WorldWideScience

Sample records for physiological part production

  1. Production of glycolipidic bio surfactants by environment bacteria: diversity and physiological part; Production de biosurfactants glycolipidiques par les bacteries de l`environnement: diversite et role physiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arino, S.

    1996-10-09

    About a hundred bacterial strains, isolated from soils, polluted or not by hydrocarbons, were tested for their capacity to excrete glycosides. The biggest productions were obtained for a soluble carbon source (glycerol) in a culture medium limited in the nitrogen source. In these conditions, 18 g/l of rhamnose lipids were produced by train Pseudomonas aeruginosa GL1 in a 200 h culture. Pseudomonas aeruginosa GL1, Cellulomonas celulans SA43 and Rhodococcus erythropolis DSM 43060 were studied in detail. The bio-surfactants produced were identified respectively as rhamnose lipids, oligosaccharide lipids and trehalose lipids, using various original analytical methods. Sugars and fatty acids composing these glycolipids had been shown to be usual components of the outer part of the cell wall in these microbial species. Moreover, cell hydrophobicity of the producing bacteria varied in time during culture. These results showed that both the cell wall and the extracellular glycolipids take part in the process of hydrocarbon uptake in the polluted environments. As other bacteria of the same species from different origins present the same characteristics, it may be concluded that glycolipid excretion does not constitute a specific response for hydrocarbon assimilation. In fact, a more general physiological role of glycolipids, concerning modifications of hydrophobic interfaces between the producing bacteria and their surrounding environment, could explain the production of glycolipids, and could also be utilized in hydrocarbon uptake. (author)

  2. Diabetes mellitus, part 1: physiology and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Muralitharan

    In part 1 of this 2-part article the author discusses the physiology and complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic and progressive disorder which affects all ages of the population. The number of people diagnosed with diabetes is approximately 1.8 million and an estimated further 1 million are undiagnosed (Department of Health, 2005). In the UK, 1-2% of the population have diabetes and among school children this is approximately 2 in 1000 (Watkins, 1996). There are two main types of diabetes--type 1 and type 2 (Porth, 2005). The aetiology of DM is unknown; however, genetic and environmental factors have been linked to its development. Type 1 results from the loss of insulin production in the beta cells of the pancreas, and type 2 from a lack of serum insulin or poor uptake of glucose into the cells. Diabetes causes disease in many organs in the body, which may be life-threatening if untreated. Complications such as heart disease, vascular disease, renal failure and blindness (Roberts, 2005) have all been reported. The increased prevalence may be caused by factors such as environmental aspects, diet, an ageing population and low levels of physical exercise.

  3. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part V. Impact on physiology, pharmacology, nutrition, and metabolism; structure, pungency, pain, and desensitization sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S; Sathyanarayana, M N

    1991-01-01

    The spice Capsicum is the fruit of the cultivated species of the genus Capsicum (family, Solanaceae), C. annuum principally, and C. frutescens L. to a lesser extent. A third variety of C. annuum var. annuum fruits, the large-sized, fleshy bell capsicum is used as a fresh vegetable and valued for its aroma, color, and crisp texture, but with no pungency. This variety is not considered in this series of reviews covering primary processing, production, international trade, chemistry, and biochemistry of functional components--the red keto carotenoids, the aromatic volatiles and the pungent capsaicinoids in Parts I to III. The valid qualitative aspects correlating the specific components of capsicum and their sensory responses are critically covered in Part IV. In this the concluding part of the series of reviews, the significant preference of the spice for initially evoking an aversive response, its potent physiological and pharmacological effects, and the aspects of structure-activity relationships of the pungent stimuli of the capsaicinoids are reviewed. The beneficial effects particularly associated with long usage by some ethnic groups and its safe consumption levels, with a critical review of the studies on the gastrointestinal tract, the cardiovascular system, the sensory system, thermoregulation, nutritional impacts, and an overview of the five series is also detailed.

  4. Small bowel review: normal physiology part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A B; Keelan, M; Thiesen, A; Clandinin, M T; Ropeleski, M; Wild, G E

    2001-12-01

    In the past year there have been many advances in the area of small bowel physiology and pathology and therapy. In preparation for this review, over 1500 papers were assessed. The focus is on presenting clinically useful information for the practising gastroenterologist. Selected important clinical learning points include the following: (1) glucose absorption mediated by SGLT1 is controlled by mRNA abundance, as well as by posttranscriptional processes including protein trafficking; (2) inducers of cytochrome P-450 decrease glucose and fructose absorption and increase glucose consumption in the intestine; (3) the regulated release of nutrients from the stomach into the upper intestine ensures that the modest intestinal transport reserve capacity is not exceeded; (4) hepatocyte growth factor and short-chain fatty acids may enhance intestinal adaptation and prevent the atrophy seen when total parenteral nutrition is infused; (5) inhibitors of pancreatic lipase and phospholipase H2 may be useful clinically to reduce absorption as part of a treatment program for obesity and hyperlipidemia; (6) several membrane-bound and cytosolic proteins have been identified in the enterocyte as well as in the hepatocyte and may be the target for the future therapeutic manipulation of bile acid metabolism and control of hyperlipidemia; (7) suspect bile acid malabsorption in the patient with otherwise unexplained chronic diarrhea; (8) a proportion of lipid absorption is protein-mediated, and this opens the way to targeting these proteins and thereby therapeutically modifying lipid absorption; (9) a high protein diet may be useful to increase the intestinal absorption of drugs transported by the H+/dipeptide cotransporter; (10) a metal transporter DCT1 has been identified, and this may open the way to a better understanding of disorders of, for example, iron and zinc metabolism; (11) the nutrient transporters such as SGLT1 are responsible for a portion of the intestinal absorption of

  5. Distinguishing hyperhidrosis and normal physiological sweat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Linnea; Gyldenløve, Mette; Zachariae, Claus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperhidrosis is a condition in which the production of sweat is abnormally increased. No objective criteria for the diagnosis of hyperhidrosis exist, mainly because reference intervals for normal physiological sweat production at rest are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The main objective...... of this study was to establish reference intervals for normal physiological axillary and palmar sweat production. METHODS: Gravimetric testing was performed in 75 healthy control subjects. Subsequently, these results were compared with findings in a cohort of patients with hyperhidrosis and with the results...... derived from a review of data on hyperhidrosis published between 1980 and 2013. RESULTS: Approximately 90% of the controls had axillary and palmar sweat production rates of below 100 mg/5 min. In all except one of the axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis studies reviewed, average sweat production exceeded...

  6. Anatomy and physiology of urinary elimination. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellatt, Glynis Collis

    Elimination of urine is an essential bodily function, but independence in this activity may be affected by physical and mental disability. Part 1 of this article discusses the anatomy and physiology of the renal and urinary tract and the production of urine. Urinalysis is a vital nursing assessment and the collection of specimens and the range of tests undertaken are outlined. Assisting patients to use the toilet, commode or bedpan is an essential nursing skill. The importance of sensitivity, empathy and moving and handling risk assessment is discussed, and the assessment and management of urinary tract infection and urinary tract stones are addressed. The importance of prevention of cross infection for nurses and patients is highlighted throughout the article.

  7. [Immune response genes products in human physiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaitov, R M; Alekseev, L P

    2012-09-01

    Current data on physiological role of human immune response genes' proteomic products (antigens) are discussed. The antigens are specified by a very high level of diversity that mediates a wide specter ofphysiological functions. They actually provide integrity and biological stability of human as species. These data reveal new ideas on many pathological processes as well as drafts new approaches for prophylaxis and treatment.

  8. A physiological production model for cacao : results of model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    CASE2 is a physiological model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growth and yield. This report introduces the CAcao Simulation Engine for water-limited production in a non-technical way and presents simulation results obtained with the model.

  9. A physiological production model for cacao : results of model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    CASE2 is a physiological model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growth and yield. This report introduces the CAcao Simulation Engine for water-limited production in a non-technical way and presents simulation results obtained with the model.

  10. Resistance Training: Physiological Responses and Adaptations (Part 2 of 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Stephen J.; Kraerner, William J.

    1988-01-01

    Resistance training causes a variety of physiological reactions, including changes in muscle size, connective tissue size, and bone mineral content. This article summarizes data from a variety of studies and research. (JL)

  11. Tool sharing in parallel part production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaalman, G.J.C.; Nawijn, W.M.

    1996-01-01

    A group of identical NC machines, laid out in a line, manufactures relatively few part types in large batch size. Parts of the same type are processed by the machines simultaneously. The operations on a part are performed by one machine only, using a part type specific tool set. During batch product

  12. Innovations in crop production: a matter of physiology and technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Buwalda, F.; Dieleman, J.A.; Dueck, T.A.; Elings, A.; Gelder, de A.; Hemming, S.; Kempkes, F.; Li, T.; Noort, van F.R.; Visser, de P.H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Crop production per unit greenhouse area has doubled during the last 25 years in The Netherlands, while the energy use has been drastically reduced. The growth conditions for plants have been improved significantly through understanding crop physiology in combination with new technologies. In this p

  13. [Human orgasm from the physiological perspective--part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałecki, Piotr; Depko, Andrzej; Jedrzejewska, Sylwia; Talarowska, Monika

    2012-07-01

    Physiological phenomenon of sexuality occurring in both sexes that brings physical and mental satisfaction, and often affects the quality of life is an orgasm. The ability to experience regular orgasms affects relationship with partner. The definition of orgasm is not an easy task. The way of experiencing it is subjective, and the possibility of observing significantly reduced. Contemporary works on the phenomenon of orgasm are concentrated on several aspects: biological perspective (neurophysiological and biochemical determinants of orgasm), psychological perspective and on the differences in its course in both sexes. In sexology are two models of sexual response: a linear model of sexual response (by W. Masters and V. Johnson, and H. S. Kaplan) and the circular model of sexual response (created by R. Basson). The ability to experiencing an orgasm is inherent in men. In women, that phenomenon is acquired, is the consequence of further experience.

  14. Genetic and physiology basis of the quality of livestock products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Mele

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The animal research gives more attention, for more than twenty years, to the improvement of food quality, because this aspect plays an important role in the consumer choice. In this paper are browsed the principal foods of animal origin (milk, meat and eggs, paying attention on the actual genetic and physiologic knowledge, which influence the quality characteristic. Particularly, we examined the role of Quantitative Genetic in bovine and swine and the growing knowledge about animal genomes and individuation of QTL. Information on genomic regions that control QTL, allow to organize genetic improvement programs, using Markers Assisted Selection (MAS and Markers Assisted Introgression (MAI. Moreover are reported the knowledge about metabolic processes that influence quality especially on lipid and protein component. About other productions are considered the physiology of eggs production and the genetic improvement of hens. Finally the qualitative aspects about poultry and rabbit meat and the actual genetic improvement strategy are reported.

  15. Physiological evidence of interpersonal dynamics in a cooperative production task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mønster, Dan; Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Wallot, Sebastian

    2016-03-15

    Recent research suggests that shared behavioral dynamics during interpersonal interaction are indicative of subjective and objective outcomes of the interaction, such as feelings of rapport and success of performance. The role of shared physiological dynamics to quantify interpersonal interaction, however, has received comparatively little attention. In the present study, we investigate the coordination dynamics of multiple psychophysiological measures and their utility in capturing emotional dynamics in teams. We use data from an experiment where teams of three people built origami boats together in an assembly-line manner while their heart rate, skin conductance, and facial muscle activity were recorded. Our results show that physiological synchrony of skin conductance measures and eletromyographic measures of the corrugator supercilii develops spontaneously among team members during this cooperative production task. Moreover, high team synchrony is found indicative of team cohesion, while low team synchrony is found indicative of a teams' decision to adopt a new behavior across multiple production sessions. We conclude that team-level measures of synchrony offer new and complementary information compared to measures of individual levels of physiological activity.

  16. Physiological characteristics of fungi associated with dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haasum, Iben

    Knowledge about physiological characteristics of food-borne fungi is important in understanding how the environment affects colonization of different foods and feeds. The response of a fungus to changes in the environment will, however, depend on the stage of the life cycle or the physiological...... and production of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites represent two other areas of great concern in relation to food spoilage, which might be controlled by different regulation mechanisms. Detailed as well as more general information on behaviour of fungi in relation to important growth controlling...... mode of the mycelium. Germination of spores is a key event in the fungal life cycle giving rise to colonization by a growing mycelium. Understanding of the factors controlling germination are of major importance as no infection of food-stuffs will occur if spores do not germinate. Food spoilage...

  17. Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  18. Current studies on physiological functions and biological production of lactosucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wanmeng; Chen, Qiuming; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo

    2013-08-01

    Lactosucrose (O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1,4)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-β-D-fructofuranoside) is a trisaccharide formed from lactose and sucrose by enzymatic transglycosylation. This rare trisaccharide is a kind of indigestible carbohydrate, has good prebiotic effect, and promotes intestinal mineral absorption. It has been used as a functional ingredient in a range of food products which are approved as foods for specified health uses in Japan. Using lactose and sucrose as substrates, lactosucrose can be produced through transfructosylation by β-fructofuranosidase from Arthrobacter sp. K-1 or a range of levansucrases, or through transgalactosylation by β-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans. This article presented a review of recent studies on the physiological functions of lactosucrose and the biological production from lactose and sucrose by different enzymes.

  19. Physiological evidence of interpersonal dynamics in a cooperative production task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Dan; Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2016-01-01

    in an assembly-line manner while their heart rate, skin conductance, and facial muscle activity were recorded. Our results show that physiological synchrony of skin conductance measures and eletromyographic measures of the corrugator supercilii develops spontaneously among team members during this cooperative......, however, has received comparatively little attention. In the present study, we investigate the coordination dynamics of multiple psychophysiological measures and their utility in capturing emotional dynamics in teams. We use data from an experiment where teams of three people built origami boats together...... production task. Moreover, high team synchrony is found indicative of team cohesion, while low team synchrony is found indicative of a teams' decision to adopt a new behavior across multiple production sessions. We conclude that team-level measures of synchrony offer new and complementary information...

  20. Physiological description of multivariate interdependencies between process parameters, morphology and physiology during fed-batch penicillin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, Andreas E; Herwig, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of productivity and economics of industrial bioprocesses requires characterization of interdependencies between process parameters and process performance. In the case of penicillin production, as in other processes, process performance is often closely interlinked with the physiology and morphology of the organism used for production. This study presents a systematic approach to efficiently characterize the physiological effects of multivariate interdependencies between bioprocess design parameters (spore inoculum concentration, pO2 control level and substrate feed rate), morphology, and physiology. Method development and application was performed using the industrial model process of penicillin production. Applying traditional, statistical bioprocess analysis, multivariate correlations of raw bioprocess design parameters (high spore inoculum concentration, low pO2 control as well as reduced glucose feeding) and pellet morphology were identified. A major drawback of raw design parameter correlation models; however, is the lack of transferability across different process scales and regimes. In this context, morphological and physiological bioprocess modeling based on scalable physiological parameters is introduced. In this study, raw parameter effects on pellet morphology were efficiently summarized by the physiological parameter of the biomass yield per substrate. Finally, for the first time to our knowledge, the specific growth rate per spore was described as time-independent determinant for switching from pellet to disperse growth during penicillin production and thus introduced as a novel, scalable key process parameter for pellet morphology and process performance.

  1. Physiological Research of Defence Interest in India Part I : Studies in High

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Ramaswamy

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Our troops have to operate under a variety of adverse environments including hypoxic, dry cold/wet cold conditions of high altitudes, hot dry/humid conditions in the plains, high noise levels from machinery, engines in ships and aircraft, gunfire, etc. Professor DS Kothari, the first Scientific Adviser, Ministry of Defence, could foresee as early as the late forties that it was only a scientific understanding of the basic physiological mechanisms that would lead to solutions which would ensure the optimal operational efficiency of men under such trying environments. He sowed the seeds of defence physiology as a major discipline in the then Defence Science Organisation, which developed into the Defence Research and Development organisation. As a result, there have been outstanding contributions by the defence physiologists as well in the direct applications of their work in optimizing the operational efficiency of our defence personnel. This paper reviews the wide spectrum of problems relevant to defence physiology studied over the last four decades, the significant findings, and their practical applications. Part I reviews in detail work on the most pressing problem in our current geopolitical context, viz. high altitude physiology. Part II discusses studies on thermal stress, bioclimatology, noise exposure hazards, physical work capacity, effects of ageing on physical and mental capacities, and toxicology. In addition, the contributions of defence scientists towards the rationalisation of service ration scales, and resource development efforts are dealt with.

  2. Physiology and Genetics of Biogenic Methane-Production from Acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowers, Kevin R

    2013-04-04

    Biomass conversion catalyzed by methanogenic consortia is a widely available, renewable resource for both energy production and waste treatment. The efficiency of this process is directly dependent upon the interaction of three metabolically distinct groups of microorganisms; the fermentative and acetogenic Bacteria and the methanogenic Archaea. One of the rate limiting steps in the degradation of soluble organic matter is the dismutation of acetate, a predominant intermediate in the process, which accounts for 70 % or more of the methane produced by the methanogens. Acetate utilization is controlled by regulation of expression of carbon monoxide dehydrogensase (COdh), which catalyzes the dismutation of acetate. However, physiological and molecular factors that control differential substrate utilization have not been identified in these Archaea. Our laboratory has identified sequence elements near the promoter of the gene (cdh) encoding for COdh and we have confirmed that these sequences have a role in the in vivo expression of cdh. The current proposal focuses on identifying the regulatory components that interact with DNA and RNA elements, and identifying the mechanisms used to control cdh expression. We will determine whether expression is controlled at the level of transcription or if it is mediated by coordinate interaction of transcription initiation with other processes such as transcription elongation rate and differential mRNA stability. Utilizing recently sequenced methanosarcinal genomes and a DNA microarray currently under development genes that encode regulatory proteins and transcription factors will be identified and function confirmed by gene disruption and subsequent screening on different substrates. Functional interactions will be determined in vivo by assaying the effects of gene dosage and site-directed mutagenesis of the regulatory gene on the expression of a cdh::lacZ operon fusion. Results of this study will reveal whether this critical

  3. A survey of the health experiences of international business travelers. Part One--Physiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, H Lynn; Reilly, Sandra M

    2002-10-01

    Occupational health professionals need to know more about the health, worklife, and family life of international business travelers (IBTs). This descriptive correlational study, in two parts, examines the physiological and psychosocial experiences associated with business travel for a sample of 140 employees from western Canada's oil and gas industry. Results for Part One show that 76% of IBTs report travel related health problems, 74% have jet lag, 45% have travelers' diarrhea and gastrointestinal complaints, 12% to 16% have climate adaptation problems, and 2% report accidents and minor injuries. High risk behaviors include not carrying a first aid travel kit (54%); drinking more alcohol than ordinarily (21%); and neglecting food, water, and antimalarial precautions (6% to 14%). Other risk factors include age, length of stay, destination, pre-travel medical examinations, pre-travel advice, and eating and accommodation facilities. Findings show that IBTs are at risk for travel related physiological health problems. Implications for practitioners call for increased occupational health expertise in pre-travel preparation, follow up post-travel and regular health surveillance for employees who travel on international business.

  4. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality--Part II. Processed products, standards, world production and trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1986-01-01

    Capsicums, as a spice, have been known since the beginning of civilization and historically associated with the discovery of the New World. The genus Capsicum (Fam. Solanaceae) provides many varieties and adds color, pungency, and aroma to the cuisines of most of the world. From the pungent chilli, of interest also to pharmaceuticals, to the colorful paprika and the bell capsicums with its remarkable aroma, the genus has been of great interest for its chemistry and physiological action. Pungency as a sensory attribute, its evaluation, structure-activity relationship, and its increasing acceptance and preference by diverse populations of the world are of great interest to many research disciplines. In a comprehensive review of all aspects in four sequential parts, Part I deals with History, Botany, Cultivation, and Primary Processing (CRC Critical Review, Food Science and Nutrition). The Capsicums among the spices are second only to black pepper in trades both in volume and value. The production of the different forms of this spice as ground, specialty seasonings, and as the concentrated oleoresins through technologically advanced processes, proposed newer products, the standard to control quality of the different products, world production, trade, and prospects are reviewed in detail in this, Part II.

  5. Nanotechnology for forest products. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore Wegner; Phil Jones

    2005-01-01

    Nano-sized particles may be small, but for our industry they offer huge potential. Nanotechnology represents a major opportunity for the forest products industry to develop new products, substantially reduce processing costs, and open new markets in the coming decades.

  6. Stabilizer bars: Part 3. Production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam-Markus WITTEK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the methods of stabilizer bar production as well as selected issues concerning the theory of cold roll forming. A proper construction and the selection of parameters are fundamental factors influencing the selection of a suitable production process. The selection of the manufacturing process has a fundamental impact on the quality and durability of the stabilizer bars.

  7. Stabilizer bars: Part 3. Production methods

    OpenAIRE

    Adam-Markus WITTEK; Hans-Christian RICHTER; Bogusław ŁAZARZ

    2011-01-01

    The article outlines the methods of stabilizer bar production as well as selected issues concerning the theory of cold roll forming. A proper construction and the selection of parameters are fundamental factors influencing the selection of a suitable production process. The selection of the manufacturing process has a fundamental impact on the quality and durability of the stabilizer bars.

  8. [Landmarks of physiological development of the voice in childhood and adolescense (Part 1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, M

    2008-01-01

    The area of the functioning of the voice is a fundamental element of human communication apart from language, speaking, hearing and perceiving. Detailed knowledge of normal vocal development is a prerequisite for the diagnosis and therapy of vocal dysfunctions among children and adolescents by means of methods suitable for their age and their stages of development. In an overview, the landmarks of physiological development with normal value ranges relevant to practice are presented--from the newborn baby's first cry up to the age of young adults. The effects of various degrees of vocal activity on the part of children and adolescents on the parameters of vocal capacity and quality are taken into account, as well as the relationship between physical and vocal development. Furthermore, an overview of diagnostic methods suitable for this age group is given. Specialists for ENT and for Phoniatrics and Pediatric Audiology should be able to assess suitability for increased vocal activity and to care for vocal development during the vulnerable phase of the voice change. Manifold socio-cultural and pedagogical influences are already possible in early childhood and throughout the phase of the "voice in growth". They should be taken advantage of prophylactically--also with regard to the learning of physiological vocal behavior as a prerequisite for dealing with possible subsequent strain in vocally intensive professions. In the following second part of this publication, the fundamentals described here are applied to diagnostics and therapy of vocal dysfunctions in this age group by means of methods suitable for this stage of development.

  9. Ecosystem and physiological controls over methane production in northern wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, David W.; Holland, Elisabeth A.; Schimel, David S.

    1994-01-01

    Peat chemistry appears to exert primary control over methane production rates in the Canadian Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES) area. We determined laboratory methane production rate potentials in anaerobic slurries of samples collected from a transect of sites through the NOWES study area. We related methane production rates to indicators of resistance to microbial decay (peat C: N and lignin: N ratios) and experimentally manipulated substrate availability for methanogenesis using ethanol (EtOH) and plant litter. We also determined responses of methane production to pH and temperature. Methane production potentials declined along the gradient of sites from high rates in the coastal fens to low rates in the interior bogs and were generally highest in surface layers. Strong relationships between CH4 production potentials and peat chemistry suggested that methanogenesis was limited by fermentation rates. Methane production at ambient pH responded strongly to substrate additions in the circumneutral fens with narrow lignin: N and C: N ratios (delta CH4/delta EtOH = 0.9-2.3 mg/g) and weakly in the acidic bogs with wide C: N and lignin: N ratios (delta CH4/delta EtOH = -0.04-0.02 mg/g). Observed Q(sub 10) values ranged from 1.7 to 4.7 and generally increased with increasing substrate availability, suggesting that fermentation rates were limiting. Titration experiments generally demonstrated inhibition of methanogenesis by low pH. Our results suggest that the low rates of methane emission observed in interior bogs during NOWES likely resulted from pH and substrate quality limitation of the fermentation step in methane production and thus reflect intrinsically low methane production potentials. Low methane emission rates observed during NOWES will likely be observed in other northern wetland regions with similar vegetation chemistry.

  10. Is Part-Time Employment Beneficial for Firm Productivity?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelen, A.C.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether part-time employment is beneficial for firm productivity in the service sector. Using a unique dataset on the Dutch pharmacy sector that includes the work hours of all employees and a “hard” physical measure of firm productivity, we estimate a production function including heterogeneous employment shares based on work hours. We find that a larger part-time employment share leads to greater firm productivity. Additional data on the timing of labor demand show that p...

  11. productive and physiological adaptive responses of ethiopian naked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    in egg production (33%), feed intake (15%) and shell thickness (24.3%). The effect of heat ..... Exchange Service (KAAD) of Germany for covering his scholarship expenses. .... at high ambient temperature in genetically fat and lean broiler ...

  12. THEORY OF SPARE PARTS INVENTORY MANAGEMENT FOR PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    KATARZYNA GRONDYS

    2013-01-01

    This article presents theoretical basis of spare parts inventory management in manufacturing company. Basis definitions, allocation and differences in spare parts inventory management were compared with other manufacturing inventories. The issue of spare parts inventory management is emphasized in aspect of maintaining continuity of production and generated costs of maintaining inventory.

  13. Production Strategies for Production-Quality Parts for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, J. D.; Best, J. E.; Liu, Z.; Eckel, A. J.; Reed, B. D.; Fox, D. S.; Bhatt, R.; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A combination of rapid prototyping processes (3D Systems' stereolithography and Sanders Prototyping's ModelMaker) are combined with gelcasting to produce high quality silicon nitride components that were performance tested under simulated use conditions. Two types of aerospace components were produced, a low-force rocket thruster and a simulated airfoil section. The rocket was tested in a test stand using varying mixtures of H2 and O2, whereas the simulated airfoil was tested by subjecting it to a 0.3 Mach jet-fuel burner flame. Both parts performed successfully, demonstrating the usefulness of the rapid prototyping in efforts to effect materials substitution. In addition, the simulated airfoil was used to explore the possibility of applying thermal/environmental barrier coatings and providing for internal cooling of ceramic parts. It is concluded that this strategy for processing offers the ceramic engineer all the flexibility normally associated with investment casting of superalloys.

  14. Apple biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and in postharvest according to production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of biological and physiological disorders in the field and postharvested apples cvs. Gala, Fuji and Catarina grown in four production systems: conventional, organic transition, integrated and organic. Apples were evaluated for damages related to biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and after harvest. The greatest damages were attributed to pests, especially Anastrepha fraterculus in the organic system and Grapholita molesta in the organic transition. Apples produced in organic orchards had higher damage levels caused by postharvest physiological disorders than those grown in other production systems. For apples becoming from organic orchards most of the damage was due to lenticels breakdown and degeneration ('Gala', and bitter pit ('Fuji' and 'Catarina'. The incidence of postharvest rot was not influenced by apple production system.

  15. Dominant role of plant physiology in trend and variability of gross primary productivity in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sha; Zhang, Yao; Ciais, Philippe; Xiao, Xiangming; Luo, Yiqi; Caylor, Kelly K.; Huang, Yuefei; Wang, Guangqian

    2017-02-01

    Annual gross primary productivity (GPP) varies considerably due to climate-induced changes in plant phenology and physiology. However, the relative importance of plant phenology and physiology on annual GPP variation is not clear. In this study, a Statistical Model of Integrated Phenology and Physiology (SMIPP) was used to evaluate the relative contributions of maximum daily GPP (GPPmax) and the start and end of growing season (GSstart and GSend) to annual GPP variability, using a regional GPP product in North America during 2000–2014 and GPP data from 24 AmeriFlux sites. Climatic sensitivity of the three indicators was assessed to investigate the climate impacts on plant phenology and physiology. The SMIPP can explain 98% of inter-annual variability of GPP over mid- and high latitudes in North America. The long-term trend and inter-annual variability of GPP are dominated by GPPmax both at the ecosystem and regional scales. During warmer spring and autumn, GSstart is advanced and GSend delayed, respectively. GPPmax responds positively to summer temperature over high latitudes (40–80°N), but negatively in mid-latitudes (25–40°N). This study demonstrates that plant physiology, rather than phenology, plays a dominant role in annual GPP variability, indicating more attention should be paid to physiological change under futher climate change.

  16. A physiological production model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao): model presentation validation and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Gerritsma, W.; Mommer, L.; Anten, N.P.R.

    2005-01-01

    In spite of the economic importance and extensive agronomic literature on cocoa, no physiological production model has been developed for cocoa so far. Such a model would be very useful to compare yields in different climates and cropping systems, and to set the agenda for future agronomic research.

  17. A physiological production model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao): model presentation validation and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Gerritsma, W.; Mommer, L.; Anten, N.P.R.

    2005-01-01

    In spite of the economic importance and extensive agronomic literature on cocoa, no physiological production model has been developed for cocoa so far. Such a model would be very useful to compare yields in different climates and cropping systems, and to set the agenda for future agronomic research.

  18. Pollen viability, physiology, and production of maize plants exposed to pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Verônica Barbosa; Costa, Alan Carlos; Boff, Tatiana; Müller, Caroline; Mendonça, Maria Andréia Corrêa; Batista, Priscila Ferreira

    2017-04-01

    The use of fungicides in maize has been more frequent due to an increase in the incidence of diseases and also the possible physiological benefits that some of these products may cause. However, some of these products (e.g., strobilurins and triazoles) may interfere with physiological processes and the formation of reproductive organs. Therefore, the effect of these products on plants at different developmental stages needs to be better understood to reduce losses and maximize production. The effect of the fungicide pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole (P+E) was evaluated at different growth stages in meiosis, pollen grain viability and germination, physiology, and production of maize plants in the absence of disease. An experiment was carried out with the hybrid DKB390 PROII and the application of pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole at the recommended dose and an untreated control at 3 different timings (S1 - V10; S2 - V14; S3 - R1) with 5 replications. Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, pollen viability and germination, as well as the hundred-grain weight were evaluated. Anthers were collected from plants of S1 for cytogenetic analysis. The fungicide pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole reduced the viability of pollen grains (1.4%), but this was not enough to reduce production. Moreover, no differences were observed in any of the other parameters analyzed, suggesting that P+E at the recommended dose and the tested stages does not cause toxic effects.

  19. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, an anesthesiologist′s perspective: Physiology and principles. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO is an adaptation of conventional cardiopulmonary bypass techniques to provide cardiopulmonary support. ECMO provides physiologic cardiopulmonary support to aid reversible aspects of the disease process and to allow recovery. ECMO does not provide treatment of the underlying disease. The indications for ECMO support have expanded from acute respiratory failure to acute cardiac failure refractory to conventional treatments from wide patient subsets involving neonates to adults. Vascular access for ECMO support is either percutaneous through a single-site, dual-lumen bicaval cannula or transthoracic via separate cannulas. The modes of support are either veno-venous or veno-arterial ECMO. In this article, the physiologic aspects of ECMO support are outlined.

  20. Getting Started in Asparagus Production Part 1: Asparagus Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Cantaluppi, Carl

    2009-01-01

    This is the first of a four part series on asparagus written by Carl Cantaluppi, North Carolina State University Cooperative Extension. Carl is a well-known national expert in asparagus production, and in this series he shares with us his many years of experience working with this crop and provides key considerations for grower success.

  1. Getting Started in Asparagus Production Part 3: Harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Cantaluppi, Carl

    2009-01-01

    This is the third of a four part series on asparagus written by Carl Cantaluppi, North Carolina State University Cooperative Extension. Carl is a well-known national expert in asparagus production, and in this series he shares with us his many years of experience working with this crop and provides key considerations for grower success.

  2. Getting Started in Asparagus Production Part 4: Field Care

    OpenAIRE

    Cantaluppi, Carl

    2009-01-01

    This is the fourth of a four part series on asparagus written by Carl Cantaluppi, North Carolina State University Cooperative Extension. Carl is a well-known national expert in asparagus production, and in this series he shares with us his many years of experience working with this crop and provides key considerations for grower success.

  3. Physiological, biochemical and histopathological effects of fermentative acidosis in ruminant production: a minimal review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.; Ding, Z.

    2011-07-01

    Rumen acidosis is increasingly recognized as a significant disorder in ruminants that increases the morbidity and mortality of animals, especially for dairy cattle and sheep. Acidosis is not just D-lactate which disturbs the acid-base status and the severity of acidosis is related to many factors and not only due to the level of lactic acid production, resulting in difficulties in diagnosing acidosis. Therefore, an understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and histopathological effects of rumen acidosis is fundamental for developing effective methods of prevention and treatment of fermentative acidosis. The present review evaluates the physiology, biochemistry, and pathophysiology of fermentative acidosis as well as gives a conclusion and look-forward. The information will benefit the health and welfare of ruminants and contribute to modern systems of ruminant production. (Author) 90 refs.

  4. Differences Between Passive And Active Cooling Systems In Gender, Physiological Responses, Thermal Sensation And Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellen, Lisje; Loomans, Marcel; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    could occur due to application of low energy/exergy cooling systems, on human thermal comfort, physiological responses, and productivity. Furthermore, focus is on the differences between gender. This paper presents preliminary results obtained from experiments with four test subjects. To examine...... ventilation (To=26oC), active cooling by convection through (2) mixing and (3) displacement ventilation, active cooling by radiation (4) through the ceiling and mixing ventilation (5) through the floor and mixing ventilation and (6) through the floor and displacement ventilation. Three female subjects visited...... the climate room on two occasions: (1) and (4). During the experiments both physiological responses and thermal sensation were measured. To assess the productivity and performance a ‘Remote Performance Measurement’ (RPM) method was used....

  5. Aspergillus niger biofilms for celulasas production: some structural and physiological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Villena, Gretty K.; Marcel Gutiérrez-Correa

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus niger biofilms developed on polyester cloth were evaluated considering two aspects related to the growth on surfaces: structure and physiological behavior focused on cellulase production. The biofilm structure was assessed by using electron scanning microphotographs from inoculation and adsorption to 120 h growth. The microphotographs show that biofilm formation can be divided into three phases: 1) Adhesion, which is strongly increased by Aspergillus spore hydrophobicity; 2) Initi...

  6. Feedforward Control of a 3-D Physiological Articulatory Model for Vowel Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Qiang; Akikazu Nishikido; Jianwu Dang

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) physiological articulatory model was developed to account for the bio-mechanical properties of the speech organs in speech production. Control of the model to investigate the mechanism of speech production requires an efficient control module to estimate muscle activation patterns, which is used to manipulate the 3-D physiological arUculatory model, according to the desired articulatory posture. For this purpose, a feedforward control strategy was developed by mapping the articulatory target to the corresponding muscle activation pattern via the intrinsic representation of vowel articulation. In this process, the articulatory postures are first mapped to the corresponding intrinsic representations; then, the articulatory postures are clustered in the intrinsic representations space and a nonlinear function is ap-proximated for each cluster to map the intrinsic representation of vowel articulation to the muscle activation pattern by using general regression neural networks (GRNN). The results show that the feedforward control module is able to manipulate the 3-D physiological articulatory model for vowel production with high accu-racy both acoustically and articulatodly.

  7. Heparin and Related Substances: Physiology and Pathophysiology in General and in Human Reproduction - Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Würfel W

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although heparin is usually associated with blood clotting and thrombosis prevention, its anti-coagulatory properties play an extremely significant role in clinical routine. However, it appears to have little importance in rheological homeostatis, particularly since heparin and related substances can also be found in simpler organisms without clotting mechanisms. In fact, heparin and heparan sulfate glycans are proteoglycans that have a long history in the development of species. Accordingly, their primary effects are electrostatic, not receptor-mediated, and they exhibit binding via their pronounced electronegativity. They exist in free form and as membrane-bound molecules. In physiological terms, heparin and heparinoids are immunological co-factors involved in inflammation and wound healing; they play significant roles in embryo development and organogenesis, serve as “homing factors,” and are involved at various points in carcinogenesis. They show diverse interactions with cytokines, growth factors and other mediators that are important in the implantation process and its control and continue to be so throughout pregnancy. It can be assumed that reproduction is a key focus of physiological functions; this would explain why heparin is so effective above and beyond its anti-coagulatory effects, e.g. in treating anti-phospholipid syndrome. To date no clear confirmation of the existence of a heparin deficiency syndrome has been possible, although initial results from studies concerning the general administration of heparin during pregnancy point in this direction

  8. Myocardial fat as a part of cardiac visceral adipose tissue: physiological and pathophysiological view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selthofer-Relatić, K; Bošnjak, I

    2015-09-01

    Thoracic fat includes extra-pericardial (outside the visceral pericardium) and intra-pericardial (inside the visceral pericardium) adipose tissue. It is called ectopic adipose tissue although it is a normal anatomical structure. Intra-pericardial adipose tissue, which is predominantly composed of epicardial and pericoronary adipose tissue, has a significant role in cardiovascular system function. It provides metabolic-mechanical support to the heart and blood vessels in physiological conditions, while it represents metabolic-cardiovascular risk in case of qualitative and quantitative structural changes in the tissue: it correlates with coronary atherosclerotic disease, left ventricular mass, left atrium enlargement and atrial fibrillation presence. In the last decade there has been mounting evidence of fat cells presence in the myocardium of healthy (non-diseased) persons as well as in persons with both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases. Thus, it is necessary to clarify the incidence, aetiology, physiological role of fat cells in the myocardium, as well as the clinical significance of pathological fatty infiltration of the myocardium.

  9. PRODUCTION OF PROTOTYPE PARTS USING DIRECT METAL LASER SINTERING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Sedlak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional methods of modern materials preparation include additive technologies which involve the sintering of powders of different chemical composition, granularity, physical, chemical and other utility properties. The technology called Rapid Prototyping, which uses different technological principles of producing components, belongs to this type of material preparation. The Rapid Prototyping technology facilities use photopolymers, thermoplastics, specially treated paper or metal powders. The advantage is the direct production of metal parts from input data and the fact that there is no need for the production of special tools (moulds, press tools, etc.. Unused powder from sintering technologies is re-used for production 98% of the time, which means that the process is economical, as well as ecological.The present paper discusses the technology of Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS, which falls into the group of additive technologies of Rapid Prototyping (RP. The major objective is a detailed description of DMLS, pointing out the benefits it offers and its application in practice. The practical part describes the production and provides an economic comparison of several prototype parts that were designed for testing in the automotive industry.

  10. Part-based deep representation for product tagging and search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Keqing

    2017-06-01

    Despite previous studies, tagging and indexing the product images remain challenging due to the large inner-class variation of the products. In the traditional methods, the quantized hand-crafted features such as SIFTs are extracted as the representation of the product images, which are not discriminative enough to handle the inner-class variation. For discriminative image representation, this paper firstly presents a novel deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) architect true pre-trained on a large-scale general image dataset. Compared to the traditional features, our DCNNs representation is of more discriminative power with fewer dimensions. Moreover, we incorporate the part-based model into the framework to overcome the negative effect of bad alignment and cluttered background and hence the descriptive ability of the deep representation is further enhanced. Finally, we collect and contribute a well-labeled shoe image database, i.e., the TBShoes, on which we apply the part-based deep representation for product image tagging and search, respectively. The experimental results highlight the advantages of the proposed part-based deep representation.

  11. Sensitivity of physiological emotional measures to odors depends on the product and the pleasantness ranges used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Marie Pichon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotions are characterized by synchronized changes in several components of an organism. Among them, physiological variations provide energy support for the expression of approach/avoid action tendencies induced by relevant stimuli, while self-reported subjective pleasantness feelings integrate all other emotional components and are plastic.Consequently, emotional responses evoked by odors should be highly differentiated when they are linked to different functions of olfaction (e.g., avoiding environmental hazards. As this differentiation has been observed for contrasted odors (very pleasant or unpleasant, we questioned whether subjective and physiological emotional response indicators could still disentangle subtle affective variations when no clear functional distinction is made (mildly pleasant or unpleasant fragrances. Here, we compared the sensitivity of behavioral and physiological (respiration, skin conductance, facial electromyography (EMG, and heart rate indicators in differentiating odor-elicited emotions in two situations: when a wide range of odor families was presented (e.g., fruity, animal, covering different functional meanings; or in response to a restricted range of products in one particular family (fragrances. Results show clear differences in physiological indicators to odors that display a wide range of reported pleasantness, but these differences almost entirely vanish when fragrances are used even though their subjective pleasantness still differed. Taken together, these results provide valuable information concerning the ability of classic verbal and psychophysiological measures to investigate subtle differences in emotional reactions to a restricted range of similar olfactory stimuli.

  12. Production of DMS and DMSP in different physiological stages and salinity conditions in two marine algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Guangchao; YANG Guipeng; YU Juan; GAO Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Dimethylsulfide (DMS) and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) production by Scrippsiella trochoidea and Prorocentrum minimum was investigated to characterize the effects of physiological stage and salinity on DMS and DMSP pools of these two marine phytoplankton species. Axenic laboratory cultures of the two marine algae were tested for DMSP production and its conversion into DMS. The results demonstrated that both algal species could produce DMS, but the average concentration of DMS per cell in S. trochoidea (12.63 fmol/L) was about six times that in P. minimum (2.01 fmol/L). DMS and DMSP concentrations in algal cultures varied significantly at different growth stages, with high release during the late stationary growth phase and the senescent phase. DMS production induced by three salinities (22, 28, 34) showed that the DMS concentrations per cell in the two algal cultures increased with increasing salinity, which might result from intra-cellular DMSP up-regulation with the change of osmotic stress. Our study specifies the distinctive contributions of different physiological stages of marine phytoplankton on DMSP and DMS production, and clarifies the influence of salinity conditions on the release of DMS and DMSP.As S. trochoidea and P. minimum are harmful algal bloom species with high DMS production, they might play an additional significant role in the sulfur cycle when a red tide occurs.

  13. Contribution of Phenological and Physiological Variations on Northern Vegetation Productivity Changes over Last Three Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sangram

    2015-01-01

    Plant phenology and maximum photosynthetic state determine spatiotemporal variability of gross primary productivity (GPP) of vegetation. Recent warming induced impacts accelerate shifts of phenology and physiological status over Northern vegetated land. Thus, understanding and quantifying these changes are very important. Here, we investigate 1) how vegetation phenology and physiological status (maximum photosynthesis) are evolved over last three decades and 2) how such components (phenology and physiological status) contribute on inter-annual variation of the GPP during the last three decades. We utilized both long-term remotely sensed (GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies), NDVI3g (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index 3rd generation) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)) to extract larger scale phenology metrics (growing season start, end and duration); and productivity (i.e., growing season integrated vegetation index, GSIVI) to answer these questions. For evaluation purpose, we also introduced field-measured phenology and productivity datasets (e.g., FLUXNET) and possible remotely-sensed and modeled metrics at continental and regional scales. From this investigation, we found that onset of the growing season has advanced by 1.61 days per decade and the growing season end has delayed by 0.67 days per decade over the circumpolar region. This asymmetric extension of growing season results in a longer growing-season trend (2.96 days per decade) and widespread increasing vegetation-productivity trend (2.96 GSIVI per decade) over Northern land. However, the regionally-diverged phenology shift and maximum photosynthetic state contribute differently characterized productivity, inter-annual variability and trend. We quantified that about 50 percent, 13 percent and 6.5 percent of Northern land's inter-annual variability are dominantly controlled by the onset of the growing season, the end of the growing season and the maximum

  14. Resveratrol production in bioreactor: Assessment of cell physiological states and plasmid segregational stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida S. Afonso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a plant secondary metabolite commonly found in peanuts and grapevines with significant health benefits. Recombinant organisms can produce large amounts of resveratrol and, in this work, Escherichia coli BW27784 was used to produce resveratrol in bioreactors while monitoring cell physiology and plasmid stability through flow cytometry and real-time qPCR, respectively. Initially, the influence of culture conditions and precursor addition was evaluated in screening assays and the data gathered was used to perform the bioreactor assays, allowing the production of 160 μg/mL of resveratrol. Cellular physiology and plasmid instability affected the final resveratrol production, with lower viability and plasmid copy numbers associated with lower yields. In sum, this study describes new tools to monitor the bioprocess, evaluating the effect of culture conditions, and its correlation with cell physiology and plasmid segregational stability, in order to define a viable and scalable bioprocess to fulfill the need for larger quantities of resveratrol.

  15. The role of estrogens at men. Part 1. General and developmental endocrinology, physiology and pathophysiology of estrogens at men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Estrogens (female sex hormones are important sex hormones for women and men, although traditionally the problems associated with impaired synthesis and metabolism of estrogens are considered, especially in relation to the female population. However, presented an overview allows for a different look at the role and significance of estrogens for men. In the first part of the literature review highlights issues of general endocrinology and age of estrogens and the results of clinical and experimental studies, reflecting the physiological functionsof estrogens and pathophysiologic consequences of violations of the synthesis and metabolism of estrogens in male organism.

  16. Improved curdlan production with discarded bottom parts of Asparagus spear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anane, Rex Frimpong; Sun, Huifang; Zhao, Lamei; Wang, Le; Lin, Chun; Mao, Zichao

    2017-04-07

    This work evaluated the improvement of curdlan production of Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 by using culture medium containing juice of discarded bottom part of green Asparagus spear (MJDA). Curdlan production was carried out using Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 in flasks with different volumes of MJDA and its non-juice-adding control (CK) incubated in shaker at 30 °C, 200 rpm rotation for 168 h. All MJDA media increased Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 cell mass and enhanced the cells' ability to utilise sucrose, the carbon source for curdlan biosynthesis, and thereby produced higher concentration of curdlan than CK which is used for commercial production of curdlan. After 168 h of fermentation, 10% MJDA produced 40.2 g/l of curdlan whiles CK produced 21.1 g/l. Curdlan production was increased by 90.4% higher in 10% MJDA than CK. Curdlan produced by 10% MJDA contains 1.2 and 1.5 µg/ml of Asparagus flavonoids and saponins respectively as additives which have wide range of health benefits. The mass of sucrose needed to produce 1.0 g curdlan by Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 in CK is 1.7-fold more than in 10% MJDA. The results strongly revealed that 5-10% MJDA is a good curdlan fermentation media which increase curdlan production yield with cheaper cost of production and simultaneously reduce environmental waste resulting from the large scaled discarded bottom parts of green Asparagus spear during Asparagus production.

  17. Physiological evaluation of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei in production processes by marker gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penttilä Merja

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologically relevant molecular markers can be used in evaluation of the physiological state of an organism in biotechnical processes. We monitored at high frequency the expression of 34 marker genes in batch, fed-batch and continuous cultures of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei by the transcriptional analysis method TRAC (TRanscript analysis with the aid of Affinity Capture. Expression of specific genes was normalised either with respect to biomass or to overall polyA RNA concentration. Expressional variation of the genes involved in various process relevant cellular functions, such as protein production, growth and stress responses, was related to process parameters such as specific growth and production rates and substrate and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Results Gene expression of secreted cellulases and recombinant Melanocarpus albomyces laccase predicted the trends in the corresponding extracellular enzyme production rates and was highest in a narrow "physiological window" in the specific growth rate (μ range of 0.03 – 0.05 h-1. Expression of ribosomal protein mRNAs was consistent with the changes in μ. Nine starvation-related genes were found as potential markers for detection of insufficient substrate feed for maintaining optimal protein production. For two genes induced in anaerobic conditions, increasing transcript levels were measured as dissolved oxygen decreased. Conclusion The data obtained by TRAC supported the usefulness of focused and intensive transcriptional analysis in monitoring of biotechnical processes providing thus tools for process optimisation purposes.

  18. Capsicum production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part 1: History, botany, cultivation, and primary processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1985-01-01

    The genus Capsicum (Fam. Solanaceae) was known to ancient cultures and was more recently historically associated with the discovery of the New World. This genus provides many species and varieties used in flavoring foods popular in the cuisines of many parts of the world. From the pungent chilli to the colorful paprika and the bell pepper, with its remarkable aroma, the genus is of great interest for its chemistry, sensory attributes, and physiological action. The Capsicums, among the spices, are second only to black pepper in trade both in volume and value. The production of the different pungency forms, the processed seasonings, and the concentrated oleoresins, through technologically advanced processes and in specified standard grades, are critically reviewed. The pungency of Capsicum fruits, its evaluation, chemical structure relationship, its increasing acceptance and preference by a variety of populations are of great research interest. The wide traditional use in the growing regions and its intense physiological effects have attracted the attention of researchers of many different disciplines. These aspects are reviewed in four sequential parts. Part I deals with history, botany, cultivation, and primary processing.

  19. Indoor Air Quality Assessment Based on Human Physiology - Part 1. New Criteria Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Human physiology research makes evident that the Weber-Fechner law applies not only to noise perception but also to the perception of other environmental components. Based on this fact, new decibel units for dor component representing indoor air quality in majority locations have been proposed: decicarbdiox dCd (for carbon dioxide CO2 and decitvoc dTv (for total volatile organic compound TVOC. Equations of these new units have been proved by application of a experimental relationships between odor intensity (representing odor perception by the human body and odor concentrations of CO2 and TVOC, b individually  measured CO2 and TVOC levels (concentrations – from these new decibel units can be calculated and their values compared with decibel units of noise measured in the same locations. The undoubted benefit of using the decibel scale is that it gives much better approximation to human perception of odor intensity compared to the CO2 and TVOC concentration scales.

  20. Part 2: effect of training surface on acute physiological responses after sport-specific training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, Martyn J; Dawson, Brian; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter

    2013-04-01

    This study compared the effect of sand and grass training surfaces during a sport-specific conditioning session in well-trained team sport athletes (n = 10). The participants initially completed a preliminary testing session to gather baseline (BASE) performance data for vertical jump, repeated sprint ability, and 3-km running time trial. Three days subsequent to BASE, all the athletes completed the first sport-specific conditioning session, which was followed by a repeat of the BASE performance tests the following day (24 hours postexercise). Seven days later, the same training session was completed on the opposing surface and was again followed 24 hours later by the BASE performance tests. During each session, blood lactate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and heart rate (HR) were recorded, with player movement patterns also monitored via global positioning system units. Additionally, venous blood was collected preexercise, postexercise, and 24 hours postexercise, and analyzed for serum concentrations of Myoglobin, Haptoglobin, and C-Reactive Protein. Results showed significantly higher HR and RPE responses on SAND (p > 0.05), despite significantly lower distance and velocity outputs for the training session (p > 0.05). There were no differences in 24 hours postexercise performance (p > 0.05), and blood markers of muscle damage, inflammation and hemolysis were also similar between the surfaces (p > 0.05). These results suggest that performing a sport-specific conditioning session on a sand (vs. grass) surface can result in a greater physiological response, without any additional decrement to next-day performance.

  1. Are the effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) treatment partly physiological in alcohol dependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameisen, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the therapeutic effects of Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in alcohol dependence could be related to ethanol-mimicking action of the drug and that GHB could reduce alcohol craving, intake and withdrawal by acting as a "substitute" of the alcohol in the central nervous system. Nevertheless, alcohol being the strongest trigger of craving and intake, it is difficult to ascribe reduction of craving and intake to ethanol-mimicking activity of GHB. I have recently proposed that alcohol/substance dependence could result from a GHB-deficiency-related dysphoric syndrome in which alcohol/substances would be sought to "substitute" for insufficient GHB effect. GHB is the sole identified naturally occurring gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA (B)) receptor agonist. Here, I propose that exogenous GHB might in fact "substitute" for deficient endogeneous GHB and represent true substitutive treatment for GHB-deficiency. And that baclofen and GHB could both compensate for deficient effect of the physiological GABA (B) receptor agonist(s).

  2. Deep Phenotyping of Systemic Arterial Hemodynamics in HFpEF (Part 1): Physiologic and Technical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos, Julio A

    2017-06-01

    A better understanding of the pathophysiology of heart failure with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) is important. Detailed phenotyping of pulsatile hemodynamics has provided important insights into the pathophysiology of left ventricular remodeling and fibrosis, diastolic dysfunction, microvascular disease, and impaired oxygen delivery to peripheral skeletal muscle, all of which contribute to exercise intolerance, the cardinal feature of HFpEF. Furthermore, arterial pulsatile hemodynamic mechanisms likely contribute to the frequent presence of comorbidities, such as renal failure and dementia, in this population. Our therapeutic approach to HFpEF can be enhanced by clinical phenotyping tools with the potential to "segment" this population into relevant pathophysiologic categories or to identify individuals exhibiting prominent specific abnormalities that can be targeted by pharmacologic interventions. This review describes relevant technical and physiologic aspects regarding the deep phenotyping of arterial hemodynamics in HFpEF. In an accompanying review, the potential of this approach to enhance our clinical and therapeutic approach to HFpEF is discussed.

  3. Patient variation in veterinary medicine--part II--influence of physiological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modric, S; Martinez, M

    2011-06-01

    In veterinary medicine, the characterization of a drug's pharmacokinetic properties is generally based upon data that are derived from studies that employ small groups of young healthy animals, often of a single breed. In Part I of the series, we focused on the potential influence of disease processes, stress, pregnancy and lactation on drug pharmacokinetics. In this Part II of the series, we consider other covariates, such as gender, heritable traits, age, body composition, and circadian rhythms. The impact of these factors with respect to predicting the relationship between dose and drug exposure characteristics within an animal population is illustrated through the use of Monte Carlo simulations. Ultimately, an appreciation of these potential influences will improve the prediction of situations when dose adjustments may be appropriate. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Physiology of the Sphincter of Oddi - the present and the future? - part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballal Mansour

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms controlling the sphincter of Oddi (SO have received considerable attention over the past two decades. Progress towards their elucidation has been slow, perhaps because of the sphincter′s relative inaccessibility and the different responses of the human "resistor" as compared to the "pumper" observed in several animal models. The list of agents affecting the sphincter grows alarmingly. In this review, divided into two parts, substances have been classified as neurotransmitters, hormones, local factors and pharmacological agents. The first part considers the roles of neurotransmitters. These include (a vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP and nitric oxide (NO. Both cause relaxation. A recent model of their complex interrelationships in smooth muscle is described. (b Substance P (SP and enkephalins. These produce contractions. The former can act directly. An indirect effect via cholinergic neurones may be the result of SP release from vagal afferents. (c Catecholamines, which cause contraction or relaxation via activation of α- or β-adrenoreceptors, respectively. In the second part attention is focussed on cholecystokinin (CCK which normally relaxes the SO via neuronal mechanisms. A CCK-sensitive pathway from sensory duodenal neurones to SO ganglia has been described. Reactive oxygen species are among the local factors discussed. Their description as being "the good, the bad and the ugly" seems merited. Pharmacological agents include NO donors, octreotide and botulinum toxin (BTX. Octreotide induces tachyoddia and may impair biliary flow. BTX has exciting potential in the diagnosis of SO abnormalities and as a therapeutic alternative to sphincterotomy. In both parts of the review current concepts of different aspects of smooth muscle control are presented. In several instances data regarding the SO is lacking. We discuss (a the role of interstitial cell of Cajal in the control of slow waves, (b different pathways contributing

  5. Sexual selection by cryptic female choice on male seminal products - a new bridge between sexual selection and reproductive physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, W G; Cordero, C

    1995-12-01

    Selection clearly focuses on differences in reproduction, but studies of reproductive physiology generally have been carried out in a near vacuum of modern evolutionary theory. This lack of contact between the two fields may be about to change. New ideas indicate that sexual selection by cryptic female choice has affected the evolution of products in male semen that influence female reproductive behavior and physiology.

  6. Physiological regulation of laccase and manganese peroxidase production by white-rot Basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva

    2009-10-12

    This review integrates recent literature and our own data on the physiology of laccase and manganese peroxidase synthesis, focusing on the common characteristics and unique properties of individual fungi as well as on several approaches providing enhanced enzyme secretion. Firstly, the enzyme yield is species-dependent and strain-dependent and selection of new organisms with tremendous synthesis of these enzymes is possible. For example, in screening program the laccase activity of tested basidiomycetes varied from 0.5Uml(-1) to 75Uml(-1). Secondly, the carbon source and lignocellulosic substrate play a crucial role in enzyme production. Thus, laccase activity of Pseudotrametes gibbosa varied from 0.3Uml(-1) (Avicel) to 13.7Uml(-1) (lactose), while the substitution of wheat bran with walnut pericarp increased Cerrena unicolor manganese peroxidase yield from 0.7Uml(-1) to 8.3Uml(-1). Thirdly, aromatic compounds regulate the ligninolytic enzyme synthesis although their effect is very specific depending on fungi physiological peculiarities. 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) supplemented to the medium at appropriate concentration significantly accelerated C. unicolor laccase production and 4-fold increased laccase specific activity. Fourthly, co-cultivation of appropriate fungi shows considerable promise as a strategy to highly enhance the enzyme production. For example, pairing of C. unicolor and Phellinus robustus 2-fold increased the total laccase yield.

  7. [Recording cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials: part 1: anatomy, physiology, methods and normal findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, L E; Hörmann, K; Pfaar, O

    2010-10-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) have gained in clinical significance in recent years, now forming an integral part of neurootological examinations to establish the functional status of the otolith organs. They are sensitive to low-frequency acoustic stimuli. When stimulated, receptors in the sacculus and utriculous are activated. By means of reflexive connections, myogenic potentials can be recorded when the relevant muscles are tonically activated. The vestibulocolic (sacculocollic) reflex travels from the otolith organs over the central circuitry to the ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid muscle. Myogenic potentials can be recorded by means of cervical VEMP (cVEMP). The vestibuloocular reflex crosses contralaterally to the extraocular eye muscle. Ocular VEMP (oVEMP) are recorded periocularly, preferably from the inferior oblique muscle. Various stimulation methods are used including air conduction and bone conduction.

  8. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianyang; Niu, Shuli; Ciais, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan A; Chen, Jiquan; Ammann, Christof; Arain, Altaf; Blanken, Peter D; Cescatti, Alessandro; Bonal, Damien; Buchmann, Nina; Curtis, Peter S; Chen, Shiping; Dong, Jinwei; Flanagan, Lawrence B; Frankenberg, Christian; Georgiadis, Teodoro; Gough, Christopher M; Hui, Dafeng; Kiely, Gerard; Li, Jianwei; Lund, Magnus; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Marcolla, Barbara; Merbold, Lutz; Montagnani, Leonardo; Moors, Eddy J; Olesen, Jørgen E; Piao, Shilong; Raschi, Antonio; Roupsard, Olivier; Suyker, Andrew E; Urbaniak, Marek; Vaccari, Francesco P; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo; Wilkinson, Matthew; Weng, Ensheng; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Yan, Liming; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-03-03

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate-carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of biotic and abiotic factors operating mainly through changes in vegetation phenology and physiological processes. However, it is still unclear how plant phenology and physiology can be integrated to explain the spatiotemporal variability of terrestrial GPP. Based on analyses of eddy-covariance and satellite-derived data, we decomposed annual terrestrial GPP into the length of the CO2 uptake period (CUP) and the seasonal maximal capacity of CO2 uptake (GPPmax). The product of CUP and GPPmax explained >90% of the temporal GPP variability in most areas of North America during 2000-2010 and the spatial GPP variation among globally distributed eddy flux tower sites. It also explained GPP response to the European heatwave in 2003 (r(2) = 0.90) and GPP recovery after a fire disturbance in South Dakota (r(2) = 0.88). Additional analysis of the eddy-covariance flux data shows that the interbiome variation in annual GPP is better explained by that in GPPmax than CUP. These findings indicate that terrestrial GPP is jointly controlled by ecosystem-level plant phenology and photosynthetic capacity, and greater understanding of GPPmax and CUP responses to environmental and biological variations will, thus, improve predictions of GPP over time and space.

  9. The physiological and ecological roles of volatile halogen production by marine diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire; Sun, Shuo

    2015-04-01

    Sea-to-air halogen flux is known to have a major impact on catalytic ozone cycling and aerosol formation in the troposphere. The biological production of volatile organic (e.g. bromoform, diiodomethane) and reactive inorganic halogens (e.g. molecular iodine) is believed to play an important role in mediating halogen emissions from the marine environment. Marine diatoms in particular are known to produce the organic and inorganic volatile halogens at high rates in pelagic waters and sea-ice systems. The climate-induced changes in diatom communities that have already been observed and are expected to occur throughout the world's oceans as warming progresses are likely to alter sea-to-air halogen flux. However, we currently have insufficient understanding of the physiological and ecological functions of volatile halogen production to develop modelling tools that can predict the nature and magnitude of the impact. The results of a series of laboratory studies aimed at establishing the physiological and ecological role of volatile halogen production in two marine polar diatoms (Thalassiosira antarctica and Porosira glacialis) will be described in this presentation. We will focus on our work investigating how the activity of the haloperoxidases, a group of enzymes known to be involved in halogenation reactions in marine organisms, is altered by environmental conditions. This will involve exploring the antioxidative defence role proposed for marine haloperoxidases by showing specifically how halogenating activity varies with photosynthetic rate and changes in the ambient light conditions in the two model marine diatoms. We will also present results from our experiments designed to investigate how volatile halogen production is impacted by and influences diatom-bacterial interactions. We will discuss how improved mechanistic understanding like this could pave the way for future volatile halogen-ecosystem model development.

  10. 76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to Houston, Texas... Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to...

  11. The clinical physiology of water metabolism. Part II: Renal mechanisms for urinary concentration; diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, R E; Kleeman, C R

    1979-12-01

    The renal reabsorption of water independent of solute is the result of the coordinated function of the collecting duct and the ascending limb of the loop of Henle. The unique juxtaposition of the ascending and descending portions of the loop of Henle and of the vasa recta permits the function of a counter-current multiplier system in which water is removed from the tubular lumen and reabsorbed into the circulation. The driving force for reabsorption is the osmotic gradient in the renal medulla which is dependent, in part, on chloride (followed by sodium) pumping from the thick ascending loop of Henle. Urea trapping is also thought to play an important role in the generation of a hypertonic medullary interstitium. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) acts by binding to receptors on the cell membrane and activating adenylate cyclase. This, inturn, results in the intracellular accumulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) which in some fashion abruptly increases the water permeability of the luminal membrane of cells in the collecting duct. As a consequence, water flows along an osmotic gradient out of the tubular lumen into the medullary interstitium. Diabetes insipidus is the clinical condition associated with either a deficiency of or a resistance to AVP. Central diabetes insipidus is due to diminished release of AVP following damage to either the neurosecretory nuclei or the pituitary stalk. Possible causes include idiopathic, familial, trauma, tumor, infection or vascular lesions. Patients present with polyuria, usually beginning over a period of a few days. The diagnosis is made by showing that urinary concentration is impaired after water restriction but that there is a good response to exogenous vasopressin therapy. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus can be identified by a patient's lack of response to AVP. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by a familial defect, although milder forms can be acquired as a result of various forms of renal disease. Central

  12. Chemical composition of buckwheat plant parts and selected buckwheat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vojtíšková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition plant parts (roots, stalks, leaves, blossoms of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and selected products made from its seeds (peels, whole seed, wholemeal flour, broken seeds, crunchy products Natural and Cocoa, flour, and pasta was determined. Samples were dried and ground to a fine powder. All analyses were performed according to the Commission Regulation no. 152/2009, while rutin concentration was determined by the modified HPLC method. The lowest content of moisture was found in roots (4.3% and in peels (almost 8% and the highest moisture (nearly 11% was discovered in seeds. The lowest amount of crude protein (3.5% was found in peels, the highest crude protein amount (>13% in both flours and leaves (23%. The starch content (>50% in dry matter differs from one sample to another. Only in peels the content of starch was about 3.5%. From all examined samples, the lowest content of fat was found in crunchy products Cocoa, 1.7%. The lowest amount of histidine was determined in all studied samples, except peels, the highest content of glutamic acid was determined in almost all samples, except peels. Whole-meal flour is very rich source of Ca and Fe. The content of these elements was 1172 mg.kg-1 and 45.9 mg.kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the highest content of Pb (>1 mg.kg-1 was found in broken seeds. The greatest concentration of rutin was determined in blossoms and leaves (83.6 and 69.9 mg.g-1, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest concentrations of rutin were found in buckwheat products (generally less then 1 mg.g-1, i.e. in wholemeal flour, 702 μg.kg-1, the lowest almost 10 μg.kg-1 in pasta.

  13. Physiological vulnerability of distortion product otoacoustic emissions from the amphibian ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Pim; Narins, Peter M.; Mason, Matthew J.

    2003-10-01

    The physiological vulnerability of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) was investigated in the leopard frog, Rana pipiens pipiens. For each frog, DPOAEs were recorded from the amphibian and the basilar papillae. Measurements were taken before and after either the arrest of oxygen supply due to cardioectomy, or the destruction of the central nervous system (CNS). DPOAEs in response to high-level stimuli (>75 dB SPL) were rather robust to these insults during the first two hours post surgery. In contrast, DPOAE amplitudes in response to low-level stimuli (disappeared within 6 min for cardioectomy, and after 13 min for CNS destruction. In the basilar papilla, low-level DPOAEs disappeared more slowly: on average after 34 min following cardioectomy, and after 58 min for CNS destruction. The difference in physiological vulnerability between low- and high-level emissions is similar to that in mammals and a lizard. The difference between the DPOAE decay rate of the frog's amphibian and basilar papillae suggests important differences between the hearing mechanisms of the papillae.

  14. Physiological basis in the assessment of myocardial mechanics using speckle-tracking echocardiography 2D. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mądry, Wojciech; Karolczak, Maciej Aleksander

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the authors attempt to concisely present the anatomical and pathophysiological bases as well as the principles for echocardiographic evaluation of mechanical aspects of cardiac function based on speckle tracking method. This technique uses a phenomenon involving the formation of characteristic image units, referred to as speckles or acoustic markers, which are stable during cardiac cycle, on a two-dimensional echocardiographic picture. Changes in the position of these speckles throughout the cardiac cycle, which are monitored and analyzed semi-automatically by a computer system, reflect deformation of both, cardiac ventricle as a whole as well as its individual anatomical segments. The values of strain and the strain rate, as well as the range and velocity of the movement of these markers, which are in close relationship with multiple hemodynamic parameters, can be visualized as various types of charts - linear, two- and three-dimensional - as well as numerical values, enabling deeper insight into the mechanical and hemodynamic aspects of cardiac function in health and disease. The use of information obtained based on speckle tracking echocardiography allows to understand previously unclear mechanisms of physiological and pathophysiological processes. The first part of the study discusses the formation of a two-dimensional ultrasound image and the speckles, as well as the technical aspects of tracking their movement. The second part presents in more detail the methodology of speckle-tracking echocardiography, the characteristic abnormalities of cardiac mechanics presenting in different clinical entities, and the limitations related to given clinical and technical issues.

  15. Physiological basis in the assessment of myocardial mechanics using speckle-tracking echocardiography 2D. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mądry, Wojciech; Karolczak, Maciej Aleksander

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the authors attempt to concisely present the anatomical and pathophysiological bases as well as the principles for echocardiographic evaluation of mechanical aspects of cardiac function based on speckle tracking method. This technique uses a phenomenon involving the formation of characteristic image units, referred to as speckles or acoustic markers, which are stable during cardiac cycle, on a two-dimensional echocardiographic picture. Changes in the position of these speckles throughout the cardiac cycle, which are monitored and analyzed semi-automatically by a computer system, reflect deformation of both, cardiac ventricle as a whole as well as its individual anatomical segments. The values of strain and the strain rate, as well as the range and velocity of the movement of these markers, which are in close relationship with multiple hemodynamic parameters, can be visualized as various types of charts - linear, two- and three-dimensional - as well as numerical values, enabling deeper insight into the mechanical and hemodynamic aspects of cardiac function in health and disease. The use of information obtained based on speckle tracking echocardiography allows to understand previously unclear mechanisms of physiological and pathophysiological processes. The first part of the study discusses the formation of a two-dimensional ultrasound image and the speckles, as well as the technical aspects of tracking their movement. The second part presents in more detail the methodology of speckle-tracking echocardiography, the characteristic abnormalities of cardiac mechanics presenting in different clinical entities, and the limitations related to given clinical and technical issues.

  16. EFFECT OF THE SELECTED IMMUNOSTIMULATORS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PRODUCTION PARAMETERS OF SOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna REKIEL

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of immunostimulation of sows during the perinatal period (Biostymine, Lydium-KLP on physiological-production parameters of the sows: haematological and biochemical blood indices, colostrum and milk composition and fatty acid profile, physical (pH and cytological (somatic cells count - SCC parameters as well as results of reproduction and rearing of piglets. None effect of the examined immunostimulators on the most of the studied traits and indices was found. There were the changes in pH, energy level and composition of milk. Additionally, the changes in fatty acid profile in milk fat were recorded; they consisted in significantly lower or higher participation of certain fatty acids in the samples, collected from the sows which received Biostymine, as compared to the group, receiving Lydium-KLP and/or groups which did not receive any additive.

  17. The Biochemistry, Chemistry and Physiology of the Isoflavones in Soybeans and their Food Products

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    In this review of the chemistry, absorption, metabolism, and mechanisms of action of plant isoflavones, emphasis is placed on the isoflavones in soy and the food products derived from them. Soybeans have been part of food history in Asia for several millennia but did not reach the Americas and Europe until the eighteenth century. In the twentieth century, there was a tremendous increase in the cultivation of soybeans in the United States and more recently in South America. Soy foods have ente...

  18. Physiological basis for the differences of productive capacity among tillers in winter wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hai-cheng; CAI Tie; WANG Zhen-lin; HE Ming-rong

    2015-01-01

    The quality or structure of a wheat population is signiifcantly affected by the compositions of tilers. Little has been known about the physiological basis for the differences of productive capacity among tilers. Two winter wheat cultivars, Shannong 15 (SN15) and Shannong 8355 (SN8355), were used to investigate the differences of productive capacity among tilers and analyze the physiological mechanisms that determine the superior tiler group. Low-position tilers (early initiated tilers) had a higher yield per spike than high-position tilers (late initiated tilers) in both cultivars, which was due to their more grain number per spike, more fertile spikelet per spike, less sterile spikelet per spike and higher grain weight. According to cluster analysis, tilers of SN15 were classiifed into 2 groups: superior tiler group including main stem (0), the ifrst primary tiler (I) and the second primary tiler (II); and inferior tiler group including the third primary tiler (III) and the ifrst secondary tiler (I-p). Tilers of SN8355 were classiifed into 3 groups: superior tiler group (0 and I), intermediate tiler group (II and III) and inferior tiler group (I-p). In comparison with other tiler groups, the superior tiler group had higher photosynthetic rate of lfag leaves, higher antioxidant enzyme (SOD, POD and CAT) activities and lower levels of lipid peroxidation in leaves, higher grain ifling rate in both superior and inferior grains during grain ifling, higher single-stem biological yield and larger single-stem economic coefifcient. Correlation analysis showed that yield per spike was positively and signiifcantly correlated with the lfag leaf photosynthetic rate, grain ifling rate, the antioxidant enzyme activities and soluble protein content (except for SN15 at 5 days post-anthesis (DPA)) of lfag leaf, the single-stem biological yield, and the single-stem economic coefif-cient. Remarkable negative correlation was also found between yield per spike and MDA content of lfag

  19. Phytoplankton production and physiological adaptation on the southeastern shelf of the Agulhas ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, R.; Lamont, T.; Kyewalyanga, M.; Sessions, H.; Morris, T.

    2010-07-01

    An investigation of phytoplankton production and physiology was undertaken during two research cruises on the southeastern shelf of southern Africa. The data set included photosynthesis-irradiance and active fluorescence parameters, phytoplankton absorption coefficients and HPLC pigment concentrations. Primary production was estimated to vary over a similar range for both cruises within 0.27-3.69 g C m -2 d -1. Pigment indices indicated that diatoms were dominant on the first cruise and the communities were subject to conditions where the mixed layer was deeper than the euphotic zone and they optimized their photosynthesis to very low light intensities at the bottom and below the euphotic zone. Mixed diatom-flagellate populations were observed during the second cruise where the euphotic zone was deeper than the mixed layer and the populations adapted to irradiances higher in the euphotic zone. In response to a mean lower water column PAR, it was found that these mixed communities increased the proportion of chlorophyll a in the pigment pool and had a higher quantum yield of photochemistry and higher light-limited photosynthetic efficiency.

  20. Effect of Environment on the Productivity and Physiological Indicator of Nursery Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoan Yin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to determine the effect of rearing environment on the productivity and physiological indicator during the nursery phase of pigs. 14 litters of commercial crossbred pigs (Large White×Landrace Weaned at 35 days of age were reared in their original pen with the weaker eliminated. 7 flatdecks (F and 7 straw enriched pens (S were modified from the farrowing pen. Feed Intake (FI, Average Daily Weight Gain (ADWG and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR was collected and 2 male and 2 female per litter were randomly selected to measure cortisol, Growth Hormone (GH and IgG at the end of the experimental period (70 days of age. Results showed that, for piglets in S, FI of was significantly lower (p<0.05 from 50 days of age and ADWG from 43 to 70 days of age was significantly lower (p<0.001, though GH was significantly higher (p<0.01. But there was no difference in FCR, cortisol and IgG between environments. In conclusion, piglets in S had a higher GH, but poor productivity because of unsuitable feed changing and nursery environment had no effect on cortisol and IgG.

  1. Ultrasound-induced physiological effects and secondary metabolite (saponin) production in Panax ginseng cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L; Wu, J; Ho, K P; Qi, S

    2001-08-01

    This work was aimed at the effects of ultrasound (US) on the growth and secondary metabolite biosynthesis of cultured plant cells. Suspension cultures of Panax ginseng cells were exposed to US at power density below 82 mW/cm3 for short periods of time (1-4 min) in a US bath (38.5-kHz fixed frequency and 810 W maximum peak power). Under most exposure conditions, US stimulated the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, the ginsenoside saponins of ginseng cells, increasing the total saponin content of the cell by up to 75%. The growth and viability of ginseng cells were usually depressed immediately after the exposure to US, but recovered gradually to levels similar to those of a normal culture in a few days, with virtually no net loss of biomass yield at the end of the culture period. At some lower US doses, sonicated cultures could even reach slightly higher biomass yields than that of normal cultures. The effects of US on cell growth and secondary metabolite yield showed a significant correlation with the total US energy emitted (i.e., the product of US power and exposure time). Mechanical stress and microstreaming induced by acoustic cavitation were considered as the most possible causes of the various physiological effects of US on ginseng cells. In particular, the stimulation of secondary metabolite production by US may be a result of US-induced plant cell defense response.

  2. Quantitative aerobic physiology of the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis, a major contaminant in bioethanol production plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Fernanda Cristina Bezerra; Basso, Thiago Olitta; Pita, Will de Barros; Gombert, Andreas Karoly; Simões, Diogo Ardaillon; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2013-02-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis has been described as the major contaminant yeast of industrial ethanol production, although little is known about its physiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the growth of this yeast in diverse carbon sources and involved conducting shake-flask and glucose- or sucrose-limited chemostats experiments, and from the chemostat data, the stoichiometry of biomass formation during aerobic growth was established. As a result of the shake-flask experiments with hexoses or disaccharides, the specific growth rates were calculated, and a different behavior in rich and mineral medium was observed concerning to profile of acetate and ethanol production. In C-limited chemostats conditions, the metabolism of this yeast was completely respiratory, and the biomass yields reached values of 0.62 gDW gS(-1) . In addition, glucose pulses were applied to the glucose- or sucrose-limited chemostats. These results showed that D. bruxellensis has a short-term Crabtree effect. While the glucose pulse was at the sucrose-limited chemostat, sucrose accumulated at the reactor, indicating the presence of a glucose repression mechanism in D. bruxellensis. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling the effect of physiological responses to green pruning on net biomass production of Eucalyptus nitens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkard, E. A.; Battaglia, M.; Beadle, C. L.; Sands, P. J.

    1999-01-01

    Green pruning of Eucalyptus nitens (Deane and Maiden) Maiden increases instantaneous rates of light-saturated CO(2) assimilation (A), and changes patterns of total leaf area and foliage distribution. We investigated the importance of such changes on the rate of recovery of growth following pruning. A simple process-based model was developed to estimate daily net biomass production (G(d)) of three-year-old plantation-grown trees over a 20-month period. The trees had been pruned by removal of 0, 50 or 70% of the length of green crown, equivalent to removal of 0, 55 or 88% of leaf area, respectively, when the plantation verged on canopy closure. Total G(d) was reduced by only 20% immediately following the 50%-pruning treatment, as a result of both the high leaf dark respiration and low A in the portion of the crown removed compared to the top of the crown. Pruning at the time of canopy closure preempted a natural and rapid decline in G(d) of the lower crown. Although leaf area index (L) was approximately 6.0 at the time of pruning, high light interception (95%) occurred with an L of 4.0. The 50%-pruning treatment reduced L to 3.5, but the physiological responses to pruning were sufficient to compensate fully for the reduction in intercepted radiation within 110 days of pruning. The 70%-pruning treatment reduced L to 1.9, and reduced G(d) by 77%, reflecting the removal of branches with high A in the mid and upper crown. Physiological responses to the 70%-pruning treatment were insufficient to increase G(d) to the value of unpruned trees during the study. Model sensitivity analysis showed that increases in A following pruning increased G(d) by 20 and 25% in the 50- and 70%-pruned trees, respectively, 20 months after pruning. Changes in leaf area/foliage distribution had a greater effect on G(d) of 50%-pruned trees (47% increase) than did changes in A. However, the reduction in photosynthetic potential associated with the 70%-pruning treatment resulted in only small

  4. Physiological basis in the assessment of myocardial mechanics using speckle-tracking echocardiography 2D. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Mądry

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors attempt to concisely present the anatomical and pathophysiological bases as well as the principles for echocardiographic evaluation of mechanical aspects of cardiac function based on speckle tracking method. This technique uses a phenomenon involving the formation of characteristic image units, referred to as speckles or acoustic markers, which are stable during cardiac cycle, on a two-dimensional echocardiographic picture. Changes in the position of these speckles throughout the cardiac cycle, which are monitored and analyzed semi-automatically by a computer system, reflect deformation of both, cardiac ventricle as a whole as well as its individual anatomical segments. The values of strain and the strain rate, as well as the range and velocity of the movement of these markers, which are in close relationship with multiple hemodynamic parameters, can be visualized as various types of charts – linear, two- and three-dimensional – as well as numerical values, enabling deeper insight into the mechanical and hemodynamic aspects of cardiac function in health and disease. The use of information obtained based on speckle tracking echocardiography allows to understand previously unclear mechanisms of physiological and pathophysiological processes. The first part of the study discusses the formation of a two-dimensional ultrasound image and the speckles, as well as the technical aspects of tracking their movement. The second part presents in more detail the methodology of speckle-tracking echocardiography, the characteristic abnormalities of cardiac mechanics presenting in different clinical entities, and the limitations related to given clinical and technical issues.

  5. Effect of ration wetting in productive and physiological performance of quail reared under high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Th. Younis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify the effect of ration wetting with water contained mixture of probiotic, Potassium chloride and Vitamin C in productive and some physiological performance of quail reared under high temperature. Four hundred unsexed quails (one day old on litter in semi opened house. Proper environmental condition was available and the house minimum and maximum temperature was about 25-40C. Birds distributed randomly into four treatments each with four replicate (25 birds/ replicate.Two rations. Starter and finisher were used and water and diets were supplemented ad libitum until age of marketing (42 days.The experimental treatments were as follow: T1 reared on standard ration (control without wetting T2, T3 and T4 ration supplemented with 25, 50 and 75 ml water contains mixture of 6 gram probiotic, 3 mg potassium chloride and 150 mg Vit. C/kg ration, respectively at the time of feeding. Statistical analysis of data showed a significant increase in live body weight, weight gain of birds fed wetted ration compared with control and significant improvement in feed conversion ratio in T4 and no significant differences between treatments in feed consumption, dressing percentage, mortality rate, total protein, albumin, triglyceride, liver glycogen concentration, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, and a significant decrease in serum glucose, glycogen concentration in heart tissue and ALT, AST concentration.

  6. Production of hydrogen peroxide by polyphenols and polyphenol-rich beverages under quasi-physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagawa, Mitsugu; Shigemitsu, Tomoko; Suyama, Kyozo

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the ability of the production of H(2)O(2) by polyphenols, we incubated various phenolic compounds and natural polyphenols under a quasi-physiological pH and temperature (pH 7.4, 37 degrees C), and then measured the formation of H(2)O(2) by the ferrous ion oxidation-xylenol orange assay. Pyrocatechol, hydroquinone, pyrogallol, 1,2,4-benzenetriol, and polyphenols such as catechins yielded a significant amount of H(2)O(2). We also examined the effects of a metal chelator, pH, and O(2) on the H(2)O(2)-generating property, and the generation of H(2)O(2) by the polyphenol-rich beverages, green tea, black tea, and coffee, was determined. The features of the H(2)O(2)-generating property of green tea, black tea, and coffee were in good agreement with that of phenolic compounds, suggesting that polyphenols are responsible for the generation of H(2)O(2) in beverages. From the results, the possible significances of the H(2)O(2)-generating property of polyphenols for biological systems are discussed.

  7. Influence of in ovo injection of L-arginine on productive and physiological performance of quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. Al–Hayani,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of inoculation of different levels of L–arginine into eggs of 0-day-old quail embryos. On 0 day of incubation, 480 eggs (120 for each treatment group were injected with 0% arginine (C group; 1% arginine (T1; 2% arginine (T2; or 3% arginine (T3. After hatching, 336 quail chicks (84 chicks produced from each in ovo injection treatment were placed in an experimental quail house and distributed into 4 treatment groups of 3 replicates each with 16 quail chicks for each replicate. Traits determined in this study were hatchability rate, initial body weight (7 days of age, final body weight (42 days old, feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, proportional weights of carcass, breast, legs, back bone, wings, neck, abdominal fat, liver, heart, and gizzard, blood serum glucose, protein, cholesterol, total lipids, triglycerides, calcium and phosphorus and Results revealed that in ovo injection with different levels of L–arginine on 0 day of incubation resulted in significant increase (P≤0.05 in hatchability rate, initial body weight, final body weight, feed conversion ratio and serum glucose, protein, total protein, calcium, phosphorus and proportional weights of carcass, breast, legs, liver, heart, and gizzard and significant decrease (P≤0.05 in serum cholesterol, total lipids, triglycerides and proportional weight of back bone, wings and abdominal fat. In conclusion, the inoculation of different levels of L–arginine into eggs of 0–day–old quail embryos especially at the levels of 2% and 3% resulted in significant improvement in productive and physiological performance of quail. Hence in ovo injection with L–arginine could be used as a beneficial tool for enhance productive performance of quail.

  8. [Clinical and physiological methods of examination for cardiac and respiratory systems in aluminium production workers of Kolsky North].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chashchin, M V; Skripal', B A; Torgovanov, B A; Zotov, A M; Seden'kov, D A

    2004-01-01

    The authors presented clinical and physiologic studies of cardiac and respiratory systems and peripheral circulation among workers having various professions at aluminium production in Kolsky North. Multiple functional study methods were used including tachooscillography, electrocardiography, rheovasography, rheoencephalography, thermovision. The results enabled to specify duration and character of health disorders caused by occupational environment.

  9. Pictures, preparations, and living processes: the production of immediate visual perception (anschauung) in the late-19th-century physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidgen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the visual culture of the late-19th-century experimental physiology. Taking this case of Johann Nopomuk Czermak (1828-1873) as a key example, it argues that images played a crucial role in acquiring experimental physiological skills. Czermak, Emil Du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896) and other late-19th-century physiologists sought to present the achievements and perspective of their discipline by way of "immediate visual perception (unmittelbare Anschauung)." However, the images they produced and presented for this purpose were strongly mediated. By means of specifically designed instruments, such as the "cardioscope," the "contraction telegraph," and the "frog pistol," and specifically constructed rooms, so-called "spectatoriums," physiologists trained and controlled experiments on their own. Studying the material culture of physiological image production reveals that technological resources such as telegraphy, photography, and even railways contributed to making physiological facts anschaulich. At the same time, it shows that the more traditional image techniques of anatomy played an important role in physiological lecture halls, especially when it came to displaying the details of vivisection experiments to the public. Thus, the images of late 19th century physiology stood half-way between machines and organisms, between books and instruments.

  10. Alteration of plant physiology by glyphosate and its by-product aminomethylphosphonic acid: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcelo P; Smedbol, Elise; Chalifour, Annie; Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Labrecque, Michel; Lepage, Laurent; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    It is generally claimed that glyphosate kills undesired plants by affecting the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme, disturbing the shikimate pathway. However, the mechanisms leading to plant death may also be related to secondary or indirect effects of glyphosate on plant physiology. Moreover, some plants can metabolize glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) or be exposed to AMPA from different environmental matrices. AMPA is a recognized phytotoxin, and its co-occurrence with glyphosate could modify the effects of glyphosate on plant physiology. The present review provides an overall picture of alterations of plant physiology caused by environmental exposure to glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA, and summarizes their effects on several physiological processes. It particularly focuses on photosynthesis, from photochemical events to C assimilation and translocation, as well as oxidative stress. The effects of glyphosate and AMPA on several plant physiological processes have been linked, with the aim of better understanding their phytotoxicity and glyphosate herbicidal effects.

  11. Accurate manufacturing and production of optoelectronic parts and modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Tapio; Karioja, Pentti; Keraenen, Kimmo; Kopola, Harri K.; Malinen, Jouko; Ollila, Jyrki

    1998-12-01

    The trends in optoelectronic products are towards higher integration level of optics, electronics and mechanics. It means smaller dimensions and tighter packaging density. The precisions in component manufacturing and accuracies in module assemblings typically are in 10 to 50 micrometer range. Due to demands of the production in series of tens of thousands it means new type of know-how in production and assembling technologies.

  12. Real Time Part Input Control of a Pull Production System by Finding IF-THEN Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Rizauddin; Yamamoto, Hidehiko; Abu Qudeiri, Jaber

    This paper considers the part input problem of a production system where two Flexible Transfer Lines (FTLs) consisting of an up-stream production line and a down-stream production line while operating under Just In Time (JIT) production management. The up-stream production line processes the raw material after receiving them from suppliers, and after processing them, delivers the processed product to a down-stream production line via a conveyer. In this paper, we have proposed a novel idea for a part input real time control system, known as Algorithm for Real Time Control of Part Input Systems (ARTCOPS). The algorithm is useful when FTLs are in operation under a production order that is different from the pre-decided production schedule. Simulations of virtual production systems have been carried out to verify that ARTCOPS is useful in real time control, although the production orders are different from the pre-decided production scheduling.

  13. Eco-physiology, mass production and larvaebreeding potentialities of the fresh water rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awaïss, A.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available In veterinary medicine of african tradition in Kivu and Kibali-lturi (Zaire, we have identified 32 medicinal plants used alone or in association at the time of verminosis, diarrhea, coprostasis and meteorism. The parts of the plant intervene in the following proportions : leaves (59 %, fruits and seeds (12 %, whole plant (12 %, stems barks (9 %, roots, rhizoms and tubers (5 %, roots'barks (3 %. After maceration (51 % of cases, decoction (25 % or without modification (20 %, the way of administration is oral in 90 % of cases and anal in 10 % of cases. Our data led us to suggest that plants previously submitted to a pharmacological screening could be introduced and maintained by management technics of paturages before pharmacotechnical studies or industrial production of medicaments.

  14. Part 2 of a 4-part series Hair Products: Trends and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Bhinder, Manpreet

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of hair products. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain was copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other common preservatives and sunblocks) were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other preservatives and sunblocks) in hair products is reported. Conclusion: Data on allergens and alternatives for hair products is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in hair products, including shampoos, conditioners, and styling products. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:21779419

  15. B-Plant fission product flowsheets: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, G.

    1961-09-29

    The technical bases for Phase I of the Fission Product Program have previously been presented for Phase I design. This report represents its sequel for Phase II of the program. Phase I provides the means of segregating, concentrating, and aging crude fission product fractions with market value. Phase II is to provide the means for single-line purification and packaging of megacurie quantities of fission products (principally strontium-90). The technical bases for Phase II project scoping studies are presented herein in the form of process flowsheets and tabulated data. Equipment needs are also described. Conceptual processes and flow diagrams for Phase III are presented for the Waste Management Program and the Fission Product Program.

  16. HEAVY METALS IN PRODUCTIVE PARTS OF AGRICULTURAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Árvay

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The contents of heavy metals in plants were not in relation to contents of heavy metals in soil. Increased content of heavy metals in soils was not in consistency with content in plants. Usually content of heavy metals in plants according to our results were lower than their content in soil. Only the over limit contents of copper and cadmium were assessed in grain of barley and oat. The results of heavy metals content showed that dominant part on content of elements in plants have their mobile forms what depends on pH, content of organic matter in soil and portion of clay parts.

  17. [Human physiology: kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  18. MICROALGAE AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO BIOFUELS PRODUCTION. PART 1: BIOETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Priscilla de Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The demand from the energy sector is one of the culminating factors to do researches that enable innovations in the biotechnology sector and to boost biofuel production. The variability of the existing feedstocks provides benefits to energy production, however, we must choose the ones that present plausible characteristics depending on the type of product that we want to obtained. In this context, it is noted that the microalgae have suitable characteristics to producing different types of fuels, depending on the type of treatment are subjected, the species being analyzed as well as the biochemical composition of the biomass. Bioethanol production from microalgae is a promising and growing energy alternative under a view that biomass of these microorganisms has an enormous biodiversity and contain high levels of carbohydrates, an indispensable factor for the bioconversion of microalgae in ethanol. Due to these factors, there is a constant search for more viable methods for pretreatment of biomass, hydrolysis and fermentation, having as one of the major aspects the approach of effectives methodologies in the ambit of quality and yield of ethanol. Therefore, we have to search to increase the interest in the developing of biofuels reconciling with the importance of using microalgae, analyzing whether these micro-organisms are capable of being used in bioethanol production.

  19. Putative nanobacteria represent physiological remnants and culture by-products of normal calcium homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Young

    structures described earlier as NB may thus represent remnants and by-products of physiological mechanisms used for calcium homeostasis, a concept which explains the vast body of NB literature as well as explains the true origin of NB as lifeless protein-mineralo entities with questionable role in pathogenesis.

  20. Putative nanobacteria represent physiological remnants and culture by-products of normal calcium homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John D; Martel, Jan; Young, Lena; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Young, Andrew; Young, David

    2009-01-01

    earlier as NB may thus represent remnants and by-products of physiological mechanisms used for calcium homeostasis, a concept which explains the vast body of NB literature as well as explains the true origin of NB as lifeless protein-mineralo entities with questionable role in pathogenesis.

  1. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part One: Practices and Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

    Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the first of four topic areas: principles and practice of machine shop. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment,…

  2. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Three: The Engine Lathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

    Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the third of four topic areas: the engine lathe. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish…

  3. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Four: The Milling Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

    Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the fourth of four topic areas: the milling machine. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish…

  4. By-products from ethanol production - the forgotten part of the equation. Possibilities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinsted Jensen, H.; Bjoernsson, A.H.; Lind, K.M.

    2013-06-15

    , the amount of agricultural land required to grow traditional feed crops is reduced. Several studies attempt to estimate the effect of land reduction due to using DDGS as feed. The estimates vary considerably dependent upon the assumptions and models used. Summing up, the studies on land use effects of bioethanol production show albeit with variations that the land required for bioethanol production is substantially reduced by the feed effect of the byproduct DDGS. The impact estimates of bioethanol production on other parts of the economy depend, however, upon the assumptions and models applied. When one hectare used in bioethanol production result in by-products corresponding to an area of less than one hectare of feed crops, a comprehensive model estimating the effects of land price changes is needed. The lower the direct land use effect of the feed value of DDGS is, the higher is the impact upon the rest of the economy including land and food prices. The introduction of DDGS into the market for feed adds about 25 % to the revenue of a bioethanol plant, which contributes to make investments in this type of energy production more profitable and could thereby help promote greater energy self-sufficiency. Farmers using DDGS in their feed diets appear to have lower costs relative to traditional feed diets at current prices. These cost savings are based on estimates of how much soy bean meal and cereal DDGS replaces (substitution rates). However, substitution rate estimates vary considerably in the literature. (LN)

  5. Effects of high fiber intake during late pregnancy on sow physiology, colostrum production, and piglet performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

    2013-11-01

    Dietary fiber given during pregnancy may influence sow endocrinology and increase piglet BW gain during early lactation. The aim of the current study was to determine whether dietary fiber given to sows during late pregnancy induces endocrine changes that could modulate sow colostrum production and, thus, piglet performance. From d 106 of pregnancy until parturition, 29 Landrace×Large White nulliparous sows were fed gestation diets containing 23.4 [high fiber (HF); n=15] or 13.3% total dietary fiber [low fiber (LF); n=14]. In the HF diet, wheat and barley were partly replaced by soybean hulls, wheat bran, sunflower meal (undecorticated), and sugar beet pulp. After parturition, sows were fed a standard lactation diet. Colostrum production was estimated during 24 h, starting at the onset of parturition (T0) and ending at 24 h after parturition (T24) based on piglet weight gains. Jugular blood samples were collected from sows on d 101 of pregnancy, daily from d 111 of gestation to d 3 of lactation, and then on d 7 and 21 of lactation (d 0 being the day of parturition). Postprandial kinetics of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were determined on d 112 of pregnancy. The feeding treatment did not influence sow colostrum yield (3.9±0.2 kg) or piglet weight gain during the first day postpartum to d 21 of lactation. Colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets (fiber in late pregnancy affected sow colostrum composition but not colostrum yield, increased colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets, and decreased preweaning mortality, but these effects were not related to changes in peripartum concentrations of the main hormones involved in lactogenesis.

  6. Study of multiparticle production by gluon dominance model (Part II)

    CERN Document Server

    Ermolov, P F; Kuraev, E A; Kutov, A V; Nikitin, V A; Pankov, A A; Roufanov, I A; Zhidkov, N K

    2005-01-01

    The gluon dominance model presents a description of multiparticle production in proton-proton collisions and proton-antiproton annihilation. The collective behavior of secondary particles in $pp$-interactions at 70 GeV/c and higher is studied in the project {\\bf "Thermalization"}. The obtained neutral and charged multiplicity distribution parameters explain some RHIC-data. The gluon dominance model is modified by the inclusion of intermediate quark topology for the multiplicity distribution description in the pure $p\\bar p$-annihilation at few tens GeV/c and explains behavior of the second correlative moment. This article proposes a mechanism of the soft photon production as a sign of hadronization. Excess of soft photons allows one to estimate the emission region size.

  7. Automobile sheet metal part production with incremental sheet forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail DURGUN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, effect of global warming is increasing drastically so it leads to increased interest on energy efficiency and sustainable production methods. As a result of adverse conditions, national and international project platforms, OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers, SMEs (Small and Mid-size Manufacturers perform many studies or improve existing methodologies in scope of advanced manufacturing techniques. In this study, advanced manufacturing and sustainable production method "Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISF" was used for sheet metal forming process. A vehicle fender was manufactured with or without die by using different toolpath strategies and die sets. At the end of the study, Results have been investigated under the influence of method and parameters used.Keywords: Template incremental sheet metal, Metal forming

  8. HEAVY METALS IN PRODUCTIVE PARTS OF AGRICULTURAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Július Árvay; Ján Tomáš; Tomáš Tóth

    2012-01-01

    The contents of heavy metals in plants were not in relation to contents of heavy metals in soil. Increased content of heavy metals in soils was not in consistency with content in plants. Usually content of heavy metals in plants according to our results were lower than their content in soil. Only the over limit contents of copper and cadmium were assessed in grain of barley and oat. The results of heavy metals content showed that dominant part on content of elements in plants have their mobil...

  9. Activities and effects of ergot alkaloids on livestock physiology and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids can have a broad impact on many different physiological mechanisms that can alter the homeostasis of livestock exposed to these toxins through consumption of infested feedstuffs. This altered homeostasis causes an increased sensitivity in livestock to perturbations in the ambient env...

  10. Use of physiological information and process optimisation enhances production of extracellular nuclease by a marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarajan, Nithyalakshmy; Ward, Alan C; Burgess, J Grant; Glassey, Jarka

    2013-02-01

    The extracellular nuclease, NucB, from Bacillus licheniformis, can digest extracellular DNA in biofilms, causing biofilm dispersal, and may therefore be used commercially to remove biofilms. However, producing quantities of this secreted peptide is difficult and our aim was therefore to improve its laboratory scale production. This study builds on our understanding of B. licheniformis physiology to enhance NucB production. The addition of manganese, which triggers sporulation and enhances NucB expression, lead to a 5-fold increase in NucB production. Optimisation via Placket-Burman design of experiments identified 3 significant medium components and a subsequent Central Composite Design, to determine the optimum levels of these components, resulted in a 10-fold increase to 471U/ml. The optimal phosphate concentration was less than 0.3mM as this is known to inhibit nuclease production. The use of physiologically relevant information combined with optimisation represents a promising approach to increased enzyme production, which may also be widely applicable.

  11. Future electricity production methods. Part 1: Nuclear energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifenecker, Hervé

    2011-02-01

    The global warming challenge aims at stabilizing the concentrations of Green House Gas (GHG) in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is the most effective of the anthropogenic GHG and is essentially produced by consumption of fossil fuels. Electricity production is the dominant cause of CO2 emissions. It is, therefore, crucial that the share of 'carbon less' electricity production techniques increases at a fast pace. This is the more so, that 'clean' electricity would be useful to displace 'dirty' techniques in other fields such as heat production and transportation. Here we examine the extent to which nuclear energy could be operational in providing 'clean' electricity. A nuclear intensive scenario is shown to give the possibility to divide CO2 emissions by a factor of 2 worldwide, within 50 years. However, the corresponding sharp increase in nuclear power will put a heavy burden on uranium reserves and will necessitate the development of breeding reactors as soon as possible. A review of present and future reactors is given with special attention to the safety issues. The delicate question of nuclear fuel cycle is discussed concerning uranium reserves and management of used fuels. It is shown that dealing with nuclear wastes is more a socio-political problem than a technical one. The third difficult question associated with the development of nuclear energy is the proliferation risk. It is advocated that, while this is, indeed, a very important question, it is only weakly related to nuclear power development. Finally, the possibilities of nuclear fusion are discussed and it is asserted that, under no circumstances, could nuclear fusion give a significant contribution to the solution of the energy problem before 50 years, too late for dealing with the global warming challenge.

  12. Supercritical Production of Nanoparticles - Part I: The SSEC Process - Part II: Characterization of Nanopartic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    is the most broadly applied wet chemical process and it can be used for the production of nanosized materials in the formof particles or coatings for a wide range of materials. However, conventional sol-gel techniques have a number of drawbacks. The process maintains long reaction times and requires post......-gel process which takes place in the proximity of a seeding material in a supercritical environment. The seeding material is introduced to enable the production and collection of nanosized crystalline particles. This material acts as a seed or a catalyst as well as a reservoir for collecting the formed...... detected and a latent period continues until a sudden change in the system is observed. A rapid precipitation of nanocrystalline materials then occurs. After the rapid precipitation period, a slow growth period starts. The simultaneous WAXS and SAXS showed that the SSEC process was indeed...

  13. 76 FR 34271 - Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit...

  14. Physiology of Geobacter metallireducens under excess and limitation of electron donors. Part II. Mimicking environmental conditions during cultivation in retentostats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozava, Sviatlana; Röling, Wilfred F M; Seifert, Jana; Küffner, Robert; von Bergen, Martin; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2014-06-01

    The strict anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens was cultivated in retentostats under acetate and acetate plus benzoate limitation in the presence of Fe(III) citrate in order to investigate its physiology under close to natural conditions. Growth rates below 0.003h(-1) were achieved in the course of cultivation. A nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach (nano-LC-MS/MS) with subsequent label-free quantification was performed on proteins extracted from cells sampled at different time points during retentostat cultivation. Proteins detected at low (0.002h(-1)) and high (0.06h(-1)) growth rates were compared between corresponding growth conditions (acetate or acetate plus benzoate). Carbon limitation significantly increased the abundances of several catabolic proteins involved in the degradation of substrates not present in the medium (ethanol, butyrate, fatty acids, and aromatic compounds). Growth rate-specific physiology was reflected in the changed abundances of energy-, chemotaxis-, oxidative stress-, and transport-related proteins. Mimicking natural conditions by extremely slow bacterial growth allowed to show how G. metallireducens optimized its physiology in order to survive in its natural habitats, since it was prepared to consume several carbon sources simultaneously and to withstand various environmental stresses.

  15. Micromechanical study of corrosion products layers. Part I: Experimental characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoux, A., E-mail: dehoux@lmt.ens-cachan.fr [UPMC Univ., Paris 06, LMT-Cachan (ENS Cachan/UMR8535/UPMC) (France); Andra, Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets RadioActifs, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, parc de la croix blanche, 92298 Chatenay Malabry Cedex (France); Bouchelaghem, F.; Berthaud, Y. [UPMC Univ., Paris 06, LMT-Cachan (ENS Cachan/UMR8535/UPMC) (France); Neff, D. [SIS2M/LAPA-Laboratoire Pierre Suee, UMR 9956 CNRS, CEA, Bt. 637, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France); L' Hostis, V. [DEN, DANS, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d' Etude du Comportement des Betons et des Argiles, F-91191 Gif/Yvette (France)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanical characterization of oxide formed on ancient ferrous artefacts has been performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main phases present are goethite, magnetite and maghemite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Typical ranges of the local mechanical properties can be related with the main phases present. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Young moduli at the micrometric scale vary between 50 and 200 GPa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Time dependent effects are negligible. - Abstract: A micromechanical characterization had been performed on ancient artefacts corrosion products. The proposed experimental approach allies scanning electron microscopy observations, micro-indentation tests which allow the characterization of the local stiffness of elementary constituents, and finally Raman micro-spectroscopy tests which give access to the local crystallised phases of the samples. The experimental campaign contains a large series of tests, which give us the opportunity to interpret the dispersion of local stiffness measurements.

  16. A Novel Method for Assessing Drug Degradation Product Safety Using Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models and Stochastic Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa Q; Stamatis, Stephen D; Kirsch, Lee E

    2015-09-01

    Patient safety risk due to toxic degradation products is a potentially critical quality issue for a small group of useful drug substances. Although the pharmacokinetics of toxic drug degradation products may impact product safety, these data are frequently unavailable. The objective of this study is to incorporate the prediction capability of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models into a rational drug degradation product risk assessment procedure using a series of model drug degradants (substituted anilines). The PBPK models were parameterized using a combination of experimental and literature data and computational methods. The impact of model parameter uncertainty was incorporated into stochastic risk assessment procedure for estimating human safe exposure levels based on the novel use of a statistical metric called "PROB" for comparing probability that a human toxicity-target tissue exposure exceeds the rat exposure level at a critical no-observed-adverse-effect level. When compared with traditional risk assessment calculations, this novel PBPK approach appeared to provide a rational basis for drug instability risk assessment by focusing on target tissue exposure and leveraging physiological, biochemical, biophysical knowledge of compounds and species.

  17. Effect of low light and high noise on behavioural activity, physiological indicators of stress and production in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'connor, E A; Parker, M O; Davey, E L; Grist, H; Owen, R C; Szladovits, B; Demmers, T G M; Wathes, C M; Abeyesinghe, S M

    2011-12-01

    1. Commercial laying hens are commonly housed in noisy and dim environments, yet relatively little is known about whether these conditions, particularly in combination, have any effect on welfare or egg production. 2. The study was designed to investigate whether chronic exposure to continuous noise (60 dB(A) vs. 80 dB(A)) and/or light intensity (150 lux vs. 5 lux) during the critical period of coming into lay (16-24 weeks of age) influenced behaviour (activity, resting and feather maintenance), physiological stress (plasma corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio) and production (number and weight of eggs laid) in laying hens. 3. Hens in the low light pens were less active and preened and dust-bathed more than those housed in 150 lux; hens in the high noise pens rested more frequently than those in quieter pens. 4. There was no evidence that chronic exposure to low light or high noise caused appreciable physiological stress but egg production was affected by these conditions. Hens kept in pens with low light or high noise laid fewer eggs per day than those kept in high light or low noise pens. These effects were additive, so that the fewest eggs were laid by hens subject to both low light and high noise. 5. These results show that low light intensity and continual high background noise have a detrimental effect on egg production in the early laying phase as well as influencing the time allocated to different behaviours. However there was no strong evidence for a physiological stress response to either of these conditions or their combination.

  18. In vitro dissolution of proton-pump inhibitor products intended for paediatric and geriatric use in physiological bicarbonate buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Shokrollahi, Honaz

    2015-05-15

    Proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) products based on enteric coated multiparticulates are design to meet the needs of patients who cannot swallow tablets such as children and older adults. Enteric coated PPI preparations exhibit delays in in vivo absorption and onset of antisecretory effects, which is not reflected by the rapid in vitro dissolution in compendial pH 6.8 phosphate buffer commonly used for assessment of these products. A more representative and physiological medium, pH 6.8 mHanks bicarbonate buffer, was used in this study to evaluate the in vitro dissolution of enteric coated multiparticulate-based PPI products. Commercially available omeprazole, lansoprazole and esomeprazole products were subject to dissolution tests using USP-II apparatus in pH 4.5 phosphate buffer saline for 45 min (acid stage) followed by pH 6.8 phosphate buffer or pH 6.8 mHanks bicarbonate buffer. In pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, all nine tested products displayed rapid and comparable dissolution profiles meeting the pharmacopeia requirements for delayed release preparations. In pH 6.8 mHanks buffer, drug release was delayed and failed the pharmacopeia requirements from most enteric coated preparations. Despite that the same enteric polymer, methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate copolymer (1:1), was applied to all commercial multiparticulate-based products, marked differences were observed between dissolution profiles of these preparations. The use of pH 6.8 physiological bicarbonate (mHanks) buffer can serve as a useful tool to provide realistic and discriminative in vitro release assessment of enteric coated PPI preparations and to assist rational formulation development of these products.

  19. Regional Oil Extraction and Consumption: A simple production model for the next 35 years Part I

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmar, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The growing conflicts in and about oil exporting regions and speculations about volatile oil prices during the last decade have renewed the public interest in predictions for the near future oil production and consumption. Unfortunately, studies from only 10 years ago, which tried to forecast the oil production during the next 20-30 years, failed to make accurate predictions for today's global oil production and consumption. Forecasts using economic growth scenarios, overestimated the actual oil production, while models which tried to estimate the maximum future oil production/year, using the official country oil reserve data, predicted a too low production. In this paper, a new approach to model the maximal future regional and thus global oil production (part I) and consumption (part II) during the next decades is proposed. Our analysis of the regional oil production data during past decades shows that, in contrast to periods when production was growing and growth rates varied greatly from one country to ano...

  20. Shape Memory Alloys (Part II: Classification, Production and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ivanic

    2014-09-01

    breakdown at low stress levels. The technologies for production of shape memory alloys are induction melting, vacuum melting, vacuum arc melting, following hot and cold working (forging, rolling, wire drawing. In addition, rapid solidification methods, like melt spinning and continuous casting have been developed. These methods are characterized by high cooling rates. High cooling rates allow very short time for diffusion processes and may lead to extremely fine microstructure, better homogeneity etc. SMAs have found applications in many areas due to their thermomechanical and thermoelectrical properties (biomedical applications, engineering industry, electrical industry. In this paper, a review of shape memory alloys, properties and applications of mentioned materials is presented.

  1. Mitochondrial Physiology in the Major Arbovirus Vector Aedes aegypti: Substrate Preferences and Sexual Differences Define Respiratory Capacity and Superoxide Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Juliana B. R. Correa; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F.

    2015-01-01

    Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step

  2. Mitochondrial physiology in the major arbovirus vector Aedes aegypti: substrate preferences and sexual differences define respiratory capacity and superoxide production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana B R Correa Soares

    Full Text Available Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data

  3. Mitochondrial physiology in the major arbovirus vector Aedes aegypti: substrate preferences and sexual differences define respiratory capacity and superoxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Juliana B R Correa; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F

    2015-01-01

    Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step

  4. The exchangeable yeast ribosomal acidic protein YP2beta shows characteristics of a partly folded state under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurdo, J; Sanz, J M; González, C; Rico, M; Ballesta, J P

    1997-08-05

    The eukaryotic acidic ribosomal P proteins, contrary to the standard r-proteins which are rapidly degraded in the cytoplasm, are found forming a large cytoplasmic pool that exchanges with the ribosome-bound proteins during translation. The native structure of the P proteins in solution is therefore an essential determinant of the protein-protein interactions that take place in the exchange process. In this work, the structure of the ribosomal acidic protein YP2beta from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and sedimentation equilibrium techniques. We have established the fact that YP2beta bears a 22% alpha-helical secondary structure and a noncompact tertiary structure under physiological conditions (pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C); the hydrophobic core of the protein appears to be solvent-exposed, and very low cooperativity is observed for heat- or urea-induced denaturation. Moreover, the 1H-NMR spectra show a small signal dispersion, and virtually all the amide protons exchange with the solvent on a very short time scale, which is characteristic of an open structure. At low pH, YP2beta maintains its secondary structure content, but there is no evidence for tertiary structure. 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol (TFE) induces a higher amount of alpha-helical structure but also disrupts any trace of the remaining tertiary fold. These results indicate that YP2beta may have a flexible structure in the cytoplasmic pool, with some of the characteristics of a "molten globule", and also point out the physiological relevance of such flexible protein states in processes other than protein folding.

  5. Interplay between product characteristics, oral physiology and texture perception of cellular brittle foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.; Primo Martin, C.

    2011-01-01

    Hard solid foods encompass a large variety of dry products as well as products with high water content. Most of these foods have a cellular structure, which is generally characterized by connected fairly rigid cell walls, enclosing a fluid material that may be liquid-like (fruit and vegetables) or a

  6. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the growth, physiology and cannabinoid production of Cannabis sativa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydon, J.

    1986-01-01

    The concentration of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. is correlated with high ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation environments. ..delta../sup 9/-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiolic acid, both major secondary products of C. sativa, absorb UV-B radiation and may function as solar screens. The object of this study was to test the effects of UV-B radiation on the physiology and cannabinoid production of C. sativa. Drug and fiber-type C. sativa were irradiated with three levels of UV-B radiation for 40 days in greenhouse experiments. Physiological measurements on leaf tissues were made by infra-red gas analysis. Drug and fiber-type control plants had similar CO/sub 2/ assimilation rates from 26 to 32/sup 0/C. Drug-type control plant had higher dark respiration rates and stomatal conductances than fiber-type control plants. The concentration of ..delta../sup 9/-THC, but not of other cannabinoids) in both vegetative and reproductive tissues increased with UV-B dose in drug-type plants. None of the cannabinoids in fiber-type plants were affected by UV-B radiation. The increased level of ..delta../sup 9/-THC found in leaves after irradiation may account for the physiological and morphological insensitivity to UV-B radiation in the drug-type plants. However, fiber plants showed no comparable change in the level of cannabidoil (CBD). Resin stripped form fresh fiber-type floral tissue by sonication was spotted on filter paper and irradiated continuously for 7 days. Cannabidiol (CBD) gradually decreased when irradiated but ..delta../sup 9/-THC and cannabichromene did not.

  7. Physiological tolerance and stoichiometric potential of cyanobacteria for hydrocarbon fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämäräinen, Jari; Knoop, Henning; Stanford, Natalie J; Guerrero, Fernando; Akhtar, M Kalim; Aro, Eva-Mari; Steuer, Ralf; Jones, Patrik R

    2012-11-30

    Cyanobacteria are capable of directly converting sunlight, carbon dioxide and water into hydrocarbon fuel or precursors thereof. Many biological and non-biological factors will influence the ability of such a production system to become economically sustainable. We evaluated two factors in engineerable cyanobacteria which could potentially limit economic sustainability: (i) tolerance of the host to the intended end-product, and (ii) stoichiometric potential for production. Alcohols, when externally added, inhibited growth the most, followed by aldehydes and acids, whilst alkanes were the least inhibitory. The growth inhibition became progressively greater with increasing chain-length for alcohols, whilst the intermediate C6 alkane caused more inhibition than both C3 and C11 alkane. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was more tolerant to some of the tested chemicals than Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, particularly ethanol and undecane. Stoichiometric evaluation of the potential yields suggested that there is no difference in the potential productivity of harvestable energy between any of the studied fuels, with the exception of ethylene, for which maximal stoichiometric yield is considerably lower. In summary, it was concluded that alkanes would constitute the best choice metabolic end-product for fuel production using cyanobacteria if high-yielding strains can be developed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Endogenous Production of H2S in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Still in Search of a Physiologic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, David R.; Levitt, Michael D.; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has long been associated with the gastrointestinal tract, especially the bacteria-derived H2S present in flatus. Along with evidence from other organ systems, the finding that gastrointestinal tissues are capable of endogenous production of H2S has led to the hypothesis that H2S is an endogenous gaseous signaling molecule. In this review, the criteria of gasotransmitters are reexamined, and evidence from the literature regarding H2S as a gaseous signaling molecule is discussed. H2S is produced enzymatically by gastrointestinal tissues, but evidence is lacking on whether H2S production is regulated. H2S causes well-defined physiologic effects in gastrointestinal tissues, but evidence for a receptor for H2S is lacking. H2S is inactivated through enzymatic oxidation, but evidence is lacking on whether manipulating H2S oxidation alters endogenous cell signaling. Remaining questions regarding the role of H2S as a gaseous signaling molecule in the gastrointestinal tract suggest that H2S currently remains a molecule in search of a physiologic function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 1135–1146. PMID:19769466

  9. Physiology of Geobacter metallireducens under excess and limitation of electron donors. Part I. Batch cultivation with excess of carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozava, Sviatlana; Röling, Wilfred F M; Seifert, Jana; Küffner, Robert; von Bergen, Martin; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2014-06-01

    For microorganisms that play an important role in bioremediation, the adaptation to swift changes in the availability of various substrates is a key for survival. The iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter metallireducens was hypothesized to repress utilization of less preferred substrates in the presence of high concentrations of easily degradable compounds. In our experiments, acetate and ethanol were preferred over benzoate, but benzoate was co-consumed with toluene and butyrate. To reveal overall physiological changes caused by different single substrates and a mixture of acetate plus benzoate, a nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach (nano-LC-MS/MS) was performed using label-free quantification. Significant differential expression during growth on different substrates was observed for 155 out of 1477 proteins. The benzoyl-CoA pathway was found to be subjected to incomplete repression during exponential growth on acetate in the presence of benzoate and on butyrate as a single substrate. Peripheral pathways of toluene, ethanol, and butyrate degradation were highly expressed only during growth on the corresponding substrates. However, low expression of these pathways was detected in all other tested conditions. Therefore, G. metallireducens seems to lack strong carbon catabolite repression under high substrate concentrations, which might be advantageous for survival in habitats rich in fatty acids and aromatic hydrocarbons.

  10. Bodily ownership modulation in defensive responses: physiological evidence in brain-damaged patients with pathological embodiment of other's body parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossataro, C; Gindri, P; Mezzanato, T; Pia, L; Garbarini, F

    2016-06-13

    Do conscious beliefs about the body affect defensive mechanisms within the body? To answer this question we took advantage from a monothematic delusion of bodily ownership, in which brain-damaged patients misidentify alien limbs as their own. We investigated whether the delusional belief that an alien hand is their own hand modulates a subcortical defensive response, such as the hand-blink reflex. The blink, dramatically increases when the threated hand is inside the defensive peripersonal-space of the face. In our between-subjects design, including patients and controls, the threat was brought near the face either by the own hand or by another person's hand. Our results show an ownership-dependent modulation of the defensive response. In controls, as well as in the patients' intact-side, the response enhancement is significantly greater when the threat was brought near the face by the own than by the alien hand. Crucially, in the patients' affected-side (where the pathological embodiment occurs), the alien (embodied) hand elicited a response enhancement comparable to that found when the threat is brought near the face by the real hand. These findings suggest the existence of a mutual interaction between our conscious beliefs about the body and the physiological mechanisms within the body.

  11. Lean Production Control at a High-Variety, Low-Volume Parts Manufacturer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, Jos A. C.; Slomp, Jannes

    2010-01-01

    Eaton Electric General Supplies, a parts manufacturing unit that supplies parts for Eaton's electrical business unit, implemented several lean control elements in its high-variety, low-volume production units. These control elements include a constant work-in-process mechanism to limit and control

  12. Lean Production Control at a High-Variety, Low-Volume Parts Manufacturer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, Jos A. C.; Slomp, Jannes

    2010-01-01

    Eaton Electric General Supplies, a parts manufacturing unit that supplies parts for Eaton's electrical business unit, implemented several lean control elements in its high-variety, low-volume production units. These control elements include a constant work-in-process mechanism to limit and control t

  13. Physiological and ecological effects of increasing temperature on fish production in lakes of Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michael P.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2014-01-01

    Lake ecosystems in the Arctic are changing rapidly due to climate warming. Lakes are sensitive integrators of climate-induced changes and prominent features across the Arctic landscape, especially in lowland permafrost regions such as the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Despite many studies on the implications of climate warming, how fish populations will respond to lake changes is uncertain for Arctic ecosystems. Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella) is a bellwether for Arctic lakes as an important consumer and prey resource. To explore the consequences of climate warming, we used a bioenergetics model to simulate changes in Least Cisco production under future climate scenarios for lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain. First, we used current temperatures to fit Least Cisco consumption to observed annual growth. We then estimated growth, holding food availability, and then feeding rate constant, for future projections of temperature. Projected warmer water temperatures resulted in reduced Least Cisco production, especially for larger size classes, when food availability was held constant. While holding feeding rate constant, production of Least Cisco increased under all future scenarios with progressively more growth in warmer temperatures. Higher variability occurred with longer projections of time mirroring the expanding uncertainty in climate predictions further into the future. In addition to direct temperature effects on Least Cisco growth, we also considered changes in lake ice phenology and prey resources for Least Cisco. A shorter period of ice cover resulted in increased production, similar to warming temperatures. Altering prey quality had a larger effect on fish production in summer than winter and increased relative growth of younger rather than older age classes of Least Cisco. Overall, we predicted increased production of Least Cisco due to climate warming in lakes of Arctic Alaska. Understanding the implications of increased production of Least Cisco to

  14. The Mechanism of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin Production in Prorocentrum spp.: Physiological and Molecular Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Chun-Hung Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP is a gastrointestinal disorder caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with okadaic acid (OA and dinophysistoxins (DTXs. OA and DTXs are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases 2A, 1B, and 2B, which may promote cancer in the human digestive system. Their expression in dinoflagellates is strongly affected by nutritional and environmental factors. Studies have indicated that the level of these biotoxins is inversely associated with the growth of dinoflagellates at low concentrations of nitrogen or phosphorus, or at extreme temperature. However, the presence of leucine or glycerophosphate enhances both growth and cellular toxin level. Moreover, the presence of ammonia and incubation in continuous darkness do not favor the toxin production. Currently, studies on the mechanism of this biotoxin production are scant. Full genome sequencing of dinoflagellates is challenging because of the massive genomic size; however, current advanced molecular and omics technologies may provide valuable insight into the biotoxin production mechanism and novel research perspectives on microalgae. This review presents a comprehensive analysis on the effects of various nutritional and physical factors on the OA and DTX production in the DSP toxin-producing Prorocentrum spp. Moreover, the applications of the current molecular technologies in the study on the mechanism of DSP toxin production are discussed.

  15. Effect of controlled oxygen limitation on Candida shehatae physiology for ethanol production from xylose and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromanger, Romain; Guillouet, S E; Uribelarrea, J L; Molina-Jouve, C; Cameleyre, X

    2010-05-01

    Carbon distribution and kinetics of Candida shehatae were studied in fed-batch fermentation with xylose or glucose (separately) as the carbon source in mineral medium. The fermentations were carried out in two phases, an aerobic phase dedicated to growth followed by an oxygen limitation phase dedicated to ethanol production. Oxygen limitation was quantified with an average specific oxygen uptake rate (OUR) varying between 0.30 and 2.48 mmolO(2) g dry cell weight (DCW)(-1) h(-1), the maximum value before the aerobic shift. The relations among respiration, growth, ethanol production and polyol production were investigated. It appeared that ethanol was produced to provide energy, and polyols (arabitol, ribitol, glycerol and xylitol) were produced to reoxidize NADH from assimilatory reactions and from the co-factor imbalance of the two-first enzymatic steps of xylose uptake. Hence, to manage carbon flux to ethanol production, oxygen limitation was a major controlled parameter; an oxygen limitation corresponding to an average specific OUR of 1.19 mmolO(2) g DCW(-1) h(-1) allowed maximization of the ethanol yield over xylose (0.327 g g(-1)), the average productivity (2.2 g l(-1) h(-1)) and the ethanol final titer (48.81 g l(-1)). For glucose fermentation, the ethanol yield over glucose was the highest (0.411 g g(-1)) when the specific OUR was low, corresponding to an average specific OUR of 0.30 mmolO(2) g DCW(-1) h(-1), whereas the average ethanol productivity and ethanol final titer reached the maximum values of 1.81 g l(-1) h(-1) and 54.19 g l(-1) when the specific OUR was the highest.

  16. Physiological Impact of Abnormal Lipoxin A4 Production on Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelium and Therapeutic Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Gerard; McNally, Paul; Urbach, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Lipoxin A4 has been described as a major signal for the resolution of inflammation and is abnormally produced in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). In CF, the loss of chloride transport caused by the mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel gene results in dehydration, mucus plugging, and reduction of the airway surface liquid layer (ASL) height which favour chronic lung infection and neutrophil based inflammation leading to progressive lung destruction and early death of people with CF. This review highlights the unique ability of LXA4 to restore airway surface hydration, to stimulate airway epithelial repair, and to antagonise the proinflammatory program of the CF airway, circumventing some of the most difficult aspects of CF pathophysiology. The report points out novel aspects of the cellular mechanism involved in the physiological response to LXA4, including release of ATP from airway epithelial cell via pannexin channel and subsequent activation of and P2Y11 purinoreceptor. Therefore, inadequate endogenous LXA4 biosynthesis reported in CF exacerbates the ion transport abnormality and defective mucociliary clearance, in addition to impairing the resolution of inflammation, thus amplifying the vicious circle of airway dehydration, chronic infection, and inflammation. PMID:25866809

  17. Physiological impact of abnormal lipoxin A₄ production on cystic fibrosis airway epithelium and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Gerard; Ringholz, Fiona; Buchanan, Paul; McNally, Paul; Urbach, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Lipoxin A4 has been described as a major signal for the resolution of inflammation and is abnormally produced in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). In CF, the loss of chloride transport caused by the mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel gene results in dehydration, mucus plugging, and reduction of the airway surface liquid layer (ASL) height which favour chronic lung infection and neutrophil based inflammation leading to progressive lung destruction and early death of people with CF. This review highlights the unique ability of LXA4 to restore airway surface hydration, to stimulate airway epithelial repair, and to antagonise the proinflammatory program of the CF airway, circumventing some of the most difficult aspects of CF pathophysiology. The report points out novel aspects of the cellular mechanism involved in the physiological response to LXA4, including release of ATP from airway epithelial cell via pannexin channel and subsequent activation of and P2Y11 purinoreceptor. Therefore, inadequate endogenous LXA4 biosynthesis reported in CF exacerbates the ion transport abnormality and defective mucociliary clearance, in addition to impairing the resolution of inflammation, thus amplifying the vicious circle of airway dehydration, chronic infection, and inflammation.

  18. Muscle sympathetic nerve responses to physiological changes in prostaglandin production in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerzbacher, K. J.; Ray, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that prostaglandins may contribute to exercise-induced increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). To test this hypothesis, MSNA was measured at rest and during exercise before and after oral administration of ketoprofen, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, or placebo. Twenty-one subjects completed two bouts of graded dynamic and isometric handgrip to fatigue. Each exercise bout was followed by 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia. The second exercise bouts were performed after 60 min of rest in which 11 subjects were given ketoprofen (300 mg) and 10 subjects received a placebo. Ketoprofen significantly lowered plasma thromboxane B(2) in the drug group (from 36 +/- 6 to 22 +/- 3 pg/ml, P muscle ischemia. There was no relationship between thromboxane B(2) concentrations and MSNA or arterial pressure responses during both exercise modes. The data indicate that physiological increases or decreases in prostaglandins do not alter exercise-induced increases in MSNA and arterial pressure in humans. These findings suggest that contraction-induced metabolites other than prostaglandins mediate MSNA responses to exercise in humans.

  19. Study of physiological properties of Kluyveromyces fragilis: consequences on the production of SCP from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulin, G.; Malige, B.; Galzy, P.

    The production of single cell proteins (SCP) from whey, is performed with continuous culture of Kluyveromyces fragilis. This strain, does not show any crabtree effect, but the Pasteur effect is very strong; the fermentative activity is never absent even when strong aeration is present. So in all cases, alcohol is present in the medium. This observation can explain why the yield in an industrial production with an appropriate mixture culture is always higher than the yield in pure culture of Kluyveromyces fragilis. (Refs. 10).

  20. Market projections of cellulose nanomaterial-enabled products- Part 1: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo Anne Shatkin; Theodore H. Wegner; E.M. (Ted) Bilek; John Cowie

    2014-01-01

    Nanocellulose provides a new materials platform for the sustainable production of high-performance nano-enabled products in an array of applications. In this paper, potential applications for cellulose nanomaterials are identified as the first step toward estimating market volume. The overall study, presented in two parts, estimates market volume on the basis of...

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710 Petroleum...

  2. Physiology of forage maize (Zea mays L.) in relation to its production and quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes and discusses the quantitative effects of changes in temperature, light intensity and photoperiod on the development, dry-matter production, dry-matter distribution, digestibility and dry-matter content of forage maize. Cultivation techniques and hybrid choice are also

  3. Yeast physiology and flavour formation during production of alchol-free beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, van M.F.M.

    1999-01-01

    Production of alcohol-free beer is performed with immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. uvarum . In the reactor, combined stress factors such as low temperature (0-4°C) and anaerobic conditions limit cell metabolism.Cells of S. cerevisiae are able to grow as low as -2°C. Although sugar

  4. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.; Niu, S.; Ciais, P.; Janssens, I.A.; Chen, J.; Ammann, C.; Arain, A.; Blanken, P.D.; Cescatti, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of biot

  5. Encounters with oxygen: Aerobic physiology and H₂O₂ production of Lactobacillus johnsonii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertzberger, R.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are intimately entwined with human life. They ferment several key food products in our diets and they reside on the mucosal surfaces of the mouth, intestine and vagina. Administration of adequate amounts of certain LAB species has been shown to provide health benefits, suc

  6. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.; Niu, S.; Ciais, P.; Janssens, I.A.; Chen, J.; Ammann, C.; Arain, A.; Blanken, P.D.; Cescatti, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of

  7. Physiological Requirements for the Production of the Biopolymer Elsinan by Species of Elsinoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    fawettii Jenkins (ATCC 36954 and ATOC 38162), E. tilie Creelman (AIM 24510) were chosen for further study, based on product yield and MW, when ccmpared...Elsinoe tiliae Creelman AIC 24510 *Cultures are available from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 12301 Parklawn Drive, Rockville, MD 20852

  8. Physiological and behavioral effects of chemoreceptors located in different body parts of the swimming crab Callinectes danae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggio, Juan F; de Freitas, José C

    2007-04-01

    By perfusing their branchial chambers with filtered seawater, we have developed a preparation that allows us to maintain the swimming crab Callinectes danae outside water without any major effects on its cardiac activity. This in turn allowed us to selectively stimulate chemoreceptors located in different body parts, and specifically to discriminate between the receptors located in the branchial chambers and those located in the oral region (mainly in the mouthparts, antennules and antennae). We show that a taurine solution can evoke bradycardia when applied to the oral region or to a combination of the oral region and the branchial chambers. Although the precise localization of the oral region receptors involved remains to be determined, ablation experiments show that the olfactory organs (i.e., the antennules) are not involved. Finally, we show that although stimulating the pereiopods has no effect on the animals' cardiac activity it causes the animals to move, putatively to try to grasp a piece of food, a reaction not evoked by stimulating the gills or the oral regions. Our results lend support to the idea that chemoreceptors located in different parts of the body play different functional roles in decapod crustaceans.

  9. The corrosion resistance of Nitinol alloy in simulated physiological solutions Part 2: The effect of surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milosev, Ingrid, E-mail: ingrid.milosev@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department of Physical and Organic Chemistry, Jamova 39, SI-1000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Valdoltra Orthopaedic Hospital, Jadranska c. 31, SI-6280 Ankaran (Slovenia); Kapun, Barbara [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department of Physical and Organic Chemistry, Jamova 39, SI-1000, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-07-01

    The effect of surface treatment - boiling in water and thermal oxidation at temperatures up to 600 Degree-Sign C - on the corrosion behavior of Nitinol was investigated in simulated Hanks physiological solution using electrochemical polarization methods. Morphological and compositional properties of the modified surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling. Surface preparation - grinding or polishing - is shown to have a decisive role in the degree of improvement of corrosion properties by surface treatments. Low temperature treatments like boiling in water and thermal oxidation at 100 Degree-Sign C resulted in the formation of oxide layers only a few nanometers thick, and composed mainly of TiO{sub 2} and a small amount of NiO. These layers are well able to protect the underlying Nitinol substrate. Up to 500 Degree-Sign C, surface preparation directly determines the thickness of the oxide scale, as a 20-fold difference in thickness is observed between ground and polished samples. At higher temperatures, the oxide thickness was similar for the two samples. A multilayer structure is observed at all temperatures investigated. The outermost layer at the oxide/air interface is composed of TiO{sub 2} and NiO, while the interior of the oxide scale is composed exclusively of TiO{sub 2}. Oxide layers formed by thermal oxidation at elevated temperatures also improve the corrosion characteristics of Nitinol, especially for polished substrates. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The corrosion resistance of Nitinol can be improved by thermal treatment - boiling in water and oxidation in air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The degree of improvement of corrosion resistance is dependent on the surface preparation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For ground samples, boiling in water and thermal treatments up to 400 Degree-Sign C are beneficial. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For T < 500

  10. Cumulative neurobehavioral and physiological effects of chronic caffeine intake: individual differences and implications for the use of caffeinated energy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F

    2014-10-01

    The use of caffeine-containing energy products has increased worldwide in recent years. All of the top-selling energy drinks contain caffeine, which is likely to be the primary psychoactive ingredient in these products. Research shows that caffeine-containing energy products can improve cognitive and physical performance. Presumably, individuals consume caffeine-containing energy products to counteract feelings of low energy in situations causing tiredness, fatigue, and/or reduced alertness. This review discusses the scientific evidence for sleep loss, circadian phase, sleep inertia, and the time-on-task effect as causes of low energy and summarizes research assessing the efficacy of caffeine to counteract decreased alertness and increased fatigue in such situations. The results of a placebo-controlled experiment in healthy adults who had 3 nights of total sleep deprivation (with or without 2-hour naps every 12 hours) are presented to illustrate the physiological and neurobehavioral effects of sustained low-dose caffeine. Individual differences, including genetic factors, in the response to caffeine and to sleep loss are discussed. The review concludes with future directions for research on this important and evolving topic.

  11. Physiological effects induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of Violae tricoloris herba (wild pansy aerial parts on Triticum aestivum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Cretu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild pansy (Viola tricolor hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by extraction of powdered dried – flowering aerial parts with ethanol 70% v/v (1:10, by reflux for two hours. This was diluted with distilled water to give the final concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 5% (v/v (VTEx1, VTEx2 and VTEx3. These extracts were tested for their effects on seed germination and seedlings growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum in a laboratory experiment. Distilled water was used as a control (C. After the 10 days of experiment, we evaluated seed germination of wheat and seedlings growth (roots and shoots lengths, their fresh and dry biomass.

  12. Generic development of topical dermatologic products, Part II: quality by design for topical semisolid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Rong-Kun; Raw, Andre; Lionberger, Robert; Yu, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    The emergence of quality by design as a relatively new systematic science and risk-based approach has added a new dimension to pharmaceutical development and manufacturing. This review attempts to discuss the quality by design elements and concepts applied for topical semisolid products. Quality by design begins with defining a quality target product profile as well as critical quality attributes. Subsequently, this is followed by risk identification/risk analysis/risk evaluation to recognize critical material attributes and critical process parameters, in conjunction with design of experiments or other appropriate methods to establish control strategies for the drug product. Several design-of-experiment examples are included as practical strategies for the development and optimization of formulation and process for topical drug products.

  13. Dry period cooling ameliorates physiological variables and blood acid base balance, improving milk production in murrah buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarif, Ovais; Aggarwal, Anjali

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of evaporative cooling during late gestation on physiological responses, blood gas and acid base balance and subsequent milk production of Murrah buffaloes. To investigate this study sixteen healthy pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes (second to fourth parity) at sixty days prepartum were selected in the months of May to June and divided into two groups of eight animals each. One group of buffaloes (Cooled/CL) was managed under fan and mist cooling system during dry period. Group second buffaloes (Noncooled/NCL) remained as control without provision of cooling during dry period. The physiological responses viz. Rectal temperature (RT), Respiratory rate (RR) and Pulse rate were significantly ( P < 0.05) lower in group 2, with the provision of cooling. Skin surface temperature at thorax was significantly lower in cooled group relative to noncooled group. Blood pH and pO2 were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in heat stressed group as compared to the cooled group. pCO2, TCO2, HCO3, SBC, base excess in extracellular fluid (BEecf), base excess in blood (BEb), PCV and Hb were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in cooled group as compared to noncooled group. DMI was significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in cooled relative to noncooled animals. Milk yield, FCM, fat yield, lactose yield and total solid yield was significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in cooled group of Murrah buffaloes.

  14. Dry period cooling ameliorates physiological variables and blood acid base balance, improving milk production in murrah buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarif, Ovais; Aggarwal, Anjali

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of evaporative cooling during late gestation on physiological responses, blood gas and acid base balance and subsequent milk production of Murrah buffaloes. To investigate this study sixteen healthy pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes (second to fourth parity) at sixty days prepartum were selected in the months of May to June and divided into two groups of eight animals each. One group of buffaloes (Cooled/CL) was managed under fan and mist cooling system during dry period. Group second buffaloes (Noncooled/NCL) remained as control without provision of cooling during dry period. The physiological responses viz. Rectal temperature (RT), Respiratory rate (RR) and Pulse rate were significantly (P base excess in extracellular fluid (BEecf), base excess in blood (BEb), PCV and Hb were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cooled group as compared to noncooled group. DMI was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cooled relative to noncooled animals. Milk yield, FCM, fat yield, lactose yield and total solid yield was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in cooled group of Murrah buffaloes.

  15. Generic Development of Topical Dermatologic Products, Part II: Quality by Design for Topical Semisolid Products

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Rong-Kun; Raw, Andre; Lionberger, Robert; Yu, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of quality by design as a relatively new systematic science and risk-based approach has added a new dimension to pharmaceutical development and manufacturing. This review attempts to discuss the quality by design elements and concepts applied for topical semisolid products. Quality by design begins with defining a quality target product profile as well as critical quality attributes. Subsequently, this is followed by risk identification/risk analysis/risk evaluation to recognize...

  16. Sauna, shower, and ice water immersion. Physiological responses to brief exposures to heat, cool, and cold. Part II. Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, K

    1989-04-01

    Nine men were subjected to four temperature exposures: (A) sauna and head-out ice water immersion; (B) sauna and 15 degrees C shower; (C) sauna and room temperature; (D) head-out ice water immersion and room temperature. Exposures were repeated and ended with a 30-minute recovery. Heart rates were recorded continuously and blood pressures were determined six times during each experiment. Rate pressure products and indications of cardiac stroke work were calculated from the data. The results demonstrated decreased total peripheral resistance (TPR) to the blood flow in response to the heat of the sauna (C), with concurrent increase in cardiac oxygen demand and negligible increase in the stroke work. Cold exposures (D) increased the TPR. Cold did not increase the cardiac oxygen demand but increased the stroke work. The alternation of heat and cold (A) or cool (B) presented the most intensive strain on the heart.

  17. Physiological adaptation of the bacterium Lactococcus lactis in response to the production of human CFTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Anton; Wiederhold, Elena; Gandhi, Tejas; Breitling, Rainer; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

    2011-07-01

    Biochemical and biophysical characterization of CFTR (the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) is thwarted by difficulties to obtain sufficient quantities of correctly folded and functional protein. Here we have produced human CFTR in the prokaryotic expression host Lactococcus lactis. The full-length protein was detected in the membrane of the bacterium, but the yields were too low (proteins) for in vitro functional and structural characterization, and induction of the expression of CFTR resulted in growth arrest. We used isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation based quantitative proteomics to find out why production of CFTR in L. lactis was problematic. Protein abundances in membrane and soluble fractions were monitored as a function of induction time, both in CFTR expression cells and in control cells that did not express CFTR. Eight hundred and forty six proteins were identified and quantified (35% of the predicted proteome), including 163 integral membrane proteins. Expression of CFTR resulted in an increase in abundance of stress-related proteins (e.g. heat-shock and cell envelope stress), indicating the presence of misfolded proteins in the membrane. In contrast to the reported consequences of membrane protein overexpression in Escherichia coli, there were no indications that the membrane protein insertion machinery (Sec) became overloaded upon CFTR production in L. lactis. Nutrients and ATP became limiting in the control cells as the culture entered the late exponential and stationary growth phases but this did not happen in the CFTR expressing cells, which had stopped growing upon induction. The different stress responses elicited in E. coli and L. lactis upon membrane protein production indicate that different strategies are needed to overcome low expression yields and toxicity.

  18. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jianyang; Niu, Shuli; Ciais, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    –covariance and satellite-derived data, we decomposed annual terrestrial GPP into the length of the CO2 uptake period (CUP) and the seasonal maximal capacity of CO2 uptake (GPPmax). The product of CUP and GPPmax explained >90% of the temporal GPP variability in most areas of North America during 2000–2010 and the spatial...... GPP variation among globally distributed eddy flux tower sites. It also explained GPP response to the European heatwave in 2003 (r2 = 0.90) and GPP recovery after a fire disturbance in South Dakota (r2 = 0.88). Additional analysis of the eddy–covariance flux data shows that the interbiome variation...

  19. Signaling Pathways Linked to Serotonin-Induced Superoxide Anion Production: A Physiological Role for Mitochondria in Pulmonary Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Nafiisha; Billaud, Marie; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Dubois, Mathilde; Gillibert-Duplantier, Jennifer; Isakson, Brant E.; Marthan, Roger; Savineau, Jean-Pierre; Guibert, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a potent vasoconstrictor agonist and contributes to several vascular diseases including systemic or pulmonary hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although superoxide anion (O2•_) is commonly associated to cellular damages due to O2•_ overproduction, we previously demonstrated that, in physiological conditions, O2•_ also participates to the 5-HT contraction in intrapulmonary arteries (IPA). Here, we focused on the signaling pathways leading to O2•_ production in response to 5-HT in rat IPA. Using electron paramagnetic resonance on rat IPA, we showed that 5-HT (100 μM)-induced O2•_ production was inhibited by ketanserin (1 μM—an inhibitor of the 5-HT2 receptor), absence of extracellular calcium, two blockers of voltage-independent calcium permeable channels (RHC80267 50 μM and LOE-908 10 μM) and a blocker of the mitochondrial complex I (rotenone—100 nM). Depletion of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum or nicardipine (1 μM—an inhibitor of the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel) had no effect on the 5-HT-induced O2•_ production. O2•_ levels were also increased by α-methyl-5-HT (10 μM—a 5-HT2 receptors agonist) whereas GR127935 (1 μM—an antagonist of the 5-HT1B/D receptor) and citalopram (1 μM—a 5-HT transporter inhibitor) had no effect on the 5-HT-induced O2•_ production. Peroxynitrites were increased in response to 5-HT (100 μM). In isolated pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells loaded with rhod-2 or mitosox probes, we respectively showed that 5-HT increased both mitochondrial calcium and O2•_ levels, which were both abrogated in absence of extracellular calcium. Mitochondrial O2•_ levels were also abolished in the presence of rotenone (100 nM). In pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells loaded with TMRM, we showed that 5-HT transiently depolarized the mitochondrial membrane whereas in the absence of extracellular calcium the mitochondrial membrane depolarisation was delayed and sustained in

  20. Differences between young adults and elderly in thermal comfort, productivity and thermal physiology in response to a moderate temperature drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellen, Lisje; Lichtenbelt, Wouter van Marken; Loomans, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Results from naturally ventilated buildings show that allowing the indoor temperature to drift does not necessarily result in thermal discomfort and may allow for a reduction in energy use. However, for stationary conditions, several studies indicate that the thermal neutral temperature and optimum...... thermal condition differ between young adults and elderly. There is a lack of studies that describe the effect of aging on thermal comfort and productivity during a moderate temperature drift. In this study, the effect of a moderate temperature drift on physiological responses, thermal comfort......, temperature drift: first 4 h: +2 K/h, last 4 h: –2 K/h. The results indicate that thermal sensation of the elderly was, in general, 0.5 scale units lower in comparison with their younger counterparts. Furthermore, the elderly showed more distal vasoconstriction during both conditions. Nevertheless, TS...

  1. Hormonal profiles, physiological parameters, and productive and reproductive performances of Girolando cows in the state of Ceará-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Júnior, Péricles Afonso Montezuma; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2015-02-01

    This study compared two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of physiological, productive, and reproductive parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in a semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the Companhia de Alimentos do Nordeste (CIALNE) farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Eighty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 40 of each breed group were kept under an extensive system during the wet season and an intensive system during the dry season. The collection of physiological data and blood samples were obtained in the afternoon after milking. Rectal temperature (RT), surface temperature (ST), and respiratory rate (RR) were obtained for each cow after milking. Blood samples were obtained by tail vein puncture and were determined triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and cortisol. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH) and air temperature (AT), and from these, a temperature and humidity index (THI) was calculated. Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability using the Proc GLM of SAS. Chi-square test at 5 % probability was applied to data of pregnancy rate (PR) and the number of AI's to obtain pregnancy. It can be concluded that the breed group ½ Holstein ½ Gyr is most suited for farming under conditions of thermal stress.

  2. Flow-cytometry and cell sorting: an efficient approach to investigate productivity and cell physiology in mammalian cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niraj; Borth, Nicole

    2012-03-01

    The performance of cell lines used for the production of biotherapeutic proteins typically depends on the number of cells in culture, their specific growth rate, their viability and the cell specific productivity (qP). Therefore both cell line development and process development are trying to (a) improve cell proliferation to reduce lag-phase and achieve high number of cells; (b) delay cell death to prolong the production phase and improve culture longevity; (c) and finally, increase qP. All of these factors, when combined in an optimised process, concur to increase the final titre and yield of the recombinant protein. As cellular performance is at the centre of any improvement, analysis methods that enable the characterisation of individual cells in their entirety can help in identifying cell types and culture conditions that perform exceptionally well. This observation of cells and their complexity is reflected by the term "cytomics" and flow cytometry is one of the methods used for this purpose. With its ability to analyse the distribution of physiological properties within a population and to isolate rare outliers with exceptional properties, flow cytometry ideally complements other methods used for optimisation, including media design and cell engineering. In the present review we describe approaches that could be used, directly or indirectly, to analyse and sort cellular phenotypes characterised by improved growth behaviour, reduced cell death or high qP and outline their potential use for cell line and process optimisation.

  3. Cause-effect relationship between vocal fold physiology and voice production in a three-dimensional phonation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand the cause-effect relation between vocal fold physiology and the resulting vibration pattern and voice acoustics. Using a three-dimensional continuum model of phonation, the effects of changes in vocal fold stiffness, medial surface thickness in the vertical direction, resting glottal opening, and subglottal pressure on vocal fold vibration and different acoustic measures are investigated. The results show that the medial surface thickness has dominant effects on the vertical phase difference between the upper and lower margins of the medial surface, closed quotient, H1-H2, and higher-order harmonics excitation. The main effects of vocal fold approximation or decreasing resting glottal opening are to lower the phonation threshold pressure, reduce noise production, and increase the fundamental frequency. Increasing subglottal pressure is primarily responsible for vocal intensity increase but also leads to significant increase in noise production and an increased fundamental frequency. Increasing AP stiffness significantly increases the fundamental frequency and slightly reduces noise production. The interaction among vocal fold thickness, stiffness, approximation, and subglottal pressure in the control of F0, vocal intensity, and voice quality is discussed.

  4. Physiological level production of antigen-specific human immunoglobulin in cloned transchromosomic cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Akiko; Matsushita, Hiroaki; Wu, Hua; Jiao, Jin-An; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Sullivan, Eddie J; Wang, Zhongde; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs) derived from pooled plasma from human donors are Food and Drug Administration approved biologics used in the treatment of a variety of human diseases. Powered by the natural diversity of immune response, hpAbs are effective in treating diseases caused by complex or quickly-evolving antigens such as viruses. We previously showed that transchromosomic (Tc) cattle carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC) comprising the entire unrearranged human immunoglobulin heavy-chain (hIGH) and kappa-chain (hIGK) germline loci (named as κHAC) are capable of producing functional hpAbs when both of the bovine immunoglobulin mu heavy-chains, bIGHM and bIGHML1, are homozygously inactivated (double knockouts or DKO). However, B lymphocyte development in these Tc cattle is compromised, and the overall production of hpAbs is low. Here, we report the construction of an improved HAC, designated as cKSL-HACΔ, by incorporating all of the human immunoglobulin germline loci into the HAC. Furthermore, for avoiding the possible human-bovine interspecies incompatibility between the human immunoglobulin mu chain protein (hIgM) and bovine transmembrane α and β immunoglobulins (bIgα and bIgβ) in the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) complex, we partially replaced (bovinized) the hIgM constant domain with the counterpart of bovine IgM (bIgM) that is involved in the interaction between bIgM and bIgα/Igβ; human IgM bovinization would also improve the functionality of hIgM in supporting B cell activation and proliferation. We also report the successful production of DKO Tc cattle carrying the cKSL-HACΔ (cKSL-HACΔ/DKO), the dramatic improvement of B cell development in these cattle and the high level production of hpAbs (as measured for the human IgG isotype) in the plasma. We further demonstrate that, upon immunization by tumor immunogens, high titer tumor immunogen-specific human IgG (hIgG) can be produced from such Tc cattle.

  5. Physiological level production of antigen-specific human immunoglobulin in cloned transchromosomic cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Sano

    Full Text Available Therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs derived from pooled plasma from human donors are Food and Drug Administration approved biologics used in the treatment of a variety of human diseases. Powered by the natural diversity of immune response, hpAbs are effective in treating diseases caused by complex or quickly-evolving antigens such as viruses. We previously showed that transchromosomic (Tc cattle carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC comprising the entire unrearranged human immunoglobulin heavy-chain (hIGH and kappa-chain (hIGK germline loci (named as κHAC are capable of producing functional hpAbs when both of the bovine immunoglobulin mu heavy-chains, bIGHM and bIGHML1, are homozygously inactivated (double knockouts or DKO. However, B lymphocyte development in these Tc cattle is compromised, and the overall production of hpAbs is low. Here, we report the construction of an improved HAC, designated as cKSL-HACΔ, by incorporating all of the human immunoglobulin germline loci into the HAC. Furthermore, for avoiding the possible human-bovine interspecies incompatibility between the human immunoglobulin mu chain protein (hIgM and bovine transmembrane α and β immunoglobulins (bIgα and bIgβ in the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR complex, we partially replaced (bovinized the hIgM constant domain with the counterpart of bovine IgM (bIgM that is involved in the interaction between bIgM and bIgα/Igβ; human IgM bovinization would also improve the functionality of hIgM in supporting B cell activation and proliferation. We also report the successful production of DKO Tc cattle carrying the cKSL-HACΔ (cKSL-HACΔ/DKO, the dramatic improvement of B cell development in these cattle and the high level production of hpAbs (as measured for the human IgG isotype in the plasma. We further demonstrate that, upon immunization by tumor immunogens, high titer tumor immunogen-specific human IgG (hIgG can be produced from such Tc cattle.

  6. Leaf Morpho–physiology and Leaf-Fe Content of Selected Quince Genotypes from Different Parts of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Mirabdulbaghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to compare genotype variability of leaf morphophysiology and leaf-Fe content, as well as to select quince genotypes possessing desirable characteristics for possible use in breeding projects. Leaves were sampled from 28 quince genotypes that were selected from different parts of Iran. Selected genotypes were grown under the same environmental conditions in nursery of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute. The results suggest that estimated variations of studied leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were slight, but statistically significant. The highest variability was estimated for the leaf area, and somewhat lower for the specific leaf area. The leaves of genotype KM1 had the smallest amount of leaf area and leaf laminar length. Leaf chlorophyll (SPAD-Values and leaf laminar petiole were the highest for the genotype NB2. The genotype SHAI had the highest minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (F0. The highest value of fluorescence variable (FV and chlorophyll fluorescence (FM belonged to Moghavem2. The lowest minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (F0 and the highest value of photochemical capacity of photosystem 2 (FV/FM belonged to the Khosro. The highest amount of leaf laminar width, leaf dry weight and leaf area belonged to sahelborgmoghavem. The leaves of genotype KVD1 had the highest amount of specific leaf area. Simple correlation analysis showed significant negative and positive correlations for some important characteristics. Factor analysis revealed that chlorophyll fluorescence (FM, fluorescence variable (FV, minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (F0 and leaf area were related to the main factor components. Cluster analysis for selective factors divided quince genotypes to five main groups.

  7. Physiological response of Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528 of ethanol production under different fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin-Tao; Liu, Zi-Yong; Tian, Lei; Li, Fu-Li; Chen, Xiao-Hua

    2015-02-01

    In this study, cell growth, gene expression and ethanol production were monitored under different fermentation conditions. Like its heterotrophical ABE-producing relatives, a switch from acidogenesis to solventogenesis of Clostridium ljungdahlii during the autotrophic fermentation with CO/CO2 could be observed, which occurred surprisingly in the late-log phase rather than in the transition phase. The gene expression profiles indicated that aor1, one of the putative aldehyde oxidoreductases in its genome played a critical role in the formation of ethanol, and its transcription could be induced by external acids. Moreover, a low amount of CaCO3 was proved to have positive influences on the cell density and substrate utilization, followed by an increase of over 40% ethanol and 30% acetate formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Engineering Triterpene and Methylated Triterpene Production in Plants Provides Biochemical and Physiological Insights into Terpene Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zuodong; Kempinski, Chase; Bush, Caroline J; Nybo, S Eric; Chappell, Joe

    2016-02-01

    Linear, branch-chained triterpenes, including squalene (C30), botryococcene (C30), and their methylated derivatives (C31-C37), generated by the green alga Botryococcus braunii race B have received significant attention because of their utility as chemical and biofuel feedstocks. However, the slow growth habit of B. braunii makes it impractical as a production system. In this study, we evaluated the potential of generating high levels of botryococcene in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants by diverting carbon flux from the cytosolic mevalonate pathway or the plastidic methylerythritol phosphate pathway by the targeted overexpression of an avian farnesyl diphosphate synthase along with two versions of botryococcene synthases. Up to 544 µg g(-1) fresh weight of botryococcene was achieved when this metabolism was directed to the chloroplasts, which is approximately 90 times greater than that accumulating in plants engineered for cytosolic production. To test if methylated triterpenes could be produced in tobacco, we also engineered triterpene methyltransferases (TMTs) from B. braunii into wild-type plants and transgenic lines selected for high-level triterpene accumulation. Up to 91% of the total triterpene contents could be converted to methylated forms (C31 and C32) by cotargeting the TMTs and triterpene biosynthesis to the chloroplasts, whereas only 4% to 14% of total triterpenes were methylated when this metabolism was directed to the cytoplasm. When the TMTs were overexpressed in the cytoplasm of wild-type plants, up to 72% of the total squalene was methylated, and total triterpene (C30+C31+C32) content was elevated 7-fold. Altogether, these results point to innate mechanisms controlling metabolite fluxes, including a homeostatic role for squalene.

  9. Reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  10. Effect of acid pretreatment on different parts of corn stalk for second generation ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Cai, Di; Luo, Zhangfeng; Qin, Peiyong; Chen, Changjing; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Changwei; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effects of different parts of corn stalk, including stem, leaf, flower, cob and husk on second generation ethanol production were evaluated. FTIR, XRD and SEM were performed to investigate the effect of dilute acid pretreatment. The bagasse obtained after pretreatment were further hydrolyzed by cellulase and used as the substrate for ethanol fermentation. As results, hemicelluloses fractions in different parts of corn stalk were dramatically removed and the solid fractions showed vivid compositions and crystallinities. Compared with other parts of corn stalk, the cob had higher sugar content and better enzymatic digestibility. The highest glucose yield of 94.2% and ethanol production of 24.0 g L(-1) were achieved when the cob was used as feedstock, while the glucose yield and the ethanol production were only 86.0% and 17.1 g L(-1) in the case of flower.

  11. Educational productivity in higher education : An examination of part of the Walberg Educational Productivity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, M.; Jansen, E. P. W. A.

    Several factors in the H. J. Walberg Educational Productivity Model, which assumes that 9 factors affect academic achievement, were examined with a limited sample of 1st-year students in the University of Groningen. Information concerning 8 of these factors - grades, motivation, age, prior

  12. Educational productivity in higher education : An examination of part of the Walberg Educational Productivity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, M.; Jansen, E. P. W. A.

    2007-01-01

    Several factors in the H. J. Walberg Educational Productivity Model, which assumes that 9 factors affect academic achievement, were examined with a limited sample of 1st-year students in the University of Groningen. Information concerning 8 of these factors - grades, motivation, age, prior achieveme

  13. Productive, Qualitative, and Physiological Aspects of Layer Hens Fed with Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Belloni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Laying hens reared under tropical conditions are usually under heat stress. Propolis is known for its pharmaceutical properties, such as increasing cell tolerance to hyperthermia, because of its antioxidants effects. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of different dietary propolis inclusion levels on the performance, egg quality, and bird surface temperature of layers. In this experiment 120 55-wk-old Isa Brown(r layers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design into four treatments (0, 1, 2 and 3% dietary propolis inclusion levels, with three replicates of ten birds each. Performance and egg quality parameters, and birds' surface temperature were evaluated. Egg production, egg mass, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were influenced by the treatments. Bird surface temperature was not affected by propolis dietary inclusion. The egg yolk color changed with the treatment (p<0.05 when brightness and red and yellow concentration were considered. Evaluators noted a slight difference among treatments during the sensory analysis. The use of propolis in the hens' diet did not improve performance and worsened the eggs' quality.

  14. Chemical and physiological relevance of glucose degradation products in peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelmaier, Stefan; Niwa, Toshimitsu; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Fibrosis and vascular sclerosis are main complications that limit the long-term application of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Low biocompatibility has been largely attributed to the presence of glucose degradation products (GDPs), which are formed during the heat sterilization of PD fluids. GDPs readily modify proteins in the peritoneum, leading to a decline of their biological function. After absorption, GDPs can also promote systemic protein glycation. Additionally, GDPs may augment DNA glycation, a process enhanced in uremia. Apart from their glycating activity, GDPs induce cytotoxicity and interfere with cell signaling in peritoneal mesothelial cells. Targeted screening revealed the nature of the 6 major GDPs with α-dicarbonyl structure as 3-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxygalactosone, glucosone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene. Valid quantification of these GDPs was achieved by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector/tandem mass spectrometry. Identification and quantification of single GDPs allow a structure-dependent risk evaluation. As a consequence, PD fluids and processes can be improved to reduce the GDP burden of patients undergoing PD.

  15. Physiological and behavioral responses of Nellore steers to artificial shading in an intensive production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Alves da Costa Ferro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of artificial shading on environmental variables and on behavioral responses of Nellore steers in an intensive production system was evaluated in this study. The experiment was conducted in the experimental feedlot of the Department of Animal Science at Universidade Estadual de Goiás, from July to October 2014. Forty-eight male Nellore cattle with an average initial weight of 310 kg were kept in double 24-m2 stalls, in a total of 24 stalls. Of these, six were in the open air; six were covered with black shade netting of 30% light interception; six with black shade netting 50%; and six with black shade netting 80%, providing 6 m2 of shade per stall. Temperature-humidity index (THI and respiratory frequency (RF were assessed twice weekly and behavior was evaluated fortnightly during 12 h, between 06:00 h and 18.00 h. Feeding behavior, rumination, rest, and social activities such as body care and playful and abnormal activities were observed. A significant increase was found in THI and RF as the shading levels decreased, while a significant difference was recorded in rest and in other activities, water intake, and play behavior. Rest time and playful behavior increased significantly, and other activities and water intake decreased with the increase in shading levels. Shading does not change the time spent on feeding behaviors and rumination, or the frequencies of urination, defecation, cleaning other animals, self-cleaning, and social and abnormal types of behavior. The use of black shade netting of 80% light interception provides greater comfort to animals, promoting welfare and quality of life to them.

  16. Selection Model of Optional Parts in Suppliers Involved in New Product Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Lifeng; TANG Jiafu; PAN Zhendong; HAN Yi

    2006-01-01

    Quality function deployment (QFD), which can translate efficiently customer requirement (CRs) into technical attributes (TAs), is widely used in new product development (NPD) as an efficient customer-driven approach. After lots of QFD application is applied in manufacturing fields, it was proved that without considering suppliers involved, it is difficult to get precise and satisfying results in each process of QFD, particularly part deployment. The paper will address the issues of a model of optional parts selection in suppliers involved in part deployment process. Further, it has been applied to an ERP system reconstruction and updating problem as an illustration.

  17. Aspects of Production Ecologization of Machine-Building Enterprises as Part of the System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazutina, T. V.; Tempel, Yu A.; Tempel, O. A.; Lazutin, N. К

    2017-05-01

    The paper considers the role of the machine-building industry in Russia and the impact of its activities on the ecological situation in the country. As part of the problem we identified areas of environmental pollution from different production industries, including foundry, power, metal working and welding. In addition, the paper presents a strategy for production ecologization, based on a system approach viewed as a set of measures aimed at reducing the danger of technological processes for the environment and people.

  18. Effects of graded noise levels on behavior, physiology and production performance of intensively managed lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Casamassima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to assess the effects of graded noise levels on behavioral, immune and cortisol respons-  es, and on production performance of forty precocious Merino lambs. The experiment lasted 42 days and was preceded  by a two-week adjustment period. The animals were divided into 3 test groups and a control group of 10 each, which  were housed in 12 m2 sound-proof rooms. The lambs in the test groups were exposed to recordings of high-speed motor  vehicle traffic noise for 8 hours a day. The frequency range of the recordings was 100 to 6,300 Hz, while the loudness  levels were different in the three experimental rooms: group A = 95 dB, group B = 85 dB, and group C = 75 dB. During  the same 8 hours the control group was exposed to a background noise of 42-44 dB. For the rest of the day, the ambi-  ent noise level in the animal building was 35-40 dB. Behavioral traits of lambs were recorded at the end of the adjust-  ment period and then at 14d, 28d and 42d of the experiment. At the same intervals, the plasma levels of glucose, total  cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins, albumins and cortisol were determined. Cell-mediated immune response to phy-  tohemagglutinin (PHA was determined at the beginning and at days 21 and 42 of the trial. Live weights of lambs were  measured at the beginning of the trial and then at two-week intervals during the trial. After slaughtering, the carcass  weights and the dressing percentage were determined. The experimental treatment determined a significant increase in  the walking time (P   42 of the trial in groups A and B. The lambs in the test groups exhibited a slower growth rate (P   mals of the control group, whereas a deterioration of feed efficiency was observed only in group A (P   no differences amongst the groups in terms of cell-mediated immunity and blood metabolites. Results suggest that expo-  sure to noise has a detrimental effect on some biological functions in

  19. Utilizing product configuration systems for supporting the critical parts of the engineering processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Shafiee, Sara; Hvam, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Engineering-To-Order (ETO) companies have to respond to increasing demands to provide highly customized and complex products with high quality at competitive prices. In order to respond to those challenges ETO companies have started to implement product configuration systems (PCS) to increase...... efficiency of the specification processes. As a result to complex products and processes in ETO companies, PCS are usually gradually implemented where only subsets of the products are included to support specific processes. However, a systematic way to identify and evaluate the products and the processes...... to be supported with the PCSs is not described in the current literature. This paper aims to pursue that research opportunity by presenting a framework, which aims to identifying the critical parts of the engineering processes in order to identify where it most beneficial to implement a PCSs and how to prioritize...

  20. Process analytical technology (PAT) for biopharmaceutical products: Part II. Concepts and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, E K; Shah, R B; Riley, B S; Park, J T; Brorson, K A; Rathore, A S

    2010-02-01

    Implementing real-time product quality control meets one or both of the key goals outlined in FDA's PAT guidance: "variability is managed by the process" and "product quality attributes can be accurately and reliably predicted over the design space established for materials used, process parameters, manufacturing, environmental, and other conditions." The first part of the paper presented an overview of PAT concepts and applications in the areas of upstream and downstream processing. In this second part, we present principles and case studies to illustrate implementation of PAT for drug product manufacturing, rapid microbiology, and chemometrics. We further present our thoughts on how PAT will be applied to biotech processes going forward. The role of PAT as an enabling component of the Quality by Design framework is highlighted. Integration of PAT with the principles stated in the ICH Q8, Q9, and Q10 guidance documents is also discussed.

  1. Soil aptitude for the production of sugarcane. Part I. Calibration in experimental and production conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson C. Arzola Pina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A database was created using the yield values and the soil characteristics from more than 50 field experiments, and from other areas that belonged to good producers in Cienfuegos. All the experiments were done on brown carbonated, brown non-carbonated and red ferralitic soils. The soils characteristics were selected based on a varied analysis of main components and taking the easily-determined variables. For each soil characteristic that was selected, a classification system was established, that encompasses several variable ranges, the category assigned to each range, and a point value for each category. This classification system was based on articles reviews, and also taking into account the results of many researchers. A linear regression analysis was done using sugarcane yield and the values of soils where the sugar cane was planted and the cases of “excellent management” and “adequate management” of the cultivar was discriminated. It was proved that the soil value and the sugarcane yield were highly related (linear regression, which made possible the elaboration of a table that relates the sugarcane productive potential according to the characteristics of the soil expressed by the accumulated points, depending on the quality of the cultivar management and the agricultural cycle (plant cane or ratoon.

  2. Presence of sulphites in different types of partly processed meat products prepared for grilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korićanac, V.; Vranić, D.; Trbović, D.; Petronijević, R.; Parunović, N.

    2017-09-01

    In the period January 2016 to May 2017, the presence and levels of sulfite were examined in 270 samples of hamburger, sausage (various types), pljeskavica (Serbian-style meat patties of various types) and ćevapi or ćevapčići (grill kebabs) from the Serbian market. Some (12.59%) of these partly processed meat products contained sulfites, expressed as SO2, at levels above 10 mg/kg, and so did not meet requirements laid down in the National Regulation. In the remainder of the meat products (87.41%), sulfite contents were below 10 mg/kg, which is considered as “not detected”. By groups, 100% of hamburgers, 91.76% of sausages and 90.48% of pljeskavica met requirements of National Regulation. The meat product group with the biggest percentage of non-compliant meat products in which sulfites were detected was the ćevapi or ćevapčići – 18.10% of them contained sulfites. All in all, most of the partly processed meat products from the Serbian market met the National Regulation regarding sulfite content, and they were safe for consumption. Nonetheless, the high percentage of ćevapi or ćevapčići that contained sulfites leads us to conclude that regular and periodic control is necessary and one of the most important steps in ensuring safe and quality meat products for consumers.

  3. Characteristics of an Insert Product Placement as a Part of Marketing Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kramolišš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper defined saturation of an insert product placement as a part of marketing communication. Product placement is known as a modern tool of marketing communication and so that product placement and its types and forms are not so casual used in the Czech Republic as in other parts of the world. The mentioned issues are explained from the perspectives of three groups: TV studios experts, directors and producers and other experts (media agencies and advertisers. Types and forms of this marketing communication tool as well as options of its utilization are also mentioned in the paper.The Czech Republic market where product placement occurs is very small - only few television companies. The primary aim of the paper is to identify the intensity of two essential areas expressing product placement using - natural (non-invasive insert and contrived (invasive insert. Moreover, conflicting interests of the interested parties (advertiser - ordering party, producer and television are observed in the paper too. The last issue discussed in this paper is to what extent the degree of product placement implementation can affect the script and what impact on quality and specifics of an audiovisual work can this script modification have.

  4. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  5. Foliar fertilization of peanuts with cobalt and molybdenum: agronomic characteristics of production and physiological potential of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Marani Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As a crop, the peanut is becoming increasingly important in Brazil because it is used to renew areas where sugarcane is cultivated. The peanuts are mainly used by the candy industry and their importance has also grown because of the exploitation of oil crops to produce biodiesel. This study aimed to determine the effect of applying different levels Co and Mo foliar fertilizer to two peanut cultivars. The experiment was conducted in cerrado, during the rainy season, and the treatments consisted of applying Mo and Co fertilizer at zero, 400 and 800g.ha–1 to the Runner IAC 886 and IAC Tatu ST cultivars. The study found that there were differences in the parameters of the cultivars but there were no changes when the rates of cobalt and molybdenum were increased. The foliar application of cobalt and molybdenum in doses up to 800g.ha–1, during the initial stage of seed formation, does not change the agronomic characteristics of peanuts; Runner IAC 886 is more productive than the IAC Tatu ST cultivar, and seeds with higher molybdenum content do not have more physiological potential.

  6. Prediction of potential productivity of perennial C{sub 4} grasses in Poland by means of physiological model (concepts and methodology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciorowski, R.; Koltoniak, K. [Agrigultural Univ. of Szczecin (Poland). Dept. of Biometry

    2006-07-01

    In this paper the methodology of the potential productivity modeling of M. sinensis Anderss., M. sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Benth. et Hook. and P. virgatum L. throughout Poland is presented. The physiological empirical model is parameterized on a base of the field trials data. (orig.)

  7. Results of triple muscle (sartorius, tensor fascia latae and part of gluteus medius pedicle bone grafting in neglected femoral neck fracture in physiologically active patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral neck fractures are notorious for complications like avascular necrosis and nonunion. In developing countries, various factors such as illiteracy, low socioeconomic status, ignorance are responsible for the delay in surgery. Neglected fracture neck femur always poses a formidable challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of triple muscle pedicle bone grafting using sartorius, tensor fasciae latae and part of gluteus medius in neglected femoral neck fracture. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study with medical record of 50 patients, who were operated by open reduction, internal fixation along with muscle pedicle bone grafting by the anterior approach. After open reduction, two to three cancellous screws (6.5 mm were used for internal fixation in all cases. A bony chunk of the whole anterior superior iliac spine of 1 cm thickness, 1 cm width and 4.5 cm length, taken from the iliac crest comprised of muscle pedicle of sartorius, tensor fascia latae and part of gluteus medius. Then the graft with all three muscles mobilized and put in the trough made over the anterior or anterosuperior aspect of the femoral head. The graft was fixed with one or two 4.5 mm self-tapping cortical screw in anterior to posterior direction. Results: 14 patients were lost to followup. The results were based on 36 patients. We observed that in our series, there was union in 34, out of 36 (94.4% patients. All patients were within the age group of 15-51 years (average 38 years with displaced neglected femoral neck fracture of ≥30 days. Mean time taken for full clinicoradiological union was 14 weeks (range-10-24 weeks. Conclusion: Triple muscle pedicle bone grafting gives satisfactory results for neglected femoral neck fracture in physiologically active patients.

  8. Evolution of a detailed physiological model to simulate the gastrointestinal transit and absorption process in humans, part II: extension to describe performance of solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Kirstin; Coboeken, Katrin; Willmann, Stefan; Dressman, Jennifer B; Lippert, Jörg

    2012-03-01

    The physiological absorption model presented in part I of this work is now extended to account for dosage-form-dependent gastrointestinal (GI) transit as well as disintegration and dissolution processes of various immediate-release and modified-release dosage forms. Empirical functions of the Weibull type were fitted to experimental in vitro dissolution profiles of solid dosage forms for eight test compounds (aciclovir, caffeine, cimetidine, diclofenac, furosemide, paracetamol, phenobarbital, and theophylline). The Weibull functions were then implemented into the model to predict mean plasma concentration-time profiles of the various dosage forms. On the basis of these dissolution functions, pharmacokinetics (PK) of six model drugs was predicted well. In the case of diclofenac, deviations between predicted and observed plasma concentrations were attributable to the large variability in gastric emptying time of the enteric-coated tablets. Likewise, oral PK of furosemide was found to be predominantly governed by the gastric emptying patterns. It is concluded that the revised model for GI transit and absorption was successfully integrated with dissolution functions of the Weibull type, enabling prediction of in vivo PK profiles from in vitro dissolution data. It facilitates a comparative analysis of the parameters contributing to oral drug absorption and is thus a powerful tool for formulation design.

  9. Integrating Environmental Decisions into the Product Development Process: Part 1 - The Early Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhamra, T.; Evans, S.; McAloone, Timothy Charles;

    1999-01-01

    This paper will report on the results of a three year UK government funded research project entitled Design for the Environment Decision Support (DEEDS). As part of this project a survey of the Electronic and Electrical Industry was carried out in order to understand the way in which industry...... process prior to the specification being finalised. A second paper, considers the findings from the later phases of the product development process....

  10. PENGARUH PRODUCT PLACEMENT VOLVO DI DALAM FILM TWILIGHT SAGA: BREAKING DAWN PART 1 & PART 2 TERHADAP BRAND RECALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghygha Yunus Widya Prasetya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Movie scenes have become attractive means for many industries to present their products without enforced impression. Through careful designed product placement strategy, Twilight movie became the perfect promotional media for Volvo in promoting their products. Volvo is one of the premium automotive brands under the auspices of Indomobil. This well-known brand always put and positions their product merely for the target premium. Product placement is an example of a hybrid message or an attempt to influence audience at an affordable cost. Some benefits in advertising through product placement are a lot of audiences see the products so that the brand awareness and the products’ credibility would significantly increase. In conclusion, consumer’s behavior in recognizing and remembering a product might be affected by their vision, hearing, and admiration.

  11. Soybean Protein Fibres Part 1: Structure, Production and Environmental Effects of Soybean Protein Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Filiz YILDIRIM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean fiber (SPF is a protein based botanic fibre. These fibers exhibit very good physical properties such as brightness, softness and drape. Moreover, SPF has a variety of health functionalities and anti-bacterial properties. Fibers were first produced in the 20th mid-century. However due to the significant challenges encountered during the production of SPF, interest for these fibers was decreased. At the end of the 20 th century, SPF re-captured attention due to an increased awakening on ecological, renewable and sustainable fiber concept. Soybean is cheap and abundant. Tenacity of SPF was improved by including polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. Therefore, the production and the usage of SPF are increasing rapidly because of these key advantages. Soybean fibers usually is used in blends with other fibers. In Turkey, a variety of different products are produced from this special fiber. This review, about SPF, is divided into two sections. In the first part; structure and production stages of SPF and its enviromental effects have been described. In the second part of this review, properties and application areas of SPF have been described. The purpose of this review is to fill a gap in the Turkish literature about this bio-degradable, renewable and sustainable SPF. 

  12. Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Chiwona-Karltun, Linley; Kawuki, Robert S; Baguma, Yona

    2012-05-01

    Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH ≈ 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel.

  13. Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Kawuki, Robert S.; Baguma, Yona [National Agricultural Research organization, National Crops Resources Research Inst. (NaCRRI), Kampala (Uganda); Chiwona-Karltun, Linley [Dept. of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)], email: Linley.karltun@slu.se

    2012-03-15

    Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH {approx} 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel.

  14. Digestive physiology, metabolism and methane production of captive Linné's two-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendl, C; Frei, S; Dittmann, M T; Furrer, S; Osmann, C; Ortmann, S; Munn, A; Kreuzer, M; Clauss, M

    2016-06-01

    Sloths are renowned for their low metabolic rate, low food intake and low defecation frequency. We investigated factors of digestive physiology and energy metabolism in four captive individuals (mean body mass 10.0 ± SD 3.7 kg) of a hitherto mostly unstudied sloth species, Linné's two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus), in a 2-week digestion recording and 23-h respiration experiment on animals fed a standard zoo diet of vegetables and starchy components. Dry matter intake, defecation frequency and particle mean retention time (MRT) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were 12 ± 3 g/(kg(0.75)  day), once every 5 days and >140 h in three individuals, but 53 g/(kg(0.75)  day), daily and 82 h in one individual that was apparently compensating for a period of weight loss prior to the experiment. In all animals, solute marker was eliminated at a faster rate than the particle marker, indicating 'digesta washing' in the sloths' GIT. The overall metabolic rate calculated from oxygen consumption matched the metabolisable energy intake in three individuals [173 ± 22 vs. 168 ± 44 kJ/(kg(0.75)  day)] but not in the fourth one [225 vs. 698 kJ/(kg(0.75)  day)], supporting the interpretation that this animal was replenishing body stores. In spite of the low food intake and the low-fibre diet (209 ± 26 g neutral detergent fibre/kg dry matter), methane production was rather high accounting for 9.4 ± 0.8% of gross energy intake (2.7% in the fourth individual), which exceeded literature data for ruminants on forage-only diets. These results corroborate literature reports on low intake, low defecation frequency, low metabolic rate and long MRT in other sloth species. The long MRT is probably responsible for the comparatively high methane production, providing more opportunity for methanogenic archaea than in other non-ruminant mammals to produce significant amounts of methane.

  15. Soil productive potential of the river basins located in European part of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Natalia; Shoba, Sergei; Trifonova, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    The search for integral monitoring indicators of natural ecosystems biosphere functions assessment is becoming really urgent nowadays. From the point of view of ecologic and economic indicators, characterizing ecosystems structure and functioning, soil fertility and vegetation productivity parameters, which have been studied for a long time as biosphere and environment forming functions rank first priority. For integrated characteristic of ecosystems soil and vegetation condition we have suggested to apply the index of "soil-productive potential" (SPP), characterizing the ability of nature and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems for sustained product (phytomass) reproduction under specific soil-bioclimatic conditions. It characterizes ecosystem reserve via the index expressed in numbers and averages the following parameters: • specific phytomass reserve (all living elevated and underground parts of plants in terms of total dry mass t/ hectare are considered); • specific productivity (phytomass augmentation for a year per unit area); • natural soil fertility (humus content, % as a characteristic); • crop-producing power (grain crop-producing power is considered, centner/hectare); • bioclimatic parameters (integrated index, including the sum of biologically active temperatures and moistening coefficient); • soil-ecologic index (SEI). Soil-productive potential allows the assessment of average perennial area resource for phytomass production by natural and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems. For more convenient comparative estimation, characteristics are ranked by dividing them into equal intervals according to 5-number scale with consequent numbers summation to overall index. As a result both soil-productive potential of natural eco-systems and total soil-productive potential of the whole area with a glance to the condition of available agrocenosis are calculated. Soil-productive potential of 12 first-rank major river basins of the European part of Russia have

  16. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 679 - Product Recovery Rates for Groundfish Species and Conversion Rates for Pacific Halibut

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Product Recovery Rates for Groundfish Species and Conversion Rates for Pacific Halibut 3 Table 3 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY...) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 679—Product...

  17. Electromagnetic NDT to characterize usage properties of flat steel products - Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altpeter, I.; Dobmann, G.; Szielasko, K., E-mail: iab.altlau@t-online.de, E-mail: gerd.dobmann@t-online.de, E-mail: klaus.szielasko@izfp.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Inst. - IZFP, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    The Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP) in Saarbruecken, Germany, started its activities in materials characterization of flat steel products in the eighties of the last century in the basic program of the European Community of Coal and Steel (ECCS). Throughout the years, continuous research and development were performed. The objective of the work, presented within this three-part series of reports, is to discuss the history of an innovation that began in 1988 with R&D in the area of texture characterization in steel sheets produced for car-body manufacturing (Part 1). In the following years the activities were to automate online property determination in terms of yield strength, tensile strength, planar- and vertical-anisotropy factors. Again, steel sheets were the focus of the developments and first NDT systems came into industrial application. Parallel research was performed to characterize the mechanical properties and hardness on heavy steel plates, mainly produced for pipeline manufacturing and offshore applications (Part 2). The final report in the series (Part 3) discusses steel sheet characterization and presents the successful development of a combination transducer that combines ultrasonics with electromagnetic NDT. (author)

  18. Electromagnetic NDT to characterize usage properties of flat steel products - Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altpeter, I.; Dobmann, G.; Szielasko, K., E-mail: iab.altlau@t-online.de, E-mail: gerd.dobmann@t-online.de, E-mail: klaus.szielasko@izfp.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Inst. - IZFP, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The Fraunhofer Institute for Non-destructive Testing (IZFP) in Saarbruecken, Germany, started its activities in materials characterization of flat steel products in the eighties of the last century in the basic program of the European Community of Coal and Steel (ECCS). Throughout the years, continuous research and development were performed. The objective of the work, presented within this three-part series of reports, is to discuss the history of an innovation which began in 1988 with R&D in the area of texture characterization in steel sheets produced for car-body manufacturing (Part 1). In the following years the activities were to automate online property determination in terms of yield strength, tensile strength, planar, and vertical-anisotropy-factors. Again, steel sheets were the focus of the developments and the first NDT systems that came into industrial application for this project. Parallel research was performed to characterize the mechanical properties and hardness of heavy steel plates, mainly produced for pipeline manufacturing and off-shore applications (Part 2) The final report in the series (Part 3) will discuss steel sheet characterization and presents the successful development of a combination-transducer which combines ultrasonics with electromagnetic NDT. (author)

  19. Biotechnology of flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived natural products. Part I: Chemical diversity, impacts on plant biology and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververidis, Filippos; Trantas, Emmanouil; Douglas, Carl; Vollmer, Guenter; Kretzschmar, Georg; Panopoulos, Nickolas

    2007-10-01

    Plant natural products derived from phenylalanine and the phenylpropanoid pathway are impressive in their chemical diversity and are the result of plant evolution, which has selected for the acquisition of large repertoires of pigments, structural and defensive compounds, all derived from a phenylpropanoid backbone via the plant-specific phenylpropanoid pathway. These compounds are important in plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses and thus can have large impacts on agricultural productivity. While plant-based medicines containing phenylpropanoid-derived active components have long been used by humans, the benefits of specific flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived compounds to human health and their potential for long-term health benefits have been only recognized more recently. In this part of the review, we discuss the diversity and biosynthetic origins of phenylpropanoids and particularly of the flavonoid and stilbenoid natural products. We then review data pertaining to the modes of action and biological properties of these compounds, referring on their effects on human health and physiology and their roles as plant defense and antimicrobial compounds. This review continues in Part II discussing the use of biotechnological tools targeting the rational reconstruction of multienzyme pathways in order to modify the production of such compounds in plants and model microbial systems for the benefit of agriculture and forestry.

  20. The potential of centrifugal casting for the production of near net shape uranium parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, E. [United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, CO (US). Dept. of Engineering Mechanics

    1993-09-01

    This report was written to provide a detailed summary of a literature survey on the near net shape casting process of centrifugal casting. Centrifugal casting is one potential casting method which could satisfy the requirements of the LANL program titled Near Net Shape Casting of Uranium for Reduced Environmental, Safety and Health Impact. In this report, centrifugal casting techniques are reviewed and an assessment of the ability to achieve the near net shape and waste minimization goals of the LANL program by using these techniques is made. Based upon the literature reviewed, it is concluded that if properly modified for operation within a vacuum, vertical or horizontal centrifugation could be used to safely cast uranium for the production of hollow, cylindrical parts. However, for the production of components of geometries other than hollow tubes, vertical centrifugation could be combined with other casting methods such as semi-permanent mold or investment casting.

  1. APPLICATION OF POLYSTYRENE FOAM CORE FUSIBLE PATTERNS IN PRODUCTION OF GAS TURBINES’ CAST PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Shinsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of replacing the LVM dissolves polystyrene molding on models is at the present time, technologically, economically and environmentally promising from the point of view of industrial applications for gas turbine plants in Ukraine. The authors proposed and tested manufacturing process of casting ceramic molds way to remove the polystyrene model of the dissolution of her organic solvents. Kinetic parameters of the process of dissolving and removing patterns of degradation products the polystyrene in the group of solvents depending on the type and amount of polystyrene were identified. The absence of surface defects of castings, reduction of roughness, increased their accuracy class in comparison to accepted technological regulations of the process of production, which reduced the cost of machined parts and increased utilization of expensive heat-resistant alloys were produced.

  2. Round table part 4: Identification of the key technologies and collaboration for Food production and preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Wheeler, Raymond

    2016-07-01

    Although the two first metabolic needs are based on simple molecule (i.e. oxygen and water), the third metabolic needs considered a tremendously large number and diversity of molecules: food. Today, physical chemical technologies do not allow to synthetize all the spectrum of molecules and biological processes have to be considered. Moreover, the raw material products by plants or by microorganisms are generally not directly edible or palatable and would need either transformation, assembly and/or storage. In other words the challenges of the food cannot be reduced to the plant production but need to include as well the complete chain, from the production conditions and the biomass quality up to the final edible products and its acceptance. In other words all the steps have to be considered and characterize. Today these challenges requires a high level of plants characterization. This round table part 4 would allow the participants to present some of their results and express some domain of activities. Re4serach for collaboration will be identified.

  3. Effect of Parkinson's Disease on the Production of Structured and Unstructured Speaking Tasks: Respiratory Physiologic and Linguistic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of cognitive-linguistic deficits and respiratory physiologic changes on respiratory support for speech in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) using two speech tasks: reading and extemporaneous speech. Method: Five women with PD, 9 men with PD, and 14 age- and sex-matched control participants read a passage and…

  4. The venality of human body parts and products in French law and common law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haoulia, Naima

    2012-03-01

    The successive bioethics laws in France have constantly argued that the human body is not for sale and consecrated an absolute principle of free and anonymous donations, whether of semen, ova, blood, tissues or organs. Nonetheless, this position is not shared by all countries. These legal divergences upset today our moral principles and the development of these practices leads us to question the legal status of human biological material and its gradual commodification. This paper outlines the current law principles that protect people's interests in their bodies, excised body parts and tissues without conferring the rights of full legal ownership in French law and in Common law. Contrary to what many people believe, people do not legally 'own' their bodies, body parts or tissues. However, they do have some legal rights in relation to their bodies and excised body material. For lawyers, the exact relationship people have with their bodies has raised a host of complex questions and long debates about the status we should grant to human body parts. The significance of this issue is due to two reasons:first, because of the imperative protection we have to assure to human dignity and then, because of the economic value which is attached to human products.

  5. Sentiment Mining on Products Features based on Part of Speech Tagging Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadese Abedi Shahkhali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In today's competitive business, paying attention to the feedback fromcustomers has become a valuable factor for organizations.Organizations have found that satisfied customers are not only a repeated buyer, they are also propaganda arm of the organization.Therefore, the correct analysis of their feedback by relying on information technology tools is a key element in the success of the organizations in trade. People generally share their opinions about purchased goods on the Web sites or in social networks. Extraction of these opinions is known as a special branch of text mining under the term of sentiment mining. Although this category is brand new, but in recent years, extensive researches have been done on sentiment analysis and classification of intentions. Therefore, in this paper a model is suggested about sentiment mining with the ability to extract users opinion and product features. So dataset of customer comments has been made in a way that the comments are taken from a Website about some specific digital products. Then the paragraphed opinions are converted into sentences and the sentences are separated into two categories of subjective and objective. Next, user's opinion and product features are taken from subjective sentences by using StanfordPOStagger and relying on Tf-idf factor for product features and finding opinion polarity by using SentiWordNet tools. In this way, user satisfaction of specific features of the product can be detected. As a means of evaluation, three factors of Recall, Precision and F-Measureprovide an indication of the accuracy of each part of this research.

  6. The assessment of EUMETSAT HSAF Snow Products for mountainuos areas in the eastern part of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Beser, O.; Bolat, K.; Erturk, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring the snow parameters (e.g. snow cover area, snow water equivalent) is a challenging work. Because of its natural physical properties, snow highly affects the evolution of weather from daily basis to climate on a longer time scale. The derivation of snow products over mountainous regions has been considered very challenging. This can be done by periodic and precise mapping of the snow cover. However inaccessibility and scarcity of the ground observations limit the snow cover mapping in the mountainous areas. Today, it is carried out operationally by means of optical satellite imagery and microwave radiometry. In retrieving the snow cover area from satellite images bring the problem of topographical variations within the footprint of satellite sensors and spatial and temporal variation of snow characteristics in the mountainous areas. Most of the global and regional operational snow products use generic algorithms for flat and mountainous areas. However the non-uniformity of the snow characteristics can only be modeled with different algorithms for mountain and flat areas. In this study the early findings of Satellite Application Facilities on Hydrology (H-SAF) project, which is financially supported by EUMETSAT, will be presented. Turkey is a part of the H-SAF project, both in product generation (eg. snow recognition, fractional snow cover and snow water equivalent) for mountainous regions for whole Europe, cal/val of satellite-derived snow products with ground observations and cal/val studies with hydrological modeling in the mountainous terrain of Europe. All the snow products are operational on a daily basis. For the snow recognition product (H10) for mountainous areas, spectral thresholding methods were applied on sub pixel scale of MSG-SEVIRI images. The different spectral characteristics of cloud, snow and land determined the structure of the algorithm and these characteristics were obtained from subjective classification of known snow cover features

  7. Cause-effect relationship between vocal fold physiology and voice production in a three-dimensional phonation model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand the cause-effect relation between vocal fold physiology and the resulting vibration pattern and voice acoustics. Using a three-dimensional continuum model of phonation, the effects of changes in vocal fold stiffness, medial surface thickness in the vertical direction, resting glottal opening, and subglottal pressure on vocal fold vibration and different acoustic measures are investigated. The results show that the medial surface thickness has dom...

  8. The physiological substrates of fructosamine-3-kinase-related-protein (FN3KRP) are intermediates of nonenzymatic reactions between biological amines and ketose sugars (fructation products).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwergold, Benjamin S; Bunker, Richard D; Loomes, Kerry M

    2011-11-01

    The physiological function of fructosamine-3-kinase (FN3K) is relatively well understood. As shown in several studies, most conclusively by data on the FN3K-KO mouse, this enzyme breaks down compounds produced by the non-enzymatic glycation of proteins by D-glucose. In contrast with FN3K, very little is known about the function of the fructosamine-3-kinase-related-protein (FN3KRP) even though it has a 65% amino-acid sequence identity with FN3K. We do know that this enzyme is a kinase as evidenced by its ability to phosphorylate non-physiological compounds such a psicosamines, ribulosamines, erythrulosamines, and glucitolamines. However, FN3KRP does not phosphorylate any of the numerous Amadori products that are the physiological substrates of FN3K. The fact that FN3KRP is highly conserved in all vertebrates and present throughout nature suggests that it plays an important role in cellular metabolism and makes identification of its physiological substrates an important objective. In this paper, we propose that FN3KRP phosphorylates products resulting from a non-enzymatic glycation of amines by ketoses (fructation) that involves a 2,3-enolization and produces the stable Amadori intermediate, 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-ribo-hex-3-ulose (ADRH). This ketosamine is then phosphorylated to 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-ribo-hex-3-ulose-4-phosphate (ADRH-4-P). Since phosphates are much better leaving groups than hydroxyls, this destabilizes the C-2 amine bond and results in a spontaneous β-elimination of the phosphate to regenerate an unmodified amine with the concomitant production of 4-deoxy-2,3-diulose. Consequently, we postulate that the principal physiological function of FN3KRP is the breakdown of nonenzymatic fructation products. If confirmed in future studies, this hypothesis opens up new perspectives for an improved understanding of biological Maillard reactions and mechanisms for their control and/or reversal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fact Sheet: Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Pollutants from Surface Coating of Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains an August 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emission Standards for Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products Surface Coating Operations. This document provides a summary of the information for this regulation.

  10. The Systemic Products as a Source of Competitive Advantage on Healthcare Sector Example. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela SZTANGRET

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the healthcare sector, different healthcare providers, such as home care, primary care, pharmacies and hospital clinics but also a financial institution, collaborate in order to increase values for patients, such as better health state, more complex services, high quality of services, and increased feeling of safety. By creating a value, flexible networks health care providers and additional actors create value through collaboration. The purpose of this article is to identify the specific character of systemic healthcare product, created in synergy relations of medical enntities in the area of new way of meeting customers’ needs. Critical analysis of literature in the field of studied category is conducted in the article; furthermore qualitative method of empirical studies (case study and quantitative (online questionnaire is applied for practical illustration of described processes and phenomena. The article is a second part of the stud.

  11. Physiological and Transcriptomic Analysis Validates Previous Findings of Changes in Primary Metabolism for the Production of Phenolic Antioxidants in Wounded Carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cong; Jin, Peng; Li, Meilin; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Yonghua

    2017-08-23

    Wounding induces the accumulation of phenolic compounds in carrot. This study uses physiological and transcriptomic analysis to validate previous findings relating primary metabolism and secondary metabolites in wounded carrots. Our data confirmed that increased wounding intensity strengthened the accumulation of phenolics accompanied by enhancing respiration and showed the loss of fructose and glucose and the increase of energy status in carrots. In addition, transcriptomic evaluation of shredded carrots indicated that the respiratory metabolism, sugar metabolism, energy metabolism, and phenolic biosynthesis related pathways, such as "citrate cycle (TCA cycle)", "oxidative phosphorylation" and "phenylpropanoid biosynthesis", were activated by wounding. Also, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in the conversion of sugars to phenolics were extensively up-regulated after wounding. Thus, the physiological and transcriptomic data validate previous findings that wounding accelerates the primary metabolisms of carrot including respiratory metabolism, sugar metabolism, and energy metabolism to meet the demand for the production of phenolic antioxidants.

  12. Alternate furrow irrigation of four fresh-market tomato cultivars under semi-arid condition of Ethiopia – Part II: Physiological response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashinie Bogale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the variation in physiological response to deficit irrigation together with better knowledge on physiological characteristics of different genotypes that contribute to drought adaptation mechanisms would be helpful in transferring different irrigation technologies to farmers. A field experiment was carried to investigate the physiological response of four tomato cultivars (Fetan, Chali, Cochoro and ARP Tomato d2 to moderate water deficit induced by alternate furrow irrigation (AFI and deficit irrigation (DI under semi-arid condition of Ethiopia during 2013 and 2014. The study also aimed at identifying physiological attributes to the fruit yield of tomato under different deficit irrigation techniques. A factorial combination of irrigation treatments and cultivar were arranged in a complete randomized design with three replicates. Results showed that stomatal conductance (g_s was significantly reduced while photosynthetic performance measured as chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv’/Fm’, relative water content (RWC and leaf ash content remained unaffected under deficit irrigations. Significant differences among cultivars were found for water use efficiency (WUE, g_s, chlorophyll content (Chl_SPAD, normal difference vegetation index (NDVI, leaf ash content and fruit growth rate. However, cultivar differences in WUE were more accounted for by the regulation of g_s, therefore, g_s could be useful for breeders for screening large numbers of genotypes with higher WUE under deficit irrigation condition. The study result also demonstrated that cultivar with traits that contribute to achieve higher yields under deficit irrigation strategies has the potential to increase WUE.

  13. The effect of feeder space allocation on productivity and physiology of Hy-Line W-36 hens housed in conventional cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogerson, C M; Hester, P Y; Mench, J A; Newberry, R C; Okura, C M; Pajor, E A; Talaty, P N; Garner, J P

    2009-09-01

    Insufficient feeder space for laying hens could increase competition at the feed trough, leading to disrupted feeding, inadequate nutrient intake, stress, and reduced productivity. The effects of feeder space allocation (FSA) on physiology and productivity were evaluated in beak-trimmed Hy-Line W-36 hens (n=480). They were obtained at 16.5 wk of age and housed on 4 tiers of shallow conventional cages. Five pullets/cage were housed at a stocking density of 434 cm2/hen and a feeder space of 12.2 cm/hen. After 1.5 wk of acclimation, baseline measurements were taken for feed utilization, bone mineralization, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. At 20 wk of age, pullets were given 5.8, 7.1, 8.4, 9.7, 10.9, or 12.2 cm of feeder space/bird (16 cages/treatment). Physiological and production measures were calculated monthly or twice a month for 12 mo. The heart, spleen, and right adrenal gland were collected from each hen at the end of the study. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures GLM incorporating cage, tier, FSA, and hen age. There were no effects of FSA on total egg production, bone mineral density, bone mineral content, heterophil:lymphocyte ratios, or organ weights. Hens with reduced FSA utilized more feed (P0.05). Because BW was similar among FSA treatments, the results suggest that reduced feeder space did not limit feed intake. In addition, reduced FSA did not lower bone mineralization or cause physiological stress in W-36 hens housed in shallow cages, suggesting that it did not impair hen welfare. However, it did result in poorer feed efficiency, possibly related to greater feed wastage, predictive of an adverse economic effect from reducing feeder space.

  14. Putrescine production via the ornithine decarboxylation pathway improves the acid stress survival of Lactobacillus brevis and is part of a horizontally transferred acid resistance locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Andrea; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A; Lucas, Patrick M

    2014-04-03

    Decarboxylation pathways are widespread among lactic acid bacteria; their physiological role is related to acid resistance through the regulation of the intracellular pH and to the production of metabolic energy via the generation of a proton motive force and its conversion into ATP. These pathways include, among others, biogenic amine (BA) production pathways. BA accumulation in foodstuffs is a health risk; thus, the study of the factors involved in their production is of major concern. The analysis of several lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from different environments, including fermented foods and beverages, revealed that the genes encoding these pathways are clustered on the chromosome, which suggests that these genes are part of a genetic hotspot related to acid stress resistance. Further attention was devoted to the ornithine decarboxylase pathway, which affords putrescine from ornithine. Studies were performed on three lactic acid bacteria belonging to different species. The ODC pathway was always shown to be involved in cytosolic pH alkalinisation and acid shock survival, which were observed to occur with a concomitant increase in putrescine production.

  15. Elucidating the molecular physiology of lantibiotic NAI-107 production in Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallo, Giuseppe; Renzone, Giovanni; Palazzotto, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    , regulatory cascades and primary metabolism shift-down trigger the accumulation of protein components involved in nitrogen and phosphate metabolism, cell wall biosynthesis/maturation, lipid metabolism, osmotic stress response, multi-drug resistance, and NAI-107 transport. The stimulating role on physiological...... differentiation of a TetR-like regulator, originally identified in this study, was confirmed by the construction of an over-expressing strain. Finally, the possible role of cellular response to membrane stability alterations and of multi-drug resistance ABC transporters as additional self-resistance mechanisms...

  16. Physiological Networks: towards systems physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Bashan, Amir; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Havlin, Shlomo; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2012-02-01

    The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiologic systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse systems with different types of interactions is a challenge. Here, we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiologic network. We find that each physiologic state is characterized by a specific network structure, demonstrating a robust interplay between network topology and function. Across physiologic states the network undergoes topological transitions associated with fast reorganization of physiologic interactions on time scales of a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate new dimensions to the field of systems physiology.

  17. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 715 - Examples of Unscheduled Discrete Organic Chemicals (UDOCs) and UDOC Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... end product: (i) Acetophenone (CAS #98-86-2); (ii) 6-Chloro-2-methyl aniline (CAS #87-63-8); (iii) 2... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examples of Unscheduled Discrete Organic Chemicals (UDOCs) and UDOC Production No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 715 Commerce and Foreign...

  18. Morphological, physiological and proteomic analyses provide insights into the improvement of castor bean productivity of a dwarf variety in comparing with a high-stalk variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Hu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis displays a broad range of phenotypic diversity in size, with dwarf, common, and large-sized varieties. To better understand the differences in plant productivity between a high-stalk variety and a dwarf variety under normal growth conditions, we carried out a comparative proteomic study between Zhebi 100 (a high stalk variety and Zhebi 26 (a dwarf variety combined with agronomic and physiological analyses. Over 1000 proteins were detected, 38 of which differed significantly between the two varieties and were identified by mass spectrometry. Compared with Zhebi 100, we found that photosynthesis, energy, and protein biosynthesis related proteins decreased in abundance in Zhebi 26. The lower yield of the dwarf castor is likely related to its lower photosynthetic rate, therefore we hypothesize that the lower yield of the dwarf castor, in comparing to high stalk castor, could be increased by increasing planting density. Consequently, we demonstrated that at the higher planting density in Zhebi 26 (36,000 seedlings/hm² can achieve a higher yield than that of Zhebi 100 (12,000 seedlings/hm². Proteomic and physiological studies showed that for developing dwarf R. communis cultivar that is suitable for large scale-production (i.e. mechanical harvesting, it is imperative to identify the optimum planting density that will contribute to higher leaf area index, higher photosynthesis, and eventually higher productivity.

  19. Morphological, Physiological and Proteomic Analyses Provide Insights into the Improvement of Castor Bean Productivity of a Dwarf Variety in Comparing with a High-Stalk Variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenjun; Chen, Lin; Qiu, Xiaoyun; Lu, Hongling; Wei, Jia; Bai, Yueqing; He, Ningjia; Hu, Rongbin; Sun, Li; Zhang, Hong; Shen, Guoxin

    2016-01-01

    Ricinus communis displays a broad range of phenotypic diversity in size, with dwarf, common, and large-sized varieties. To better understand the differences in plant productivity between a high-stalk variety and a dwarf variety under normal growth conditions, we carried out a comparative proteomic study between Zhebi 100 (a high stalk variety) and Zhebi 26 (a dwarf variety) combined with agronomic and physiological analyses. Over 1000 proteins were detected, 38 of which differed significantly between the two varieties and were identified by mass spectrometry. Compared with Zhebi 100, we found that photosynthesis, energy, and protein biosynthesis related proteins decreased in abundance in Zhebi 26. The lower yield of the dwarf castor is likely related to its lower photosynthetic rate, therefore we hypothesize that the lower yield of the dwarf castor, in comparing to high stalk castor, could be increased by increasing planting density. Consequently, we demonstrated that at the higher planting density in Zhebi 26 (36,000 seedlings/hm2) can achieve a higher yield than that of Zhebi 100 (12,000 seedlings/hm2). Proteomic and physiological studies showed that for developing dwarf R. communis cultivar that is suitable for large scale-production (i.e., mechanical harvesting), it is imperative to identify the optimum planting density that will contribute to higher leaf area index, higher photosynthesis, and eventually higher productivity.

  20. Effect of Supplemental Roughage on Behavior, Physiological Stress Response, and Egg Production Parameters of Farmed Partridges (Perdix perdix)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Jørgen B.; Hansen, Bente Krogh

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that supplemental feeding of roughages (maize silage, rucola salad, or wheat sprouts) would reduce behavioral and physiological signs of stress and increase egg production. A total of 160 adult partridge breeder birds were housed...... in pairs of 1 male and 1 female/cage during the egg-laying period from April to June. Birds fed on maize silage spent more time laying and less time foraging than birds in the wheat sprout treatment (P ... concentrate only or concentrate with supplements of maize silage or fresh rucola salad...

  1. Product ion distributions for the reactions of NO(+) with some physiologically significant aldehydes obtained using a SRI-TOF-MS instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Mochalski, P; Unterkofler, K.; Španěl, P; Smith, D; AMANN, A

    2014-01-01

    Product ion distributions for the reactions of NO(+) with 22 aldehydes involved in human physiology have been determined under the prevailing conditions of a selective reagent ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SRI-TOF-MS) at an E/N in the flow/drift tube reactor of 130 Td. The chosen aldehydes were fourteen alkanals (the C2-C11 n-alkanals, 2-methyl propanal, 2-methyl butanal, 3-methyl butanal, and 2-ethyl hexanal), six alkenals (2-propenal, 2-methyl 2-propenal, 2-butenal, 3-methyl ...

  2. Evolution of a physiological pH 6.8 bicarbonate buffer system: application to the dissolution testing of enteric coated products.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fang; Merchant, Hamid A.; Kulkarni, Rucha P.; Alkademi, Maram; Basit, Abdul W

    2011-01-01

    The use of compendial pH 6.8 phosphate buffer to assess dissolution of enteric coated products gives rise to poor in vitro-in vivo correlations because of the inadequacy of the buffer to resemble small intestinal fluids. A more representative and physiological medium, pH 6.8 bicarbonate buffer, was developed to evaluate the dissolution behaviour of enteric coatings. The bicarbonate system was evolved from pH7.4 Hanks balanced salt solution to produce a pH 6.8 bicarbonate buffer (modified Hank...

  3. Chemoprevention in gastrointestinal physiology and disease. Targeting the progression of cancer with natural products: a focus on gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoogar, Roxane; Kim, Byung-Chang; Morris, Jay; Wargovich, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The last decade has witnessed remarkable progress in the utilization of natural products for the prevention and treatment of human cancer. Many agents now in the pipeline for clinical trial testing have evolved from our understanding of how human nutritional patterns account for widespread differences in cancer risk. In this review, we have focused on many of these promising agents arguing that they may provide a new strategy for cancer control: natural products once thought to be only preventive in their mode of action now are being explored for efficacy in tandem with cancer therapeutics. Natural products may reduce off-target toxicity of therapeutics while making cancers more amenable to therapy. On the horizon is the use of certain natural products, in their own right, as mitigants of late-stage cancer, a new frontier for small-molecule natural product drug discovery.

  4. Biofuel production potentials in Europe: Sustainable use of cultivated land and pastures. Part I: Land productivity potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, G.; Prieler, S.; van Velthuizen, H.; Lensink, S.; Londo, H.M.; de Wit, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    IIASA's agro-ecological zones modelling framework has been extended for biofuel productivity assessments distinguishing five main groups of feedstocks covering a wide range of agronomic conditions and energy production pathways, namely: woody lignocellulosic plants, herbaceous lignocellulosic plants

  5. ACCF/ACR/AIUM/ASE/ASN/ICAVL/SCAI/SCCT/SIR/SVM/SVS 2012 Appropriate Use Criteria for Peripheral Vascular Ultrasound and Physiological Testing Part I: Arterial Ultrasound and Physiological Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Emile R.; Gornik, Heather L.; Gerhard-Herman, Marie; Misra, Sanjay; Olin, Jeffrey W.; Zierler, R. Eugene; Wolk, Michael J.; Mohler, Emile R.; Dixon, Bradley S.; Driver, Vickie R.; Fail, Peter S.; Fazel, Reza; Findeiss, Laura; Fuchs, Richard; Gillespie, John; Hughes, Joseph P.; Jaigobin, Cheryl; Leers, Steven A.; Moore, Colleen; Pellerito, John S.; Robbin, Michelle L.; Shugart, Rita E.; Weaver, Fred A.; White, Christopher J.; Yevzlin, Alexander S.; Wolk, Michael J.; Bailey, Steven R.; Douglas, Pamela S.; Hendel, Robert C.; Kramer, Christopher M.; Min, James K.; Patel, Manesh R.; Shaw, Leslee; Stainback, Raymond F.; Allen, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), in partnership with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted a review of common clinical scenarios where noninvasive vascular testing (ultrasound and physiological testing) is frequently considered. The indications (clinical scenarios) were derived from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines and results of studies examining the implementation of the original appropriate use criteria (AUC). The 159 indications in this document were developed by a diverse writing group and scored by a separate independent technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9, to designate appropriate use (median 7 to 9), uncertain use (median 4 to 6), and inappropriate use (median 1 to 3). A total of 255 indications (with the inclusion of surveillance timeframes) were rated. One hundred and seventeen indications were rated as appropriate, 84 were rated as uncertain, and 54 were rated as inappropriate. The AUC for peripheral vascular disease have the potential to impact physician decision making, healthcare delivery, and reimbursement policy. Furthermore, recognition of uncertain clinical scenarios facilitates identification of areas that would benefit from future research. PMID:22694840

  6. Reduction of defective products by empiric analysis: the production line case in a factory of automotive parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Telles, Ramses; de los Ángeles Navarrete, María

    2017-08-01

    As all massive line production, in the production line under study, exist the possibility of produce defective products, so like all companies based in continuous improvement, it wants to know all the facts about these defective products, for example, how many are they? in which areas do they arise? Why do they arise? And among other questions, in order to suggest and implement some solution alternatives

  7. Optimising enzyme production by bakers yeast in continuous culture: physiological knowledge useful for process design and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, M.E. [Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Bulmer, M. [Advanced Centre for Biochemical Engineering, University Coll., London (United Kingdom); Bogle, I.D.L. [Advanced Centre for Biochemical Engineering, University Coll., London (United Kingdom); Titchener-Hooker, N. [Advanced Centre for Biochemical Engineering, University Coll., London (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was grown in aerobic continuous culture on a defined minimal medium, with glucose (40 g.l{sup -1}) as the growth-limiting carbon source, to acquire knowledge useful in process design and for model-based control. Steady-state concentrations of biomass, glucose, ethanol and activities of model products alcohol dehydrogenase, hexokinase, malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and iso-citrate dehydrogenase were determined at dilution rates (D) between 0.06 h{sup -1} and 0.323 h{sup -1} (close to {mu}{sub max}). Enzyme activities showed productivity trends related to the transition from oxidative to oxido-reductive growth. Conclusions are drawn from the data with regard to designing a new process for production of intracellular enzymes. Issues of process stability as well as productivity are discussed. (orig.). With 5 figs.

  8. Physiological Research of Defence Interest in India Part II: Studies in Thermal Stress Noise Exposure Hazards Bioclimatology Physical Work Capacity and Effects of Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Ramaswamy

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evaluation of the caloric requirements of our defence personnel under various operational scenarios has helped rationalise the service ration scale appropriate to each scenario. Some of our troops have often to work under extremely hot-dry or hot-cold environments which are generally known have adverse effect on the human body. Consequently, the nature of heat illness cases among army personnel and the contributing factors, the requirements of sodium and potassium in summer, quantification of the impact of thermal stress on the physical work capacity and mental functions, prediction of endurance time and safe exposure time while working under hot environments, have been extensively studied. Exposure to high noise levels is a hazard during gunfire as well as operation of machinery such as engines of ships. Auditory and non-auditory effects due to exposure, and the measures to minimise noise exposure, have been studied. Durations of safe exposure to different noise levels have been prescribed. Another important area covered is the effect of ageing on physical and capacities. The findings would be useful in the optimal deployment of troops in different tasks. Defence physiologists have also carried out basic research whose results would be handy in the setting of norms and standards for important physiological parameters and for the ergonomic/physiological evaluation of implements and instruments.

  9. High efficiency cell-recycle continuous sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger using on-line physiological parameters association analysis to regulate feed rate rationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Li, Chao; Wang, Zejian; Zhao, Wei; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a system of cell-recycle continuous fermentation for sodium gluconate (SG) production by Aspergillus niger (A. niger) was established. Based on initial continuous fermentation result (100.0h) with constant feed rate, an automatic feedback strategy to regulate feed rate using on-line physiological parameters (OUR and DO) was proposed and applied successfully for the first time in the improved continuous fermentation (240.5h). Due to less auxiliary time, highest SG production rate (31.05±0.29gL(-1)h(-1)) and highest yield (0.984±0.067molmol(-1)), overall SG production capacity (975.8±5.8gh(-1)) in 50-L fermentor of improved continuous fermentation increased more than 300.0% compared to that of batch fermentation. Improvement of mass transfer and dispersed mycelia morphology were the two major reasons responsible for the high SG production rate. This system had been successfully applied to industrial fermentation and SG production was greatly improved.

  10. Use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models coupled with pharmacodynamic models to assess the clinical relevance of current bioequivalence criteria for generic drug products containing Ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2014-10-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models coupled with pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models can be useful to identify whether current bioequivalence criteria is overly conservative or venturesome for different drugs. A PBPK model constructed with Simcyp Simulator(®) using reported biopharmaceutics parameters for ibuprofen was coupled with two published PD models: one for antipyresis and one for dental pain relief. Using products with doses of 400 mg and 10 mg/kg as "reference (R)" drug products, virtual products with doses of 280 mg and 7 mg/kg, respectively, could be interpreted as representing bioinequivalent test (T) drug products, as the point estimate for the ratios T/R are well below the bioequivalence limits. Despite being bioinequivalent in terms of PK, these lower doses were shown to be therapeutically equivalent to the higher doses because of the flat dose-response relationship of ibuprofen. Sensitivity analysis of the PBPK/PD models demonstrated that gastric emptying time, dissolution rate and small intestine pH are variables that influence ibuprofen PK, but do not seem to significantly affect its PD. It was concluded that current bioequivalent guidance might be unnecessarily restrictive for ibuprofen products.

  11. Development and evaluation of magnesium oxide-based ceramics for chamber parts in mass-production plasma etching equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasashima, Yuji; Tsutsumi, Kota; Mitomi, Shinzo; Uesugi, Fumihiko

    2017-06-01

    In mass-production plasma etching equipment, the corrosion of ceramic chamber parts reduces the production yield of LSI and overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) owing to contamination, short useful life, and particle generation. Novel ceramics that can improve the production yield and OEE are highly required. We develop magnesium oxide (MgO)-based ceramics and evaluate them under mass-production plasma etching conditions. The results of this study indicate that the developed MgO-based ceramics with high mechanical properties and low electric resistivity have a higher resistance to corrosion in plasma etching using CF4 gas than Si and conventional ceramic materials such as aluminum oxide and yttrium oxide.

  12. Physiological response of Pichia pastoris GS115 to methanol-induced high level production of the Hepatitis B surface antigen: catabolic adaptation, stress responses, and autophagic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanz Ana Leticia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pichia pastoris is an established eukaryotic host for the production of recombinant proteins. Most often, protein production is under the control of the strong methanol-inducible aox1 promoter. However, detailed information about the physiological alterations in P. pastoris accompanying the shift from growth on glycerol to methanol-induced protein production under industrial relevant conditions is missing. Here, we provide an analysis of the physiological response of P. pastoris GS115 to methanol-induced high-level production of the Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg. High product titers and the retention of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER are supposedly of major impact on the host physiology. For a more detailed understanding of the cellular response to methanol-induced HBsAg production, the time-dependent changes in the yeast proteome and ultrastructural cell morphology were analyzed during the production process. Results The shift from growth on glycerol to growth and HBsAg production on methanol was accompanied by a drastic change in the yeast proteome. In particular, enzymes from the methanol dissimilation pathway started to dominate the proteome while enzymes from the methanol assimilation pathway, e.g. the transketolase DAS1, increased only moderately. The majority of methanol was metabolized via the energy generating dissimilatory pathway leading to a corresponding increase in mitochondrial size and numbers. The methanol-metabolism related generation of reactive oxygen species induced a pronounced oxidative stress response (e.g. strong increase of the peroxiredoxin PMP20. Moreover, the accumulation of HBsAg in the ER resulted in the induction of the unfolded protein response (e.g. strong increase of the ER-resident disulfide isomerase, PDI and the ER associated degradation (ERAD pathway (e.g. increase of two cytosolic chaperones and members of the AAA ATPase superfamily indicating that potential

  13. Using a third tone to probe the physiological generation site of distortion product otoacoustic emissions in gerbil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei

    2015-12-01

    The generation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) has been summarized using a two-mechanism theory consisting of nonlinear distortion and linear coherent reflection. However, the precise generation site in the cochlea is still unclear. The current study in gerbils used a third tone in different cochlear regions to probe the cochlear origin site of DPOAEs. DPOAEs and their intracochlear sources, distortion products (DPs), were simultaneously measured. Our results suggest that the major generation site of DPOAEs evoked by an f2/f1 ratio of 1.25 extends basal to the primary f2 place, which is consistent with notions about the location of the cochlear amplifier.

  14. The Importance of the Ionic Product for Water to Understand the Physiology of the Acid-Base Balance in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; Natalia Carneiro-Freire; Cristóbal Donapetry-García; Eva Rañal-Muíño; Yosua López-Pereiro

    2014-01-01

    Human plasma is an aqueous solution that has to abide by chemical rules such as the principle of electrical neutrality and the constancy of the ionic product for water. These rules define the acid-base balance in the human body. According to the electroneutrality principle, plasma has to be electrically neutral and the sum of its cations equals the sum of its anions. In addition, the ionic product for water has to be constant. Therefore, the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions depends on th...

  15. Ultrasound-potentiated salicylic acid-induced physiological effects and production of taxol in hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Ayatollah; Ghanati, Faezeh; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe

    2011-11-01

    Effects of ultrasound (US), salicylic acid (SA) and their combined use on the growth and secondary metabolite production of suspension-cultured Corylus avellana cells were investigated. The cultures were treated with US (40 kHz) for short periods of time (2, 3, 5 and 10 min) and SA (25 and 50 mg L(-1)). Results showed that although phenolic content of the cells was significantly increased under exposure to treatments, flavonoids content significantly decreased. Taxol biosynthesis was improved by all treatments. US exposure increased the extracellular, cell-associated and total taxol yield three-, 1.6-, and two-fold compared with that of the control, respectively. SA at all levels was more effective than US in stimulating cell-associated and total taxol production. Combined treatment of US and SA at 50 mg L(-1) resulted in the most improvement in total taxol production, which was about seven times higher than that of the US, three times higher than that of the SA and 14 times higher than that of the control. The results suggest a synergism between US and SA in enhancing taxol production by hazelnut cells.

  16. Physiology: Capacity for Hormone Production of Cultured Trophoblast Cells Obtained from Placentae at Term and in Early Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Problem: There is an increased doubt about the identity of isolated cytotrophoblast cells at term. Therefore, we compared pregnancy serum levels of three hormones [human placental lactogen (hPL), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and leptin] with the capacity for hormone production of early placentae [EP; 8–13 weeks of gestation (WG)] and term placentae (TP; 38–42 WG).

  17. Update on a Pharmacokinetic-Centric Alternative Tier II Program for MMT—Part II: Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Manganese Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a variety of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK models have been developed for the essential element manganese. This paper reviews the development of PBPK models (e.g., adult, pregnant, lactating, and neonatal rats, nonhuman primates, and adult, pregnant, lactating, and neonatal humans and relevant risk assessment applications. Each PBPK model incorporates critical features including dose-dependent saturable tissue capacities and asymmetrical diffusional flux of manganese into brain and other tissues. Varied influx and efflux diffusion rate and binding constants for different brain regions account for the differential increases in regional brain manganese concentrations observed experimentally. We also present novel PBPK simulations to predict manganese tissue concentrations in fetal, neonatal, pregnant, or aged individuals, as well as individuals with liver disease or chronic manganese inhalation. The results of these simulations could help guide risk assessors in the application of uncertainty factors as they establish exposure guidelines for the general public or workers.

  18. [Historical and Hygienic Aspects on Roles of Quality Requirements for Antibiotic Products in Japan: Part 1--Development of Antibiotic Products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagisawa, Morimasa; Foster, Patrick J; Kurokawa, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic products have contributed greatly to keep Japanese people healthy by controlling lethal infections. In the early days, antibiotics such as penicillin and streptomycin were produced using microbial fermentation processes. Therefore, the component ratio of the active element and related substances varied lot by lot. For the purpose of efficacy and assuring safety, minimum requirements for penicillin and streptomycin products were enacted. Both variations and the number of clinically available antibiotic products have increased due to the pharmaceutical development of novel natural antibiotics. In addition, semi-synthetic derivatives of various antibiotics have been developed for the purpose of enhancing antimicrobial activity or improving pharmacological properties. As a result, 202 entities of antibiotic products have been approved and used clinically as of 2012. We conducted a detailed investigation of the progress made in the field of antibiotic products, and analyzed the characteristics of those belonging to each class of antibiotics by means of setting up a system of classification that reflects clinical applications. This report is intended to serve as an introduction to our series of investigations into the role and influence of quality requirements on development of antibacterial antibiotic products in Japan. As described here, the general view of antibacterial antibiotic products spanning a time frame of 67 years in Japan might serve as an ideal reference for future reports.

  19. Hematopoietic-Prostaglandin D2 synthase through PGD2 production is involved in the adult ovarian physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Andalib

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prostaglandin D2 (PGD2 pathway is involved in numerous biological processes and while it has been identified as a partner of the embryonic sex determining male cascade, the roles it plays in ovarian function remain largely unknown. PGD2 is secreted by two prostaglandin D synthases (Pgds; the male-specific lipocalin (L-Pgds and the hematopoietic (H-Pgds. Methods To study the expression of the Pgds in the adult ovary, in situ hybridization were performed. Then, to evaluate the role of H-Pgds produced PGD2 in the ovarian physiology, adult female mice were treated with HQL-79, a specific inhibitor of H-Pgds enzymatic activity. The effects on expression of the gonadotrophin receptors FshR and LhR, steroidogenic genes Cyp11A1, StAR and on circulating progesterone and estradiol, were observed. Results We report the localization of H-Pgds mRNA in the granulosa cells from the primary to pre-ovulatory follicles. We provide evidence of the role of H-Pgds-produced PGD2 signaling in the FSH signaling through increased FshR and LhR receptor expression. This leads to the activation of steroidogenic Cyp11A1 and StAR gene expression leading to progesterone secretion, independently on other prostanoid-synthetizing mechanisms. We also identify a role whereby H-Pgds-produced PGD2 is involved in the regulation of follicular growth through inhibition of granulosa cell proliferation in the growing follicles. Conclusions Together, these results show PGD2 signaling to interfere with FSH action within granulosa cells, thus identifying an important and unappreciated role for PGD2 signaling in modulating the balance of proliferation, differentiation and steroidogenic activity of granulosa cells.

  20. Optimization of five environmental factors to increase beta-propeller phytase production in Pichia pastoris and impact on the physiological response of the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viader-Salvadó, José M; Castillo-Galván, Miguel; Fuentes-Garibay, José A; Iracheta-Cárdenas, María M; Guerrero-Olazarán, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we engineered Pichia pastoris Mut(s) strains to produce several beta-propeller phytases, one from Bacillus subtilis and the others designed by a structure-guided consensus approach. Furthermore, we demonstrated the ability of P. pastoris to produce and secrete these phytases in an active form in shake-flask cultures. In the present work, we used a design of experiments strategy (Simplex optimization method) to optimize five environmental factors that define the culture conditions in the induction step to increase beta-propeller phytase production in P. pastoris bioreactor cultures. With the optimization process, up to 347,682 U (82,814 U/L or 6.4 g/L culture medium) of phytase at 68 h of induction was achieved. In addition, the impact of the optimization process on the physiological response of the host was evaluated. The results indicate that the increase in extracellular phytase production through the optimization process was correlated with an increase in metabolic activity of P. pastoris, shown by an increase in oxygen demand and methanol consumption, that increase the specific growth rate. The increase in extracellular phytase production also occurred with a decrease in extracellular protease activity. Moreover, the optimized culture conditions increased the recombinant protein secretion by up to 88%, along with the extracellular phytase production efficiency per cell.

  1. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Li, H; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens' activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  2. A quantitative method to monitor reactive oxygen species production by electron paramagnetic resonance in physiological and pathological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Montorsi, Michela; Porcelli, Simone; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The growing interest in the role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and in the assessment of oxidative stress in health and disease clashes with the lack of consensus on reliable quantitative noninvasive methods applicable. The study aimed at demonstrating that a recently developed Electron Paramagnetic Resonance microinvasive method provides direct evidence of the "instantaneous" presence of ROS returning absolute concentration levels that correlate with "a posteriori" assays of ROS-induced damage by means of biomarkers. The reliability of the choice to measure ROS production rate in human capillary blood rather than in plasma was tested (step I). A significant (P condition, were found significantly different (range 0.0001-0.05 P level). The comparison of the results with antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage biomarkers concentrations showed that all changes indicating increased oxidative stress are directly related to ROS production increase. Therefore, the adopted method may be an automated technique for a lot of routine in clinical trials.

  3. The Importance of the Ionic Product for Water to Understand the Physiology of the Acid-Base Balance in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Adeva-Andany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human plasma is an aqueous solution that has to abide by chemical rules such as the principle of electrical neutrality and the constancy of the ionic product for water. These rules define the acid-base balance in the human body. According to the electroneutrality principle, plasma has to be electrically neutral and the sum of its cations equals the sum of its anions. In addition, the ionic product for water has to be constant. Therefore, the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions depends on the plasma ionic composition. Variations in the concentration of plasma ions that alter the relative proportion of anions and cations predictably lead to a change in the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions by driving adaptive adjustments in water ionization that allow plasma electroneutrality while maintaining constant the ionic product for water. The accumulation of plasma anions out of proportion of cations induces an electrical imbalance compensated by a fall of hydroxide ions that brings about a rise in hydrogen ions (acidosis. By contrast, the deficiency of chloride relative to sodium generates plasma alkalosis by increasing hydroxide ions. The adjustment of plasma bicarbonate concentration to these changes is an important compensatory mechanism that protects plasma pH from severe deviations.

  4. Modifying the product pattern of Clostridium acetobutylicum: physiological effects of disrupting the acetate and acetone formation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Dörte; Hönicke, Daniel; Ehrenreich, Armin; Schmidt, Michael; Weuster-Botz, Dirk; Bahl, Hubert; Lütke-Eversloh, Tina

    2012-05-01

    Clostridial acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is a natural source for microbial n-butanol production and regained much interest in academia and industry in the past years. Due to the difficult genetic accessibility of Clostridium acetobutylicum and other solventogenic clostridia, successful metabolic engineering approaches are still rare. In this study, a set of five knock-out mutants with defects in the central fermentative metabolism were generated using the ClosTron technology, including the construction of targeted double knock-out mutants of C. acetobtuylicum ATCC 824. While disruption of the acetate biosynthetic pathway had no significant impact on the metabolite distribution, mutants with defects in the acetone pathway, including both acetoacetate decarboxylase (Adc)-negative and acetoacetyl-CoA:acyl-CoA transferase (CtfAB)-negative mutants, exhibited high amounts of acetate in the fermentation broth. Distinct butyrate increase and decrease patterns during the course of fermentations provided experimental evidence that butyrate, but not acetate, is re-assimilated via an Adc/CtfAB-independent pathway in C. acetobutylicum. Interestingly, combining the adc and ctfA mutations with a knock-out of the phosphotransacetylase (Pta)-encoding gene, acetate production was drastically reduced, resulting in an increased flux towards butyrate. Except for the Pta-negative single mutant, all mutants exhibited a significantly reduced solvent production.

  5. The importance of the ionic product for water to understand the physiology of the acid-base balance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeva-Andany, María M; Carneiro-Freire, Natalia; Donapetry-García, Cristóbal; Rañal-Muíño, Eva; López-Pereiro, Yosua

    2014-01-01

    Human plasma is an aqueous solution that has to abide by chemical rules such as the principle of electrical neutrality and the constancy of the ionic product for water. These rules define the acid-base balance in the human body. According to the electroneutrality principle, plasma has to be electrically neutral and the sum of its cations equals the sum of its anions. In addition, the ionic product for water has to be constant. Therefore, the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions depends on the plasma ionic composition. Variations in the concentration of plasma ions that alter the relative proportion of anions and cations predictably lead to a change in the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions by driving adaptive adjustments in water ionization that allow plasma electroneutrality while maintaining constant the ionic product for water. The accumulation of plasma anions out of proportion of cations induces an electrical imbalance compensated by a fall of hydroxide ions that brings about a rise in hydrogen ions (acidosis). By contrast, the deficiency of chloride relative to sodium generates plasma alkalosis by increasing hydroxide ions. The adjustment of plasma bicarbonate concentration to these changes is an important compensatory mechanism that protects plasma pH from severe deviations.

  6. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  7. Gross primary production variability associated with meteorology, physiology, leaf area, and water supply in contrasting woodland and grassland semiarid riparian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerette, G. D.; Scott, R. L.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Huxman, T. E.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchanges in dryland environments has been more challenging than in mesic environments, likely due to more pronounced nonlinear responses of ecosystem processes to environmental variation. To better understand diurnal to interannual variation in gross primary productivity (GPP) variability, we coupled continuous eddy-covariance derived whole ecosystem gas exchange measurements with an ecophysiologic model based on fundamental principles of diffusion, mass balance, reaction kinetics, and biochemical regulation of photosynthesis. We evaluated the coupled data-model system to describe and understand the dynamics of 3 years of growing season GPP from a riparian grassland and woodland in southern Arizona. The data-model fusion procedure skillfully reproduced the majority of daily variation GPP throughout three growing seasons. While meteorology was similar between sites, the woodland site had consistently higher GPP rates and lower variability at daily and interannual timescales relative to the grassland site. We examined the causes of this variation using a new state factor model analysis that partitioned GPP variation into four factors: meteorology, physiology, leaf area, and water supply. The largest proportion of GPP variation was associated with physiological differences. The woodland showed a greater sensitivity than the grassland to water supply, while the grassland showed a greater sensitivity to leaf area. These differences are consistent with hypotheses of woody species using resistance mechanisms, stomatal regulation, and grassland species using resilience mechanisms, leaf area regulation, in avoiding water stress and have implications for future GPP sensitivity to climate variability following wood-grass transitions.

  8. On the Hybrid F1 Characteristics of Physiology, Biochemistry, Product Quality and Resistance to Black Shank in Oriental Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen X

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted from 1996 to 1998 at the Hefei Institute of Economics and Technology and at the Oriental Experimental Station of the Zhejiang Province (China. Seven F1 hybrids and three parental varieties of Oriental tobaccos were evaluated for the characteristics of photosynthetic and transpiration rates, esterase isozymes, resistance to black shank, quality and product potential from the 1996-1998 growing seasons. Tobacco leaves had higher photosynthetic rates and many differences among genotypes in the early stage of plant vigorous growth compared with more mature leaves. However, transpiration rates were lower in the younger leaves and greater in the more mature leaves. All the entries had four common bands (B1, B3, B4 and B6 of the esterase isoenzymes. Differences between entries resulted from in having or not having the B2 and B5 bands and color intensity differences of all the bands. These differences could be used to identify individual entries. The F1hybrids Samsun X Toy and Samsun X Argjiro, compared with the CK Samsun control, had obvious heterotic vigor in the characteristics of product, for yield, quality and resistance to black shank. The F1 hybrid Samsun X Toy maintained higher photosynthetic and transpiration rates in the two growth stages compared to other entries. However, the F1hybrid Samsun X Argjiro had higher photosynthetic rates and lower transpiration rates in the early growth stage and the two rates were lower in the later stage, but it maintained higher photosynthetic rates for the whole growth stage. Net photosynthetic rates had a significant positive correlation with yield product, quality and resistance to black shank of the Oriental tobacco F1hybrids.

  9. IFCC recommendation: The theory of reference values. Part 4. Control of analytical variation in the production, transfer and application of reference values

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Helge Erik; Stamm, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is the fourth in a series of Recommendations on the Theory of Reference Values. The others cover: Part 1. The Concept of Reference Values [1]. Part 2. Selection of Individuals for the Production of Reference Values [2]. Part 3. Preparation of Individuals and Collection of Specimens for the Production of Reference Values [3]. Part 5. Statistical Treatment of Collected Reference Values. Determination of Reference Limits [4]. Part 6. Presentation of Observed Values Related to Referenc...

  10. Endogenous Production of H2S in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Still in Search of a Physiologic Function

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, David R; Levitt, Michael D.; Farrugia, Gianrico; Szurszewski, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has long been associated with the gastrointestinal tract, especially the bacteria-derived H2S present in flatus. Along with evidence from other organ systems, the finding that gastrointestinal tissues are capable of endogenous production of H2S has led to the hypothesis that H2S is an endogenous gaseous signaling molecule. In this review, the criteria of gasotransmitters are reexamined, and evidence from the literature regarding H2S as a gaseous signaling molecule is di...

  11. Application of fuzzy analytic network process for barrier evaluation in automotive parts remanufacturing towards cleaner production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Shankar, Madan; Kannan, Devika

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of end-of-life vehicles and a burgeoning concern for conservation of resources pressures the implementation of auto parts remanufacturing globally. But unlike in developed nations, developing countries encounter struggle with the implementation of auto parts remanufacturing due...

  12. Acquisition Pricing and Inventory Decisions on Dual-Source Spare-Part System with Final Production and Remanufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancong Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The life spans of durable goods are longer than their warranty periods. To satisfy the service demand of spare parts and keep the market competition advantage, enterprises have to maintain the longer inventory planning of spare parts. However, how to obtain a valid number of spare parts is difficult for those enterprises. In this paper, we consider a spare-part inventory problem, where the inventory can be replenished by two ways including the final production order and the remanufacturing way. Especially for the remanufacturing way, we consider the acquisition management problem of used products concerning an acquisition pricing decision. In a multiperiod setting, we formulate the problem into a dynamic optimization problem, where the system decisions include the final production order and acquisition price of used products at each period. By stochastic dynamic programming, we obtain the optimal policy of the acquisition pricing at each period and give the optimal policy structure of the optimization problem at the first period. Then, a recursion algorithm is designed to calculate the optimal decisions and the critical points in the policy. Finally, the numerical analyses show the effects of demand information and customer’s sensitive degree on the related decisions and the optimal cost.

  13. DOSoReMI.hu: collection of countrywide DSM products partly according to GSM.net specifications, partly driven by specific user demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Szatmári, Gábor; Illés, Gábor; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Szabó, József

    2017-04-01

    Due to former soil surveys and mapping activities significant amount of soil information has accumulated in Hungary. In traditional soil mapping the creation of a new map was troublesome and laborious. As a consequence, robust maps were elaborated and rather the demands were fitted to the available map products. Until recently spatial soil information demands have been serviced with the available datasets either in their actual form or after certain specific and often enforced, thematic and spatial inference. Considerable imperfection may occur in the accuracy and reliability of the map products, since there might be significant discrepancies between the available data and the expected information. The DOSoReMI.hu (Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) project was started intentionally for the renewal of the national soil spatial infrastructure in Hungary. During our activities we have significantly extended the potential, how soil information requirements could be satisfied. Soil property, soil type as well as functional soil maps were targeted. The set of the applied digital soil mapping techniques has been gradually broadened incorporating and eventually integrating geostatistical, data mining and GIS tools. Soil property maps have been compiled partly according to GSM.net specifications, partly by slightly or more strictly changing some of their predefined parameters (depth intervals, pixel size, property etc.) according to the specific demands on the final products. The elaborated primary maps were further processed, since even DOSoReMI.hu intended to take steps for the regionalization of higher level soil information (processes, functions, and services) involving crop models in the spatial modelling. The framework of DOSoReMI.hu also provides opportunity for the elaboration of goal specific soil maps, with the prescription of the parameters (thematic, resolution, accuracy, reliability etc.) characterizing the map product. As a

  14. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    The effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat to provide a diet with similar net energy for lactation (NEL) density on yields of milk and milk components and on energy partitioning were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n = 32; 109 ± 22 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence. Treatments were a high-starch diet containing 33% corn grain (mixture of dry ground and high-moisture corn; HS) or a high-fiber, high-fat diet containing 2.5% palmitic acid-enriched fatty acid (FA) supplement (HFF). Diets contained corn silage, alfalfa silage, and wheat straw as forage sources; HS contained 32% starch, 3.2% FA, and 25% neutral detergent fiber, whereas HFF contained 16% starch, 5.4% FA, and 33% neutral detergent fiber. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced milk yield, milk protein concentration, and milk protein yield, but increased milk fat concentration, milk fat yield, milk energy output, and milk to feed ratio (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake). The HFF treatment reduced the yield of de novo synthesized ( 16-carbon) milk FA was not different. The HFF treatment increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, but decreased plasma concentration of insulin. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced body weight gain, change in body condition score, and fat thickness over the rump and rib. Calculated body energy gain, as a fraction of NEL use, was less for HFF than HS, whereas milk energy as a fraction of NEL use was increased for HFF. We concluded that the 2 treatments resulted in similar apparent NEL densities and intakes, but the HS treatment partitioned more energy toward body gain whereas the HFF treatment partitioned more energy toward milk. A high-fiber, high-fat diet might diminish the incidence of over conditioning in mid-lactation cows while maintaining high milk production. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  15. Cost Analysis of Spatial Data Production as Part of Business Intelligence Within the Mapping Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisa, A.; Erkek, B.; Çolak, S.

    2012-07-01

    Business intelligence is becoming an important strategic tool for business management. Companies have invested significant resources in applications for customer relationship management (CRM), supply chain management (SCM), enterprise resource planning (ERP), e-commerce, among others, which collect vast amounts of data. Today, these same companies are realizing that no matter how robust their application feature sets are, without an equally robust BI mechanism to make use of the collected data, these applications are ultimately coming up short. They do not provide actionable information to end users nor can they give a global understanding among all the organization's information from the various databases for accounting, CRM, and so on. General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre (GDLRC) is the leader organizations in Turkey on the field of mapping-land registry-cadastre. GDLRC has executed spatial based projects on the way National Spatial Data Infrastructure especially from the beginnings of 2000s. such as; Continuously Operating GPS Reference Stations (TUSAGA-Aktif), Geo-Metadata Portal (HBB), Orthophoto-Base Map Production and web services, Completion of Initial Cadastre, Cadastral Renovation Project (TKMP), Land Registry and Cadastre Information System (TAKBIS), Turkish National Spatial Data Infrastructure Project (TNSDI), Ottoman Land Registry Archive Information System (TARBIS). Most of this project has been completed. Some software has been developed within the mentioned project, especially reporting for management level to take decision. In the year of 2010 a new law launched and forced to reorganization of General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre. The new structural changes effected to whole organization, management understanding, carrier understanding so on. Even in mapping department which is spatial data producer, now there is no technician, there is no section; there are new carrier as experts. Because of that, all procedures and

  16. Mathematical modeling and simulation in animal health - Part II: principles, methods, applications, and value of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in veterinary medicine and food safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z; Gehring, R; Mochel, J P; Lavé, T; Riviere, J E

    2016-10-01

    This review provides a tutorial for individuals interested in quantitative veterinary pharmacology and toxicology and offers a basis for establishing guidelines for physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development and application in veterinary medicine. This is important as the application of PBPK modeling in veterinary medicine has evolved over the past two decades. PBPK models can be used to predict drug tissue residues and withdrawal times in food-producing animals, to estimate chemical concentrations at the site of action and target organ toxicity to aid risk assessment of environmental contaminants and/or drugs in both domestic animals and wildlife, as well as to help design therapeutic regimens for veterinary drugs. This review provides a comprehensive summary of PBPK modeling principles, model development methodology, and the current applications in veterinary medicine, with a focus on predictions of drug tissue residues and withdrawal times in food-producing animals. The advantages and disadvantages of PBPK modeling compared to other pharmacokinetic modeling approaches (i.e., classical compartmental/noncompartmental modeling, nonlinear mixed-effects modeling, and interspecies allometric scaling) are further presented. The review finally discusses contemporary challenges and our perspectives on model documentation, evaluation criteria, quality improvement, and offers solutions to increase model acceptance and applications in veterinary pharmacology and toxicology.

  17. Physiological mechanisms of prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G

    2017-08-12

    Psychophysiological perspectives can provide unique insights into the nature and motivations of children's prosociality and inform our understanding of individual differences. Here, I review current research on prosociality involving some of the most common physiological measures in developmental psychology, including cortisol, various sympathetic nervous system measures, and high-frequency heart rate variability. The literature has been quite mixed, in part because the link between physiology and prosociality is context-dependent and person-dependent. However, recent advances are refining our understanding of the basic physiological mechanisms of prosociality. Resting physiology that contributes to a balance of regulation and vigilance prepares children to effectively cope with future social challenges, like noticing and attending to the needs of others. Experiencing some arousal is an important aspect of empathy-related responding, but physiological patterns of both heightened and hypoarousal can undermine prosociality. Physiological flexibility in response to others' needs may support emotional and behavioral flexibility important for prosociality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 2 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

  19. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 3 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

  20. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 1 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

  1. Effect of Supplemental Roughage on Behavior, Physiological Stress Response, and Egg Production Parameters of Farmed Partridges (Perdix perdix)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Jørgen B.; Hansen, Bente Krogh

    2007-01-01

    in pairs of 1 male and 1 female/cage during the egg-laying period from April to June. Birds fed on maize silage spent more time laying and less time foraging than birds in the wheat sprout treatment (P Birds fed wheat sprouts were more active than control birds (active 57 vs. 43% of the time, P....... After 15 min of crating, the average level of corticosterone was 50.0 (20.5) ng/mL of plasma, and strongly tended (P = 0.066) to be higher in the birds on the wheat sprout treatment compared with those on the control or other treatments. Fewer eggs (P birds on the wheat sprout......The objective of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that supplemental feeding of roughages (maize silage, rucola salad, or wheat sprouts) would reduce behavioral and physiological signs of stress and increase egg production. A total of 160 adult partridge breeder birds were housed...

  2. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bent...

  3. The foundations of space biology and medicine. Volume 2: Ecological and physiological bases of space biology and medicine. Part 3: Effect on the organism of dynamic flight factors. Chapter 1: Principles of gravitational biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    The physical principles of gravitation are discussed, such as gravitational and intertial forces, weight and mass, weightlessness, size and scale effects, scale limits of gravitational effects, and gravity as a biogenic factor. The behavior of the accelerative force gravitation, is described. This law proposes and quantifies the mutual gravitational attraction existing between all bodies of matter, the force being proportional to the product of masses, and inversely related to the square of the distance separating them. Gravity orientation, chronic acceleration, and hematology are examined. Systematic responses, such as circulation and renal functions, are also considered, along with animal response to a decreased acceleration field and physiology of hyper- and hypodynamic fields.

  4. A simple novel approach for real-time monitoring of sodium gluconate production by on-line physiological parameters in batch fermentation by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Wang, Zejian; Zhao, Wei; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, approach for real-time monitoring of sodium gluconate (SG) fermentation was established for the first time by the equations which can calculate real-time key-parameters by on-line physiological data. Based on this approach, limiting factors were found out in initial fermentation F1 and then step-wise agitation increase and improved medium recipe were proposed in fermentation F2 and F3, respectively. The highest average SG production rate (16.58±0.91 g L(-1) h(-1)) was achieved in fermentation F3, which was 104.2% and 48.0% higher than those in fermentation F1 and F2, respectively. Meanwhile, due to shorter fermentation period (decreased from 34 h to 18.7 h), lower biomass (about 1.5 g L(-1)) and less by-product accumulation, the overall yield of 0.943±0.012 (mol mol(-1)) in fermentation F3 increased more than 16.0% compared to fermentation F1. This approach had been successfully applied to industrial fermentation and greatly improved SG production.

  5. High cell density culture with S. cerevisiae CEN.PK113-5D for IL-1β production: optimization, modeling, and physiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Carmine; Paciello, Lucia; de Alteriis, Elisabetta; Brambilla, Luca; Parascandola, Palma

    2015-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-5D, a strain auxotrophic for uracil belonging to the CEN.PK family of the yeast S. cerevisiae, was cultured in aerated fed-batch reactor as such and once transformed to express human interleukin-1β (IL-1β), aiming at obtaining high cell densities and optimizing IL-1β production. Three different exponentially increasing glucose feeding profiles were tested, all of them "in theory" promoting respiratory metabolism to obtain high biomass/product yield. A non-structured non-segregated model was developed to describe the performance of S. cerevisiae CEN.PK113-5D during the fed-batch process and, in particular, its capability to metabolize simultaneously glucose and ethanol which derived from the precedent batch growth. Our study showed that the proliferative capacity of the yeast population declined along the fed-batch run, as shown by the exponentially decreasing specific growth rates on glucose. Further, a shift towards fermentative metabolism occurred. This shift took place earlier the higher was the feed rate and was more pronounced in the case of the recombinant strain. Determination of some physiological markers (acetate production, intracellular ROS accumulation, catalase activity and cell viability) showed that neither poor oxygenation nor oxidative stress was responsible for the decreased specific growth rate, nor for the shift to fermentative metabolism.

  6. A physiological and biophysical model of coppice willow (Salix spp.) production yields for the contiguous USA in current and future climate scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Jaiswal, Deepak; LeBauer, David S; Wertin, Timothy M; Bollero, Germán A; Leakey, Andrew D B; Long, Stephen P

    2015-09-01

    High-performance computing has facilitated development of biomass production models that capture the key mechanisms underlying production at high spatial and temporal resolution. Direct responses to increasing [CO2 ] and temperature are important to long-lived emerging woody bioenergy crops. Fast-growing willow (Salix spp.) within short rotation coppice (SRC) has considerable potential as a renewable biomass source, but performance over wider environmental conditions and under climate change is uncertain. We extended the bioenergy crop modeling platform, BioCro, to SRC willow by adding coppicing and C3 photosynthesis subroutines, and modifying subroutines for perennation, allocation, morphology, phenology and development. Parameterization with measurements of leaf photosynthesis, allocation and phenology gave agreement of modeled with measured yield across 23 sites in Europe and North America. Predictions for the continental USA suggest yields of ≥17 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) in a 4 year rotation. Rising temperature decreased predicted yields, an effect partially ameliorated by rising [CO2 ]. This model, based on over 100 equations describing the physiological and biophysical mechanisms underlying production, provides a new framework for utilizing mechanism of plant responses to the environment, including future climates. As an open-source tool, it is made available here as a community resource for further application, improvement and adaptation.

  7. Engineering Triterpene and Methylated Triterpene Production in Plants Provides Biochemical and Physiological Insights into Terpene Metabolism1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zuodong; Kempinski, Chase; Bush, Caroline J.; Nybo, S. Eric; Chappell, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Linear, branch-chained triterpenes, including squalene (C30), botryococcene (C30), and their methylated derivatives (C31–C37), generated by the green alga Botryococcus braunii race B have received significant attention because of their utility as chemical and biofuel feedstocks. However, the slow growth habit of B. braunii makes it impractical as a production system. In this study, we evaluated the potential of generating high levels of botryococcene in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants by diverting carbon flux from the cytosolic mevalonate pathway or the plastidic methylerythritol phosphate pathway by the targeted overexpression of an avian farnesyl diphosphate synthase along with two versions of botryococcene synthases. Up to 544 µg g−1 fresh weight of botryococcene was achieved when this metabolism was directed to the chloroplasts, which is approximately 90 times greater than that accumulating in plants engineered for cytosolic production. To test if methylated triterpenes could be produced in tobacco, we also engineered triterpene methyltransferases (TMTs) from B. braunii into wild-type plants and transgenic lines selected for high-level triterpene accumulation. Up to 91% of the total triterpene contents could be converted to methylated forms (C31 and C32) by cotargeting the TMTs and triterpene biosynthesis to the chloroplasts, whereas only 4% to 14% of total triterpenes were methylated when this metabolism was directed to the cytoplasm. When the TMTs were overexpressed in the cytoplasm of wild-type plants, up to 72% of the total squalene was methylated, and total triterpene (C30+C31+C32) content was elevated 7-fold. Altogether, these results point to innate mechanisms controlling metabolite fluxes, including a homeostatic role for squalene. PMID:26603654

  8. Hydrotreating of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production. Part I: Effect of temperature on product yields and heteroatom removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezergianni, Stella; Dimitriadis, Athanasios; Kalogianni, Aggeliki; Pilavachi, Petros A

    2010-09-01

    Hydrotreating of waste cooking oil (WCO) was studied as a process for biofuels production. The hydrotreatment temperature is the most dominant operating parameter which defines catalyst performance as well as catalyst life. In this analysis, a hydrotreating temperature range of 330-398 degrees C was explored via a series of five experiments (330, 350, 370, 385 and 398 degrees C). Several parameters were considered for evaluating the effect of temperature including product yields, conversion, selectivity (diesel and gasoline), heteroatom removal (sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen) and saturation of double bonds. For all experiments the same commercial hydrotreating catalyst was utilized, while the remaining operating parameters were constant (pressure=1200 psig, LHSV=1.0 h(-1), H(2)/oil ratio=4000 scfb, liquid feed=0.33 ml/min and gas feed=0.4 scfh). It was observed that higher reactor temperatures are more attractive when gasoline production is of interest, while lower reaction temperatures are more suitable when diesel production is more important.

  9. Proactive DMSMS: Part of Integrated Systems Engineering & Life Cycle Product Support Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    CHANGE: STRATEGIC cont’d Product Support Business Model Define the overall strategy that drives cost-effective performance and capability for the...processes to deliver the right sustainment information to decision- makers Product Support Business Model Industrial Integration Strategy Supply...LCM, SRR, SCOR , PBL Production & Deployment LCSP w/in LRIP/ FRP: LCSP, P3, PBL, LCCA Materiel Solution Analysis LCSP w/in ICD: AOA, MDD, RAM, IPSe

  10. Effective use of workload and productivity monitoring tools in health-system pharmacy, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rough, Steve S; McDaniel, Michael; Rinehart, James R

    2010-03-01

    The current status of external and internal workload and productivity measurement systems and strategies to improve their use to maximize overall pharmacy department operational performance and staffing effectiveness are described. The use of operational benchmarking is increasing within health systems as a tool for continuously measuring and improving departmental performance and evaluating departmental success. Unfortunately, software used for benchmarking purposes is available through a limited number of commercial vendors and consultants, and these systems are unable to effectively measure department operations and overall performance. The theoretical value of benchmarking and productivity measurement systems, including a description of the various definitions, tools, and data sources for comparing pharmacy productivity data, is summarized. The limitations of commercially available vendor productivity monitoring systems and desired strategies for improving their use are also reviewed. Preferred productivity and cost metrics for measuring pharmacy department effectiveness are suggested, and strategies for obtaining value from external and internal productivity monitoring systems are explored. Challenges with external operational benchmarking and internal productivity monitoring systems are numerous. These systems rarely measure the quality of pharmacy services provided and their effect on patient care outcomes and the total cost of care. Benchmarking vendors must modernize their software and develop internal checks to confirm data integrity in order to make their products more useful and reliable. In addition, data supporting the patient care role of the pharmacist should be integrated into all productivity monitoring systems and be used to demonstrate the positive impact of pharmacy services on the total cost and quality of patient care.

  11. Effective use of workload and productivity monitoring tools in health-system pharmacy, part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rough, Steve S; McDaniel, Michael; Rinehart, James R

    2010-02-15

    The current status of external and internal workload and productivity measurement systems and strategies to improve their use to maximize overall pharmacy department operational performance and staffing effectiveness are described. The use of operational benchmarking is increasing within health systems as a tool for continuously measuring and improving departmental performance and evaluating departmental success. Unfortunately, software used for benchmarking purposes is available through a limited number of commercial vendors and consultants, and these systems are unable to effectively measure department operations and overall performance. The theoretical value of benchmarking and productivity measurement systems, including a description of the various definitions, tools, and data sources for comparing pharmacy productivity data, is summarized. The limitations of commercially available vendor productivity monitoring systems and desired strategies for improving their use are also reviewed. Preferred productivity and cost metrics for measuring pharmacy department effectiveness are suggested, and strategies for obtaining value from external and internal productivity monitoring systems are explored. Challenges with external operational benchmarking and internal productivity monitoring systems are numerous. These systems rarely measure the quality of pharmacy services provided and their effect on patient care outcomes and the total cost of care. Benchmarking vendors must modernize their software and develop internal checks to confirm data integrity in order to make their products more useful and reliable. In addition, data supporting the patient care role of the pharmacist should be integrated into all productivity monitoring systems and be used to demonstrate the positive impact of pharmacy services on the total cost and quality of patient care.

  12. State Modelling and Simultaneous Control of Discrete Part Manufacturing Product Transformation Processes and Resource Allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hans; Holm

    2002-01-01

    As competition in the market for discrete part prod uc ts gets harder and harder the requirements for extreme manufacturing operati on efficiencies get increasingly accentuated. Therefore requirements for well behaved manufacturing operation control get more and more significant. The purpose of the paper is to establish a framework for development of formal m ethods for design of systems for simultaneous control of continuous manufacturin g task processes and resource allocation of discrete part manu...

  13. Nucleus-based product conceptualization - Part 2. Application in designing for use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegte, W.F.; Horváth, I.

    2003-01-01

    when products are being designed, especially in conceptual design where there is a multitude of options for the designer. This paper presents a methodology to generate resource-integrated models unifying representations of the product, the user and the environment based on nucleus modelling, which i

  14. Benchmark calculations on residue production within the EURISOL DS project; Part I: thin targets

    CERN Document Server

    David, J.C; Boudard, A; Doré, D; Leray, S; Rapp, B; Ridikas, D; Thiollière, N

    Report on benchmark calculations on residue production in thin targets. Calculations were performed using MCNPX 2.5.0 coupled to a selection of reaction models. The results were compared to nuclide production cross-sections measured in GSI in inverse kinematics

  15. Stochastic state-space temperature regulation of biochar production Part I: Theoretical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of a designer biochar that targets the improvement of a specific soil property imposes the need for production processes to generate biochars with both high consistency and quality. These important production parameters can be affected by variations in process temperature that must be ta...

  16. Status and Prospect of Copper Products Trade in 2012-Part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The downturn or slow recovery of the global economy had an adverse impact on the demand in the international market. In addition, the slow growth of China’s economy, coupled with the structural adjustment of domestic copper products, ensures that most of the domestic products of different qualities and varieties can replace the imports. Therefore, both the imports

  17. Benthic studies in Goa estuaries. Part 3. Annual cycle of macrofaunal distribution, production and trophic relations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    and bivalves together contribute 70% of the macrofauna, by number and weight. Biomass production, inspite of large temporal and spatial variations, is high (54.17 g m-2) with proportionately high organic matter production of 4.08 g C m-2 y-1. Estimated annual...

  18. Physiological responses of insects to microbial fermentation products: Insights from the interactions between Drosophila and acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geonho; Huang, Jia Hsin; McMullen, John G; Newell, Peter D; Douglas, Angela E

    2017-05-15

    Acetic acid is a fermentation product of many microorganisms, including some that inhabit the food and guts of Drosophila. Here, we investigated the effect of dietary acetic acid on oviposition and larval performance of Drosophila. At all concentrations tested (0.34-3.4%), acetic acid promoted egg deposition by mated females in no-choice assays; and females preferred to oviposit on diet with acetic acid relative to acetic acid-free diet. However, acetic acid depressed larval performance, particularly extending the development time of both larvae colonized with the bacterium Acetobacter pomorum and axenic (microbe-free) larvae. The larvae may incur an energetic cost associated with dissipating the high acid load on acetic acid-supplemented diets. This effect was compounded by suppressed population growth of A. pomorum on the 3.4% acetic acid diet, such that the gnotobiotic Drosophila on this diet displayed traits characteristic of axenic Drosophila, specifically reduced developmental rate and elevated lipid content. It is concluded that acetic acid is deleterious to larval Drosophila, and hypothesized that acetic acid may function as a reliable cue for females to oviposit in substrates bearing microbial communities that promote larval nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Feeding-induced phenol production in Capsicum annuum L. influences Spodoptera litura F. larval growth and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movva, Vijaya; Pathipati, Usha Rani

    2017-05-01

    We studied the role of induced plant phenols as a defense response to insect herbivory. Phenolic compounds were induced in Capsicum annuum L., the source of many culinary peppers, after feeding by different stages of the insect pest, Spodoptera litura F. The phenols were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and effects produced by these phenols on larval development were studied. Vanillic acid was identified in plants challenged by second, fourth, and fifth instar larvae, but not in plants challenged by third instar nor unchallenged plants. Syringic acid production was induced in chili plants infested with second (0.429 ± 0.003 μg/g fresh weight, fourth (0.396 ± 0.01 μg/g fresh weight), and fifth instar (5.5 ± 0.06 μg/g fresh weight) larvae, compared to untreated plants (0.303 ± 0.01 μg/g fresh weight) plants. Leaves surface treated with the rutin deterred oviposition. Dietary exposure to chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin led to enhanced activities of detoxifying enzymes, β-glucosidase, carboxyl esterase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase in the midgut tissues of all the larval instars, indicating the toxic nature of these compounds. Protein carbonyl content and acetylcholinesterase activity was analyzed to appreciate the role of induced plant phenols in insect protein oxidation and terminating nerve impulses. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Communication methods and production techniques in fixed prosthesis fabrication: a UK based survey. Part 2: production techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J; Nesbit, M; Saberi, S; Petridis, H

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the communication methods and production techniques used by dentists and dental technicians for the fabrication of fixed prostheses within the UK from the dental technicians' perspective. This second paper reports on the production techniques utilised. Seven hundred and eighty-two online questionnaires were distributed to the Dental Laboratories Association membership and included a broad range of topics, such as demographics, impression disinfection and suitability, and various production techniques. Settings were managed in order to ensure anonymity of respondents. Statistical analysis was undertaken to test the influence of various demographic variables such as the source of information, the location, and the size of the dental laboratory. The number of completed responses totalled 248 (32% response rate). Ninety percent of the respondents were based in England and the majority of dental laboratories were categorised as small sized (working with up to 25 dentists). Concerns were raised regarding inadequate disinfection protocols between dentists and dental laboratories and the poor quality of master impressions. Full arch plastic trays were the most popular impression tray used by dentists in the fabrication of crowns (61%) and bridgework (68%). The majority (89%) of jaw registration records were considered inaccurate. Forty-four percent of dental laboratories preferred using semi-adjustable articulators. Axial and occlusal under-preparation of abutment teeth was reported as an issue in about 25% of cases. Base metal alloy was the most (52%) commonly used alloy material. Metal-ceramic crowns were the most popular choice for anterior (69%) and posterior (70%) cases. The various factors considered did not have any statistically significant effect on the answers provided. The only notable exception was the fact that more methods of communicating the size and shape of crowns were utilised for large laboratories. This study

  1. Comparative effects of furnished and battery cages on egg production and physiological parameters in White Leghorn hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohle, K; Cheng, H-W

    2009-10-01

    Laboratory animal well-being can be improved by housing the animals in species-specific natural or near-to-natural environments. An enriched environment may have a similar effect on chickens. The purpose of this study was to examine if housing environment (furnished cages vs. battery cages) effects the well-being of laying hens. One hundred ninety-two 1-d-old non-beak-trimmed White Leghorn W-36 chicks were reared and randomly assigned into battery cages or furnished cages at 19 wk of age. The furnished cages had wire floors and solid metal walls, with perches, a dustbathing area, scratch pads, and a nestbox area with concealment curtain. Ten hens were housed per cage, providing a stocking density of 610 cm2 of floor space per hen. The battery cages were commercial wire cages containing 6 birds per cage, providing 645 cm2 of floor space per hen. Body weight and egg production were calculated from 25 to 60 wk of age. The peripheral concentrations of dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, corticosterone, and IgG were analyzed at 30, 40, 50, and 60 wk of age. Compared with the hens housed in the battery cages, the hens housed in the furnished cages were significantly heavier from 30 to 60 wk of age (P0.05). The concentrations of serotonin were reduced, whereas corticosterone was increased from 50 to 60 wk of age in the hens housed in the battery cages (Pcages, which may indicate that the hens housed in the battery cages were stressed. Although further studies remain to be completed, the present results suggest that furnished cages may be a favorable alternative for housing laying hens.

  2. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part III. Chemistry of the color, aroma, and pungency stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1986-01-01

    The spice capsicum, the fruits of the genus Capsicum (Family Solanaceae), is a very popular food additive in many parts of the world, valued for the important sensory attributes of color, pungency, and aroma. A large number of varieties are widely cultivated and traded. The characteristic carotenoids of the bright red paprika and cayenne-type chillies, the high character impact aroma stimuli, the methoxy pyrazine of green bell capsicum, the esters of ripe tabasco and the highly potent pungency stimuli, and the capsaicinoids of African and other Asian varieties of chillies, have been of great interest to chemists and biochemists. Research workers in other disciplines such as genetics and breeding, agriculture, and technology have been interested in this spice to develop new varieties with combinations of different optimal levels of the stimuli for the sensory attributes and to maximize production of storable products for specific end uses. Physiologists have been intensely studying the action of the highly potent pungency stimuli and social psychologists the curious aspect of growing acceptance and preference for the initially unacceptable pungency sensation. In the sequential review of all these aspects of the fruit spice Capsicum, the earlier two parts covered history, botany, cultivation and primary processing, and processed products, standards, world production, and trade. In Part III, the chemistry, the compositional variations, synthesis and biosynthesis of the functional components, the carotenoids, the volatiles, and the capsaicinoids are comprehensively reviewed.

  3. Guardians at the gate: patent protection of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies through product life cycle management--Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Kevin W; Calvo, Paul A

    2009-01-01

    Product life cycle management, which necessarily utilizes a multi-disciplinary approach, is an essential tool for companies that develop or market therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Too little attention to such a plan, or use of the wrong resources, could substantially curtail a product's life span. The most difficult part of the therapeutic antibody business is the development of high-quality, safe and effective products. Great care should thus be taken to ensure that products with these characteristics are positioned in a marketplace that is competition-free for as long as possible. In an era of mAbs with billion dollar markets, the loss of even a single day of sales could cost companies millions of dollars in lost revenue.

  4. Consumption of cosmetic products by the French population. First part: frequency data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficheux, A S; Wesolek, N; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the percentage of users, the frequency of use and the number of cosmetic products consumed at home by the French population. The evaluation was performed for adult, child and baby consumers. Pregnant women were also taken into account in this work. All in all, 141 products cosmetics including general hygiene, skin care, hair care, hair styling, make-up, fragrances, solar, shaving and depilatory products were studied. The strengths of the study were the separation of data by sex and by age groups, the consideration of a priori at risk subpopulations and the consideration of a large number of cosmetic products. These current consumption data could be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies in order to protect the general population and these at risk subpopulations.

  5. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia

    The aim of this study was 1) present an oilseed rape whole crop biorefinery; 2) to investigate the best available experimental conditions for production of cellulosic ethanol from rape straw, and included the processes of thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and C6 fermentation......, and 3) to couple cellulosic ethanol production to production of cellulolytic enzymes that are needed for cellulosic ethanol production, inside a rape straw biorefinery. For the first is based less on available experiments, and more on literature review. The second and third study conclusions were drawn...... based more on experimental findings, and less to literature review. In Chapter 1, the problem context and background theory for biorefineries is presented. Finally, latest developments of upscaled biorefineries in Europe are summarized. In Chapter 2, a scenario about upgrading and expanding a typical...

  6. Treatment of timber products with gaseous borate esters, Part 1: factors influencing the treatment process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turner, P

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Several factors which influence the treatment of timber products with vapour phase preservatives such as borate esters are considered. Gas flow rate through the substrate was found to be a significant factor limiting both preservative penetration...

  7. Partial air conditioning in the production hall of VW-Mechatronics. Part 2; Teilklima-Anlagen in der Fertigungshalle VW-Mechatronic. Teil 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroeder, R. [BKI Brab und Kahl Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    While part 1 presented the technical facilities for mechanical production and air filtering, part 2 describes the assembly section with the clean room and the space HVAC systems for testing, measuring, and auxiliary rooms. (orig.)

  8. Limnological Investigations: Lake Koocanusa, Montana. Part 4. Factors Controlling Primary Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Lund (1965), Hutchinson (1967), Fogg (1975) and Wetzel (1975). Stadelmann et al. (1974) reported that the spring increase in primary productivity at a...Bighorn Lake-Yellowtail Dam, Montana. U.S.A. Freshwater Biology, vol. 5, p. 407-421. Stadelmann , P., J. E. Moore and E. Pickett (1974) Primary production...loading concept in limnology. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Hydrologic, vol. 37, p. 53-84. Vollenweider, R. A., M. Munawar and P. Stadelmann (1974) A

  9. Effect of crop protection and fertilization regimes used in organic and conventional production systems on feed composition and physiological parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srednicka-Tober, Dominika; Barański, Marcin; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Hajslova, Jana; Schulzova, Vera; Cakmak, Ismail; Öztürk, Levent; Królikowski, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Katarzyna; Hallmann, Ewelina; Baca, Elżbieta; Eyre, Mick; Steinshamn, Håvard; Jordon, Teresa; Leifert, Carlo

    2013-02-01

    Very little is known about the effects of an organic or conventional diet on animal physiology and health. Here, we report the effect of contrasting crop protection (with or without chemosynthetic pesticides) and fertilization (manure or mineral fertilizers) regimes on feed composition and growth and the physiological parameters of rats. The use of manure instead of mineral fertilizers in feed production resulted in lower concentrations of protein (18.8 vs 20.6%) and cadmium (3.33 vs 4.92 μg/100 g) but higher concentrations of polyphenols (1.46 vs 0.89 g/100 g) in feeds and higher body protein (22.0 vs 21.5%), body ash (3.59 vs 3.51%), white blood cell count (10.86 vs 8.19 × 10³/mm³), plasma glucose (7.23 vs 6.22 mmol/L), leptin (3.56 vs 2.78 ng/mL), insulin-like growth factor 1 (1.87 vs 1.28 μg/mL), corticosterone (247 vs 209 ng/mL), and spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation (11.14 vs 5.03 × 10³ cpm) but lower plasma testosterone (1.07 vs 1.97 ng/mL) and mitogen stimulated proliferation of lymphocytes (182 vs 278 × 10³ cpm) in rats. There were no main effects of crop protection, but a range of significant interactions between fertilization and crop protection occurred.

  10. Lipid nanoparticles (SLN, NLC): Overcoming the anatomical and physiological barriers of the eye - Part II - Ocular drug-loaded lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, E; Espina, M; Doktorovova, S; Souto, E B; García, M L

    2017-01-01

    In the recent decades, various controlled delivery systems have been introduced with the aim to improve solubility, stability and bioavailability of poorly absorbed drugs. Among all, lipid nanoparticles gather interesting properties as drug or gene delivery carriers. These systems, composed either of solid lipids (SLN) or of solid and liquid lipids (NLC) stabilized with surfactants, combine the advantages of other colloidal particles such as polymeric nanoparticles, fat emulsions and liposomes avoiding their main disadvantages. Lipid nanoparticles represent an interesting approach for eye drug delivery as they can improve the corneal absorption of drugs enhancing their bioavailability. The Generally Recognized as Safe status of formulation excipients, the scaling-up facilities and the possibility of sterilization, make them suitable for industrial production. In this review, the latest findings, potential applications, and challenges related to the use of lipid nanoparticles for ocular drug delivery are comprehensively discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Resource Use Efficiency in Part-time Food Crop Production: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Agric. Research, ABU-Zaria ... efficiency of part-time food crop farmers in Idah, North Central Nigeria. The result shows .... unit prices, output produced in quantity and unit price, level of ..... are the more effective they are in the operation of their farms.

  12. 50 CFR Table 1a to Part 679 - Delivery Condition and Product Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... body behind head and in front of tail. 21 Fish meal. Meal from whole fish or fish parts; includes bone..., Eastern cut.Head removed just behind the collar bone, and viscera removed. 08 Headed and gutted, tail removed.Head removed usually in front of collar bone, and viscera and tail removed. 10 Heads. Heads...

  13. Production of Integrated Automotive Part in High Pressure Diecasting Process Using Salt Core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ki-Bae Kim; Hyun-Kwang Seok; Jun-Su Kim

    2004-01-01

    A new concept of salt core, a melting temperature of which is lower than the solidus temperature of cast alloy,was introduced to produce an integrated casting part having a complicated inner shape or requiring under-cut in high pressure die casting or squeeze casting process. A salt core, named a fusible core in this paper because the salt core can be easily extracted just as holding at a temperature under a solidus temperature of a casting alloy, was developed and applied to produce a fuel control part for automotive GDI engine in high pressure diecasting machine. A different salt material of a lower melting temperature than that of A1 alloy was mixed with a different ceramic particulate to improve a thermo-physical property of fusible core. The thermo-physical property of the fusible core was measured and a weight faction of the ceramic particulate was optimized. The selected core materials were poured in metallic mold by gravity to produce a fusible core for a fuel control part for automotive GDI engine. The fuel control part, which the fusible core was included inside, was successful to fabricate in a conventional diecasting machine with no melting of fusible core during casting.

  14. The separation and characterization of a hydrogen getter product mixture: Part 2, measurement of product vapor pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fircish, D.W.; Shell, T.R.

    1987-06-04

    HCPB is the acronym of an organic hydrogen getter compound used in weapon systems. When this material scavenges hydrogen by reacting with it, a number of compounds are formed, each of which is more volatile than HCPB. It is desirable to know the vapor pressure of these products in order to assess their migration potential within the weapon. In this study, individual compounds from a reacted HCPB mixture were isolated and their vapor pressures were measured. Three of the four fractions examined with a modified capacitance manometer were found to have vapor pressures under 1 mtorr; the fourth was measured at 92 +- 15 mtorr. An attempt was made to obtain boiling point data on the two liquid components of the getter mixture, but they decomposed before reaching their boiling points.

  15. Possibilities of the Technology of Additive Production for Making Complex-Shape Parts and Depositing Functional Coatings from Metallic Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, S. N.; Tarasova, T. V.

    2016-01-01

    The aspects of terminology, definitions and classification in the technology of additive production are considered. The principal possibility of fabrication of complex-shape parts from a refractory cobalt alloy by the method of selective laser melting and deposition of hard and wear-resistant coatings from Ti and SiC powders by coaxial laser surfacing is shown. The technological possibility of microlaser surfacing with lateral resolution about 100 μm in the production of parts from aluminum alloys is considered. The mechanisms of formation of structure in the studied alloys typical for selective laser melting, laser surfacing and microlaser surfacing are determined. The physical and mechanical properties of the alloys are investigated.

  16. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, E.

    2010-12-15

    Agricultural residues from rapeseed biodiesel industry (rapeseed cake, rape straw, crude glycerol), which represent the 82%wt. of the oilseed rape, currently have only low-grade applications in the market. For this, a scenario was built on exploiting qualities of rapeseed biodiesel residues for forming added-value products, and expanding and upgrading an existing biodiesel plant, to an oilseed rape biorefinery by 2020 in European ground. Selection of products was based on a technological feasibility study given the time frame, while priority was given to Low-Value-High-Volume readily marketed products, like production of energy and feed. Products selected except rapeseed biodiesel, were ethanol, biogas, enzymes energy, chemical building blocks, and superior quality animal fodder. The production lines were analyzed and prospects for 2020 were projected on a critical basis. Particular merit was given to two products, ethanol from cellulose, and cellulolytic enzymes from rape straw. Cellulosic ethanol from rape straw was optimized for all production steps, i.e. for thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and fermentation of C6 sugars. Thermo-chemical pretreatment was studied with Wet oxidation technique at different conditions of temperature, reaction time, and oxygen pressure, but also factors like pre-soaking straw in warm water, or recycling liquid were also studied. Wet oxidation has been extensively tested in the past for different substrates, and gives promising results with indicators that are important for cellulosic ethanol production; C6 sugars recovery, high digestibility for enzymes, and limited formed degradation products. Here, optimal pretreatment conditions for rape straw were first presoaking rape straw at 80 deg. C for 20 minutes, and then wet-oxidize with 12 bar of oxygen at 205 deg. C for 3 minutes. Recovery of cellulose and hemicellulose under these conditions was 105% and 106% respectively, while recovery of lignin was 86%. When this

  17. Bioethanol production from residual lignocellulosic materials: A review – Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN-TEODOR BURUIANA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic materials (LCM are produced in large quantities and without clear application and their use as raw material for bioethanol production shows economic and ecologic benefits. LCM are composed mainly of three polymers: cellulose made up of glucose units, hemicellulose made up of several sugars (as xylose or arabinose, and lignin made up of phenylpropane units, interconnected in a strong structure. Pretreatment is an important step for bioethanol production from LCM, causing the solubilisation of hemicellulosic fraction (leading to the recovery of hemicellulose-derived saccharides in order to obtain a solid phase enriched in cellulose and more susceptible to enzymatic attack. This study provides a comparative data regarding the chemical composition of various LCM used for bioethanol production, as well as different pretreatment technologies for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of LCM.

  18. Production of butanol (a biofuel) from agricultural residues: Part I - Use of barley straw hydrolysate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Saha, Badal C.; Dien, Bruce; Hector, Ronald E.; Cotta, Michael A. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR), Bioenergy Research, 1815 N. University Street, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Fermentation of dilute sulfuric acid barley straw hydrolysate (BSH; undiluted/untreated) by Clostridium beijerinckii P260 resulted in the production of 7.09 gL{sup -1} ABE (acetone butanol ethanol), an ABE yield of 0.33, and productivity of 0.10 gL{sup -1} h{sup -1}. This level of ABE is much less than that observed in a control experiment (21.06 gL{sup -1}) where glucose (initial concentration 60 gL{sup -1}) was used as a substrate. In the control experiment, an ABE yield of 0.41 and productivity of 0.31 gL{sup -1} h{sup -1} were observed. This comparison suggested that BSH is toxic to the culture. To reduce this potential toxicity effect, BSH was treated with lime [Ca(OH){sub 2}] followed by fermentation. The treated BSH resulted in a successful fermentation and ABE concentration of 26.64 gL{sup -1} was achieved. This was superior to both glucose and untreated BSH (initial sugar 60 gL{sup -1}) fermentations. In this fermentation, an ABE yield of 0.43 and productivity of 0.39 gL{sup -1} h{sup -1} (390% of untreated/undiluted BSH) was obtained. It should be noted that using lime treated BSH, a specific productivity of 0.55 h{sup -1} was obtained as compared to 0.12 h{sup -1} in the control fermentation suggesting that more carbon was directed to product formation. (author)

  19. Silence as a Part of a Camping Product : Case: Evo Camping Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Syrjäniemi, Meeri

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Bachelor’s thesis was to research whether there is a need for a silence product in Evo Camping Centre. Silence and nature can have a vast positive effect on a person’s health and the role of silence as a camping product will be examined. The thesis was conducted in co-operation with Metsähallitus, former Finnish National Board of Forestry and the entrepreneurs of Evo Camping Centre. A Visitor Surveys of Evo Camping Centre 2010 and Metsähallitus Annual Book 2014 were used as a o...

  20. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  1. Exploring Cancer Therapeutics with Natural Products from African Medicinal Plants, Part II: Alkaloids, Terpenoids and Flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwodo, Justina N; Ibezim, Akachukwu; Simoben, Conrad V; Ntie-Kang, Fidele

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stands as second most common cause of disease-related deaths in humans. Resistance of cancer to chemotherapy remains challenging to both scientists and physicians. Medicinal plants are known to contribute significantly to a large population of Africa, which is to a very large extent linked to folkloric claims which is part of their livelihood. In this review paper, the potential of naturally occurring anti-cancer agents from African flora has been explored, with suggested modes of action, where such data is available. Literature search revealed plant-derived compounds from African flora showing anti-cancer and/or cytotoxic activities, which have been tested in vitro and in vivo. This corresponds to 400 compounds (from mildly active to very active) covering various compound classes. However, in this part II, we only discussed the three major compound classes which are: flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids.

  2. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  3. Integrating Environmental Decisions into the Product Development Process: Part 2 - The Later Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poole, S.; Simon, M; Sweatman, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a three year UK government research project entitle DEsign for the Environment Decision Support (DEEDS). As part of this project, a survey of the electronicis and electrical industry was carried out in order to understand the way in which industry in the UK, C...... change fundamentally if the environemtn is considered pre-specification. In this second paper, we are concerned with the implementation of environmental considerations post-specification....

  4. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Two: Saws, Drills, and Grinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

    Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the second of four topic areas: saws, drills, and grinders. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will…

  5. Benchmark calculations on residue production within the EURISOL DS project; Part II: thick targets

    CERN Document Server

    David, J.-C; Boudard, A; Doré, D; Leray, S; Rapp, B; Ridikas, D; Thiollière, N

    Benchmark calculations on residue production using MCNPX 2.5.0. Calculations were compared to mass-distribution data for 5 different elements measured at ISOLDE, and to specific activities of 28 radionuclides in different places along the thick target measured in Dubna.

  6. Market projections of cellulose nanomaterial-enabled products-- Part 2: Volume estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Cowie; E.M. (Ted) Bilek; Theodore H. Wegner; Jo Anne Shatkin

    2014-01-01

    Nanocellulose has enormous potential to provide an important materials platform in numerous product sectors. This study builds on previous work by the same authors in which likely high-volume, low-volume, and novel applications for cellulosic nanomaterials were identified. In particular, this study creates a transparent methodology and estimates the potential annual...

  7. Lightning NOx Production in CMAQ Part I – Using Hourly NLDN Lightning Strike Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightning-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and modeling lightning NOX during the past dec...

  8. Ontology-based modeling of product functionality and use part 2: considering use and unintended behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegte, W.F.; Kitamura, Y.; Mizoguchi, R.; Horváth, I.

    2002-01-01

    the function-behavior representation language FBRL was originally devised for modeling and knowledge management of intended product behavior. This paper explores its potential for application to other-than-intended behavior in a use context, introducing consideration of the user and the environment.

  9. The Analysis of the Available Technology of Exploiting and Applying Biohydrocarbons for Fuel Production Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gielo-Klepacz Halina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the current state of knowledge in the area of applying biohydrocarbons for fuel production, especially in aeronautical applications and to power compression-ignition engines. The technologies based on biochemical and thermal/chemical conversion of biomass are described. Technological potential of these technologies is evaluated. The article is based on the literature review.

  10. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 1212 - Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... considered the potential effects on competition and business practices of various aspects of the standard..., less serious injuries. The societal costs of these fires is estimated to include $175 million in deaths..., and the probable effect of the rule on the utility, cost, or availability of such products to...

  11. Cool products for building envelope - Part I: Development and lab scale testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revel, G.M.; Martarelli, M.; Emiliani, M.; Gozalbo, A.; Orts, M.J.; Bengochea, M.T.; Guaita Delgado, L.; Gaki, A.; Katsiapi, A.; Taxiarchou, M.; Arabatzis, I.; Fasaki, I.; Hermanns, S.

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the methodology followed for the development of new cool products in order to widen the range of existing solutions both including coloured (even dark) materials and extending the application also to building vertical components. Cool coloured ceramic tiles and acrylic paints for

  12. Lightning NOx Production in CMAQ Part I – Using Hourly NLDN Lightning Strike Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightning-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and modeling lightning NOX during the past dec...

  13. Cool products for building envelope - Part I: Development and lab scale testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revel, G.M.; Martarelli, M.; Emiliani, M.; Gozalbo, A.; Orts, M.J.; Bengochea, M.T.; Guaita Delgado, L.; Gaki, A.; Katsiapi, A.; Taxiarchou, M.; Arabatzis, I.; Fasaki, I.; Hermanns, S.

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the methodology followed for the development of new cool products in order to widen the range of existing solutions both including coloured (even dark) materials and extending the application also to building vertical components. Cool coloured ceramic tiles and acrylic paints for

  14. Farm Production Growth in the Upper and Middle Parts of the Yellow River Basin, China, During 1980-1999

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang-lian; LUO Yu-zhou; GAO Qiong; DONG Suo-cheng; YANG Xiu-sheng

    2008-01-01

    The impact of inputs on farm production growth was evaluated by analyzing the economic data of the upper and middle parts of the Yellow River basin,China for the period of 1980-1999.Descriptive statistics were employed to characterize the temporal trends and spatial patterns in farm production and five pertinent inputs of cultivated cropland,irrigation ratio, agricultural labor,machinery power and chemical fertilizer.Stochastic frontier production function was applied to quantify the dependence of the farm production on these inputs.The growth of farm production was decomposed to reflect the contributions by input growths and change in total factor productivity,The change in total factor productivity was further decomposed into the changes in technology and in technical efficiency.The gross value of farm production in the region of study increased by 1.6 fold during 1980-1999.Among the five selected farm inputs,machinery power and chemical fertilizer increased by 1.8 and 2.8 fold,respectively.The increases in cultivated cropland,irrigated cropland,and agricultural labor were all less than 0.16 fold.The growth in the farm production was primarily contributed by the increase in the total factor productivity during 1980-1985,and by input growths after 1985.More than 80%of the contributions by input growths were attributed to the increased application of fertilizer and machinery.In the change of total factor productivity,the technology change dominated over the technical efficiency change in the study period except in the period of 1985-1990,implying that institution and investment played important roles in farm production growth.There was a decreasing trend in the technical efficiency in the region of study,indicating a potential to increase farm production by improving the technical efficiency in farm activities.Given the limited natural resources in the basin,the results of this study suggested that,for a sustainable growth of farm production in the area

  15. Biomedical applications of yeast- a patent view, part one: yeasts as workhorses for the production of therapeutics and vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohvand, Farzin; Shokri, Mehdi; Abdollahpour-Alitappeh, Meghdad; Ehsani, Parastoo

    2017-08-01

    Yeasts, as Eukaryotes, offer unique features for ease of growth and genetic manipulation possibilities, making it an exceptional microbial host. Areas covered: This review provides general and patent-oriented insights into production of biopharmaceuticals by yeasts. Patents, wherever possible, were correlated to the original or review articles. The review describes applications of major GRAS (generally regarded as safe) yeasts for the production of therapeutic proteins and subunit vaccines; additionally, immunomodulatory properties of yeast cell wall components were reviewed for use of whole yeast cells as a new vaccine platform. The second part of the review will discuss yeast- humanization strategies and innovative applications. Expert opinion: Biomedical applications of yeasts were initiated by utilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for production of leavened (fermented) products, and advanced to serve to produce biopharmaceuticals. Higher biomass production and expression/secretion yields, more similarity of glycosylation patterns to mammals and possibility of host-improvement strategies through application of synthetic biology might enhance selection of Pichia pastoris (instead of S. cerevisiae) as a host for production of biopharmaceutical in future. Immunomodulatory properties of yeast cell wall β-glucans and possibility of intracellular expression of heterologous pathogen/tumor antigens in yeast cells have expanded their application as a new platform, 'Whole Yeast Vaccines'.

  16. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 3: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2015-02-01

    This is the third and final part of the three-part article written to describe the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process produced from various types of waste streams through mechanical treatment. This article focused the production of solid recovered fuel from municipal solid waste. The stream of municipal solid waste used here as an input waste material to produce solid recovered fuel is energy waste collected from households of municipality. This article presents the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process. These balances are based on the proximate as well as the ultimate analysis and the composition determination of various streams of material produced in a solid recovered fuel production plant. All the process streams are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for solid recovered fuel. The results of the mass balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 72% of the input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel; 2.6% as ferrous metal, 0.4% as non-ferrous metal, 11% was sorted as rejects material, 12% as fine faction and 2% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 86% of the total input energy content of input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel. The remaining percentage (14%) of the input energy was split into the streams of reject material, fine fraction and heavy fraction. The material balances of this process showed that mass fraction of paper and cardboard, plastic (soft) and wood recovered in the solid recovered fuel stream was 88%, 85% and 90%, respectively, of their input mass. A high mass fraction of rubber material, plastic (PVC-plastic) and inert (stone/rock and glass particles) was found in the reject material stream. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Hydrogen Research for Spaceport and Space-Based Applications: Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Transport. Part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tim; Balaban, Canan

    2008-01-01

    The activities presented are a broad based approach to advancing key hydrogen related technologies in areas such as fuel cells, hydrogen production, and distributed sensors for hydrogen-leak detection, laser instrumentation for hydrogen-leak detection, and cryogenic transport and storage. Presented are the results from research projects, education and outreach activities, system and trade studies. The work will aid in advancing the state-of-the-art for several critical technologies related to the implementation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Activities conducted are relevant to a number of propulsion and power systems for terrestrial, aeronautics and aerospace applications. Hydrogen storage and in-space hydrogen transport research focused on developing and verifying design concepts for efficient, safe, lightweight liquid hydrogen cryogenic storage systems. Research into hydrogen production had a specific goal of further advancing proton conducting membrane technology in the laboratory at a larger scale. System and process trade studies evaluated the proton conducting membrane technology, specifically, scale-up issues.

  18. New strategies for medical data mining, part 2: the customizable productivity pacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    With continuing efforts to reduce medical reimbursements, many radiology service providers have reacted by increasing productivity to maintain revenue. This continuing push to increase speed carries the risk for diminished quality in the form of diagnostic accuracy. Data mining offers the potential to synergistically improve both productivity and quality, through the combined analysis of examination complexity, interpretation accuracy, and interpretation times specific to each individual radiologist. The resulting technology can in turn be used to create external pacers, which can be customized to the individual needs and preferences of each radiologist. The derived data can also be used to identify best-practice patterns and end-user performance, which can in turn be used by radiologists for individualized education and training. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Modernity of parts in casting machines and coefficients of total productive maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borkowski

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of equipment efficiency in casting machines on the quality of die castings made of Al-Si alloys in consideration of their modernity. Analysis focused on two cold-chamber die-casting machines. The assessment of modernity ofthe equipment was made based on ABC analysis of technology and Parker’s scale. Then, the coefficients of total productive maintenance(TPM were employed for assessment of the efficiency of both machines. Using correlation coefficients r allowed authors to demonstrate the relationships between individual TPM coefficients and the number of non-conforming products. The finding of the study is pointing to the differences between the factors which determine the quality of castings resulting from the level of modernity of machines.

  20. Consumption of cosmetic products by the French population second part: Amount data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficheux, A S; Chevillotte, G; Wesolek, N; Morisset, T; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Bertho, A; Romanet, A; Leroy, L; Mercat, A C; Creusot, T; Simon, E; Roudot, A C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the amount per use of cosmetic products consumed at home by the adult, child and baby French population. 1078 men and women participated in the study which was performed in four cities of France. This enquiry was performed on 106 cosmetics including general hygiene, skin care, hair care, hair styling, make-up, fragrances, solar, shaving and depilatory, and baby products. Coupled to frequency data previously obtained (Ficheux et al., 2015), these amounts per use data will be used in order to assess the exposure to cosmetics by the French population. These current exposure values could be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies.

  1. Bioethanol production from residual lignocellulosic materials: A review – Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN-TEODOR BURUIANA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic material (LCM can be employed as feedstock for biorefineries, a concept related to industries designed to process biomass for producing chemicals, fuels and/or electrical power. According to this philosophy, LCM can be fractionated and the resulting fractions employed for specific applications. Bioethanol production from cellulosic fraction of LCM involves: hydrolysis of polysaccharides and fermentation of the monomers into bioethanol. Enzymatic hydrolysis is catalyzed by cellulolytic enzymes and fermentation is carried out by bacteria, yeasts or fungi. The main objective of this article is to review different process integration technologies for bioethanol production from LCM. This paper include: separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF, and simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF methods. Furthermore, the fermentation process and a comparative data of cellulases, hemicellulases and ethanol producing-microorganisms were presented.

  2. Safety of power transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products - Part 1: General requirements and tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    This International Standard deals with safety aspects of power transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products such as electrical, thermal and mechanical safety. This standard covers the following types of dry-type transformers, power supplies, including switch mode power supplies, and reactors, the windings of which may be encapsulated or non-encapsulated. It has the status of a group safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104.

  3. Renewable Bio-Solar Hydrogen Production: The Second Generation (Part C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-28

    biotechnologically relevant model system. We also successfully developed fatty acid and terpenoid biosynthesis/secretion modules in the cyanobacterium...Industrial Microbiology and a “top-poster” award. In Chlamydomonas, starch represents the major energy storage product. During anaerobic fermentation...acetate producing strains of Synechococcus sp PCC 7002. Biotechnology for Biofuels, in press. 2. D’Adamo, S., and Posewitz, M.C. (2014) Hydrogenase

  4. Renewable Bio-Solar Hydrogen Production: The Second Generation (Part B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-20

    overexpression of homologous and heterologous genes, transcription profiling, and metabolic profiling to understand better how to optimize the... plants . Perspect. Phycol. 1: 73-86. 5 14. Zhao, C., Li, Z., Li, T., Zhang, Y., Bryant, D. A. and Zhao, J. 2015. High-yield production of extracellular...mutant. The Plant Cell, submitted for publication. 16. Zhang, S. and Bryant, D. A. 2015. Biochemical validation of the glyoxylate cycle in the

  5. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part 2: Modeling Demand Response in a Production Cost Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, Marissa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olsen, Daniel J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Matson, Nance [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rose, Cody [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dudley, Junqiao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goli, Sasank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ma, Ookie [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is one of a series stemming from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study. This study is a multi-national-laboratory effort to assess the potential value of demand response (DR) and energy storage to electricity systems with different penetration levels of variable renewable resources and to improve our understanding of associatedmarkets and institutions. This report implements DR resources in the commercial production cost model PLEXOS.

  6. Core operational Sentinel-3 marine data product services as part of the Copernicus Space Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonekamp, Hans; Montagner, Francois; Santacesaria, Vincenzo; Nogueira Loddo, Carolina; Wannop, Sally; Tomazic, Igor; O'Carroll, Anne; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Scharroo, Remko; Wilson, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the marine data available from the Marine Centre, part of the Sentinel-3 Payload Data Ground Segment, located at the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT). The Marine Centre together with the existing EUMETSAT facilities provides a centralised operational service for operational oceanography. These descriptions of the marine data are produced with a focus on a user service perspective. They include the scientific and operational feedback mechanisms on the performance of the services as well as practical information and user support mechanisms.

  7. Applicability of chemical vapour polishing of additive manufactured parts to meet production-quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D. B.; Hansen, H. N.; Nielsen, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) method is the most rapidly growing Additive Manufacturing (AM) method[1]. FDM employs a 2.5D deposition scheme which induce a step-ladder shaped surface definition [2], with seams of the individual layers clearly visible[3]. This paper investigate to which...... extend chemical vapour polishing can be applied to eliminate the layered surfaces from FDM, so that a polished surface quality is obtained. It is quantified to what extend parts can be vapour polished and how geometrical and mechanical properties alter. The fundamental question is whether the surfaces...

  8. A mathematical model of thrombin production in blood coagulation, Part I: The sparsely covered membrane case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, S A; Basmadjian, D

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the first attempt to model the blood coagulation reactions in flowing blood. The model focuses on the common pathway and includes activation of factor X and prothrombin, including feedback activation of cofactors VIII and V by thrombin, and plasma inhibition of factor Xa and thrombin. In this paper, the first of two, the sparsely covered membrane (SCM) case is presented. This considers the limiting situation where platelet membrane binding sites are in excess, such that no membrane saturation or binding competition occurs. Under these conditions, the model predicts that the two positive feedback loops lead to multiple steady-state behavior in the range of intermediate mass transfer rates. It will be shown that this results in three parameter regions exhibiting very different thrombin production patterns. The model predicts the effect of flow on steady-state and dynamic thrombin production and attempts to explain the difference between venous and arterial thrombi. The reliance of thrombin production on precursor procoagulant protein concentrations is also assessed.

  9. Effects of ocean acidification on the physiological performance and carbon production of the Antarctic sea ice diatom Nitzschia sp. ICE-H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chang-Feng; Liu, Fang-Ming; Zheng, Zhou; Wang, Yi-Bin; Li, Xue-Gang; Yuan, Hua-Mao; Li, Ning; An, Mei-Ling; Wang, Xi-Xi; He, Ying-Ying; Li, Lu-Lu; Miao, Jin-Lai

    2017-07-15

    Ocean acidification (OA) resulting from increasing atmospheric CO2 strongly influences marine ecosystems, particularly in the polar ocean due to greater CO2 solubility. Here, we grew the Antarctic sea ice diatom Nitzschia sp. ICE-H in a semicontinuous culture under low (~400ppm) and high (1000ppm) CO2 levels. Elevated CO2 resulted in a stimulated physiological response including increased growth rates, chlorophyll a contents, and nitrogen and phosphorus uptake rates. Furthermore, high CO2 enhanced cellular particulate organic carbon production rates, indicating a greater shift from inorganic to organic carbon. However, the cultures grown in high CO2 conditions exhibited a decrease in both extracellular and intracellular carbonic anhydrase activity, suggesting that the carbon concentrating mechanisms of Nitzschia sp. ICE-H may be suppressed by elevated CO2. Our results revealed that OA would be beneficial to the survival of this sea ice diatom strain, with broad implications for global carbon cycles in the future ocean. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Influence of carvacrol and thymol on the physiological attributes, enterotoxin production and surface characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L. Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of the phenolic compounds carvacrol (CAR and thymol (THY on some physiological characteristics and on the modulation of the secretion of some staphylococcal virulence factors, that is, coagulase and enterotoxin. This study also investigated possible mechanisms for the establishment of the anti-staphylococcal activity of these compounds. Sublethal concentrations (0.3 and 0.15 µL/mL of CAR and THY inhibited the activity of the enzymes coagulase and lipase and led to a decrease in salt tolerance. At the tested sublethal concentrations, both CAR and THY led to a total suppression of enterotoxin production. The loss of a 260-nm-absorbing material and an efflux of potassium ions occurred immediately after the addition of CAR and THY at 0.6 and 1.2 µL/mL and increased up to 120 min of exposure. Electron microscopy of cells exposed to CAR and THY (0.6 µL/mL revealed that individual cells appeared to be deformed, with projections of cellular material. The observations of leakage of cellular material and an altered cell surface suggest that gross damage to a cell's cytoplasmic membrane, which results in a disruption in protein secretion, could be responsible for the anti-staphylococcal properties of CAR and THY.

  11. Influence of carvacrol and thymol on the physiological attributes, enterotoxin production and surface characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, E.L.; Oliveira, C.E.V.; Stamford, T.L.M.; Conceição, M.L.; Neto, N.J. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the phenolic compounds carvacrol (CAR) and thymol (THY) on some physiological characteristics and on the modulation of the secretion of some staphylococcal virulence factors, that is, coagulase and enterotoxin. This study also investigated possible mechanisms for the establishment of the anti-staphylococcal activity of these compounds. Sublethal concentrations (0.3 and 0.15 μL/mL) of CAR and THY inhibited the activity of the enzymes coagulase and lipase and led to a decrease in salt tolerance. At the tested sublethal concentrations, both CAR and THY led to a total suppression of enterotoxin production. The loss of a 260-nm-absorbing material and an efflux of potassium ions occurred immediately after the addition of CAR and THY at 0.6 and 1.2 μL/mL and increased up to 120 min of exposure. Electron microscopy of cells exposed to CAR and THY (0.6 μL/mL) revealed that individual cells appeared to be deformed, with projections of cellular material. The observations of leakage of cellular material and an altered cell surface suggest that gross damage to a cell’s cytoplasmic membrane, which results in a disruption in protein secretion, could be responsible for the anti-staphylococcal properties of CAR and THY. PMID:24159280

  12. The Cumulative Neurobehavioral and Physiological Effects of Chronic Caffeine Intake: Individual Differences and Implications for the Use of Caffeinated Energy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F

    2014-01-01

    The use of caffeine-containing energy products (CCEP) has increased worldwide in recent years and research shows that CCEP can improve cognitive and physical performance. All of the top-selling energy drinks contain caffeine, which is likely to be the primary psychoactive ingredient in CCEP. Presumably, individuals consume CCEP to counteract feelings of ‘low-energy’ in situations causing tiredness, fatigue, and/or reduced alertness. This review discusses the scientific evidence for sleep loss, circadian phase, sleep inertia and the time-on-task effect as causes of ‘low energy’ and summarizes research assessing the efficacy of caffeine to counteract decreased alertness and increased fatigue in such situations. The results of a placebo-controlled experiment on healthy adults undergoing three nights of total sleep deprivation (with or without 2 hour naps every 12 hours) are presented to illustrate the physiological and neurobehavioral effects of sustained low-dose caffeine. Individual differences, including genetic factors, in the response to caffeine and to sleep loss are discussed. We conclude with future directions for research on this important and evolving topic. PMID:25293542

  13. Critical analysis of the waste management performance of two uranium production units in Brazil--part I: Poços de Caldas production centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Horst Monken; Franklin, Mariza Ramalho; Gomiero, Luiz Alberto

    2008-04-01

    Waste management strategies in mining projects will depend to a large extent on the characteristics of the operational process, the type of ore and prevailing socio-environmental conditions, amongst other issues. The expenditures required by the management scheme and the implementation of remediation programs will be determined by the extent that the above issues were considered in the planning phase of the project. Several works have been published in the literature concerning the analysis of waste management programs and environmental impacts associated with uranium projects around the world. However, the vast majority do not report a comprehensive assessment integrating the various relationships among operational process, environmental impact, remediation strategy and costs. This study, divided into two papers, presents a detailed critical analysis of the waste management strategies adopted in two uranium production centres in Brazil, i.e., the Poços de Caldas Project (Part I) and the Caetité Project (Part II). The operational processes are described and the environmental impacts of the generated wastes as well as the adopted management strategies and costs are examined. Also, in Part II, a comparison between both production centres is made emphasizing the impacts of environmental and social-economical issues on the overall assessment.

  14. Selenium sources in the diet of dairy cows and their effects on milk production and quality, on udder health and on physiological indicators of heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Oltramari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four dairy cows, with daily average milk production of 18.1 kg, were fed diets containing different selenium (Se sources. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of such diets on milk production and quality, on the occurrence of mastitis, and on physiological variables. During the experimental period (124 days, all the cows received the same diet: a total mixed feed with 0.278 mg.kg- 1 DM of selenium. In the inorganic Se treatment, the selenium source was sodium selenite and in the organic Se treatment the source was selenium yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-3060. There were no significant differences in milk yield or in Se concentration in the milk. No significant differences between the treatments were observed in protein, lactose, solids-not-fat andpercentage of total solids. The animals subjected to the organic Se treatment presented higher (P=0.013 percentage of milk fat and lower (P=0.014 somatic cell count (SCC than those subjected to the inorganic Se treatment. There was no significant difference in subclinical mastitisas determined by the California Mastitis Test (CMT between the treatments. However, both Se sources reduced the incidence of mastitis (subclinical positive mastitis and strongly positive mastitis between the pre-experimental and experimental phases. There was no significant difference in rectal temperature (RT between the treatments. Respiratory frequency (RF was lower (P=0.027 in the inorganic treatment than in the organic one, whereas haircoat temperature (HT was lower (P=0.007 in the organic treatment than in the inorganic one.

  15. Physiological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  16. Pelletised fuel production from coal tailings and spent mushroom compost - Part I. Identification of pelletisation parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Changkook; Finney, Karen; Sharifi, Vida N; Swithenbank, Jim [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Sheffield University, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    This study investigates the technology of manufacturing pellet blends for energy production from two discarded materials in industry. Coal tailings material is the fine discard produced as a result of coal cleaning. Although it still has a significantly high calorific value, over a million tonnes of coal tailings are deposited in lagoons every year in the UK alone. Spent mushroom compost (SMC) consists of fibrous compost substrate and a wet casing layer used during mushroom production. In the form of pellets, these materials become more homogeneous, easily stored and transported, and suitable for use in power plants or gasifiers. The characterisation of the fuel properties shows that the two materials have a complimentary status for pelletisation and energy production in terms of particle types, carbon source, calorific value and volatile matter content. Pelletisation tests were carried out using a small compression rig for various pressures, moisture contents and mixture compositions. The quality of the pellets was assessed using density, swelling, tensile strength and durability. It was necessary to keep the moisture contents for coal tailings at about 10% and for SMC at 20% before pelletisation in order to maximise the bonding strength of the originally wet materials. Pressures above 6000 psi did not produce noticeably denser or stronger pellets. The pellets from coal tailings and SMC blends had a tensile strength proportional to the SMC fraction. The SMC pellets were more durable than the coal tailing pellets due to the intertwined compost fibres. It was also noted that the SMC addition to the coal tailings did not increase the durability of the pellets due to the limited binding effect between the two materials. (author)

  17. On measure solutions of the Boltzmann equation, part I: Moment production and stability estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuguang; Mouhot, Clément

    The spatially homogeneous Boltzmann equation with hard potentials is considered for measure valued initial data having finite mass and energy. We prove the existence of weak measure solutions, with and without angular cutoff on the collision kernel; the proof in particular makes use of an approximation argument based on the Mehler transform. Moment production estimates in the usual form and in the exponential form are obtained for these solutions. Finally for the Grad angular cutoff, we also establish uniqueness and strong stability estimate on these solutions.

  18. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products, Part 3: LED Environmental Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuenge, Jason R.; Hollomon, Brad; Dillon, Heather E.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.

    2013-03-01

    This report covers the third part of a larger U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project to assess the life-cycle environmental and resource impacts in the manufacturing, transport, use, and disposal of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting products in relation to incumbent lighting technologies. All three reports are available on the DOE website (www.ssl.energy.gov/tech_reports.html). • Part 1: Review of the Life-Cycle Energy Consumption of Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent and LED Lamps; • Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance; • Part 3: LED Environmental Testing. Parts 1 and 2 were published in February and June 2012, respectively. The Part 1 report included a summary of the life-cycle assessment (LCA) process and methodology, provided a literature review of more than 25 existing LCA studies of various lamp types, and performed a meta-analysis comparing LED lamps with incandescent and compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). Drawing from the Part 1 findings, Part 2 performed a more detailed assessment of the LED manufacturing process and used these findings to provide a comparative LCA taking into consideration a wider range of environmental impacts. Both reports concluded that the life-cycle environmental impact of a given lamp is dominated by the energy used during lamp operation—the upstream generation of electricity drives the total environmental footprint of the product. However, a more detailed understanding of end-of-life disposal considerations for LED products has become increasingly important as their installation base has grown. The Part 3 study (reported herein) was undertaken to augment the LCA findings with chemical analysis of a variety of LED, CFL, and incandescent lamps using standard testing procedures. A total of 22 samples, representing 11 different models, were tested to determine whether any of 17 elements were present at levels exceeding California or Federal regulatory thresholds for hazardous waste. Key findings include: • The selected

  19. Evidence of Some Natural Products with Antigenotoxic Effects. Part 1: Fruits and Polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Vega, Jeannett Alejandra; Morales-González, José Antonio; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Betanzos-Cabrera, Gabriel; Sosa-Delgado, Sara M.; Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Morales-González, Ángel; Paniagua-Pérez, Rogelio; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. The agents capable of causing damage to genetic material are known as genotoxins and, according to their mode of action, are classified into mutagens, carcinogens or teratogens. Genotoxins are involved in the pathogenesis of several chronic degenerative diseases including hepatic, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, arthritis, cancer, chronic inflammation and ageing. In recent decades, researchers have found novel bioactive phytocompounds able to counteract the effects of physical and chemical mutagens. Several studies have shown potential antigenotoxicity in a variety of fruits. In this review (Part 1), we present an overview of research conducted on some fruits (grapefruit, cranberries, pomegranate, guava, pineapple, and mango) which are frequently consumed by humans, as well as the analysis of some phytochemicals extracted from fruits and yeasts which have demonstrated antigenotoxic capacity in various tests, including the Ames assay, sister chromatid exchange, chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus and comet assay. PMID:28157162

  20. Facing the challenge of sustainable bioenergy production: Could halophytes be part of the solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debez, Ahmed; Belghith, Ikram; Friesen, Jan; Montzka, Carsten; Elleuche, Skander

    2017-01-01

    Due to steadily growing population and economic transitions in the more populous countries, renewable sources of energy are needed more than ever. Plant biomass as a raw source of bioenergy and biofuel products may meet the demand for sustainable energy; however, such plants typically compete with food crops, which should not be wasted for producing energy and chemicals. Second-generation or advanced biofuels that are based on renewable and non-edible biomass resources are processed to produce cellulosic ethanol, which could be further used for producing energy, but also bio-based chemicals including higher alcohols, organic acids, and bulk chemicals. Halophytes do not compete with conventional crops for arable areas and freshwater resources, since they grow naturally in saline ecosystems, mostly in semi-arid and arid areas. Using halophytes for biofuel production may provide a mid-term economically feasible and environmentally sustainable solution to producing bioenergy, contributing, at the same time, to making saline areas - which have been considered unproductive for a long time - more valuable. This review emphasises on halophyte definition, global distribution, and environmental requirements. It also examines their enzymatic valorization, focusing on salt-tolerant enzymes from halophilic microbial species that may be deployed with greater advantage compared to their conventional mesophilic counterparts for faster degradation of halophyte biomass.

  1. Natural health products that inhibit angiogenesis: a potential source for investigational new agents to treat cancer—Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, S.M.; Yance, D.; Wong, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    An integrative approach for managing a patient with cancer should target the multiple biochemical and physiologic pathways that support tumour development and minimize normal-tissue toxicity. Angiogenesis is a key process in the promotion of cancer. Many natural health products that inhibit angiogenesis also manifest other anticancer activities. The present article focuses on products that have a high degree of anti-angiogenic activity, but it also describes some of the many other actions of these agents that can inhibit tumour progression and reduce the risk of metastasis. Natural health products target molecular pathways other than angiogenesis, including epidermal growth factor receptor, the HER2/neu gene, the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme, the nuclear factor kappa-B transcription factor, the protein kinases, the Bcl-2 protein, and coagulation pathways. The herbs that are traditionally used for anticancer treatment and that are anti-angiogenic through multiple interdependent processes (including effects on gene expression, signal processing, and enzyme activities) include Artemisia annua (Chinese wormwood), Viscum album (European mistletoe), Curcuma longa (curcumin), Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese skullcap), resveratrol and proanthocyanidin (grape seed extract), Magnolia officinalis (Chinese magnolia tree), Camellia sinensis (green tea), Ginkgo biloba, quercetin, Poria cocos, Zingiber officinalis (ginger), Panax ginseng, Rabdosia rubescens hora (Rabdosia), and Chinese destagnation herbs. Quality assurance of appropriate extracts is essential prior to embarking upon clinical trials. More data are required on dose–response, appropriate combinations, and potential toxicities. Given the multiple effects of these agents, their future use for cancer therapy probably lies in synergistic combinations. During active cancer therapy, they should generally be evaluated in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. In this role, they act as modifiers of biologic response or

  2. Natural health products that inhibit angiogenesis: a potential source for investigational new agents to treat cancer-Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, S M; Yance, D; Wong, R K

    2006-02-01

    An integrative approach for managing a patient with cancer should target the multiple biochemical and physiologic pathways that support tumour development and minimize normal-tissue toxicity. Angiogenesis is a key process in the promotion of cancer. Many natural health products that inhibit angiogenesis also manifest other anticancer activities. The present article focuses on products that have a high degree of anti-angiogenic activity, but it also describes some of the many other actions of these agents that can inhibit tumour progression and reduce the risk of metastasis. Natural health products target molecular pathways other than angiogenesis, including epidermal growth factor receptor, the HER2/neu gene, the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme, the nuclear factor kappa-B transcription factor, the protein kinases, the Bcl-2 protein, and coagulation pathways. The herbs that are traditionally used for anticancer treatment and that are anti-angiogenic through multiple interdependent processes (including effects on gene expression, signal processing, and enzyme activities) include Artemisia annua (Chinese wormwood), Viscum album (European mistletoe), Curcuma longa (curcumin), Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese skullcap), resveratrol and proanthocyanidin (grape seed extract), Magnolia officinalis (Chinese magnolia tree), Camellia sinensis (green tea), Ginkgo biloba, quercetin, Poria cocos, Zingiber officinalis (ginger), Panax ginseng, Rabdosia rubescens hora (Rabdosia), and Chinese destagnation herbs. Quality assurance of appropriate extracts is essential prior to embarking upon clinical trials. More data are required on dose-response, appropriate combinations, and potential toxicities. Given the multiple effects of these agents, their future use for cancer therapy probably lies in synergistic combinations. During active cancer therapy, they should generally be evaluated in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. In this role, they act as modifiers of biologic response or as

  3. Choice of foods: Allocation of time and money, household production and market services ­ Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    1993-01-01

    means reduced expenses on most kinds of foodstuffs, possibly due to obtaining quantity discounts. 7. Ownership of household appliances and hiring domestic help decreases the probability of eating out. 8. Singles spend money on meals away from home more frequently than couples, whereas the spending...... on fast food and fast lunch/breakfast does not vary between singles and couples. 9. Gender is not a significant factor in relation to the purchase of convenient foodstuffs.......; this is supported by the fact that the relative expense on preparation food indeed falls with increasing income. 3. More children in the household generally mean less per-unit expenditure on both convenient and non-convenient food. This may be explained by economies of scale and by buying cheaper products...

  4. Baroclinic Vorticity Production in Protoplanetary Disks; Part II: Vortex Growth and Longevity

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, M R; Julien, K; Petersen, Mark R.; Stewart, Glen R.; Julien, Keith

    2006-01-01

    The factors affecting vortex growth in convectively stable protoplanetary disks are explored using numerical simulations of a two-dimensional anelastic-gas model which includes baroclinic vorticity production and radiative cooling. The baroclinic feedback, where anomalous temperature gradients produce vorticity through the baroclinic term and vortices then reinforce these temperature gradients, is found to be an important process in the rate of growth of vortices in the disk. Factors which strengthen the baroclinic feedback include fast radiative cooling, high thermal diffusion, and large radial temperature gradients in the background temperature. When the baroclinic feedback is sufficiently strong, anticyclonic vortices form from initial random perturbations and maintain their strength for the duration of the simulation, for over 600 orbital periods. Based on both simulations and a simple vortex model, we find that the local angular momentum transport due to a single vortex may be inward or outward, dependin...

  5. Variation in the THC content in illicitly imported Cannabis products--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P B; Gough, T A; Johncock, S I; Taylor, B J; Wyles, L T

    1982-01-01

    The tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) contents of 220 samples of fresh illicit Cannabis products seized on entry into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland over the period 1979-1981 have been determined by gas chromatography. During that period there was a general increase in the quality of both cannabis and cannabis resin, but with wide variations in THC contents both within and between countries. Some very high quality samples of cannabis, cannabis resin and cannabis oil from the Indian sub-continent have been analysed. There have been considerable changes in the number of fresh samples from several countries, compared with the previous survey. Fresh cannabis oil samples were very rare during the period covered by this survey.

  6. Hydrotreating of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production. Part II: effect of temperature on hydrocarbon composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezergianni, Stella; Dimitriadis, Athanasios; Sfetsas, Themistoklis; Kalogianni, Aggeliki

    2010-10-01

    This study focuses on the use of waste cooking oil (WCO) as the main feedstock for hydrotreatment to evaluate the effect of temperature on the product hydrocarbon composition. A qualitative analysis was initially performed using a GC x GC-TOFMS indicating the presence of mainly paraffins of the C15-C18 range. A quantitative analysis was also performed via a GC-FID, which gave both n-paraffins and iso-paraffins in the range of C8-C29. The results indicate that hydrotreating temperature favors isomerization reactions as the amount of n-paraffins decreases while the amount of iso-paraffins increases. For all experiments the same commercial hydrotreating catalyst was utilized, while the remaining operating parameters were constant (pressure=1200 psig, LHSV=1.0 h(-1), H(2)/oil ratio=4000 scfb, liquid feed=0.33 ml/min, and gas feed=0.4 scfh).

  7. NEW APPROACH TO OIL PALM WOOD UTILIZATION FOR WOODWORKING PRODUCTION Part 1: Basic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Balfas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available An explosive development in oil palm plantations in the country has produced a consequence in the generation of  plantation wastes. The  disposal of these wastes  has created  an  enormous environmental problem that some practical solution to their economic utilization has to  be sought.  A series of experiments have been accomplished to observe the possibility of converting the oil palm stem into valuable woodworking products. The  first stage of  this effort was determining basic characteristics of oil palm wood.  Results in general showed that the wood has a great characteristic variation across and along the stem, which may develop problems in its utilization. Characteristics of this wood also vary according to species variety.  Quality degradations of oil palm wood were mostly happened during drying process; hence, modifications to upgrade quality should be undertaken before or within the drying process.

  8. PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES AS A PART OF IMPLEMENTATION OF SIX SIGMA METHODOLOGY IN TIRE PRODUCTION. CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej WOJTASZAK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem solving methods – are an indispensable part of the management and improvement of production. At the turn of decades, with the development of industry, specific techniques have been implemented and refined by the leaders in this field, such as Toyota, GE and Motorola. The foundation of problem solving is to find real root cause of the problem as soon as possible, its understanding and implementation of appropriate solutions that will ensure that the problem does not occur again. This paper provides an overview of methods and techniques to solve problems in the manufactur-ing plant Trelleborg Wheel Systems Sri Lanka, producing pneumatic tires for light agricultural machinery. These tech-niques are implemented as part of the Lean Six Sigma program.

  9. Evidence of effectiveness of herbal medicinal products in the treatment of arthritis. Part I: Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Melainie; Gagnier, Joel J; Little, Christine V; Parsons, Tessa J; Blümle, Anette; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2009-11-01

    Herbal medicinal products (HMPs) are used in a variety of oral and topical forms for the treatment of osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to update a previous systematic review published in 2000. We searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CISCOM, AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane registers) to June 2007, unrestricted by date or language, and included randomized controlled trials that compared HMPs with inert (placebo) or active controls in patients with osteoarthritis. Five reviewers contributed to data extraction. Disagreements were discussed and resolved by consensus with reference to Cochrane guidelines and advice from the Cochrane Collaboration.Thirty-five studies (30 studies identified for this review update, and 5 studies included in the original review) evaluating the effectiveness of 22 HMPs were included. However, due to differing HMPs, interventions, comparators, and outcome measures, meta-analysis was restricted to data from studies of three HMPs: topical capsaicin, avocado-soybean unsaponifiables, and the Chinese herbal mixture SKI306X showed benefit in the alleviation of osteoarthritic pain.Several studies investigating products from devil's claw, and a powder from rose hip and seed, reported favorable effects on osteoarthritic pain, whereas two studies of a willow bark extract returned disparate results. Three studies of Phytodolor N(R) were of limited use because doses and measures were inconsistent among trials. The remaining single studies for each HMP provided moderate evidence of effectiveness. No serious side effects were reported with any herbal intervention.Despite some evidence, the effectiveness of none of the HMPs is proven beyond doubt. The obvious potential benefits of HMPs in the treatment of osteoarthritis are reduced reliance on synthetic medications with the associated risks of harmful adverse events, but further clinical trials are necessary before HMPs can be adopted in osteoarthritis treatment guidelines.

  10. EARLINET Single Calculus Chain - technical - Part 2: Calculation of optical products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattis, Ina; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Baars, Holger; Amodeo, Aldo; Madonna, Fabio; Iarlori, Marco

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we present the automated software tool ELDA (EARLINET Lidar Data Analyzer) for the retrieval of profiles of optical particle properties from lidar signals. This tool is one of the calculus modules of the EARLINET Single Calculus Chain (SCC) which allows for the analysis of the data of many different lidar systems of EARLINET in an automated, unsupervised way. ELDA delivers profiles of particle extinction coefficients from Raman signals as well as profiles of particle backscatter coefficients from combinations of Raman and elastic signals or from elastic signals only. Those analyses start from pre-processed signals which have already been corrected for background, range dependency and hardware specific effects. An expert group reviewed all algorithms and solutions for critical calculus subsystems which are used within EARLINET with respect to their applicability for automated retrievals. Those methods have been implemented in ELDA. Since the software was designed in a modular way, it is possible to add new or alternative methods in future. Most of the implemented algorithms are well known and well documented, but some methods have especially been developed for ELDA, e.g., automated vertical smoothing and temporal averaging or the handling of effective vertical resolution in the case of lidar ratio retrievals, or the merging of near-range and far-range products. The accuracy of the retrieved profiles was tested following the procedure of the EARLINET-ASOS algorithm inter-comparison exercise which is based on the analysis of synthetic signals. Mean deviations, mean relative deviations, and normalized root-mean-square deviations were calculated for all possible products and three height layers. In all cases, the deviations were clearly below the maximum allowed values according to the EARLINET quality requirements.

  11. USE OF FRESH PARTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR HEALTH AND PRODUCTION IN LIVESTOCK – A NEW CONCEPT OF FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Farm animals are reared for production to meet up the demand for animal protein in human. Various modern medicines are extensively used for production as well as treatment and prevention of diseases of animals, which can ultimately reach us through food chain. Herbs are now considered as an important source of alternative medicines. The Ayurvedic medicines prepared by manufacturers contain processed plant parts and added with preservative and other chemicals in many cases. The present way of research on herbal medicine follows the path of identification of active principles from the extracts of preserved parts of medicinal plants after testing of their efficacy in laboratory. This concept of research have the limitation of loss of many aromatic and other phytochemicals present in the living plant, which may have very important role when used together. Animals maintained in modern farm may be given relief from modern medicines in minor and moderate ailments, cure of problems related with their production with the validated fresh plant medicine available from the plants cultivated adjacent to the farm area. Consulting the reports of ethno-botanical study, a preliminary list of medicinal plant is prepared which are having antipyretic, analgesic, wound healing, immunostimulant, hepato-protective, fertility enhancing, pregnancy assisting, lactation assisting, anthelmintic, astringent, expectorant, purgative and anti-flatulent, nutriceutical, antiseptic, anti-dermatitis, anti-dysenteric and anti-enteric, hematenic, stomachic, diuretic and kidney stone removing effects and insecticidal or insect repelling effects. This list may be enriched further and plants may be selected for a farm from these groups according to the agro-climatic condition of the area, disease prevalence, problems encountered during farming practice and other requirements of the farm. Validation of reported effects of the plants is to be performed in fresh condition, so that parts

  12. Repellent constituents of essential oil of Cymbopogon distans aerial parts against two stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing Song; Zhao, Na Na; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long; Du, Shu Shan; Zhou, Ligang; Deng, Zhi Wei

    2011-09-28

    The screening for bioactive principles from several Chinese medicinal herbs showed that the essential oil of Cymbopogon distans aerial parts possessed strong repellency against the booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila , and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum . A total of 36 components of the essential oil were identified by GC and GC-MS. trans-Geraniol (16.54%), (R)-citronellal (15.44%), (+)-citronellol (11.51%), and α-elemol (9.06%) were the main components of the essential oil followed by β-eudesmol (5.71%) and (+)-limonene (5.05%). From the essential oil, four monoterpenes were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified as limonene, citronellol, citronellal, and trans-geraniol. Geraniol and citronellol were strongly repellent against the booklouse, L. bostrychophila, whereas citronellal and limonene exhibited weak repellency against the booklouse. Geraniol and citronellol exhibited comparable repellency against the booklouse relative to the positive control, DEET. Moreover, geraniol and citronellol exhibited stronger repellency against the red flour beetle than DEET, whereas the two other compounds showed the same level of repellency against the red flour beetle compared with DEET.

  13. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  14. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  15. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  16. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  17. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  18. Recycling of quarry waste as part of sustainable aggregate production: Norwegian and Italian point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Willy Danielsen, Svein; Chiappino, Claudia; Primavori, Piero; Engelsen, Christian John

    2016-04-01

    Resource preservation is one of the main challenges in Europe, together with waste management and recycling; recently several researchers are interested in the recovering of critical raw materials and secondary raw materials from landfill. Aggregate supply, even if it is not "critical" sensus stricto (s.s.), is one of the European priorities (low value but high volume needs). On the other side, the management of quarry waste , mainly from dimension stones, but also as fines from aggregate crushing, is still a matter of concern. Such materials are managed in different ways both locally and nationwide, and often they are landfilled, because of an unclear legislation and a general lack of data. Most of time the local authorities adopt the maximum precaution principle or the enterprises find it little profitable to recover them, so that the sustainable recycling of such material is not valued. Several studies have shown, depending on the material specific characteristics, the viability of recycling quarry waste into new raw materials used in glass and ceramic industries, precast concrete production, infrastructures etc. (Loudes et al. 2012, Dino&Marian 2015, Bozzola et al 2012, Dino et al. 2012, etc.). Thus, aggregate production may be one of the profitable ways to use quarry waste and is falling under the priority of EU (aggregate supply). Positive economic and environmental effects are likely to be achieved by systematic recycling of quarry waste planned by industries (industrial planning) and public authorities (national and local planning of aggregate exploitation). Today, the recycling level varies to a great extent and systematic recovery is not common among European Countries. In Italy and Norway no significant incentives on recycling or systematic approaches for local aggregate exploitation exist. The environmental consequences can be overexploitation of the natural resources, land take for the landfills, environmental contamination and landscape alteration by

  19. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  20. Potassium physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, S O

    1986-04-25

    Potassium is the most abundant exchangeable cation in the body. It exists predominantly in the intracellular fluid at concentrations of 140 to 150 meq/liter and in the extracellular fluid at concentrations of 3.5 to 5 meq/liter. The maintenance of the serum potassium concentration is a complex bodily function and results from the balance between intake, excretion, and distribution between intracellular and extracellular space. Ingested potassium is virtually completely absorbed from and minimally excreted through the intestine under nonpathologic circumstances. Renal excretion of potassium, which is the major chronic protective mechanism against abnormalities in potassium balance, depends on filtration, reabsorption, and a highly regulated distal nephron secretory process. Factors regulating potassium secretion include prior potassium intake, intracellular potassium, delivery of sodium chloride and poorly reabsorbable anions to the distal nephron, the urine flow rate, hormones such as aldosterone and beta-catecholamines, and the integrity of the renal tubular cell. The maintenance of distribution between the inside and outside of cells depends on the integrity of the cell membrane and its pumps, osmolality, pH, and the hormones insulin, aldosterone, beta 2-catecholamines, alpha-catecholamines, and prostaglandins. Both distribution across cell membranes and/or renal excretion of potassium may be altered by pharmacologic agents such as diuretics, alpha- and beta-catechol antagonists and agonists, depolarizing agents, and digitalis. Problems with hypokalemia and hyperkalemia can be analyzed on the basis of potassium physiology and pharmacology; proper treatment depends on an accurate analysis.

  1. Idaho Habitat/Natural Production Monitoring Part I, 1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall-Griswold, J.A.; Petrosky, C.E. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    1996-12-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has been monitoring trends in juvenile spring and summer chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead trout, O. mykiss, populations in the Salmon, Clearwater, and lower Snake River drainages for the past 12 years. This work is the result of a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. Project 91-73, Idaho Natural Production Monitoring, consists of two subprojects: General Monitoring and Intensive Monitoring. This report updates and summarizes data through 1995 for the General Parr Monitoring (GPM) database to document status and trends of classes of wild and natural chinook salmon and steelhead trout populations. A total of 281 stream sections were sampled in 1995 to monitor trends in spring and summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss parr populations in Idaho. Percent carrying capacity and density estimates were summarized for 1985--1995 by different classes of fish: wild A-run steelhead trout, wild B-run steelhead trout, natural A-run steelhead trout, natural B-run steelhead trout, wild spring and summer chinook salmon, and natural spring and summer chinook salmon. The 1995 data were also summarized by subbasins as defined in Idaho Department of Fish and Game`s 1992--1996 Anadromous Fish Management Plan.

  2. Idaho Habitat and Natural Production Monitoring Part I, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, Bruce A.; Petrosky, Charles E. (idaho Department of Fish and Game, Fisheries Research Section, Boise, ID)

    1994-02-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has been monitoring and evaluating proposed and existing habitat improvement projects for rainbow-steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and chinook salmon O. tshawytscha in the Clearwater River and Salmon River drainages on a large scale for the past 8 years. Projects included in the evaluation are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia rivers. A mitigation record is being developed using increased carrying capacity and/or survival as the best measures of benefit from a habitat enhancement project. Determination of full benefit from a project depends on completion or maturation of the project and presence of adequate numbers of fish to document actual increases in fish production. The depressed status of upriver anadromous stocks has precluded measuring full benefits of any habitat project in Idaho. Partial benefit is credited to the mitigation record in the interim period of run restoration.

  3. Spatial Variation of Pressure in the Lyophilization Product Chamber Part 1: Computational Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Arnab; Varma, Nikhil; Sane, Pooja; Bogner, Robin; Pikal, Michael; Alexeenko, Alina

    2017-04-01

    The flow physics in the product chamber of a freeze dryer involves coupled heat and mass transfer at different length and time scales. The low-pressure environment and the relatively small flow velocities make it difficult to quantify the flow structure experimentally. The current work presents the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling for vapor flow in a laboratory scale freeze dryer validated with experimental data and theory. The model accounts for the presence of a non-condensable gas such as nitrogen or air using a continuum multi-species model. The flow structure at different sublimation rates, chamber pressures, and shelf-gaps are systematically investigated. Emphasis has been placed on accurately predicting the pressure variation across the subliming front. At a chamber set pressure of 115 mtorr and a sublimation rate of 1.3 kg/h/m(2), the pressure variation reaches about 9 mtorr. The pressure variation increased linearly with sublimation rate in the range of 0.5 to 1.3 kg/h/m(2). The dependence of pressure variation on the shelf-gap was also studied both computationally and experimentally. The CFD modeling results are found to agree within 10% with the experimental measurements. The computational model was also compared to analytical solution valid for small shelf-gaps. Thus, the current work presents validation study motivating broader use of CFD in optimizing freeze-drying process and equipment design.

  4. Experimental Products Development Team (EPDT) Supporting New AWIPS . Part 2; Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the Experimental Products Development Team (EPDT) was formed within NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center to create training for development of plug-ins to extend the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) version 2. The broader atmospheric science community had a need for AWIPS II development training being created at SPoRT and EPDT was expanded to include other groups who were looking for training. Since the expansion of the group occurred, EPDT has provided AWIPS II development training to over thirty participants spanning a wide variety of groups such as NWS Systems Engineering Center, NWS Meteorological Development Laboratory, and several NOAA Cooperative Institutes. Participants within EPDT solidify their learning experience through hands-on learning and by participating in a "code-sprint" in which they troubleshoot existing and develop plug-ins. The hands-on learning workshop is instructor lead with participants completing exercises within the AWIPS II Development Environment. During the code sprints EPDT groups work on projects important to the community and have worked on various plug-ins such as an RGB image recipe creation tool, and an mPing (crowd sourced precipitation type reporting system) ingest and display. EPDT has developed a well-defined training regime which prepares participants to fully develop plug-ins for the extendible AWIPS II architecture from ingest to the display of new data. SPoRT has hosted 2 learning workshops and 1 code sprint over the last two years, and continues to build and shape the EPDT group based on feedback from previous workshops. The presentation will provide an overview of EPDT current and future activities, and best practices developed within EPDT.

  5. Wash flow disturbance and summer wash flow in the Mojave Desert: Influence on dispersion, production, and physiological functioning of dominant shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlander, April

    In many Mojave Desert ecosystems, water infiltrates to root-zones in greatest proportion via washes. As such, washes have a pronounced effect on plant dispersion and size across these landscapes. Desert roads alter the natural spatial patterns of washes on alluvial fans (locally called bajadas) and potentially affect plant production and distribution. As a winter-rainfall dominated ecosystem, climate changes in the Mojave Desert that increase summer precipitation may also play an important role in altering vegetation processes influenced by washes. Road effects on the spatial distribution of desert plants on a Mojave Desert bajada were examined using remotely sensed LiDAR data and ground based measurements of plant size. Plant physiological responses to summer wash flow were also quantified by measuring gas exchange and water status of two dominant perennial species, Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa. Larrea and Ambrosia plants were nearly 7x and 4x larger where wash flow has been enhanced by road culverts, relative to undisturbed areas and areas where flow has been cut-off by the presence of a road/railroad. Clustering of large plants occurred along wash margins, with clustering most pronounced in areas of enhanced wash flow. No clustering was found where wash flow has been eliminated. For ecophysiological traits, both species showed pronounced responses to the pulse of water; however, these responses varied as a function of distance from wash. Larrea plants within 3 m and Ambrosia plants within ca. 2 m from the wash responded to the pulse of water. Leaf phenology dictated the timing of carbon gain as Larrea experienced a rapid but short-lived increase in stomatal conductance compared to a significant response for over a month following the pulse for Ambrosia. These results indicate that disturbance of desert washes has a pronounced impact on vegetation structure, and changing climatic conditions that impact plant function could potentially lead to even

  6. Effect of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on physiology and steviol glycosides production in micropropagated shoots of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Rabia; Usman, Muhammad; Yücesan, Buhara; Zia, Muhammad; Gürel, Ekrem

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to address the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 or 1000 mg L(-1)) of engineered zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (34 nm in size) on growth parameters, steviol glycosides (rebaudioside A and stevioside) production and antioxidant activities in the tissue culture grown shoots of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The highest percentage of shoot formation (89.6%) at 1 mg L(-1) of ZnO nanoparticles concentration suggests a positive influence of ZnO nanoparticles on S. rebaudiana growth as compared to other treatments with or without ZnO nanoparticles. Additionally, HPLC results illustrate a significant enhancement of steviol glycosides (almost doubled as compared to the control) in micropropagated shoots grown under an oxidative stress of 1 mg L(-1) of ZnO nanoparticles. This finding is further affirmed by an increased 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, total anti-oxidant capacity, total reducing power, total flavonoid content and total phenolic content, with an ascending oxidative pressure and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the antioxidant activities, formation of secondary metabolites and the physiological parameters showed a sudden decline after crossing a threshold of 1 mg L(-1) concentration of ZnO nanoparticles and falls to a minimum at 1000 mg L(-1), elucidating maximum phytotoxic effect of ZnO nanoparticles at this concentration. This is the first study evaluating both the favorable and adverse effects of ZnO nanoparticles employed to a highly valuable medicinal plant, S. rebaudiana.

  7. LSA SAF Meteosat FRP Products: Part 2 – Evaluation and demonstration of use in the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Roberts

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterising the dynamics of landscape scale wildfires at very high temporal resolutions is best achieved using observations from Earth Observation (EO sensors mounted onboard geostationary satellites. As a result, a number of operational active fire products have been developed from the data of such sensors. An example of which are the Fire Radiative Power (FRP products, the FRP-PIXEL and FRP-GRID products, generated by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF from imagery collected by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI on-board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG series of geostationary EO satellites. The processing chain developed to deliver these FRP products detects SEVIRI pixels containing actively burning fires and characterises their FRP output across four geographic regions covering Europe, part of South America and northern and southern Africa. The FRP-PIXEL product contains the highest spatial and temporal resolution FRP dataset, whilst the FRP-GRID product contains a spatio-temporal summary that includes bias adjustments for cloud cover and the non-detection of low FRP fire pixels. Here we evaluate these two products against active fire data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, and compare the results to those for three alternative active fire products derived from SEVIRI imagery. The FRP-PIXEL product is shown to detect a substantially greater number of active fire pixels than do alternative SEVIRI-based products, and comparison to MODIS on a per-fire basis indicates a strong agreement and low bias in terms of FRP values. However, low FRP fire pixels remain undetected by SEVIRI, with errors of active fire pixel detection commission and omission compared to MODIS ranging between 9–13 and 65–77% respectively in Africa. Higher errors of omission result in greater underestimation of regional FRP totals relative to those derived from simultaneously

  8. LSA SAF Meteosat FRP Products: Part 2 - Evaluation and demonstration of use in the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G.; Wooster, M. J.; Xu, W.; Freeborn, P. H.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Jones, L.; Benedetti, A.; Kaiser, J.

    2015-06-01

    Characterising the dynamics of landscape scale wildfires at very high temporal resolutions is best achieved using observations from Earth Observation (EO) sensors mounted onboard geostationary satellites. As a result, a number of operational active fire products have been developed from the data of such sensors. An example of which are the Fire Radiative Power (FRP) products, the FRP-PIXEL and FRP-GRID products, generated by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) from imagery collected by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on-board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) series of geostationary EO satellites. The processing chain developed to deliver these FRP products detects SEVIRI pixels containing actively burning fires and characterises their FRP output across four geographic regions covering Europe, part of South America and northern and southern Africa. The FRP-PIXEL product contains the highest spatial and temporal resolution FRP dataset, whilst the FRP-GRID product contains a spatio-temporal summary that includes bias adjustments for cloud cover and the non-detection of low FRP fire pixels. Here we evaluate these two products against active fire data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and compare the results to those for three alternative active fire products derived from SEVIRI imagery. The FRP-PIXEL product is shown to detect a substantially greater number of active fire pixels than do alternative SEVIRI-based products, and comparison to MODIS on a per-fire basis indicates a strong agreement and low bias in terms of FRP values. However, low FRP fire pixels remain undetected by SEVIRI, with errors of active fire pixel detection commission and omission compared to MODIS ranging between 9-13 and 65-77% respectively in Africa. Higher errors of omission result in greater underestimation of regional FRP totals relative to those derived from simultaneously collected MODIS

  9. Biotechnology of flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived natural products. Part II: Reconstruction of multienzyme pathways in plants and microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververidis, Filippos; Trantas, Emmanouil; Douglas, Carl; Vollmer, Guenter; Kretzschmar, Georg; Panopoulos, Nickolas

    2007-10-01

    Plant natural products derived from phenylalanine and the phenylpropanoid pathways are impressive in their chemical diversity and are the result of plant evolution, which has selected for the acquisition of large repertoires of pigments, structural and defensive compounds, all derived from a phenylpropanoid backbone via the plant-specific phenylpropanoid pathway. These compounds are important in plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses and thus can have large impacts on agricultural productivity. While plant-based medicines containing phenylpropanoid-derived active components have long been used by humans, the benefits of specific flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived compounds to human health and their potential for long-term health benefits have only been recognized more recently. In this part of the review, we discuss in detail the recent strategies and achievements used in the reconstruction of multienzyme pathways in plants and microbes in an effort to be able to attain higher amounts of the desired flavonoids and stilbenoids exploiting their beneficial properties as analyzed extensively in Part I of this review.

  10. Energy use pattern in production agriculture of a typical village in arid zone - Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, H. E-mail: hsingh11@rediffmail.com; Mishra, D.; Nahar, N.M

    2004-09-01

    India has 31.71 Mha of hot arid areas, of which 61.8% is in Western Rajasthan, commonly known as the 'Thar Desert'. A detailed study of the energy use pattern in production agriculture for a representative village, Pemasar, district Bikaner of zone II (200 mm/yr {<=} annual rainfall < 300 mm/yr) has been conducted. Out of the total geographical area (945.7 ha) of the village, 693.6 ha is cultivable land. The main crops grown in the village are cluster bean, moth bean, groundnut, green gram (Kharif), wheat, mustard, gram, barley and rocket salad (Rabi). In general, Kharif crops are grown as rain fed crops, but due to low rainfall in the zone and the presence of the Indira Gandhi Canal, even Kharif crops are raised under irrigated conditions. However, the area covered under irrigation is meagre as the availability of canal water is very much limited and uncertain. Operation wise, the total energy consumed for rain fed Kharif crops is minimum (1187.6 MJ/ha) for moth bean and maximum (1261.9 MJ/ha) for cluster bean, while for irrigated crops, it is minimum (2847.3 MJ/ha) for moth bean, and maximum (12,809.6 MJ/ha) for groundnut. The average specific energy for cultivation of cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 11.7, 7.5, 7.7, 7.4 and 11.2 MJ/ha, respectively. Operation wise, the energy consumed for Rabi crops is minimum (3855.6 MJ/ha) for rocket salad followed by 4779.4 MJ/ha for mustard, 4845.2 MJ/ha for gram and maximum (7953.2 MJ/ha) for wheat. The average specific energy for cultivation of wheat, gram, mustard and rocket salad were 11.4, 16.5, 13.2 and 13.7 MJ/ha, respectively. The average values of estimated energy ratio for cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 2.1, 0.5, 3.4, 3.5 and 3.0, respectively. This suggests that the moth bean crop is more remunerating to the farmers in Kharif as compared to

  11. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  12. Meteosat SEVIRI Fire Radiative Power (FRP products from the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF – Part 1: Algorithms, product contents and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Wooster

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterising changes in landscape scale fire activity at very high temporal resolution is best achieved using thermal observations of actively burning fires made from geostationary Earth observation (EO satellites. Over the last decade or more, a series of research and/or operational "active fire" products have been developed from these types of geostationary observations, often with the aim of supporting the generation of data related to biomass burning fuel consumption and trace gas and aerosol emission fields. The Fire Radiative Power (FRP products generated by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF from data collected by the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI are one such set of products, and are freely available in both near real-time and archived form. Every 15 min, the algorithms used to generate these products identify and map the location of new SEVIRI observations containing actively burning fires, and characterise their individual rates of radiative energy release (fire radiative power; FRP that is believed proportional to rates of biomass consumption and smoke emission. The FRP-PIXEL product contains the highest spatial resolution FRP dataset, delivered for all of Europe, northern and southern Africa, and part of South America at a spatial resolution of 3 km (decreasing away from the west African sub-satellite point at the full 15 min temporal resolution. The FRP-GRID product is an hourly summary of the FRP-PIXEL data, produced at a 5° grid cell size and including simple bias adjustments for meteorological cloud cover and for the regional underestimation of FRP caused, primarily, by the non-detection of low FRP fire pixels at SEVIRI's relatively coarse pixel size. Here we describe the enhanced geostationary Fire Thermal Anomaly (FTA algorithm used to detect the SEVIRI active fire pixels, and detail methods used to deliver atmospherically corrected FRP

  13. FORECASTING OF PRODUCTION OUTPUT FOR LIGHT INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES WITH PURPOSE TO DETERMINE THEIR POWER RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an interest for those specialists who are involved in solution of efficiency problems in light industry of Belarus as one of the significant industries that forms an economic situation in the Republic, its export potential and social climate. It is extremely relevant for the Belarusian enterprises to reduce production costs in order to preserve and strengthen positions in the light industry market. Operating capacities for production of natural, synthetic textile and knit-wear materials and their subsequent treatment are in many respects unjustifiably energy intensive. Nowadays the only acceptable solution of the problem for reduction of production costs is to decrease its energy component. Such approach requires transition to creation of modern heat and power supply systems at heat technology enterprises.The most important sub-system of the enterprises is own combined production of energy flows of secondary electrical and heat energy, freeze. There is a complex of problems that arise during designing process of tri-generation unit. One of the most important problems presupposes determination of a base load demand and capacity of every energy flow generated by an energy source. The solution is directly related to production output, which in its turn is determined by the requirements of sales markets. Due to various reasons the markets have their own specificity for the enterprises under consideration. It is proposed to use statistical methods for searching requirements. In this connection it is necessary to take into account industry development rate (pre-determined by State Programs, Plans, Governmental solutions, including directive instructions, production volumes of competitive goods and actual goods situation on the sales market.The paper presents the first part of the executed complex investigations which are directed on the development of scientifically-substantiated proposals for higher energy efficiency of the

  14. LSA SAF Meteosat FRP products - Part 2: Evaluation and demonstration for use in the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G.; Wooster, M. J.; Xu, W.; Freeborn, P. H.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Jones, L.; Benedetti, A.; Jiangping, H.; Fisher, D.; Kaiser, J. W.

    2015-11-01

    Characterising the dynamics of landscape-scale wildfires at very high temporal resolutions is best achieved using observations from Earth Observation (EO) sensors mounted onboard geostationary satellites. As a result, a number of operational active fire products have been developed from the data of such sensors. An example of which are the Fire Radiative Power (FRP) products, the FRP-PIXEL and FRP-GRID products, generated by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) from imagery collected by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) series of geostationary EO satellites. The processing chain developed to deliver these FRP products detects SEVIRI pixels containing actively burning fires and characterises their FRP output across four geographic regions covering Europe, part of South America and Northern and Southern Africa. The FRP-PIXEL product contains the highest spatial and temporal resolution FRP data set, whilst the FRP-GRID product contains a spatio-temporal summary that includes bias adjustments for cloud cover and the non-detection of low FRP fire pixels. Here we evaluate these two products against active fire data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and compare the results to those for three alternative active fire products derived from SEVIRI imagery. The FRP-PIXEL product is shown to detect a substantially greater number of active fire pixels than do alternative SEVIRI-based products, and comparison to MODIS on a per-fire basis indicates a strong agreement and low bias in terms of FRP values. However, low FRP fire pixels remain undetected by SEVIRI, with errors of active fire pixel detection commission and omission compared to MODIS ranging between 9-13 % and 65-77 % respectively in Africa. Higher errors of omission result in greater underestimation of regional FRP totals relative to those derived from simultaneously collected MODIS

  15. Utilization of by-products from the tequila industry. Part 2: Potential value of Agave tequilana Weber azul leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Covarrubias, G; Díaz-Teres, R; Sanjuan-Dueñas, R; Anzaldo-Hernández, J; Rowell, R M

    2001-04-01

    The leaves of the agave plant are left in the field after harvesting the heads for tequila production. Different types of agave leaves were isolated, classified, and their content in the total plant determined. The usable fractions were collected and their properties determined. Of the total wet weight of the agave plant, 54% corresponds to the agave head, 32% corresponds to materials which could be usable for sugar and fiber production which leaves 14% of the wet plant without apparent utility. The fractions with higher total reducing sugars (TRS) content were the fresh fraction of partially dry leaves stuck to the head and the leaf bases with a TRS content of 16.1% and 13.1%, respectively. The highest TRS concentration (16-28%) is in the agave head which is used for tequila production. The leaves are 90-120 cm long and 8-12 cm wide and contain fiber bundles that are 23-52 cm long and 0.6-13 mm wide. The ultimate fiber length is approximately 1.6 mm with an average width of 25 microns. There are several types of leaf fibers that can be utilized depending on what part of the plant they come from and what product is desired. Agave leaf fibers were pulped using a soda pulping process and the pulp was hand formed into test sheets. Test sheets made from pulped agave leaf fibers had a breaking length comparable to paper made from both pine and eucalyptus fibers, but the tear index and burst index were lower than the other two papers.

  16. EFFECT OF PROTECTIVE FUNCTION OF VERMICULTURE PRODUCTS ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS IN THE CONDITION OF ABIOTIC FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Vasilyuk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of MgSO4 on morphometric specifics of the Salix alba L., which characterized by high rates of growth and development is investigated. Mg2+ was added in the form of MgSO4*3H2O at a concentration of 2.5 g/l considering of salt water content in the research solutions with S. alba L. and  combined with plant growth regulator (GR of natural origin Humisol. These studies have shown toxicity ofMgSO4 at a concentration of 2.5 g/l during all the period of growth and development. So, MgSO4 had toxic effect on plant growth and development within whole period of observation. We registered negative correlation (R = - 0.99 between toxic properties of salt and the age of the studied plants (for example, the growth rate of shoots and leaf blades by S. alba L. and positive correlation (R = 0.99 while studied the root growth rate, which was caused by the direct contact of rhizosphere and negative stressors. The GR Humisol accelerated the rate of physiological processes of growth and development of shoots and roots in 2-3 times, but the growth of leaf blade was not activated regards the control. The combined effect of magnesium salts and GR levelled toxic concentrations of magnesium sulphate were accelerated plant growth or stimulated growth up to control values, promoted adaptation mechanisms of plants and provided a protective role against excessive salinity. We suggested using the Humisol as a natural product, vermiculture, adaptogene, protector, and fertilizer agent of natural origin, which provides for biota to consume the environmental services without damage to the environment under conditions of excessive pressure of salt stress on plant organism.

  17. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, Michael; Dillon, Heather E.

    2012-05-01

    Part 2 of the project (this report) uses the conclusions from Part 1 as a point of departure to focus on two objectives: producing a more detailed and conservative assessment of the manufacturing process and providing a comparative LCA with other lighting products based on the improved manufacturing analysis and taking into consideration a wider range of environmental impacts. In this study, we first analyzed the manufacturing process for a white-light LED (based on a sapphire-substrate, blue-light, gallium-nitride LED pumping a yellow phosphor), to understand the impacts of the manufacturing process. We then conducted a comparative LCA, looking at the impacts associated with the Philips Master LEDbulb and comparing those to a CFL and an incandescent lamp. The comparison took into account the Philips Master LEDbulb as it is now in 2012 and then projected forward what it might be in 2017, accounting for some of the anticipated improvements in LED manufacturing, performance and driver electronics.

  18. Physiology of the fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, Torvid

    2005-12-01

    Our understanding of fetal circulatory physiology is based on experimental animal data, and this continues to be an important source of new insight into developmental mechanisms. A growing number of human studies have investigated the human physiology, with results that are similar but not identical to those from animal studies. It is time to appreciate these differences and base more of our clinical approach on human physiology. Accordingly, the present review focuses on distributional patterns and adaptational mechanisms that were mainly discovered by human studies. These include cardiac output, pulmonary and placental circulation, fetal brain and liver, venous return to the heart, and the fetal shunts (ductus venosus, foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus). Placental compromise induces a set of adaptational and compensational mechanisms reflecting the plasticity of the developing circulation, with both short- and long-term implications. Some of these aspects have become part of the clinical physiology of today with consequences for surveillance and treatment.

  19. FORECASTING OF PRODUCTION OUTPUT FOR LIGHT INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES WITH PURPOSE TO DETERMINE THEIR POWER RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed paper is a continuation of the work, published in the previous issue. It is destined for specialists who are engaged in solution of problems pertaining to efficiency of light industry in Belarus which is considered as one of the branches being significantly involved in formation of national economy, its export potential and social climate. It is extremely relevant to reduce production costs in order to preserve and add strength to the branch positions in the markets. Production of natural, synthetic and knitted materials and their subsequent treatment are unreasonably power-consuming processes. Fundamental solution of the problem for reduction of production costs is to decrease its energy component and this can be achieved due to transition to modern heat and power systems in technological complexes of enterprises.The first part of the paper has considered a range of issues that served as a basis for obtaining statistical models in order to forecast the required production volume of main knitted and textile materials.  Forecasting has been prepared   for a period of more than 20 years because it has been predetermined by development horizon of comprehensive modernization of energy supply systems at enterprises of light industry. The production volumes essentially differ from those that have been stipulated in the programs of light industry.The present paper shows selection of statistical game-type for determination of  build-up rate of the production volume for every textile enterprise. The so-called “Game with Nature” has been selected as a game which is widely used for solution of analogous demand problems. The statistical forecasting models of production obtained in the first part are applied in the second part of the paper which considers strategies for development of individual enterprises. JSC :Baranovichi Industrial Cotton Association” has been taken an example in the paper. Production volumes of any enterprise are

  20. Blood Products and the Commodification Debate: The Blurry Concept of Altruism and the 'Implicit Price' of Readily Available Body Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufner, Annette

    2015-12-01

    There is a widespread consensus that a commodification of body parts is to be prevented. Numerous policy papers by international organizations extend this view to the blood supply and recommend a system of uncompensated volunteers in this area--often, however, without making the arguments for this view explicit. This situation seems to indicate that a relevant source of justified worry or unease about the blood supply system has to do with the issue of commodification. As a result, the current health minister of Ontario is proposing a ban on compensation even for blood plasma--despite the fact that Canada can only generate 30 % of the plasma needed for fractionation into important plasma protein products and has to purchase the rest abroad. In the following, I am going to suggest a number of alternative perspectives on the debate in order to facilitate a less dogmatic and more differentiated debate about the matter. Especially in light of the often over-simplified notions of altruism and commodification, I conclude that the debate has not conclusively established that it would be morally objectionable to provide blood plasma donors with monetary compensation or with other forms of explicit social recognition as an incentive. This is especially true of donations for fractionation into medicinal products by profit-oriented pharmaceutical companies.

  1. Prevalence and sources of Campylobacter spp. contamination in free-range broiler production in the southern part of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandeplas, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A one year epidemiological study was carried out between February 2005 and February 2006 in the southern part of Belgium to assess the Campylobacter prevalence in free-range broiler production. Three successive broiler flocks from six Belgian farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter spp. during the rearing period. Each flock was visited four times, before and after the outdoor rearing period. During each visit, samples were taken in the broiler house (litter, cecal droppings, water-lines, feed, anteroom as well as from the outer rearing environment (open-air range. The Campylobacter detection in all samples was carried out according to the ISO 10272 standard. Identification was based on colonial morphology, microscopic examination, and biochemical tests. PCR multiplex was used for genetic confirmation. Campylobacter jejuni was the main species isolated from all contaminated samples. Overall, mixed infections C. jejuni / Campylobacter coli represented 40.6%, while C. jejuni and C. coli represented 46.9% and 12.5% of chicken samples respectively. A 100% flock contamination was observed in the 6 farms during the summer-autumn period, whereas only 66.7% and 33.3% of the flocks became Campylobacter-positive in spring and winter respectively, at the end of the rearing period. Half of contaminated flocks were infected before chickens have access to the open-air range. Environmental samples, especially the open-air range soil, were found to be Campylobacter-positive before flock infection. The other potential sources of contamination were delivery tray, anteroom floor and water-lines. Other animal productions like cattle on the farm, no applied rodent control, no cleaning and disinfection of water-lines between flocks, no detergent used for cleaning and thinning were recorded as risk factors. In conclusion, the contact with the environment, particularly the access to an open-air range, appeared to be the major way of Campylobacter

  2. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program, Part B; Limnology, Primary Production, and Zooplankton in Lake Roosevelt, Washington, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, John; Spotts, Jim; Underwood, Keith

    2002-11-01

    The Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program is the result of a merger between two projects, the Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Program (BPA No. 8806300) and the Lake Roosevelt Data Collection Project (BPA No. 9404300). These projects were merged in 1996 to continue work historically completed under the separate projects, and is now referred to as the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program. The 1998 Annual Report, Part B. Limnology, Primary Production, and Zooplankton in Lake Roosevelt, Washington examined the limnology, primary production, and zooplankton at eleven locations throughout the reservoir. The 1998 research protocol required a continuation of the more complete examination of limnological parameters in Lake Roosevelt that began in 1997. Phytoplankton and periphyton speciation, phytoplankton and periphyton chlorophyll a analysis, complete zooplankton biomass analysis by taxonomic group, and an increased number of limnologic parameters (TDG, TDS, etc.) were examined and compared with 1997 results. Total dissolved gas levels were greatly reduced in 1998, compared with 1997, likely resulting from the relatively normal water year experienced in 1998. Mean water temperatures were similar to what was observed in past years, with a maximum of 22.7 C and a minimum of 2.6 C. Oxygen concentrations were also relatively normal, with a maximum of 16.6 mg/L, and a minimum of 0.9 mg/L. Phytoplankton in Lake Roosevelt was primarily composed of microplankton (29.6%), Cryptophyceae (21.7%), and Bacillriophyceae (17.0 %). Mean total phytoplankton chlorophyll a maximum concentration occurred in May (3.53 mg/m{sup 3}), and the minimum in January (0.39 mg/m{sup 3}). Phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations appear to be influenced by hydro-operations and temperature. Trophic status as indicated by phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations place Lake Roosevelt in the oligomesotrophic range. Periphyton colonization rates and biovolume were significantly greater at a depth

  3. Ultrasonic Products FCC PART 18 Test Methods%超声波产品FCC PART 18的测试方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建宏

    2015-01-01

    针对超声波产品出口美国的FCC认证要求,对此类产品FCC Part 18的测试进行了解读,阐述了详细技术要求以及跟其它产品测试方法的不同,并对此注意事项进行了分析.

  4. Physiological Studies of Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gunda

    industrial production by employing flow cytometry for viability assessment, cell size comparison, intracellular pH (pHi) determination and cell sorting. The physiological studies of L. lactis were complemented by examining the growth behavior, glucose consumption, lactate production, culturability on solid...... was found to facilitate the differentiation and accurate quantification of L. lactis cells in different physiological states, which agreed with the reproductive viability of reference samples and of exponential cells. The high viability of one particular L. lactis strain demonstrated its robustness during......, cell size comparison and pHi determination reflected the increasing physiological impairment during this accelerated stability test, while a preincubation in buffer led to inconsistent flow cytometric results. The comparison of reproductive and growth-independent viability suggested the presence...

  5. Natural radiogenic heat production in the northeastern part of the North German Basin; Natuerliche radiogene Waermeproduktion im Nordostdeutschen Becken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullner, H.A. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The radiogenic heat-production rate is a parameter that affects the thermal structure in the sedimentary cover. The parameter is important to warrant an extensive study. The first results gained in the northeastern part of the North German Basin show values in the range between 2.2 and 2.6 {mu}W/m{sup 3} in Permian mudstones in the Peckensen borehole and in the Bonese borehole (Altmark area). Comparable results were obtained in mudstones from a {gamma}-ray log measured in the Rheinsberg borehole (Brandenburg area). (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchung der thermischen Struktur des nordostdeutschen Beckens erfordert Kenntnisse ueber die radiogene Waermeproduktion der in zahlreichen Bohrungen aufgeschlossenen Sedimente. Die erste Ergebnisse eines am GFZ Postdam begonnenen Messprogrammes zeigen Waermeproduktionsraten im Bereich 2,2 bis 2,6 {mu}W/m{sup 3} in Tonsteinen des Perm in den Bohrungen Peckensen und Bonese (Altmark). Eine vergleichbare Waermeproduktion wurde anhand eines {gamma}-ray-Logs in Tonsteinen in der Bohrung Rheinsberg (Brandenburg) ermittelt. (orig.)

  6. Physiological effects in aromatherapy

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow pot...

  7. Reaction of 1,2,3,4-Diepoxybutane with 2′-Deoxyguanosine: Initial Products and Their Stabilities and Decomposition Patterns under Physiological Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin-Yu; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2005-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Diepoxybutane (DEB), an in vivo metabolite of 1,3-butadiene (BD), is a carcinogen and a potent mutagen. Previously, DEB was shown to react with 2′-deoxyguanosine (dG) under physiological conditions to produce seven major nucleoside adducts resulting from alkylation at the N1- (P8 and P9), N7- (P5 and P5′) and both the N1- and N2-positions of dG to form six-membered (P4-1 and P4-2) and seven-membered fused ring systems (P6), respectively (Zhang and Elfarra, Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2003, 16...

  8. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  9. Produção e indicadores fisiológicos de alface sob hidroponia com água salina Production and physiologic indicators of lettuce grown in hydroponics with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Paulus

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de água salina na produção de hortaliças constitui no momento atividade essencial, tendo em vista o aumento da demanda de água doce, tanto pela atividade agrícola quanto pelo abastecimento urbano e industrial. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produção e os indicadores fisiológicos de alface cultivada em hidroponia com a utilização de água salina. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido, em Piracicaba-SP. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, sendo estudados os efeitos de cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação, utilizando-se NaCl [Condutividade elétrica (Cea: 0,42, 1,53, 3,52, 5,55 e 7,43 dS m-1] em duas cultivares de alface (Verônica e Pira Roxa, em esquema fatorial. Foram determinadas massa fresca e seca de folhas, caule, raízes e da parte aérea; teor de nitrato, prolina e clorofila. O aumento da salinidade da água reduziu linearmente as massas fresca e seca das folhas, caule, raízes e da parte aérea. As massas fresca e seca foram 36% e 57% superiores na cultivar Verônica, respectivamente. A cultivar Pira Roxa apresentou maior teor de nitrato 25% (3008 mg L-1, clorofila total 50% (1,46 mg g-1massa fresca e prolina, 71,43% (0,21 µM g-1massa fresca-1 em relação à Verônica, o que pode ser um mecanismo de adaptação daquela cultivar ao estresse salino. Com relação à produtividade comercial, obteve-se uma perda de 69 e 64% para as cultivares Pira Roxa e Verônica, quando se utilizou água mais salina (7,43 dS m-1. Em relação à produção de massa seca, a perda pelo uso dessa água foi de 53% e 44%, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos em sistema de cultivo hidropônico podem indicar a possibilidade do uso da água salina como alternativa para produção de hortaliças para produtores que têm disponibilidade de água salina e restrita disponibilidade de água doce, embora com redução na produtividade.The use of saline water in the production of vegetables constitutes

  10. Fatality of salt stress to plants: Morphological, physiological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatality of salt stress to plants: Morphological, physiological and biochemical aspects. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Soil salinity affects various physiological and biochemical processes which result in reduced biomass production.

  11. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 2: Echinacea purpurea-Lavandula angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangemi, Sebastiano; Minciullo, Paola L; Miroddi, Marco; Chinou, Ioanna; Calapai, Gioacchino; Schmidt, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 2: Echinacea purpurea Moench-Lavandula angustifolia Mill.

  12. Process for production of high density/high performance binderless boards from whole coconut husk: Part 2: Coconut husk morphology, composition and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Putten, van der J.C.; Anayron, C.; Josol, F.; Peralta, A.

    2006-01-01

    For production of compression moulded boards from whole coconut husk the auto-adhesive properties are derived from the intrinsic high lignin content. Since the properties of manufactured boards for a large part will depend on the input husk material these properties are studied here. Husks of differ

  13. INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH «DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN MARKET OF NANOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS IN CONSTRUCTION UNTIL 2020». PART 2. ANALYSIS OF THE WORLD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSEV Boris Vladimirovich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Some results of the industrial research «Development of Russian market of nanotechnological products in construction until 2020» have been published. Authors invite all interested specialists and specialized organization to take part in the broad public discussion.

  14. Culture medium pH influence on Gluconacetobacter physiology: Cellulose production rate and yield enhancement in presence of multiple carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Fatima; Bassil, Nathalie; Flouty, Roula; Chokr, Ali; Samrani, Antoine El; Boiteux, Gisèle; Tahchi, Mario El

    2016-08-01

    Gluconacetobacter genera are valued for bacterial cellulose (BC) and acetic acid production. BC is produced at optimal yields in classical microbiological media that are expensive for a large scale of production. In addition, BC usage for industrial purposes is limited due to low conversion rate into cellulose and to long incubation duration. In this paper, Gluconacetobacter isolated from apple vinegar was kinetically studied to evaluate cellulose production in presence of different carbon sources. Acetic and citric acid effect on Gluconacetobacter metabolism is clarified. It was shown that Gluconacetobacter uses glucose as a primary carbon source for cells growth and products formation. Acetic acid employment as a co-carbon source in Hestrin Schramm medium showed an increase of 17% in BC yield with a moderate decrease in the crystallite size of the resulting polymer.

  15. Productivity of agricultural surfaces in the eastern parts of Germany under the influence of climatic changes; Die Ertragsfaehigkeit ostdeutscher Ackerflaechen unter Klimawandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wechsung, Frank; Gerstengarbe, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Lasch, Petra; Luettger, Andrea (eds.)

    2008-12-15

    statistical yield models relating yearly changes in major climate variables to those in crop yield at the county level. The models were calibrated for the period 1990 to 2006 and then used for simulating the climate dominated yield variability beginning in 1951 up to 2055. The results received after integration revealed that the climate-determined yield level will probably remain stable under the projected climatic conditions for the next 20 to 30 years. A significant yield loss is to be expected by the middle of the 21st century, especially at locations in the eastern sandy lowlands distant from coast and mountain regions. The losses will be greater in the cultivation of the summer crop maize than that of the winter crop wheat. However, the increase in atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) might compensate part or all of these losses. Due to the fertilizing effect of this greenhouse gas, yields of wheat can even be expected to increase above current levels and yield losses of maize due to water stress will be mostly diminished. An optimum nitrogen provision is a necessary precondition for the CO2 fertilization to come to its full effect, though. In contrast to wheat and maize, yields of fast growing aspen in short rotation coppice plantation are expected to increase under the presumed changes of climate also on sandy soils with low water holding capacity even when neglecting the beneficial effect of higher CO2. This is indicated by simulation results using the eco-physiological forest dynamics model 4C. The model was applied to those areas of East-Germany's arable land where cereal cropping is less productive than the current median level. Following these results, short rotation coppicing of aspen is a promising cultivation alternative for farmers to secure future incomes. Woody biomass generated in short rotation coppice plantations with aspen is particularly suitable for bio-energy production. Taken the simulated effects of the projected climate change on

  16. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  17. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  18. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  19. The functions of sound production in the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus, and effects of loud ambient noise on its behavior and physiology in captive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul August

    Loud noise in aquaria represents a cacophonous environment for captive fishes. I tested the effects of loud noise on acoustic communication, feeding behavior, courtship behavior, and the stress response of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus. Total Root Mean Square (RMS) power of ambient noise to which seahorses are exposed in captivity varies widely but averages 126.1 +/- 0.8 deciBels with reference to one micropascal (dB re: 1 muPa) at the middle of the water column and 133.7 +/- 1.1 dB at the tank bottom, whereas ambient noise in the wild averages 119.6 +/- 3.5 dB. Hearing sensitivity of H. erectus, measured from auditory evoked potentials, demonstrated maximum spectrum-level sensitivities of 105.0 +/- 1.5 dB and 3.5 x 10-3 + 7.6 x 10-4 m/s2 at 200 Hz; which is characteristic of hearing generalists. H. erectus produces acoustic clicks with mean peak spectrum-level amplitudes of 94.3 +/- 0.9 dB at 232 +/- 16 Hz and 1.5 x 10 -3 +/- 1.9 x 10-4 m/s2 at 265 +/- 22 Hz. Frequency matching of clicks to best hearing sensitivity, and estimates of audition of broadband signals suggest that seahorses may hear conspecific clicks, especially in terms of particle motion. Behavioral investigations revealed that clicking did not improve prey capture proficiency. However, animals clicked more often as time progressed in a courtship sequence, and mates performed more courtship behaviors with control animals than with muted animals, lending additional evidence to the role of clicking as an acoustic signal during courtship. Despite loud noise and the role of clicking in communication, masking of the acoustic signal was not demonstrated. Seahorses exposed to loud noise in aquaria for one month demonstrated physiological, chronic stress responses: reduced weight and body condition, and increased heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Behavioral alterations were characterized by greater mean and variance of activity among animals housed in loud tanks in the first week, followed by

  20. Combined deterministic and stochastic approaches for modeling the evolution of food products along the cold chain. Part I: Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Flick, D.; Hoang, H.M.; Alvarez, G.; Laguerre, O.

    2012-01-01

    Many deterministic models have been developed to describe heat transfer in the cold chain and to predict the thermal and microbial evolution of food products. However, different product items will have different evolutions because of the variability of logistic supply chain, equipment design and operating conditions, etc. The objective of this study is to propose a general methodology to predict the evolution of food products and its variability along a cold chain. This evolution is chara...

  1. Physiological effects in aromatherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapanee Hongratanaworakit

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow potential brain waves (contingent negativevariation, and eye blink rate or pupil functions, are used as indices for the measurement of the aroma effects

  2. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  3. Towards Sustainable Production of Protein-Rich Foods: Appraisal of Eight Crops for Western Europe. Part II: Analysis of the Technological Aspects of the Production Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaving Dijkstra, D.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Increased production of plant protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods which can replace meat in the human diet to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses on the environment. The suitability of lupin (Lupinus spp.), pea (Pisum sativum), quinoa (Chenopodium

  4. Towards Sustainable Production of Protein-Rich Foods: Appraisal of Eight Crops for Western Europe. Part II: Analysis of the Technological Aspects of the Production Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaving Dijkstra, D.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Increased production of plant protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods which can replace meat in the human diet to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses on the environment. The suitability of lupin (Lupinus spp.), pea (Pisum sativum), quinoa (Chenopodium

  5. Toward Sustainable Production of Protein-Rich Foods: Appraisal of Eight Crops for Western Europe. Part 1. Analysis of the Primary Links of the Production Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, A.R.; Swaving Dijkstra, D.

    2002-01-01

    Increased production of plant protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods that can replace meat in the human diet to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses to the environment. The suitability of lupin (Lupinusspp.), pea (Pisum sativum), quinoa (Chenopodium qu

  6. Toward Sustainable Production of Protein-Rich Foods: Appraisal of Eight Crops for Western Europe. Part 1. Analysis of the Primary Links of the Production Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, A.R.; Swaving Dijkstra, D.

    2002-01-01

    Increased production of plant protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods that can replace meat in the human diet to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses to the environment. The suitability of lupin (Lupinusspp.), pea (Pisum sativum), quinoa (Chenopodium qu

  7. Physiological characterisation of Penicillium chrysogenum strains expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus during batch cultivations. Growth and adipoyl-7- aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Jarno Jacky Christian; Jakobsen, M.; Beyer, M.

    2001-01-01

    The production of adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxy-cephalosporanic acid (ad-7-ADCA) was studied, using two recombinant strains of Penicillium chrysogenum carrying the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus. The adipoyl-side chain of this compound may easily be removed using an amidase; and this pr......The production of adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxy-cephalosporanic acid (ad-7-ADCA) was studied, using two recombinant strains of Penicillium chrysogenum carrying the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus. The adipoyl-side chain of this compound may easily be removed using an amidase...

  8. Productivity, part 2: cloud storage, remote meeting tools, screencasting, speech recognition software, password managers, and online data backup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Amanda E; Pandey, Tarun; Moshiri, Mariam; Lalwani, Neeraj; Lall, Chandana; Bhargava, Puneet

    2014-06-01

    It is an opportune time for radiologists to focus on personal productivity. The ever increasing reliance on computers and the Internet has significantly changed the way we work. Myriad software applications are available to help us improve our personal efficiency. In this article, the authors discuss some tools that help improve collaboration and personal productivity, maximize e-learning, and protect valuable digital data.

  9. Stochastic state-space temperature regulation of biochar production Part II: Application to manure processing via pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The concept of a designer biochar that targets the improvement of a specific soil property imposes the need for production processes to generate biochars with both high consistency and quality. These important production parameters can be affected by variations in process temperature tha...

  10. Manufactering of par-fried french-fries. Part 3: a blueprint to predict the maximum production yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.; Capelle, A.; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    Very little research on the production yield of par-fried French-fries has been reported in the literature. This paper bridges the knowledge gap and outlines the development of a model to predict the maximum production yield of par-fried French-fries. This yield model can be used to calculate the yi

  11. Large-scale production of diesel-like biofuels - process design as an inherent part of microorganism development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Maria C; Heijnen, Joseph J; van der Wielen, Luuk A M

    2013-06-01

    Industrial biotechnology is playing an important role in the transition to a bio-based economy. Currently, however, industrial implementation is still modest, despite the advances made in microorganism development. Given that the fuels and commodity chemicals sectors are characterized by tight economic margins, we propose to address overall process design and efficiency at the start of bioprocess development. While current microorganism development is targeted at product formation and product yield, addressing process design at the start of bioprocess development means that microorganism selection can also be extended to other critical targets for process technology and process scale implementation, such as enhancing cell separation or increasing cell robustness at operating conditions that favor the overall process. In this paper we follow this approach for the microbial production of diesel-like biofuels. We review current microbial routes with both oleaginous and engineered microorganisms. For the routes leading to extracellular production, we identify the process conditions for large scale operation. The process conditions identified are finally translated to microorganism development targets. We show that microorganism development should be directed at anaerobic production, increasing robustness at extreme process conditions and tailoring cell surface properties. All the same time, novel process configurations integrating fermentation and product recovery, cell reuse and low-cost technologies for product separation are mandatory. This review provides a state-of-the-art summary of the latest challenges in large-scale production of diesel-like biofuels.

  12. Carbon footprint and environmental impacts of print products from cradle to grave. Results from the LEADER project (part 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihkola, H.; Nors, M.; Kujanpaeae, M.; Helin, T.; Kariniemi, M.; Pajula, T. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Dahlbo, H.; Koskela, S. (Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-12-15

    The report presents the main results of the LEADER project that was ongoing in Finland between the years 2007-2010. The aim of the project was to study the environmental impacts occurring during the life cycle of print products. The scope of the project was focused on printed media products. In the study, life cycle assessments and carbon footprints were calculated for five case products: heatset offset printed magazine, coldset offset printed newspaper, sheetfed offset printed book, electrophotography printed photobook and rotogravure printed advertisement. The environmentally extended input-output model ENVIMAT was applied to provide an estimate of the environmental impacts related to the production and consumption of print products in Finland. Additionally, the development of environmental performance within different printing methods is evaluated and the environmental indicators specific for the printing phase are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Synthesis gas demonstration plant program, Phase I. Trade-off study VI, by-product sales analysis. Part 1. Sulfur recovery system. Part 2. Carbon dioxide, fly ash, bottom ash and slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop and analyze information to facilitate decision making in regard to by-products from the Commercial Plant. Part 1 of the study investigated the alternative marketing and commercial advantages of producing elemental sulfur or sulfuric acid, the findings to be used with results of a technical and economic analysis to determine the relative desirability of choosing either as a by-product. The principal commercial and marketing input for this portion of the study were provided by review of authoritative published material and by personnel interviews with government, trade association and commercial information sources, including a limited number of major consumers and producers. Compilation and analysis of statistical data and knowledgeable opinions on the following were included: production and consumption trends and future outlook; levels of current and expected future prices; end-use trends and outlook for new uses; geographic consumption patterns; export market and outlook for foreign sales; and other factors related to the present and future supply and demand and effective marketing of the by-products. Technical data were obtained from the commercial suppliers of the processes involved, supplemented by information from producers of the by-products under consideration. The predicted composition and quantity of all gaseous waste streams were used for investigation of by-product potential. Capital investment and operating costs to produce the saleable by-products investigated were developed for each production alternative considered. Operating profits were determined and comparative figures were calculated for net cash flow and return on investment.

  14. Geological and production analyses focused on exploration of the eastern part of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Analisis geologico-productivo enfocado a la exploracion de la parte oriental del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Dumas, Alvaro [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, B.C (Mexico)]. E-mail: alvaro.aguilar@cfe.gob.mx

    2008-01-15

    The eastern part of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CGCP), known as Poligono Nuevo Leon, is an area with proven geothermal resources, as confirmed by seven directional wells located toward the east and by vertical well M-200 located inside the polygon. Well M-200 was drilled in 1984 and has produced about 4 million tons of steam to date. It is integrated into the CP-2 sector, producing 68 t/h of steam. Presently the eastern part of CGCP, representing 25% of the total field area, is producing over half of the steam for the entire field. In the last few years, the steam has come only after increasing the number of production wells located in the eastern zone of CGCP (Rodriguez, 2006), where pressure, enthalpy and temperature conditions are better than in other parts of the field. However in the long term it will be necessary to incorporate Poligono Nuevo Leon into the productive area to expand the productive life of CGCP. This paper includes a geological analysis, plus models for steam production, temperature and enthalpy for Poligono Nuevo Leon. [Spanish] La parte oriental del Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto (CGCP), conocida como Poligono Nuevo Leon, representa una area potencial con recursos geotermicos comprobados, lo que demuestran siete pozos direccionales que se han perforado hacia el este, asi como el pozo vertical M-200, localizado dentro del poligono. El pozo M-200 se perforo en 1984 y ha producido a la fecha alrededor de 4 millones de toneladas de vapor, estando integrado al sector CP-2 una produccion de 68 t/h de vapor. Actualmente la parte oriental del CGCP, que representa el 25% del area total del campo, produce mas de la mitad del total de vapor del campo. El suministro de vapor en los ultimos anos se ha logrado cubrir aumentando el numero de pozos en operacion localizados en la zona oriente del CGCP (Rodriguez, 2006), ya que es aqui donde hay condiciones de presion, entalpia y temperatura del yacimiento que son mejores que en otras areas del campo

  15. Effects of group-size-floor space allowance during the nursery phase of production on growth, physiology, and hematology in replacement gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, S R; Cross, A J; DeDecker, A E; Lindemann, M D; Estienne, M J

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to determine effects of nursery group-size-floor space allowance on growth, physiology, and hematology of replacement gilts. A 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used wherein gilts classified as large, medium, or small ( = 2537; BW = 5.6 ± 0.6 kg) from 13 groups of weaned pigs were placed in pens of 14, 11, or 8 pigs resulting in floor space allowances of 0.15, 0.19, or 0.27 m/pig, respectively. Pigs were weighed on d 0 (weaning) and d 46 (exit from nursery). The ADG was affected by group-size-floor space allowance × pig size ( = 0.04). Large- and medium-size gilts allowed the most floor space had greater ( floor space but for small size gilts there was no effect ( > 0.05) of group size-floor space allowance. Mortality in the nursery was not affected ( > 0.05) by treatment, size, or treatment × size and overall was approximately 2.1%. Complete blood counts and blood chemistry analyses were performed on samples collected at d 6 and 43 from a subsample of gilts ( = 18/group-size-floor space allowance) within a single group. The concentration ( blood cell distribution width the greatest ( floor space (effects of treatment). Blood calcium was affected by treatment ( = 0.02) and concentrations for gilts allowed the greatest and intermediate amounts of floor space were greater ( floor space. Serum concentrations of cortisol were not affected by treatment × day ( = 0.27). Cortisol concentrations increased from d 6 to d 43 in all groups and were affected by day ( blood parameters and resulted in large- and medium-size replacement gilts displaying increased ADG. Further study will determine if these effects influence lifetime reproductive capacity and sow longevity.

  16. Perceptions of Dairy Farmers of Gadag district in northwestern part of Karnataka state, India regarding Clean Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar K. Radder and S.K. Bhanj

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Clean milk production is one important aspect in enhancing the quality of milk. It is important to know farmers' perception about it. With this view, present study was undertaken with the objective of understanding perception of dairy farmers about clean milk production. The study was conducted in six villages of Gadag district of Karnataka state. A total of 180 respondents were interviewed. Perceptions of the farmers regarding family manpower involved in dairy farming, personnel involved in milking, dairy income, intention to produce clean milk, price dependence for following clean milk production, reasons for following cleanliness measures in milk production, sale price received for milk and satisfaction for the price they received for milk were studied. Most of the dairy farmers expressed their willingness to follow clean milk production measures. Further, most of them were ready to follow such measures even if they were not paid more price for milk. Farmers practiced clean milk production measures mainly to follow regulations at the dairy co-operative society followed by to avoid spoilage of milk. Dairy farmers largely neglected impact of cleanliness on animals' udder and health, about milk contamination causing health hazards. Milking was mainly a domain of women. For over 80 % farmers, dairy farming provided a moderate income as portion of their total family income. Majority of the producers were not satisfied with price they were getting for milk. Hence, the study recommends, requisite facilities and guidelines from the agencies concerned are needed to be provided to the dairy farmers to adopt clean milk production practices. Proper education to the farmers regarding importance of clean milk production from health, marketing and animal health point of views needs to be given. There is need to give more importance to women in dairy farmers' trainings. The study also suggests offering satisfactory price for milk to hasten the process of

  17. [Historical and Hygienic Aspects on Roles of Quality Requirements for Antibiotic Products in Japan: Part 2--Achievements of Domestic Production of Penicillin and Streptomycin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagisawa, Morimasa; Foster, Patrick J; Kurokawa, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Domestic production of penicillin was initiated in 1946 and that of streptomycin in 1950. In the early days, however, the quality of products was considerably lower and the capacity of production small. Surprisingly, there was a sufficient amount of penicillin preparations, with a purity of 85% or more, satisfying domestic demand within three years (1949). In the case of streptomycin, within three years (1953), preparations with a purity two-fold higher than initially available were produced in amounts sufficient to meet both domestic demand and create a surplus availability for exporting purposes. Such increases in quality and production were considered to be made possible by strict quality control of penicillin and streptomycin preparations, based on "Minimum Requirements for Penicillin" established in May 1947 and "Minimum Requirements for Streptomycin" established in December 1949. These requirements were also amended over time in order to provide even higher quality standards in response to the evolving improvements in production processes. Life-threatening diseases such as septicemia and pneumonia were controlled by the sufficient supply of high-quality penicillin preparations and the mortality rate of tuberculosis, regarded as a national disease at the time, markedly decreased by that of streptomycin preparations. Achievements of domestic production of penicillin and streptomycin were considered important factors that contributed greatly to the maintenance of public health in Japan.

  18. Fission product data for thermal reactors. Part 2. Users manual for EPRI-CINDER code and data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, T.R.; Wilson, W.B.; Stamatelatos, M.G.

    1976-12-01

    The objective of this project has been the production of a data library suitable for calculating the buildup of fission product nuclides during the operation of a thermal power reactor. This has been accomplished by reducing the fission product data from the fourth version of the national reference nuclear data base--ENDF/B into a series of linearized decay chains and calculating the effective yields and cross sections of the relevant nuclides. Two versions of the fission product library have been prepared: an 84 chain master library and a reduced 12 chain library, both of which can be used as input for the computer program CINDER. A users manual for an upgraded version of the burnup program CINDER (renamed EPRI-CINDER) is presented.

  19. Increased glycopeptide production after overexpression of shikimate pathway genes being part of the balhimycin biosynthetic gene cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thykær, Jette; Nielsen, Jens; Wohlleben, W.

    2010-01-01

    Amycolatopsis balhimycina produces the vancomycin-analogue balhimycin. The strain therefore serves as a model strain for glycopeptide antibiotic production. Previous characterisation of the balhimycin biosynthetic cluster had shown that the border sequences contained both, a putative 3-deoxy...

  20. HEAT STRESS IN POULTRY. I. DANGER, RELATED PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES AND SYMPTOMS (review)

    OpenAIRE

    V.I. FISININ; A.Sh. KAVTARASHVILI

    2015-01-01

    Data on heat stress in poultry are surveyed in a two-part review. In the first part presented herein the authors summarized current knowledge on the influence of heat stress on alterations of metabolic and physiological processes in poultry as well as the adverse consequences for livability, growth, development and productivity, being 19.3-28.8 % less, and product quality (M.M. Mashaly et al., 2004; Sh. Imangulov et al., 2005). The level of these alterations depends on strength and durability...

  1. The effects of the pollutant, sodium cyanide, on the morphology and physiology of oedogonium cardiacum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, E.

    1977-01-01

    OEDOGONIUM cardiacum exposed to varying concentrations of sodium cyanide for 15 day periods exhibited both morphological and physiological alterations. Organisms were exposed to the pollutant in concentrations of 1, 10, 25, 50, and 100 parts per million. Exposure period for organisms in each concentration was 15 days. As the concentration of the pollutant increased fragmentation also increased. Exposure also caused organisms to lose chlorophyll. The third morphological alteration was the incidence of rupture. Physiological effects altered by exposure included: reduced oxygen evolution, retardation of starch production and death. Death occurs when organisms are exposed to high concentrations over the total 15 day period.

  2. Decoupling of soil carbon and nitrogen turnover partly explains increased net ecosystem production in response to nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehtesham, Emad; Bengtson, Per

    2017-04-01

    During the last decade there has been an ongoing controversy regarding the extent to which nitrogen fertilization can increase carbon sequestration and net ecosystem production in forest ecosystems. The debate is complicated by the fact that increased nitrogen availability caused by nitrogen deposition has coincided with increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. The latter could further stimulate primary production but also result in increased allocation of carbon to root exudates, which could potentially ‘prime’ the decomposition of soil organic matter. Here we show that increased input of labile carbon to forest soil caused a decoupling of soil carbon and nitrogen cycling, which was manifested as a reduction in respiration of soil organic matter that coincided with a substantial increase in gross nitrogen mineralization. An estimate of the magnitude of the effect demonstrates that the decoupling could potentially result in an increase in net ecosystem production by up to 51 kg C ha-1 day-1 in nitrogen fertilized stands during peak summer. Even if the effect is several times lower on an annual basis, the results still suggest that nitrogen fertilization can have a much stronger influence on net ecosystem production than can be expected from a direct stimulation of primary production alone.

  3. Superoxide anion production by human spermatozoa as a part of the ionophore-induced acrosome reaction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griveau, J F; Renard, P; Le Lannou, D

    1995-04-01

    The involvement of superoxide anion (O2o-) in human sperm capacitation and/or acrosome reaction was investigated. Addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) to the medium at the beginning of the capacitation process or 15 min before induction of the acrosome reaction, decreased the level of ionophore-induced acrosome reaction. Hyperactivation was unaffected by the presence of SOD during the capacitation process. Addition of calcium ionophore to the sperm suspension increased production of O2o- by the spermatozoa by four to five-fold and induced the acrosome reaction. In the presence of SOD, superoxide anion could not be detected in the medium and the rate of induced-acrosome reaction was decreased greatly. The presence of an inhibitor of protein kinase C inhibited the production of O2o- in the medium and reduced the induced-acrosome reaction. The production of O2o- and the acrosome reaction were also increased by exposure of spermatozoa to 12-myristate 13-acetate phorbol ester, a specific activator of protein kinase C. While the level of spontaneous acrosome reaction was not increased by the direct addition of O2o- to the medium, its presence induced the release of unesterified fatty acids from membrane phospholipids. These findings suggest that the production of O2o- by spermatozoa could be involved in the ionophore-induced acrosome reaction, possibly through the de-esterification of membrane phospholipids. However, this production of superoxide anion is not sufficient on its own to induce the acrosome reaction.

  4. Physiological diversity and trehalose accumulation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe strains isolated from spontaneous fermentations during the production of the artisanal Brazilian cachaça.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fátima C O; Pataro, Carla; Guerra, Juliana B; Neves, Maria J; Corrêa, Soraya R; Moreira, Elizabeth S A; Rosa, Carlos A

    2002-05-01

    Twenty-seven Schizosaccharomyces pombe isolates from seven cachaça distilleries were tested for maximum temperature of growth and fermentation, osmotolerance, ethanol resistance, invertase production, and trehalose accumulation. Two isolates were selected for studies of trehalose accumulation under heat shock and ethanol stress. The S. pombe isolates were also characterized by RAPD-PCR. The isolates were able to grow and ferment at 41 degrees C, resisted concentrations of 10% ethanol, and grew on 50% glucose medium. Four isolates yielded invertase activity of more than 100 micromol of reducing sugar x mg(-1) x min(-1). The S. pombe isolates were able to accumulate trehalose during stationary phase. Two isolates, strains UFMG-A533 and UFMG-A1000, submitted to a 15 min heat shock, were able to accumulate high trehalose levels. Strain UFMG-A533 had a marked reduction in viability during heat shock, but strain UFMG-A1000 preserved a viability rate of almost 20% after 15 min at 48 degrees C. No clear correlation was observed between trehalose accumulation and cell survival during ethanol stress. Strain UFMG-A1000 had higher trehalose accumulation levels than strain UFMG-A533 under conditions of combined heat treatment and ethanol stress. Molecular analysis showed that some strains are maintained during the whole cachaça production period; using the RAPD-PCR profiles, it was possible to group the isolates according to their isolation sites.

  5. Repeated Sprint Ability in Young Basketball Players (Part 2): The Chronic Effects of Multidirection and of One Change of Direction Are Comparable in Terms of Physiological and Performance Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attene, Giuseppe; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Bragazzi, Nicola L; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Pizzolato, Fabio; Zagatto, Alessandro M; Dal Pupo, Juliano; Oggianu, Marcello; Migliaccio, Gian M; Mannucci Pacini, Elena; Padulo, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 5-week training program, consisting of repeated 30-m sprints, on two repeated sprint ability (RSA) test formats: one with one change of direction (RSA) and the other with multiple changes of direction (RSM). Thirty-six young male and female basketball players (age 16.1 ± 0.9 years), divided into two experimental groups, were tested for RSA, RSM, squat jump, counter-movement jump, and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery-Level-1 (Yo-Yo IR1) test, before and after a 4-week training program and 1 week of tapering. One group performed 30-m sprints with one change of direction (RSA group, RSAG), whereas the other group performed multidirectional 30-m sprints (RSM group, RSMG). Both groups improved in all scores in the post-intervention measurements (P repeated 30-m sprints, either with one change of direction or multidirectional, induce similar physiological and performance responses in young basketball players, but have a different psycho-physiological impact.

  6. Bench-scale gasification of cedar wood--part I: effect of operational conditions on product gas characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljbour, Salah H; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted within the framework of R&D activities on the development of gasification and reforming technologies for energy and chemical recovery from biomass resources. Gasification of the Japanese cedar wood has been investigated under various operating conditions in a bench-scale externally heated updraft gasifier; this was followed by thermal reforming. Parametric tests by varying the residence times, gasification temperatures, equivalence ratios (ERs) and steam-to-carbon (S/C) ratios were performed to determine their effects on the product gas characteristics. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were preformed to predict the equilibrium gas composition and compared with the experimental value. We found that the product gas characteristics in terms of the H(2)/CO ratio, CO(2)/CO ratio, and CH(4) and lighter hydrocarbons concentrations are significantly affected by the operating conditions used. Increasing the residence time decreased the CO(2)/CO ratio; however, a nominal effect was noticed on H(2) concentration as a function of the residence time. At sufficient residence time, increasing the temperature led to higher H(2) yields, CO efficiency and higher heating value (HHV) of the product gas. The presence of steam during gasification effectively enhanced the proportion of H(2) in the product gas. However, higher S/C ratio reduced the HHV of the product gas. Increasing the ER from 0 to 0.3 increased the H(2) yields and CO efficiency and decreased the HHV of the product gas. The evolution of CH(4) and lighter hydrocarbons at low gasification temperatures was relatively higher than that at high temperature gasification. The evolution of CH(4) and lighter hydrocarbons at high gasification temperatures hardly varied over the investigated operating conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. DOSHIC PHYSIOLOGY OF SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivprasad Chiplunkar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The balance of dosha  represents the healthy state and imbalance will cause various diseases. In normalcy doshas will be performing their own functions and individual doshas will be having their own specific sites. By telling the various sthana of each dosha, different function that is taken up by individual dosha in different sites has been highlighted.By mentioning ‘sparshanendriyam’ as one of the sthana of vata dosha the sensory functions of skin to vata dosha has been emphasised. By mentioning ‘sparshanam’ as one of the sthana of pittadosha, the function of colouring/pigmentation of skin, which is majorly carried out  by melanocytes by secreting melanin pigment has been highlighted. Meda is one among the sthanas of kapha dosha; this can be considered as the adipose tissue of skin/below skin. Since sweda is mala of meda it can be also considered as the secretions from the eccrine glands.With respect to skin, sensory functions, both tactile and thermal is carried out by vata dosha more specifically vyana vata, pigmentation to the skin carried out by meloncytes by secreting melanin, it is nothing but function of pitta dosha more specifically brajaka pitta with the help of udana vata and finally production of sweat in sweat glands is the function of kapha. So there is the need for further study and research regarding the sthanas of all three doshas in different structures/organs in the body and its physiology.

  8. A randomised, crossover study on an electronic vapour product, a nicotine inhalator and a conventional cigarette. Part B: Safety and subjective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walele, Tanvir; Sharma, Girish; Savioz, Rebecca; Martin, Claire; Williams, Josie

    2016-02-01

    An Electronic Vapour Product (EVP) has been evaluated for short-term safety parameters and subjective effects in a 2-part study, in smokers. Part 1 compared the EVP with unflavoured (UF) and flavoured (FL) e-liquid at 2.0% nicotine to a conventional cigarette (CC; JPS Silver King Size, 0.6 mg) and a licensed nicotine inhalator (Nicorette(®), 15 mg). Part 2 assessed the effect of increasing concentrations of nicotine in the e-liquid used with the EVP (0%, 0.4%, 0.9%, 2.0%). The study was designed as a randomised, controlled, crossover trial. Outcomes included adverse events (AEs), vital signs, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), clinical laboratory parameters, smoking urges and withdrawal symptoms. In both study parts, only mild non-serious AEs were reported. No major differences were observed in AEs between the EVPs and Nicorette(®). Exhaled CO levels only increased for CC. All products appeared to decrease smoking urges and nicotine withdrawal symptom scores to a similar extent. The EVP had a similar short-term safety profile to Nicorette(®) and relieved smoking urges and nicotine withdrawal symptoms to a similar extent as Nicorette(®) and CC. Unlike nicotine replacement therapies, the EVP may offer an alternative for those finding it difficult to quit the behavioural and sensorial aspects of smoking.

  9. Relative investment in egg load and poison sac in fig wasps: Implications for physiological mechanisms underlying seed and wasp production in figs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Ellen O.; Jandér, K. Charlotte; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Chen, Huan-Huan; Machado, Carlos A.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Herre, Edward Allen

    2014-05-01

    Fig pollinating wasps and most non-pollinator wasps apply secretions from their poison sacs into oviposited flowers that appear necessary to the formation of the galls that their developing offspring consume. Thus, both eggs and poison sac secretions appear to be essential for wasp reproduction, but the relative investment in each is unknown. We measured relative investment in poison sac and egg production in pollinating and non-pollinating wasps associated with seven species of monoecious Panamanian figs representing both active and passive pollination syndromes. We then collected similar data for four fig hosts in China, where some wasp species in the genus Eupristina have lost the ability to pollinate ("cheaters"). All wasps examined possessed large poison sacs, and we found a strong positive correlation between poison sac size and absolute egg production. In the Panamanian species, the relative poison sac to egg investment was highest in the externally ovipositing non-pollinator wasps, followed by active pollinators, then by passive pollinators. Further, pollinator wasps of fig species with demonstrated host sanctions against "cheating" wasps showed higher investment in the poison sac than wasps of species without sanctions. In the Chinese samples, relative investment in the poison sac was indistinguishable between pollinators and "cheaters" associated with the same fig species. We suggest that higher relative investment in poison sac across fig wasp species reflects higher relative difficulty in initiating formation of galls and subsequently obtaining resources from the fig. We discuss the implications for the stability of the fig-wasp mutualism, and for the ability of non-pollinators to exploit this mutualism.

  10. Effects of organic or inorganic cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc supplementation to late-gestating beef cows on productive and physiological responses of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, R S; Cooke, R F; Rodrigues, M C; Cappellozza, B I; Mills, R R; Larson, C K; Moriel, P; Bohnert, D W

    2016-03-01

    Eighty-four multiparous, nonlactating, pregnant Angus × Hereford cows were ranked by pregnancy type (56 AI and 28 natural service), BW, and BCS and allocated to 21 drylot pens at the end of their second trimester of gestation (d 0). Pens were assigned to receive forage-based diets containing 1) sulfate sources of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn (INR); 2) an organic complexed source of Cu, Mn, Co, and Zn (AAC; Availa 4; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN); or 3) no supplemental Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn (CON). Diets were offered from d 0 until calving and formulated to meet requirements for energy, protein, macrominerals, Se, I, and vitamins. The INR and AAC diets provided the same daily amount of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn. Cow BW and BCS were recorded and liver samples were collected on d -10 and 2 wk (d 75) before the calving season. Within 3 h after calving, calf BW was recorded, liver samples were collected, and the expelled placenta was retrieved ( = 47 placentas). Calves were weaned on d 283 of the experiment, preconditioned for 45 d (d 283 to 328), transferred to a growing lot on d 328, and moved to a finishing lot on d 440 where they remained until slaughter. Liver Co, Cu, and Zn concentrations on d 75 were greater ( ≤ 0.05) for INR and AAC cows compared with CON cows, whereas INR cows had reduced ( = 0.04) liver Co but greater ( = 0.03) liver Cu compared with AAC cows. In placental cotyledons, Co concentrations were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in AAC and INR cows compared with CON cows, whereas Cu concentrations were increased ( = 0.05) only in AAC cows compared with CON cows. Calves from INR and AAC cows had greater ( productivity in beef production systems.

  11. Production of butanol (a biofuel) from agricultural residues: Part II - Use of corn stover and switchgrass hydrolysates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Saha, Badal C.; Hector, Ronald E.; Dien, Bruce; Iten, Loren; Bowman, Michael J.; Cotta, Michael A. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR), Bioenergy Research, 1815 N. University Street, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); Hughes, Stephen; Liu, Siqing [USDA-ARS-NCAUR, Renewable Product Technology, 1815 N. University Street, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); Sarath, Gautam [USDA-ARS, Grain, Forage, and Bioenergy Research Unit, University of Nebraska, 314 Biochemistry Hall, East Campus, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) was produced from hydrolysed corn stover and switchgrass using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. A control experiment using glucose resulted in the production of 21.06 g L{sup -1} total ABE. In this experiment an ABE yield and productivity of 0.41 and 0.31 g L{sup -1} h{sup -1} was achieved, respectively. Fermentation of untreated corn stover hydrolysate (CSH) exhibited no growth and no ABE production; however, upon dilution with water (two fold) and wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH, ratio 1:1), 16.00 and 18.04 g L{sup -1} ABE was produced, respectively. These experiments resulted in ABE productivity of 0.17-0.21 g L{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Inhibitors present in CSH were removed by treating the hydrolysate with Ca(OH){sub 2} (overliming). The culture was able to produce 26.27 g L{sup -1} ABE after inhibitor removal. Untreated switchgrass hydrolysate (SGH) was poorly fermented and the culture did not produce more than 1.48 g L{sup -1} ABE which was improved to 14.61 g L{sup -1}. It is suggested that biomass pretreatment methods that do not generate inhibitors be investigated. Alternately, cultures resistant to inhibitors and able to produce butanol at high concentrations may be another approach to improve the current process. (author)

  12. Selective strategies for antibiotic fermentation, Part II: Effect of aeration on streptomycin production by Streptomyces griseus JB-19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maladkar, N K

    1991-01-01

    The effect of higher aerated fermentation medium which enhanced streptomycin production by Streptomyces griseus JB-19 was found mainly related to the changes in dextrose consumption, inorganic phosphate utilisation and ammonia nitrogen accumulation under optimal and suboptimal supply of soluble vegetative protein.

  13. Biofuel production potentials in Europe: sustainable use of cultivated land and pastures. Part II: Land use scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, G.; Prieler, S.; van Velthuizen, H.; Berndes, G.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Londo, H.M.; de Wit, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Europe's agricultural land (including Ukraine) comprise of 164 million hectares of cultivated land and 76 million hectares of permanent pasture. A “food first” paradigm was applied in the estimations of land potentially available for the production of biofuel feedstocks, without putting at risk food

  14. Genetically engineered Escherichia coli FBR5: Part I. Comparison of high cell density bioreactors for enhanced ethanol production from xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five reactor systems (free cell batch, free cell continuous, entrapped cell immobilized, adsorbed cell packed bed, and cell recycle membrane reactors) were compared for ethanol production from xylose employing Escherichia coli FBR5. In the free cell batch and free cell continuous reactors (continuo...

  15. Um sistema de controle da produção para a manufatura celular parte I: sistema de apoio à decisão para a elaboração do programa mestre de produção A production control system to the cellular manufacturing part I: decision support system for elaborating the master production scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio César F. Fernandes

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo e mais o artigo Parte II (Emissão de Ordens e Programação de Operações fazem parte de um trabalho que visa integrar todas as atividades de programação da produção dentro do contexto de um Sistema de Controle da Produção, concebido para operar na manufatura celular semi-repetitiva. Para deixarmos claro o que entendemos por manufatura celular semi-repetitiva fazemos uma classificação dos sistemas de produção e uma taxonomia da manufatura celular. O sistema proposto foi concebido e implementado computacionalmente em 3 módulos (nível de produto final, de componentes e de operações. O primeiro é tratado neste artigo (Parte I, enquanto que outros dois módulos são tratados no outro artigo (Parte II.This paper and that of Part II (ordering system and operations scheduling aims to integrate all production scheduling activities in a semi-repetitive cellular manufacturing environment. With the aim of clarifying what we mean by semi-repetitive cellular manufacturing, we have made a production systems classification and a cellular manufacturing taxonomy. The proposed system was conceptualized and computationally implemented in three modules (product, component and operation levels. The first level is treated in this paper and the other two are treated in the Part II.

  16. Advances in physiological computing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairclough, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    This edited collection will provide an overview of the field of physiological computing, i.e. the use of physiological signals as input for computer control. It will cover a breadth of current research, from brain-computer interfaces to telemedicine.

  17. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  18. Physiology of sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ron

    2007-07-01

    The elite athlete represents the extreme of the human gene pool, where genetic endowment is developed by an intensive training programme. Sport encompasses many different activities, calling for different physical and mental attributes. Understanding the physiology of exercise provides insights into normal physiological function.

  19. Physiological changes in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    SOMA-PILLAY, Priya; Catherine, Nelson-Piercy; Tolppanen, Heli; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Physiological changes occur in pregnancy to nurture the developing foetus and prepare the mother for labour and delivery. Some of these changes influence normal biochemical values while others may mimic symptoms of medical disease. It is important to differentiate between normal physiological changes and disease pathology. This review highlights the important changes that take place during normal pregnancy.

  20. Physiology of vitreous surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefánsson, Einar

    2009-02-01

    Vitreous surgery has various physiological and clinical consequences, both beneficial and harmful. Vitrectomy reduces the risk of retinal neovascularization, while increasing the risk of iris neovascularization, reduces macular edema and stimulates cataract formation. These clinical consequences may be understood with the help of classical laws of physics and physiology. The laws of Fick, Stokes-Einstein and Hagen-Poiseuille state that molecular transport by diffusion or convection is inversely related to the viscosity of the medium. When the vitreous gel is replaced with less viscous saline, the transport of all molecules, including oxygen and cytokines, is facilitated. Oxygen transport to ischemic retinal areas is improved, as is clearance of VEGF and other cytokines from these areas, thus reducing edema and neovascularization. At the same time, oxygen is transported faster down a concentration gradient from the anterior to the posterior segment, while VEGF moves in the opposite direction, making the anterior segment less oxygenated and with more VEGF, stimulating iris neovascularization. Silicone oil is the exception that proves the rule: it is more viscous than vitreous humour, re-establishes the transport barrier to oxygen and VEGF, and reduces the risk for iris neovascularization in the vitrectomized-lentectomized eye. Modern vitreous surgery involves a variety of treatment options in addition to vitrectomy itself, such as photocoagulation, anti-VEGF drugs, intravitreal steroids and release of vitreoretinal traction. A full understanding of these treatment modalities allows sensible combination of treatment options. Retinal photocoagulation has repeatedly been shown to improve retinal oxygenation, as does vitrectomy. Oxygen naturally reduces VEGF production and improves retinal hemodynamics. The VEGF-lowering effect of photocoagulation and vitrectomy can be augmented with anti-VEGF drugs and the permeability effect of VEGF reduced with corticosteroids

  1. 我国汽车零部件企业的精益生产应用%Application of Lean Production System by Chinese Automobile Spare Parts Manufacturers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪呈英

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduced briefly the connotation of the lean production practice as well as the current status and existing problems of the lean production system of the Chinese automobile spare parts manufacturers, and then established the lean production mode suitable for these enterprises.%简述了精益生产的内涵与我国汽车零部件企业的现状及汽车零部件企业精益生产存在的问题,从精益生产的布局与精益生产的改善两方面构建了汽车零部件企业的精益生产模式。

  2. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 1: SRF produced from commercial and industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of a solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process. The SRF is produced from commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) through mechanical treatment (MT). In this work various streams of material produced in SRF production process are analyzed for their proximate and ultimate analysis. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. Here mass balance describes the overall mass flow of input waste material in the various output streams, whereas material balance describes the mass flow of components of input waste stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. A commercial scale experimental campaign was conducted on an MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&IW. All the process streams (input and output) produced in this MT plant were sampled and treated according to the CEN standard methods for SRF: EN 15442 and EN 15443. The results from the mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&IW material to MT waste sorting plant, 62% was recovered in the form of SRF, 4% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal and 21% was sorted out as reject material, 11.6% as fine fraction, and 0.4% as heavy fraction. The energy flow balance in various process streams of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&IW to MT plant, 75% energy was recovered in the form of SRF, 20% belonged to the reject material stream and rest 5% belonged with the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. In the material balances, mass fractions of plastic (soft), plastic (hard), paper and cardboard and wood recovered in the SRF stream were 88%, 70%, 72% and 60% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC), rubber material and non

  3. Rehabilitative treatment of cleft lip and palate: experience of the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies/USP (HRAC/USP - Part 5: Institutional outcomes assessment and the role of the Laboratory of Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Alberto de Souza Freitas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratory of Physiology provides support for the diagnosis of functional disorders associated with cleft lip and palate and also conducts studies to assess, objectively, the institutional outcomes, as recommended by the World Health Organization. The Laboratory is conceptually divided into three units, namely the Unit for Upper Airway Studies, Unit for Stomatognathic System Studies and the Unit for Sleep Studies, which aims at analyzing the impact of different surgical and dental procedures on the upper airways, stomatognathic system and the quality of sleep of individuals with cleft lip and palate. This paper describes the main goals of the Laboratory in the assessment of procedures which constitute the basis of the rehabilitation of cleft lip and palate, i.e., Plastic Surgery, Orthodontics and Maxillofacial Surgery and Speech Pathology.

  4. 基于词性分析的产品评价信息挖掘%Information of product review mining based on analyzing of part of speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯秀珍; 郝鹏

    2013-01-01

    在对语料库中表达产品特征及相应评价的词的词性进行分析的基础上,确定了表达产品特征及评价最为常见的词性和词性的重要程度顺序,提出了一种产品特征及其相应评价的信息抽取规则,并根据规则建立评价语句的语义倾向的计算公式.实验结果表明,该方法在产品特征抽取及其相应评价的语义倾向判断上具有很高的准确性.通过对产品特征及其相应的评价信息进行挖掘可以为企业新产品的开发和产品的推荐提供重要的参考价值,是进行下一步生产决策的重要的理论依据.%Based on analysis of part of speech of word which can express the character of product and the corresponding review in corpus, the most frequent part of speech and the corresponding order of importance is determinted, a new information extraction rules of the character of product and the corresponding review is proposed, and the formula of computering of semantic of sentence is established according to the rules. Experiment show that this method have a high accuracy in extracting of the character of product and computing of semantic orientation of the corresponding of review. It will provide a huge value of new product's development and product recommendation in enterprise and as a important theoretical for the next step of product decision.

  5. Marine Myxobacteria as a Source of Antibiotics—Comparison of Physiology, Polyketide-Type Genes and Antibiotic Production of Three New Isolates of Enhygromyxa salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Bierbaum

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Three myxobacterial strains, designated SWB004, SWB005 and SWB006, were obtained from beach sand samples from the Pacific Ocean and the North Sea. The strains were cultivated in salt water containing media and subjected to studies to determine their taxonomic status, the presence of genes for the biosynthesis of polyketides and antibiotic production. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed the type strain Enhygromyxa salina SHK-1T as their closest homolog, displaying between 98% (SWB005 and 99% (SWB004 and SWB006 sequence similarity. All isolates were rod-shaped cells showing gliding motility and fruiting body formation as is known for myxobacteria. They required NaCl for growth, with an optimum concentration of around 2% [w/v]. The G + C-content of genomic DNA ranged from 63.0 to 67.3 mol%. Further, the strains were analyzed for their potential to produce polyketide-type structures. PCR amplified ketosynthase-like gene fragments from all three isolates enhances the assumption that these bacteria produce polyketides. SWB005 was shown to produce metabolites with prominent antibacterial activity, including activity towards methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE.

  6. Productivity, part 1: getting things done, using e-mail, scanners, reference managers, note-taking applications, and text expanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Amanda E; Moshiri, Mariam; Pandey, Tarun; Lall, Chandana; Lalwani, Neeraj; Bhargava, Puneet

    2014-05-01

    In an era of declining reimbursements and tightening of the job market, today's radiologists are forced to "make do with less." With the rollout of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, commonly called "Obamacare," radiologists will be expected not only to interpret studies but to also take on many additional roles, adding a new layer of complexity to already demanding daily duties. These changes make it more important than ever to develop a personal workflow management system incorporating some of the most potent productivity tools. In this article, the authors discuss current productivity techniques and related software with the most potential to help radiologists keep up with the ever increasing demands on their time at the work place and help us lead more balanced lives. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Regolith production and transport at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory, Part 2: Insights from meteoric 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Nicole; Kirby, Eric; Bierman, Paul; Slingerland, Rudy; Ma, Lin; Rood, Dylan; Brantley, Susan

    2013-09-01

    Regolith-mantled hillslopes are ubiquitous features of most temperate landscapes, and their morphology reflects the climatically, biologically, and tectonically mediated interplay between regolith production and downslope transport. Despite intensive research, few studies have quantified both of these mass fluxes in the same field site. Here we present an analysis of 87 meteoric 10Be measurements from regolith and bedrock within the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHO), in central Pennsylvania. Meteoric 10Be concentrations in bulk regolith samples (n = 73) decrease with regolith depth. Comparison of hillslope meteoric 10Be inventories with analyses of rock chip samples (n = 14) from a 24 m bedrock core confirms that >80% of the total inventory is retained in the regolith. The systematic downslope increase of meteoric 10Be inventories observed at SSHO is consistent with 10Be accumulation in slowly creeping regolith (~ 0.2 cm yr-1). Regolith flux inferred from meteoric 10Be varies linearly with topographic gradient (determined from high-resolution light detection and ranging-based topography) along the upper portions of hillslopes at SSHO. However, regolith flux appears to depend on the product of gradient and regolith depth where regolith is thick, near the base of hillslopes. Meteoric 10Be inventories at the north and south ridgetops indicate minimum regolith residence times of 10.5 ± 3.7 and 9.1 ± 2.9 ky, respectively, similar to residence times inferred from U-series isotopes in Ma et al. (2013). The combination of our results with U-series-derived regolith production rates implies that regolith production and erosion rates are similar to within a factor of two on SSHO hillcrests.

  8. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 2: SRF produced from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the fraction of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) complicated and economically not feasible to sort out for recycling purposes is used to produce solid recovered fuel (SRF) through mechanical treatment (MT). The paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of this SRF production process. All the process streams (input and output) produced in MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&D waste are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for SRF. Proximate and ultimate analysis of these streams is performed and their composition is determined. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. By mass balance means the overall mass flow of input waste material stream in the various output streams and material balances mean the mass flow of components of input waste material stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. The results from mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&D waste material to MT waste sorting plant, 44% was recovered in the form of SRF, 5% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal, and 28% was sorted out as fine fraction, 18% as reject material and 4% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&D waste material to MT waste sorting plant, 74% was recovered in the form of SRF, 16% belonged to the reject material and rest 10% belonged to the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. From the material balances of this process, mass fractions of plastic (soft), paper and cardboard, wood and plastic (hard) recovered in the SRF stream were 84%, 82%, 72% and 68% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC) and rubber material was found in the reject material

  9. Productivity of agricultural surfaces in the eastern parts of Germany under the influence of climatic changes; Die Ertragsfaehigkeit ostdeutscher Ackerflaechen unter Klimawandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wechsung, Frank; Gerstengarbe, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Lasch, Petra; Luettger, Andrea (eds.)

    2008-12-15

    statistical yield models relating yearly changes in major climate variables to those in crop yield at the county level. The models were calibrated for the period 1990 to 2006 and then used for simulating the climate dominated yield variability beginning in 1951 up to 2055. The results received after integration revealed that the climate-determined yield level will probably remain stable under the projected climatic conditions for the next 20 to 30 years. A significant yield loss is to be expected by the middle of the 21st century, especially at locations in the eastern sandy lowlands distant from coast and mountain regions. The losses will be greater in the cultivation of the summer crop maize than that of the winter crop wheat. However, the increase in atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) might compensate part or all of these losses. Due to the fertilizing effect of this greenhouse gas, yields of wheat can even be expected to increase above current levels and yield losses of maize due to water stress will be mostly diminished. An optimum nitrogen provision is a necessary precondition for the CO2 fertilization to come to its full effect, though. In contrast to wheat and maize, yields of fast growing aspen in short rotation coppice plantation are expected to increase under the presumed changes of climate also on sandy soils with low water holding capacity even when neglecting the beneficial effect of higher CO2. This is indicated by simulation results using the eco-physiological forest dynamics model 4C. The model was applied to those areas of East-Germany's arable land where cereal cropping is less productive than the current median level. Following these results, short rotation coppicing of aspen is a promising cultivation alternative for farmers to secure future incomes. Woody biomass generated in short rotation coppice plantations with aspen is particularly suitable for bio-energy production. Taken the simulated effects of the projected climate change on

  10. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  11. Optimal priority ordering in PHP production of multiple part-types in a failure-prone machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This note deals with the problem of minimising the expected sum of quadratic holding and shortage inventory costs when a single, failure-prone machine produces multiple part-types. Shu and Perkins (2001 introduce the problem and, by restricting the set of control policies to the class of prioritised hedging point (PHP policies, establish simple, analytical expressions for the optimal hedging points provided that the priority ordering of the part-types is given. However, the determination of an optimal priority ordering is left by the authors as an open question. This leaves an embedded sequencing problem which we focus on in this note. We define a lower bound for the problem, introduce a test bed for future developments, and propose three dynamic programming approaches (with or without the lower bound for determining the optimal priority orderings for the instances of the test bed. This is an initial step in a research project aimed at solving the optimal priority ordering problem, which will allow evaluating the performance of future heuristic and metaheuristic procedures.

  12. Understanding the World Wool Market: Trade, Productivity and Grower Incomes. Part 6: The Costs of Global Tariff Barriers on Wool Products; Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This is Chapters 6 & 7 of my PhD thesis Understanding the World Wool Market: Trade, Productivity and Grower Incomes, UWA, 2006. The full thesis is available as Discussion Papers 06.19 to 06.24. The WOOLGEM model is applied to estimate the distortionary effects on prices, output, trade and regional welfare of wool tariff barriers. The estimates are simulated under long-run conditions where each region faces a trade balance constraint and capital is free to accumulate or depreciate within each ...

  13. Gross primary production responses to warming, elevated CO2 , and irrigation: quantifying the drivers of ecosystem physiology in a semiarid grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Edmund M; Ogle, Kiona; Peltier, Drew; Walker, Anthony P; De Kauwe, Martin G; Medlyn, Belinda E; Williams, David G; Parton, William; Asao, Shinichi; Guenet, Bertrand; Harper, Anna B; Lu, Xingjie; Luus, Kristina A; Zaehle, Sönke; Shu, Shijie; Werner, Christian; Xia, Jianyang; Pendall, Elise

    2017-08-01

    Determining whether the terrestrial biosphere will be a source or sink of carbon (C) under a future climate of elevated CO2 (eCO2 ) and warming requires accurate quantification of gross primary production (GPP), the largest flux of C in the global C cycle. We evaluated 6 years (2007-2012) of flux-derived GPP data from the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment, situated in a grassland in Wyoming, USA. The GPP data were used to calibrate a light response model whose basic formulation has been successfully used in a variety of ecosystems. The model was extended by modeling maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax ) and light-use efficiency (Q) as functions of soil water, air temperature, vapor pressure deficit, vegetation greenness, and nitrogen at current and antecedent (past) timescales. The model fits the observed GPP well (R(2)  = 0.79), which was confirmed by other model performance checks that compared different variants of the model (e.g. with and without antecedent effects). Stimulation of cumulative 6-year GPP by warming (29%, P = 0.02) and eCO2 (26%, P = 0.07) was primarily driven by enhanced C uptake during spring (129%, P = 0.001) and fall (124%, P = 0.001), respectively, which was consistent across years. Antecedent air temperature (Tairant ) and vapor pressure deficit (VPDant ) effects on Amax (over the past 3-4 days and 1-3 days, respectively) were the most significant predictors of temporal variability in GPP among most treatments. The importance of VPDant suggests that atmospheric drought is important for predicting GPP under current and future climate; we highlight the need for experimental studies to identify the mechanisms underlying such antecedent effects. Finally, posterior estimates of cumulative GPP under control and eCO2 treatments were tested as a benchmark against 12 terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs). The narrow uncertainties of these data-driven GPP estimates suggest that they could be useful semi-independent data

  14. Vegetable production facility as a part of a closed life support system in a Russian Martian space flight scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Yu. A.; Smolyanina, S. O.; Krivobok, N. M.; Erokhin, A. N.; Agureev, A. N.; Shanturin, N. A.

    2009-07-01

    A Manned Mars Mission scenario had been developed in frame of the Project 1172 supported International Science & Technology Center in Moscow. The Mars transit vehicle (MTV) supposed to have a crew of 4-6 with Pilot Laboratory compartment volume of 185 m 3 and with inner diameter of 4.1 m. A vegetable production facility with power consumption up to 10 kW is being considered as a component of the life support system to supply crew members by fresh vegetables during the mission. Proposed design of conveyor-type plant growth facility (PGF) comprised of 4-modules. Each module has a cylindrical planting surface and spiral cylindrical LED assembly to provide a high specific productivity relative to utilized onboard resources. Each module has a growth chamber that will be from 0.7 m to 1.5 m in length, and a crop illuminated area from 1.7 m 2 to 4.0 m 2. Leafy crops (cabbage, lettuce, spinach, chard, etc.) have been selected for module 1, primarily because of the highest specific productivity per consumed resources. Dietitians have recommended also carrot crop for module 2, pepper for module 3 and tomato for module 4. The maximal total PGF light energy estimated as 1.16 kW and total power consumption as about 7 kW. The module 1 characteristics have been calculated using own experimental data, information from the best on ground plant growth experiments with artificial light were used to predict crop productivity and biomass composition in the another modules. 4-module PGF could produce nearly 0.32 kg per crew member per day of fresh edible biomass, which would be about 50% of recommended daily vegetable supplement. An average crop harvest index is estimated as 0.75. The MTV food system could be entirely closed in terms of vitamins C and A with help of the PGF. In addition the system could provide 10-25% of essential minerals and vitamins of group B, and about 20% of food fibers. The present state of plant growth technology allows formulating of requirements specification

  15. Metal/metalloid content in plant parts and soils of Corylus spp. influenced by mining-metallurgical production of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojevic, Ana A; Serbula, Snezana M; Kalinovic, Tanja S; Kalinovic, Jelena V; Steharnik, Mirjana M; Petrovic, Jelena V; Milosavljevic, Jelena S

    2017-04-01

    The town of Bor and its surroundings (Serbia) have been under environmental pollution for more than a century, due to exploitation of large copper deposits. Naturally present Corylus spp. were sampled in the surroundings of the mine and flotation tailings at 12 sites distributed in six zones with different pollution loads, under the assumption that all the zones were endangered except for the background. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn inputs from soil and the air were evaluated in plant parts, in terms of absorption, accumulation and indication abilities of Corylus spp. The obtained results showed that As and Cu were the most enriched elements in soil, and their concentration exceeded the limit and remediation values proposed by the regulation. Plant parts (root, branch, leaf and catkin) also showed enrichment of most studied elements in wide ranges. According to the enrichment factor for plant, metal/metalloid inputs, particularly in leaves, were from anthropogenic origin. Plant absorption which occurred at the soil-root interface was low, based on the bioaccumulation factor, which could be indicative of resistance mechanisms of root to abiotic stress induced by a high content of elements in soil substrate. The values of bioaccumulation coefficient suggested weak and intermediate absorption and exclusion abilities of Corylus spp. to the studied elements. Element concentrations differ in unwashed and washed leaves, as well as pollution loads in plant and soil samples from the background, traffic and the sites with clear mining-metallurgical influence. Therefore, Corylus spp. could be promising in biomonitoring studies.

  16. Reconciling scientific approaches for organic farming research. Part I. Reflection on research methods in organic grassland and animal production at the Louis Bolk Institute, The Netherlands. Part II. Effects of manure types and white clover (Trifolium repens) cultivars on the productivity of grass-clover mixtures on a humid sandy soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, T.

    2002-01-01

    Part I : Reflection on research methods in organic grassland and animal production at the Louis Bolk Institute, The NetherlandsKey words: organic agriculture, anthroposophy, methodology, research strategy, experiential science, multidisciplinary science, Goethean scienceThis dissert

  17. Joint New Product Development Quality Management of Auto Parts%汽车零部件联合新产品开发质量管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明茂; 王亮

    2013-01-01

    With the growing international competition of the auto parts market today, the rate and the cycle of product development are the key factors for the new product's competitiveness, and the joint new product quality program is gradually adopted by many automobile parts companies. In this paper, joint new product quality program which is the core of the quality management is divided to five new stages from the planning stage to early flow after the Commissioning, each stage has stringent requirements and standards to guarantee the implementation of the product development.%  现代汽车零部件市场越来越国际化,新产品开发的周期与产品开发的成功率是其产品竞争力的关键因素,联合新产品质量程序为代表的新产品开发质量管理逐步在汽车零部件企业得到了应用。联合新产品质量程序是新产品开发质量管理的核心,将新产品开发从策划阶段到产品投产后的产品初期流动划分为五个阶段,每个阶段都有其严格要求的任务与标准,以保证产品开发的顺利成功进行。

  18. Prompt charmonia production and polarization at LHC in the NRQCD with kt-factorization. Part I: psi(2S) meson

    CERN Document Server

    Baranov, S P; Zotov, N P

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of kt-factorization approach, the production and polarization of prompt psi(2S) mesons in pp collisions at the LHC energies is studied. Our consideration is based on the non-relativistic QCD formalism for bound states and off-shell amplitudes for hard partonic subprocesses. The transverse momentum dependent (unintegrated) gluon densities in a proton were derived from Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini evolution equation or, alternatively, were chosen in accordance with Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. The non-perturbative color-octet matrix elements were first deduced from the fits to the latest CMS data on psi(2S) transverse momentum distributions and then applied to describe the ATLAS and LHCb data on psi(2S) production and polarization at 7 TeV. We perform the estimation of polarization parameters $\\lambda_\\theta$, $\\lambda_\\phi$ and $\\lambda_{\\theta \\phi}$ which determine psi(2S) spin density matrix and demonstrate that taking into account the off-shellness of initial gluons in the col...

  19. Prompt charmonia production and polarization at LHC in the NRQCD with kt-factorization. Part II: $\\chi_c$ mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Baranov, S P; Zotov, N P

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of kt-factorization approach,the production of prompt $\\chi_c$ mesons in pp collisions at the LHC energies is studied. Our consideration is based on the off-shell amplitudes for hard partonic subprocesses $g^*g^*\\to\\chi_{cJ}$ and non-relativistic QCD formalism for bound states. The transverse momentum dependent (unintegrated) gluon densities in a proton were derived from Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini evolution equation or, alternatively, were chosen in accordance with Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. Taking into account both color singlet and color octet contributions, we deduce the corresponding non-perturbative long-distance matrix elements from the fits to the latest ATLAS data on $\\chi_{c1}$ and $\\chi_{c2}$ transverse momentum distributions at $\\sqrt s = 7$ TeV. We find that these distributions at small and moderate pt are formed mainly by the color singlet components. We successfully described the data on the differential cross sections and relative production rates $\\sigma(\\chi_...

  20. Fetal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychik, J

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of the fetus is physiologically different than the adult, mature system. Unique characteristics of the myocardium and specific channels of blood flow differentitate the physiology of the fetus from the newborn. Conditions of increased preload and afterload in the fetus, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, result in unique and complex pathophysiological states. Echocardiography has improved our understanding of human fetal cadiovasvular physiology in the normal and diseased states, and has expanded our capability to more effectively treat these disease processes.

  1. Drop-in biofuel production via conventional (lipid/fatty acid) and advanced (biomass) routes. Part I: Drop-in biofuel production via conventional and advanced routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karatzos, Sergios [IEA Bioenergy Task 39 and Forest Products Biotechnology/Bioenergy Group, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC Canada; van Dyk, J. Susan [IEA Bioenergy Task 39 and Forest Products Biotechnology/Bioenergy Group, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC Canada; McMillan, James D. [IEA Bioenergy Task 39 and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Denver Colorado; Saddler, Jack [IEA Bioenergy Task 39 and Forest Products Biotechnology/Bioenergy Group, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC Canada

    2017-01-23

    Drop-in biofuels that are 'functionally identical to petroleum fuels and fully compatible with existing infrastructure' are needed for sectors such as aviation where biofuels such as bioethanol/biodiesel cannot be used. The technologies used to produce drop-in biofuels can be grouped into the four categories: oleochemical, thermochemical, biochemical, and hybrid technologies. Commercial volumes of conventional drop-in biofuels are currently produced through the oleochemical pathway, to make products such as renewable diesel and biojet fuel. However, the cost, sustainability, and availability of the lipid/fatty acid feedstocks are significant challenges that need to be addressed. In the longer-term, it is likely that commercial growth in drop-in biofuels will be based on lignocellulosic feedstocks. However, these technologies have been slow to develop and have been hampered by several technoeconomic challenges. For example, the gasification/Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis route suffers from high capital costs and economies of scale difficulties, while the economical production of high quality syngas remains a significant challenge. Although pyrolysis/hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) based technologies are promising, the upgrading of pyrolysis oils to higher specification fuels has encountered several technical challenges, such as high catalyst cost and short catalyst lifespan. Biochemical routes to drop-in fuels have the advantage of producing single molecules with simple chemistry. However, the high value of these molecules in other markets such as renewable chemical precursors and fragrances will limit their use for fuel. In the near-term, (1-5 years) it is likely that, 'conventional' drop-in biofuels will be produced predominantly via the oleochemical route, due to the relative simplicity and maturity of this pathway.

  2. Secondary organic material formed by methylglyoxal in aqueous aerosol mimics – Part 2: Product identification using Aerosol-CIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. McNeill

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We used chemical ionization mass spectrometry with a volatilization flow tube inlet (Aerosol-CIMS to characterize secondary organic material formed by methylglyoxal with ammonium sulfate in aqueous aerosol mimics. Bulk reaction mixtures were diluted and atomized to form submicron aerosol particles. Organics were detected using Aerosol-CIMS in positive and negative ion mode using I− and H3O+·(H2On as reagent ions. The results are consistent with aldol condensation products, carbon-nitrogen species, sulfur-containing compounds, and oligomeric species up to 759 amu. These results support previous observations by us and others that ammonium sulfate plays a critical role in the SOA formation chemistry of dicarbonyl compounds.

  3. Waffle production: influence of batter ingredients on sticking of waffles at baking plates-Part II: effect of fat, leavening agent, and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Regina; Schoenlechner, Regine

    2017-05-01

    Fresh egg waffles are continuously baked in tunnel baking ovens in industrial scale. Waffles that partly or fully stick to the baking plates cause significant product loss and increased costs. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of different recipe ingredients on the sticking behavior of waffles. In this second part, ingredients investigated were different leavening agents (sodium acid pyrophosphate, ammonium bicarbonate, magnesium hydroxide carbonate, or monocalcium phosphate), different fat sources (rapeseed oil, cocos fat, butter, or margarine), and different water sources (tap water 12°dH and distilled water). Within the different types of fats, solid fats with high amount of short-chain fatty acids (cocos fat or butter) decreased the number of sticking waffles compared to liquid oils (rapeseed oil). Regarding leavening agents, magnesium hydroxide carbonate and ammonium bicarbonate were superior to sodium acid pyrophosphate or monocalcium phosphate. Between the two water sources, effects were small.

  4. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  5. Quality-related enzymes in plant-based products: effects of novel food-processing technologies part 3: ultrasonic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Buckow, Roman; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    High-power ultrasound is a versatile technology which can potentially be used in many food processing applications including food preservation. This is part 2 of a series of review articles dealing with the effectiveness of nonthermal food processing technologies in food preservation focusing on their effect on enzymes. Typically, ultrasound treatment alone does not efficiently cause microbial or enzyme inactivation sufficient for food preservation. However, combined with mild heat with or without elevated pressure (P ≤ 500 kPa), ultrasound can effectively inactivate enzymes and microorganisms. Synergistic effects between ultrasound and mild heat have been reported for the inactivation of both enzymes and microorganisms. The application of ultrasound has been shown to enhance the rate of inactivation of quality degrading enzymes including pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and lipoxygenase (LOX) at mild temperature by up to 400 times. Moreover, ultrasound enables the inactivation of relatively heat-resistant enzymes such as tomato PG1 and thermostable orange PME at mild temperature conditions. The extent to which ultrasound enhances the inactivation rate depends on the type of enzyme, the medium in which the enzyme is suspended, and the processing condition including frequency, ultrasonic intensity, temperature, and pressure. The physical and chemical effects of cavitation are considered to be responsible for the ultrasound-induced inactivation of enzymes, although the dominant mechanism depends on the structure of the enzyme.

  6. Chemical Composition of Hexane Extract of Different Parts of Anthemis talyschensis and its Potential to Use in Sunscreen Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Motavalizadehkakhky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, both the presence and concentration of some unsaturated compounds in hexane extracts of different parts of Anthemis talyschensis showing absorption at wavelength 280-450 nm were surveyed, with the view of possibly using extracts of this plant in new formulations of sunscreen creams. The hexane extracts of flower, leaf and stem of A. talyschensis, collected from Northwest Iran, were obtained using a Soxhlet apparatus. The fatty acids were derivatized to methyl esters and were determined by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS systems. The chemical analysis resulted in identification of 14, 9 and 29 constituents, comprising about 99.5, 97.1 and 98.2% of the total constituents in hexane extracts of flower, leaf and stem, respectively. The main unsaturated constituents in the hexane extract of A. talyschensis flower were 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid and 6, 9, 12-octadecatrienoic acid; while the leaf's extract contained 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid and 9-octadecenoic acid; no unsaturated compounds were detected in the stem. The ratios of unsaturated fatty acid /saturated fatty acid were 13.6, 9.3 and 0 in extracts of the flower, leaf and stem, respectively, but the total amounts in the leaf were much greater. It can be concluded the leaf extract is more likely to be suitable for producing sunscreens creams than others.

  7. Impacto do estresse térmico sobre a fisiologia, reprodução e produção de caprinos Impact of heat stress on the physiology, reproduction and production of goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Teixeira de Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Apesar dos caprinos serem considerados animais rústicos, do ponto de vista bioclimático, a associação entre elevadas temperaturas, umidade e radiação solar pode acarretar alterações fisiológicas, hematológicas, hormonais, reprodutivas e produtivas. Portanto, informações que possam esclarecer o impacto do estresse térmico sobre a eficiência desses aspectos em caprinos, analisando o ambiente em que estão inseridos, e como se comportam frente às adversidades impostas pelo clima, darão uma grande contribuição para a caprinocultura e o fortalecimento de sua cadeia produtiva. Assim, para aumentar a produtividade nas regiões tropicais, deve ser ressaltada a criação de raças que apresentem maior potencial genético de adaptabilidade para uma condição climática adversa, sendo capazes de sobreviver, reproduzir e produzir em situações de estresse térmico.Even though goats are considered rustic animals, regarding the bioclimatic aspect, the association of high temperature, humidity and solar radiation may cause physiological, hematological, hormonal, reproductive and productive changes. Therefore, information explaining the impact of heat stress on the efficiency of these aspects on goats by analyzing the surrounding environment and how these animals behave themselves before the adversities imposed by the climate, will give a great contribution to goat breeding and the strengthening of this productive chain. Thus, to increase the productivity in tropical regions, the breed of animals presenting a major genetic potential of adaptability to adverse climatic conditions must be emphasized breeds that may be able to survive, reproduce and produce efficiently in a situation of heat stress.

  8. [C-peptide physiological effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpakov, A O; Granstrem, O K

    2013-02-01

    In the recent years there were numerous evidences that C-peptide, which was previously considered as a product of insulin biosynthesis, is one of the key regulators of physiological processes. C-peptide via heterotrimeric G(i/o) protein-coupled receptors activates a wide range of intracellular effector proteins and transcription factors and, thus, controls the inflammatory and neurotrophic processes, pain sensitivity, cognitive function, macro- and microcirculation, glomerular filtration. These effects of C-peptide are mainly expressed in its absolute or relative deficiency occurred in type 1 diabetes mellitus and they are less pronounced when the level of C-peptide is close to normal. Replacement therapy with C-peptide prevents many complications of type 1 diabetes, such as atherosclerosis, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and nephropathy. C-peptide interacts with the insulin hexamer complexes and induces their dissociation and, as a result, regulates the functional activity of the insulin signaling system. At the same time, C-peptide at the concentrations above physiological may demonstrate pro-inflammatory effects on the endothelial cells and cause atherosclerotic changes in the vessels, which should be considered in the study of pathogenic mechanisms of complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus, where the level of C peptide is increased, as well as in the development of approaches for C-peptide application in clinic. This review is devoted contemporary achievements and unsolved problems in the study of C-peptide, as an important regulator of physiological and biochemical processes.

  9. Physiology of psychogenic movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Psychogenic movement disorders (PMDs) are common, but their physiology is largely unknown. In most situations, the movement is involuntary, but in a minority, when the disorder is malingering or factitious, the patient is lying and the movement is voluntary. Physiologically, we cannot tell the difference between voluntary and involuntary. The Bereitschaftspotential (BP) is indicative of certain brain mechanisms for generating movement, and is seen with ordinarily voluntary movements, but by itself does not indicate that a movement is voluntary. There are good clinical neurophysiological methods available to determine whether myoclonus or tremor is a PMD. For example, psychogenic myoclonus generally has a BP, and psychogenic stimulus-sensitive myoclonus has a variable latency with times similar to normal reaction times. Psychogenic tremor will have variable frequency over time, be synchronous in the two arms, and might well be entrained with voluntary rhythmic movements. These facts suggest that PMDs share voluntary mechanisms for movement production. There are no definitive tests to differentiate psychogenic dystonia from organic dystonia, although one has been recently reported. Similar physiological abnormalities are seen in both groups. The question arises as to how a movement can be produced with voluntary mechanisms, but not be considered voluntary.

  10. Physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ippei; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-08-01

    The heart must continuously pump blood to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients. To maintain the high energy consumption required by this role, the heart is equipped with multiple complex biological systems that allow adaptation to changes of systemic demand. The processes of growth (hypertrophy), angiogenesis, and metabolic plasticity are critically involved in maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Cardiac hypertrophy is classified as physiological when it is associated with normal cardiac function or as pathological when associated with cardiac dysfunction. Physiological hypertrophy of the heart occurs in response to normal growth of children or during pregnancy, as well as in athletes. In contrast, pathological hypertrophy is induced by factors such as prolonged and abnormal hemodynamic stress, due to hypertension, myocardial infarction etc. Pathological hypertrophy is associated with fibrosis, capillary rarefaction, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and cellular dysfunction (impairment of signaling, suppression of autophagy, and abnormal cardiomyocyte/non-cardiomyocyte interactions), as well as undesirable epigenetic changes, with these complex responses leading to maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. This review describes the key molecules and cellular responses involved in physiological/pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A model of human physiology and comfort for assessing complex thermal environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizenga, C.; Zhang Hui; Arens, E. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Center for Environmental Design Research

    2001-07-01

    The Berkeley Comfort Model is based on the Stolwijk model of human thermal regulation but includes several significant improvements. Our new model allows an unlimited body segment (compared to six in the Stolwijk model). Each segment is modeled as four body layers (core, muscle, fat, and skin tissues) and a clothing layer. Physiological mechanisms such as vasodilation, vasoconstriction, sweating, and metabolic heat production are explicitly considered. Convection, conduction (such as to a car seat or other surface in contact with any part of the body) and radiation between the body and the environment are treated independently. The model is capable of predicting human physiological response to transient, non-uniform thermal environments. This paper describes the physiological algorithms as well as the implementation of the model. (author)

  12. A Pacific Aerosol Survey. Part I: A Decade of Data on Particle Production, Transport, Evolution, and Mixing in the Troposphere*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Antony D.; Kapustin, Vladimir N.

    2002-02-01

    Integration of extensive aerosol data collected during the past decade around the Pacific basin provides a preliminary assessment of aerosol microphysics for this region and cycling of aerosol in the troposphere. These include aircraft-based data collected as part of numerous field experiments supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) [Global Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE), First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-1), Pacific Exploratory Mission (PEM)-Tropics A and B]. Although these experiments had diverse goals, most included extensive data on aerosol size distributions, optical properties (light scattering and light absorption), and chemistry. Vertical profiles of aerosol concentration, size distribution, and light scattering were used to characterize vertical structure from 70°S to 70°N. The in situ data are placed in the context of meteorological regimes over the Pacific as well as processes associated with particle formation, growth, and evolution, and include dust, pollution, sea salt, sulfates, and clean cloud-processed air. The Tropics commonly have low aerosol mass but very high number concentrations in the upper free troposphere (FT) that appear to form from sulfuric acid (nucleation) in convective regions and near cloud edges. These age and subside to become effective cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) when mixed into the marine boundary layer. Fewer number but larger aerosol are more evident in the midlatitude FT. These can often be internally mixed and with a nonvolatile core indicative of black carbon with volatile components (sulfate, organics, etc.). In the North Pacific springtime a combustion-derived aerosol is frequently found associated with the same meteorology that transports `dust events.' Both constituents may dominate the scattering and absorption properties of the aerosol even though the increase in large

  13. A Pacific Aerosol Survey - Part 1: A Decade Of Data On Natural Particle Production, Evolution And Mixing In The Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, A. D.; Kapustin, V.

    2001-12-01

    Integration of extensive aerosol data collected during the past decade around the Pacific Basin provides a preliminary assessment of aerosol microphysics for this region and cycling of aerosol in the troposphere. These include aircraft based data collected as part of numerous field experiments supported by NASA, NSF and NOAA (GLOBE, ACE1, PEM-Tropics A&B). Vertical profiles of aerosol concentrations, size distributions and optical properties were used to characterize aerosol structure in the Pacific troposphere from 70S to 70N. The in-situ data is placed in the context of meteorological regimes over the Pacific as well as processes associated with particle formation, growth and evolution and include dust, pollution, sea-salt, sulfates and clean cloud-processed air. Above the ITCZ in the tropical free troposphere (FT) aerosol are characterized by low aerosol mass but very high number concentrations that appear to form from sulfuric acid (nucleation) in convective regions, near cloud edges and occasionally near edges of continental aerosol plumes. These age and subside to become effective CCN when mixed into the marine boundary layer where they continue to grow and help replenish MBL aerosol depleted through precipitation. Our data in the tropics suggest entrainment rates of about 0.5 cm s-1. The volatility of these ``new" aerosol allow them to be compared to the fewer number but larger aerosol more evident in the mid-latitude FT. The latter are often internally mixed and with a non-volatile core indicative of black carbon with volatile components (sulfate, organics etc.). Both constituents may dominate the scattering and absorption properties of the aerosol even though the increase in continentally derived aerosol generally dominate the mass. The FT in the subtropics tends to exhibit frequent and marked transitions and mixing between these clean and continental aerosol types.

  14. Plant-Derived Antimalarial Agents: New Leads and Efficient Phytomedicines. Part II. Non-Alkaloidal Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaíde Braga de Oliveira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is still the most destructive and dangerous parasitic infection in many tropical and subtropical countries. The burden of this disease is getting worse, mainly due to the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against the widely available antimalarial drugs. There is an urgent need for new, more affordable and accessible antimalarial agents possessing original modes of action. Natural products have played a dominant role in the discovery of leads for the development of drugs to treat human diseases, and this fact anticipates that new antimalarial leads may certainly emerge from tropical plant sources. This present review covers most of the recently-published non-alkaloidal natural compounds from plants with antiplasmodial and antimalarial properties, belonging to the classes of terpenes, limonoids, flavonoids, chromones, xanthones, anthraquinones, miscellaneous and related compounds, besides the majority of papers describing antiplasmodial crude extracts published in the last five years not reviewed before. In addition, some perspectives and remarks on the development of new drugs and phytomedicines for malaria are succinctly discussed.

  15. Physiological and productive responses of environmental control on housed sows Respostas fisiológicas e produtivas do controle ambiental em fêmeas suínas alojadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Bites Romanini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Swine housing must promote an adjusted environment for thermal comfort and high animal productivity without negatively affecting the sow performance and reproductive response. This study evaluated the use of distinct environmental cooling equipments on sow performance, both on the gestation and on nursing in open sided housing. Two treatments were tested in the gestation building: natural ventilation and mechanical ventilation associated to fogging; while in the nursing rooms three treatments were tested: natural ventilation; mechanical ventilation; and evaporative cooling with forced ventilation. Sows were randomly chosen from the same genetic lot form six combined treatments. The evaporative cooling system in the farrowing room differed for piglet performances, at birth (4% higher and on daily weight gain (15% higher, and also for sow physiological response improving the respiratory rate (8% and back fat thickness (3%, without influencing skin temperature. The use of evaporative cooling directed to the sow head during nursing improved the physiological and productive results.As instalações suínicolas devem promover um ambiente adequado para o conforto térmico, sem afetar negativamente o desempenho produtivo e reprodutivo das porcas. O presente trabalho avaliou a influência do uso de diferentes equipamentos de climatização, em ambas as instalações abertas de gestação e maternidade, no desempenho das matrizes suínas. Na instalação de gestação foram testados dois tratamentos: ventilação natural e resfriamento; enquanto nas salas de maternidade foram aplicados três tratamentos: ventilação natural, ventilação mecânica e resfriamento adiabático com ventilação forçada. Matrizes escolhidas aleatoriamente, com a mesma genética, foram expostas a seis tratamentos combinados. O sistema de resfriamento adiabático na maternidade foi diferencial para o desempenho dos leitões ao nascer (4% superior e no ganho de peso diário (15

  16. Citric acid production from partly deproteinized whey under non-sterile culture conditions using immobilized cells of lactose-positive and cold-adapted Yarrowia lipolytica B9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Nazli Pinar; Aydogan, Mehmet Nuri; Taskin, Mesut

    2016-08-10

    The present study was performed to produce citric acid (CA) from partly deproteinized cheese whey (DPCW) under non-sterile culture conditions using immobilized cells of the cold-adapted and lactose-positive yeast Yarrowia lipolytica B9. DPCW was prepared using the temperature treatment of 90°C for 15min. Sodium alginate was used as entrapping agent for cell immobilization. Optimum conditions for the maximum CA production (33.3g/L) in non-sterile DPCW medium were the temperature of 20°C, pH 5.5, additional lactose concentration of 20g/L, sodium alginate concentration of 2%, number of 150 beads/100mL and incubation time of 120h. Similarly, maximum citric acid/isocitric acid (CA/ICA) ratio (6.79) could be reached under these optimal conditions. Additional nitrogen and phosphorus sources decreased CA concentration and CA/ICA ratio. Immobilized cells were reused in three continuous reaction cycles without any loss in the maximum CA concentration. The unique combination of low pH and temperature values as well as cell immobilization procedure could prevent undesired microbial contaminants during CA production. This is the first work on CA production by cold-adapted microorganisms under non-sterile culture conditions. Besides, CA production using a lactose-positive strain of the yeast Y. lipolytica was investigated for the first time in the present study.

  17. Rhizobial inoculation increases soil microbial functioning and gum arabic production of 13-years old Senegalia senegal (L. Britton, trees in the North part of Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dioumacor FALL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rhizobial inoculation has been widely used in controlled conditions as a substitute for chemical fertilizers to increase plants growth and productivity. However, very little is known about such effects on mature trees in natural habitats. In this study, we investigated the effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil total microbial biomass, mineral nitrogen content, potential CO2 respiration, fluorescein diacetate (FDA, acid phosphatase activities and gum arabic production by 13-years old Senegalia senegal (Syn. Acacia senegal under natural conditions in the north part of Senegal during two consecutive years. Rhizobial inoculation was performed at the beginning of the rainy season (July for both years with a cocktail of four strains (CIRADF 300, CIRADF 301, CIRADF 302 and CIRADF 303. Rhizospheric soils were collected in both dry and rainy seasons to a depth of 0-25 cm under uninoculated (UIN and inoculated (IN trees. Trees were tapped in November (beginning of dry season using traditional tools. Gum arabic was harvested every 15 days from December to March. The results obtained from both years demonstrated that rhizobial inoculation increased significantly the percentage of trees producing gum arabic, gum arabic production per tree, soil microbial biomass, FDA and acid phosphatase activities. However, there was no significant effect on C mineralization and mineral nitrogen (N content. Gum arabic production was positively correlated to rainfall, soil microbial biomass and mineral nitrogen content. Our results showed a positive effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil microbial functioning and gum arabic production by mature S. senegal trees. These important findings deserve to be conducted in several contrasting sites in order to improve gum arabic production and contribute to increase rural population incomes.

  18. UN ACERCAMIENTO AL DISEÑO DE LOS PRODUCTOS CARNICOS BAJOS EN GRASA PARTE I. PRODUCTOS DE PICADO GRUESO AN APPROACH TO THE DESIGN OF LOW FAT MEAT PRODUCTS. PART I. COARSE MINCED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Miriam Echeverri Palacio

    2004-06-01

    distintos tratamientos. El análisis de textura demostró que sustituciones de grasa del 25 al 75% con fibra, presentaron en general atributos texturales semejantes a la hamburguesa testigo con 20% de grasa. Se encontraron correlaciones bajas entre las medidas sensoriales y de textura debido a diferencias sustanciales en el tratamiento térmico, tamaño y temperatura, en que las muestras se entregaron para cada análisis.In this study, a formulation and elaboration of a low fat hamburger is presented, using substitutes of this, that besides lowering the caloric content of the product also maintain flavour and texture properties similar to high fat foods. By means of preliminary trials, a standard hamburger with 20% fat was established. Nine replacements with 50% of that fat content of the control were evaluated, and by means of sensorial analysis collagen and fiber were selected as the two substitutes that offered the greatest similarity to the previously established standard hamburger. Later, an experimental model was designed in which the fat content in the formulations were substituted with percentages of 25, 50 and 75%, conducting five replicas for treatment, in which the following properties were measured: Physical-chemical (pH and CRA, bromatologicals (protein, fat and humidity, sensorial (flavour, softness and juiciness and physical texture (hardness, coherence, adhesiveness, elasticity, gumminess, and chewability. All of the data obtained were analysed with an Analysis of Variance within and among treatments, correlations among answers to the sensorial analyses and those of texture and statistical analyses by means of the contour answer technique, finding with this the fat substitution and replacement percentage that most resembled the parameters of the standard. The judges in the sensorial analysis found that hamburgers with 15% fat presented flavour and juiciness characteristics similar to the standard hamburger independent of the fat substitute used; lower

  19. Response of Nodularia spumigena to pCO2 – Part I: Growth, production and nitrogen cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nausch

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterocystous cyanobacteria of the genus Nodularia form extensive blooms in the Baltic Sea contributing substantially to the total annual primary production. Moreover, they dispense a large fraction of new nitrogen to the ecosystem, when inorganic nitrogen concentration in summer is low. Thus, it is of great ecological importance to know how Nodularia will react to future environmental changes, in particular to increasing carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations and what consequences there might arise for cycling of organic matter in the ocean. Here, we determined carbon (C and dinitrogen (N2 fixation rates, growth, elemental stoichiometry of particulate organic matter and nitrogen turnover during batch growth of the heterocystous cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena under glacial (180 ppm, present (380 ppm, and future (780 ppm CO2 concentrations. Our results demonstrate an overall stimulating effect of rising pCO2 on C and N2 fixation, as well as on cell growth. An increase in pCO2 resulted in an elevation in growth rate, C and N2 fixation by 23%, 36% and 25%, respectively (180 ppm vs. 380 ppm and by 27%, 2% and 4%, respectively (380 ppm vs. 780 ppm. Additionally, elevation in the carbon and nitrogen to phosphorus quota of the particulate biomass formed (POC:POP and PON:POP was observed at high pCO2. Our findings suggest that rising pCO2 stimulates the growth of heterocystous diazotrophic cyanobacteria, in a similar way as reported for non-heterocystous diazotrophs. Implications for biogeochemical cycling and food web dynamics, as well as ecological and socio-economical aspects in the Baltic Sea are discussed.

  20. Natural health products that inhibit angiogenesis: a potential source for investigational new agents to treat cancer-Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, S M; Yance, D; Wong, R K

    2006-06-01

    The herbalist has access to hundreds of years of observational data on the anticancer activity of many herbs. Laboratory studies are expanding the clinical knowledge that is already documented in traditional texts. The herbs that are traditionally used for anti-cancer treatment and that are anti-angiogenic through multiple interdependent processes (including effects on gene expression, signal processing, and enzyme activities) include Artemisia annua (Chinese wormwood), Viscum album (European mistletoe), Curcuma longa (curcumin), Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese skullcap), resveratrol and proanthocyanidin (grape seed extract), Magnolia officinalis (Chinese magnolia tree), Camellia sinensis (green tea), Ginkgo biloba, quercetin, Poria cocos, Zingiber officinalis (ginger), Panax ginseng, Rabdosia rubescens hora (Rabdosia), and Chinese destagnation herbs. Natural health products target molecular pathways other than angiogenesis, including epidermal growth factor receptor, the HER2/neu gene, the cyclo-oxygenase-2 enzyme, the nuclear factor kappa-B transcription factor, the protein kinases, the Bcl-2 protein, and coagulation pathways. Quality assurance of appropriate extracts is essential prior to embarking upon clinical trials. More data are required on dose-response, appropriate combinations, and potential toxicities. Given the multiple effects of these agents, their future use for cancer therapy probably lies in synergistic combinations. During active cancer therapy they should generally be evaluated in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. In this role, they act as modifiers of biologic response or as adaptogens, potentially enhancing the efficacy of the conventional therapies or reducing toxicity. Their effectiveness may be increased when multiple agents are used in optimal combinations. New designs for trials to demonstrate activity in human subjects are required. Although controlled trials may be preferable, smaller studies with appropriate endpoints and

  1. Biophysicochemical evaluation of wild hilly biotypes of Jatropha curcas for biodiesel production and micropropagation study of elite plant parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, K C; Verma, S K

    2015-01-01

    Depleting reserves of fossil fuel and increasing effects of environmental pollution from petrochemicals demands eco-friendly alternative fuel sources. Jatropha curcas oil, an inedible vegetable oil, can be a substitute feedstock for traditional food crops in the production of environment-friendly and renewable fuel. Jatropha oil is looked up in terms of availability and cost and also has several applications and enormous economic benefits. The seed oils of various jatropha biotypes from hilly regions were screened out and evaluated for their physiochemical parameters, viz, seed index(520-600 g), oil content (15-42 %), biodiesel yield (71-98 %), moisture content (2.3-6.5 %), ash content (3.2-5.6 %), acid value (4.2-26), density (0.9172-0.9317 g/cm(3)), viscosity (5-37 mm(2)/s), saponification value (195.8-204.2 mg/g), iodine value (106.6-113.6 mg/g), flash point (162-235 °C), cetane value (46.70-50.06 °C), free fatty acid value (2.5-10.2 %), and refractive index (1.4600-1.4710). Fatty acid profiling of jatropha resembles as edible oilseeds. NAA with BAP was found to be superior for callus induction (up to 87 %), as well as for shoot regeneration (up to12 shoots). Root induction (90-100 %) was successfully obtained in MS medium with or without phytoregulators. Grown plantlets were successfully transferred from lab to field with a survival rate of 80 %.

  2. Biodiversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from a survey of pito production sites in various parts of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Richard L K; Abaidoo, Robert C; Jakobsen, Mogens; Jespersen, Lene

    2005-10-01

    Biodiversity among Saccharomyces cerevisiae predominating the spontaneous fermentation of Dagarti pito in Ghana was assessed. Two hundred and forty-nine isolates obtained from samples of dried yeast taken from commercial pito production sites in eight geographical regions of Ghana were characterized phenotypically by colony and cell morphology as well as carbohydrate assimilation profiling. Yeast populations ranged between 10(6) and 10(8) cfug(-1). Ninety-nine percent of the isolates (247) investigated showed macro-and micro morphological characteristics typical of S. cerevisiae. Of these, 72% (179) had assimilation profiles similar to S. cerevisiae while 28% (68) had assimilation profiles atypical of S. cerevisiae or any other member of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex. Amplification of the region spanning the two intergenic transcribed spacers (ITS) and the 5.8S ribosomal gene (ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2), followed by restriction analysis, as well as determination of chromosome length polymorphism by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of 25 representative isolates strongly indicated that all belonged to S. cerevisiae, notwithstanding the phenotypic differences. Sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome-c oxidase II gene (COX 2) and the actin-encoding gene (ACT1) of four isolates, confirmed their close relatedness to S. cerevisiae, particularly to the type strain CBS1171 (98.7%), as well as other members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex. Twenty isolates selected from eight geographical regions of Ghana and investigated for their technological properties, showed different patterns of growth and flocculation but otherwise similar technological characteristica. Most of the isolates produced pito having sensory attributes, which compared favourably with commercially produced pito.

  3. Natural health products that inhibit angiogenesis: a potential source for investigational new agents to treat cancer—Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, S.M.; Yance, D.; Wong, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    The herbalist has access to hundreds of years of observational data on the anticancer activity of many herbs. Laboratory studies are expanding the clinical knowledge that is already documented in traditional texts. The herbs that are traditionally used for anti-cancer treatment and that are anti-angiogenic through multiple interdependent processes (including effects on gene expression, signal processing, and enzyme activities) include Artemisia annua (Chinese wormwood), Viscum album (European mistletoe), Curcuma longa (curcumin), Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese skullcap), resveratrol and proanthocyanidin (grape seed extract), Magnolia officinalis (Chinese magnolia tree), Camellia sinensis (green tea), Ginkgo biloba, quercetin, Poria cocos, Zingiber officinalis (ginger), Panax ginseng, Rabdosia rubescens hora (Rabdosia), and Chinese destagnation herbs. Natural health products target molecular pathways other than angiogenesis, including epidermal growth factor receptor, the HER2/neu gene, the cyclo-oxygenase-2 enzyme, the nuclear factor kappa-B transcription factor, the protein kinases, the Bcl-2 protein, and coagulation pathways. Quality assurance of appropriate extracts is essential prior to embarking upon clinical trials. More data are required on dose–response, appropriate combinations, and potential toxicities. Given the multiple effects of these agents, their future use for cancer therapy probably lies in synergistic combinations. During active cancer therapy they should generally be evaluated in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. In this role, they act as modifiers of biologic response or as adaptogens, potentially enhancing the efficacy of the conventional therapies or reducing toxicity. Their effectiveness may be increased when multiple agents are used in optimal combinations. New designs for trials to demonstrate activity in human subjects are required. Although controlled trials may be preferable, smaller studies with appropriate endpoints and

  4. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 9. Alleviation of environmental stress on renewable resource productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, G. S.

    1982-09-01

    It is pointed out that temperature and water stress are the key factors that will be influenced by a rise in ambient CO/sub 2/ concentration. Improvement of the capacity of crop plants to withstand water and temperature stress will require an undergirding effort in basic research, to support required advances in plant breeding and development of novel crop management systems. The most important considerations for future research on environmental stress in crops are: the need for interdisciplinary approaches in all aspects of stress research; the need for centralized stress testing capabilities; plant-breeding, the long-term solution with greatest potential benefit and least cost; improvement in management techniques, becoming more effective as increased attention is directed to the management of specific genotypes; the need for understanding of more stress effects closer to the optimum than to lethality; the need to optimize rather than maximize production; the need for understanding different stress effects during different, critical developmental stages; the need for development of usable, physiologically-based crop models to serve as predictive tools for agronomists and breeders; the recognition that improvement options in annual crops are greater than in perennial crops; efforts to culture perennial crops as annuals as a means of avoiding winter stress; and the need for a major effort to devise techniques to shorten the breeding cycle in perennials so that genetic solutions can be more readily employed.

  5. Pieces and Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Deborah A.; Ellis, Edith B.

    2006-01-01

    Although critical to understanding human sexuality and reproductive physiology, the male and female reproductive anatomy is often minimally covered by teachers. For teachers and students alike, it is often an embarrassing topic to discuss. This activity allows students and teachers to identify the parts of both reproductive systems with little…

  6. Neuropeptide physiology in helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, Angela; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic worms come from two distinct, distant phyla, Nematoda (roundworms) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms). The nervous systems of worms from both phyla are replete with neuropeptides and there is ample physiological evidence that these neuropeptides control vital aspects of worm biology. In each phyla, the physiological evidence for critical roles for helminth neuropeptides is derived from both parasitic and free-living members. In the nematodes, the intestinal parasite Ascaris suum and the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans have yielded most of the data; in the platyhelminths, the most physiological data has come from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) have many varied effects (excitation, relaxation, or a combination) on somatic musculature, reproductive musculature, the pharynx and motor neurons in nematodes. Insulin-like peptides (INSs) play an essential role in nematode dauer formation and other developmental processes. There is also some evidence for a role in somatic muscle control for the somewhat heterogeneous grouping ofpeptides known as neuropeptide-like proteins (NLPs). In platyhelminths, as in nematodes, FLPs have a central role in somatic muscle function. Reports of FLP physiological action in platyhelminths are limited to a potent excitation of the somatic musculature. Platyhelminths are also abundantly endowed with neuropeptide Fs (NPFs), which appear absent from nematodes. There is not yet any data linking platyhelminth NPF to any particular physiological outcome, but this neuropeptide does potently and specifically inhibit cAMP accumulation in schistosomes. In nematodes and platyhelminths, there is an abundance of physiological evidence demonstrating that neuropeptides play critical roles in the biology of both free-living and parasitic helminths. While it is certainly true that there remains a great deal to learn about the biology of neuropeptides in both phyla, physiological evidence presently available points

  7. Accessing the real part of the forward $J/\\psi$-p scattering amplitude from $J/\\psi$ photo-production on protons around threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Gryniuk, Oleksii

    2016-01-01

    We provide an updated analysis of the forward $J/\\psi$-p scattering amplitude, relating its imaginary part to $\\gamma p \\to J/\\psi p$ and $\\gamma p \\to c \\bar c X$ cross section data, and calculating its real part through a once-subtracted dispersion relation. From a global fit to both differential and total cross section data, we extract a value for the spin-averaged $J/\\psi$-p s-wave scattering length $a_{\\psi p} = 0.046 \\pm 0.005$ fm, which can be translated into a $J/\\psi$ binding energy in nuclear matter of $B_\\psi = 2.7 \\pm 0.3$ MeV. We estimate the forward-backward asymmetry to the $\\gamma p \\to e^- e^+ p$ process around the $J/\\psi$ resonance, which results from interchanging the leptons in the interference between the $J/\\psi$ production and the Bethe-Heitler mechanisms. We show that to good approximation this asymmetry depends linearly on $a_{\\psi p}$, and can reach values around -25% for forthcoming $J/\\psi$ threshold production experiments at Jefferson Lab. Its measurement can thus provide a very ...

  8. Integrated training for aphasia: an application of part-whole learning to treat lexical retrieval, sentence production, and discourse-level communications in three cases of nonfluent aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Lisa; Vega-Mendoza, Mariana; Clendenen, Deanna

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate integrated training for aphasia (ITA), a multicomponent language-production treatment based on part-whole learning that systematically trains lexical retrieval, sentence production, and discourse-level communications. Specific research objectives were to evaluate acquisition of target structures, statistical parameters associated with learning variables, treatment generalization, and the efficacy of individual treatment components. ITA was administered to 3 individuals with nonfluent aphasia following a multiple-baseline, across-behaviors design. Effect size and correlational coefficients were computed to assess acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of target structures. Standardized tests and a treatment efficacy questionnaire were also completed. A significant treatment effect was found in 2 of the 3 participants. In addition, as is seen in normal skill acquisition, practice time and error rate were significantly correlated. All participants demonstrated evidence of generalization on standardized language measures. Only 1 participant improved, however, on the communication measures. Results of the treatment component analysis revealed significant differences in the perceived efficacy of individual therapy tasks. Findings add to the evidence supporting multicomponent aphasia treatments, provide preliminary support for ITA and the application of a part-whole learning approach, and suggest that specific treatment components may contribute differentially to outcomes and generalization effects.

  9. 月季部分形态生理指标对高温的反应研究%Research for Response to High Temperature on Part of Morphological and Physiological Indexes in Rose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗丹; 柳忠娜; 谢利娟; 陈雅君; 王辉

    2013-01-01

    In order to filter out the variety which could grow suitably in the high temperature ,seven varieties with certain heat resistant were selected including Feishan ,Iceberg ,Blue ribbon ,Xianghuanxi ,Double delight , Xiangshuihuang ,Chicago peace ,through the cultivation and identification in the conditions of high temperature in greenhouse located at Shenzhen ,some morphological and physiological indicators were measured under nor-mal and high temperatures .The results showed that :in morphology ,seven rose varieties grew slowly under the high temperature ,Iceberg and Feishan grew better than others ,manifested in the number of flower and the quality of flowering ,but Xiangshuihuang and Chicago peace grew the most slowly and had no flower ;in the physical aspects ,as the temperature increases ,seven varieties showed an increase in MDA content ,SOD activity and proline content ,in the high temperature the heat resistant varieties could maintain higher activity of SOD , lower MDA content and induce more proline .%  为了筛选出适合高温条件下生长的月季品种,选定7个具有一定耐热性的品种绯扇、冰山、蓝斯带、香欢喜、红双喜、香水黄和芝加哥和平,通过在深圳高温的温室条件下栽培和鉴定,研究常温和高温对月季品种形态和生理指标的影响。结果表明:在形态方面,7个月季品种高温下,生长比较缓慢,冰山和绯扇的生长相对较好,开花数量和开花质量也较好,而香水黄和芝加哥和平在高温下生长缓慢,不开花;在生理方面,随着温度升高,7个品种均表现为MDA含量增加、SOD活性上升、脯氨酸含量也随温度升高呈增加趋势,高温下耐热性强的品种能保持更高的SOD等保护酶活性和更低的MDA含量,并诱导产生更多的脯氨酸。

  10. Physiological Processes and Yield of Winter Wheat and Triticale under the Influence of Sprinkling Irrigation and Nitrogen Fertilization Part II. Acticity of Some Enzymes and Yield of Winter Wheat and Triticale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Kaczmarczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of this paper presents effects of supplemental irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on nitrate levels in flag leaf, activity of some enzymes and yield of winter wheat and triticale. Both sprinkling irrigation and high doses of nitrogen enhanced the activity of nitrate reductase and peroxydase and slightly that of acid phosphatase. Plants from plots treated with high rates of nitrogen contained more nitrate nitrogen. Sprinkling irrigation and intensive nitrogen fertilization significantly increased the crops of winter wheat and triticale. As effect of sprinkling the yield of winter wheat increased by 35 % and triticale by 14 %. High nitrogen doses affected the yield respectively by 92 and 115 % and the combined effect of both treatments increased the yield of winter wheat by 158 % (3.3 t/ha and triticale by 139 % 3.10 t/ha.

  11. / production

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    François Arleo; Pol-Bernard Gossiaux; Thierry Gousset; Jörg Aichelin

    2003-04-01

    For more than 25 years /Ψ production has helped to sharpen our understanding of QCD. In proton induced reaction some observations are rather well understood while others are still unclear. The current status of the theory of /Ψ production will be sketched, paying special attention to the issues of formation time and /Ψ re-interaction in a nuclear medium.

  12. The value chain of non-wood forest products as a component of development of the forestry sector in a part of South Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The value chain represents a detailed outline of the process that a product or service passes from raw materials, production and distribution to the consumer. The aim of this article is that within the analyzed companies in the area of the statistical region of South Serbia determined the dynamics of purchasing and marketing of non-wood forest products (NWFPs, and their value. The purpose of this research is to examine the possibilities for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs towards sustainable use of NWFPs in a part of the territory of South Serbia. The subjects of the research are: purchased and sold quantities in analyzed companies, as well as the prices of these products in the market. The research was conducted in the territory of the dominant Pcinja, and they included 19 companies engaged in purchasing, processing and sale of NTFPs. The purchase of forest raspberries, wild strawberries and blackberries and herbs is represented within the Pcinja District. The highest average annual growth rates were recorded in the sales of products with added value of dog rose (Rosa canina and cornelian (Cornus mas. Export oriented enterprises in this area are at a low level. The total gross revenue earned by the placement of the selected final NWFPs in the domestic market was about 6,315,710 €. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37008: Održivo gazdovanje ukupnim potencijalima šuma u Republici Srbiji, i br. TP 31041: Šumski zasadi u funkciji povećanja pošumljenosti Srbije

  13. Human physiology in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  14. Circadian physiology of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-11-25

    A majority of mammalian genes exhibit daily fluctuations in expression levels, making circadian expression rhythms the largest known regulatory network in normal physiology. Cell-autonomous circadian clocks interact with daily light-dark and feeding-fasting cycles to generate approximately 24-hour oscillations in the function of thousands of genes. Circadian expression of secreted molecules and signaling components transmits timing information between cells and tissues. Such intra- and intercellular daily rhythms optimize physiology both by managing energy use and by temporally segregating incompatible processes. Experimental animal models and epidemiological data indicate that chronic circadian rhythm disruption increases the risk of metabolic diseases. Conversely, time-restricted feeding, which imposes daily cycles of feeding and fasting without caloric reduction, sustains robust diurnal rhythms and can alleviate metabolic diseases. These findings highlight an integrative role of circadian rhythms in physiology and offer a new perspective for treating chronic diseases in which metabolic disruption is a hallmark.

  15. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from......Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive......, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant...

  16. Investigations of residue of veterinary medicines and environmental contaminants during production cycle of Petrovska klobasa as part of compulsory parameters for food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant factor in the protection of consumer health is the systematic and constant implementation of control for the presence of residue of biologically active substances and their metabolites in raw materials and in primary products of animal origin. As regards meat, an essential aspect of security is definitely the control of possible residue of veterinary medicines and environmental contaminants. In that respect, the objective of the national project entitled „Development of technology for drying and fermentation of the sausage petrovačka kobasica (Petrovská klobása - registered geographic origin under controlled conditions“, Number TR - 20037, was to protect the product petrovačka kobasica (Petrovská klobása with the appropriate appellation. A part of the compulsory investigations also included the establishing of the presence of residue of veterinary medicines and environmental contaminants in raw materials and in the finished product, which was also the aim of this work. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-20037: Petrovská klobása - oznaka geografskog porekla u kontrolisanim uslovima

  17. Epigenetics and transgenerational transfer: a physiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, D H; Burggren, W W

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetics, the transgenerational transfer of phenotypic characters without modification of gene sequence, is a burgeoning area of study in many disciplines of biology. However, the potential impact of this phenomenon on the physiology of animals is not yet broadly appreciated, in part because the phenomenon of epigenetics is not typically part of the design of physiological investigations. Still enigmatic and somewhat ill defined is the relationship between the overarching concept of epigenetics and interesting transgenerational phenomena (e.g. 'maternal/parental effects') that alter the physiological phenotype of subsequent generations. The lingering effect on subsequent generations of an initial environmental disturbance in parent animals can be profound, with genes continuing to be variously silenced or expressed without an associated change in gene sequence for many generations. Known epigenetic mechanisms involved in this phenomenon include chromatin remodeling (DNA methylation and histone modification), RNA-mediated modifications (non-coding RNA and microRNA), as well as other less well studied mechanisms such as self-sustaining loops and structural inheritance. In this review we: (1) discuss how the concepts of epigenetics and maternal effects both overlap with, and are distinct from, each other; (2) analyze examples of existing animal physiological studies based on these concepts; and (3) offer a construct by which to integrate these concepts into the design of future investigations in animal physiology.

  18. SVAT modeling of crop physiological response to drought in potatoes under different types of deficit irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Mollerup, Mikkel; Abrahamsen, Per

      Further understanding of the crop physiologic responses to drought caused by deficit irrigation (DI), regular or partial root drying (PRD), have been obtained in several studies in tomatoes and potatoes under controlled environment. The improved quantitative description of the production...... of abscisic acid in the root system and as well as its influence on stomatal regulation of gas exhange has been implemented in the Daisy model, a comprehensive work partly financed by the SAFIR project ( http://www.safir4eu.org/ ). Hence, the improved Daisy model now calculates crop production based on gas...

  19. Upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldum, Helge L; Kleveland, Per M; Fossmark, Reidar

    2015-06-01

    Nordic research on physiology and pathophysiology of the upper gastrointestinal tract has flourished during the last 50 years. Swedish surgeons and physiologists were in the frontline of research on the regulation of gastric acid secretion. This research finally led to the development of omeprazole, the first proton pump inhibitor. When Swedish physiologists developed methods allowing the assessment of acid secretion in isolated oxyntic glands and isolated parietal cells, the understanding of mechanisms by which gastric acid secretion is regulated took a great step forward. Similarly, in Trondheim, Norway, the acid producing isolated rat stomach model combined with a sensitive and specific method for determination of histamine made it possible to evaluate this regulation qualitatively as well as quantitatively. In Lund, Sweden, the identification of the enterochromaffin-like cell as the cell taking part in the regulation of acid secretion by producing and releasing histamine was of fundamental importance both physiologically and clinically. Jorpes and Mutt established a center at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm for the purification of gastrointestinal hormones in the 1960s, and Danes followed up this work by excelling in the field of determination and assessment of biological role of gastrointestinal hormones. A Finnish group was for a long period in the forefront of research on gastritis, and the authors' own studies on the classification of gastric cancer and the role of gastrin in the development of gastric neoplasia are of importance. It can, accordingly, be concluded that Nordic researchers have been central in the research on area of the upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases.

  20. Human placenta as a 'dual' biomarker for monitoring fetal and maternal environment with special reference to potentially toxic trace elements. Part 1: physiology, function and sampling of placenta for elemental characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, G V; Rapp, A

    2001-12-03

    Choice of specimen from human subjects for monitoring pollutants proven to be detrimental to human health depends on the criteria chosen, namely real-time monitoring (RTM) or long-term monitoring (LTM). Specimens such as whole blood, urine, saliva and breast milk are commonly used from living subjects for RTM of toxic metals. However, sampling blood requires an invasive procedure. On the other hand, hair (with some limitations), bone (especially for the assessment of bone seeking elements), adipose tissue (mainly for organic pollutants) and liver (for both organic and inorganic toxicants) are used as specimens for LTM. With the exception of hair, generally these specimens are obtained at post-mortem. In context of health-related biomonitoring, placenta as a specimen has not received as much attention as it deserves. It is a unique sample requiring no invasive procedure, and offers possibilities for RTM, in particular as a dual purpose specimen for evaluating the pollutant burden exerted on the mother as well as on the fetus. Obtaining representative samples of placenta for elemental composition studies is a difficult task, because of heterogeneous mix of placental cells and decidual matter tainted with maternal and fetal blood. Therefore, the present sampling practices for placental tissue, and guidelines to safeguard the validity of the sampled material have been reviewed in part 1 with the following conclusions: medico-legal and ethical matters should be properly addressed before collecting the placenta; it is advisable to collect the entire placenta even if it includes the umbilical cord; further preparatory work is to be carried out in a clean laboratory and depends upon the purpose of the investigation; homogenising the entire sample may prove to be technically challenging but this step is crucial to obtain representative samples, handling the entire sample may be unavoidable; and an alternative method of procuring representative samples would require random