance. For this purpose, I examine the three theories in relation to three questions: (1 What goals (or objectives should social action be directed to? (2 What should be the scope and limits of social responsibility lying behind the social authority of each sector (government, market or civil society? (3 How is social authority to be exercised beyond legislation? What source(s of legitimacy should one appeal to? Although Condorcet’s idea of the natural social order, Smith’s system of natural liberty and Marx’s political economy of human value have all received their fair share of criticism from empirical theories of society, I suggest that these conceptions are still useful to us today as radical normative experiments. These experiments can have guiding value in formulating models of integrated governance. However, the fundamental differences displayed by these three conceptions reveal the importance of determining whether one can develop models of integrated governance that would accommodate plural, incompatible, or unknown conceptions of the good society.

  17. DOES CIVIL SOCIETY CREATE SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauca Oana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether civil society itself can enhance or stimulate the creation of social entrepreneurs, by studying the traits of the civil society and the various definitions attributed to it. The main question that the paper wants to answer to is Does civil society create social entrepreneurs and the main approach used in this research paper is the theoretical one. By studying existing articles and books on the topic, the paper tries to emphasize the various dimensions that civil society can embrace, as pictured by various authors, as well as how these dimensions can relate to social entrepreneurs and the emergence of social businesses. The paper is not meant to be a breakthrough in the field, but rather to launch a question that is related to very important topics these days, social entrepreneurship, social innovation, social businesses and their connection to a very much debated topic-civil society. The paper is work-in progress and wants to stimulate research regarding the search of the sources of social entrepreneurship, in order to analyze them and better establish them as incubators for the future. It wants to be of use to whoever is researching the concepts illustrated above, as well as for those who want to get in touch with the new buzz words of the academic and entrepreneurial fields. The hereby paper stands, as previously stated, in a theoretical framework and the findings represent a mere analysis of the cause-effect relationship between the characteristics of civil society and those of social entrepreneurs. However, we are of the opinion that it can be a very good starting point for the ones interested in the domain, to analyze more sources of social entrepreneurship or further refine the answer to the question addressed in this article.

  18. Electrocyte physiology: 50 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Michael R

    2013-07-01

    Weakly electric gymnotiform and mormyrid fish generate and detect weak electric fields to image their worlds and communicate. These multi-purpose electric signals are generated by electrocytes, the specialized electric organ (EO) cells that produce the electric organ discharge (EOD). Just over 50 years ago the first experimental analyses of electrocyte physiology demonstrated that the EOD is produced and shaped by the timing and waveform of electrocyte action potentials (APs). Electrocytes of some species generate a single AP from a distinct region of excitable membrane, and this AP waveform determines EOD waveform. In other species, electrocytes possess two independent regions of excitable membrane that generate asynchronous APs with different waveforms, thereby increasing EOD complexity. Signal complexity is further enhanced in some gymnotiforms by the spatio-temporal activation of distinct EO regions with different electrocyte properties. For many mormyrids, additional EOD waveform components are produced by APs that propagate along stalks that connect postsynaptic regions to the main body of the electrocyte. I review here the history of research on electrocyte physiology in weakly electric fish, as well as recent discoveries of key phenomena not anticipated during early work in this field. Recent areas of investigation include the regulation of electrocyte activity by steroid and peptide hormones, the molecular evolution of electrocyte ion channels, and the evolutionary selection of ion channels expressed in excitable cells. These emerging research areas have generated renewed interest in electrocyte function and clear future directions for research addressing a broad range of new and important questions.

  19. The glycemic index: physiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Amin; Wong, Julia M W; Mirrahimi, Arash; Srichaikul, Korbua; Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C

    2009-08-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is a physiological assessment of a food's carbohydrate content through its effect on postprandial blood glucose concentrations. Evidence from trials and observational studies suggests that this physiological classification may have relevance to those chronic Western diseases associated with overconsumption and inactivity leading to central obesity and insulin resistance. The glycemic index classification of foods has been used as a tool to assess potential prevention and treatment strategies for diseases where glycemic control is of importance, such as diabetes. Low GI diets have also been reported to improve the serum lipid profile, reduce C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and aid in weight control. In cross-sectional studies, low GI or glycemic load diets (mean GI multiplied by total carbohydrate) have been associated with higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), with reduced CRP concentrations, and, in cohort studies, with decreased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition, some case-control and cohort studies have found positive associations between dietary GI and risk of various cancers, including those of the colon, breast, and prostate. Although inconsistencies in the current findings still need to be resolved, sufficient positive evidence, especially with respect to renewed interest in postprandial events, suggests that the glycemic index may have a role to play in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases.

  20. Physiological Effects of Touching Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumi Ikei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the physiological effects of touching wood with the palm, in comparison with touching other materials on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Eighteen female university students (mean age, 21.7  ±  1.6 years participated in the study. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentrations were measured in the left/right prefrontal cortex using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV was used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF component of HRV, which reflected parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF/HF ratio, which reflected sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated white oak, marble, tile, and stainless steel were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed, participants touched the materials for 90 s. As a result, tactile stimulation with white oak significantly (1 decreased the oxy-Hb concentration in the left/right prefrontal cortex relative to marble, tile, and stainless steel and (2 increased ln(HF-reflected parasympathetic nervous activity relative to marble and stainless steel. In conclusion, our study revealed that touching wood with the palm calms prefrontal cortex activity and induces parasympathetic nervous activity more than other materials, thereby inducing physiological relaxation.

  1. Extreme Events in Nature and Society

    CERN Document Server

    Albeverio, Sergio; Kantz, Holger

    2006-01-01

    Significant, and usually unwelcome, surprises, such as floods, financial crisis, epileptic seizures, or material rupture, are the topics of Extreme Events in Nature and Society. The book, authored by foremost experts in these fields, reveals unifying and distinguishing features of extreme events, including problems of understanding and modelling their origin, spatial and temporal extension, and potential impact. The chapters converge towards the difficult problem of anticipation: forecasting the event and proposing measures to moderate or prevent it. Extreme Events in Nature and Society will interest not only specialists, but also the general reader eager to learn how the multifaceted field of extreme events can be viewed as a coherent whole.

  2. ON ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Leonidovich Karavaev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In article, the author envisages the anthropological problems of the modern information society. There is a new definition of information society, the main factor of which is the automatization of information processes. Different types of information technology impacts (informational and technological impacts on human being are considered. In addition, the author shows the primary transformation of human being due to modern information technologies, based on computer and telecommunication technique.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-17

  3. Culture and creativity in organizations and societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    If you want to learn about how leadership and culture jointly influence creativity in organizations and societies, this book provides you with the insight you are looking for. The authors have presented and applied concepts such as "value innovation", creative intelligence", "disciplined creativi......", and "creative leadership" to describe skills that leaders need to be able to facilitate organizational and societal development.......If you want to learn about how leadership and culture jointly influence creativity in organizations and societies, this book provides you with the insight you are looking for. The authors have presented and applied concepts such as "value innovation", creative intelligence", "disciplined creativity...

  4. Participation in a post-socialist society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    Urban development and urban planning in a society like the Mozambican under transformation from a centrally planned society to a market oriented democracy. The transition from a one party state to a multiparty state involving participation of the population is a lengthy process with many obstacles....... The housing issue and the land issue are dealt with as crucial determinants in an attempt to facilitate the urban poor with affordable housing options. The urban environmental issue with a degraded urban environment facilitated with rudimentary infrastructure is dealt with and experiences from an ongoing...... urban environmental project are highlighted....

  5. On Knowledge Workers in the Knowledge Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yu-wei; WANG Shu-hong

    2004-01-01

    The paper makes a study on our present knowledge society and knowledge workers. After analyzing the reason that knowledge workers are the newly emerging dominant group in this knowledge society, it gets to the point that the real leadership in the age of knowledge are knowledge workers. Yet, they have to actively organize and learn together, otherwise, they would be same as the workers of industrial model. Only through organizational learning can knowledge workers turn into a very innovative learning organization dancing with the unexpected.

  6. Acoustic concerns related to multi cultural societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian

    2001-01-01

    Immigration has increased cultural diversity in western societies. The process of integrating immigrants into their host countries can be smoothed if acousticians learn to recognize (1) the acoustic traditions of immigrant cultures and (2) the specific acoustic needs of the new society members. Two...... related projects are discussed. The ``Cahrisma'' project (Conservation of Acoustical Heritage by the Revival and Identification of the Sinan's Mosque Acoustics) is sponsored by the European Commission and carried out in cooperation among researchers in Turkey, Malta, Italy, France, Switzerland...

  7. The kingdom of God and modern society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. de Jong

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The kingdom of God implies God’s rule in the regenerated heart. Consideration of the kingdom and modern society should be understood ecclesiologically. Herman Ridderbos’ notion of the relation of church and kingdom (sign, first-fruits, and instrument is helpful, but must be applied in the context of nine realities of modern society. Corporate, modern discipleship is created when the church institute attends to all the features of its calling. This includes imparting biblical principles and giving general direction for modern social programmes and practices, but refraining from expressing itself on the specifics of complex programmes.

  8. Participation in the broadband society in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to provide an empirical overview of broadband developments in Denmark. The overview includes sections on coverage and penetration, connection speeds, retail prices, competition, interconnection prices, and residential access to Internet. The documentation shows that De...... explanation is not that they cannot afford it but that they don't need it. Still, there is an issue with respect to the participation in the broadband society, when an increasing part of communications in society is based on the Internet....

  9. Qingdao Merchants and Society (1897-1938)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明慧

    2014-01-01

    Merchants are an integral part of society. Qingdao merchants played a special role in history, especially in German colo-nial period and Japanese occupation. They were not only forerunners of the economy, politics and culture in Qingdao, but also backbone of patriotic and right protection movements. They made most out of the special social status, negotiating with, even protesting against the colonial authorities, thereby to some extent, safeguarding Chinese people's interests. Qingdao merchants have played an indispensable part in the development of society.

  10. Waqf (Endowment Practice in Malaysian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR KHALIDAH DAHLAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Justice and equality are not identical in the sense that under certain circumstances, justice may only be achieved through inequality or unequal distribution of wealth. The two aspects of justice, which are corrective justice and distributive justice in this definition both comprehend of justice as a social concept as it incorporates social relations and would have little meaning if it were to apply to an individual in total isolation from society. Thus by comparing the pertinent literature on jurisdiction of the courts in terms of waqf and judicial decisions, this article seeks to describe the pros and cons of waqf practices and how it reflects justice to the Malaysian society.

  11. Social Movements, Civil Society and Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bakker, Frank; Hond, Frank den; King, Brayden

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between social movements and civil society on the one hand, and the corporate world on the other hand, are often shaped by conflict over the domination of economic, cultural and social life. How this conflict plays out, in current as well as in historical times and places......, is the central question that unites the papers in this special issue. In this essay, we review the differences and points of contact between the study of social movements, civil society and corporations, and offer an agenda for future research at this intersection that also frames the papers in the special issue...

  12. Jobless society – phenomenon of global economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilobrova Tetiana Oleksandrivna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristics and causes of the jobless society formation based on the demographic indicators and trends in the global labour market observed have been identified in the article. The structural changes in youth employment and a number of new challenges for modern society have been investigated. The extent and nature of youth employment crisis according to the particular country and region have been analyzed. The process of young people into the virtual labour market integration as one of the possible solutions of global unemployment problem among young people has been described.

  13. A Learned Society's Perspective on Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kunihiko; Edelson, Alan; Iversen, Leslie L; Hausmann, Laura; Schulz, Jörg B; Turner, Anthony J

    2016-10-01

    Scientific journals that are owned by a learned society, like the Journal of Neurochemistry (JNC), which is owned by the International Society for Neurochemistry (ISN), benefit the scientific community in that a large proportion of the income is returned to support the scientific mission of the Society. The income generated by the JNC enables the ISN to organize conferences as a platform for members and non-members alike to share their research, supporting researchers particularly in developing countries by travel grants and other funds, and promoting education in student schools. These direct benefits and initiatives for ISN members and non-members distinguish a society journal from pure commerce. However, the world of scholarly publishing is changing rapidly. Open access models have challenged the business model of traditional journal subscription and hence provided free access to publicly funded scientific research. In these models, the manuscript authors pay a publication cost after peer review and acceptance of the manuscript. Over the last decade, numerous new open access journals have been launched and traditional subscription journals have started to offer open access (hybrid journals). However, open access journals follow the general scheme that, of all participating parties, the publisher receives the highest financial benefit. The income is generated by researchers whose positions and research are mostly financed by taxpayers' or funders' money, and by reviewers and editors, who frequently are not reimbursed. Last but not least, the authors pay for the publication of their work after a rigorous and sometimes painful review process. JNC itself has an open access option, at a significantly reduced cost for Society members as an additional benefit. This article provides first-hand insights from two former Editors-in-Chief, Kunihiko Suzuki and Leslie Iversen, about the history of JNC's ownership and about the difficulties and battles fought along the way to

  14. The producer society and the transition towards a biobased society: institutional innovation for a sustainable future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesch, U.; Sleenhoff, S.; Van der Veen, M.

    2010-01-01

    The biobased economy is a concept proposed by policymakers to accommodate the transition towards a sustainable society. This concept however is not familiar outside of policymaking and some academic circles, while a socio-technical transition supposes the shared commitment of the whole society. The

  15. Religion, civil society and conflict: What is it that religion does for and to society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Human consciousness instinctively tries to make sense of reality. Different human interpretations of reality lead to a world consisting of multiple realities. Conflict occurs when differing realities (worldviews encounter one another. Worldviews are socially created and determine human behaviour and, as such, most often find expression in religion. The discussion of conflict and the role of religion in civil society take place within the discourse of the sociology of religion. Religion is socially determined. Peter Berger’s insight into the sociology of religion therefore plays an important role in establishing the relationship between religion and civil society as one that takes on different forms. Thus, a clear definition of both civil society and religion was needed to understand the nature of these relationships. The role of religion in civil society with regard to the presence of conflict in society was further investigated in this article. The conditions under which conflict in society occurs were discussed, as were the conditions for tolerance in society, for religion ultimately becomes the provider of moral discernment when conflict occurs in civil society.

  16. The producer society and the transition towards a biobased society: institutional innovation for a sustainable future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesch, U.; Sleenhoff, S.; Van der Veen, M.

    2010-01-01

    The biobased economy is a concept proposed by policymakers to accommodate the transition towards a sustainable society. This concept however is not familiar outside of policymaking and some academic circles, while a socio-technical transition supposes the shared commitment of the whole society. The

  17. Physical education an society notes for a discussion on physical educator and society challenges

    OpenAIRE

    José Carvajal Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at going deeply into some key questions about physical educators’ labor in modern society. Why can human beings’ physical aspect be an education issue not only a training one? How can body be considered in order to become and education issue? Are physical educators able to grasp and respond to modern society challenges?

  18. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P; Liu, Kang K L; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2015-01-01

    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems.

  19. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny P Bartsch

    Full Text Available We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS, we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems.

  20. Interoceptive Awareness Moderates the Relationship Between Perceived and Physiological Genital Arousal in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Ariel B; Meston, Cindy M

    2016-12-01

    In general, laboratory studies have shown low correlations between subjective (ie, self-report) and physiologic (ie, vaginal pulse amplitude) measurements of sexual arousal in women. One explanation for this presumed low concordance is that women might not be attending to their genital responses and/or might be unable to accurately perceive their genital responses. To examine the extent to which women can perceive their genital arousal sensations, the role that interoceptive awareness plays in this ability, and whether interoceptive awareness influences sexual concordance in women. Twenty-six sexually functional women viewed an erotic film while their physiologic and perceived genital sexual arousal levels were measured continuously. Self-report measurements of sexual function and bodily awareness also were administered. Physiologic sexual arousal was measured with a vaginal photoplethysmograph, and perception of genital arousal was measured with an arousometer. Degree of bodily awareness was measured with the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness questionnaire. Women exhibited a significant degree of agreement between physiologic and perceived genital arousal (P awareness was found to significantly moderate this relation (P awareness facilitated greater agreement between physiologic and perceived genital arousal. Interoceptive awareness also was found to facilitate greater concordance between subjective and physiologic sexual arousal (P awareness influences this ability and the relation between subjective and physiologic sexual arousal. Increasing bodily awareness could be a plausible route for treatment development. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Past and present of adolescence in society: the 'teen brain' debate in perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feixa, Carles

    2011-08-01

    Understood as the stage in individual life comprised between physiological puberty (a "natural" condition) and the recognition of the adult status (a "cultural" construction), adolescence has been envisaged as a universal condition, a stage in human development to be found in all societies and historical moments. Nevertheless, anthropological founding's across space and times depict a more complex panorama. The large variety of situations can be grouped into five big models of adolescence, which correspond to different types of society: "puber" from the primitive stateless societies; "ephebe" from ancient states; "boy and girl" from pre-industrial rural societies; "teenager" from the first industrialisation process and "youngsters" from modern post-industrial societies. In order to describe the features of these five models of youth, this article presents a series of ethnographical examples to illustrate the enormous plasticity of adolescence in past and present. This perspective is to be considered as the psycho-social and cultural environment for adolescent brain development, that will be discussed in depth along in this special issue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. May 2014 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first 150 words. The May 2014 Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, 5/28/2014 at Scottsdale Shea Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. There were 13 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep and radiology communities. A discussion was held regarding the Arizona Thoracic Society relationship with the American Lung Association. Several members volunteered to talk to the lung association regarding common ground to strengthen the relationship. The wine tasting with the California, New Mexico and Colorado Thoracic Societies at the American Thoracic Society International Meeting was a big success. There were about 55 at the meeting. The tasting will probably be held again next year. At the ATS meeting data was presented that pirfenidone was effective in reducing the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. The data was published in the New England Journal of Medicine on 8/29/14 (1. Lewis Wesselius is one of the investigators enrolling patients in a phase ...

  3. The Academic System in American Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touraine, Alain

    Although the American system of higher education has been concerned with developing its own unity as a social institution, this book demonstrates that the system has always remained sensitive to three societal factors. There are the changing needs of society; the struggles for control over the sources of culture, knowledge and power within…

  4. Academic Medicine's Changing Covenant with Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloton, John W.

    1989-01-01

    A creditable response to society's needs and expectations can be best undertaken by establishing a national agenda in academic medicine that places a high priority on health services research and the scientific analysis of the entire health care system. The expansion of the cadre of health service researchers is needed. (Author/MLW)

  5. The War in Iraq: Scholarly Societies Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academic Questions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The American Sociological Association, the Modern Language Association, the American Historical Society, the American Psychological Association, and the American Anthropological Association have taken official stands on questions pertaining to America's current military involvement in Iraq. Here are their resolutions. (Contains 2 footnotes.)

  6. Comprehension of amalgamation for future digital society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byeong Uk

    2010-08-15

    This book deals with understanding of amalgamation for future digital society, which describes outline of amalgamation, ubiquitous environment, cognitive science I such as psychology and neurology, cognitive science II like philosophy, linguistics and anthropology, an automatic machine, evolution theory and amalgamation, brain science and consciousness, mind and software and creativity and art. Each chapter has introduction, composition, related science, function and models.

  7. Healthy living in a biobased society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domingus, S.; Nieuwenhuizen, van de J.

    2012-01-01

    This publication covers a wide array of subjects, ranging from physical chemistry to food microbiology, from water technology to food for the elderly. While the subjects may not initially seem related, they all focus on the same question: How can we lead healthy lives in a biobased society? This vit

  8. Hispanas and Hispanos in a Mestizo Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Antonia I.

    2000-01-01

    Describes life in the mestizo society during the Spanish colonial rule of California. Addresses such topics as, but not limited to, racial diversity and socioracial stratification of the population, what life was like for the families of soldiers and settlers, and the size of the families in California. (CMK)

  9. The Problem of Expertise in Knowledge Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Reiner

    2017-01-01

    This paper puts forward a theoretical framework for the analysis of expertise and experts in contemporary societies. It argues that while prevailing approaches have come to see expertise in various forms and functions, they tend to neglect the broader historical and societal context, and importantly the relational aspect of expertise. This will be…

  10. Statistics and Politics in a "Knowledge Society"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    The importance of information in economic and political processes is widely recognised by modern theories. This information, coupled with the advancements in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has changed the way in which markets and societies work. The availability of the Internet and other advanced forms of media have made…

  11. Adaptables in the post-industrial society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylsvig Madsen, Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    is growing. The mission of architecture is then to form a framework of identity for the particular function or individual, a framework capable of distinguishing the function / the individual from one another and from the surrounding society. Industrial production within the construction business is therefore...

  12. Women in European Culture and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah Leigh

    A new and major contribution to the field, Women in European Culture and Society is a transnational history of women in Europe from the beginning of the eighteenth century that pushes women’s history beyond national studies to create an integrated view of three hundred years of women in Europe. U...

  13. Young People in the Information Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, E. V.

    2011-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the Laboratory for the Social Problems of the Development of the Information Society, Institute for Socioeconomic Studies of the Population, Russian Academy of Sciences, in collaboration with the Modern Academy of the Humanities, carried out a survey of the level of use of information and communication technologies (ICT) by…

  14. Flexible Learning in an Information Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Badrul, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Flexible Learning in an Information Society uses a flexible learning framework to explain the best ways of creating a meaningful learning environment. This framework consists of eight factors--institutional, management, technological, pedagogical, ethical, interface design, resource support, and evaluation--and a systematic understanding of these…

  15. The National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockenhauer, Mark H.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project is an inservice teacher education success story. Describes the origins, objectives, and development of the project. Summarizes the impact of the project and contends that its success is the result of the workshop format and guided practice in instructional strategies. (CFR)

  16. Meaning Lag in the Information Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Orrin E.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the meaning crisis in modern society in terms of information overload. Points out reasons for meaning lag: (1) slowness of meaning formation; (2) sparseness of social networks; (3) substitution of meaning of a lower quality as a compensation for lost meaning; and (4) information becoming noiselike. (PD)

  17. April 2014 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The April 2014 Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, 4/23/2014 at Scottsdale Shea Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. There were 15 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, pathology and radiology communities. It was announced that there will be a wine tasting with the California, New Mexico and Colorado Thoracic Societies at the American Thoracic Society International Meeting. The tasting will be led by Peter Wagner and is scheduled for the Cobalt Room in the Hilton San Diego Bayfront on Tuesday, May 20, from 4-8 PM. Guideline development was again discussed. The consensus was to await publication of the IDSA Cocci Guidelines and respond appropriately. George Parides, Arizona Chapter Representative, gave a presentation on Hill Day. Representatives of the Arizona, New Mexico and Washington Thoracic Societies met with their Congressional delegations, including Rep. David Schweikert, to discuss the Cigar Bill, NIH funding, and the Medicare Sustainable Growth ...

  18. Citizenship, Democratic Participation, and Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between organized civil society and the public sector has becoming stronger and more outspoken for several reasons. First, the public sector is increasingly turning to the civic organizations because the general failure of New Public Management strategies and market-driven solutio...... participatory democracy through active involving of all citizens....

  19. Reflections on Thukwane v Law Society

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mtshabe v Law Society of the Cape of Good Hope 2014 5 SA 376 (ECM) .... controlling the exercise of power and upholding the Bill of Rights.25 The principles ..... register the applicant's contract of articles on the ground that as a parolee he ...

  20. The Entrepreneurial University in the Knowledge Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Sorin E.; Gibert, Ernest

    2005-01-01

    The knowledge society and economy require a radical reconfiguration on the part of both universities and industry, the interests and domains of which now overlap more than ever. This article highlights an increasingly uncertain environment, a surge in demand for higher education, and the internationalisation of education and research as…

  1. What Makes the UAE a Knowledge Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Mohammad Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    This paper starts with the idea that knowledge has become one of the most important factors to determine human development and explore the different requirements that need to be met by the government and the citizens of the UAE to succeed in building a knowledge society (KS). An explanation and examination of the five pillars of establishing a KS…

  2. Alternative Educational Futures for a Knowledge Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article offers a critical analysis of recent trends in educational policy with particular reference to their assumptions about the knowledge society. It examines the implications of the analysis for the issue of elitism and the promotion of greater educational equality. The article concludes by offering an alternative approach to educational…

  3. Facing the Knowledge Society: Mexico's Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Petito, Gonzalo

    2010-01-01

    Public higher education in Mexico faces major challenges vis-a-vis its position within the modern knowledge society, sparking concern among educational authorities. In the second half of the 20th century Mexican universities ceased to be selective, elitist schools, becoming, instead, massive institutions that reflect social and intellectual…

  4. Knowledge to Manage the Knowledge Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to make evident the inadequateness of concepts and language based on industrial knowledge still used in current practices by managers to cope with problems of the post-industrial societies characterised by non-linear process of emergence and acquisition of properties. The purpose is to allow management to…

  5. Russian civil society, 20 years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A. Greene

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available By the time Vladimir Putin began his first term as president of Russian, in early 2000, most analysts were lamenting the demise of Russian civil society. In late 2011, as he prepared to return to the Kremlin for a third term, the same analysts were surprised by the resurgence of grassroots protest. A narrative expressed in terms of success and failure, relying on a normative vocabulary and static analytical concepts, cannot, I argue, make sense of that progression. A more coherent narrative –which this article attempts to present– would look to concepts of interaction, in which citizens and the state are seen as constituting one another through a complex series of social and political engagements. Such a narrative, moreover, must not begin in 2000, but must look further back into history, elucidating the co-evolution of Soviet and then post-Soviet state and society over the past twenty years. In this view, then, the decline of civil society in the 1990s can be seen as accompanying the disintegration of the institutions of state-society interaction, while the reemergence of civic activism in more recent years comes hand in hand with the consolidation of authoritarian governance.

  6. Journal of the Chinese Ceramic Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    ISSN 2095-7645CN 10-1189/TQAims and Scope The Journal of the Chinese Ceramic Society is a premier archival journal devoted to publishing top quality original research that advances the fundamental and applied science of ceramic materials.Today’s ceramic science is an interdisciplinary field that has expanded beyond its

  7. Building the future of our society

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the current CSSA President, it will be my great honor to serve the society and its members throughout 2016. I appreciate the vote of confidence that put me in this position and I look forward to the opportunity to help steer our organization and its resources in the coming year. Although I've wor...

  8. To build an energy-saving society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ To speed up the development of cycling economy and build an energy-saving society is the key point of work in the coming years for the General Administration of Qualitv Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China(AQSIQ).

  9. Assessment of Capacity in an Aging Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Jennifer; Marson, Daniel C.; Edelstein, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, the assessment and scientific study of capacity in older adults has emerged as a distinct field of clinical and research activity for psychologists. This new field reflects the convergence of several trends: the aging of American society, the growing incidence and prevalence of dementia, and the patient rights,…

  10. Environmental Protest and Civil Society in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    the republican period, when religious groups, literary societies, and relief organizations emerged and prospered”80 until war with Japan led to a...Unregistered NGOs are tolerated because they provide important social welfare services or non-political associations, such as calligraphy, literary ...Zhang and Barr, Green Politics in China, 5. 80 volunteers working under formal organization structures.296 The movement seems almost entirely

  11. Global civil society and its discontents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, T. Olaf

    2006-01-01

    by grafting the idea of civil society onto the global by way of an unhelpful domestic analogy. This paper examines the role the concept is playing in perpetuating/reconfiguring statism. First it summarizes current criticism by identifying three basic accusations: the ambiguity of the term, the "domestic...

  12. Civil society responds to protection gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne Jackson

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of mechanisms to protect the populationof the OPT, and the reluctance or impotence of the‘international community’, global civil society activists andhuman rights campaigners – working with Palestinianand Israeli actors – have stepped into the breach.

  13. Assessment of Capacity in an Aging Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Jennifer; Marson, Daniel C.; Edelstein, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, the assessment and scientific study of capacity in older adults has emerged as a distinct field of clinical and research activity for psychologists. This new field reflects the convergence of several trends: the aging of American society, the growing incidence and prevalence of dementia, and the patient rights,…

  14. Moral Reasoning in a Communist Chinese Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lawrence J.; Moran, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the cross-cultural universality of Kohlberg's theory of moral development in Communist Chinese society. Presents results of a study that supports the structure criterion of the moral model. Confirms the collectivistic and utilitarian themes in Chinese morality. Concludes further research is necessary to determine compatibility with…

  15. The War in Iraq: Scholarly Societies Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academic Questions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The American Sociological Association, the Modern Language Association, the American Historical Society, the American Psychological Association, and the American Anthropological Association have taken official stands on questions pertaining to America's current military involvement in Iraq. Here are their resolutions. (Contains 2 footnotes.)

  16. American Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Case Studies White Papers (Non-CE) Learn More Hotel Reservations We are now accepting hotel reservations for ASLMS 2017. Remember, space is limited, ... with the latest information on research, clinical advancements, industry updates and society news. Learn More Lasers in ...

  17. Utopia, Technology, and the Evolution of Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Arthur O.

    1985-01-01

    Provides an overview of utopian writing and experimentation from Plato to the present, looking at the impact of technological advancement on the individual and the society and arguing that "appropriate technology" may well be an outcome of "evolution in action." (AYC)

  18. Moral Choices in Contemporary Society: Source Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Mary, Ed.

    One of several supplementary materials for a newspaper course on moral choices in contemporary society, this sourcebook contains program ideas and resources to help civic leaders and educators plan programs based on the course topics. There are four sections. The first section explains how the topics can be used in planning programs, identifies…

  19. The Study of Women in Ancient Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovich, M. James

    1982-01-01

    Presents ideas for teaching about the roles of women in ancient Greek and Roman societies for undergraduate history and sociology classes. The discussion covers the roots of misogyny in Western culture, parallels between mythologies and sociocultural patterns, and the legal status of women in antiquity. (AM)

  20. Learning to Cope with an Ageing Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The ageing of society is one of the biggest policy challenges of this time. Growing life expectancy and low birth rates mean that, for the fist time in human history, most people, and certainly the more prosperous social groups, will be spending a third of their lives in "retirement". This has profound social, cultural and economic…

  1. Helping CERN give back to society

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The CERN & Society mission: ‘To spread the CERN spirit of scientific curiosity for the inspiration and benefit of society.’   Digital library schools in Africa, Arts@CERN, a beam line for schools competition and perhaps soon a dedicated biomedical research facility: CERN infrastructure and expertise have a great influence on society, and we have the potential to do much more. For that, however, we need help, and that’s why we have launched the CERN & Society initiative, which this week sees the publication of a new website for those who want to understand more about how our research touches everyday life, as well as for those who wish to help CERN in this new endeavour. Fundamental research fulfils a very human need. The quest to understand the universe we live in is as old as humanity itself, and CERN is in the vanguard of that effort today. For our scientists and engineers, pushing technology to the limit is part of their day job, and in doing so they ...

  2. The National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockenhauer, Mark H.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project is an inservice teacher education success story. Describes the origins, objectives, and development of the project. Summarizes the impact of the project and contends that its success is the result of the workshop format and guided practice in instructional strategies. (CFR)

  3. Introduction of Japanese Society of Oral Implantology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayoshi Kawazoe

    2009-01-01

    @@ In response to the significant advancement oforal implantology around the world, the JapaneseSociety of Oral Implantology (JSOI) was established in 1972. Its purpose is to promote and improve oral implantology in Japan, and introducesafe and predictable implant treatment methods.

  4. Dynamical Equilibrium of Interacting Ant Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Leok, B T M

    1996-01-01

    The sustainable biodiversity associated with a specific ecological niche as a function of land area is analysed computationally by considering the interaction of ant societies over a collection of islands. A power law relationship between sustainable species and land area is observed. We will further consider the effect a perturbative inflow of ants has upon the model.

  5. Evolutionary Biology: Its Value to Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Hampton L.

    1972-01-01

    Cites examples of the contribution of basic research in evolutionary biology to the solution of problems facing society (1) by dispelling myths about human origins, the nature of the individual, and the nature of race (2) by providing basic data concerning the effects of overpopulation, the production of improved sources of food, resistance of…

  6. Evolutionary Biology: Its Value to Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Hampton L.

    1972-01-01

    Cites examples of the contribution of basic research in evolutionary biology to the solution of problems facing society (1) by dispelling myths about human origins, the nature of the individual, and the nature of race (2) by providing basic data concerning the effects of overpopulation, the production of improved sources of food, resistance of…

  7. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Account Member Benefits ASHP Careers Business Opportunities Advertising Corporate Support Policy FAQs Contact Us 1-866-279-0681 Contact Directory ASHP 7272 Wisconsin Avenue Bethesda, Maryland 20814 YouTube LinkedIn Twitter Facebook ASHP Connect ©2016 American Society of Health-System ...

  8. Corruption, trust and inequality in modern society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. A. Ardelyanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the relationship between the level of corruption and inequality in modern society. Taking into account the existing theoretical approaches to having a direct or inverse relationship between corruption and inequality this relationship is complemented by addressing the issue of trust.

  9. Democratisation and Conflict in Ethnically Divided Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorrath, Judith; Krebs, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews three important factors in the academic debate on ethnic civil wars: the role of ethnicity in causing and structuring violence, the spread of ethnic civil wars once they have started, and the influence of democratic transitions in divided societies. The review displays the range

  10. Global Civil Society and International Summits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrebye, Silas

    2011-01-01

    Research in the field of citizenship, civil society, and social movements in relation to larger democratic summits has either focused on radical confrontational elements of activism, broad public demonstrations, or the professional non-governmental organizations. In this article, I label the type...

  11. CAS, Max Planck Society to Enhance Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ According to a briefing issued by the CAS Bureau of In ternational Cooperation on May 8, 2004, CAS and the Max Planck Society (MPS) in Germany are considering to establish a multidisciplinary institute in Shanghai to conduct research into computational biology. The move is applauded as a fresh step in promoting Sino-German S&T cooperation.

  12. Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Nancy G., Ed.; Smith, Emilie Phillips, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society" highlights the importance of creating culturally compatible interventions to stop violence among the youngest members of diverse populations. Chapters explore how ethnicity and culture can increase or decrease risk for violence among youth depending on contextual factors such as a…

  13. Green Growth and Low Carbon Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel; Tonami, Aki

    This paper ask the question of what makes Low Carbon and Green Growth and Low Carbon Society policy concepts that have not only gained foothold in their countries of origin, but also globally. Autobiography analysis is employed to discover the stories that these concepts tell about developmental...

  14. Pierre Bourdieu and Language in Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommaert, J.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that Bourdieu’s oeuvre presents a radically new set of images on man and society in which language, as object and practice, assumes a key role. Three aspects of Bourdieu’s work are highlighted: (1) Bourdieu’s New Left-inspired search for a “socialized humanity” and his related

  15. CAS issues its 2008 Science & Society Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ CAS recently released its 2008 Science and Society Series consisting of three reports on scientific progress, high-tech advancement and sustainable development. Among them, the latter two were completed under the organization of the CAS Institute of Policy and Management.

  16. 2009 Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Pediatric experts from Children's National Medical Center are being featured in 85 presentations, workshops, and posters at the 2009 Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting-the largest meeting for pediatric clinical research in the country, May 2-5, Baltimore, Maryland.

  17. European Society for Clinical Virology - winter meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westh, Henrik

    2004-02-01

    The European Society for Clinical Virology annual winter meeting mainly appeals to clinical virologists interested in human disease. Basic and clinical data were presented, highlighting a number of interesting findings. This report briefly describes options in HIV antiviral treatment, and focuses on fusion inhibitors, a new anti-HIV class of drugs. Recent improvements in experimental DNA vaccines are also presented.

  18. Exergy use in the Swedish society 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, G.

    1997-07-01

    The exergy concept is reviewed as a tool for resource accounting. Conversions of energy and material resources in the Swedish society in 1994 are described in terms of exergy. Necessary concepts and conventions are introduced. Exergy losses in transformations of material resources and in conversions of various forms of energy into heat are described in some detail

  19. Pierre Bourdieu and Language in Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommaert, J.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that Bourdieu’s oeuvre presents a radically new set of images on man and society in which language, as object and practice, assumes a key role. Three aspects of Bourdieu’s work are highlighted: (1) Bourdieu’s New Left-inspired search for a “socialized humanity” and his related inte

  20. Recollections and Reflections: The American Montessori Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares some of his recollections around the birth of the American Montessori Society (AMS), beginning in the 1950s. He explains the way AMS evolved in its earliest days which reveals something of who its members are now and how they have been part of the 50-year journey. He adds that by recounting the past, members of…