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Sample records for physiological metal-unsupplemented conditions

  1. Magnesium degradation under physiological conditions - Best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jorge; Hou, Rui Qing; Nidadavolu, Eshwara P S; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Feyerabend, Frank

    2018-06-01

    This review focusses on the application of physiological conditions for the mechanistic understanding of magnesium degradation. Despite the undisputed relevance of simplified laboratory setups for alloy screening purposes, realistic and predictive in vitro setups are needed. Due to the complexity of these systems, the review gives an overview about technical measures, defines some caveats and can be used as a guideline for the establishment of harmonized laboratory approaches.

  2. Capturing a DNA duplex under near-physiological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Xu, Wei; Liu, Xiaogang; Stellacci, Francesco; Thong, John T. L.

    2010-10-01

    We report in situ trapping of a thiolated DNA duplex with eight base pairs into a polymer-protected gold nanogap device under near-physiological conditions. The double-stranded DNA was captured by electrophoresis and covalently attached to the nanogap electrodes through sulfur-gold bonding interaction. The immobilization of the DNA duplex was confirmed by direct electrical measurements under near-physiological conditions. The conductance of the DNA duplex was estimated to be 0.09 μS. We also demonstrate the control of DNA dehybridization by heating the device to temperatures above the melting point of the DNA.

  3. Magnesium degradation under physiological conditions – Best practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gonzalez

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focusses on the application of physiological conditions for the mechanistic understanding of magnesium degradation. Despite the undisputed relevance of simplified laboratory setups for alloy screening purposes, realistic and predictive in vitro setups are needed. Due to the complexity of these systems, the review gives an overview about technical measures, defines some caveats and can be used as a guideline for the establishment of harmonized laboratory approaches.

  4. Pathways of the Maillard reaction under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Christian; Glomb, Marcus A

    2016-08-01

    Initially investigated as a color formation process in thermally treated foods, nowadays, the relevance of the Maillard reaction in vivo is generally accepted. Many chronic and age-related diseases such as diabetes, uremia, atherosclerosis, cataractogenesis and Alzheimer's disease are associated with Maillard derived advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and α-dicarbonyl compounds as their most important precursors in terms of reactivity and abundance. However, the situation in vivo is very challenging, because Maillard chemistry is paralleled by enzymatic reactions which can lead to both, increases and decreases in certain AGEs. In addition, mechanistic findings established under the harsh conditions of food processing might not be valid under physiological conditions. The present review critically discusses the relevant α-dicarbonyl compounds as central intermediates of AGE formation in vivo with a special focus on fragmentation pathways leading to formation of amide-AGEs.

  5. Homologous Basal Ganglia Network Models in Physiological and Parkinsonian Conditions

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    Jyotika Bahuguna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The classical model of basal ganglia has been refined in recent years with discoveries of subpopulations within a nucleus and previously unknown projections. One such discovery is the presence of subpopulations of arkypallidal and prototypical neurons in external globus pallidus, which was previously considered to be a primarily homogeneous nucleus. Developing a computational model of these multiple interconnected nuclei is challenging, because the strengths of the connections are largely unknown. We therefore use a genetic algorithm to search for the unknown connectivity parameters in a firing rate model. We apply a binary cost function derived from empirical firing rate and phase relationship data for the physiological and Parkinsonian conditions. Our approach generates ensembles of over 1,000 configurations, or homologies, for each condition, with broad distributions for many of the parameter values and overlap between the two conditions. However, the resulting effective weights of connections from or to prototypical and arkypallidal neurons are consistent with the experimental data. We investigate the significance of the weight variability by manipulating the parameters individually and cumulatively, and conclude that the correlation observed between the parameters is necessary for generating the dynamics of the two conditions. We then investigate the response of the networks to a transient cortical stimulus, and demonstrate that networks classified as physiological effectively suppress activity in the internal globus pallidus, and are not susceptible to oscillations, whereas parkinsonian networks show the opposite tendency. Thus, we conclude that the rates and phase relationships observed in the globus pallidus are predictive of experimentally observed higher level dynamical features of the physiological and parkinsonian basal ganglia, and that the multiplicity of solutions generated by our method may well be indicative of a natural

  6. MR features of physiologic and benign conditions of the ovary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamai, Ken; Saga, Tsuneo; Kido, Aki; Kataoka, Masako; Umeoka, Shigeaki; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Koyama, Takashi [Kyoto University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kyoto (Japan); Fujii, Shingo [Kyoto University, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2006-12-15

    In reproductive women, various physiologic conditions can cause morphologic changes of the ovary, resembling pathologic conditions. Benign ovarian diseases can also simulate malignancies. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can play an important role in establishing accurate diagnosis. Functional cysts should not be confused with cystic neoplasms. Corpus luteum cysts typically have a thick wall and are occasionally hemorrhagic. Multicystic lesions that may mimic cystic neoplasms include hyperreactio luteinalis, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Recognition of clinical settings can help establish diagnosis. In endometrial cysts, MRI usually provides specific diagnosis; however, decidual change during pregnancy should not be confused with secondary neoplasm. Peritoneal inclusion cysts can be distinguished from cystic neoplasms by recognition of their characteristic configurations. Ovarian torsion and massive ovarian edema may mimic solid malignant tumors. Recognition of normal follicles and anatomic structures is useful in diagnosing these conditions. In pelvic inflammatory diseases, transfascial spread of the lesion should not be confused with invasive malignant tumors. Radiologic identification of abscess formation can be a diagnostic clue. Many benign tumors, including teratoma, Brenner tumor, and sex-cord stromal tumor, frequently show characteristic MRI features. Knowledge of MRI features of these conditions is essential in establishing accurate diagnosis and determining appropriate treatment. (orig.)

  7. MR features of physiologic and benign conditions of the ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Ken; Saga, Tsuneo; Kido, Aki; Kataoka, Masako; Umeoka, Shigeaki; Togashi, Kaori; Koyama, Takashi; Fujii, Shingo

    2006-01-01

    In reproductive women, various physiologic conditions can cause morphologic changes of the ovary, resembling pathologic conditions. Benign ovarian diseases can also simulate malignancies. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can play an important role in establishing accurate diagnosis. Functional cysts should not be confused with cystic neoplasms. Corpus luteum cysts typically have a thick wall and are occasionally hemorrhagic. Multicystic lesions that may mimic cystic neoplasms include hyperreactio luteinalis, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Recognition of clinical settings can help establish diagnosis. In endometrial cysts, MRI usually provides specific diagnosis; however, decidual change during pregnancy should not be confused with secondary neoplasm. Peritoneal inclusion cysts can be distinguished from cystic neoplasms by recognition of their characteristic configurations. Ovarian torsion and massive ovarian edema may mimic solid malignant tumors. Recognition of normal follicles and anatomic structures is useful in diagnosing these conditions. In pelvic inflammatory diseases, transfascial spread of the lesion should not be confused with invasive malignant tumors. Radiologic identification of abscess formation can be a diagnostic clue. Many benign tumors, including teratoma, Brenner tumor, and sex-cord stromal tumor, frequently show characteristic MRI features. Knowledge of MRI features of these conditions is essential in establishing accurate diagnosis and determining appropriate treatment. (orig.)

  8. Interoception: the sense of the physiological condition of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, A D

    2003-08-01

    Converging evidence indicates that primates have a distinct cortical image of homeostatic afferent activity that reflects all aspects of the physiological condition of all tissues of the body. This interoceptive system, associated with autonomic motor control, is distinct from the exteroceptive system (cutaneous mechanoreception and proprioception) that guides somatic motor activity. The primary interoceptive representation in the dorsal posterior insula engenders distinct highly resolved feelings from the body that include pain, temperature, itch, sensual touch, muscular and visceral sensations, vasomotor activity, hunger, thirst, and 'air hunger'. In humans, a meta-representation of the primary interoceptive activity is engendered in the right anterior insula, which seems to provide the basis for the subjective image of the material self as a feeling (sentient) entity, that is, emotional awareness.

  9. Gonadotropins studies in female egyptian subjects under different physiological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.; Megahed, Y.M.; Ibrahim, M.

    2002-01-01

    This study is concerned with the role of the hypothalamic hypophyseal regulatory hormonal mechanisms in the control of gonadal secretions in a selected normal egyptian female subjects with varying ages under different physiological conditions. The study allowed precise definition of the modulator influence of a number of key factors triggering appropriate alteration in circulating serum levels of FSH and LH determined by IRMA technique in pre-pubertal female children (9-11), post-pubertal adolescents females (13-16). Adult married females (27-33) and post-menopausal (58-63). The levels of FSH and LH were increased markedly with age but children less than 11 years old had only nocturnal increase in levels of FSH (p.O.I) and LH(P< 0.001). post-pubertal aged girls had significant nocturnal elevation only of LH levels (P< 0.001), adult married females did not exhibit significant difference in gonadotropin concentrations. whereas significant elevation in FSH and LH levels (P<0.001) in post-menopausal females were observed

  10. Physiological Responses to Two Hypoxic Conditioning Strategies in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacaroun, Samarmar; Borowik, Anna; Morrison, Shawnda A; Baillieul, Sébastien; Flore, Patrice; Doutreleau, Stéphane; Verges, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hypoxic exposure can be used as a therapeutic tool by inducing various cardiovascular, neuromuscular, and metabolic adaptations. Hypoxic conditioning strategies have been evaluated in patients with chronic diseases using either sustained (SH) or intermittent (IH) hypoxic sessions. Whether hypoxic conditioning via SH or IH may induce different physiological responses remains to be elucidated. Methods: Fourteen healthy active subjects (7 females, age 25 ± 8 years, body mass index 21.5 ± 2.5 kg·m -2 ) performed two interventions in a single blind, randomized cross-over design, starting with either 3 x SH (48 h apart), or 3 x IH (48 h apart), separated by a 2 week washout period. SH sessions consisted of breathing a gas mixture with reduced inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO 2 ), continuously adjusted to reach arterial oxygen saturations (SpO 2 ) of 70-80% for 1 h. IH sessions consisted of 5 min with reduced FiO 2 (SpO 2 = 70-80%), followed by 3-min normoxia, repeated seven times. During the first (S1) and third (S3) sessions of each hypoxic intervention, cardiorespiratory parameters, and muscle and pre-frontal cortex oxygenation (near infrared spectroscopy) were assessed continuously. Results : Minute ventilation increased significantly during IH sessions (+2 ± 2 L·min -1 ) while heart rate increased during both SH (+11 ± 4 bpm) and IH (+13 ± 5 bpm) sessions. Arterial blood pressure increased during all hypoxic sessions, although baseline normoxic systolic blood pressure was reduced from S1 to S3 in IH only (-8 ± 11 mmHg). Muscle oxygenation decreased significantly during S3 but not S1, for both hypoxic interventions (S3: SH -6 ± 5%, IH -3 ± 4%); pre-frontal oxygenation decreased in S1 and S3, and to a greater extent in SH vs. IH (-13 ± 3% vs. -6 ± 6%). Heart rate variability indices indicated a significantly larger increase in sympathetic activity in SH vs. IH (lower SDNN, PNN50, and RMSSD values in SH). From S1 to S3, further reduction in heart

  11. Nanoparticle-based capillary electroseparation of proteins in polymer capillaries under physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, C.; Harwigsson, I.; Becker, K.

    2010-01-01

    Totally porous lipid-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles were used as pseudostationary phase for capillary electroseparation with LIF detection of proteins at physiological conditions using unmodified cyclic olefin copolymer capillaries (Topas (R), 6.7 cm effective length). In the absence of n...... at protein friendly conditions. The developed capillary-based method facilitates future electrochromatography of proteins on polymer-based microchips under physiological conditions and enables the initial optimization of separation conditions in parallel to the chip development....

  12. Physiological Plausibility and Boundary Conditions of Theories of Risk Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchiori, Davide; Elqayam, Shira

    2012-01-01

    dilatation, which in turn positively correlates with a risk aversion behavior. They hypothesize that participants’ attention is increased in decision problems involving losses, which trigger an innate prudent behavior in situations entailing danger and/or hazard. Interestingly, Y&T find that the nature...... of attention is not selective, i.e., when losses are present, participants are shown to devote more attention to the task as a whole rather than to the single negative outcomes, in contrast to Prospect Theory's loss aversion....... and physiological underpinnings of one of the central topics in judgment and decision-making (JDM) research – choice behavior in decisions from experience. Y&T successfully contributes to this goal by demonstrating a novel effect that losses increase experimental participants’ arousal as measured by pupil...

  13. On the Determination of Magnesium Degradation Rates under Physiological Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidadavolu, Eshwara Phani Shubhakar; Feyerabend, Frank; Ebel, Thomas; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Dahms, Michael

    2016-07-28

    The current physiological in vitro tests of Mg degradation follow the procedure stated according to the ASTM standard. This standard, although useful in predicting the initial degradation behavior of an alloy, has its limitations in interpreting the same for longer periods of immersion in cell culture media. This is an important consequence as the alloy's degradation is time dependent. Even if two different alloys show similar corrosion rates in a short term experiment, their degradation characteristics might differ with increased immersion times. Furthermore, studies concerning Mg corrosion extrapolate the corrosion rate from a single time point measurement to the order of a year (mm/y), which might not be appropriate because of time dependent degradation behavior. In this work, the above issues are addressed and a new methodology of performing long-term immersion tests in determining the degradation rates of Mg alloys was put forth. For this purpose, cast and extruded Mg-2Ag and powder pressed and sintered Mg-0.3Ca alloy systems were chosen. DMEM Glutamax +10% FBS (Fetal Bovine Serum) +1% Penicillin streptomycin was used as cell culture medium. The advantages of such a method in predicting the degradation rates in vivo deduced from in vitro experiments are discussed.

  14. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

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    Richard Sauerheber

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  15. Physiologic conditions affect toxicity of ingested industrial fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  16. Real-time Continuous Assessment Method for Mental and Physiological Condition using Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kiyoko; Ishii, Naohiro

    It is necessary to monitor the daily health condition for preventing stress syndrome. In this study, it was proposed the method assessing the mental and physiological condition, such as the work stress or the relaxation, using heart rate variability at real time and continuously. The instantanuous heart rate (HR), and the ratio of the number of extreme points (NEP) and the number of heart beats were calculated for assessing mental and physiological condition. In this method, 20 beats heart rate were used to calculate these indexes. These were calculated in one beat interval. Three conditions, which are sitting rest, performing mental arithmetic and watching relaxation movie, were assessed using our proposed algorithm. The assessment accuracies were 71.9% and 55.8%, when performing mental arithmetic and watching relaxation movie respectively. In this method, the mental and physiological condition was assessed using only 20 regressive heart beats, so this method is considered as the real time assessment method.

  17. The use of thermovision camera to observe physiological and pathological conditions of oral cavity mucous membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, M.; Dulski, R.; Żmuda, S.; Zaborowski, P.; Pogorzelski, C.

    2002-06-01

    This article presents initial results of investigations of the temperature distribution changes in oral cavity mucous membrane. The investigations aimed to prepare a model of temperature changes existing within mucosal membrane in physiological conditions and to compare those changes with those under pathological conditions. Our investigations were carried out using an infrared imaging system. A representative group of patients was tested.

  18. Host physiological condition regulates parasitic plant performance: Arceuthobium vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum on Pinus ponderosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Christopher P; Kolb, Thomas E; Geils, Brian W

    2005-12-01

    Much research has focused on effects of plant parasites on host-plant physiology and growth, but little is known about effects of host physiological condition on parasite growth. Using the parasitic dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum (Viscaceae) and its host Pinus ponderosa, we investigated whether changes in host physiological condition influenced mistletoe shoot development in northern Arizona forests. We conducted two studies in two consecutive years and used forest thinning (i.e., competitive release) to manipulate host physiological condition. We removed dwarf mistletoe shoots in April, before the onset of the growing season, and measured the amount of regrowth in the first season after forest thinning (Study I: n=38 trees; Study II: n=35 trees). Thinning increased tree uptake of water and carbon in both studies, but had no effect on leaf N concentration or delta13C. Mistletoe shoot growth was greater on trees with high uptake of water and carbon in thinned stands than trees with low uptake in unthinned stands. These findings show that increased resource uptake by host trees increases resources to these heterotrophic dwarf mistletoes, and links mistletoe performance to changes in host physiological condition.

  19. Habitat and sex differences in physiological condition of breeding Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, J.C.; Sogge, M.K.; Kern, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; here- after “flycatcher”) is a federally listed endangered species that breeds in densely vegetated riparian habitats dominated by native and exotic plants, including introduced monotypic saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima). Some workers have theorized that saltcedar is unsuitable habitat for the flycatcher, primarily because it generally supports a smaller and less diverse invertebrate community (the flycatcher's food base) than native habitats (e.g. Salix spp.). However, differences in insect communities between native and saltcedar habitats are not proof that saltcedar habitats are inferior. The only way to evaluate whether the habitats differ in dietary or energetic quality is to document actual food limitation or its manifestations. Measurements of an individual's body condition and metabolic state can serve as indicators of environmental stressors, such as food limitation and environmental extremes. We captured 130 flycatchers breeding in native and saltcedar habitats in Arizona and New Mexico and measured 12 variables of physiological condition. These variables included body mass, fat level, body condition index, hematocrit, plasma triglycerides, plasma free fatty acids and glycerol, plasma glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate, plasma uric acid, total leukocyte count, and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. We found substantial sex-based differences in the condition of male and female flycatchers. Ten of the 12 measures of physiological condition differed significantly between the sexes. In all cases where male and female condition differed (except mass), the differences suggest that males were in poorer condition than females. We found few habitat-based differences in flycatcher condition. Only 3 of the 12 physiological condition indices differed significantly between habitats. Our data show that, at least in some parts of the flycatcher's range, there is no evidence that flycatchers breeding in

  20. Effects of Ionizing Irradiation on Mushrooms as Influenced by Physiological and Environmental Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder; Bech, K.; Lundsten, K.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of irradiation with β (10 MeV fast electrons)- and γ-rays were studied on several characters in strains of the cultured mushroom under different physiological and environmental conditions, including uncut and cut mushrooms, tightness of packing, and relative humidity. Weight loss was ...

  1. Role of hypoxia and hypoxia inducible factor in physiological and pathological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Jahani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organisms are exposed to oxygen deprivation (Hypoxia in various physiological and pathological conditions. There are different conserve evolutionary responses to counterview with this stress that primary transcriptional response to stress related to hypoxia is interceded by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1 in mammals. This factor can regulate different genes that have essential roles in adaptation to this condition. In this review, the role of this factor in physiological and pathological conditions under hypoxic condition has been evaluated after examining structural features and regulation characteristics of HIF-1. Methods: First, articles related to the keywords of hypoxia and HIF-1 (from 1991-2016 were searched from valid databases such as Springer Link, Google Scholar, PubMed and Science direct. Then, the articles correlated with hypoxia, HIF-1 and their roles in physiological and pathological conditions (120 articles were searched and just 64 articles were selected for this study. Result: According to studies, there are different genes in cells and organs that can be regulated by HIF-1. Activation of genes expression by this protein occurs through its linkage to cis-acting of 50 base pair hypoxia response element (HRE region located in their promotor and enhancer. Depending on circumstances, activation of these genes can be beneficial or harmful. Conclusion: Activation of different genes in hypoxia by HIF-1 has different effects on physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, HIF-1, as a hypoxia-inducible factor in hypoxic conditions, plays an essential role in the adaptation of cells and organs to changes related to the presence of oxygen.

  2. Comparative study; physiological and biochemical parameters of normal and induced dehydrated condition of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, S.; Bukhari, I.

    2008-01-01

    Biochemical and physiological parameters like body weight, blood pH. Blood glucose, total lipids total protein, globulin, albumin and albumin/globulin ratio were determined in twelve rabbits each normal and after the induction of diseased condition i.e. dehydration. Statistically significant differences were identified when the comparison made between normal rabbits and their respective dehydrated group. Blood glucose total lipid packed cell. Volume and globulin increased significantly where where as body weight, albumin and albumin/globulin ratio decreased significantly. These differences in the physiological and biochemical parameters in disease induced condition require the necessity for analyzing this condition for the changes in the pharmacokinetics parameter like, absorption distribution metabolism and excretion leading to alteration in the pharmacokinetics of drug. (author)

  3. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY QUALITIES OF MAIZE LANDRACE SEEDS STORED UNDER TWO CONDITIONS

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    Raquel Stefanello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of seed quality during the storage period depends not only on the conditions during production and harvesting but also on the storage and maintenance of appropriate storage product conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological and sanitary qualities of maize landrace seeds stored under two conditions. The maize seed batch varieties Oito carreiras, Cabo roxo and Lombo baio were used. Tests included germination, first count, cold test, accelerated aging and sanity. Based on the results it was concluded that the physiological quality of these seed varieties decreased with the storage period. The major fungi identified in the maize seeds during storage were from the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium, which caused deterioration and reduction of the physiological quality. Storage using a paper bag at a temperature of 10 °C did not prevent the deterioration of maize seeds but was more effective at preserving the quality of the seed compared with a plastic bag at room temperature.

  4. Salt- and pH-Triggered Helix-Coil Transition of Ionic Polypeptides under Physiology Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jingsong; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Yue; Cai, Zhicheng; Yang, Lijiang; Lu, Hua

    2018-06-11

    Controlling the helix-coil transition of polypeptides under physiological conditions is an attractive way toward smart functional materials. Here, we report the synthesis of a series of tertiary amine-functionalized ethylene glycol (EG x )-linked polypeptide electrolytes with their secondary structures tunable under physiological conditions. The resultant polymers, denoted as P(EG x DMA-Glu) ( x = 1, 2, and 3), show excellent aqueous solubility (>20 mg/mL) regardless of their charge states. Unlike poly-l-lysine that can form a helix only at pH above 10, P(EG x DMA-Glu) undergo a pH-dependent helix-coil switch with their transition points within the physiological range (pH ∼5.3-6.5). Meanwhile, P(EG x DMA-Glu) exhibit an unusual salt-induced helical conformation presumably owing to the unique properties of EG x linkers. Together, the current work highlights the importance of fine-tuning the linker chemistry in achieving conformation-switchable polypeptides and represents a facile approach toward stimuli-responsive biopolymers for advanced biological applications.

  5. Effect of Propolis Oral Intake on Physiological Condition of Young Worker Honey Bees, Apis Mellifera L.

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    Damiani Natalia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees collect resin from various plant species and transform it into propolis that is incorporated into the nest. The role of resins in the bee health field is poorly understood. The aim was to evaluate the effects of forced consumption of propolis on the physiological condition and short-term survival of Apis mellifera worker bees. It was tested if the number of circulating hemocytes in hemolymph, the abdominal fat bodies and the hypopharyngeal glands development were affected by the feeding with propolis extracts in laboratory conditions during the warm and the cold seasons. Propolis added to sugar candy was consumed by workers for fourteen days without affecting the bee survival. The number of circulating hemocytes in hemolymph remained constant despite the differential diet during the experiment. However, the development of fat bodies and hypopharyngeal glands was altered by propolis ingestion. The abdominal fat body development in winter bees diminished after fourteen days of propolis consumption, while it increased in summer bees. The hypopharyngeal gland development decreased for the assayed period in workers from both seasons. Our results encourage us to continue exploring this research field and learn how long-term forced ingestion of a plant-derived compound, a non-nutritive substance, can modify physiological bee parameters. A broader understanding of the multiple roles of propolis in the health of the honey bee colonies could be obtained by studying the ways in which it is processed and metabolized and the effect that generates in another physiological responses.

  6. Physiological basis of barley yield under near optimal and stress conditions

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    Pržulj Novo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Average barley yield fall below its potential due to incidence of stresses. Water stress is the main environmental factor limiting yield. The component a priori more sensitive to most stresses is the amount of radiation absorbed. The effect of stresses influence on the total amount of radiation absorbed by barley crop during its vegetation and the photosynthetic efficiency of radiation conversion. Growth inhibition is accompanied by reductions in leaf and cell wall extensibility. Grain yield under drought conditions is source limited. Supply of assimilates to the developing inflorescence plays a critical role in establishing final grain number and grain size. Grain weight is negatively affected by drought, high temperature, and any other factors that may reduce grain filling duration and grain filling rate. Awns and glaucousness confer better performance of barley under drought stress conditions. Barley responds with an increased accumulation of a number of proteins when subjected to different stress inducing cell dehydration. Screening techniques that are able to identify desirable genotypes based on the evaluation of physiological traits related to stress evasion and stress resistance maybe useful in breeding barley for resistance to stress, particularly drought stress. Crop management and breeding can reduce the incidence of stress on yield. The effect of these practices is sustained by an understanding of their physiology. In this paper the physiological basis of the processes determining barley yield and the incidence of stresses on photosynthetic metabolism that determine grain yield of barley is discussed. .

  7. Chemical method of labelling proteins with the radionuclides of technetium at physiological condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    A novel rapid chemical method of labeling plasma proteins, other compounds and/or substances containing protein with radionuclides of technetium such as sup(95m)Tc, sup(99m)Tc or sup(99)Tc at physiologic pH 7.4 condition, producing a sterile non-pyrogenic radioactive tracer material suitable for biological and medical uses. These radiolabeled protein substances are not denatured by the labeling process but retain their natural physiological and immunological properties. This novel labeling technique provides a simple and rapid means of labeling plasma proteins such as human serum albumin, fibrinogen, antibodies, hormones and enzymes with sup(95m)Tc or sup(99m)Tc for scintigraphic imaging which may allow visualization of thrombi, emboli, myocardial infarcts, infectious lesions or tumors

  8. Dynamics of food availability, body condition and physiological stress response in breeding Black-legged Kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, John F.

    1999-01-01

    1. The seasonal dynamics of body condition (BC), circulating corticosterone levels (baseline, BL) and the adrenocortical response to acute stress (SR) were examined in long-lived Black-legged Kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, breeding at Duck (food-poor colony) and Gull (food-rich colony) Islands in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska. It was tested whether the dynamics of corticosterone levels reflect a seasonal change in bird physiological condition due to reproduction and/or variation in foraging conditions. 2. BC declined seasonally, and the decline was more pronounced in birds at the food-poor colony. BL and SR levels of corticosterone rose steadily through the reproductive season, and BL levels were significantly higher in birds on Duck island compared with those on Gull Island. During the egg-laying and chick-rearing stages, birds had lower SR on Duck Island than on Gull Island. 3. The results suggest that, in addition to a seasonal change in bird physiology during reproduction, local ecological factors such as food availability affect circulating levels of corticosterone and adrenal response to acute stress.

  9. Interactions between sleep, stress, and metabolism: From physiological to pathological conditions

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    Camila Hirotsu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor sleep quality due to sleep disorders and sleep loss is highly prevalent in the modern society. Underlying mechanisms show that stress is involved in the relationship between sleep and metabolism through hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis activation. Sleep deprivation and sleep disorders are associated with maladaptive changes in the HPA axis, leading to neuroendocrine dysregulation. Excess of glucocorticoids increase glucose and insulin and decrease adiponectin levels. Thus, this review provides overall view of the relationship between sleep, stress, and metabolism from basic physiology to pathological conditions, highlighting effective treatments for metabolic disturbances.

  10. Effects of acclimation on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 pallid sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, E.W.; Guy, C.S.; Cureton, E.S.; Webb, M.A.H.; Gardner, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to flow and site-specific physicochemical water conditions on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 hatchery-reared pallid sturgeon. Fish from three acclimation treatments were radio-tagged, released at two locations (Missouri River and Marias River), and monitored using passive telemetry stations. Marias treatment was acclimated to flow and site-specific physicochemical conditions, Bozeman treatment was acclimated to flow only, and controls had no acclimation (reared under traditional conservation propagation protocol). During both years, fish released in the Missouri River dispersed less than fish released in the Marias River. In 2005, Marias treatment dispersed less and nearly twice as many fish remained in the Missouri River reach as compared to control fish. In 2006, pallid sturgeon dispersed similarly among treatments and the number of fish remaining in the Missouri River reach was similar among all treatments. Differences in poststocking dispersal between years were related to fin curl which was present in all fish in 2005 and only 26% in 2006. Pallid sturgeon from all treatments in both years had a greater affinity for the lower reaches of the Missouri River than the upper reaches. Thus, release site influenced poststocking dispersal more than acclimation treatment. No difference was observed in relative growth rate among treatments. However, acclimation to flow (i.e., exercise conditioning) prevented fat accumulation from rupturing hepatocytes. Acclimation conditions used in this study did not benefit pallid sturgeon unless physiological maladies were present. Overriding all treatment effects was stocking location; thus, natural resource agencies need to consider stocking location carefully to reduce poststocking dispersal. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  11. Life under Multiple Extreme Conditions: Diversity and Physiology of the Halophilic Alkalithermophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegel, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Around the world, there are numerous alkaline, hypersaline environments that are heated either geothermally or through intense solar radiation. It was once thought that such harsh environments were inhospitable and incapable of supporting a variety of life. However, numerous culture-dependent and -independent studies revealed the presence of an extensive diversity of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and archaea that survive and grow under these multiple harsh conditions. This diversity includes the halophilic alkalithermophiles, a novel group of polyextremophiles that require for growth and proliferation the multiple extremes of high salinity, alkaline pH, and elevated temperature. Life under these conditions undoubtedly involves the development of unique physiological characteristics, phenotypic properties, and adaptive mechanisms that enable control of membrane permeability, control of intracellular osmotic balance, and stability of the cell wall, intracellular proteins, and other cellular constituents. This minireview highlights the ecology and growth characteristics of the extremely halophilic alkalithermophiles that have been isolated thus far. Biochemical, metabolic, and physiological properties of the extremely halophilic alkalithermophiles are described, and their roles in resistance to the combined stressors of high salinity, alkaline pH, and high temperature are discussed. The isolation of halophilic alkalithermophiles broadens the physicochemical boundaries for life and extends the boundaries for the combinations of the maximum salinity, pH, and temperature that can support microbial growth. PMID:22492435

  12. Custom AFM for X-ray beamlines: in situ biological investigations under physiological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumí-Audenis, B. [ESRF, The European Synchrotron, Grenoble (France); Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Barcelona (Spain); Physical Chemistry Department, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Networking Biomedical Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Madrid (Spain); Carlà, F. [ESRF, The European Synchrotron, Grenoble (France); Vitorino, M. V. [University of Lisboa, Falculty of Science, Biosystems and Integrative Sciences Institute - BIOISI, Lisbon (Portugal); Panzarella, A. [ESRF, The European Synchrotron, Grenoble (France); Porcar, L. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Boilot, M. [ORTEC, Marseille (France); Guerber, S. [CEA, LETI Grenoble (France); Bernard, P. [ESRF, The European Synchrotron, Grenoble (France); Rodrigues, M. S. [University of Lisboa, Falculty of Science, Biosystems and Integrative Sciences Institute - BIOISI, Lisbon (Portugal); Sanz, F.; Giannotti, M. I. [Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Barcelona (Spain); Physical Chemistry Department, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Networking Biomedical Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Madrid (Spain); Costa, L., E-mail: luca.costa@esrf.fr [ESRF, The European Synchrotron, Grenoble (France)

    2015-09-30

    The performance of a custom atomic force microscope for grazing-incidence X-ray experiments on hydrated soft and biological samples is presented. A fast atomic force microscope (AFM) has been developed that can be installed as a sample holder for grazing-incidence X-ray experiments at solid/gas or solid/liquid interfaces. It allows a wide range of possible investigations, including soft and biological samples under physiological conditions (hydrated specimens). The structural information obtained using the X-rays is combined with the data gathered with the AFM (morphology and mechanical properties), providing a unique characterization of the specimen and its dynamics in situ during an experiment. In this work, lipid monolayers and bilayers in air or liquid environment have been investigated by means of AFM, both with imaging and force spectroscopy, and X-ray reflectivity. In addition, this combination allows the radiation damage induced by the beam on the sample to be studied, as has been observed on DOPC and DPPC supported lipid bilayers under physiological conditions.

  13. Survival, physical and physiological changes of Taenia hydatigena eggs under different conditions of water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Thevenet, Paula; Alvarez, Hector Manuel; Basualdo, Juan Angel

    2017-06-01

    Taenia hydatigena eggs were investigated for morphological and physiological changes under water stress conditions. Fresh eggs were exposed at 31%, 47% and 89% of relative humidity (RH), and survival, size and ultrastructural changes were accounted up to 365 days of exposition. The article shows how each RH environment affects the vitality of the eggs. Results of this study suggest that T. hydatigena eggs have mechanisms to withstand water stress, indicating that the eggs clustering improves protection against desiccation, and that endogenous metabolism using triacylglycerols play an important role in the maintenance of embryo vitality under low, medium and high relative humidity conditions. This contributes to understanding the water stress resistance mechanism in eggs belonging to Taeniidae family. The findings shown herein have provided a basis to better comprehend basic biology and epidemiology of the cysticercosis caused by T. hydatigena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. NMR spectroscopic studies of intrinsically disordered proteins at near-physiological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, S.; Kummerle, S.; Hosek, T.; Pierattelli, R.; Felli, I.C.; Solyom, Z.; Brutscher, B.

    2013-01-01

    We have shown here that 13 C-start 13 -C detected experiments do not suffer from fast hydrogen exchange between amide and solvent protons in IDP samples studied at close to physiological conditions, thus enabling us to recover information that would be difficult or even impossible to obtain through amide 1 H-detected experiments. Furthermore, in favourable cases the fast hydrogen exchange rates can even be turned into a spectroscopic advantage. By combining longitudinal 1 H relaxation optimized BEST-type techniques with 13 C-direct detection pulse schemes, important sensitivity improvements can be achieved, and experimental times can be significantly reduced. This opens up new applications for monitoring chemical shift changes in IDPs upon interaction to a binding partner, chemical modification, or by changing the environment, under sample conditions that were inaccessible by conventional techniques. (authors)

  15. Physiological and subjective responses in the elderly when using floor heating and air conditioning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Tochihara, Yutaka; Ohnaka, Tadakatsu; Tsuchida, Chiaki; Otsuki, Tamio

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a floor heating and air conditioning system on thermal responses of the elderly. Eight elderly men and eight university students sat for 90 minutes in a chair under the following 3 conditions: air conditioning system (A), floor heating system (F) and no heating system (C). The air temperature of sitting head height for condition A was 25 degrees C, and the maximum difference in vertical air temperature was 4 degrees C. The air and floor temperature for condition F were 21 and 29 degrees C, respectively. The air temperature for condition C was 15 degrees C. There were no significant differences in rectal temperature and mean skin temperature between condition A and F. Systolic blood pressure of the elderly men in condition C significantly increased compared to those in condition A and F. No significant differences in systolic blood pressure between condition A and F were found. The percentage of subjects who felt comfortable under condition F was higher than that of those under condition A in both age groups, though the differences between condition F and A was not significant. Relationships between thermal comfort and peripheral (e.g., instep, calf, hand) skin temperature, and the relationship between thermal comfort and leg thermal sensation were significant for both age groups. However, the back and chest skin temperature and back thermal sensation for the elderly, in contrast to that for the young, was not significantly related to thermal comfort. These findings suggested that thermal responses and physiological strain using the floor heating system did not significantly differ from that using the air conditioning system, regardless of the subject age and despite the fact that the air temperature with the floor heating system was lower. An increase in BP for elderly was observed under the condition in which the air temperature was 15 degrees C, and it was suggested that it was necessary for the elderly

  16. Enhanced desorption of persistent organic pollutants from microplastics under simulated physiological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Microplastics have the potential to uptake and release persistent organic pollutants (POPs); however, subsequent transfer to marine organisms is poorly understood. Some models estimating transfer of sorbed contaminants to organisms neglect the role of gut surfactants under differing physiological conditions in the gut (varying pH and temperature), examined here. We investigated the potential for polyvinylchloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE) to sorb and desorb 14 C-DDT, 14 C-phenanthrene (Phe), 14 C-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 14 C-di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Desorption rates of POPs were quantified in seawater and under simulated gut conditions. Influence of pH and temperature was examined in order to represent cold and warm blooded organisms. Desorption rates were faster with gut surfactant, with a further substantial increase under conditions simulating warm blooded organisms. Desorption under gut conditions could be up to 30 times greater than in seawater alone. Of the POP/plastic combinations examined Phe with PE gave the highest potential for transport to organisms. Highlights: • PVC and PE (200–250 μm) were able to sorb phenanthrene, DDT, PFOA and DEHP. • Desorption rates were faster using a gut surfactant compared to seawater alone. • Desorption rates were further enhanced at lower pH and higher temperature. • Plastic-POPs were ranked according to their potential to cause “harm”. -- Desorption rates of sorbed POPs from plastics were substantially enhanced under gut conditions specific of warm blooded organisms, suggesting potential transfer following ingestion

  17. A physiological model for the investigation of esophageal motility in healthy and pathologic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniel, Emanuele Luigi; Frigo, Alessandro; Costantini, Mario; Giuliani, Tommaso; Nicoletti, Loredana; Merigliano, Stefano; Natali, Arturo N

    2016-07-15

    Recent technological advances in esophageal manometry allowed the definition of new classification methods for the diagnosis of disorders of esophageal motility and the implementation of innovative computational tools for the autonomic, reliable and unbiased detection of different disorders. Computational models can be developed aiming to interpret the mechanical behavior and functionality of the gastrointestinal tract and to summarize the results from clinical measurements, as high-resolution manometry pressure plots, into model parameters. A physiological model was here developed to interpret data from esophageal high-resolution manometry. Such model accounts for parameters related to specific physiological properties of the biological structures involved in the peristaltic mechanism. The identification of model parameters was performed by minimizing the discrepancy between clinical data from high-resolution manometry and model results. Clinical data were collected from both healthy volunteers (n = 35) and patients with different motor disorders, such as achalasia patterns 1 (n = 13), 2 (n = 20) and 3 (n = 5), distal esophageal spasm (n = 69), esophago-gastric junction outflow obstruction (n = 25), nutcracker esophagus (n = 11) and normal motility (n = 42). The physiological model that was formulated in this work can properly explain high-resolution manometry data, as confirmed by the evaluation of the coefficient of determination R 2  = 0.83 - 0.96. The study finally led to identify the statistical distributions of model parameters for each healthy or pathologic conditions considered, addressing the applicability of the achieved results for the implementation of autonomic diagnosis procedures to support the medical staff during the traditional diagnostic process. © IMechE 2016.

  18. Effect of Salicylic Acid on the Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Maize under Stress Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoor, K.; Ilyas, N.; Batool, N.; Arshad, M.; Ahmad, B.

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a naturally occurring signaling molecule and growth regulator that enhances plant growth particularly in stress conditions. The present study was planned to evaluate the effects of different levels of SA on maize growth under drought and salt stress conditions. An experiment was conducted to test the morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in two cultivar of maize D-1184 and TG-8250. Varying levels of salicylic acid, i.e. 5mM, 10mM and 15mM were applied through foliar method. Exogenous applications of salicylic acid were done after 20 days of germination of the maize plants. Salicylic acid significantly affects root and shoot dry matter under drought and salt stress. Foliar application of SA significantly increased proline concentration (11 percentage and 12 percentage), amino acid accumulation (25 percentage and 18 percentage), relative water (17 percentage and 14 percentage) and Chlorophyll content. Overall, it can be concluded that SA at lower concentration is effective to minimize the effect of stress conditions. Maize cultivar TG-8250 showed better tolerance under drought and salt stress condition as compared to D-1184 cultivar. (author)

  19. Physiological responses to ocean acidification and warming synergistically reduce condition of the common cockle Cerastoderma edule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, E Z; Briffa, M; Moens, T; Van Colen, C

    2017-09-01

    The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming on the common cockle Cerastoderma edule was investigated in a fully crossed laboratory experiment. Survival of the examined adult organisms remained high and was not affected by elevated temperature (+3 °C) or lowered pH (-0.3 units). However, the morphometric condition index of the cockles incubated under high pCO 2 conditions (i.e. combined warming and acidification) was significantly reduced after six weeks of incubation. Respiration rates increased significantly under low pH, with highest rates measured under combined warm and low pH conditions. Calcification decreased significantly under low pH while clearance rates increased significantly under warm conditions and were generally lower in low pH treatments. The observed physiological responses suggest that the reduced food intake under hypercapnia is insufficient to support the higher energy requirements to compensate for the higher costs for basal maintenance and growth in future high pCO 2 waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synchronized mammalian cell culture: part I--a physical strategy for synchronized cultivation under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradas, Oscar Platas; Jandt, Uwe; Becker, Max; Bahnemann, Janina; Pörtner, Ralf; Zeng, An-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Conventional analysis and optimization procedures of mammalian cell culture processes mostly treat the culture as a homogeneous population. Hence, the focus is on cell physiology and metabolism, cell line development, and process control strategy. Impact on cultivations caused by potential variations in cellular properties between different subpopulations, however, has not yet been evaluated systematically. One main cause for the formation of such subpopulations is the progress of all cells through the cell cycle. The interaction of potential cell cycle specific variations in the cell behavior with large-scale process conditions can be optimally determined by means of (partially) synchronized cultivations, with subsequent population resolved model analysis. Therefore, it is desirable to synchronize a culture with minimal perturbation, which is possible with different yield and quality using physical selection methods, but not with frequently used chemical or whole-culture methods. Conventional nonsynchronizing methods with subsequent cell-specific, for example, flow cytometric analysis, can only resolve cell-limited effects of the cell cycle. In this work, we demonstrate countercurrent-flow centrifugal elutriation as a useful physical method to enrich mammalian cell populations within different phases of a cell cycle, which can be further cultivated for synchronized growth in bioreactors under physiological conditions. The presented combined approach contrasts with other physical selection methods especially with respect to the achievable yield, which makes it suitable for bioreactor scale cultivations. As shown with two industrial cell lines (CHO-K1 and human AGE1.HN), synchronous inocula can be obtained with overall synchrony degrees of up to 82% in the G1 phase, 53% in the S phase and 60% in the G2/M phase, with enrichment factors (Ysync) of 1.71, 1.79, and 4.24 respectively. Cells are able to grow with synchrony in bioreactors over several cell cycles. This

  1. Plasticity in physiological condition of female brown bears across diverse ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderbrand, Grant V.; Gustine, David; Mangipane, Buck A.; Joly, Kyle; Leacock, William; Mangipane, Lindsey; Erlenbach, Joy; Sorum, Mathew; Cameron, Matthew; Belant, Jerrold L.; Cambier, Troy

    2018-01-01

    Variation in life history strategies facilitates the near global distribution of mammals by expanding realized niche width. We investigated physiological plasticity in the spring body composition of adult female brown bears (Ursus arctos) across 4 diverse Alaskan ecosystems. Brown bears are a highly intelligent omnivore with a historic range spanning much of North America, Europe, and Asia. We hypothesized that body mass, fat mass, lean mass, and total caloric content would increase across populations with increasing food resource availability. Throughout their range, brown bears enter a period of torpor during winter months, decreasing their metabolic rate as an adaptation to this period of reduced food availability. They also give birth to and nourish offspring during this time. Due to this specific life history strategy, we further hypothesized that proportional body fat and the proportion of total calories derived from fat would be consistent across populations. Our results supported our first hypothesis: body, fat, and lean masses, and caloric content of bears across populations increased with the quality and abundance of available food. However, the proportional body fat content and proportion of calories from fat differed across populations indicating population-specific strategies to meet the demands of reduced seasonal food availability, offspring production and rearing, and climate as well as some plasticity to respond to environmental change or ecosystem perturbations. Investigations of body condition and energetics benefit from combined assessments of absolute, proportional, and caloric metrics to understand the nuances of brown bear physiological dynamics across and within populations.

  2. Anatomic and physiological modifications in seedlings of Coffea arabica cultivar Siriema under drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelle Ferreira Melo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the weather changes prognostic for the coming years, the understanding of water deficit and physiological responses of plants to drought becomes an important requirement in order to develop technologies such as mechanisms to assist plants to cope with longer drought periods, which will be essential to maintenance of Brazilian and worldwide production. This study aimed to evaluate ecophysiological and anatomical aspects as well as the nitrate reductase activity in Siriema coffee seedlings subjected to four treatments: Daily irrigated, non-irrigated, re-irrigated 24 hours and re-irrigated 48 hours after different stress periods. Non-irrigation promoted a reduction in leaf water potential being accented from the ninth day of evaluation onwards. Re-irrigation promoted a partial recovery of the plant water potential. Non-irrigated plants showed an increase in stomatal resistance and reduction of transpiration and nitrate reductase activity. In the roots, there was a decrease in nitrate reductase activity under water stress. Leaf anatomical modifications were significant only for the adaxial surface epidermis and palisade parenchyma thickness, this latter characteristic being higher in control plants. Stomatal density and polar and equatorial diameter ratios showed the highest values in plants under water stress. In the roots, differences only in the cortex thickness being bigger in the non-irrigated treatment could be observed. Therefore, Siriema coffee plants under water stress show physiological, biochemical and anatomical modifications that contribute to the tolerance of this genotype to these conditions.

  3. Biochemical and physiological characterization of three rice cultivars under different daytime temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alefsi David Sanchez-Reinoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress due to high daytime temperatures is one of the main limiting factors in rice (Oryza sativa L. yield in Colombia. Thus, the objective of the present research was to analyze the effect of three different daytime temperatures (25, 35, and 40 °C on the physiological responses of three Colombian rice cultivars (F60, F733, and F473, thereby contributing to the knowledge of rice acclimation mechanisms. For 10 d, eight plants of each of the three cultivars were subjected daily to 5 h periods of 35 and 40 °C. The control treatment corresponded to normal growth conditions (25 °C. Thermal stress was assessed based on a series of physiological and biochemical parameters. The 35 °C treatment produced photosynthetic and respiratory differences in all three cultivars. At 40 °C, 'F60' displayed the lowest photosynthetic rate and the highest respiratory rate. Although this cultivar experienced particularly strong electrolyte leakage and changes in proline when subjected to the high-temperature treatments, similar trends were observed in 'F733' and 'F473'. At 40 °C, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA was lower in 'F473' than in the other cultivars. These results may explain the poor agronomic performance of 'F60' in the field under daytime heat stress. The methodologies employed in the present work may be useful in Colombian rice breeding programs, particularly for the selection of heat-tolerant breeding stocks.

  4. Early Developmental Conditioning of Later Health and Disease: Physiology or Pathophysiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, M. A.; Gluckman, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive experimental animal studies and epidemiological observations have shown that environmental influences during early development affect the risk of later pathophysiological processes associated with chronic, especially noncommunicable, disease (NCD). This field is recognized as the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD). We discuss the extent to which DOHaD represents the result of the physiological processes of developmental plasticity, which may have potential adverse consequences in terms of NCD risk later, or whether it is the manifestation of pathophysiological processes acting in early life but only becoming apparent as disease later. We argue that the evidence suggests the former, through the operation of conditioning processes induced across the normal range of developmental environments, and we summarize current knowledge of the physiological processes involved. The adaptive pathway to later risk accords with current concepts in evolutionary developmental biology, especially those concerning parental effects. Outside the normal range, effects on development can result in nonadaptive processes, and we review their underlying mechanisms and consequences. New concepts concerning the underlying epigenetic and other mechanisms involved in both disruptive and nondisruptive pathways to disease are reviewed, including the evidence for transgenerational passage of risk from both maternal and paternal lines. These concepts have wider implications for understanding the causes and possible prevention of NCDs such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, for broader social policy and for the increasing attention paid in public health to the lifecourse approach to NCD prevention. PMID:25287859

  5. Proton-coupled electron transfer promotes the reduction of ferrylmyoglobin by uric acid under physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zawadzki, Andressa; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2017-01-01

    The hypervalent muscle pigment ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)]O, is not reduced by urate monoanions at physiological conditions despite a strong driving force of around 30 kJ mol1 while for low pH, uric acid was found to reduce protonated ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)]O,H+, efficiently in a bimolecular...... reaction with k1 ¼ 1.1 0.1 103 L mol1 s1, DH‡ ¼ 66.1 0.1 kJ mol1 and DS‡ ¼ 35.2 0.2 J mol1 K1. For intermediate pH, like for anaerobic muscles and for meat, proton-oupled electron transfer occurs in a transition state, {MbFe(IV)]O/H+/urate}‡, which is concluded to be formed from uric acid and Mb...... in uric acid concentration may serve as an inherent protection against radical formation by ferrylmyoglobin...

  6. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Express Type 1 Fimbriae Only in Surface Adherent Populations Under Physiological Growth Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærk, Kristian; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Khandige, Surabhi

    2016-01-01

    were correlated with the ability to adhere to and invade cultured human bladder cells. RESULTS:  Although inactive during planktonic growth in urine, T1F expression occurs when UPEC settles on and infects bladder epithelial cells or colonizes catheters. As a result, UPEC in these sessile populations...... with increased expression during surface growth adaptation and infection of uroepithelial cells. This leads to separation of UPEC into low-expression planktonic populations and high-expression sessile populations....... enhances bladder cell adhesion and invasion potential. Only T1F-negative UPEC are subsequently released to the urine, thus limiting T1F expression to surface-associated UPEC alone. CONCLUSION:  Our results demonstrate that T1F expression is strictly regulated under physiological growth conditions...

  7. Physiological responses to variations in grazing and light conditions in native and invasive fucoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarria, Celia; Arenas, Francisco; Fernández, Ángela; Troncoso, Jesús S; Martínez, Brezo

    2018-08-01

    Poor physiological acclimatization to climate change has led to shifts in the distributional ranges of various species and to biodiversity loss. However, evidence also suggests the relevance of non-climatic physical factors, such as light, and biotic factors, which may act in interactive or additive way. We used a mechanistic approach to evaluate the ecophysiological responses of four seaweed species (three dominant intertidal fucoids, Fucus serratus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Bifurcaria bifurcata, and the invasive Sargassum muticum) to different conditions of grazing, light irradiance and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. We performed a large-scale mesocosm experiment with a total of 800 individual thalli of macroalgae. The factorial experimental design included major algal traits, photoacclimation, nutrient stoichiometry and chemical defence as response variables. Few significant effects of the factors acting alone or in combination were observed, suggesting a good capacity for acclimatization in all four species. The significant effects were generally additive and there were no potentially deleterious synergistic effects between factors. Fucus serratus, a species currently undergoing a drastic contraction of its southern distribution limit in Europe, was the most strongly affected species, showing overall lower photosynthetic efficiency than the other species. The growth rate of F. serratus decreased when UV radiation was filtered out, but only in the presence of grazers. Moreover, more individuals of this species tended to reach maturity in the absence of grazers, and the nitrogen content of tissues decreased under full-spectrum light. Only the phlorotannin content of tissues of B. bifurcata and of exudates of A. nodosum, both slow-growing species, were positively affected by respectively removal of UVB radiation and the presence of grazers. The findings for S. muticum, a well-established invasive seaweed across European coasts, suggested similar physiological response of

  8. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus P Deikumah

    Full Text Available Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  9. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  10. The Relationship between Human Operators' Psycho-physiological Condition and Human Errors in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Arryum; Jang, Inseok; Kang, Hyungook; Seong, Poonghyun

    2013-01-01

    The safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is substantially dependent on the performance of the human operators who operate the systems. In this environment, human errors caused by inappropriate performance of operator have been considered to be critical since it may lead serious problems in the safety-critical plants. In order to provide meaningful insights to prevent human errors and enhance the human performance, operators' physiological conditions such as stress and workload have been investigated. Physiological measurements were considered as reliable tools to assess the stress and workload. T. Q. Tran et al. and J. B. Brooking et al pointed out that operators' workload can be assessed using eye tracking, galvanic skin response, electroencephalograms (EEGs), heart rate, respiration and other measurements. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the human operators' tense level and knowledge level to the number of human errors. For this study, the experiments were conducted in the mimic of the main control rooms (MCR) in NPP. It utilized the compact nuclear simulator (CNS) which is modeled based on the three loop Pressurized Water Reactor, 993MWe, Kori unit 3 and 4 in Korea and the subjects were asked to follow the tasks described in the emergency operating procedures (EOP). During the simulation, three kinds of physiological measurement were utilized; Electrocardiogram (ECG), EEG and nose temperature. Also, subjects were divided into three groups based on their knowledge of the plant operation. The result shows that subjects who are tense make fewer errors. In addition, subjects who are in higher knowledge level tend to be tense and make fewer errors. For the ECG data, subjects who make fewer human errors tend to be located in higher tense level area of high SNS activity and low PSNS activity. The results of EEG data are also similar to ECG result. Beta power ratio of subjects who make fewer errors was higher. Since beta power ratio is

  11. Corticotropin-releasing factor: effect on cerebral blood flow in physiologic and ischaemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Michele, Manuela; Touzani, Omar; Foster, Alan C; Fieschi, Cesare; Sette, Giuliano; McCulloch, James

    2005-09-01

    The expression of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors in cerebral arteries and arterioles suggests that CRF may modulate cerebral blood flow (CBF). In the present study, the effects of CRF, CRF-like peptides and the CRF broad spectrum antagonist DPhe-CRF on CBF have been investigated under normal physiologic conditions and in the margins of focal ischaemic insult. The experiments were carried out in anaesthetised and ventilated rats. Changes in CBF after subarachnoid microapplication of CRF and related peptides were assessed with a laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) probe. In the ischaemic animals, agents were injected approximately 60 minutes after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Microapplication of CRF and related peptides in normal rats into the subarachnoid space produced sustained concentration-dependent increases in CBF. This effect was attenuated by co-application with DPhe-CRF, which did not alter CBF itself. A second microapplication of CRF 30 min after the first failed to produce increases in CBF in normal animals. Microapplication of CRF in the subarachnoid space overlying the ischaemic cortex effected minor increases in CBF whereas D-Phe-CRF had no significant effect on CBF. Activation of the CRF peptidergic system increases CBF in the rat. Repeated activation of CRF receptors results in tachyphylaxis of the vasodilator response. CRF vasodilator response is still present after MCAo in the ischaemic penumbra, suggesting that the CRF peptidergic system may modulate CBF in ischaemic stroke.

  12. A modular open platform for systematic functional studies under physiological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Christopher B.; Smets, Martha; Schmidtmann, Elisabeth; Leidescher, Susanne; Markaki, Yolanda; Hofweber, Mario; Qin, Weihua; Manzo, Massimiliano; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Thanisch, Katharina; Bauer, Christina; Rombaut, Pascaline; Herzog, Franz; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Bultmann, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Any profound comprehension of gene function requires detailed information about the subcellular localization, molecular interactions and spatio-temporal dynamics of gene products. We developed a multifunctional integrase (MIN) tag for rapid and versatile genome engineering that serves not only as a genetic entry site for the Bxb1 integrase but also as a novel epitope tag for standardized detection and precipitation. For the systematic study of epigenetic factors, including Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Tet1, Tet2, Tet3 and Uhrf1, we generated MIN-tagged embryonic stem cell lines and created a toolbox of prefabricated modules that can be integrated via Bxb1-mediated recombination. We used these functional modules to study protein interactions and their spatio-temporal dynamics as well as gene expression and specific mutations during cellular differentiation and in response to external stimuli. Our genome engineering strategy provides a versatile open platform for efficient generation of multiple isogenic cell lines to study gene function under physiological conditions. PMID:26007658

  13. Effect of Shading on Physiological, Biochemical and Behaviour Changes in Crossbred Calves Under Hot Climatic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teama, F.E.I.; Gad, A.E.; El-Tarabany, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance and the effect of shading and non-shading house on physiological changes, body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), total antioxidant and thyroid hormones in crossbred calves under hot conditions. Thirty six growing crossbred calves (Friesian x Baladi) aged 8-10 months were divided into two groups (each 18 calves); the first group was maintained in shaded house and the second in house without shade (climatic house). The period of study was 79 days during hot conditions. Performance variables (BW, ADG) were measured and the blood samples were collected to assess some biochemical parameters including antioxidants such as total antioxidant (TA), catalase (CAT), total protein, thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and immunoglobulin factor (IgG). Respiration rates and behaviour parameters (feeding, drinking, standing, lying and agonistic) were also measured during the study. The data indicated that the shaded calves had higher ADG (P<0.05) and final BW than non-shaded ones. Also, a significant improvement in total protein levels and globulins were recorded in shaded house calves as compared to non-shaded ones. The same result was obtained for T3 level whereas non-significant changes were observed for T4 level as well as the level of IgG at different times. The present data indicated that using shaded house will decrease the effect of heat stress on calves which will increase the animal performance through improving BW and ADG as well as some biochemical parameters in addition to T3 hormonal level.

  14. Tidal flushing restores the physiological condition of fish residing in degraded salt marshes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly L Dibble

    Full Text Available Roads, bridges, and dikes constructed across salt marshes can restrict tidal flow, degrade habitat quality for nekton, and facilitate invasion by non-native plants including Phragmites australis. Introduced P. australis contributes to marsh accretion and eliminates marsh surface pools thereby adversely affecting fish by reducing access to intertidal habitats essential for feeding, reproduction, and refuge. Our study assessed the condition of resident fish populations (Fundulus heteroclitus at four tidally restricted and four tidally restored marshes in New England invaded by P. australis relative to adjacent reference salt marshes. We used physiological and morphological indicators of fish condition, including proximate body composition (% lipid, % lean dry, % water, recent daily growth rate, age class distributions, parasite prevalence, female gravidity status, length-weight regressions, and a common morphological indicator (Fulton's K to assess impacts to fish health. We detected a significant increase in the quantity of parasites infecting fish in tidally restricted marshes but not in those where tidal flow was restored to reduce P. australis cover. Using fish length as a covariate, we found that unparasitized, non-gravid F. heteroclitus in tidally restricted marshes had significantly reduced lipid reserves and increased lean dry (structural mass relative to fish residing in reference marshes. Fish in tidally restored marshes were equivalent across all metrics relative to those in reference marshes indicating that habitat quality was restored via increased tidal flushing. Reference marshes adjacent to tidally restored sites contained the highest abundance of young fish (ages 0-1 while tidally restricted marshes contained the lowest. Results indicate that F. heteroclitus residing in physically and hydrologically altered marshes are at a disadvantage relative to fish in reference marshes but the effects can be reversed through ecological

  15. Estimation of the physiological mechanical conditioning in vascular tissue engineering by a predictive fluid-structure interaction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresoldi, Claudia; Bianchi, Elena; Pellegata, Alessandro Filippo; Dubini, Gabriele; Mantero, Sara

    2017-08-01

    The in vitro replication of physiological mechanical conditioning through bioreactors plays a crucial role in the development of functional Small-Caliber Tissue-Engineered Blood Vessels. An in silico scaffold-specific model under pulsatile perfusion provided by a bioreactor was implemented using a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach for viscoelastic tubular scaffolds (e.g. decellularized swine arteries, DSA). Results of working pressures, circumferential deformations, and wall shear stress on DSA fell within the desired physiological range and indicated the ability of this model to correctly predict the mechanical conditioning acting on the cells-scaffold system. Consequently, the FSI model allowed us to a priori define the stimulation pattern, driving in vitro physiological maturation of scaffolds, especially with viscoelastic properties.

  16. Highly stable and degradable multifunctional microgel for self-regulated insulin delivery under physiological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinjie; Lü, Shaoyu; Gao, Chunmei; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Mingzhu

    2013-06-01

    The response to glucose, pH and temperature, high drug loading capacity, self-regulated drug delivery and degradation in vivo are simultaneously probable by applying a multifunctional microgel under a rational design in a colloid chemistry method. Such multifunctional microgels are fabricated with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm), (2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and 3-acrylamidephenylboronic acid (AAPBA) through a precipitation emulsion method and cross-linked by reductive degradable N,N'-bis(arcyloyl)cystamine (BAC). This novel kind of microgel with a narrow size distribution (~250 nm) is suitable for diabetes because it can adapt to the surrounding medium of different glucose concentrations over a clinically relevant range (0-20 mM), control the release of preloaded insulin and is highly stable under physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 0.15 M NaCl, 37 °C). When synthesized multifunctional microgels regulate drug delivery, they gradually degrade as time passes and, as a result, show enhanced biocompatibility. This exhibits a new proof-of-concept for diabetes treatment that takes advantage of the properties of each building block from a multifunctional micro-object. These highly stable and versatile multifunctional microgels have the potential to be used for self-regulated therapy and monitoring of the response to treatment, or even simultaneous diagnosis as nanobiosensors.The response to glucose, pH and temperature, high drug loading capacity, self-regulated drug delivery and degradation in vivo are simultaneously probable by applying a multifunctional microgel under a rational design in a colloid chemistry method. Such multifunctional microgels are fabricated with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm), (2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and 3-acrylamidephenylboronic acid (AAPBA) through a precipitation emulsion method and cross-linked by reductive degradable N,N'-bis(arcyloyl)cystamine (BAC). This novel kind of microgel with a narrow size

  17. Highly Integrated MEMS-ASIC Sensing System for Intracorporeal Physiological Condition Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ning; Wang, Chao; Liu, Cunxiu; Sun, Jianhai

    2018-01-02

    In this paper, a highly monolithic-integrated multi-modality sensor is proposed for intracorporeal monitoring. The single-chip sensor consists of a solid-state based temperature sensor, a capacitive based pressure sensor, and an electrochemical oxygen sensor with their respective interface application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs). The solid-state-based temperature sensor and the interface ASICs were first designed and fabricated based on a 0.18-μm 1.8-V CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) process. The oxygen sensor and pressure sensor were fabricated by the standard CMOS process and subsequent CMOS-compatible MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) post-processing. The multi-sensor single chip was completely sealed by the nafion, parylene, and PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) layers for biocompatibility study. The size of the compact sensor chip is only 3.65 mm × 1.65 mm × 0.72 mm. The functionality, stability, and sensitivity of the multi-functional sensor was tested ex vivo. Cytotoxicity assessment was performed to verify that the bio-compatibility of the device is conforming to the ISO 10993-5:2009 standards. The measured sensitivities of the sensors for the temperature, pressure, and oxygen concentration are 10.2 mV/°C, 5.58 mV/kPa, and 20 mV·L/mg, respectively. The measurement results show that the proposed multi-sensor single chip is suitable to sense the temperature, pressure, and oxygen concentration of human tissues for intracorporeal physiological condition monitoring.

  18. Physiological and Molecular Response of Ostrich to the Seasonal and Diurnal Variations in Egyptian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.H.; Khalifa, H.H; Elaroussi, M.A.; Elsayed, M.A.; Basuony, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Twelve immature ostrich›s birds, 7 months old were used to evaluate the effect of ambient temperature variation and diurnal effect on response changes of some physiological and chemical parameters. All birds were reared out doors and exposed to daily ambient temperatures fluctuations during summer and winter. Blood samples were taken twice, one in the morning at 7 Am and once in the afternoon at 3 Pm during a representative 7 hot days of June (summer) (40±2ºC) and the 7 cold days of January (winter) (18±2ºC). Serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, potassium, uric acid concentrations and aldosterone level were determined. The amount of total body water (TBW) and serum heat shock proteins (HSP) were estimated. Serum calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium concentrations in ostrich were significantly decreased, while uric acid concentration and aldosterone hormone level were significantly increased in summer as compared in winter during both at morning and at afternoon periods. Concerning the diurnal variation, serum calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium concentrations and aldosterone hormone level in ostrich were significantly increased, while uric acid concentration was significantly decreased at morning as compared at afternoon during both summer and winter seasons. TBW was significantly higher in summer season by 15.04% than winter season. It is concluded from the present study that heat or cold stress has a negative effect on most of the parameters studied and we recommend must be supplement diet with some nutrients like vitamins C, and E, sodium bicarbonate or yeast to overcome the negative effect and to better perform under such conditions

  19. Milk Production, Physiological Condition and Performance of Etawa Crossbreed Goats Feed by Ration Supplemented with Mangosteen Peel Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzarnisa; Rachmadi, D.; Azhar, A.; Fakhrur Riza, R.; Hidayati, A.

    2018-02-01

    Study on the effect of the addition of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) peel flour on physiological condition and performance of Etawa crossbreed goats was done. This was to grant the use of mangosteen peel flour that rich of antioxidants and has variety good benefits for health as feed additive for cattle. This study used a Complete Randomized Block Design consisting of 4 treatment groups and 4 replications each. Subjects were 16 female Etawa crossbreed goats randomly designed into treatments group based on lactation periods. Subjects were feed with traditional rations (control, A), traditional rations and 2.5% mangosteen peel flour (B), tradition rations and 5% mangosteen peel flour (C), and traditional rations and 7,5 % mangosteen peel flour (D). Data on performance (milk production) and physiological condition (respiratory frequency, rectal temperature, and heart rate) obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that the addition of mangosteen peel flour as food additive in the rations resulted in variations in the milk production, physiological condition (rectal temperature, heart rate and respiration frequency) and performances (daily weigh gain, food consumption, ration conversion and breast volume) of Etawa crossbreed goats, but significant effect was only observed in the respiration frequency. The addition of 2.5% mangosteen peel flour in the ration caused the best, expected effects on milk production physiological condition and performance of Etawa crossbreed goats.

  20. [Autonomic regulation at emotional stress under hypoxic conditions in the elderly with physiological and accelerated aging: effect of hypoxic training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Os'mak, E D; Asanov, É O

    2014-01-01

    The effect of hypoxic training on autonomic regulation in psycho-emotional stress conditions in hypoxic conditions in older people with physiological (25 people) and accelerated (28 people) aging respiratory system. It is shown that hypoxic training leads to an increase in vagal activity indicators (HF) and reduced simpatovagal index (LF/HF), have a normalizing effect on the autonomic balance during stress loads in older people with different types of aging respiratory system.

  1. Physiologic changes associated with violence and abuse exposure: an examination of related medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeshin, Brooks R; Cronholm, Peter F; Strawn, Jeffrey R

    2012-01-01

    Although the extant evidence is replete with data supporting linkages between exposure to violence or abuse and the subsequent development of medical illnesses, the underlying mechanisms of these relationships are poorly defined and understood. Physiologic changes occurring in violence- or abuse-exposed individuals point to potentially common biological pathways connecting traumatic exposures with medical outcomes. Herein, the evidence describing the long-term physiologic changes in abuse- and violence-exposed populations and associated medical illnesses are reviewed. Current data support that (a) specific neurobiochemical changes are associated with exposure to violence and abuse; (b) several biological pathways have the potential to lead to the development of future illness; and (c) common physiologic mechanisms may moderate the severity, phenomenology, or clinical course of medical illnesses in individuals with histories of exposure to violence or abuse. Importantly, additional work is needed to advance our emerging understanding of the biological mechanisms connecting exposure to violence and abuse and negative health outcomes.

  2. No evidence for a bone phenotype in GPRC6A knockout mice under normal physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Johansen, Lars Dan; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn

    2009-01-01

    GPRC6A is a seven transmembrane receptor mediating signaling by a wide range of L-alpha-amino-acids, a signaling augmented by the divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+. GPRC6A transcripts are detected in numerous mammalian tissues, but the physiological role of the receptor is thus far elusive. Analogou...

  3. Measurement of palmitoylethanolamide and other N-acylethanolamines during physiological and pathological conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balvers, M.G.J.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Meijerink, J.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) belongs to the N-acyl ethanolamines (NAEs), a group of endogenous compounds involved in a variety of physiological processes, including energy homeostasis and inflammation. This review focuses on the analysis of PEA in plasma and tissues and discusses effects of diet and

  4. Selecting boundary conditions in physiological strain analysis of the femur: Balanced loads, inertia relief method and follower load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, Mark; Trepczynski, Adam; Duda, Georg N; Zehn, Manfred; Schaser, Klaus-Dieter; Märdian, Sven

    2015-12-01

    Selection of boundary constraints may influence amount and distribution of loads. The purpose of this study is to analyze the potential of inertia relief and follower load to maintain the effects of musculoskeletal loads even under large deflections in patient specific finite element models of intact or fractured bone compared to empiric boundary constraints which have been shown to lead to physiological displacements and surface strains. The goal is to elucidate the use of boundary conditions in strain analyses of bones. Finite element models of the intact femur and a model of clinically relevant fracture stabilization by locking plate fixation were analyzed with normal walking loading conditions for different boundary conditions, specifically re-balanced loading, inertia relief and follower load. Peak principal cortex surface strains for different boundary conditions are consistent (maximum deviation 13.7%) except for inertia relief without force balancing (maximum deviation 108.4%). Influence of follower load on displacements increases with higher deflection in fracture model (from 3% to 7% for force balanced model). For load balanced models, follower load had only minor influence, though the effect increases strongly with higher deflection. Conventional constraints of fixed nodes in space should be carefully reconsidered because their type and position are challenging to justify and for their potential to introduce relevant non-physiological reaction forces. Inertia relief provides an alternative method which yields physiological strain results. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lymphocytes Mitochondrial Physiology as Biomarker of Energy Metabolism during Fasted and Fed Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Cortez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are central coordinators of energy metabolism, and changes of their physiology have long been associated with metabolic disorders. Thus, observations of energy dynamics in different cell types are of utmost importance. Therefore, tools with quick and easy handling are needed for consistent evaluations of such interventions. In this paper, our main hypothesis is that during different nutritional situations lymphocytes mitochondrial physiology could be associated with the metabolism of other cell types, such as cardiomyocytes, and consequently be used as metabolic biomarker. Blood lymphocytes and heart muscle fibers were obtained from both fed and 24 h-fasted mice, and mitochondrial analysis was assessed by high-resolution respirometry and western blotting. Carbohydrate-linked oxidation and fatty acid oxidation were significantly higher after fasting. Carnitine palmitoil transferase 1 and uncouple protein 2 contents were increased in the fasted group, while the glucose transporters 1 and 4 and the ratio phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase/AMPK did not change between groups. In summary, under a nutritional status modification, mitochondria demonstrated earlier adaptive capacity than other metabolic sensors such as glucose transporters and AMPK, suggesting the accuracy of mitochondria physiology of lymphocytes as biomarker for metabolic changes.

  6. Effects of hydroxocobalamin on carboxyhemoglobin measured under physiologic and pathologic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, R; Bon Homme, M; Hoffman, R S; Lugassy, D

    2014-08-01

    Pre-hospital administration of hydroxocobalamin (B12a) is used for empiric treatment of cyanide poisoning because cyanide poisoning is difficult to identify and requires immediate treatment. B12a interferes with the accuracy of several blood laboratory tests. This study aimed to explore how B12a affects carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) measurements in human blood at both physiologic and pathologic COHb levels. Several clinically relevant concentrations of B12a were added to human blood samples containing physiologic (∼ 3%) and pathologic (30% and 50%) COHb levels. We then measured the COHb levels of the samples using two different co-oximeters, the Radiometer ABL 700 and the Rapidpoint 500, and compared to their actual baseline COHb levels. B12a had minimal effects on the COHb measured at both physiologic and pathologic levels when measured on the Radiometer. In contrast, the Rapidpoint B12a caused a dose-dependent decrease in the COHb measured, especially of pathologic COHb levels (∼ 30 and 50%). The magnitude of B12a interference on measured COHb is dependent upon the specific co-oximeter used, the actual COHb level and the serum B12a concentration. These errors may potentially influence clinical decision making and thus affect patient outcomes. Our findings emphasize the importance of measuring COHb levels on blood samples collected prior to B12a administration.

  7. Five Conditions Commonly Used to Down-regulate Tor Complex 1 Generate Different Physiological Situations Exhibiting Distinct Requirements and Outcomes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jennifer J.; Cooper, Terrance G.

    2013-01-01

    Five different physiological conditions have been used interchangeably to establish the sequence of molecular events needed to achieve nitrogen-responsive down-regulation of TorC1 and its subsequent regulation of downstream reporters: nitrogen starvation, methionine sulfoximine (Msx) addition, nitrogen limitation, rapamycin addition, and leucine starvation. Therefore, we tested a specific underlying assumption upon which the interpretation of data generated by these five experimental perturbations is premised. It is that they generate physiologically equivalent outcomes with respect to TorC1, i.e. its down-regulation as reflected by TorC1 reporter responses. We tested this assumption by performing head-to-head comparisons of the requirements for each condition to achieve a common outcome for a downstream proxy of TorC1 inactivation, nuclear Gln3 localization. We demonstrate that the five conditions for down-regulating TorC1 do not elicit physiologically equivalent outcomes. Four of the methods exhibit hierarchical Sit4 and PP2A phosphatase requirements to elicit nuclear Gln3-Myc13 localization. Rapamycin treatment required Sit4 and PP2A. Nitrogen limitation and short-term nitrogen starvation required only Sit4. G1 arrest-correlated, long-term nitrogen starvation and Msx treatment required neither PP2A nor Sit4. Starving cells of leucine or treating them with leucyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors did not elicit nuclear Gln3-Myc13 localization. These data indicate that the five commonly used nitrogen-related conditions of down-regulating TorC1 are not physiologically equivalent and minimally involve partially differing regulatory mechanisms. Further, identical requirements for Msx treatment and long-term nitrogen starvation raise the possibility that their effects are achieved through a common regulatory pathway with glutamine, a glutamate or glutamine metabolite level as the sensed metabolic signal. PMID:23935103

  8. Ecto-ATPase inhibition: ATP and adenosine release under physiological and ischemic in vivo conditions in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melani, Alessia; Corti, Francesca; Stephan, Holger; Müller, Christa E; Donati, Chiara; Bruni, Paola; Vannucchi, Maria Giuliana; Pedata, Felicita

    2012-01-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS) ATP and adenosine act as transmitters and neuromodulators on their own receptors but it is still unknown which part of extracellular adenosine derives per se from cells and which part is formed from the hydrolysis of released ATP. In this study extracellular concentrations of adenosine and ATP from the rat striatum were estimated by the microdialysis technique under in vivo physiological conditions and after focal ischemia induced by medial cerebral artery occlusion. Under physiological conditions, adenosine and ATP concentrations were in the range of 130 nmol/L and 40 nmol/L, respectively. In the presence of the novel ecto-ATPase inhibitor, PV4 (100 nmol/L), the extracellular concentration of ATP increased 12-fold to ~360 nmol/L but the adenosine concentration was not altered. This demonstrates that, under physiological conditions, adenosine is not a product of extracellular ATP. In the first 4h after ischemia, adenosine increased to ~690 nmol/L and ATP to ~50 nmol/L. In the presence of PV4 the extracellular concentration of ATP was in the range of 450 nmol/L and a significant decrease in extracellular adenosine (to ~270 nmol/L) was measured. The contribution of extracellular ATP to extracellular adenosine was maximal in the first 20 min after ischemia onset. Furthermore we demonstrated, by immunoelectron microscopy, the presence of the concentrative nucleoside transporter CNT2 on plasma and vesicle membranes isolated from the rat striatum. These results are in favor that adenosine is transported in vesicles and is released in an excitation-secretion manner under in vivo physiological conditions. Early after ischemia, extracellular ATP is hydrolyzed by ecto-nucleotidases which significantly contribute to the increase in extracellular adenosine. To establish the contribution of extracellular ATP to adenosine might constitute the basis for devising a correct putative purinergic strategy aimed at protection from ischemic damage

  9. Evaluation by fluorescence resonance energy transfer of the stability of nonviral gene delivery vectors under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaka, Keiji; Harada, Atsushi; Nakamura, Kozo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2002-01-01

    The stability in physiological medium of polyplex- and lipoplex-type nonviral gene vectors was evaluated by detecting the conformational change of complexed plasmid DNA (pDNA) labeled simultaneously with fluorescein (energy donor) and X-rhodamine (energy acceptor) through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Upon mixing with cationic components, such as LipofectAMINE, poly(L-lysine), and poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lysine) block copolymer (PEG-PLys), the fluorescence spectrum of doubly labeled pDNA underwent a drastic change due to the occurrence of FRET between the donor-acceptor pair on pDNA taking a globular conformation (condensed state) through complexation. The measurement was carried out also in the presence of 20% serum, under which conditions FRET from condensed pDNA was clearly monitored without interference from coexisting components in the medium, allowing evaluation of the condensed state of pDNA in nonviral gene vectors under physiological conditions. Serum addition immediately induced a sharp decrease in FRET for the LipofectAMINE/pDNA (lipoplex) system, which was consistent with the sharp decrease in the transfection efficiency of the lipoplex system in serum-containing medium. In contrast, the PEG-PLys/pDNA polyplex (polyion complex micelle) system maintained appreciable transfection efficiency even in serum-containing medium, and FRET efficiency remained constant for up to 12 h, indicating the high stability of the polyion complex micelle under physiological conditions.

  10. Assessment of bioclimatic comfort conditions based on Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) using the RayMan Model in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Mohammad Reza Mansouri; Bagherzadeh, Ali; Tavousi, Taghi

    2013-03-01

    In this study thermal comfort conditions are analyzed to determine possible thermal perceptions during different months in Iran through the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). The monthly PET values produced using the RayMan Model ranged from -7.6°C to 46.8°C. Over the winter months the thermal comfort condition (18-23°C) were concentrated in southern coastal areas along the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. Most of the country experienced comfort conditions during the spring months, in particular in April, while during the summer months of July and August no thermal comfort conditions were observed. In November coastal areas of the Caspian Sea had the same physiological stress level of thermal comfort as April. The map produced showing mean annual PET conditions demonstrated the greatest spatial distribution of comfortable levels in the elevation range from 1000 to 2000 meter a.s.l., with annual temperatures of 12-20°C and annual precipitation of under 200 mm. The statistical relationship between PET conditions and each controlling parameter revealed a significant correlation in areas above 2000 meter, annual temperature over 20°C and annual precipitation of 200-400 mm with a correlation coefficient ( R 2) of 0.91, 0.97 and 0.96, respectively.

  11. Training for Translocation: Predator Conditioning Induces Behavioral Plasticity and Physiological Changes in Captive Eastern Hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis (Cryptobranchidae, Amphibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K. Kenison

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Translocations are stressful, especially when captive animals are naïve to natural stimuli. Captive eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis identify predatory fish as threats, but may be more vulnerable to predation and stress because of inexperience with them. We investigated the use of predator conditioning to prepare hellbenders, behaviorally and physiologically, for the presence of a common predator, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides. We reared hellbenders for 30 d with and without continuous exposure to largemouth bass kairomones and heterospecific alarm cues and found conditioned hellbenders became less active compared to unconditioned individuals (p = 0.017. After conditioning, we exposed hellbenders to water, a low concentration of kairomones, or a high concentration of kairomones in a closed respirometer system. We measured activity within respirometer chambers and routine metabolic rate. We found unconditioned hellbenders exposed to low and high concentrations of kairomones were 41% and 119% more active than conditioned animals (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001. Moreover, conditioned individuals had on average 6.5% lower metabolic rates across all three kairomone concentrations compared to unconditioned individuals (p = 0.017. Our data suggest that predator conditioning induces behavioral avoidance tactics and physiological changes that could improve future translocation efforts for hellbenders and other imperiled species.

  12. Physiological seed quality of varieties of Ocimum produced under conditions of Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Aceneth Durán Gaviria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Ocimum with over 150 species is characterized by high morphological variability and Chemotypes of great value in the industries of perfumery, cosmetics, food and pharmaceutical features. In order to evaluate the physiological quality of the seeds, in the Experimental Center and the Laboratory of Plant Physiology at the National University of Colombia at Palmira, germination and viability tests were performed with 2,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium, TTZ. In trials, using a factorial design with five varieties of seeds, three treatments and three replications, the effect of imbibing the seeds for five minutes in Potassium nitrate 0.2% KNO3 and gibberellic acid GA3 250 ppm and 500 ppm respectively as first irrigation and a control (water was evaluated. The results showed that the seeds from the species O. selloi had the highest percentage (90% of viability in TTZ and germination (46.2%. The seeds soaked in 0.2% KNO3 showed the highest values of seed germination in three of the five varieties tested. The best responses were obtained with germination seeds O.selloi species (70% and O. micranthum (58%, followed by Ocimum sp. (26%. The results showed the presence of varying levels of latency, which was partially overcome by the application of potassium nitrate (KNO 3 0.2%.

  13. Novel magnesium alloy Mg–2La caused no cytotoxic effects on cells in physiological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizbauer, Andreas, E-mail: weizbauer.andreas@mh-hannover.de [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Straße 1-7, 30625 Hannover (Germany); CrossBIT, Center for Biocompatibility and Implant-Immunology, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 31, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Seitz, Jan-Marten [Institute of Materials Science, Leibniz Universität Hannover, An der Universität 2, 30823 Garbsen (Germany); Werle, Peter [ABB AG, Trafoweg 4, 06112 Halle (Germany); Hegermann, Jan [Institute of Functional and Applied Anatomy, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Willbold, Elmar [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Straße 1-7, 30625 Hannover (Germany); CrossBIT, Center for Biocompatibility and Implant-Immunology, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 31, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Eifler, Rainer [Institute of Materials Science, Leibniz Universität Hannover, An der Universität 2, 30823 Garbsen (Germany); Windhagen, Henning [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Straße 1-7, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Reifenrath, Janin [Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bünteweg 9, 30559 Hannover (Germany); Waizy, Hazibullah [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Straße 1-7, 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    Using several different in vitro assays, a new biodegradable magnesium alloy Mg–2La, composed of 98% magnesium and 2% lanthanum, was investigated as a possible implant material for biomedical applications. An in vitro cytotoxicity test, according to EN ISO 10993-5/12, with L929 and human osteoblastic cells identified no toxic effects on cell viability at physiological concentrations (at 50% dilutions and higher). The metabolic activity of human osteoblasts in the 100% extract was decreased to < 70% and was therefore rated as cytotoxic. The degradation rates of Mg–2La were evaluated in phosphate buffered saline and four different cell culture media. The degradation rates were shown to be influenced by the composition of the solution, and the addition of fetal bovine serum slightly accelerated the corrosive process. The results of these in vitro experiments suggest that Mg–2La is a promising candidate for use as an orthopedic implant material. - Highlights: • A new magnesium alloy (Mg–2La) has been developed. • Magnesium alloy Mg–2La revealed no toxic effect in physiological concentrations. • Degradation rates were influenced by the corrosion media. • The addition of fetal bovine serum increased the corrosive process slightly.

  14. Novel magnesium alloy Mg–2La caused no cytotoxic effects on cells in physiological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizbauer, Andreas; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Werle, Peter; Hegermann, Jan; Willbold, Elmar; Eifler, Rainer; Windhagen, Henning; Reifenrath, Janin; Waizy, Hazibullah

    2014-01-01

    Using several different in vitro assays, a new biodegradable magnesium alloy Mg–2La, composed of 98% magnesium and 2% lanthanum, was investigated as a possible implant material for biomedical applications. An in vitro cytotoxicity test, according to EN ISO 10993-5/12, with L929 and human osteoblastic cells identified no toxic effects on cell viability at physiological concentrations (at 50% dilutions and higher). The metabolic activity of human osteoblasts in the 100% extract was decreased to < 70% and was therefore rated as cytotoxic. The degradation rates of Mg–2La were evaluated in phosphate buffered saline and four different cell culture media. The degradation rates were shown to be influenced by the composition of the solution, and the addition of fetal bovine serum slightly accelerated the corrosive process. The results of these in vitro experiments suggest that Mg–2La is a promising candidate for use as an orthopedic implant material. - Highlights: • A new magnesium alloy (Mg–2La) has been developed. • Magnesium alloy Mg–2La revealed no toxic effect in physiological concentrations. • Degradation rates were influenced by the corrosion media. • The addition of fetal bovine serum increased the corrosive process slightly

  15. The relationships between environmental and physiological heat stress indices in Muslim women under the controlled thermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Habibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between environmental and physiological heat stress indices based on heart rate (HR, oral temperature for the estimation of heat strain, in veiled women in hot-dry condition in the climate chamber. Materials and Methods: The experimental study was carried out on 36 healthy Muslim women in hot-dry climatic conditions (wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT = 22-32°C in low workload for 2 h. The HR, oral temperature and WBGT index were measured. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation tests. Results: The results of the Pearson test indicated that physiological strain index was a high correlation (r = 0.975 with WBGT index (P < 0.05. Also, there was a good correlation among WBGT and HR (r = 0.779 and oral temperature (r = 0.981. Conclusion: The findings of this study illustrated that there is a good correlation between environmental and physiological heat stress indices in veiled women with Islamic clothing at the low workload over the action limit (WBGT = 31°C. So that it can be concluded that the WBGT 22-32°C is a good indicator of the heat strain in veiled women with Islamic clothing.

  16. Physiological Signals and Their Fractal Response to Stress Conditions, Environmental Changes and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scafetta, N; Moon, R. E; West, B. J

    2006-01-01

    .... Some of these studies have been intended to develop more reliable methodologies for understanding how biological systems respond to peculiar altered conditions induced by internal stress, environment...

  17. Intraspecific Variation in Physiological Condition of Reef-Building Corals Associated with Differential Levels of Chronic Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisapia, Chiara; Anderson, Kristen; Pratchett, Morgan S.

    2014-01-01

    Even in the absence of major disturbances (e.g., cyclones, bleaching), corals are subject to high levels of partial or whole-colony mortality, often caused by chronic and small-scale disturbances. Depending on levels of background mortality, these chronic disturbances may undermine individual fitness and have significant consequences on the ability of colonies to withstand subsequent acute disturbances or environmental change. This study quantified intraspecific variations in physiological condition (measured based on total lipid content and zooxanthellae density) through time in adult colonies of two common and widespread coral species (Acropora spathulata and Pocillopora damicornis), subject to different levels of biological and physical disturbances along the most disturbed reef habitat, the crest. Marked intraspecific variation in the physiological condition of A. spathulata was clearly linked to differences in local disturbance regimes and habitat. Specifically, zooxanthellae density decreased (r2 = 26, df = 5,42, pzooxanthellae density was strongly and negatively correlated with the individual level of partial mortality (r2 = 26, df = 5,42, p<0.02, B =  −7386077, p = 0.01). Conversely, P. damicornis exhibited very limited intraspecific variation in physiological condition, despite marked differences in levels of partial mortality. This is the first study to relate intraspecific variation in the condition of corals to localized differences in chronic disturbance regimes. The next step is to ascertain whether these differences have further ramifications for susceptibility to periodic acute disturbances, such as climate-induced coral bleaching. PMID:24626395

  18. Intraspecific variation in physiological condition of reef-building corals associated with differential levels of chronic disturbance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pisapia

    Full Text Available Even in the absence of major disturbances (e.g., cyclones, bleaching, corals are subject to high levels of partial or whole-colony mortality, often caused by chronic and small-scale disturbances. Depending on levels of background mortality, these chronic disturbances may undermine individual fitness and have significant consequences on the ability of colonies to withstand subsequent acute disturbances or environmental change. This study quantified intraspecific variations in physiological condition (measured based on total lipid content and zooxanthellae density through time in adult colonies of two common and widespread coral species (Acropora spathulata and Pocillopora damicornis, subject to different levels of biological and physical disturbances along the most disturbed reef habitat, the crest. Marked intraspecific variation in the physiological condition of A. spathulata was clearly linked to differences in local disturbance regimes and habitat. Specifically, zooxanthellae density decreased (r2 = 26, df = 5,42, p<0.02, B =  -121255, p = 0.03 and total lipid content increased (r2 = 14, df = 5,42, p = 0.01, B = 0.9, p = 0.01 with increasing distance from exposed crests. Moreover, zooxanthellae density was strongly and negatively correlated with the individual level of partial mortality (r2 = 26, df = 5,42, p<0.02, B =  -7386077, p = 0.01. Conversely, P. damicornis exhibited very limited intraspecific variation in physiological condition, despite marked differences in levels of partial mortality. This is the first study to relate intraspecific variation in the condition of corals to localized differences in chronic disturbance regimes. The next step is to ascertain whether these differences have further ramifications for susceptibility to periodic acute disturbances, such as climate-induced coral bleaching.

  19. Using High-Resolution Hyperspectral and Thermal Airborne Imagery to Assess Physiological Condition in the Context of Wheat Phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Gonzalez-Dugo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need for developing high-throughput tools for crop phenotyping that would increase the rate of genetic improvement. In most cases, the indicators used for this purpose are related with canopy structure (often acquired with RGB cameras and multispectral sensors allowing the calculation of NDVI, but using approaches related with the crop physiology are rare. High-resolution hyperspectral remote sensing imagery provides optical indices related to physiological condition through the quantification of photosynthetic pigment and chlorophyll fluorescence emission. This study demonstrates the use of narrow-band indicators of stress as a potential tool for phenotyping under rainfed conditions using two airborne datasets acquired over a wheat experiment with 150 plots comprising two species and 50 varieties (bread and durum wheat. The flights were performed at the early stem elongation stage and during the milking stage. Physiological measurements made at the time of flights demonstrated that the second flight was made during the terminal stress, known to largely determine final yield under rainfed conditions. The hyperspectral imagery enabled the extraction of thermal, radiance, and reflectance spectra from 260 spectral bands from each plot for the calculation of indices related to photosynthetic pigment absorption in the visible and red-edge regions, the quantification of chlorophyll fluorescence emission, as well as structural indices related to canopy structure. Under the conditions of this study, the structural indices (i.e., NDVI did not show a good performance at predicting yield, probably because of the large effects of terminal water stress. Thermal indices, indices related to chlorophyll fluorescence (calculated using the FLD method, and carotenoids pigment indices (PRI and CAR demonstrated to be better suited for screening complex traits such as crop yield. The study concludes that the indicators derived from high

  20. Spectrophotometric analysis of flavonoid-DNA binding interactions at physiological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Naveed Kausar; Siddiqa, Asima; Yaqub, Azra; Sabahat, Sana; Qureshi, Rumana; Haque, Sayed ul

    2009-12-01

    Mode of interactions of three flavonoids [morin (M), quercetin (Q), and rutin (R)] with chicken blood ds.DNA (ck.DNA) has been investigated spectrophotometrically at different temperatures including body temperature (310 K) and at two physiological pH values, i.e. 7.4 (human blood pH) and 4.7 (stomach pH). The binding constants, Kf, evaluated using Benesi-Hildebrand equation showed that the flavonoids bind effectively through intercalation at both pH values and body temperature. Quercetin, somehow, showed greater binding capabilities with DNA. The free energies of flavonoid-DNA complexes indicated the spontaneity of their binding. The order of binding constants of three flavonoids at both pH values were found to be Kf(Q) > Kf(R) > Kf(M) and at 310 K.

  1. The antitumor agent 3-bromopyruvate has a short half-life at physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Matthew; Biddle, Perry; Jantzi, Josh; Weaver, Samantha; Schirch, Doug

    2014-09-12

    Clinical research is currently exploring the validity of the anti-tumor candidate 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) as a novel treatment for several types of cancer. However, recent publications have overlooked rarely-cited earlier work about the instability of 3-BP and its decay to 3-hydroxypyruvate (3-HP) which have obvious implications for its mechanism of action against tumors, how it is administered, and for precautions when preparing solutions of 3-BP. This study found the first-order decay rate of 3-BP at physiological temperature and pH has a half-life of only 77 min. Lower buffer pH decreases the decay rate, while choice of buffer and concentration do not affect it. A method for preparing more stable solutions is also reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular clocks and the human condition: approaching their characterization in human physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, G A; Yang, G; Paschos, G K; Liang, X; Skarke, C

    2015-09-01

    Molecular clockworks knit together diverse biological networks and compelling evidence from model systems infers their importance in metabolism, immunological and cardiovascular function. Despite this and the diurnal variation in many aspects of human physiology and the phenotypic expression of disease, our understanding of the role and importance of clock function and dysfunction in humans is modest. There are tantalizing hints of connection across the translational divide and some correlative evidence of gene variation and human disease but most of what we know derives from forced desynchrony protocols in controlled environments. We now have the ability to monitor quantitatively ex vivo or in vivo the genome, metabolome, proteome and microbiome of humans in the wild. Combining this capability, with the power of mobile telephony and the evolution of remote sensing, affords a new opportunity for deep phenotyping, including the characterization of diurnal behaviour and the assessment of the impact of the clock on approved drug function. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Physiological changes in largemouth bass exposed to paper mill effluents under laboratory and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Gallagher, E.P.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    We report here on studies designed to asses the effects of paper mill effluents on non-reproductive functions of free-ranging and captive Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) This was accomplished by conducting an outdoor tank study, in which fish were exposed to well water or to 10%, 20%, 40%, and 80% full strength effluent for 28 or 56 days, and by sampling largemouth bass from sites within the St. Johns River, Florida, upstream and downstream from a paper mill plant. Blood and plasma samples from fish from the tank study and from fish sampled from the ambient sites were analyzed for over 20 variables. We also determined liver and spleen weights and examined them histologically. The most significant finding from the tank study was an increase in the concentration of albumin and hepatosomatic index for bass exposed to ???20% effluents for 56 days. Spleenosomatic index and number of melanomacrophage centers were decreased in bass from effluent-dominated sites (Palatka and Rice Creek), whereas concentrations of calcium, phosphorous, glucose, and creatinine were elevated in fish from these sites, compared to fish from reference streams. Fish from Rice Creek also had fewer red blood cells, and male bass from Palatka had lower concentrations of cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of albumin and hepatic concentrations of glutathione were elevated in males from Palatka, and both females and males from Rice Creek had higher concentrations of globulin. These results indicate a complex pattern of effects of paper mill effluents on several physiological functions. However, despite the myriad of treatment and site-related effects, most physiological parameters fell within normal ranges when compared to reports on largemouth bass and other freshwater species.

  4. Microfiltration conditions modify Lactobacillus bulgaricus cryotolerance in response to physiological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Fernanda; Athès, Violaine; Bchir, Amine; Corrieu, Georges; Béal, Catherine

    2011-02-01

    This work aimed at analyzing the effect of microfiltration conditions (cross-flow velocity and transmembrane pressure) on the quality of frozen Lactobacillus bulgaricus CFL1 starters produced on pilot scale. Microfiltered cells were less resistant during the concentration process than centrifuged cells. In contrast, bacterial cryotolerance during freezing was improved after microfiltration, in a range of 28-88%, depending on the microfiltration conditions. During frozen storage, cell resistance was also affected by microfiltration conditions, either positively or negatively, compared to centrifugation. The best cryotolerance was obtained for cells microfiltered at a cross-flow velocity of 2 m/s and a transmembrane pressure of 0.15 MPa. This improvement was explained by considering membrane fatty acid composition of Lb. bulgaricus CFL1. This condition increased unsaturated to saturated and cyclic to saturated fatty acid ratios, which enhanced membrane fluidity, thus helping the cells to better resist freezing and frozen storage.

  5. The physiological effects of oil, dispersant and dispersed oil on the bay mussel, Mytilus trossulus, in Arctic/Subarctic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Katrina L

    2018-06-01

    Increasing oil development around Alaska and other Arctic regions elevates the risk for another oil spill. Dispersants are used to mitigate the impact of an oil spill by accelerating natural degradation processes, but the reduced hydrophobicity of dispersed oil may increase its bioavailability to marine organisms. There is limited research on the effect of dispersed oil on cold water species and ecosystems. Therefore, spiked exposure tests were conducted with bay mussels (Mytilus trossulus) in seawater with non-dispersed oil, Corexit 9500 and oil dispersed with different concentrations of Corexit 9500. After three weeks of exposure, acute and chronic physiological impacts were determined. The majority of physiological responses occurred during the first seven days of exposure, with mussels exhibiting significant cytochrome P450 activity, superoxide dismutase activity and heat shock protein levels. Mussels exposed to non-dispersed oil also experienced immune suppression, reduced transcription and higher levels of mortality. After 21 days, mussels in all treatments exhibited evidence of genetic damage, tissue loss and a continued stress response. Bay mussels are useful as indicators of ecosystem health and recovery, and this study was an important step in understanding how non-dispersed oil, dispersant and dispersed oil affect the physiology of this sentinel species in Arctic/subarctic conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mycorrhizal association between the desert truffle Terfezia boudieri and Helianthemum sessiliflorum alters plant physiology and fitness to arid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeman, Tidhar; Ben Asher, Jiftach; Roth-Bejerano, Nurit; Kagan-Zur, Varda; Kapulnik, Yoram; Sitrit, Yaron

    2011-10-01

    The host plant Helianthemum sessiliflorum was inoculated with the mycorrhizal desert truffle Terfezia boudieri Chatin, and the subsequent effects of the ectomycorrhizal relationship on host physiology were determined. Diurnal measurements revealed that mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher rates of photosynthesis (35%), transpiration (18%), and night respiration (49%) than non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants. Consequently, M plants exhibited higher biomass accumulation, higher shoot-to-root ratios, and improved water use efficiency compared to NM plants. Total chlorophyll content was higher in M plants, and the ratio between chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b was altered in M plants. The increase in chlorophyll b content was significantly higher than the increase in chlorophyll a content (2.58- and 1.52-fold, respectively) compared to control. Calculation of the photosynthetic activation energy indicated lower energy requirements for CO(2) assimilation in M plants than in NM plants (48.62 and 61.56 kJ mol(-1), respectively). Continuous measurements of CO(2) exchange and transpiration in M plants versus NM plants provided a complete picture of the daily physiological differences brought on by the ectomycorrhizal relationships. The enhanced competence of M plants to withstand the harsh environmental conditions of the desert is discussed in view of the mycorrhizal-derived alterations in host physiology. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  7. CHANGES IN PHYSIOLOGICAL TREMOR RESULTING FROM SLEEP DEPRIVATION UNDER CONDITIONS OF INCREASING FATIGUE DURING PROLONGED MILITARY TRAINING

    OpenAIRE

    A. Tomczak; J. Gajewski; J Mazur–Różycka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the changes of the characteristics of physiological postural tremor under conditions of increasing fatigue and lack of sleep during prolonged military training (survival).The subjects of the study were 15 students of the Polish Air Force Academy in Dęblin. The average age was 19.9±1.3 years. During the 36-hour-long continuous military training (survival) the subjects were deprived of sleep. Four tremor measurements were carried out for each of the subjects: ...

  8. Effects of pre-conditioning on behavior and physiology of horses during a standardised learning task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Fenner

    Full Text Available Rein tension is used to apply pressure to control both ridden and unridden horses. The pressure is delivered by equipment such as the bit, which may restrict voluntary movement and cause changes in behavior and physiology. Managing the effects of such pressure on arousal level and behavioral indicators will optimise horse learning outcomes. This study examined the effect of training horses to turn away from bit pressure on cardiac outcomes and behavior (including responsiveness over the course of eight trials in a standardised learning task. The experimental procedure consisted of a resting phase, treatment/control phase, standardised learning trials requiring the horses (n = 68 to step backwards in response to bit pressure and a recovery phase. As expected, heart rate increased (P = 0.028 when the handler applied rein tension during the treatment phase. The amount of rein tension required to elicit a response during treatment was higher on the left than the right rein (P = 0.009. Total rein tension required for trials reduced (P < 0.001 as they progressed, as did time taken (P < 0.001 and steps taken (P < 0.001. The incidence of head tossing decreased (P = 0.015 with the progression of the trials and was higher (P = 0.018 for the control horses than the treated horses. These results suggest that preparing the horses for the lesson and slightly raising their arousal levels, improved learning outcomes.

  9. Hydrazine selective dual signaling chemodosimetric probe in physiological conditions and its application in live cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Sandip; Sahana, Animesh; Mandal, Sandip [Department of Chemistry, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan, 713104 West Bengal (India); Sengupta, Archya; Chatterjee, Ansuman [Department of Zoology, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan, West Bengal (India); Safin, Damir A., E-mail: damir.a.safin@gmail.com [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Molecules, Solids and Reactivity (IMCN/MOST), Université catholique de Louvain, Place L. Pasteur 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Babashkina, Maria G.; Tumanov, Nikolay A.; Filinchuk, Yaroslav [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Molecules, Solids and Reactivity (IMCN/MOST), Université catholique de Louvain, Place L. Pasteur 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Das, Debasis, E-mail: ddas100in@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan, 713104 West Bengal (India)

    2015-09-17

    A rhodamine–cyanobenzene conjugate, (E)-4-((2-(3′,6′-bis(diethylamino)-3-oxospiro[isoindoline-1,9′-xanthene] -2-yl)ethylimino)methyl)benzonitrile (1), which structure has been elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction, was synthesized for selective fluorescent “turn-on” and colorimetric recognition of hydrazine at physiological pH 7.4. It was established that 1 detects hydrazine up to 58 nM. The probe is useful for the detection of intracellular hydrazine in the human breast cancer cells MCF-7 using a fluorescence microscope. Spirolactam ring opening of 1, followed by its hydrolysis, was established as a probable mechanism for the selective sensing of hydrazine. - Highlights: • A selective rhodamine–cyanobenzene conjugate is synthesized. • The conjugate is a selective dual signaling chemodosimetric probe towards hydrazine. • Spirolactam ring opening of the probe, followed by its hydrolysis, is the sensing mechanism. • The probe detects hydrazine in the human breast cancer cells MCF-7 imaging.

  10. Temperate heath plant response to dry conditions depends on growth strategy and less on physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Kongstad, J.; Schmidt, I. K.

    2012-01-01

    of these differences in response in dry versus rewetting conditions can be used to highlight the limitations coherent in different strategies adopted by, for example, evergreen shrubs and grasses. We investigated the leaf-level photosynthetic performance, leaf C, N and d13C along with vegetation cover and biomass...... in the evergreen dwarf shrub Calluna vulgaris and the grass species Deschampsia flexuosa in a temperate heath during seasonal changes in soil moisture. Higher photosynthetic capacity compensated for lower stomatal conductance and sustained higher rates of photosynthesis in the grass compared to the dwarf shrub....... In combination with dieback of aboveground biomass and reduction of stomatal conductance reduction during dry conditions, the grass continued to have high carbon uptake in the remaining leaves. The dwarf shrub endured the dry conditions by preserving shoot biomass and reducing stomatal conductance. Soil...

  11. Nitrate reduction to nitrite, nitric oxide and ammonia by gut bacteria under physiological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tiso

    Full Text Available The biological nitrogen cycle involves step-wise reduction of nitrogen oxides to ammonium salts and oxidation of ammonia back to nitrites and nitrates by plants and bacteria. Neither process has been thought to have relevance to mammalian physiology; however in recent years the salivary bacterial reduction of nitrate to nitrite has been recognized as an important metabolic conversion in humans. Several enteric bacteria have also shown the ability of catalytic reduction of nitrate to ammonia via nitrite during dissimilatory respiration; however, the importance of this pathway in bacterial species colonizing the human intestine has been little studied. We measured nitrite, nitric oxide (NO and ammonia formation in cultures of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species grown at different sodium nitrate concentrations and oxygen levels. We found that the presence of 5 mM nitrate provided a growth benefit and induced both nitrite and ammonia generation in E.coli and L.plantarum bacteria grown at oxygen concentrations compatible with the content in the gastrointestinal tract. Nitrite and ammonia accumulated in the growth medium when at least 2.5 mM nitrate was present. Time-course curves suggest that nitrate is first converted to nitrite and subsequently to ammonia. Strains of L.rhamnosus, L.acidophilus and B.longum infantis grown with nitrate produced minor changes in nitrite or ammonia levels in the cultures. However, when supplied with exogenous nitrite, NO gas was readily produced independently of added nitrate. Bacterial production of lactic acid causes medium acidification that in turn generates NO by non-enzymatic nitrite reduction. In contrast, nitrite was converted to NO by E.coli cultures even at neutral pH. We suggest that the bacterial nitrate reduction to ammonia, as well as the related NO formation in the gut, could be an important aspect of the overall mammalian nitrate/nitrite/NO metabolism and is yet another way in

  12. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze SEEDS SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT STORAGE CONDITIONS AND ESCARIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Valente Caçola

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze are recalcitrants and, therefore, they lose rapidly the viability after the harvest, limiting their use for nursery production of seedlings. This work was carried out to investigate the effects of cold storage duration, conservation method, and escarification on germination and vigour of seeds of Araucaria angustifolia. The seeds were cold stored (0-1oC/90-95% RH for 0, 60, 120, and 180 days, under normal air condictions (NA, modified atmosphere (MA, and controlled atmosphere (CA storage. For each cold storage duration, after removal from cold storage, the seeds were submitted or not to scarification (by cutting a small portion of the apical seed tegument, avoiding the damage of the endosperm, letting the germinate in a chamber with controlled environment, in plastic trays filled with vermiculite, for 60 days. The experiment followed the completely randomized factorial design (4x3x2, with four cold storage durations (0, 60, 120, and 180 days, three storage methods (NA, MA, and CA, with or without escarification, and four replicates. There was a good preservation of physiological quality for seeds submitted to different conservation methods in cold storage along the 180-day period. However, there was a faster germination and initial growth of seedlings for seeds left in cold storage for 60 days than in seeds assessed at harvest or left in cold storage for 120-180 days. The NA storage of seeds in perfurated plastic bags was as efficient as MA and CA storage to preserve seeds quality. Seeds scarification increased vigor and promoted seedlings initial growth of Araucaria angustifolia after being removed from cold storage.

  13. Nitrate Reduction to Nitrite, Nitric Oxide and Ammonia by Gut Bacteria under Physiological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiso, Mauro; Schechter, Alan N.

    2015-01-01

    The biological nitrogen cycle involves step-wise reduction of nitrogen oxides to ammonium salts and oxidation of ammonia back to nitrites and nitrates by plants and bacteria. Neither process has been thought to have relevance to mammalian physiology; however in recent years the salivary bacterial reduction of nitrate to nitrite has been recognized as an important metabolic conversion in humans. Several enteric bacteria have also shown the ability of catalytic reduction of nitrate to ammonia via nitrite during dissimilatory respiration; however, the importance of this pathway in bacterial species colonizing the human intestine has been little studied. We measured nitrite, nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia formation in cultures of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species grown at different sodium nitrate concentrations and oxygen levels. We found that the presence of 5 mM nitrate provided a growth benefit and induced both nitrite and ammonia generation in E.coli and L.plantarum bacteria grown at oxygen concentrations compatible with the content in the gastrointestinal tract. Nitrite and ammonia accumulated in the growth medium when at least 2.5 mM nitrate was present. Time-course curves suggest that nitrate is first converted to nitrite and subsequently to ammonia. Strains of L.rhamnosus, L.acidophilus and B.longum infantis grown with nitrate produced minor changes in nitrite or ammonia levels in the cultures. However, when supplied with exogenous nitrite, NO gas was readily produced independently of added nitrate. Bacterial production of lactic acid causes medium acidification that in turn generates NO by non-enzymatic nitrite reduction. In contrast, nitrite was converted to NO by E.coli cultures even at neutral pH. We suggest that the bacterial nitrate reduction to ammonia, as well as the related NO formation in the gut, could be an important aspect of the overall mammalian nitrate/nitrite/NO metabolism and is yet another way in which the microbiome

  14. Social and reproductive physiology and behavior of the Neotropical cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Alonso

    Full Text Available In this work we describe for the first time the social and reproductive behavior of the Neotropical fish Cichlasoma dimerus (Heckel, 1840 [Perciformes: Cichlidae], endemic to the Paraná River basin, using a comprehensive-integral approach, including morphological and physiological features. This substrate breeding fish has biparental care of the fry and presents a dominance hierarchy that determines access to breeding territories among males, and to males with territories among females. Gregarious behavior associated with a pale body color, was observed before reproductive behaviors started. Afterwards, a dominance hierarchy was established through aggressive interactions. Territorial individuals had bright body color patterns and non territorial an opaque grey one. Black ventral coloration was associated with reproductive individuals. Courtship displays, which were similar to threatening displays, had the common effect of increasing the visible area of the individual. The dominant male was always the largest one suggesting that size is probably a major factor determining the hierarchy establishment and that these intra-sexually selected traits may have been reinforced by inter-sexual selection. Reproductive males had higher pituitary levels of β-follicle stimulating hormone (β-FSH and somatolactin (SL than non reproductive ones, while no differences were found among females. No differences were found among male gonadosomatic indexes. Non reproductive individuals had higher plasma cortisol levels for both sexes. It is possible that dominant reproductive individuals may be inhibiting reproduction of subordinate fish through physical contact, increasing their cortisol levels and diminishing FSH and SL pituitary content. However, this was not reflected as an inhibition at the gonadal level in our experimental design.

  15. A novel integrative method for measuring body condition in ecological studies based on physiological dysregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milot, E.; Cohen, A.A.; Vézina, F.; Buehler, D.M.; Matson, K.D.; Piersma, T.

    2014-01-01

    1. The body condition of free-ranging animals affects their response to stress, decisions, ability to fulfil vitalneeds and, ultimately, fitness. However, this key attribute in ecology remains difficult to assess, and there is aclear need for more integrativemeasures than the common univariate

  16. Physicochemical characterization of engineered nanoparticles under physiological conditions: effect of culture media components and particle surface coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatisson, Julien; Quevedo, Ivan R; Wilkinson, Kevin J; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2012-03-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in commercial products has increased substantially over the last few years. Some research has been conducted in order to determine whether or not such materials are cytotoxic, but questions remain regarding the role that physiological media and sera constituents play in ENP aggregation or stabilization. In this study, several characterization methods were used to evaluate the particle size and surface potential of 6 ENPs suspended in a number of culture media and in the presence of different culture media constituents. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) were employed for size determinations. Results were interpreted on the basis of ENP surface potentials evaluated from particle electrophoretic mobilities (EPM). Measurements made after 24h of incubation at 37°C showed that the cell culture medium constituents had only moderate impact on the physicochemical properties of the ENP, although incubation in bovine serum albumin destabilized the colloidal system. In contrast, most of the serum proteins increased colloidal stabilization. Moreover, the type of ENP surface modification played a significant role in ENP behavior whereby the complexity of interactions between the ENPs and the medium components generally decreased with increasing complexity of the particle surface. This investigation emphasizes the importance of ENP characterization under conditions that are representative of cell culture media or physiological conditions for improved assessments of nanoparticle cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Intraspecific variation in physiological condition of reef-building corals associated with differential levels of chronic disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisapia, Chiara; Anderson, Kristen; Pratchett, Morgan S

    2014-01-01

    Even in the absence of major disturbances (e.g., cyclones, bleaching), corals are subject to high levels of partial or whole-colony mortality, often caused by chronic and small-scale disturbances. Depending on levels of background mortality, these chronic disturbances may undermine individual fitness and have significant consequences on the ability of colonies to withstand subsequent acute disturbances or environmental change. This study quantified intraspecific variations in physiological condition (measured based on total lipid content and zooxanthellae density) through time in adult colonies of two common and widespread coral species (Acropora spathulata and Pocillopora damicornis), subject to different levels of biological and physical disturbances along the most disturbed reef habitat, the crest. Marked intraspecific variation in the physiological condition of A. spathulata was clearly linked to differences in local disturbance regimes and habitat. Specifically, zooxanthellae density decreased (r2 = 26, df = 5,42, pzooxanthellae density was strongly and negatively correlated with the individual level of partial mortality (r2 = 26, df = 5,42, pclimate-induced coral bleaching.

  18. Adding sleep restriction to the equation: impact on wildland firefighters' work performance and physiology in hot conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Grace E; Ferguson, Sally; Larsen, Brianna; Ridgers, Nicola D; Snow, Rod; Aisbett, Brad

    2018-04-06

    To examine the effects of sleep restriction on firefighters' physical task performance, physical activity, and physiological and perceived exertion during simulated hot wildfire conditions. 31 firefighters were randomly allocated to either the hot (n = 18, HOT; 33 °C, 8-h sleep opportunity) or hot and sleep restricted (n = 13, HOT + SR; 33 °C, 4-h sleep opportunity) condition. Intermittent, self-paced work circuits of six firefighting tasks were performed for 3 days. Firefighters self-reported ratings of perceived exertion. Heart rate, core temperature, and physical activity were measured continuously. Fluids were consumed ad libitum, and all food and fluids consumed were recorded. Urine volume and urine specific gravity (USG) were analysed and sleep was assessed using polysomnography (PSG). There were no differences between the HOT and HOT + SR groups in firefighters' physical task performance, heart rate, core temperature, USG, or fluid intake. Ratings of perceived exertion were higher (p HOT + SR group for two of the six firefighting tasks. The HOT group spent approximately 7 min more undertaking moderate physical activity throughout the 2-h work circuits compared to the HOT + SR group. Two nights of sleep restriction did not influence firefighters' physical task performance or physiological responses during 3 days of simulated wildfire suppression. Further research is needed to explore firefighters' pacing strategies during real wildfire suppression.

  19. Cholesterol as a modifying agent of the neurovascular unit structure and function under physiological and pathological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Ewelina; Steliga, Aleksandra; Lietzau, Grażyna; Kowiański, Przemysław

    2017-08-01

    The brain, demanding constant level of cholesterol, precisely controls its synthesis and homeostasis. The brain cholesterol pool is almost completely separated from the rest of the body by the functional blood-brain barrier (BBB). Only a part of cholesterol pool can be exchanged with the blood circulation in the form of the oxysterol metabolites such, as 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) and 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC). Not only neurons but also blood vessels and neuroglia, constituting neurovascular unit (NVU), are crucial for the brain cholesterol metabolism and undergo precise regulation by numerous modulators, metabolites and signal molecules. In physiological conditions maintaining the optimal cholesterol concentration is important for the energetic metabolism, composition of cell membranes and myelination. However, a growing body of evidence indicates the consequences of the cholesterol homeostasis dysregulation in several pathophysiological processes. There is a causal relationship between hypercholesterolemia and 1) development of type 2 diabetes due to long-term high-fat diet consumption, 2) significance of the oxidative stress consequences for cerebral amyloid angiopathy and neurodegenerative diseases, 3) insulin resistance on progression of the neurodegenerative brain diseases. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the cholesterol influence upon functioning of the NVU under physiological and pathological conditions.

  20. Positive impact of bio-stimulators on growth and physiological activity of willow in climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Duda, Zdzisława

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the physiological activity and growth of willow (Salix viminalis L.) plants cultivated under the conditions of adverse temperature and soil moisture content, and to assess the effect of the foliar application of Biojodis (1.0%) and Asahi SL (0.03%) bio-stimulators, or a mixture of Microcistis aeruginosa MKR 0105 and Anabaena PCC 7120 cyanobacteria under such changing growth conditions. The obtained results showed different reactions to the applied constant or periodically changed temperature and soil moisture content. The plants which grew at periodically changed adverse temperature (from -5 to 40oC) or in scantily (20% m.c.) or excessively (60% m.c.) watered soils, grew slowly, in comparison with those growing at 20oC and in optimally moistened soil (30% m.c.). Foliar application of Biojodis and Asahi SL cyanobacteria increased the growth of willow at optimal and adverse temperature or in scantily and excessively moistened soil. The changes in plant growth were associated with the changes in electrolyte leakage, activity of acid or alkaline phosphatases, RNase, index of chlorophyll content in leaves and gas exchange. The above indicates that the foliar application of the studied cyanobacteria and bio-stimulators partly alleviates the harmful impact of adverse temperature and water stress on growth and physiological activity of willow plants

  1. Evaluating the Effect of Seed Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide on Anatomical and Physiological Characteristics of Wheat under Dry Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Jafarian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Water deficit is the major abiotic factor limiting plant growth and crop productivity around the world. In all agricultural regions, yields of rain-fed crops are periodically reduced by drought. Among various strategies, pre-sowing treatment and priming of seeds are easy, low cost, low risk and effective approaches to overcome the environmental stress problems. Various priming strategies include osmopriming, halopriming, hormonal priming or hydropriming, etc. Hydrogen peroxide, a stress signal molecule, was evaluated as seed treatment to produce the metabolic changes, which could lead to improved drought tolerance in wheat. The interaction of signals conferring stress tolerance in accomplishing better crop growth and yield is a priority area of research. Here we report some anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes induced by Hydrogen peroxide during seed treatment and their involvement in conferring drought tolerance upon wheat. Materials and Methods A field study was conducted out at the research farm of agricultural collage of Ilam university during 2014-2015 cropping season. This study was aimed to investigate the priming seed with hydrogen peroxide on two wheat genotypes (Cross Sabalan (bread wheat and Saji (durum wheat, under dryland farming system condition. Experimental design was factorial, arranged in randomized complete block, with three replications. Two main factors were wheat genotypes and four soaking treatments of seeds with different concentration (zero, 25, 50 and 80 Mm of Hydrogen Peroxide. Seeds of each genotype were sown at 6 rows of 3 m length with lines space of 20 cm in depth 5 cm. At heading stage physiological traits were measured on selected leaves and then samples were taken to determine leaf area, Leaf rolling, number and length of Stomata on the epidermis, RWC, electrolyte leakage, photosynthetic pigments concentrations (Chla, b and carotenoid and antioxidant enzyme contents (catalase, ascorbate

  2. Physiological response of Crocosphaera watsonii to enhanced and fluctuating carbon dioxide conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary R Gradoville

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of elevated pCO2 on cultures of the unicellular N2-fixing cyanobacterium Crocosphaera watsonii WH8501. Using CO2-enriched air, cultures grown in batch mode under high light intensity were exposed to initial conditions approximating current atmospheric CO2 concentrations (∼ 400 ppm as well as CO2 levels corresponding to low- and high-end predictions for the year 2100 (∼ 750 and 1000 ppm. Following acclimation to CO2 levels, the concentrations of particulate carbon (PC, particulate nitrogen (PN, and cells were measured over the diurnal cycle for a six-day period spanning exponential and early stationary growth phases. High rates of photosynthesis and respiration resulted in biologically induced pCO2 fluctuations in all treatments. Despite this observed pCO2 variability, and consistent with previous experiments conducted under stable pCO2 conditions, we observed that elevated mean pCO2 enhanced rates of PC production, PN production, and growth. During exponential growth phase, rates of PC and PN production increased by ∼ 1.2- and ∼ 1.5-fold in the mid- and high-CO2 treatments, respectively, when compared to the low-CO2 treatment. Elevated pCO2 also enhanced PC and PN production rates during early stationary growth phase. In all treatments, PC and PN cellular content displayed a strong diurnal rhythm, with particulate C:N molar ratios reaching a high of 22:1 in the light and a low of 5.5:1 in the dark. The pCO2 enhancement of metabolic rates persisted despite pCO2 variability, suggesting a consistent positive response of Crocosphaera to elevated and fluctuating pCO2 conditions.

  3. Dynamic behavior of tripolar hip endoprostheses under physiological conditions and their effect on stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabry, Christian; Kaehler, Michael; Herrmann, Sven; Woernle, Christoph; Bader, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Tripolar systems have been implanted to reduce the risk of recurrent dislocation. However, there is little known about the dynamic behavior of tripolar hip endoprostheses under daily life conditions and achieved joint stability. Hence, the objective of this biomechanical study was to examine the in vivo dynamics and dislocation behavior of two types of tripolar systems compared to a standard total hip replacement (THR) with the same outer head diameter. Several load cases of daily life activities were applied to an eccentric and a concentric tripolar system by an industrial robot. During testing, the motion of the intermediate component was measured using a stereo camera system. Additionally, their behavior under different dislocation scenarios was investigated in comparison to a standard THR. For the eccentric tripolar system, the intermediate component demonstrated the shifting into moderate valgus-positions, regardless of the type of movement. This implant showed the highest resisting torque against dislocation in combination with a large range of motion. In contrast, the concentric tripolar system tended to remain in varus-positions and was primarily moved after stem contact. According to the results, eccentric tripolar systems can work well under in vivo conditions and increase hip joint stability in comparison to standard THRs. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of extended nap periods on cognitive, physiological and subjective responses under simulated night shift conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Jonathan; Göbel, Matthias

    2018-02-01

    Extended nap opportunities have been effective in maintaining alertness in the context of extended night shifts (+12 h). However, there is limited evidence of their efficacy during 8-h shifts. Thus, this study explored the effects of extended naps on cognitive, physiological and perceptual responses during four simulated, 8-h night shifts. In a laboratory setting, 32 participants were allocated to one of three conditions. All participants completed four consecutive, 8-h night shifts, with the arrangements differing by condition. The fixed night condition worked from 22h00 to 06h00, while the nap early group worked from 20h00 to 08h00 and napped between 00h00 and 03h20. The nap late group worked from 00h00 to 12h00 and napped between 04h00 and 07h20. Nap length was limited to 3 hours and 20 minutes. Participants performed a simple beading task during each shift, while also completing six to eight test batteries roughly every 2 h. During each shift, six test batteries were completed, in which the following measures were taken. Performance indicators included beading output, eye accommodation time, choice reaction time, visual vigilance, simple reaction time, processing speed and object recognition, working memory, motor response time and tracking performance. Physiological measures included heart rate and tympanic temperature, whereas subjective sleepiness and reported sleep length and quality while outside the laboratory constituted the self reported measures. Both naps reduced subjective sleepiness but did not alter the circadian and homeostatic-related changes in cognitive and physiological measures, relative to the fixed night condition. Additionally, there was evidence of sleep inertia following each nap, which resulted in transient reductions in certain perceptual cognitive performance measures. The present study suggested that there were some benefits associated with including an extended nap during 8-h night shifts. However, the effects of sleep inertia

  5. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja submetidas ao hidrocondicionamento = Soybean seed physiological quality after hydro-conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Krüger Giurizatto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de hidratação controlada de sementes vem sendo utilizada como método de condicionamento fisiológico, tanto para sementes deterioradas como para sementes altamente sensíveis à embebição rápida, ou a interação entre ambas, objetivando melhorar o desempenho destas no campo. A hidratação pode ser seguida por secagem, se assementes não tiverem atingido a fase III da germinação, facilitando, assim, o subseqüente manuseio, armazenamento e semeadura no campo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do hidrocondicionamento na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja,sendo estas sementes hidrocondicionadas por períodos de 0, 20 e 24h, secas e armazenadas por 0, 90, 180 e 270 dias em câmara seca, com umidade e temperatura controladas. O hidrocondicionamento teve efeito benéfico na qualidade fisiológica das sementes de soja,suas vantagens se tornaram mais evidentes com o envelhecimento natural das sementes durante o armazenamento.Controlled hydration of seeds has been used as a physiological conditioning method, both for deteriorated seeds as well as seeds that are highly sensitive to soaking, or an interaction among both, aiming to improving their performance after sowing in the field. Thehydration must be followed by drying, in case the seeds have not reached yet phase III of germination, thus facilitating subsequent handling, storage and sowing operations. This work aimed to evaluate the hydro-conditioning effect (0, 20 and 24 hours, followed by seeddrying on the physiological quality of soybean seeds, stored in dry chamber under controlled conditions (relative humidity and temperature during 0, 90, 180 and 270 days. Hydro-conditioning has revealed positive effects on the physiological quality of those seedsand its advantage became more evident according to natural aging of the seeds during the storage.

  6. Physiological response of invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae submitted to transport and experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. S. Cordeiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Successful animal rearing under laboratory conditions for commercial processes or laboratory experiments is a complex chain that includes several stressors (e.g., sampling and transport and incurs, as a consequence, the reduction of natural animal conditions, economic losses and inconsistent and unreliable biological results. Since the invasion of the bivalve Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857 in South America, several studies have been performed to help control and manage this fouling pest in industrial plants that use raw water. Relatively little attention has been given to the laboratory rearing procedure of L. fortunei, its condition when exposed to a stressor or its acclimation into laboratory conditions. Considering this issue, the aims of this study are to (i investigate L. fortunei physiological responses when submitted to the depuration process and subsequent air transport (without water/dry condition at two temperatures, based on glycogen concentrations, and (ii monitor the glycogen concentrations in different groups when maintained for 28 days under laboratory conditions. Based on the obtained results, depuration did not affect either of the groups when they were submitted to approximately eight hours of transport. The variation in glycogen concentration among the specimens that were obtained from the field under depurated and non-depurated conditions was significant only in the first week of laboratory growth for the non-depurated group and in the second week for the depurated group. In addition, the tested temperature did not affect either of the groups that were submitted to transport. The glycogen concentrations were similar to those of the specimens that were obtained from the field in third week, which suggests that the specimens acclimated to laboratory conditions during this period of time. Thus, the results indicate that the air transport and acclimation time can be successfully incorporated into experimental studies

  7. Assessment of a plasma ADH radioimmunoassay in experimental and physiologic or pathologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzkowitch, D.; Brauman, H.; Gregoire, F.; Staroukine, M.; Abramov, M.

    1980-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay of ADH has been applied to the study of plasma ADH levels in various conditions. The validity of the assay has been evaluated by the usual quality control parameters of RIA and by the measure of plasma levels in 12 upright water deprived normal volunteers (mean 9.5 pg/ml, SEM +- 1.5) in 8 resting and hydrated normal volunteers (1.3 +- 0,4 pg/ml), in a case of diabetes insipidus (1.6 pg/ml), in 8 cases of SIADH Syndrome (range 13 - 77 pg/ml) and in 4 anesthetized dogs before (33.7 +- 9.2 pg/ml) and after acute haemorrhage (66 +- 9.5 pg/ml, p [de

  8. Viscoelastic Properties of Hyaluronan in Physiological Conditions [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary K. Cowman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronan (HA is a high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan of the extracellular matrix (ECM, which is particularly abundant in soft connective tissues. Solutions of HA can be highly viscous with non-Newtonian flow properties. These properties affect the movement of HA-containing fluid layers within and underlying the deep fascia. Changes in the concentration, molecular weight, or even covalent modification of HA in inflammatory conditions, as well as changes in binding interactions with other macromolecules, can have dramatic effects on the sliding movement of fascia. The high molecular weight and the semi-flexible chain of HA are key factors leading to the high viscosity of dilute solutions, and real HA solutions show additional nonideality and greatly increased viscosity due to mutual macromolecular crowding. The shear rate dependence of the viscosity, and the viscoelasticity of HA solutions, depend on the relaxation time of the molecule, which in turn depends on the HA concentration and molecular weight. Temperature can also have an effect on these properties. High viscosity can additionally affect the lubricating function of HA solutions. Immobility can increase the concentration of HA, increase the viscosity, and reduce lubrication and gliding of the layers of connective tissue and muscle. Over time, these changes can alter both muscle structure and function. Inflammation can further increase the viscosity of HA-containing fluids if the HA is modified via covalent attachment of heavy chains derived from Inter-α-Inhibitor. Hyaluronidase hydrolyzes HA, thus reducing its molecular weight, lowering the viscosity of the extracellular matrix fluid and making outflow easier. It can also disrupt any aggregates or gel-like structures that result from HA being modified. Hyaluronidase is used medically primarily as a dispersion agent, but may also be useful in conditions where altered viscosity of the fascia is desired, such as in the treatment of

  9. Effect of fabric stuff of work clothing on the physiological strain index at hot conditions in the climatic chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Dehghan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fabric stuff of work clothing that are widely used in Iran industries on the physiological strain index (PSI at hot conditions in the climatic chamber. Materials and Methods: This interventional study was performed upon 18 male students in 16 trials, which included combination of four kinds of work clothing (13.7% viscose (VIS 86.3% polyester(PES, 30.2% cotton [CT]-69.8% PES, 68.5% CT-31.5% PES, 100% CT, two activity levels (light and moderate and two kinds of climatic conditions included hot-wet (T a = 35, RH = 70% and hot-dry (T a = 38, RH = 40%. During each trial, the RH and core temperature was recorded once a minute and then PSI was calculated. Data were analyzed by using SPSS-16 software. Results: The results showed that in hot-wet conditions, the least value of PSI in light and moderate activities was related to 100% CT clothing and 30.2% CT-69.8% PES clothing, respectively. In hot-dry conditions, the least value of PSI in both of activities was related to 30.2% CT-69.8% PES clothing. The mean value of PSI in hot-wet conditions, during moderate activity had significant difference for various clothing types (P = 0.044. Conclusion: The research findings showed that for a heat strain reduction in hot-wet conditions at light activity level, 100% CT clothing is suitable. Furthermore, at moderate activity level, 30.2% CT-69.8% PES clothing and in hot-dry conditions, 30.2% CT-69.8% PES is suitable.

  10. The effect of physiological conditions on the surface structure of proteins: Setting the scene for human digestion of emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Valderrama, J.; Gunning, A. P.; Ridout, M. J.; Wilde, P. J.; Morris, V. J.

    2009-10-01

    Understanding and manipulating the interfacial mechanisms that control human digestion of food emulsions is a crucial step towards improved control of dietary intake. This article reports initial studies on the effects of the physiological conditions within the stomach on the properties of the film formed by the milk protein ( β -lactoglobulin) at the air-water interface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface tension and surface rheology techniques were used to visualize and examine the effect of gastric conditions on the network structure. The effects of changes in temperature, pH and ionic strength on a pre-formed interfacial structure were characterized in order to simulate the actual digestion process. Changes in ionic strength had little effect on the surface properties. In isolation, acidification reduced both the dilatational and the surface shear modulus, mainly due to strong repulsive electrostatic interactions within the surface layer and raising the temperature to body temperature accelerated the rearrangements within the surface layer, resulting in a decrease of the dilatational response and an increase of surface pressure. Together pH and temperature display an unexpected synergism, independent of the ionic strength. Thus, exposure of a pre-formed interfacial β -lactoglobulin film to simulated gastric conditions reduced the surface dilatational modulus and surface shear moduli. This is attributed to a weakening of the surface network in which the surface rearrangements of the protein prior to exposure to gastric conditions might play a crucial role.

  11. Mechanical measurement of hydrogen bonded host-guest systems under non-equilibrium, near-physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Teresa; Cerrón, Fernando; Nieto-Ortega, Belén; Latorre, Alfonso; Somoza, Álvaro; Ibarra, Borja; Pérez, Emilio M

    2017-09-01

    Decades after the birth of supramolecular chemistry, there are many techniques to measure noncovalent interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, under equilibrium conditions. As ensembles of molecules rapidly lose coherence, we cannot extrapolate bulk data to single-molecule events under non-equilibrium conditions, more relevant to the dynamics of biological systems. We present a new method that exploits the high force resolution of optical tweezers to measure at the single molecule level the mechanical strength of a hydrogen bonded host-guest pair out of equilibrium and under near-physiological conditions. We utilize a DNA reporter to unambiguously isolate single binding events. The Hamilton receptor-cyanuric acid host-guest system is used as a test bed. The force required to dissociate the host-guest system is ∼17 pN and increases with the pulling rate as expected for a system under non-equilibrium conditions. Blocking one of the hydrogen bonding sites results in a significant decrease of the force-to-break by 1-2 pN, pointing out the ability of the method to resolve subtle changes in the mechanical strength of the binding due to the individual H-bonding components. We believe the method will prove to be a versatile tool to address important questions in supramolecular chemistry.

  12. Competitive endothelial adhesion between Plasmodium falciparum isolates under physiological flow conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molyneux Malcolm

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequestration of parasitized red blood cells in the microvasculature of major organs involves a sequence of events that is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of severe falciparum malaria. Plasmodium falciparum infections are commonly composed of multiple subpopulations of parasites with varied adhesive properties. A key question is: do these subpopulations compete for adhesion to endothelium? This study investigated whether, in a laboratory model of cytoadherence, there is competition in binding to endothelium between pRBC infected with P. falciparum of variant adhesive phenotypes, particularly under flow conditions. Methods Four different P. falciparum isolates, of known adherence phenotypes, were matched in pairs, mixed in different proportions and allowed to bind to cultured human endothelium. Using in vitro competitive static and flow-based adhesion assays, that allow simultaneous testing of the adhesive properties of two different parasite lines, adherence levels of paired P. falciparum isolates were quantified and analysed using either non-parametric Wilcoxon's paired signed rank test or Student paired test. Results Study findings show that P. falciparum parasite lines show marked differences in the efficiency of adhesion to endothelium. Conclusion Plasmodium falciparum variants will compete for adhesion to endothelia and variants can be ranked by their efficiency of binding. These findings suggest that variants from a mixed infection will not show uniform cytoadherence and so may vary in their ability to cause disease.

  13. Seed Germination and Physiological Response of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. Cultivars under Saline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BEINSAN

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiment was to highlight the germination of sunflower seeds affected by the presence of saline stress and the identification of tolerant genotypes. The biological material was represented by sunflower cvs. (Helianthus annuus L.: Coril, Select, Santiago and Fundulea-206. To simulate the saline conditions, germination solutions of sodium chloride (NaCl were used with concentrations corresponding to the osmotic pressures -6 and -10 atm and the control seed hydration was performed with distilled water. Determination of seed germination, growth of seedling, percentage of plumules dry matter, chlorophyll content and free proline were performed. The experimental data obtained suppose the existence in the assimilation apparatus of sunflowers seedling subjected to stress a competitive chlorophyll/free proline biosynthesis processes. The experimental results regarding the effect of salinity on seed germination and seedling growth revealed important differences between genotypes. The radicle growth in the germination process were strongly affected by saline excess, with significant differences between cultivars. Saline stress results in significant reductions in the amount of chlorophyll, and high levels of free proline. It can be observed that with the increase of the stress level the percentage of the dry matter increases, indicating an accentuated water deficit.

  14. Activation of TRPM7 channels by small molecules under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, T; Schäfer, S; Linseisen, M; Sytik, L; Gudermann, T; Chubanov, V

    2014-12-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7) is a cation channel covalently linked to a protein kinase domain. TRPM7 is ubiquitously expressed and regulates key cellular processes such as Mg(2+) homeostasis, motility, and proliferation. TRPM7 is involved in anoxic neuronal death, cardiac fibrosis, and tumor growth. The goal of this work was to identify small molecule activators of the TRPM7 channel and investigate their mechanism of action. We used an aequorin bioluminescence-based assay to screen for activators of the TRPM7 channel. Valid candidates were further characterized using patch clamp electrophysiology. We identified 20 drug-like compounds with various structural backbones that can activate the TRPM7 channel. Among them, the δ opioid antagonist naltriben was studied in greater detail. Naltriben's action was selective among the TRP channels tested. Naltriben activates TRPM7 currents without prior depletion of intracellular Mg(2+) even under conditions of low PIP2. Moreover, naltriben interfered with the effect of the TRPM7 inhibitor NS8593. Finally, our experiments with TRPM7 variants carrying mutations in the pore, TRP, and kinase domains indicate that the site of TRPM7 activation by this small-molecule ligand is most likely located in or near the TRP domain. In conclusion, we identified the first organic small-molecule activators of TRPM7 channels, thus providing new experimental tools to study TRPM7 function in native cellular environments.

  15. Understanding the physiological roles of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 under aerobic chemoheterotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narancic, Tanja; Scollica, Elisa; Kenny, Shane T; Gibbons, Helena; Carr, Eibhlin; Brennan, Lorraine; Cagney, Gerard; Wynne, Kieran; Murphy, Cormac; Raberg, Matthias; Heinrich, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2016-10-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is an important biopolymer accumulated by bacteria and associated with cell survival and stress response. Here, we make two surprising findings in the PHB-accumulating species Rhodospirillum rubrum S1. We first show that the presence of PHB promotes the increased assimilation of acetate preferentially into biomass rather than PHB. When R. rubrum is supplied with (13)C-acetate as a PHB precursor, 83.5 % of the carbon in PHB comes from acetate. However, only 15 % of the acetate ends up in PHB with the remainder assimilated as bacterial biomass. The PHB-negative mutant of R. rubrum assimilates 2-fold less acetate into biomass compared to the wild-type strain. Acetate assimilation proceeds via the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway with (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate as a common intermediate with the PHB pathway. Secondly, we show that R. rubrum cells accumulating PHB have reduced ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO) activity. RuBisCO activity reduces 5-fold over a 36-h period after the onset of PHB. In contrast, a PHB-negative mutant maintains the same level of RuBisCO activity over the growth period. Since RuBisCO controls the redox potential in R. rubrum, PHB likely replaces RuBisCO in this role. R. rubrum is the first bacterium found to express RuBisCO under aerobic chemoheterotrophic conditions.

  16. Phenotypic and Physiological Evaluation of Two and Six Rows Barley under Different Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Mahmoud; Badran, Mohamed; Abouzied, Hanaa; Ali, Heba; Elbasyoni, Ibrahim

    2018-05-04

    In recent years, barley has attracted more interest as a food and feed source because of its high soluble dietary fiber and β-glucan content compared with other small grains. Twenty-five barley genotypes (20 imported genotypes and five check cultivars) were grown in three environments for two successive seasons: 2015/2016 and 2016/2017. The first environment was in El-Nubaria, Alexandria, Egypt during 2015/2016, while the second and third environments were in El-Bostan, Elbhera, Egypt during 2015/2016 and 2016/2017. The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design with the three replicates. The primary objectives of the current study were to evaluate the performance of 20 imported barley genotypes under several environmental conditions. The imported materials were superior to the local commercial cultivars for several traits, including grain yield. Therefore, the superior genotypes will be further evaluated and used in barley breeding programs. Our future work will focus on creating several crosses among the selected superior genotypes to improve yield and other important traits, while applying marker-assisted selection.

  17. Extracellular Membrane Vesicles as Vehicles for Brain Cell-to-Cell Interactions in Physiological as well as Pathological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Schiera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles are involved in a great variety of physiological events occurring in the nervous system, such as cross talk among neurons and glial cells in synapse development and function, integrated neuronal plasticity, neuronal-glial metabolic exchanges, and synthesis and dynamic renewal of myelin. Many of these EV-mediated processes depend on the exchange of proteins, mRNAs, and noncoding RNAs, including miRNAs, which occurs among glial and neuronal cells. In addition, production and exchange of EVs can be modified under pathological conditions, such as brain cancer and neurodegeneration. Like other cancer cells, brain tumours can use EVs to secrete factors, which allow escaping from immune surveillance, and to transfer molecules into the surrounding cells, thus transforming their phenotype. Moreover, EVs can function as a way to discard material dangerous to cancer cells, such as differentiation-inducing proteins, and even drugs. Intriguingly, EVs seem to be also involved in spreading through the brain of aggregated proteins, such as prions and aggregated tau protein. Finally, EVs can carry useful biomarkers for the early diagnosis of diseases. Herein we summarize possible roles of EVs in brain physiological functions and discuss their involvement in the horizontal spreading, from cell to cell, of both cancer and neurodegenerative pathologies.

  18. Spectroscopic and immunochemical characterization of left-handed Z RNA under physiological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, C.C.; Zarling, D.A.; Tinoco, I. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Limited chemical brominination of poly[r(C-G)] results in partial modification of guanine C8 and cytosine C5 producing a mixture of A and Z RNA forms in 110 mM NaCl buffer at 37 0 C. 1 H NMR of Br-poly[r(C-G)] shows a 1:1 mixture of A and Z RNAs. Nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) experiments permit complete assignments of GH8, CH6, CH5, GH1' and CH1 resonances in both the A and Z forms. Distance estimates obtained from GH8 to GH1' NOEs demonstrate that even unbrominated guanine residues in these polynucleotides undergo a transition to the syn conformation (Z form). The Z form of Br-poly[r(C-G)] in 110 mM NaCl has a guanine Raman scattering band at 643 cm -1 in agreement with the band in the Z form of poly[r(C-G)] stabilized by 6 M NaClO 4 . In A RNA the band is at 671 cm -1 . The corresponding shift in DNA is from 682 cm -1 (B DNA) to 625 cm -1 (Z DNA). This suggests different glycosidic torsion angles in Z RNA and Z DNA. Inoculating rabbits with Br-poly[r(C-G)] produces polyclonal antibodies specific for the Z forms of RNA and DNA (i.e., poly[d(br 5 C-G)] or poly[d(io 5 C-G)] as judged by radioimmunoassay in 100 mM NaCl buffers. Phosphate buffer or certain high ionic strength conditions affect the recognition of Z RNA and Z DNA by anti-Z RNA or anti-Z DNA IgGs suggesting that one determinant recognized by these antibodies is the zig-zag phosphodiester backbone

  19. Response of sunflower hybrids to different nitrogen levels for physiological and agronomical traits under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, D.; Abbasi, F.M.; Ahmed, H.; Qamar, M.; Khan, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    such as nitrogen in sunflower crop. It can be deduced that the -1 application of 180 kg N ha can provide the best combination for good yield in sunflower crop under the prevailing humid conditions of Pakistan. (author)

  20. Modulation of the genotoxicity of bleomycin by amines through noncovalent DNA interactions and alteration of physiological conditions in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, George R.; Gessner, Gabrielle S.; Hughes, Jennifer F.; Ronan, Matthew V.; Sylvia, Katelyn E.; Willett, Christine J.

    2007-01-01

    noncovalent association with DNA, altered BLM access to DNA, and modulation of physiological conditions

  1. Modulation of the genotoxicity of bleomycin by amines through noncovalent DNA interactions and alteration of physiological conditions in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, George R. [Department of Biology, College of the Holy Cross, One College Street, Worcester, MA 01610-2395 (United States)], E-mail: ghoffmann@holycross.edu; Gessner, Gabrielle S.; Hughes, Jennifer F.; Ronan, Matthew V.; Sylvia, Katelyn E.; Willett, Christine J. [Department of Biology, College of the Holy Cross, One College Street, Worcester, MA 01610-2395 (United States)

    2007-10-01

    noncovalent association with DNA, altered BLM access to DNA, and modulation of physiological conditions.

  2. Evaluation Physiological Characteristics and Grain Yield Canola Cultivars under end Seasonal Drought Stress in Weather Condition of Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Seyed Ahmadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate canola cultivars response to physiological characteristics and grain yield end seasonal drought stress in weather condition of Ahvaz, farm experiments were done at research farm of Khuzestan agriculture and natural resources center. During 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 crop years. Farm test comprised drought stress was done as split plot form with randomize complete block design with four replication, treatments consist of drought stress (main factor including 50, 60 and 70 percent of water use content, which was applied from early heading stage until physiological maturity, and three spring canola cultivar including Shirali, Hayola 401 and R.G.S. were considered as sub plots. Measurements include biological yield, grain yield, harvesting index, number of pod per plant 1000 grain weight, number of grain in pod, plant height, and stem diameter, oil and protein percentage. Results showed that drought stress reduced significantly grain yield, biological yield, harvest index and the average of reduction of them during 2 years for per unit reduce moisture from 50% to 70% were 2, 1.35, and 0.81 percent, respectively. During two years, 1000 grain weight, number of pods per plant and number of grain per pod reduced 27, 36 and 20 percent, respectively. Terminal Drought stress reduced significantly plant height, stem diameter, stem number per plant and pod length, this reduced were 12, 46, 36 and 14 percent, respectively. Stem diameter, and stem number per plant reduced more than other characteristics. In this study oil grain decreased 12 % and protein grain increased 18.5% but oil and protein yield decreased 44.9% and 27.1% respectively..Finally, in weather condition of Khuzestan, terminal drought stress on February and March in which has simultaneous with early flowering stage and filling seed, significantly, reduced yield and compounded yield and affects on stem growth and qualities oil and protein negatively. Therefore, with irrigation

  3. Physiological and biochemical response to Omega-3 plus as a dietary supplement to growing goats under hot summer conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Edrees Ibrahim Teama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation of Omega-3 plus on some the physiological and biochemical traits in growing Baladi goats under hot summer conditions. Thirty-four growing male goats (4-5 months old were randomly divided into two equal groups. Animals in group 1 were fed a concentrate feed mixture (CFM, which was the control group. Goats in group 2 (the experimental group were offered Omega-3 plus (1,000 mg/animal day-1 (30% fish oil, containing 18% eicosapentaenoic acid and 12% docosahexaenoic acid + 100 mg wheat germ oil (0.22% tocopherols daily in addition to the basal diet for four months (the experimental period during the hot summer season. Body weight (BW changes of both groups were recorded monthly during the experiment. Blood samples were collected monthly, and total protein, immunoglobulin G (IgG, total cholesterol, triglycerides, liver enzymes (AST and ALT, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 were estimated. A significant increase in the live BW of growing goats was recorded as a result of dietary supplementation of Omega-3 plus. Total protein, IgG, and T3 levels were higher than those obtained with control. In contrast, total cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, ALT, and AST levels were significantly reduced. The serum concentration of creatinine and T4 levels was indistinguishable from those of control. Addition of Omega-3 plus as a dietary supplement to growing goats under hot summer conditions increases their daily weight gain and improves their general physiological and biochemical status by decreasing total cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, ALT, and AST. It is thus suggested that Omega-3 plus should be used as a supplement in the growth period of goats.

  4. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Gawlik, Dale E.; Beerens, James M.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba) and white ibises (Eudocimus albus) to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate), and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index) and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term) were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  5. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Herring

    Full Text Available The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba and white ibises (Eudocimus albus to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate, and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  6. The link between antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase and physiological condition of a control population of terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemec, Anita; Lešer, Vladka; Drobne, Damjana

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate if the activities of catalase and glutathione S-transferase in a control population of terrestrial isopods (Porcellio scaber) are correlated with the physiological condition of the isopods. For this purpose, the activities of these enzymes were analysed in isopods from a stock population and in parallel, the physiological condition of the same specimens was assessed using a histological approach based on epithelial thickness and lipid droplets. We found a correlation between antioxidant enzymes and the physiological condition of the isopods. This implies that these enzymes could be used as predictive indicators of the physiological condition in a stock population before comprehensive toxicological studies are conducted and also in control group after the experiment. When a control group is found to be very heterogeneous in terms of physiological condition, the experiment should be repeated with a larger number of experimental animals. The findings of this study will contribute to more accurate experimental design of toxicity tests when using biomarkers. This should encourage other researchers to increase their effort to know the physiological state of their test organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Gawlik, Dale E; Beerens, James M; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2014-01-01

    The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba) and white ibises (Eudocimus albus) to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate), and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index) and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term) were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  8. Effect of silicon application on physiological characteristics and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under drought stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmollachaab

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on some physiological characteristics and growth of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under late drought stress condition, an experiment was conducted at the Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Ramin, Khuzestan during year 2012. The experiment was conducted in the open environment as factorial randomized complete block design with three levels of drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of available water content as the first factor and four levels of silicon (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg Si.kg-1 soil as the second factor with three replications. The results showed that drought stress imposed a negative significant effect on all traits. The drought stress led to increased electrolyte leakage and proline content, cuticular wax, leaf silicon concentration, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD and grain potassium were decreased. The severe drought stress has most effect on electrolyte leakage (up to 53%. The application of silicon except the shoot/root parameter, on all characters have been affected so that application of 30 mg Si.kg-1 soil led to decrease electrolyte leakage up to 22.5% and increased SOD activity, proline content, cuticular wax grain K and flag leaf Si concentration, 25, 12.8, 21, 17 and 30% compared to control, respectively. In general, the results showed a positive effect of silicon on wheat plant under stress conditions that were higher than no stress condition.

  9. The Relationship between Human Operators' Psycho-physiological Condition and Human Errors in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Arryum; Jang, Inseok; Kang, Hyungook; Seong, Poonghyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is substantially dependent on the performance of the human operators who operate the systems. In this environment, human errors caused by inappropriate performance of operator have been considered to be critical since it may lead serious problems in the safety-critical plants. In order to provide meaningful insights to prevent human errors and enhance the human performance, operators' physiological conditions such as stress and workload have been investigated. Physiological measurements were considered as reliable tools to assess the stress and workload. T. Q. Tran et al. and J. B. Brooking et al pointed out that operators' workload can be assessed using eye tracking, galvanic skin response, electroencephalograms (EEGs), heart rate, respiration and other measurements. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the human operators' tense level and knowledge level to the number of human errors. For this study, the experiments were conducted in the mimic of the main control rooms (MCR) in NPP. It utilized the compact nuclear simulator (CNS) which is modeled based on the three loop Pressurized Water Reactor, 993MWe, Kori unit 3 and 4 in Korea and the subjects were asked to follow the tasks described in the emergency operating procedures (EOP). During the simulation, three kinds of physiological measurement were utilized; Electrocardiogram (ECG), EEG and nose temperature. Also, subjects were divided into three groups based on their knowledge of the plant operation. The result shows that subjects who are tense make fewer errors. In addition, subjects who are in higher knowledge level tend to be tense and make fewer errors. For the ECG data, subjects who make fewer human errors tend to be located in higher tense level area of high SNS activity and low PSNS activity. The results of EEG data are also similar to ECG result. Beta power ratio of subjects who make fewer errors was higher. Since beta

  10. Influence of microclimatic conditions under high tunnels on the physiological and productive responses in blueberry 'O'Neal'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Retamal-Salgado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. production under tunnels has spread in recent years. However, there is little information on the productive and physiological responses of blueberry grown under high tunnels. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of high tunnel microclimate on the physiological and productive responses of blueberries. A total of 1296 plants of highbush blueberry 'O'Neal' were grown in high tunnels, leaving the same amount of plants under open fields (control. Environmental temperature (T, °C and relative humidity (RH, %, diffuse and total photosynthetically active radiation (PARdiffuse and PARtotal, /conditions under tunnels would favor higher leaf stomatal conductance in this crop.

  11. Physiological and lactation responses of Egyptian dairy Baladi goats to natural thermal stress under subtropical environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S; El-Tarabany, Akram A; Atta, Mostafa A

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on milk production and physiological traits of Baladi goats under subtropical Egyptian conditions. Sixty dairy Baladi goats were exposed to three different levels of temperature-humidity index (THI), including low (less than 70), moderate (over 70 and up to 80), and high levels (over 80). The influence of THI on the milk composition and physiological, hematological, and biochemical traits was investigated. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were significantly greater at the higher THI than at low and moderate THI (p = 0.016 and 0.002, respectively). Baladi goats had decreased daily milk yield in a rate of 27.3 and 19.3 % at high THI level, compared with low and moderate THI, respectively (p = 0.031). On the contrary, no significant differences have been reported in protein, fat, and total solids percentages at different THI levels. Total leucocyte count, serum glucose, and total protein were significantly reduced at high THI in comparison with low and moderate THI levels (p = 0.043, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively). However, dairy goats maintained relatively stable estimates for erythrocytes count, hemoglobin, serum triglycerides, cholesterol, catalase, total antioxidant capacity, and triiodothyronine at different THI levels. Our results indicate that dairy Baladi goats can tolerate THI levels up to 80; however, variable reduction in milk yield and few biochemical (serum total protein and glucose) and hematological (leucocytes count) parameters have been reported at a THI level higher than 80.

  12. Sliding-window analysis tracks fluctuations in amygdala functional connectivity associated with physiological arousal and vigilance during fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczkowski, Blazej M; Johnstone, Tom; Walter, Henrik; Erk, Susanne; Veer, Ilya M

    2017-06-01

    We evaluated whether sliding-window analysis can reveal functionally relevant brain network dynamics during a well-established fear conditioning paradigm. To this end, we tested if fMRI fluctuations in amygdala functional connectivity (FC) can be related to task-induced changes in physiological arousal and vigilance, as reflected in the skin conductance level (SCL). Thirty-two healthy individuals participated in the study. For the sliding-window analysis we used windows that were shifted by one volume at a time. Amygdala FC was calculated for each of these windows. Simultaneously acquired SCL time series were averaged over time frames that corresponded to the sliding-window FC analysis, which were subsequently regressed against the whole-brain seed-based amygdala sliding-window FC using the GLM. Surrogate time series were generated to test whether connectivity dynamics could have occurred by chance. In addition, results were contrasted against static amygdala FC and sliding-window FC of the primary visual cortex, which was chosen as a control seed, while a physio-physiological interaction (PPI) was performed as cross-validation. During periods of increased SCL, the left amygdala became more strongly coupled with the bilateral insula and anterior cingulate cortex, core areas of the salience network. The sliding-window analysis yielded a connectivity pattern that was unlikely to have occurred by chance, was spatially distinct from static amygdala FC and from sliding-window FC of the primary visual cortex, but was highly comparable to that of the PPI analysis. We conclude that sliding-window analysis can reveal functionally relevant fluctuations in connectivity in the context of an externally cued task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Equilibrium Dynamics of β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (BMAA and Its Carbamate Adducts at Physiological Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zimmerman

    Full Text Available Elevated incidences of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/Parkinsonism Dementia complex (ALS/PDC is associated with β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA, a non-protein amino acid. In particular, the native Chamorro people living in the island of Guam were exposed to BMAA by consuming a diet based on the cycad seeds. Carbamylated forms of BMAA are glutamate analogues. The mechanism of neurotoxicity of the BMAA is not completely understood, and BMAA acting as a glutamate receptor agonist may lead to excitotoxicity that interferes with glutamate transport systems. Though the interaction of BMAA with bicarbonate is known to produce carbamate adducts, here we demonstrate that BMAA and its primary and secondary adducts coexist in solution and undergoes a chemical exchange among them. Furthermore, we determined the rates of formation/cleavage of the carbamate adducts under equilibrium conditions using two-dimensional proton exchange NMR spectroscopy (EXSY. The coexistence of the multiple forms of BMAA at physiological conditions adds to the complexity of the mechanisms by which BMAA functions as a neurotoxin.

  14. Equilibrium Dynamics of β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (BMAA) and Its Carbamate Adducts at Physiological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, David; Goto, Joy J.; Krishnan, Viswanathan V

    2016-01-01

    Elevated incidences of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/Parkinsonism Dementia complex (ALS/PDC) is associated with β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a non-protein amino acid. In particular, the native Chamorro people living in the island of Guam were exposed to BMAA by consuming a diet based on the cycad seeds. Carbamylated forms of BMAA are glutamate analogues. The mechanism of neurotoxicity of the BMAA is not completely understood, and BMAA acting as a glutamate receptor agonist may lead to excitotoxicity that interferes with glutamate transport systems. Though the interaction of BMAA with bicarbonate is known to produce carbamate adducts, here we demonstrate that BMAA and its primary and secondary adducts coexist in solution and undergoes a chemical exchange among them. Furthermore, we determined the rates of formation/cleavage of the carbamate adducts under equilibrium conditions using two-dimensional proton exchange NMR spectroscopy (EXSY). The coexistence of the multiple forms of BMAA at physiological conditions adds to the complexity of the mechanisms by which BMAA functions as a neurotoxin. PMID:27513925

  15. Effect of Elevated CO2 in Different Fertilizer Conditions on Physiological Traits in Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis at Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shoor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and nutrients supply are generally expected to enhance photosynthesis and growth of crops as a result considerably increase yields. The present study aims to investigate effects of elevated CO2 and different fertilizer conditions on physiological traits in Lemon balm. A factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with three replications and nine treatments at the greenhouse in 2010. The experiment factors were included three CO2 concentrations (380, 700 and 1050 ppm and three kinds of conditions fertilizer (no fertilizer, manure fertilizer and nitrogen fertilizer. The results indicated that increasing of CO2 from 380 to 1050 ppm led to improve in leaf area, plant height, relative growth ratio, total dry matter and final yield of individual plant. The highest and the lowest amount of measured traits related to with and without nitrogen fertilizer, respectively. Impact of elevated CO2 in conjunction with nitrogen and manure fertilizers increased. These effects were more on total dry matter and final yield than other growth indices. Therefore, it can be concluded that, whereas increase of temperature caused by rising CO2 is not considered or there is not any limitation for resources, CO2 enrichment will be improved lemon balm production.

  16. Integration of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system into an examination incubator to facilitate in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development in higher vertebrate embryos under stable physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Happel, Christoph M.; Thrane, Lars; Thommes, Jan

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution in vivo imaging of higher vertebrate embryos over short or long time periods under constant physiological conditions is a technically challenging task for researchers working on cardiovascular development. In chick embryos, for example, various studies have shown that without...... significance, should be documented under physiological conditions. However, previous studies were mostly carried out outside of an incubator or under suboptimal environmental conditions. Here we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first detailed description of an optical coherence tomography (OCT......) system integrated into an examination incubator to facilitate real-time in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development under physiological environmental conditions. We demonstrate the suitability of this OCT examination incubator unit for use in cardiovascular development studies by examples of proof...

  17. Oxidative Stress in Early Life: Associations with Sex, Rearing Conditions, and Parental Physiological Traits in Nestling Pied Flycatchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Arrabé, Jimena; Cantarero, Alejandro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Palma, Antonio; Moreno, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Conditions experienced during juvenile development can affect the fitness of an organism. During early life, oxidative stress levels can be particularly high as a result of the increased metabolism and the relatively immature antioxidant system of the individual, and this may have medium- and long-term fitness consequences. Here we explore variation in levels of oxidative stress measured during early life in relation to sex, rearing conditions (hatching date and brood size), and parental condition and levels of oxidative markers in a wild population of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) followed for 2 yr. A marker of total antioxidant status (TAS) in plasma and total levels of glutathione (GSH) in red blood cells, as well as a marker of oxidative damage in plasma lipids (malondialdehyde [MDA]), were assessed simultaneously. Our results show that nestling total GSH levels were associated with parental oxidative status, correlating negatively with maternal MDA and positively with total GSH levels of both parents, with a high estimated heritability. This suggests that parental physiology and genes could be determinants for endogenous components of the antioxidant system of the offspring. Moreover, we found that total GSH levels were higher in female than in male nestlings and that hatching date was positively associated with antioxidant defenses (higher TAS and total GSH levels). These results suggest that different components of oxidative balance are related to a variety of environmental and intrinsic--including parental--influencing factors. Future experimental studies must disentangle the relative contribution of each of these on nestling oxidative status and how the resulting oxidative stress at early phases shape adult phenotype and fitness.

  18. Fast "Feast/Famine" Cycles for Studying Microbial Physiology Under Dynamic Conditions: A Case Study with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mendez, Camilo A; Sousa, Andre; Heijnen, Joseph J; Wahl, Aljoscha

    2014-05-15

    Microorganisms are constantly exposed to rapidly changing conditions, under natural as well as industrial production scale environments, especially due to large-scale substrate mixing limitations. In this work, we present an experimental approach based on a dynamic feast/famine regime (400 s) that leads to repetitive cycles with moderate changes in substrate availability in an aerobic glucose cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After a few cycles, the feast/famine produced a stable and repetitive pattern with a reproducible metabolic response in time, thus providing a robust platform for studying the microorganism's physiology under dynamic conditions. We found that the biomass yield was slightly reduced (-5%) under the feast/famine regime, while the averaged substrate and oxygen consumption as well as the carbon dioxide production rates were comparable. The dynamic response of the intracellular metabolites showed specific differences in comparison to other dynamic experiments (especially stimulus-response experiments, SRE). Remarkably, the frequently reported ATP paradox observed in single pulse experiments was not present during the repetitive perturbations applied here. We found that intracellular dynamic accumulations led to an uncoupling of the substrate uptake rate (up to 9-fold change at 20 s.) Moreover, the dynamic profiles of the intracellular metabolites obtained with the feast/famine suggest the presence of regulatory mechanisms that resulted in a delayed response. With the feast famine setup many cellular states can be measured at high frequency given the feature of reproducible cycles. The feast/famine regime is thus a versatile platform for systems biology approaches, which can help us to identify and investigate metabolite regulations under realistic conditions (e.g., large-scale bioreactors or natural environments).

  19. Fast “Feast/Famine” Cycles for Studying Microbial Physiology Under Dynamic Conditions: A Case Study with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mendez, Camilo A.; Sousa, Andre; Heijnen, Joseph J.; Wahl, Aljoscha

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are constantly exposed to rapidly changing conditions, under natural as well as industrial production scale environments, especially due to large-scale substrate mixing limitations. In this work, we present an experimental approach based on a dynamic feast/famine regime (400 s) that leads to repetitive cycles with moderate changes in substrate availability in an aerobic glucose cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After a few cycles, the feast/famine produced a stable and repetitive pattern with a reproducible metabolic response in time, thus providing a robust platform for studying the microorganism’s physiology under dynamic conditions. We found that the biomass yield was slightly reduced (−5%) under the feast/famine regime, while the averaged substrate and oxygen consumption as well as the carbon dioxide production rates were comparable. The dynamic response of the intracellular metabolites showed specific differences in comparison to other dynamic experiments (especially stimulus-response experiments, SRE). Remarkably, the frequently reported ATP paradox observed in single pulse experiments was not present during the repetitive perturbations applied here. We found that intracellular dynamic accumulations led to an uncoupling of the substrate uptake rate (up to 9-fold change at 20 s.) Moreover, the dynamic profiles of the intracellular metabolites obtained with the feast/famine suggest the presence of regulatory mechanisms that resulted in a delayed response. With the feast famine setup many cellular states can be measured at high frequency given the feature of reproducible cycles. The feast/famine regime is thus a versatile platform for systems biology approaches, which can help us to identify and investigate metabolite regulations under realistic conditions (e.g., large-scale bioreactors or natural environments). PMID:24957030

  20. Influence of Urbanization on Body Size, Condition, and Physiology in an Urban Exploiter: A Multi-Component Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizée Meillère

    Full Text Available Consistent expanding urbanization dramatically transforms natural habitats and exposes organisms to novel environmental challenges, often leading to reduced species richness and diversity in cities. However, it remains unclear how individuals are affected by the urban environment and how they can or cannot adjust to the specific characteristics of urban life (e.g. food availability. In this study, we used an integrative multi-component approach to investigate the effects of urbanization on the nutritional status of house sparrows (Passer domesticus. We assessed several morphological and physiological indices of body condition in both juveniles (early post-fledging and breeding adults from four sites with different levels of urbanization in France, Western Europe. We found that sparrows in more urbanized habitats have reduced body size and body mass compared to their rural conspecifics. However, we did not find any consistent differences in a number of complementary indices of condition (scaled mass index, muscle score, hematocrit, baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels between urban and rural birds, indicating that urban sparrows may not be suffering nutritional stress. Our results suggest that the urban environment is unlikely to energetically constrain adult sparrows, although other urban-related variables may constrain them. On the other hand, we found significant difference in juvenile fat scores, suggesting that food types provided to young sparrows differed highly between habitats. In addition to the observed smaller size of urban sparrows, these results suggest that the urban environment is inadequate to satisfy early-life sparrows' nutritional requirements, growth, and development. The urban environment may therefore have life-long consequences for developing birds.

  1. Influence of Urbanization on Body Size, Condition, and Physiology in an Urban Exploiter: A Multi-Component Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillère, Alizée; Brischoux, François; Parenteau, Charline; Angelier, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Consistent expanding urbanization dramatically transforms natural habitats and exposes organisms to novel environmental challenges, often leading to reduced species richness and diversity in cities. However, it remains unclear how individuals are affected by the urban environment and how they can or cannot adjust to the specific characteristics of urban life (e.g. food availability). In this study, we used an integrative multi-component approach to investigate the effects of urbanization on the nutritional status of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We assessed several morphological and physiological indices of body condition in both juveniles (early post-fledging) and breeding adults from four sites with different levels of urbanization in France, Western Europe. We found that sparrows in more urbanized habitats have reduced body size and body mass compared to their rural conspecifics. However, we did not find any consistent differences in a number of complementary indices of condition (scaled mass index, muscle score, hematocrit, baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels) between urban and rural birds, indicating that urban sparrows may not be suffering nutritional stress. Our results suggest that the urban environment is unlikely to energetically constrain adult sparrows, although other urban-related variables may constrain them. On the other hand, we found significant difference in juvenile fat scores, suggesting that food types provided to young sparrows differed highly between habitats. In addition to the observed smaller size of urban sparrows, these results suggest that the urban environment is inadequate to satisfy early-life sparrows' nutritional requirements, growth, and development. The urban environment may therefore have life-long consequences for developing birds.

  2. Influence of pollen feeding and physiological condition on pesticide sensitivity of the honey bee Apis mellifera carnica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, O; Ulm, K

    1983-08-01

    In two consecutive years heavy bee mortality at end April/early May followed the use of pesticides classed as harmless for bees along road verges. It was thought that old weak winter bees had succumbed to a preparation otherwise innocuous. Extensive tests to reveal any links between the bees' physiological condition and pesticide sensitivity involved 6 hormone herbicides, 11 fungicides and 2 insecticides, all approved harmless for bees and functioning on them wholly or mainly as stomach poisons. As a rule bee sensitivity was measured as LD 50 per os, in smaller tests as percentage mortality. Amount and quality of pollen ingested in the first days of life affected the pesticide sensitivity of young and older bees. Bees fed adequate high quality pollen are less sensitive than counterparts fed inadequate or inferior pollen or pollen substitute; such differences persisted if the LD 50 was calculated for the same body weight. Pesticides containing manganese are an exception. To these, bees fed inadequate pollen are no more or even less sensitive than comparable well-fed bees. Pesticide sensitivity decreases generally from early to late summer. Quality of pollen available for larvae has no effect on poison sensitivity of imagines. Food supply conditions however exert a clear influence: tested with the same pesticides, hive bees from colonies having had a rich early food supply, and young bees bred then, are less sensitive than their counterparts having had moderate or no early food supply. Poison sensitivity of summer bees increases with age; most sensitive are old winter bees which had practiced broodcare in early spring.Inadequate pollen intake can be regarded as causing protein deficiency. Investigation of this in mammals and man indicate that the higher poison sensitivity in bees results from inhibition of the enzymatic decomposition of pesticides. For practical bee protection it is important that all organic fungicides tested are effectively harmless. Hormone

  3. CHANGES IN PHYSIOLOGICAL TREMOR RESULTING FROM SLEEP DEPRIVATION UNDER CONDITIONS OF INCREASING FATIGUE DURING PROLONGED MILITARY TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tomczak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to define the changes of the characteristics of physiological postural tremor under conditions of increasing fatigue and lack of sleep during prolonged military training (survival.The subjects of the study were 15 students of the Polish Air Force Academy in Dęblin. The average age was 19.9±1.3 years. During the 36-hour-long continuous military training (survival the subjects were deprived of sleep. Four tremor measurements were carried out for each of the subjects: Day 1 – morning, after rest (measurement 0; Day 2 – morning, after overnight physical exercise (measurement 1; afternoon, after continuous sleep deprivation (measurement 2; Day 3 – morning, after a full night sleep (measurement 3. The accelerometric method using an acceleration measuring kit was applied to analyse tremor. A significant difference between mean values of the index evaluating tremor power in low frequencies L2-4 in measurement 0 and measurement 3 was observed (p<0.01. No significant differences were found in mean values of index L10-20. Mean frequencies F2-4 differed significantly from each other (F 2,42 =4.53; p<0.01. Their values were 2.94±0.11, 2.99±0.9, 2.93±0.07 and 2.91±0.07 for successive measurements. A gradual, significant decrease of F 8-14 was observed (F 2,42 =5.143; p<0.01. Prolonged sleep deprivation combined with performing tasks demanding constant physical effort causes long-lasting (over 24 hours changes of the amplitude of low-frequency tremor changes. This phenomenon may significantly influence psychomotor performance, deteriorating the ability to perform tasks requiring movement precision.

  4. Effect of Filter Cake on Physiological Traits and Ear Yield of Sweet Corn under Late Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aziz karmollachaab

    2017-10-01

    Filter Cake, due to high salinity and salt accumulation in the root zone, causes secondary oxidative stress and increases damage to cell membranes and reduces the economic benefit. In order to investigate the effect of Filter Cake levels application on some morpho-physiological characteristics and ear yield of sweet corn (Zea mays var saccharata under late drought stress condition, an experiment was conducted in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan, at 2012. The experiment was arranged in split-plots design in RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Treatments of experiment were drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of available water content in main plots and filter cake (0, 10, 20 and 30 ton.ha-1 arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that the effect of drought stress significant on more traits and led to decrease of plant height, leaf area index (LAI, membrane stability index(MSI, leaf osmotic potential, soluble protein contents, ear and biological yield while effect of drought stress on shoot sodium concentration was not significant. The intensive drought stress led to decrease 21.7 and 27.3% ear and biological yield compared to control respectively. Application of filter cake on non-stress led to increase height of plant and ear and biological yield. But high levels of filter cake in intensive stress led to increase salinity and damage to cell membranes and reduce LAI and MSI and thus reduce economic performance. It also the amount of 30 ton.ha-1 of filter cake in intensive stress condition has been decrease ear and biological yield 18.7 and 23.3% compared to non-filter cake application respectively.

  5. The role of performing life support courses in rural areas in improving pre-hospital physiologic condition of patients with penetrating injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naffisi, N.; Mohebbi, H.A.; Moharamzadeh, Y.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of animal model based medical training courses for village healthcare workers on prehospital physiologic condition and prognosis of patients with penetrating injuries. Seventy-six village healthcare workers were trained and equipped to deliver in-field medical first cares. First group (226 patients) consisted of those who received this cares by the trained group and second group (245 patients) were those who received no in-field cares and were transported directly to the trauma center in provincial capital, Ilam. Physiologic Severity Score (PSS) was calculated to determine the physiologic condition of patients in both groups. Results: The most prevalent cause of trauma in both groups was car accidents (61.6%). Controlling of hemorrhage was the most frequent provided initial medical care (40.6%). A significant improvement regarding the PSS score was observed in the first group of patients compared to the second group (7.505 vs. 6.799, 95% CI for difference: 0.3 to 0.9). The mortality rates of the first and second group of patients were 3% and 7.3%, respectively (p=0.051). Performing life support courses in rural areas of low-income countries where there is no pre-hospital triage and emergency medical system and provision of classic resuscitative measures are limited, has a significant impact on improvement of pre-hospital physiologic condition and prognosis of patients with penetrating injuries. (author)

  6. Kinetics of isomerization and inversion of aspartate 58 of αA-crystallin peptide mimics under physiological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzo Aki

    Full Text Available Although proteins consist exclusively of L-amino acids, we have reported that aspartyl (Asp 58 and Asp 151 residues of αA-crystallin of eye lenses from elderly cataract donors are highly inverted and isomerized to D-β, D-α and L-β-Asp residues through succinimide intermediates. Of these Asp isomers, large amounts of D-β- and L-β-isomers are present but the amount of D-α-isomer is not significant. The difference in abundance of the Asp isomers in the protein may be due to the rate constants for the formation of the isomers. However, the kinetics have not been well defined. Therefore, in this study, we synthesized a peptide corresponding to human αA-crystallin residues 55 to 65 (T(55VLD(58SGISEVR(65 and its isomers in which L-α-Asp at position 58 was replaced with L-β-, D-β- and D-α-Asp and determined the rate of isomerization and inversion of Asp residues under physiological conditions (37°C, pH7.4. The rate constant for dehydration from L-α-Asp peptide to L-succinimidyl peptide was 3 times higher than the rate constant for dehydration from L-β-Asp peptide to L-succinimidyl peptide. The rate constant for hydrolysis from L-succinimidyl peptide to L-β-Asp peptide was about 5 times higher than the rate constant for hydrolysis from L-succinimidyl peptide to L-α-Asp peptide. The rate constant for dehydration from L-α-Asp peptide to L-succinimidyl peptide was 2 times higher than the rate constant for dehydration from D-α-Asp peptide to D-succinimidyl peptide. The rate constants for hydrolysis from L-succinimidyl peptide to L-β-Asp peptide and for hydrolysis from D-succinimidyl peptide to D-β-Asp peptide were almost equal. Using these rate constants, we calculated the change in the abundance ratios of the 4 Asp isomers during a human lifespan. This result is consistent with the fact that isomerized Asp residues accumulate in proteins during the ageing process.

  7. Physiological, anatomical and metabolic implications of salt tolerance in the halophyte Salvadora persica under hydroponic culture condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASISH KUMAR PARIDA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salt tolerance mechanism of an extreme halophyte Salvadora persica was assessed by analysing growth, nutrient uptake, anatomical modifications and alterations in levels of some organic metabolites in seedlings imposed to various levels of salinity (0, 250, 500 and 750 mM NaCl under hydroponic culture condition. After 21 days of salt treatment, plant height, leaf area and shoot biomass decreased with increase in salinity whereas the leaf succulence increased significantly with increasing salinity in S. persica. The RWC% of leaf increased progressively in salt-treated seedlings as compared to control. Na+ contents of leaf, stem and root increased in dose-dependent manner whereas there was no significant changes in K+ content. There was significant alterations in leaf, stem and root anatomy by salinity. The thickness of epidermis and spongy parenchyma of leaf increased in salt treated seedlings as compared to control, whereas palisade parenchyma decreased dramatically in extreme salinity (750 mM NaCl. There was a significant reduction in stomatal density and stomatal pore area of leaf with increasing salinity. Anatomical observations of stem showed that the epidermal cells diameter and thickness of cortex decreased by salinity whereas thickness of hypodermal layer, hypodermal cell diameter, pith area and pith cell diameter increased by high salinity. The root anatomy showed an increase in epidermal thickness by salinity whereas diameters of epidermal cells and xylem vessels decreased. Total soluble sugar content remained unchanged at all levels of salinity whereas reducing sugar content increased by 2-fold at high salinity (750 mM NaCl. The starch content of leaf decreased progressively in NaCl treated seedlings as compared to control. Total free amino acid content did not change at low salinity (250 mM, whereas it increased significantly at higher salinity (500 and 750 mM NaCl. The proline content increased in the NaCl treated seedlings as

  8. Supplementing an immunomodulatory feed ingredient to modulate thermoregulation, physiologic, and production responses in lactating dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Schubach, K M; Batista, L F D; Miranda, M F; Colombo, E A; Rodrigues, R O; Junior, J R G; Cerri, R L A; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2017-06-01

    This study compared vaginal temperature, physiologic, and productive parameters in lactating dairy cows supplemented or not with Omnigen-AF (Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) during the summer months in a tropical environment. Thirty-two lactating, primiparous (n = 16) and multiparous (n = 16) pregnant Holstein × Gir cows were ranked by parity, days in milk, body weight, and body condition score (BCS), and assigned to receive (SUPP; n = 16) or not (CON; n = 16) Omnigen-AF (Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) at 56 g/cow daily (as-fed basis). During the experimental period (d -6 to 56), cows were maintained in a single drylot pen with ad libitum access to water and a total mixed ration, and milked twice daily. Cows received Omnigen-AF mixed with 200 g of corn (as-fed basis) after the daily morning milking through self-locking head gates, whereas CON cows concurrently received 56 g of kaolin mixed with 200 g of corn. For feed intake evaluation, cows from both treatments were randomly divided in 4 groups of 8 cows each, and allocated to 8 individual feeding stations for 3 d. Intake was evaluated 4 times per group from d 1 to 56. From d -6 to 0, d 15 to 28, and d 43 to 56, cow vaginal temperature was recorded hourly. Environmental temperature-humidity index (THI) was also recorded hourly from d 15 to 28 and d 43 to 56. Cows were evaluated for body weight and BCS on d -6 and 56, individual milk production was recorded daily from d -6 to 56, and milk samples were collected on d -6, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 for analyses of somatic cell count and milk components. Blood samples were collected on d -6, -3, 0, 9, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 36, 45, 48, 51, 54, and 56. Results from samples or observations collected from d -6 to 0 were included as an independent covariate in each respective analysis. Environmental THI was 74.2 ± 0.5 and cows were exposed to THI >68 for 633 h within a total of 672 h of evaluation. Cows assigned to CON had greater vaginal temperature on d

  9. The surface properties of nanoparticles determine the agglomeration state and the size of the particles under physiological conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bantz, C.; Koshkina, O.; Lang, T.; Galla, H.J.; Kirkpatrick, C.J.; Stauber, R.H.; Maskos, M.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent widespread application of nanomaterials to biological systems, a careful consideration of their physiological impact is required. This demands an understanding of the complex processes at the bio-nano interface. Therefore, a comprehensive and accurate characterization of the

  10. Effect of rearing conditions on behavioural and physiological responses of pigs to preslaughter handling and mixing at transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Prelle, I.T.; Burgwal, van de J.A.; Lambooij, E.; Korte, S.M.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Koolhaas, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The physiological and behavioural responses of slaughter pigs reared in either a barren environment or in an enriched environment (larger pens with straw bedding) to preslaughter handling and mixing at transport were studied. Enriched-reared pigs had higher salivary cortisol concentrations in the

  11. Effects of rearing conditions on behavioural and physiological responses of pigs to preslaughter handling and mixing at transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, I.C; Prelle, I.T.; Lambooij, E.; Korte, S.M.; Blokhuis, H.J; Koolhaas, J.M.

    The physiological and behavioural responses of slaughter pigs reared in either a barren environment or in an enriched environment (larger pens with straw bedding) to preslaughter handling and mixing at transport were studied. Enriched-reared pigs had higher salivary cortisol concentrations in the

  12. The influence of antioxidants 'TIOFAN' and 'FANTOX 11-1' on physiological growth of broilers in conditions of intoxication with lead and cadmium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, Yu.I.; Bokova, T.I.; Kandalintseva, N.V.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of research is to study the influence of antioxidants 'TIOFAN' and 'FANTOX 11-1' on physiological growth of broilers in conditions of intoxication with lead and cadmium salts. The growth and development of bird in conditions of intoxication with heavy metals and by using of antioxidants as detoxicant is studied. The biochemical blood values on application of antioxidants and without them in conditions of intoxication are determined. The most effective preparation raising of birds productivity and it's optimal concentration is established.

  13. Alternate furrow irrigation of four fresh-market tomato cultivars under semi-arid condition of Ethiopia – Part II: Physiological response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashinie Bogale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the variation in physiological response to deficit irrigation together with better knowledge on physiological characteristics of different genotypes that contribute to drought adaptation mechanisms would be helpful in transferring different irrigation technologies to farmers. A field experiment was carried to investigate the physiological response of four tomato cultivars (Fetan, Chali, Cochoro and ARP Tomato d2 to moderate water deficit induced by alternate furrow irrigation (AFI and deficit irrigation (DI under semi-arid condition of Ethiopia during 2013 and 2014. The study also aimed at identifying physiological attributes to the fruit yield of tomato under different deficit irrigation techniques. A factorial combination of irrigation treatments and cultivar were arranged in a complete randomized design with three replicates. Results showed that stomatal conductance (g_s was significantly reduced while photosynthetic performance measured as chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv’/Fm’, relative water content (RWC and leaf ash content remained unaffected under deficit irrigations. Significant differences among cultivars were found for water use efficiency (WUE, g_s, chlorophyll content (Chl_SPAD, normal difference vegetation index (NDVI, leaf ash content and fruit growth rate. However, cultivar differences in WUE were more accounted for by the regulation of g_s, therefore, g_s could be useful for breeders for screening large numbers of genotypes with higher WUE under deficit irrigation condition. The study result also demonstrated that cultivar with traits that contribute to achieve higher yields under deficit irrigation strategies has the potential to increase WUE.

  14. The physiology of ex vitro pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr. var MD-2) as CAM or C3 is regulated by the environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, C; Carvalho, L; González, J; Escalona, M; Amancio, S

    2012-04-01

    Many plant species grown under in vitro controlled conditions can be used as models for the study of physiological processes. Adult pineapple can display CAM physiology while in vitro it functions as a C3 plant. Ex vitro Ananas comosus has plastic morphology and physiology, both easy to modify from C3 to CAM by changing the environmental conditions. The yield of survival for a rentable propagation protocol of pineapple is closely related with the C3/CAM shift and the associated physiological characteristics. In the present work, ex vitro pineapple plants were divided in two sets and subjected to C3 and CAM-inducing environmental conditions, determined by light intensity and relative humidity, respectively, 40 μmol m(-2) s(-1)/85% and 260 μmol m(-2) s(-1)/50%. The results demonstrated that the stress imposed by the environmental conditions switched pineapple plants from C3 to CAM behavior. Comparing to CAM induced, C3-induced pineapple plants showed substandard growth parameters and morphological leaf characteristics but a better rooting process and a higher ABA production, a phenotype closer to adult plants, which are expected to produce fruits in a normal production cycle. We conclude that the upholding of these characteristics is conditioned by low light intensity plus high relative humidity, especially during the first 8 weeks of ex vitro growth. It is expected that the better understanding of pineapple acclimatization will contribute to the design of a protocol to apply as a rentable tool in the pineapple agronomic industry. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  15. Effect of Salinity on Growth and Physiological Parameters of Four Olive (OleaeuropaeaL. Cultivars underGreenhouse Conditions

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    Farzaneh Olyaei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity is a common abiotic stress that seriously affects crop production around the world, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions.The deleterious effects of salinity on plant growth are associated with low osmotic potential of soil solution (water stress, nutritional imbalance, specific ion effect (salt stress, or a combination of these factors. Olive is one of the most important fruit crops in Iran and the world. Despite olive has been classified as moderately salt tolerant plant, poor quality of irrigation water in association with salt build-up soils has reduced the yields, especially in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. The tolerance of the olive to salt is to a great extent depends on the cultivar. Selecting salinity-resistant cultivars is one of the most important strategies used for mitigating salinity effects on olive. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the salt tolerance of four olive cultivars under greenhouse condition. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, one-year-old rooted cuttings of Iranian olive cultivars (‘Dakal’, ‘Shiraz’, ‘Zard’ and non-Iranian cultivar ‘Amigdal’ were grown in the research greenhouse of Agricultural College, Isfahan University of Technology of Iran. Plants were grown in plastic pots. The pots were 180 mm in diameter and 20 mm in depth with volume of 7 L. The minimum and maximum temperatures during the experiment period were 19 and 35˚C, respectively. After sticking the cuttings, the pots with uniform plants were subjected to the treatment with 0 (control, 100, 150 or 200 mMNaCl. The electrical conductivities of these solutions were 0.003, 10.52, 15.43 and 19.55 dS m-1, respectively. To avoid osmotic shock, the NaCl concentration was gradually increased. The layout was a 4×4 factorial experiment based oncompletely randomized design, with four replications. The experimental measurements were carried out three months after beginning the salt treatments

  16. Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Semi-Degradable Poly(β-amino ester)-co-Methyl Methacrylate Networks under Simulated Physiological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranski, David L.; Crabtree, Jacob C.; Huq, Yameen R.; Gall, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Poly(β-amino ester) networks are being explored for biomedical applications, but they may lack the mechanical properties necessary for long term implantation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of adding methyl methacrylate on networks' mechanical properties under simulated physiological conditions. The networks were synthesized in two parts: (1) a biodegradable crosslinker was formed from a diacrylate and amine, (2) and then varying concentrations of methyl methacrylate were added prior to photopolymerizing the network. Degradation rate, mechanical properties, and glass transition temperature were studied as a function of methyl methacrylate composition. The crosslinking density played a limited role on mechanical properties for these networks, but increasing methyl methacrylate concentration improved the toughness by several orders of magnitude. Under simulated physiological conditions, networks showed increasing toughness or sustained toughness as degradation occurred. This work establishes a method of creating degradable networks with tailorable toughness while undergoing partial degradation. PMID:21966028

  17. Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Some Physiological and Agronomical Traits of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. in Irrigated Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Namvar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of organic and inorganic nitrogen fertilization on some physiological and agronomical traits of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cv. ILC 482, investigated at the Experimental Farm of the Agriculture Faculty, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili. The trial was laid out in spilt plot design based on randomized complete block with four replications. Experimental factors were mineral nitrogen fertilizer at four levels (0, 50, 75 and 100 kg urea/ha in the main plots, and two levels of inoculation with Rhizobium bacteria (with and without inoculation as sub plots. N application and Rh. inoculation showed positive effects on physiological and agronomical traits of chickpea. The highest value of leaf RWC recorded in 50 kg urea/ha that was statistically in par with 75 kg urea/ha application while, usage of 75 kg urea/ha showed the maximum stem RWC. The maximum CMS obtained form application of 75 kg urea/ha. Chlorophyll content, leaf area index and grains protein content showed their maximum values in the highest level of nitrogen usage (100 kg urea/ha. Moreover, inoculated plants had the highest magnitudes of all physiological traits. In the case of agronomical traits, the highest values of plant height, number of primary and secondary branches, number of pods per plant, number of grains per plant, grain and biological yield were obtained from the highest level of nitrogen fertilizer (100 kg urea/ha and Rh. inoculation. Application of 75 kg urea/ha was statistically in par with 100 kg urea/ha in all of these traits. The results pointed out that some N fertilization (i.e. between 50 and 75 kg urea/ha as starter can be beneficial to improve growth, development, physiological traits and total yield of inoculated chickpea.

  18. Dietary fibers from mushroom Sclerotia: 2. In vitro mineral binding capacity under sequential simulated physiological conditions of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka-Hing; Cheung, Peter C K

    2005-11-30

    The in vitro mineral binding capacity of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) prepared from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporous rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, to Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, and Zn under sequential simulated physiological conditions of the human stomach, small intestine, and colon was investigated and compared. Apart from releasing most of their endogenous Ca (ranged from 96.9 to 97.9% removal) and Mg (ranged from 95.9 to 96.7% removal), simulated physiological conditions of the stomach also attenuated the possible adverse binding effect of the three sclerotial DFs to the exogenous minerals by lowering their cation-exchange capacity (ranged from 20.8 to 32.3%) and removing a substantial amount of their potential mineral chelators including protein (ranged from 16.2 to 37.8%) and phytate (ranged from 58.5 to 64.2%). The in vitro mineral binding capacity of the three sclerotial DF under simulated physiological conditions of small intestine was found to be low, especially for Ca (ranged from 4.79 to 5.91% binding) and Mg (ranged from 3.16 to 4.18% binding), and was highly correlated (r > 0.97) with their residual protein contents. Under simulated physiological conditions of the colon with slightly acidic pH (5.80), only bound Ca was readily released (ranged from 34.2 to 72.3% releasing) from the three sclerotial DFs, and their potential enhancing effect on passive Ca absorption in the human large intestine was also discussed.

  19. Physiological age at harvest regulates the variability in postharvest ripening, sensory and nutritional characteristics of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Coghshall due to growing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joas, Jacques; Vulcain, Emmanuelle; Desvignes, Claire; Morales, Emeline; Léchaudel, Mathieu

    2012-04-01

    Climacteric fruits are harvested at the green-mature stage and ripen during their marketing cycle. However, growing conditions induce variability into the maturity stage of mangoes at harvest, with an impact on their final quality. Assuming that the physiological age can be correctly evaluated by a criterion based on the variable chlorophyll fluorescence of the skin (F(v)) and that differences in physiological age depend on growing conditions, controlled stress experiments were carried out on mango fruit by manipulating either the leaf/fruit ratio or the light environment. Delays from 9 to 30 days were observed, depending on stress level and harvest stage, to obtain the same F(v) value. For moderate stress, fruit composition after ripening was partially compensated for, with little or no difference in sugar, dry matter, carotenoid and aroma contents. For more pronounced stress, the major metabolites were not particularly affected, but the synthesis capacity of carotenoids and aromas was lower after maturity. The ripening ability of a fruit is acquired on the tree and defines its postharvest changes. Control of the physiological age at harvest can minimise the variability observed under natural conditions and guarantee fruit batches whose postharvest changes will be relatively homogeneous. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Physico-chemical changes of ZnO nanoparticles with different size and surface chemistry under physiological pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Gyeong-Hyeon; Lee, Won-Jae; Paek, Seung-Min; Oh, Jae-Min

    2015-03-01

    We studied the physico-chemical properties of ZnO nanoparticles under physiological pH conditions (gastric, intestinal and plasma) as functions of their size (20 and 70 nm) and surface chemistry (pristine, L-serine, or citrate coating). ZnO nanoparticles were dispersed in phosphate buffered saline under physiological pH conditions and aliquots were collected at specific time points (0.5, 1, 4, 10 and 24 h) for further characterization. The pH values of the aqueous ZnO colloids at each condition were in the neutral to slightly basic range and showed different patterns depending on the original size and surface chemistry of the ZnO nanoparticles. The gastric pH condition was found to significantly dissolve ZnO nanoparticles up to 18-30 wt%, while the intestinal or plasma pH conditions resulted in much lower dissolution amounts than expected. Based on the X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray absorption spectra, we identified partial phase transition of the ZnO nanoparticles from wurtzite to Zn(OH)2 under the intestinal and plasma pH conditions. Using scanning electron microscopy, we verified that the overall particle size and morphology of all ZnO nanoparticles were maintained regardless of the pH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of performing life support courses in rural areas in improving pre-hospital physiologic conditions of patients with penetrating injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, Masoud Saghafi; Naffisi, Nahid; Mohebbi, Hassan Ali; Moharamzadeh, Yashar

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of animal model based medical training courses for village healthcare workers on prehospital physiologic condition and prognosis of patients with penetrating injuries. Experimental study. This study was carried out in Mehran city and its neighbouring rural districts in western part of Iran from 2002 to 2004. Seventy-six village healthcare workers were trained and equipped to deliver in-field medical first cares. First group (226 patients) consisted of those who received this cares by the trained group and second group (245 patients) were those who received no in-field cares and were transported directly to the trauma center in provincial capital, Ilam. Physiologic Severity Score (PSS) was calculated to determine the physiologic condition of patients in both groups. The most prevalent cause of trauma in both groups was car accidents (61.6%). Controlling of hemorrhage was the most frequent provided initial medical care (40.6%). A significant improvement regarding the PSS score was observed in the first group of patients compared to the second group (7.505 vs. 6.799, 95% CI for difference: 0.3 to 0.9). The mortality rates of the first and second group of patients were 3% and 7.3%, respectively (p=0.051). Performing life support courses in rural areas of low-income countries where there is no pre-hospital triage and emergency medical system and provision of classic resuscitative measures are limited, has a significant impact on improvement of pre-hospital physiologic condition and prognosis of patients with penetrating injuries.

  2. The impact of cerium oxide nanoparticles on the physiology of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) under different soil moisture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiming; Rossi, Lorenzo; Stowers, Cheyenne; Zhang, Weilan; Lombardini, Leonardo; Ma, Xingmao

    2018-01-01

    The ongoing global climate change raises concerns over the decreasing moisture content in agricultural soils. Our research investigated the physiological impact of two types of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NPs) on soybean at different moisture content levels. One CeO 2 NP was positively charged on the surface and the other negatively charged due to the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coating. The results suggest that the effect of CeO 2 NPs on plant photosynthesis and water use efficiency (WUE) was dependent upon the soil moisture content. Both types of CeO 2 NPs exhibited consistently positive impacts on plant photosynthesis at the moisture content above 70% of field capacity (θ fc ). Similar positive impact of CeO 2 NPs was not observed at 55% θ fc , suggesting that the physiological impact of CeO 2 NPs was dependent upon the soil moisture content. The results also revealed that V Cmax (maximum carboxylation rate) was affected by CeO 2 NPs, indicating that CeO 2 NPs affected the Rubisco activity which governs carbon assimilation in photosynthesis. In conclusion, CeO 2 NPs demonstrated significant impacts on the photosynthesis and WUE of soybeans and such impacts were affected by the soil moisture content. Graphical abstract Soil moisture content affects plant cerium oxide nanoparticle interactions.

  3. Electroformation of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles from Native Membranes and Organic Lipid Mixtures for the Study of Lipid Domains under Physiological Ionic-Strength Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes, Ruth; Ahyayauch, Hasna; Ibarguren, Maitane

    2010-01-01

    Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) constitute a cell-sized model membrane system that allows direct visualization of particular membrane-related phenomena, such as domain formation, at the level of single vesicles using fluorescence microscopy-related techniques. Currently available protocols...... for the preparation of GUVs work only at very low salt concentrations, thus precluding experimentation under physiological conditions. In addition, the GUVs thus obtained lack membrane compositional asymmetry. Here we show how to prepare GUVs using a new protocol based on the electroformation method either from...... native membranes or organic lipid mixtures at physiological ionic strength. Additionally, we describe methods to test whether membrane proteins and glycosphingolipids preserve their natural orientation after electroformation of GUVs composed of native membranes...

  4. Changes in the activity of the alternative oxidase in Orobanche seeds during conditioning and their possible physiological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar Nun, Nurit; Plakhine, Dina; Joel, Daniel M; Mayer, Alfred M

    2003-09-01

    The appearance of the activity of the cyanide insensitive, alternative oxidase (AOX), pathway of oxygen uptake was followed in seeds of Orobanche aegyptiaca during conditioning. The pathway becomes operative during conditioning, up to day three as determined by inhibition of oxygen uptake of the seeds by propyl gallate. At the same time an increasing percentage of oxygen uptake is insensitive to cyanide and an increased oxygen uptake, responsive to propyl gallate, is induced by brief salicylic acid treatment of seeds. By day six of conditioning, these responses decrease and the AOX pathway could not be detected in germinating seeds, after treatment with a germination stimulant. These results were confirmed by following the reaction of extracts of fractions enriched with mitochondria from the conditioned seeds, using a specific antibody against AOX. Treatment of the seeds with inhibitors of AOX during conditioning significantly inhibited their subsequent germination. Addition of hydrogen peroxide after 4 and 7 days of conditioning resulted in reduced germination. In addition treatment of seed with propyl or octyl gallate during conditioning reduced the infection of tomato plants by Orobanche seeds and the development of tubercles of the parasite on the host roots. These results together indicate that the operation of AOX during conditioning has a significant function on the subsequent germination behaviour and pathogenicity of the root parasite. Some potential practical applications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Effect of Olive Pulpe Levels in The Diet of Buffalo Calves on Physiological Body Functions and Productive Traits Under Heat Stress Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was planned to investigate the changes that occur in growth and some physiological traits in buffalo calves as a result of using olive pulp levels (20 or 40%) under different conditions in Egypt. The study was carried out on 30 male growing buffalo calves aged 14-16 months with average body weight 309 kg and including two experiments; the 1st was carried out under mild climate in winter season on 15 calves while the 2nd was conducted during heat stress conditions of summer season on another 15 calves. In each of the two periods, animals were divided into three equal groups (5 buffalo calves in each). The first group was considered as control to olive pulp levels of 0% . The second and third groups receive olive pulp with 20 and 40% of the ingredient ration, respectively. The results showed that heat stress conditions of hot period induced significant decreases in the levels of final live body weight (FLBW), daily body weight gain (DBWG), total body weight gain (TBWG), total protein, albumin, total lipids, total cholesterol, Ca, inorganic P and thyroid hormones level (T4 and T3). On the other hand, significant increase in urea-N, creatinine, GOT and GPT as compared with animals under mild conditions was recorded. Olive pulp levels in the diet affected significantly the total body gain, daily body weight gain, total cholesterol and thyroid hormones (T4 or T3). The values were lower in the group received 40% olive pulp than in the two groups received 0 and 20.0 % olive pulp. In addition, animals received 40% olive pulp showed significant increase in urea-N, creatinine, GPT, total lipids and Ca. It could be concluded that heat stress conditions of summer period induced significant depression in daily body weight gain and changed most blood components and thyroid hormones which related to physiological functions in buffalo calves. Concerning added olive pulp to the ration of buffalo calves, it could be concluded that daily body gain of buffalo calves

  6. Physiological factors affecting intrinsic water use efficiency of potato clones within a dihaploid mapping population under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topbjerg, Henrik Bak; Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Markussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    ) within a dihaploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) mapping population under well-watered (WW) and drought-stress (DS) conditions. The factorial dependency of WUEi on several plant bio-physiological traits was analyzed, and clonal difference of WUEi was compared. Significant differences in WUEi were found......Optimizing crops water use is essential for ensuring food production under future climate scenarios. Therefore, new cultivars that are capable of maintaining production under limited water resource are needed. This study screened for clonal differences in intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi...

  7. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  8. Gene expression and physiological changes of different populations of the long-lived bivalve Arctica islandica under low oxygen conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva E R Philipp

    , temperature, salinity. Contrary, higher physiological flexibility and stress hardening may predispose these animals to perform a pronounced stress response at the expense of life span.

  9. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology position stand: The use of instability to train the core in athletic and nonathletic conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, David G; Drinkwater, Eric J; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Cowley, Patrick M

    2010-02-01

    The use of instability devices and exercises to train the core musculature is an essential feature of many training centres and programs. It was the intent of this position stand to provide recommendations regarding the role of instability in resistance training programs designed to train the core musculature. The core is defined as the axial skeleton and all soft tissues with a proximal attachment originating on the axial skeleton, regardless of whether the soft tissue terminates on the axial or appendicular skeleton. Core stability can be achieved with a combination of muscle activation and intra-abdominal pressure. Abdominal bracing has been shown to be more effective than abdominal hollowing in optimizing spinal stability. When similar exercises are performed, core and limb muscle activation are reported to be higher under unstable conditions than under stable conditions. However, core muscle activation that is similar to or higher than that achieved in unstable conditions can also be achieved with ground-based free-weight exercises, such as Olympic lifts, squats, and dead lifts. Since the addition of unstable bases to resistance exercises can decrease force, power, velocity, and range of motion, they are not recommended as the primary training mode for athletic conditioning. However, the high muscle activation with the use of lower loads associated with instability resistance training suggests they can play an important role within a periodized training schedule, in rehabilitation programs, and for nonathletic individuals who prefer not to use ground-based free weights to achieve musculoskeletal health benefits.

  10. The lysine-peptoid hybrid LP5 maintain activity under physiological conditions and affects virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschalk, Sanne; Ingmer, Hanne; Thomsen, Line E.

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide, LP5, is a lysine-peptoid hybrid, with antimicrobial activity against clinically relevant bacteria. Here, we investigated how various environmental conditions affect the antimicrobial activity of LP5 against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). We found that LP5 maintained...

  11. Fast “Feast/Famine” Cycles for Studying Microbial Physiology Under Dynamic Conditions : A Case Study with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez-Mendez, C.A.; Sousa, A.; Heijnen, J.J.; Wahl, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are constantly exposed to rapidly changing conditions, under natural as well as industrial production scale environments, especially due to large-scale substrate mixing limitations. In this work, we present an experimental approach based on a dynamic feast/famine regime (400 s) that

  12. Thermal, physiological strain index and perceptual responses in Iranian Muslim women under Thermal Condition in order to Guide in Prevention of Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Habibi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress risk assessment, as a harmful agent at workplace, is essential for controlling heat strain. The purpose of this study was relation between physiological and perceptual heat strain responses in Iranian veiled women under laboratory thermal conditions. This experimental study was carried out on 36 healthy females (age 22.3 ± 2.0 yr, height 162.76±5. 57cm, weight 55.82 ± 9.27kg in sitting state under thermal conditions (27 - 38° C in the hot-dry climatic condition for 120 min. In order to calculate the physiological strain index (PSI, oral temperature and heart rate were measured every 5 min. Physiological factors, and Heat Strain Score Index (HSSI questionnaires are simultaneous measurements taken at any 5 min during the exposure and physiological factors, and Heat Strain Score Index (HSSI questionnaires are the initial measurements. The data were analyzed using correlation and line regression by test spss16. The results showed that the average heart rate and oral temperature at resting and sitting were between 83.06 ±9.41bpm, 87.91 ±7.87 bpm and 36.7° C, 37. 1° C respectively. Also, the results have revealed a direct and significant and direct correlation among HSSI with WBGT (R2 = 0.97, P< 0.001, PSI (R2 = 0.96, P< 0.001, oral temperature (R2 = 0.96, P< 0.001 and heart rate (R2 = 0.62, P< 0.01 indices. The results have shown that simultaneously with the increase in valid indices of heat stress evaluation such as WBGT and PSI indices, the amount of HSSI index has also increased with high power. Therefore, it can be conclude that when there is no access to a reliable heat stress method such as WBGT or PSI indices, HSSI index, an objective and subjective heat strain method, can be used as a simple, fast and inexpensive method for evaluating the heat strain in women.

  13. Effect of Hot Climatic Conditions With Different Types of Housing on Productive Efficiency and Physiological Changes in Buffalo Calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habeeb, A.A.M.; Gad, A.E.; El-Tarabany, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was planned to investigate the effect of housing types under both mild and hot periods of the year on twenty four buffalo calves aged 8-10 months with average body weight 156.8 kg. The study included two periods each was of 3 months. The first period was carried out during mild conditions while the second period was carried out during hot conditions. Averages of air temperature and relative humidity values at midday inside the farm building were 20.8 ± 1.0 degree C and 72.07 ± 2.1% under mild conditions and 35.93± 1.4 degree C and 58.23 ± 1.5 under the hot period, respectively. The estimated temperature-humidity index of values 20.23 and 33.17 during mild and hot conditions, respectively, indicated absence of heat stress during the first period and exposing the animals to very severe heat stress during the second period. The animals during the two experimental periods were fed the concentrate feed mixture according to body weight and daily gain with rice straw offered ad libitum. In each of the two studied periods, the animals were divided into two equal groups according to type of housing system. The animals in the first group (6 calves) were tied from their neck in stall barn in two rows tail to tail while the animals in the second group (6 calves) were left loose housing in the barn. The results showed that heat stress conditions of summer period induced significant decreases in daily body weight gain, total proteins, albumin, globulin, glucose, total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium, inorganic phosphorus and GGT as well as T4 , T3 , parathormone hormonal levels. On the other hand, significant increase in respiration rate, temperatures of rectal and skin, urea, cortisol, GOT and GPT. Concerning the effect of housing type, there were significant differences in daily body gain of buffalo calves between free and tied through the first two months of experiment, so, daily body gain of buffalo

  14. MODEL-ASSISTED ESTIMATION OF THE GENETIC VARIABILITY IN PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS RELATED TO TOMATO FRUIT GROWTH UNDER CONTRASTED WATER CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Constantinescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a major abiotic stres threatening plant and crop productivity. In case of fleshy fruits, understanding Drought stress is a major abiotic stress threatening plant and crop productivity. In case of fleshy fruits, understanding mechanisms governing water and carbon accumulations and identifying genes, QTLs and phenotypes, that will enable trade-offs between fruit growth and quality under Water Deficit (WD condition is a crucial challenge for breeders and growers. In the present work, 117 recombinant inbred lines of a population of Solanum lycopersicum were phenotyped under control and WD conditions. Plant water status, fruit growth and composition were measured and data were used to calibrate a process-based model describing water and carbon fluxes in a growing fruit as a function of plant and environment. Eight genotype-dependent model parameters were estimated using a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm in order to minimize the prediction errors of fruit dry and fresh mass throughout fruit development. WD increased the fruit dry matter content (up to 85 % and decreased its fresh weight (up to 60 %, big fruit size genotypes being the most sensitive. The mean normalized root mean squared errors of the predictions ranged between 16-18 % in the population. Variability in model genotypic parameters allowed us to explore diverse genetic strategies in response to WD. An interesting group of genotypes could be discriminated in which i the low loss of fresh mass under WD was associated with high active uptake of sugars and low value of the maximum cell wall extensibility, and ii the high dry matter content in control treatment (C was associated with a slow decrease of mass flow. Using 501 SNP markers genotyped across the genome, a QTL analysis of model parameters allowed to detect three main QTLs related to xylem and phloem conductivities, on chromosomes 2, 4 and 8. The model was then applied to design ideotypes with high dry matter

  15. Effect of Zeolite and Nitrogen Fertilizer Application under Water Deficit Stress Conditions on Agronomical and Physiological Traits of Rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghiasvand Ghiasi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation of zeolite and nitrogen fertilizer application effect on agronomic and physilogical traits of rapeseed (cv RGS003 under water deficit stress conditions, an experiment was conducted in factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications during 2010 in Qazvin region, Iran. In the where, the two levels of irrigation factor as the normal irrigation (irrigation after 80 mm evaporation from class A pan as control and irrigation cease from stem elongation stage till end of growth, nitrogen factor was at three levels (0, 75 and 150 kg.ha-1 and zeolite factor (0 and 10tons per hectare were studied. Results showed that drought stress decreased evaluated traits such as silique per plant (41%, grain per silique (26%, 1000 seed weight (33%, grain yield (52.5%, oil percent (14%, RWC (31.5% and chlorophyll content (35%. Non-application of nitrogen had adverse effects on total traits and reduced them. However, zeolite application at water deficit stress conditions had positive and significant effect on total traits except of oil percent and chlorophyll content, specially improved grain yield and oil yield. Based on the results of this experiment, application of zeolite (10ton/ha-1 through storage and maintenance of water and nutrients, reduced the intensity and harmful effects of stress in plants and enhances crop yield.

  16. Urinary metabolites from mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Keitt) galloyl derivatives and in vitro hydrolysis of gallotannins in physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ryan C; Krenek, Kimberly A; Meibohm, Bernd; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; Talcott, Stephen T

    2016-03-01

    The absorption, metabolism, and excretion of mango galloyl derivatives (GD) has not yet been investigated in humans, and studies investigating repeated dosages of polyphenols are limited. In this human pilot trial, healthy volunteers (age = 21-38 y, n = 11) consumed 400 g/day of mango-pulp (cv. Keitt) for 10 days, and seven metabolites of gallic acid (GA) were characterized and quantified in urine excreted over a 12 h period. Pyrogallol-O-sulfate and deoxypyrogallol-O-sulfate were found to be significantly more excreted between days 1 and 10 (p mango consumption. Mango GTs were also found to release free GA in conditions similar to the intestines. GTs may serve as a pool of pro-GA compounds that can be absorbed or undergo microbial metabolism. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The Effect of Vermicompost and Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Grain Yield and some Physiological Characteristics of Soybean (Glycine max L. under Water Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Jahangiri nia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Moisture limitation is considered as one of the important limiting factors in soybean growth. Drought stress affects different aspects of soybean growth through making anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes (Tarumingkeng & Coto, 2003. Under dry tension condition, there will be a disturbance in transmitting nutrients, but some useful soil fungi such as mycorrhiza improve production of crops under stress through forming colonies in the root and boosting water and nutrient absorption (Al-Karaki et al., 2004. Using vermicompost in sustainable agriculture strengthens support and activities of beneficial soil microorganisms (such as mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in order to provide nutrients required by plants like nitrogen, phosphorus and soluble potassium as well as improving the growth and performance of the crops (Arancon et al., 2004. Materials and methods In order to investigate the effects of vermicompost and mycorrhiza fertilizers on grain yield and some physiological characteristics of soybean under water stress condition an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Center of Khorramabad during 2013. The field experiment was carried out based on a randomized complete blocks design arranged in split-plot with four replications. The experiment treatments including irrigation in three levels (after 60, 120 and 180 mm evaporation from pan class A pan, nutrient management in six levels (non-use of vermicompost and mycorhiza fertilizer, inoculated with mycorrhiza fertilizer, consumption of 5 and 10 t.ha-1 vermicompost, consumption of 5 and 10 t.ha-1 vermicompost with mycorrhiza were respectively as the main plots and sub. In current study, RWC, LAI, SPAD were measured during 59 days after planting at the beginning of podding of the control treatment. The temperature of plant leaves were measured by the thermometer (model TM-958 LUTRON infrared Thermometers. To analyze the growth of

  18. Effect of Zeolite, Selenium and Silicon on Yield, Yield Components and Some Physiological Traits of Canola under Salt Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bybordi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Canola can be cultivated in large areas of the country due to its specific characteristics such as suitable composition of the fatty acids, its germination ability under low temperature, as well as its good compatibility with different climates. Canola is a high demanding crop in terms of fertilizers so that it uptakes considerable amount of nutrients from the soil during the growing season. Canola cultivation in poor soils or application of imbalanced fertilizers, especially nitrogen, can reduce qualitaty and quantity of final yield. On the other hand, salinity is known as one of the major limiting factors in canola production. Therefore, the aim of this study is the application of zeolite, selenium and silicon treatments to amend soil and increasing salinity tolerance in canola. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of soil applied zeolite and foliar application of selenium and silicon on yield, yield components and some physiological traits of canola grown under salinity stress, a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design was conducted in Agriculture and Natural Resource Research Center in East Azerbaijan during 2011-2013 cropping seasons. Zeolite was applied at three levels (0, 5 and 10 ton ha-1 and foliar selenium and silicon were applied at three levels as well (each one zero, 2 and 4 g l-1. For this purpose, seedbed was prepared using plow and disk and then plot were designed. Canola seeds, cultivar Okapi, were sown in sandy loam soil with 4 dS.m-1 salinity at the depth of 2-3 cm. Irrigation was performed using local well based on 60% field capacity using the closed irrigation system. Potassium selentae and potassium silicate were used for selenium and silicon treatments. Treatments at rosette and stem elongation stages were sprayed on plants using a calibrated pressurized backpack sprayer. At flowering stage, photosynthesis rate was recorded. Then leaf samples were randomly collected to assay

  19. The effects of early age thermal conditioning and vinegar supplementation of drinking water on physiological responses of female and male broiler chickens reared under summer Mediterranean temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrama, Zahra; Temim, Soraya; Djellout, Baya; Souames, Samir; Moula, Nassim; Ain Baziz, Hassina

    2018-02-01

    The effects of early age thermal conditioning (ETC), vinegar supplementation (VS) of drinking water, broilers' gender, and their interactions on respiratory rate, body temperature, and blood parameters (biochemical, hematological, and thyroid hormones) of broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperatures were determined. A total of 1100 1-day-old chicks were divided into four treatments: the "control" which were non-conditioned and non-supplemented; "heat-conditioned" which were exposed to 38 ± 1 °C for 24 h at 5 days of age; "vinegar supplemented" which were given drinking water supplemented with 0.2% of commercial vinegar from 28 to 49 days of age; and "combined" which were both heat conditioned and vinegar supplemented. All groups were exposed to the natural fluctuations of summer ambient temperature (average diurnal ambient temperature of about 30 ± 1 °C and average relative humidity of 58 ± 5%). ETC and broiler gender did not affect the respiratory rate or body temperature of chronic heat-exposed chickens. VS changed the body temperature across time (d35, d42, d49) (linear and quadratic effects, P physiological responses induced by ETC and VS, separately or in association, on chronically heat-stressed chickens were observed. However, the expected cumulative positive responses when the two treatments were combined were not evident.

  20. Presence and Effects of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide Under Physiological and Pathological Conditions in the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Reglodi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is a multifunctional neuropeptide with widespread occurrence throughout the body including the gastrointestinal system. In the small and large intestine, effects of PACAP on cell proliferation, secretion, motility, gut immunology and blood flow, as well as its importance in bowel inflammatory reactions and cancer development have been shown and reviewed earlier. However, no current review is available on the actions of PACAP in the stomach in spite of numerous data published on the gastric presence and actions of the peptide. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to summarize currently available data on the distribution and effects of PACAP in the stomach. We review data on the localization of PACAP and its receptors in the stomach wall of various mammalian and non-mammalian species, we then give an overview on PACAP’s effects on secretion of gastric acid and various hormones. Effects on cell proliferation, differentiation, blood flow and gastric motility are also reviewed. Finally, we outline PACAP’s involvement and changes in various human pathological conditions.

  1. A Quantitative Method to Monitor Reactive Oxygen Species Production by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in Physiological and Pathological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Montorsi, Michela; Porcelli, Simone; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The growing interest in the role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and in the assessment of oxidative stress in health and disease clashes with the lack of consensus on reliable quantitative noninvasive methods applicable. The study aimed at demonstrating that a recently developed Electron Paramagnetic Resonance microinvasive method provides direct evidence of the “instantaneous” presence of ROS returning absolute concentration levels that correlate with “a posteriori” assays of ROS-induced damage by means of biomarkers. The reliability of the choice to measure ROS production rate in human capillary blood rather than in plasma was tested (step I). A significant (P < 0.01) linear relationship between EPR data collected on capillary blood versus venous blood (R 2 = 0.95), plasma (R 2 = 0.82), and erythrocytes (R 2 = 0.73) was found. Then (step II) ROS production changes of various subjects' categories, young versus old and healthy versus pathological at rest condition, were found significantly different (range 0.0001–0.05 P level). The comparison of the results with antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage biomarkers concentrations showed that all changes indicating increased oxidative stress are directly related to ROS production increase. Therefore, the adopted method may be an automated technique for a lot of routine in clinical trials. PMID:25374651

  2. Cadmium toxicity investigated at the physiological and biophysical levels under environmentally relevant conditions using the aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Elisa; Kappel, Sophie; Stärk, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an important environmental pollutant and is poisonous to most organisms. We aimed to unravel the mechanisms of Cd toxicity in the model water plant Ceratophyllum demersum exposed to low (nM) concentrations of Cd as are present in nature. Experiments were conducted under environmen......Cadmium (Cd) is an important environmental pollutant and is poisonous to most organisms. We aimed to unravel the mechanisms of Cd toxicity in the model water plant Ceratophyllum demersum exposed to low (nM) concentrations of Cd as are present in nature. Experiments were conducted under...... environmentally relevant conditions, including nature-like light and temperature cycles, and a low biomass to water ratio. We measured chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence kinetics, oxygen exchange, the concentrations of reactive oxygen species and pigments, metal binding to proteins, and the accumulation of starch...... and metals. The inhibition threshold concentration for most parameters was 20 nM. Below this concentration, hardly any stress symptoms were observed. The first site of inhibition was photosynthetic light reactions (the maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centre measured as Fv /Fm , light...

  3. Effect of induced body condition score differences on physiological response, productive and reproductive performance of Malpura ewes kept in a hot, semi-arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejian, V; Maurya, V P; Naqvi, S M K; Kumar, D; Joshi, A

    2010-04-01

    This study was undertaken to study the influence of induced body condition score (BCS) differences on physiological response, productive and reproductive performance of Malpura ewes to optimise BCS for these ewes for maximising production making it economically viable. The study was conducted for a period of 1 year using thirty healthy Malpura ewes (2-4 year old). The animals were randomly divided and different BCS was induced within three groups named Group I (BCS 2.5; n = 10), Group II (BCS 3.0-3.5; n = 10) and Group III (BCS 4.0; n = 10). The parameters included in the study were allometric measurements, physiological response, wool yield and reproductive performance. BCS had a significant influence on allometric measurements, respiration rate and different reproductive parameters studied, while wool production differed significantly during spring and non-significantly during autumn. The results revealed that the reproductive performance of Malpura ewes with a BCS of 3.0-3.5 was better in comparison with the groups with lower and higher BCS. It may be concluded from this study that an active management of breeding sheep flock to achieve a BCS of 3.0-3.5 may prove to result in an economically viable return from these flocks.

  4. Physiology, Fe(II oxidation, and Fe mineral formation by a marine planktonic cyanobacterium grown under ferruginous conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D. Swanner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for Fe(II oxidation and deposition of Fe(III-bearing minerals from anoxic or redox-stratified Precambrian oceans has received support from decades of sedimentological and geochemical investigation of Banded Iron Formations (BIF. While the exact mechanisms of Fe(II oxidation remains equivocal, reaction with O2 in the marine water column, produced by cyanobacteria or early oxygenic phototrophs, was likely. In order to understand the role of cyanobacteria in the deposition of Fe(III minerals to BIF, we must first know how planktonic marine cyanobacteria respond to ferruginous (anoxic and Fe(II-rich waters in terms of growth, Fe uptake and homeostasis, and Fe mineral formation. We therefore grew the common marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002 in closed bottles that began anoxic, and contained Fe(II concentrations that span the range of possible concentrations in Precambrian seawater. These results, along with cell suspension experiments, indicate that Fe(II is likely oxidized by this strain via chemical oxidation with oxygen produced during photosynthesis, and not via any direct enzymatic or photosynthetic pathway. Imaging of the cell-mineral aggregates with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM are consistent with extracellular precipitation of Fe(III (oxyhydroxide minerals, but that >10% of Fe(III sorbs to cell surfaces rather than precipitating. Proteomic experiments support the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in Fe(II toxicity to Synechococcus PCC 7002. The proteome expressed under low Fe conditions included multiple siderophore biosynthesis and siderophore and Fe transporter proteins, but most siderophores are not expressed during growth with Fe(II. These results provide a mechanistic and quantitative framework for evaluating the geochemical consequences of perhaps life’s greatest metabolic innovation, i.e. the evolution and activity of oxygenic photosynthesis, in ferruginous

  5. Impact of two telemetry transmitter implantation incision suturing methods on the physiological state and condition of perch (Perca fluviatilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rożyński Maciej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the impact on European perch, Perca fluviatilis L. (mean body weight – 78.33 g of the intraperitoneal implantation of telemetry transmitters using different suturing methods. In the first experiment silk sutures were used (experiment I – group ST, while in the second tissue adhesive was used (experiment II – group GT. Following the procedure, the fish were kept for 42 days in a recirculating system. Differences in growth and condition parameters were only noted in the first week of the experiment. Specimens from group GT had lower values for DGR (daily growth rate and SGR (specific growth rate, but a higher value for FCR (feed conversion ratio values. For the hematological parameters, lower values of MCV (mean corpuscular volume and PLT (blood platelets were noted in group GT, while for the biochemical parameters, lowered ALP (alkaline phosphatase activity and Mg (magnesium concentrations were noted in group ST. In group ST, 33.3% of the specimens loss their tags, while in group GT 77.8% did so. Differences in incision healing were only noted in the second week, when specimens in group ST were observed to have fully closed incisions, while in group GT 50% of the incisions were open. Despite the high percentage of implantation incision healing in both groups, because of the high values of tag loss rate, neither method can be recommended for perch. It might be more effective to use tag with external antennae in this species. The method use for closing implantation incisions also must be improved to eliminate tag shedding.

  6. Heterogeneity of equilibrium molten globule state of cytochrome c induced by weak salt denaturants under physiological condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidur Rahaman

    Full Text Available While many proteins are recognized to undergo folding via intermediate(s, the heterogeneity of equilibrium folding intermediate(s along the folding pathway is less understood. In our present study, FTIR spectroscopy, far- and near-UV circular dichroism (CD, ANS and tryptophan fluorescence, near IR absorbance spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS were used to study the structural and thermodynamic characteristics of the native (N, denatured (D and intermediate state (X of goat cytochorme c (cyt-c induced by weak salt denaturants (LiBr, LiCl and LiClO4 at pH 6.0 and 25°C. The LiBr-induced denaturation of cyt-c measured by Soret absorption (Δε400 and CD ([θ]409, is a three-step process, N ↔ X ↔ D. It is observed that the X state obtained along the denaturation pathway of cyt-c possesses common structural and thermodynamic characteristics of the molten globule (MG state. The MG state of cyt-c induced by LiBr is compared for its structural and thermodynamic parameters with those found in other solvent conditions such as LiCl, LiClO4 and acidic pH. Our observations suggest: (1 that the LiBr-induced MG state of cyt-c retains the native Met80-Fe(III axial bond and Trp59-propionate interactions; (2 that LiBr-induced MG state of cyt-c is more compact retaining the hydrophobic interactions in comparison to the MG states induced by LiCl, LiClO4 and 0.5 M NaCl at pH 2.0; and (3 that there exists heterogeneity of equilibrium intermediates along the unfolding pathway of cyt-c as highly ordered (X1, classical (X2 and disordered (X3, i.e., D ↔ X3 ↔ X2 ↔ X1 ↔ N.

  7. Study of the interaction between fluoxetine hydrochloride and bovine serum albumin in the imitated physiological conditions by multi-spectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katrahalli, Umesha; Jaldappagari, Seetharamappa; Kalanur, Shankara S.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of interaction of an antidepressant, fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied by different spectroscopic techniques under physiological conditions. FLX was found to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of protein by static quenching mechanism. The binding constant 'K' was found to be 7.06x10 3 M -1 at 296 K. The value of 'n' close to unity revealed that the BSA has a single class of binding site for FLX. Based on thermodynamic parameters, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces were proposed to operate between BSA and FLX. The change in conformation of protein was noticed upon its interaction with the drug. From displacement studies it was concluded that the FLX bound to protein at site I. The effects of various common metals ions on the binding were also investigated.

  8. Study of the interaction between fluoxetine hydrochloride and bovine serum albumin in the imitated physiological conditions by multi-spectroscopic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katrahalli, Umesha [Department of Chemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003 (India); Jaldappagari, Seetharamappa, E-mail: j_seetharam@rediffmail.co [Department of Chemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003 (India); Kalanur, Shankara S. [Department of Chemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003 (India)

    2010-02-15

    The mechanism of interaction of an antidepressant, fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied by different spectroscopic techniques under physiological conditions. FLX was found to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of protein by static quenching mechanism. The binding constant 'K' was found to be 7.06x10{sup 3} M{sup -1} at 296 K. The value of 'n' close to unity revealed that the BSA has a single class of binding site for FLX. Based on thermodynamic parameters, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces were proposed to operate between BSA and FLX. The change in conformation of protein was noticed upon its interaction with the drug. From displacement studies it was concluded that the FLX bound to protein at site I. The effects of various common metals ions on the binding were also investigated.

  9. The use of a physiologically-based extraction test to assess relationships between bioaccessible metals in urban soil and neurodevelopmental conditions in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jie; Wang, Yinding; McDermott, Suzanne; Cai, Bo; Aelion, C. Marjorie; Lead, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) and cerebral palsy (CP) are serious neurodevelopment conditions and low birth weight (LBW) is correlated with both ID and CP. The actual causes and mechanisms for each of these child outcomes are not well understood. In this study, the relationship between bioaccessible metal concentrations in urban soil and these child conditions were investigated. A physiologically based extraction test (PBET) mimicking gastric and intestinal processes was applied to measure the bio-accessibility of four metals (cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb)) in urban soil, and a Bayesian Kriging method was used to estimate metal concentrations in geocoded maternal residential sites. The results showed that bioaccessible metal concentrations of Cd, Ni, and Pb in the intestinal phase were statistically significantly associated with the child outcomes. Lead and nickel were associated with ID, lead and cadmium was associated with LBW, and cadmium was associated with CP. The total concentrations and stomach concentrations were not correlated to significant effects in any of the analyses. For lead, an estimated threshold value was found that was statistically significant in predicting low birth weight. The change point test was statistically significant (p value = 0.045) at an intestine threshold level of 9.2 mg/kg (95% confidence interval 8.9–9.4, p value = 0.0016), which corresponds to 130.6 mg/kg of total Pb concentration in the soil. This is a narrow confidence interval for an important relationship. - Highlights: • Correlation between bioavailable metals and child development were investigated. • Cd, Ni, and Pb in the intestinal phase significantly affect neurodevelopment. • Pb has a threshold value 130.6 mg/kg (of whole soil) for low birth weight. - Based on physiologically based extraction test, the 130.6 mg/kg of total Pb concentration in the soil may cause low birth weight of baby.

  10. The effect of the menstrual cycle and water consumption on physiological responses during prolonged exercise at moderate intensity in hot conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Ishijima, Toshimichi; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-09-01

    Reproductive hormones are likely to be involved in thermoregulation through body fluid dynamics. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of the menstrual cycle and water consumption on physiological responses to prolonged exercise at moderate intensity in hot conditions. Eight healthy young women with regular menstrual cycles performed cycling exercise for 90 minutes at 50% V̇O2peak intensity during the low progesterone (LP) level phase and high progesterone (HP) level phase, with or without water consumption, under hot conditions (30°C, 50% relative humidity). For the water consumption trials, subjects ingested water equivalent to the loss in body weight that occurred in the earlier non-consumption trial. For all four trials, rectal temperature, cardiorespiratory responses, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. Throughout the 90-minute exercise period, rectal temperatures during HP were higher than during LP by an average of 0.4 °C in the non-consumption trial (Pwater consumption trial (Pwater consumption affected the changes in rectal temperature and heat rate (HR) during HP, but it did not exert these effects during LP. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between estradiol levels and rectal temperature during LP. During prolonged exercise at moderate intensity under hot conditions, water consumption is likely to be useful for suppressing the associated increase in body temperature and HR, particularly during HP, whereas estradiol appears to be useful for suppressing the increase in rectal temperature during LP.

  11. Rice Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.A. Counce; Davidi R. Gealy; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2002-01-01

    Physiology occurs tn physical space through chemical reactions constrained by anatomy and morphology, yet guided by genetics. Physiology has been called the logic of life. Genes encode structural and fimcdonal proteins. These proteins are subsequently processed to produce enzymes that direct and govern the biomechanical processes involved in the physiology of the...

  12. In-situ determination of the mechanical properties of gliding or non-motile bacteria by atomic force microscopy under physiological conditions without immobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Dhahri

    Full Text Available We present a study about AFM imaging of living, moving or self-immobilized bacteria in their genuine physiological liquid medium. No external immobilization protocol, neither chemical nor mechanical, was needed. For the first time, the native gliding movements of Gram-negative Nostoc cyanobacteria upon the surface, at speeds up to 900 µm/h, were studied by AFM. This was possible thanks to an improved combination of a gentle sample preparation process and an AFM procedure based on fast and complete force-distance curves made at every pixel, drastically reducing lateral forces. No limitation in spatial resolution or imaging rate was detected. Gram-positive and non-motile Rhodococcus wratislaviensis bacteria were studied as well. From the approach curves, Young modulus and turgor pressure were measured for both strains at different gliding speeds and are ranging from 20±3 to 105±5 MPa and 40±5 to 310±30 kPa depending on the bacterium and the gliding speed. For Nostoc, spatially limited zones with higher values of stiffness were observed. The related spatial period is much higher than the mean length of Nostoc nodules. This was explained by an inhomogeneous mechanical activation of nodules in the cyanobacterium. We also observed the presence of a soft extra cellular matrix (ECM around the Nostoc bacterium. Both strains left a track of polymeric slime with variable thicknesses. For Rhodococcus, it is equal to few hundreds of nanometers, likely to promote its adhesion to the sample. While gliding, the Nostoc secretes a slime layer the thickness of which is in the nanometer range and increases with the gliding speed. This result reinforces the hypothesis of a propulsion mechanism based, for Nostoc cyanobacteria, on ejection of slime. These results open a large window on new studies of both dynamical phenomena of practical and fundamental interests such as the formation of biofilms and dynamic properties of bacteria in real physiological conditions.

  13. In-Situ Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Gliding or Non-Motile Bacteria by Atomic Force Microscopy under Physiological Conditions without Immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhahri, Samia; Ramonda, Michel; Marlière, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We present a study about AFM imaging of living, moving or self-immobilized bacteria in their genuine physiological liquid medium. No external immobilization protocol, neither chemical nor mechanical, was needed. For the first time, the native gliding movements of Gram-negative Nostoc cyanobacteria upon the surface, at speeds up to 900 µm/h, were studied by AFM. This was possible thanks to an improved combination of a gentle sample preparation process and an AFM procedure based on fast and complete force-distance curves made at every pixel, drastically reducing lateral forces. No limitation in spatial resolution or imaging rate was detected. Gram-positive and non-motile Rhodococcus wratislaviensis bacteria were studied as well. From the approach curves, Young modulus and turgor pressure were measured for both strains at different gliding speeds and are ranging from 20±3 to 105±5 MPa and 40±5 to 310±30 kPa depending on the bacterium and the gliding speed. For Nostoc, spatially limited zones with higher values of stiffness were observed. The related spatial period is much higher than the mean length of Nostoc nodules. This was explained by an inhomogeneous mechanical activation of nodules in the cyanobacterium. We also observed the presence of a soft extra cellular matrix (ECM) around the Nostoc bacterium. Both strains left a track of polymeric slime with variable thicknesses. For Rhodococcus, it is equal to few hundreds of nanometers, likely to promote its adhesion to the sample. While gliding, the Nostoc secretes a slime layer the thickness of which is in the nanometer range and increases with the gliding speed. This result reinforces the hypothesis of a propulsion mechanism based, for Nostoc cyanobacteria, on ejection of slime. These results open a large window on new studies of both dynamical phenomena of practical and fundamental interests such as the formation of biofilms and dynamic properties of bacteria in real physiological conditions. PMID:23593493

  14. Effects of short-term fasting on stress physiology, body condition, and locomotor activity in wintering male white-crowned sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jesse S; Pérez, Jonathan H; Meddle, Simone L; Wingfield, John C

    2017-08-01

    For wild free-living animals the availability of food resources can be greatly affected by environmental perturbations such as weather events. In response to environmental perturbations, animals activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to adjust physiology and behavior. The literature asserts that during weather events food intake declines leading to changes in HPA axis activity, as measured by both baseline and stress-induced glucocorticoid concentrations. Here we investigated how body condition, locomotor activity, and stress physiology were affected by varying lengths of a fast (1, 2, 6, and 24h; similar to that experienced by free-living birds) compared to when food was provided ad libitum in captive wintering male white-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii, exposed to a short day photoperiod. Baseline corticosterone concentrations were increased for all fasting durations but were highest in 6 and 24h fasted birds. Stress-induced corticosterone was elevated in 1h fasted birds with a trend for the 2h of fast; no other differences were found. Baseline corticosterone concentrations were negatively related to both total fat scores and body mass. All birds lost body mass regardless of fast length but birds fasted for 24h lost the most. Fat scores declined in the 6 and 24h groups, and no measureable changes were detected in pectoralis muscle profile. Locomotor activity was increased over the entire period in which food was removed regardless of fasting duration. Together this suggests that reduced food availability is responsible, at least in part, for the rapid elevation both baseline corticosterone under any duration of fast and stress-induced concentrations during short-term fasts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Automated microdialysis-based system for in situ microsampling and investigation of lead bioavailability in terrestrial environments under physiologically based extraction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosende, María; Magalhães, Luis M; Segundo, Marcela A; Miró, Manuel

    2013-10-15

    In situ automatic microdialysis sampling under batch-flow conditions is herein proposed for the first time for expedient assessment of the kinetics of lead bioaccessibility/bioavailability in contaminated and agricultural soils exploiting the harmonized physiologically based extraction test (UBM). Capitalized upon a concentric microdialysis probe immersed in synthetic gut fluids, the miniaturized flow system is harnessed for continuous monitoring of lead transfer across the permselective microdialysis membrane to mimic the diffusive transport of metal species through the epithelium of the stomach and of the small intestine. Besides, the addition of the UBM gastrointestinal fluid surrogates at a specified time frame is fully mechanized. Distinct microdialysis probe configurations and membranes types were investigated in detail to ensure passive sampling under steady-state dialytic conditions for lead. Using a 3-cm-long polysulfone membrane with averaged molecular weight cutoff of 30 kDa in a concentric probe and a perfusate flow rate of 2.0 μL min(-1), microdialysis relative recoveries in the gastric phase were close to 100%, thereby omitting the need for probe calibration. The automatic leaching method was validated in terms of bias in the analysis of four soils with different physicochemical properties and containing a wide range of lead content (16 ± 3 to 1216 ± 42 mg kg(-1)) using mass balance assessment as a quality control tool. No significant differences between the mass balance and the total lead concentration in the suite of analyzed soils were encountered (α = 0.05). Our finding that the extraction of soil-borne lead for merely one hour in the GI phase suffices for assessment of the bioavailable fraction as a result of the fast immobilization of lead species at near-neutral conditions would assist in providing risk assessment data from the UBM test on a short notice.

  16. An azine based sensor for selective detection of Cu2 + ions and its copper complex for sensing of phosphate ions in physiological conditions and in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Karishma; Kumar, Sumit; Kumar, Vipan; Kaur, Jeevanjot; Arora, Saroj; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2018-02-01

    A simple and cost effective unsymmetrical azine based Schiff base, 5-diethylamino-2-[(2-hydroxy-benzylidene)hydrazonomethyl]-phenol (1) was synthesized which selectively detect Cu2 + ions in the presence of other competitive ions through ;naked eye; in physiological conditions (EtOH-buffer (1:1, v/v, HEPES 10 mM, pH = 7.4)). The presence of Cu2 + induce color change from light yellow green to yellow with the appearance of a new band at 450 nm in UV-Vis spectra of Schiff base 1. The fluorescence of Schiff base 1 (10 μM) was quenched completely in the presence of 2.7 equiv. of Cu2 + ions. Sub-micromolar limit of detection (LOD = 3.4 × 10- 7 M), efficient Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV = 1.8 × 105 L mol- 1) and strong binding constant (log Kb = 5.92) has been determined with the help of fluorescence titration profile. Further, 1 - Cu2 + complex was employed for the detection of phosphate ions (PO43 -, HPO42 - and H2PO4-) at micromolar concentrations in EtOH-buffer of pH 7.4 based on fluorescence recovery due to the binding of Cu2 + with phosphate ions. Solubility at low concentration in aqueous medium, longer excitation (406 nm) and emission wavelength (537 nm), and biocompatibility of Schiff base 1 formulates its use in live cell imaging.

  17. Effect of Silicon application on Morpho-physiological Characteristics, Grain Yield and Nutrient Content of Bread Wheat under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmollachaab

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on some physiological characteristics, yield and yield components, and grain mineral contents of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum under water stress condition, an experiment was conducted in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan, in 2012. The experiment was arranged in split-plots design in RCBD (Completely Randomized Blocks Design with three replications. Treatments consisted of drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of Available Water Content in main plots and silicon (0, 10, 20 and 30 Kg Si ha-1 arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that the effect of drought stress was significant on most traits and led to the increase of electrolyte leakage (EL, cuticular wax, leaf and grain silicon content and grain nitrogen content. But drought led to negative impacts on grain yield and its components, and leaf potassium content, i.e. moderate and severe stresses reduced yield by 17% and 38% compared to control, respectively. Effect of silicon application was significant on all traits except for spike per square meter. Silicon had the greatest impact on EL and led to 35% decrease in this trait. Also, silicon led to increase in leaf and grain silicon contents and grain K content and grain yield and yield components, when applied at 30 kg ha-1. Generally, application of 30 kg ha-1 of silicon led to 6 and 14% increases of grain yield at the presence of moderate and severe drought stresses, respectively. Thus, given the abundance of silicon it can be used as an ameliorating element for planting bread wheat in drought-prone conditions.

  18. Effects of Length of Shipping Distance and Season of the Year Temperature Stress on Death Rates and Physiological Condition of Broilers on Arrival to Slaughterhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study was done to evaluate effects of length of shipping distance (15, 50, and 150 km) and season of the year temperature stress (winter, fall and summer) on death rates and physiological condition of broilers on arrival to slaughterhouse. Mortality rate, serum triglyceride (Trig), uric acid (UA), glucose (Gluc), lactate dehydrogenase (LacDH), heterophil:lymphocyte ratio (H:L ratio) and corticosterone (Cort) were determined. The results showed that mortality rates among broilers grow higher with longer travel distances. The highest mortality was found in the summer months of June, July, and August and in winter months of December, January, and February. Triglyceride concentrations decreased with travel distances increase, especially, when transportation took place between 10-20°C ambient temperatures. Transportation of broilers for distances of 15, 50 and 150 km during fall and winter temperatures conditions increased the level of uric acid in broilers as compared to the broilers sampled before transport. Glucose level decreased in broilers on arrival to slaughterhouse from a distance of during 150 km at fall and winter season’s ambient temperature. Lactate dehydrogenase level decreased as travel distance increased, and this decrease was significant in broilers transported over all distances as compared to the broilers sampled before transport. The H:L ratio increased with travel distance increase. Finally, after 50 km of transport corticosterone level increased significantly in comparison with broilers sampled before transport at all monitored ambient temperatures, and after 150 km of transport it was highly increased at winter and summer seasons as compared to the broilers sampled before transport. It is concluded from the results of this study that the longer the distance of the farm from slaughterhouse the greater the stress on the birds, especially during summer months

  19. Selenium Supplementation Affects Physiological and Biochemical Processes to Improve Fodder Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Water Deficit Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Fahim; Naeem, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad Y.; Tahir, Muhammad N.; Zulfiqar, Bilal; Salahuddin, Muhammad; Shabbir, Rana N.; Aslam, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se) is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants, however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive. We report the effects of exogenous selenium supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence green fodder yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress conditions. The plants were grown in lysimeter tanks under natural conditions and were subjected to normal (100% field capacity) and water stress (60% field capacity) conditions. Foliar spray of Se was carried out before the start of tasseling stage (65 days after sowing) and was repeated after 1 week, whereas, water spray was used as a control. Drought stress markedly reduced the water status, pigments and green fodder yield and resulted in low forage quality in water stressed maize plants. Nevertheless, exogenous Se application at 40 mg L-1 resulted in less negative leaf water potential (41%) and enhanced relative water contents (30%), total chlorophyll (53%), carotenoid contents (60%), accumulation of total free amino acids (40%) and activities of superoxide dismutase (53%), catalase (30%), peroxidase (27%), and ascorbate peroxidase (27%) with respect to control under water deficit conditions. Consequently, Se regulated processes improved fodder yield (15%) and increased crude protein (47%), fiber (10%), nitrogen free extract (10%) and Se content (36%) but did not affect crude ash content in water stressed maize plants. We propose that Se

  20. Selenium Supplementation Affects Physiological and Biochemical Processes to Improve Fodder Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Water Deficit Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Fahim; Naeem, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad Y; Tahir, Muhammad N; Zulfiqar, Bilal; Salahuddin, Muhammad; Shabbir, Rana N; Aslam, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se) is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants, however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive. We report the effects of exogenous selenium supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence green fodder yield and quality of maize ( Zea mays L.) under drought stress conditions. The plants were grown in lysimeter tanks under natural conditions and were subjected to normal (100% field capacity) and water stress (60% field capacity) conditions. Foliar spray of Se was carried out before the start of tasseling stage (65 days after sowing) and was repeated after 1 week, whereas, water spray was used as a control. Drought stress markedly reduced the water status, pigments and green fodder yield and resulted in low forage quality in water stressed maize plants. Nevertheless, exogenous Se application at 40 mg L -1 resulted in less negative leaf water potential (41%) and enhanced relative water contents (30%), total chlorophyll (53%), carotenoid contents (60%), accumulation of total free amino acids (40%) and activities of superoxide dismutase (53%), catalase (30%), peroxidase (27%), and ascorbate peroxidase (27%) with respect to control under water deficit conditions. Consequently, Se regulated processes improved fodder yield (15%) and increased crude protein (47%), fiber (10%), nitrogen free extract (10%) and Se content (36%) but did not affect crude ash content in water stressed maize plants. We propose that

  1. Selenium Supplementation Affects Physiological and Biochemical Processes to Improve Fodder Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L. under Water Deficit Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahim Nawaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive. We report the effects of exogenous selenium (Se supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence green fodder yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L. under drought stress conditions. The plants were grown in lysimeter tanks under natural conditions and were subjected to normal (100% field capacity and water stress (60% field capacity conditions. Foliar spray of Se was carried out before the start of tasseling stage (65 days after sowing and was repeated after one week, whereas water spray was used as a control. Drought stress markedly reduced the water status, pigments and green fodder yield and resulted in low forage quality in water stressed maize plants. Nevertheless, exogenous Se application at 40 mg L-1 resulted in less negative leaf water potential (41% and enhanced relative water contents (30%, total chlorophyll (53%, carotenoid contents (60%, accumulation of total free amino acids (40% and activities of superoxide dismutase (53%, catalase (30%, peroxidase (27% and ascorbate peroxidase (27% with respect to control under water deficit conditions. Consequently, Se regulated processes improved fodder yield (15% and increased crude protein (47%, fibre (10%, nitrogen free extract (10% and Se content (36% but did not affect crude ash content in water stressed maize plants. We propose

  2. TheEffect of Salicylic Acid Application on Some Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Grape Cultivars (Vitisvinifera L. Under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Abbaspour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water stress is considered as a main environmental factor limiting crop growth and yield, including grape in Mediterranean areas.Selection for drought-tolerantvarieties is possible through investigation of their performance under stress conditions. The estimation of physiological characteristics as reliable indices can be used as a tool to select tolerant plants. For this reason, varieties and genotypes of one plant species are usually investigated through physiological characteristics and its relation to drought tolerance. Investigation of the effects of water stress on some growth and physiological characteristics in grape plants has revealed that plant height, number of leaves and nodes, leaf area and the percentage of dry weightdecreased under increasing drought stress. Salicylic Acid is a naturally occurring plant hormone whichinfluences various morphological and physiological functions in plant. It can act as an important signaling molecule and has diverse effects on biotic and abiotic stresses tolerance capacity. Materials and Methods: In this research, two-yearold grapesplanted in plastic pots containingingredients of humus, soil and sand (1:2:1 were used. The experiment was conducted using a factorial based on randomized complete block design with three factors including irrigation periods (every 5, 10 and 15 days, salicylic acid concentrations (0, 1 and 2 mM and grape cultivars (Rasheh andBidanesefid with 3 replications in thegreenhouse of faculty of agricultureinUrmia University. Plant height, stem diameter and leaf area and chlorophyll indicesweremeasuredby usingruler, digital caliper (Model22855 NO: Z, leaf Area Meter (ModelAM200 and SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter (Minolta Crop, Japan,respectively. In order to determine proline content, malondialdehyde (MDA, total protein and total soluble sugars, spectrophotometric methods [51,25,6and28] were utilized,respectively. Results and Discussion: Based on comparing the averages

  3. Effects of Nano Chelated Zinc and Mycorrhizal Fungi Inoculation on Some Agronomic and Physiological Characteristics of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rezaei Chiyaneh

    2017-06-01

    biotic (root pathogens stress resistance of the host. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the effects of nano-zinc fertilizer and mycorrhizal fungi symbiosis on some agronomic and physiological characteristics of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. under drought stress conditions, an experiment was arranged as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, West Azarbaijan Province, Naghadeh city during growing season of 2013-2014. The main factor consisted of four irrigation levels (irrigation after 60, 110, 160 and 210 mm evaporation from pan and sub factor included four fertilizer levels (nano fertilizer, mycorrhizal, mycorrhizal+nano fertilizer and control. Studied traits were number of head per plant, number of seed per head, 1000-seed weight, biological yield, seed yield, oil percentage, soluble sugars and proline contents. For statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT were performed using SAS version 9.9 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. Results and Discussion The results declared that increasing drought stress decreased yield and yield components (such as number of head per plant, number of seed per head and 1000-seed weight significantly. But, application of fertilizer sources decreased the drought effects, so in irrigation levels, application of nano fertilizer, mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal+nano fertilizer increased these traits. The highest seed yield (2588 kg.ha-1 was obtained in irrigation after 60 mm evaporation of pan with using mycorrhizal+nano fertilizer and the lowest amount (1836.6 kg.ha-1 from irrigation after 210 mm evaporation of pan and control. Oil percentage decreased by increasing drought stress, but oil percentage with application of mycorrhizal+nano fertilizer significantly increased (11% compared to control (without application fertilizers. Increasing drought stress and use of nano zinc fertilizer and mycorrhizal

  4. Physiological basis of genetic variation in leaf photosynthesis among rice (Oryza sativa L.) introgression lines under drought and well-watered conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xinyou

    2012-01-01

    To understand the physiological basis of genetic variation and resulting quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for photosynthesis in a rice (Oryza sativa L.) introgression line population, 13 lines were studied under drought and well-watered conditions, at flowering and grain filling. Simultaneous gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were conducted at various levels of incident irradiance and ambient CO2 to estimate parameters of a model that dissects photosynthesis into stomatal conductance (g s), mesophyll conductance (g m), electron transport capacity (J max), and Rubisco carboxylation capacity (V cmax). Significant genetic variation in these parameters was found, although drought and leaf age accounted for larger proportions of the total variation. Genetic variation in light-saturated photosynthesis and transpiration efficiency (TE) were mainly associated with variation in g s and g m. One previously mapped major QTL of photosynthesis was associated with variation in g s and g m, but also in J max and V cmax at flowering. Thus, g s and g m, which were demonstrated in the literature to be responsible for environmental variation in photosynthesis, were found also to be associated with genetic variation in photosynthesis. Furthermore, relationships between these parameters and leaf nitrogen or dry matter per unit area, which were previously found across environmental treatments, were shown to be valid for variation across genotypes. Finally, the extent to which photosynthesis rate and TE can be improved was evaluated. Virtual ideotypes were estimated to have 17.0% higher photosynthesis and 25.1% higher TE compared with the best genotype investigated. This analysis using introgression lines highlights possibilities of improving both photosynthesis and TE within the same genetic background. PMID:22888131

  5. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  6. Study the Effect of Different Phosphorus Fertilizers on Physiological Characteristic of Photosynthetic Pigments and Soluble Sugars of Safflower under Water Deficit Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Heshmati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought stress is one of the most important and effective factors in agricultural practices in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The arid and semi-arid regions comprise more than 70% of the total area of Iran. Reduction in chlorophyll concentrations has been attributed to the increase in chlorophyll degradation in water deficit conditions and impairment in the enzymes activity responsible for the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments. Under drought stress, maintenance of photosynthetic capacities and leaf chlorophyll are physiological parameters which influence drought stress tolerant of crop. Phosphorus is one the most essential elements for plant growth after nitrogen. However, the availability of this nutrient for plants is limited by different chemical reactions especially in arid and semi-arid soils. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB are soil and rhizosphere bacteria that can benefit plant growth by different mechanisms. Given the negative environmental impact of chemical fertilizers and their increasing costs, the use of PGPB as natural fertilizers is advantageous for the development of sustainable agriculture. Inoculation of plants with native beneficial microorganisms may increase drought tolerance of plants growing in arid or semi-arid areas. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of biologic and chemical phosphorous fertilizer on photosynthetic pigments of safflower cultivar (IL111, under water deficit condition, an experiment was conducted in 2012 at the Research Field of the Faculty of Agriculture, Shahed University. The experimental design was split-factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replicates. The main factors were the three levels of irrigation treatment: full irrigation (irrigation up to 50% soil moisture depletion relative to field capacity, water stress in the vegetative and flowering stages (irrigation up to 75% soil moisture depletion relative to field

  7. Effect of Seed Priming on Growth and Some Physiological Characteristics of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. under salinity Stress Condition caused by Alkali Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bekhrad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sesame (Sesamun indicum L. is an important oil seed crop. Its seed has excellent nutritional value with a high and unique protein composition, making it a perfect food. Salinity is a serious problem in many regions of the world including Iran. Salinity stress is one of the widespread environmental constraints affecting crop productivity. Salinity generally induces osmotic stress and causes direct ion injury by disrupting ion homeostasis and the ion balance within plant cells (25. Seed priming is one of the ways to reduce negative effects of salt which is used for increasing germination percentage and seed resistance in salty zones. Seed priming is a pre-germination treatment that provides a moisture level sufficient to start pre-germination metabolic processes. It entails the partial germination of seeds by soaking them in water (or in a solution of salts for specified period of time, and then re-dry them just before radicle emerges (24. Priming stimulates many of the metabolic processes involved with the early phases of germination. Given that part of the germination processes have been initiated, seedlings from primed seed grow faster, grow more vigorously, and perform better in adverse conditions (24. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of salinity stress caused by alkali salts on growth and some physiologic characteristics of sesame. Materials and Methods This study was conducted in a greenhouse in Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan as factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. Experimental factors included priming (control (unprimed, hydropriming, halopriming with NaCl and NaHCO3 and level of salinity with sodium bicarbonate salt (Zero, 15, 30 and 45 mM. Seeds were planted in pots filled with perlite and cocopite (1:1. The pots were irrigated with a nutrient solution (with half strength Hoagland's solution. After the fourth true leaves appeared, salinty stress in

  8. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  9. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  10. Physiological pseudomyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R

    1990-08-01

    Objective refraction through plus fogging lenses and base-in prisms revealed that normally accommodation is not completely relaxed when the stimulus to accommodation is zero. The myopic shift in the refractive error due to this focus error of accommodation was defined as physiological pseudomyopia. Two previously established features of accommodation are responsible for this behavior: (1) accommodation acts as a proportional control system for steady-state responses; and (2) the rest focus of accommodation is nonzero. It is proposed that the hyperopic shift in refraction observed in cycloplegia is the result of elimination of physiological pseudomyopia.

  11. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bent...

  12. Environmental physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. Subject areas include: the effects of environmental pollutants on homeostasis of the hematopoietic system; pollutant effects on steroid metabolism; pollutant effects on pulmonary macrophages; effects of toxic gases on lung cells; the development of immunological methods for assessing lung damage at the cellular level; the response of erythropoietin concentration to various physiological changes; and the study of actinide metabolism in monkey skeletons

  13. Effects of myxoma virus and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus on the physiological condition of wild European rabbits: Is blood biochemistry a useful monitoring tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacios-Palma, Isabel; Santoro, Simone; Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) are the major viral diseases that affect the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). These diseases arrived in Europe within the last decades and have caused wild rabbit populations to decline dramatically. Both viruses are currently considered to be endemic in the Iberian Peninsula; periodic outbreaks that strongly impact wild populations regularly occur. Myxoma virus (MV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) alter the physiology of infected rabbits, resulting in physical deterioration. Consequently, the persistence and viability of natural populations are affected. The main goal of our study was to determine if blood biochemistry is correlated with serostatus in wild European rabbits. We carried out seven live-trapping sessions in three wild rabbit populations over a two-year period. Blood samples were collected to measure anti-MV and anti-RHDV antibody concentrations and to measure biochemical parameters related to organ function, protein metabolism, and nutritional status. Overall, we found no significant relationships between rabbit serostatus and biochemistry. Our main result was that rabbits that were seropositive for both MV and RHDV had low gamma glutamyltransferase concentrations. Given the robustness of our analyses, the lack of significant relationships may indicate that the biochemical parameters measured are poor proxies for serostatus. Another explanation is that wild rabbits might be producing attenuated physiological responses to these viruses because the latter are now enzootic in the study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  15. [Characteristics of the sympathoadrenal system response to psychoemotional stress under hypoxic conditions in aged people with physiological and accelerated aging of the respiratory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanov, E O; Os'mak, Ie D; Kuz'mins'ka, L A

    2013-01-01

    The peculiarities of the response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional and hypoxic stress in healthy young people and in aged people with physiological and accelerated aging of respiratory system were studied. It was shown that in aging a more pronounced response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional stress. At the same time, elderly people with different types of aging of the respiratory system did not demonstrate a difference in the response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional stress. Unlike in young people, in aged people, combination of psychoemotional and hypoxic stresses resulted in further activation of the sympathoadrenal system. The reaction of the sympathoadrenal system was more expressed in elderly people with accelerated ageing of the respiratory system.

  16. Physiological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  17. Nitrogen-detected TROSY yields comparable sensitivity to proton-detected TROSY for non-deuterated, large proteins under physiological salt conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Koh [National Institute for Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Molecular Profiling Research Center for Drug Discovery (Japan); Arthanari, Haribabu [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States); Imai, Misaki [Japan Biological Informatics Consortium, Research and Development Department (Japan); Wagner, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard-wagner@hms.harvard.edu [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States); Shimada, Ichio, E-mail: shimada@iw-nmr.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp [National Institute for Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Molecular Profiling Research Center for Drug Discovery (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Direct detection of the TROSY component of proton-attached {sup 15}N nuclei ({sup 15}N-detected TROSY) yields high quality spectra with high field magnets, by taking advantage of the slow {sup 15}N transverse relaxation. The slow transverse relaxation and narrow line width of the {sup 15}N-detected TROSY resonances are expected to compensate for the inherently low {sup 15}N sensitivity. However, the sensitivity of {sup 15}N-detected TROSY in a previous report was one-order of magnitude lower than in the conventional {sup 1}H-detected version. This could be due to the fact that the previous experiments were performed at low salt (0–50 mM), which is advantageous for {sup 1}H-detected experiments. Here, we show that the sensitivity gap between {sup 15}N and {sup 1}H becomes marginal for a non-deuterated, large protein (τ{sub c} = 35 ns) at a physiological salt concentration (200 mM). This effect is due to the high salt tolerance of the {sup 15}N-detected TROSY. Together with the previously reported benefits of the {sup 15}N-detected TROSY, our results provide further support for the significance of this experiment for structural studies of macromolecules when using high field magnets near and above 1 GHz.

  18. Residual Effect of Chemical and Animal Fertilizers and Compost on Yield, YieldComponents, Physiological Characteristics and Essential Oil Content of Matricaria chamomilla L. under Drought Stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Ahmadian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The residual effect of inorganic and organic fertilizers on growth and yield of plants is one of the important problems in nutrition. This study was conducted to determine the residual effect of different fertilizers on yield, yield components, physiological parameters and essential oil percentage of Matricaria chamomilla under drought stress. A split plot arrangement based on randomized completely block design (RCBD with three replication was conducted in 2009, at the University of Zabol. Treatments included W1 (non stress, W2 (75% FC and W3 (50% FC as main plot and three types of residual’s fertilizers: F1 (non fertilizer, F2 (chemical fertilizer, F3 (manure fertilizer and F4 (compost as sub plot. Results showed that water stress at W3 treatment reduced dry flower yield. Low water stress increased essential oil percentage and the highest oil was obtained in W2. In this experiment, free proline and total soluble carbohydrate concentration were increased under water stress. The residual’s manure and compost enhanced flower yield, percentage and yield of essential oil of chamomile at the second year. At a glance, animal manure application and light water stress (75% FC was recommended to obtain best quantitative and qualitative yield. Keywords: Water Stress, Fertilizer, Carbohydrate, Proline, Chamomile

  19. Physiological and productive responses of multiparous lactating Holstein cows exposed to short-term cooling during severe summer conditions in an arid region of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Rivera, J. A.; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F. D.; Macías-Cruz, U.; Díaz-Molina, R.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Robinson, P. H.; Fadel, J. G.

    2012-11-01

    Heat stress generates a significant economic impact for the dairy industry in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, so that heat abatement is an important issue for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of two short-term cooling periods on physiological and productive status of lactating Holstein cows during hot ambient temperatures. Thirty-nine multiparous cows were blocked by milk yield and assigned to one of three treatments including: control group (C), cows cooled before milking time (0500 and 1700 h daily, 1 h cooling); AM group, cows cooled at 1000 h and before milking (2 h cooling); and AM + PM group, cows cooled at 1100, 1500 and 2200 h, as well as before milking (4 h cooling). The cooling system was placed in the holding pen which the cows were moved through for cooling. Respiratory rate, and temperatures of thurl and right flank, were lower ( P cows from the AM + PM group than AM and C cows during the morning and afternoon. However, udder temperature was higher in the AM + PM group compared to AM and C groups during the afternoon, although lower than the AM group during the morning. Rectal temperature was similar in all groups. Thyroxin concentrations tended ( P cows had a trend ( P cows.

  20. Interaction Effect of CO2 Enrichment and Nutritional Conditions on Physiological Characteristics, Essential Oil and Yield of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud SHOOR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide enrichment and nutritional improvement can increase photosynthesis and growth of different crops. The aim of the present study was to assess interaction effects of CO2 enrichment and fertilizer on physiological characteristics and lemon balm essential oil. Experimental units were composed of CO2 at 380, 700, and 1050 ppm with and without manure and N fertilizer application. A continuous increasing trend of individual plant leaf area, total dry weight accumulation and relative growth ratio were recorded with CO2 enrichment. When CO2 was elevated from 380 to 1050 ppm, the values of height (24.3%, SPAD reading (2.7%, essential oil yield (26.3% and final yield (65.3% were increased, unlike, stomatal conductance (35.2% and essential oil percentage (53% were decreased. The highest and the lowest values (except for oil percentage were obtained under N and no fertilizer application, respectively. Except for SPAD, interaction between CO2 enrichment and each fertilizer on all measured characteristics had a significant effect, so that CO2 effect was intensified by applying each fertilizer. Therefore, it can be concluded that when temperature increase caused by rising CO2 is not considered or there is not a limitation for resources, CO2 enrichment will improve lemon balm biomass and essential oil yield.

  1. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  2. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots conjugated with a fluorescein derivative: a FRET-based pH sensor for physiological alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Tomokazu; Funaki, Nayuta; Fukuda, Takeshi; Akiyama, Shinnosuke; Suzuki, Miho

    2014-01-01

    Dual pH-dependent fluorescence peaks from a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) and a pH-dependent fluorescent dye can be measured by irradiating with a single wavelength light, and the pH can be estimated from the ratio of the fluorescent intensity of the two peaks. In this work, ratiometric pH sensing was achieved in an aqueous environment by a fluorescent CdSe/ZnS QD appended with a pH-sensitive organic dye, based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). By functionalizing the CdSe/ZnS QD with 5-(and 6)-carboxynaphthofluorescein succinimidyl ester as a pH-dependent fluorescent dye, we succeeded in fabricating sensitive nanocomplexes with a linear response to a broad range of physiological pH levels (7.5-9.5) when excited at 450 nm. We found that a purification process is important for increasing the high-fluorescence intensity ratio of a ratiometric fluorescence pH-sensor, and the fluorescence intensity ratio was improved up to 1.0 at pH 8.0 after the purification process to remove unreacted CdSe/ZnS QDs even though the fluorescence of the dye could not be observed without the purification process. The fluorescence intensity ratio corresponds to the fluorescence intensity of the dye, and this fluorescent dye exhibited pH-dependent fluorescence intensity changes. These facts indicate that the fluorescence intensity ratio linearly increased with increasing pH value of the buffer solution containing the QD and the dye. The FRET efficiencies changed from 0.3 (pH 7.5) to 6.2 (pH 9.5).

  3. The role of equilibrium and kinetic properties in the dissociation of Gd[DTPA-bis(methylamide)] (Omniscan) at near to physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Brücher, Ernő; Uggeri, Fulvio; Maiocchi, Alessandro; Tóth, Imre; Andrási, Melinda; Gáspár, Attila; Zékány, László; Aime, Silvio

    2015-03-16

    [Gd(DTPA-BMA)] is the principal constituent of Omniscan, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. In body fluids, endogenous ions (Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Ca(2+)) may displace the Gd(3+). To assess the extent of displacement at equilibrium, the stability constants of DTPA-BMA(3-) complexes of Gd(3+), Ca(2+), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+) have been determined at 37 °C in 0.15 M NaCl. The order of these stability constants is as follows: GdL≈CuL>ZnL≫CaL. Applying a simplified blood plasma model, the extent of dissociation of Omniscan (0.35 mM [Gd(DTPA-BMA)]) was found to be 17% by the formation of Gd(PO4), [Zn(DTPA-BMA)](-) (2.4%), [Cu(DTPA-BMA)](-) (0.2%), and [Ca(DTPA-BMA)](-) (17.7%). By capillary electrophoresis, the formation of [Ca(DTPA-BMA)](-) has been detected in human serum spiked with [Gd(DTPA-BMA)] (2.0 mM) at pH 7.4. Transmetallation reactions between [Gd(DTPA-BMA)] and Cu(2+) at 37 °C in the presence of citrate, phosphate, and bicarbonate ions occur by dissociation of the complex assisted by the endogenous ligands. At physiological concentrations of citrate, phosphate, and bicarbonate ions, the half-life of dissociation of [Gd(DTPA-BMA)] was calculated to be 9.3 h at pH 7.4. Considering the rates of distribution and dissociation of [Gd(DTPA-BMA)] in the extracellular space of the body, an open two-compartment model has been developed, which allows prediction of the extent of dissociation of the Gd(III) complex in body fluids depending on the rate of elimination of the contrast agent. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Effect of farm and simulated laboratory cold environmental conditions on the performance and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows supplemented with bovine somatotropin (BST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, B. A.; Johnson, H. D.; Li, R.; Collier, R. J.

    1990-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bovine somatotropin (BST) supplementation in twelve lactating dairy cows maintained in cold environmental conditions. Six cows were injected daily with 25 mg of BST; the other six were injected with a control vehicle. Cows were maintained under standard dairy management during mid-winter for 30 days. Milk production was recorded twice daily, and blood samples were taken weekly. Animals were then transferred to environmentally controlled chambers and exposed to cycling thermoneutral (15° to 20° C) and cycling cold (-5° to +5° C) temperatures for 10 days in a split-reversal design. Milk production, feed and water intake, body weights and rectal temperatures were monitored. Blood samples were taken on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10 of each period and analyzed for plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cortisol, insulin and prolactin. Under farm conditions, BST-treated cows produced 11% more milk than control-treated cows and in environmentally controlled chambers produced 17.4% more milk. No differences due to BST in feed or water intake, body weights or rectal temperatures were found under laboratory conditions. Plasma T3 and insulin increased due to BST treatment while no effect was found on cortisol, prolactin or T4. The results showed that the benefits of BST supplementation in lactating dairy cows were achieved under cold environmental conditions.

  5. The effects of early age thermal conditioning and vinegar supplementation of drinking water on physiological responses of female and male broiler chickens reared under summer Mediterranean temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrama, Zahra; Temim, Soraya; Djellout, Baya; Souames, Samir; Moula, Nassim; Ain Baziz, Hassina

    2018-06-01

    The effects of early age thermal conditioning (ETC), vinegar supplementation (VS) of drinking water, broilers' gender, and their interactions on respiratory rate, body temperature, and blood parameters (biochemical, hematological, and thyroid hormones) of broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperatures were determined. A total of 1100 1-day-old chicks were divided into four treatments: the "control" which were non-conditioned and non-supplemented; "heat-conditioned" which were exposed to 38 ± 1 °C for 24 h at 5 days of age; "vinegar supplemented" which were given drinking water supplemented with 0.2% of commercial vinegar from 28 to 49 days of age; and "combined" which were both heat conditioned and vinegar supplemented. All groups were exposed to the natural fluctuations of summer ambient temperature (average diurnal ambient temperature of about 30 ± 1 °C and average relative humidity of 58 ± 5%). ETC and broiler gender did not affect the respiratory rate or body temperature of chronic heat-exposed chickens. VS changed the body temperature across time (d35, d42, d49) (linear and quadratic effects, P stressed chickens were observed. However, the expected cumulative positive responses when the two treatments were combined were not evident.

  6. Physiological and foliar symptom response of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ozone under differing site conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Schaub; J.M. Skelly; J.W. Zhang; J.A. Ferdinand; J.E. Savage; R.E. Stevenson; D.D. Davis; K.C. Steiner

    2005-01-01

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry ( Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash ( Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple ( Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania....

  7. Differences between young adults and elderly in thermal comfort, productivity, and thermal physiology in response to a moderate temperature drift and a steady-state condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellen, L.; Marken Lichtenbelt, van W.D.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Toftum, J.; Wit, de M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Results from naturally ventilated buildings show that allowing the indoor temperature to drift does not necessarily result in thermal discomfort and may allow for a reduction in energy use. However, for stationary conditions, several studies indicate that the thermal neutral temperature and optimum

  8. Physiological and foliar symptom response in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaub, M.; Skelly, J.M.; Zhang, J.W.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E.; Davis, D.D.; Steiner, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania. Ambient ozone concentrations, meteorological parameters, leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential were measured at the sites during the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. Visible ozone-induced foliar injury was assessed on leaves within the upper and lower crown branches of each tree. Ambient ozone exposures were sufficient to induce typical symptoms on cherry (0-5% total affected leaf area, LAA), whereas foliar injury was not observed on ash or maple. There was a positive correlation between increasing cumulative ozone uptake (U) and increasing percent of LAA for cherry grown under drier site conditions. The lower crown leaves of cherry showed more severe foliar injury than the upper crown leaves. No significant differences in predawn leaf water potential (ψ L ) were detected for all three species indicating no differing soil moisture conditions across the sites. Significant variation in stomatal conductance for water vapor (g wv ) was found among species, soil moisture, time of day and sample date. When comparing cumulative ozone uptake and decreased photosynthetic activity (P n ), red maple was the only species to show higher gas exchange under mesic vs. drier soil conditions (P wv and P n demonstrate the strong influence of heterogeneous environmental conditions within forest canopies. - Within the heterogeneous environment of a mature forest, many factors in addition to soil moisture play a significant role in determining exposure/response relationships to ozone

  9. Effect Of Potassium Chloride, Vitamin E And Some Amino Acids Supplementation In Feed On Some Physiological Parameters Of Broiler Under Heat Stress Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELSAYED, M.A.; WAKWAK, M.M.; ABU-TALEB, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Hubbard broilers (240 of two weeks old) from the breeding flock in the Poultry Research Farm of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt, were used in this study. The effect of potassium chloride (KCl), vitamin E (VE) and some amino acids (proline + glycine) supplementations in feed on broiler performance under thermo neutral (TN) or heat stress conditions during May 2007 was investigated. All broilers chicks were exposed to 24 hrs light per day. The birds were fed starter diet for two weeks and followed by grower diet for two weeks ad libitum. Birds were divided into equal four groups (60 birds each). The first group (control) was fed the basal diet, while the second group was fed the same diet with adding 1 % proline + 1 % glycine. The third group was fed the diet with adding 250 mg VE/kg and the fourth group was fed the diet with adding 0.6 g KCl/kg. All groups were fed the previous diets for two weeks then subdivided to equal four sub-groups (30 birds each). The primary four groups were exposed to normal ambient temperature (TN conditions 22±1 0 C) while the other fourth groups were exposed to high environmental temperature (38±1 0 C) for 4 hours daily for 4 days (HS conditions) and then returned to normal temperature for one week then exposed to high environmental temperature (38±1 0 C) for 4 hours daily for 4 days. The individual body weight, feed intake at morning and before diet supplementation, body temperature and mortality percentage were recorded. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, creatinine and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were determined. It was found that after two weeks of additive supplementation and during thermo neutral condition period (TN), the control group showed the lowest value of feed consumption while under heat stress condition, the KCl group showed the highest value of feed consumption. At 1 st and 2 nd heat stress exposure periods, KCl group had the highest level of the

  10. The physiology of ex vitro pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr. var MD-2) as CAM or C3 is regulated by the environmental conditions: proteomic and transcriptomic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, C; Pascual, P; González, J; Escalona, M; Carvalho, L; Amancio, S

    2013-11-01

    Proteomic and transcriptomic profiles of key enzymes were monitored in pineapple plants propagated under C3 and CAM-inducing metabolisms to obtain insight into the CAM-facultative metabolism and the relationship of CAM plants with oxidative stress. Pineapple is one of the most important tropical crops worldwide. The use of temporary immersion bioreactors for the first stages of pineapple propagation enables precise control of plant growth, increases the rate of plant multiplication, decreases space, energy and labor requirements for pineapple plants in commercial micropropagation. Once the plantlets are ready to be taken from the reactors, they are carefully acclimatized to natural environmental conditions, and a facultative C3/CAM metabolism in the first 2 months of growth is the characteristic of pineapple plants, depending on environmental conditions. We subjected two sets of micropropagated pineapple plants to C3 and CAM-inducing environmental conditions, determined by light intensity/relative humidity (respectively 40 μmol m−2 s−1/85 % and 260 μmol m−2 s−1/50 %). Leaves of pineapple plants grown under CAM-inducing conditions showed higher leaf thickness and more developed cuticles and hypodermic tissue. Proteomic profiles of several proteins, isoenzyme patterns and transcriptomic profiles were also measured. Five major spots were isolated and identified, two of them for the first time in Ananas comosus (OEE 1; OEE 2) and the other three corresponding to small fragments of the large subunit of Rubisco (LSU). PEPC and PEPCK were also detected by immunobloting of 2DE at the end of both ex vitro treatments (C3/CAM) during the dark period. Isoenzymes of SOD and CAT were identified by electrophoresis and the transcript levels of OEE 1 and CAT were associated with CAM metabolism in pineapple plants.

  11. Effect of Zinc Sulfate and Ascorbic Acid on some Morpho-Physiological Traits of Echinacea purpurea (Purple coneflower under Water Deficit Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Farahvash

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the response of some morpho-physiological traits of Echinacea purpurea to thr application of zinc sulfate and ascorbic acid under water deficit, an experiment was carried out in split plot factorial based on RCBD with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch in 2011-12. Experimental factors consisted of water stress as the main factor with three levels (irrigation after70mm evaporation, irrigation after120mm evaporation and irrigation after 170mm evaporation from class A pan, Secondary factor consisted of: application of microelement with two levels (control and application of zinc sulfate 0.005 concentration and ascorbic acid with four levels (not application, application of 50 mg/l of ascorbic acid, application of 100 mg/l of ascorbic acid and application of 150 mg/l of ascorbic acid. The results showed that the effect of water deficit on purple coneflower caused significant differences in diameter of stem, number of flowering branch, stomata density, zinc concentration of aerial parts plant, fresh weight, relative water content of leaf, LAI, proline concentration, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate. Comparison of means for water deficits between the different levels of drought stress showed that the maximum LAI, with 2.85, belonged to control. Comparison of means for interaction effects between drought stress and application of zinc sulfate revealed that the maximum proline concentration belonged to spraying plants with zinc sulfate at irrigation after 170mm evaporation from class A pan with 10.16 mg/g.fw. Minimum proline concentration was due to without applying zinc sulfate in complete irrigation (control with 0.08 mg/g.fw. Maximum crop growth rate with 6.77 g/m2.day was was related to control and the minimum, with 4.16 g/m2.day, to irrigation after 170mm. Maximum relative crop growth rate, with 0.19 g/m2.day, belonged to control and the

  12. A longitudinal study of whole body, tissue, and cellular physiology in a mouse model of fibrosing NASH with high fidelity to the human condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anuradha; Abdullah, Tasduq Sheikh; Mounajjed, Taofic; Hartono, Stella; McConico, Andrea; White, Thomas; LeBrasseur, Nathan; Lanza, Ian; Nair, Sreekumaran; Gores, Gregory; Charlton, Michael

    2017-06-01

    NASH. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study demonstrates in a first of kind longitudinal analysis, the evolution of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) on a fast-food diet-induced model. Key findings include 1 ) hepatic lipid composition changes in a multiphasic fashion as NASH evolves; 2 ) insulin resistance precedes hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, answering a longstanding chicken-and-egg question regarding the relationship of insulin resistance to liver histology in NASH; and 3 ) mitochondrial dysfunction and depletion occur after the histological features of NASH are apparent. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Physiological and Environmental Sensor Skin Stamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future exploration missions will require astronauts to autonomously monitor physiological and atmospheric conditions. Recent technological advances in the developing...

  14. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  15. The Effect of Mycorrhizal Inoculation of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. on its Yield and Some Physiological Characteristics Under Drought Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madineh Bijhani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. plants and on its growth and yield under drought stress conditions a greenhouse experiment was carried out in split plot using a randomized complete block design at Zabol University green house in 2013. Treatments were three drought stresses: control, mild stress and severe stress (70, 50 and 30% FC assigned to main plots, and three species of mycorrhizal treatments (Glomus intraradices, G. versiform, G. mosseae and non-inoculation as control to sub-plots. The effects of drought on all traits under study were significant, and reduced number of leaves per plant, plant height, root length, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll by 15.6, 7.6, 10.7, 2.5 and 8.4 % and increased proline and carbohydrates by 38.6 and 17.7 % as compared with the control. Mycorrhizal treatments did not affect the amount of carbohydrates and proline content significantly. Interaction of mycorrhiza and drought stress was significant on grain yield, chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll. Among the mycorrhizal strains G. mosseae affected the traits significantly under drought conditions. The results suggested that mycorrhizal treatments of plants at different drought stresses could improve grain yield of fenugreek and reduce the negative effects of drought by increasing photosynthetic pigments and other quantitative and qualitative traits.

  16. Physiological And Blood Biochemical Responses To Dried Live Yeast Plus Vitamin E As A Dietary Supplement To Bovine Baladi Calves Under Hot Summer Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDALLA, E.B.; EL-MASRY, K.A.; TEAMA, F.E.; EMARA, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    The experiment was designed to study the effect of supplemented dried live yeast (DLY) + vitamin E to the diet of growing calves under hot summer conditions in Egypt. Six bovine Baladi calves with 115 kg initial body weight and 8-10 months old were used during two periods. In the first period, the calves were offered the concentrated basal diet only for one month and considered as a control period. In the second period, the calves were fed the same basal diet which supplemented with 15 g dried live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) + 600 IU vitamin E (alpha- tocopherol) per calf daily for one month and considered as a treated period. Body weight was recorded at the beginning and the end of each period, and daily gain was calculated for each animal. Blood samples were collected from each animal at the end of each period to determine some blood biochemical parameters and T 3 and T 4 concentrations as well as some immunological indices.The results showed that supplementation of DLY + 600 IU vitamin E to the diet of calves reduced significantly (P 3 and T 4 levels and improved feed efficiency and daily gain. It is concluded that supplementation of growing calves with 15 g DLY + 600 IU vitamin E / calf / day under Egyptian hot summer conditions reduced the effect of heat stress as shown by a decline in RT and modified most blood constituents and thyroid function which leads to an improvement in growing calves

  17. Reexamination of the Physiological Role of PykA in Escherichia coli Revealed that It Negatively Regulates the Intracellular ATP Levels under Anaerobic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunhua; Lin, Zhao; Dong, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2017-06-01

    Pyruvate kinase is one of the three rate-limiting glycolytic enzymes that catalyze the last step of glycolysis, conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) into pyruvate, which is associated with ATP generation. Two isozymes of pyruvate kinase, PykF and PykA, are identified in Escherichia coli PykF is considered important, whereas PykA has a less-defined role. Prior studies inactivated the pykA gene to increase the level of its substrate, PEP, and thereby increased the yield of end products derived from PEP. We were surprised when we found a pykA ::Tn 5 mutant in a screen for increased yield of an end product derived from pyruvate ( n -butanol), suggesting that the role of PykA needs to be reexamined. We show that the pykA mutant exhibited elevated intracellular ATP levels, biomass concentrations, glucose consumption, and n -butanol production. We also discovered that the pykA mutant expresses higher levels of a presumed pyruvate transporter, YhjX, permitting the mutant to recapture and metabolize excreted pyruvate. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the nucleotide diphosphate kinase activity of PykA leads to negative regulation of the intracellular ATP levels. Taking the data together, we propose that inactivation of pykA can be considered a general strategy to enhance the production of pyruvate-derived metabolites under anaerobic conditions. IMPORTANCE This study showed that knocking out pykA significantly increased the intracellular ATP level and thus significantly increased the levels of glucose consumption, biomass formation, and pyruvate-derived product formation under anaerobic conditions. pykA was considered to be encoding a dispensable pyruvate kinase; here we show that pykA negatively regulates the anaerobic glycolysis rate through regulating the energy distribution. Thus, knocking out pykA can be used as a general strategy to increase the level of pyruvate-derived fermentative products. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. An interplay among FIS, H-NS and guanosine tetraphosphate modulates transcription of the Escherichia coli cspA gene under physiological growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eBrandi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available CspA, the most characterized member of the csp gene family of Escherichia coli, is highly expressed not only in response to cold stress, but also during the early phase of growth at 37°C. Here, we investigate at molecular level the antagonistic role played by the nucleoid proteins FIS and H-NS in the regulation of cspA expression under non-stress conditions. By means of both probing experiments and immunological detection, we demonstrate in vitro the existence of binding sites for these proteins on the cspA regulatory region, in which FIS and H-NS bind simultaneously to form composite DNA-protein complexes. While the in vitro promoter activity of cspA is stimulated by FIS and repressed by H-NS, a compensatory effect is observed when both proteins are added in the transcription assay. Consistently with these findings, inactivation of fis and hns genes reversely affect the in vivo amount of cspA mRNA. In addition, by means of strains expressing a high level of the alarmone guanosine tetraphosphate ((pppGpp and in vitro transcription assays, we show that the cspA promoter is sensitive to (pppGpp inhibition. The (pppGpp-mediated expression of fis and hns genes is also analyzed, thus clarifying some aspects of the regulatory loop governing cspA transcription.

  19. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison A Macintosh

    Full Text Available Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD. Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the

  20. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Alison A.; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T.

    2016-01-01

    Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD). Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the social status afforded

  1. Physiological functions at single-cell level of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditionally fermented cabbage in response to different pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Magdalena A; Kocot, Aleksandra M; Łaniewska-Trokenheim, Łucja

    2015-04-20

    Changes in pH are significant environmental stresses that may be encountered by lactobacilli during fermentation processes or passage through the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the cell response of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditionally fermented cabbage subjected to acid/alkaline treatments at pH 2.5, 7.4 and 8.1, which represented pH conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Among six isolates, four species of Lactobacillus plantarum and two of Lactobacillus brevis were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The fluorescence-based strategy of combining carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and propidium iodine (PI) into a dual-staining assay was used together with epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) and flow cytometry (FCM) for viability assessment. The results showed that the cells maintained esterase activity and membrane integrity at pH 8.1 and 7.4. There was also no loss of culturability as shown by plate counts. In contrast, the majority of 2.5 pH-treated cells had a low extent of esterase activity, and experienced membrane perturbation. For these samples, an extensive loss of culturability was demonstrated. Comparison of the results of an in situ assessment with that of the conventional culturing method has revealed that although part of the stressed population was unable to grow on the growth media, it was deemed viable using a CFDA/PI assay. However, there was no significant change in the cell morphology among pH-treated lactobacilli populations. These analyses are expected to be useful in understanding the cell response of Lactobacillus strains to pH stress and may facilitate future investigation into functional and industrial aspects of this response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Updated Review of the Applied Physiology of American College Football: Physical Demands, Strength and Conditioning, Nutrition, and Injury Characteristics of America's Favorite Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullagar, Hugh H K; McCunn, Robert; Murray, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    While there are various avenues for performance improvement in college American football (AF), there is no comprehensive evaluation of the collective array of resources around performance, physical conditioning, and injury and training/game characteristics to guide future research and inform practitioners. Accordingly, the aim of the present review was to provide a current examination of these areas in college AF. Recent studies show that there is a wide range of body compositions and strength characteristics between players, which appear to be influenced by playing position, level of play, training history/programming, and time of season. Collectively, game demands may require a combination of upper- and lower-body strength and power production, rapid acceleration (positive and negative), change of direction, high running speed, high-intensity and repetitive collisions, and muscle-strength endurance. These may be affected by the timing of and between-plays and/or coaching style. AF players appear to possess limited nutrition and hydration practices, which may be disadvantageous to performance. AF injuries appear due to a multitude of factors-strength, movement quality, and previous injury-while there is also potential for extrinsic factors such as playing surface type, travel, time of season, playing position, and training load. Future proof-of-concept studies are required to determine the quantification of game demands with regard to game style, type of opposition, and key performance indicators. Moreover, more research is required to understand the efficacy of recovery and nutrition interventions. Finally, the assessment of the relationship between external/internal-load constructs and injury risk is warranted.

  3. Comparative estimation of inevitable endogenous ileal flow of amino acids in Pekin ducks under varying dietary or physiological conditions and their significance to nutritional requirements for amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinde, D O

    2017-10-01

    In 2 experiments in Pekin ducks the inevitable endogenous ileal flow (IEIF) of AA was estimated at changing intake and source of crude fiber (CF) or soybean oil (SO) level. Also the roles of dry matter intake (DMI) and BW or age as well as the proportion of IEIF in the dietary requirement for AA were studied. In experiment 1 three basal CP (20, 60, or 100 g/kg) diets were formulated containing a low CF (LCF, 30 g/kg) or high (HCF, 80 g/kg) level; achieved with cellulose supplementation. All diets were similar in every other respect including having SO content of 40 g/kg. Four floor pens of eight 85-day-old ducks were randomly allocated to each diet. Similar diets were mixed in experiment 2 but corn cob meal replaced cellulose as the fiber source. A high SO (HSO) series was also formed by increasing the SO level from 40 g/kg in the basal series to 100 g/kg. Thus the LCF series was concurrently classified as low SO (LSO) series to control SO effect. Each of the eventual 9 diets were fed to 5 floor pens of ten 65-day-old ducks. Ileal AA flow was measured after a 5 day feeding period in both experiments. Linear regression was calculated between ileal flow and dietary intake of individual AA. The IEIF interpreted as the y-intercept of each linear function responded neither to elevated ingestion of each CF type nor to SO level. Age and DMI had no effect on IEIF computed in relation to BW, but wide discrepancies resulted when related to DMI. Overall IEIF of AA varied between 14.3 to 129.8 mg/kg BW d-1. These flows were established in model computations to account for 10 to 64% of the recommended intake of limiting AA. In conclusion the ileal inevitable flow is constant within the dietary/age conditions investigated. However it is modulated by feed intake and accounts for a significant portion of total amino acid requirement. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Effect of Three Species of Mycorrhiza Inoculation on Yield and Some Physiological properties of Two Potato Cultivars under Drought Stress in Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khaninejad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In recent years, rainfall deficiency was an increasing problem in most countries; which limited the production of agricultural crops. Among abiotic stresses the plants encountered, drought stress is considered as the most important limiting factor in plants growth and reproduction in natural and agricultural systems through most parts of the world; while drought stress causes 45% increase in the crops among various stress making factors (biotic and abiotic. A suitable procedure for controlling drought stress in agriculture is making the symbiotic relation between plants and mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizal fungi decrease the plant ability in absorbing nutrients, ion balance, keeping enzyme activity, increasing chlorophyll density and root-soil connection; they decline the hazards caused by stress and decrease the plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Potato is one of the most valuable sources to provide human food in the developing countries and is one of the most productive crops, while its production is twofold to rice and wheat. Producing more than 5 million tones potato makes this crop as the first utilizable nutrient after wheat, in this country. Potato is sensitive to soil humidity caused by limited and low-deep root system. Materials and Methods Thus, an investigation was conducted to examine the effect of three of mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices and Glomus fasciculatum on two potato cultivars (Agria and Fontana under drought stress and control conditions, in factorial experiment based on complete randomize block with three repetitions in research greenhouse of Ferdowsi University in 2012. In control treatment, irrigating was done when field capacity got 80% and it was conducted to 100% field capacity. Stress treatment was done when the field capacity got 60% and continued to 80% field capacity. Fungus treatment was done with a 100g mixture of inoculum including mycorrhizal root sections of corn

  5. Physiological responses and physical performance during football in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nybo, Lars; Grantham, Justin

    2012-01-01

    To examine the impact of hot ambient conditions on physical performance and physiological responses during football match-play.......To examine the impact of hot ambient conditions on physical performance and physiological responses during football match-play....

  6. Physiology of bile secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller, Alejandro

    2008-10-07

    The formation of bile depends on the structural and functional integrity of the bile-secretory apparatus and its impairment, in different situations, results in the syndrome of cholestasis. The structural bases that permit bile secretion as well as various aspects related with its composition and flow rate in physiological conditions will first be reviewed. Canalicular bile is produced by polarized hepatocytes that hold transporters in their basolateral (sinusoidal) and apical (canalicular) plasma membrane. This review summarizes recent data on the molecular determinants of this primary bile formation. The major function of the biliary tree is modification of canalicular bile by secretory and reabsorptive processes in bile-duct epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) as bile passes through bile ducts. The mechanisms of fluid and solute transport in cholangiocytes will also be discussed. In contrast to hepatocytes where secretion is constant and poorly controlled, cholangiocyte secretion is regulated by hormones and nerves. A short section dedicated to these regulatory mechanisms of bile secretion has been included. The aim of this revision was to set the bases for other reviews in this series that will be devoted to specific issues related with biliary physiology and pathology.

  7. The ACCENT-VOCBAS field campaign on biosphere-atmosphere interactions in a Mediterranean ecosystem of Castelporziano (Rome: site characteristics, climatic and meteorological conditions, and eco-physiology of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fares

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biosphere-atmosphere interactions were investigated on a sandy dune Mediterranean ecosystem in a field campaign held in 2007 within the frame of the European Projects ACCENT and VOCBAS. The campaign was carried out in the Presidential estate of Castelporziano, a peri-urban park close to Rome. Former campaigns (e.g. BEMA performed in Castelporziano investigated the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC. These campaigns focused on pseudosteppe and evergreen oak groves whereas the contribution of the largely biodiverse dune vegetation, a prominent component of the Mediterranean ecosystem, was overlooked. While specific aspects of the campaign will be discussed in companion papers, the general climatic and physiological aspects are presented here, together with information regarding BVOC emission from the most common plant species of the dune ecosystem. During the campaign regular air movements were observed, dominated by moderate nocturnal land breeze and diurnal sea breeze. A regular daily increase of ozone concentration in the air was also observed, but daily peaks of ozone were lower than those measured in summer on the same site. The site was ideal as a natural photochemical reactor to observe reaction, transport and deposition processes occurring in the Mediterranean basin, since the sea-land breeze circulation allowed a strong mixing between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions and secondary pollutants. Measurements were run in May, when plant physiological conditions were optimal, in absence of severe drought and heat stress. Foliar rates of photosynthesis and transpiration were as high as generally recorded in unstressed Mediterranean sclerophyllous plants. Most of the plant species emitted high level of monoterpenes, despite measurements being made in a period in which emissions of volatile isoprenoids could be restrained by developmental and environmental factors, such as leaf age and relatively low air temperature

  8. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  9. Plant Physiology in Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 Ep Heuvelink and Tijs Kierkels have been writing a continuing series of plant physiology articles for the Dutch horticultural journal Onder Glas and the international edition In Greenhouses. The book Plant Physiology in Greenhouses consists of 50 of their plant physiology articles. The

  10. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  11. Growth and physiological responses to water and nutrient stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and physiological responses to water and nutrient stress in oil palm. ... changes in growth, physiology and nutrient concentration in response to two watering regimes (well-watered and water-stress conditions) and ... from 32 Countries:.

  12. Produção e fisiologia de plantas de cajueiro anão precoce sob condições de sequeiro e irrigado Production and physiology of dwarf cashew plants under rainfed and irrigated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiala V Amorim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A exploração do cajueiro sob condições de irrigação tem-se mostrado bastante promissora, especialmente no estado do Ceará, porém a resposta dessa cultura ao regime hídrico depende do genótipo. Objetivouse, com este trabalho, comparar respostas fisiológicas e bioquímicas (teores de solutos orgânicos e inorgânicos e trocas gasosas, tal como a produtividade de plantas de cajueiro anão precoce (Anacardium occidentale L. sob dois regimes hídricos (sequeiro e irrigado. O experimento foi conduzido no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, em Pacajus CE, no período de agosto de 2006 a janeiro de 2007. As plantas foram submetidas a dois tratamentos: um sem irrigação e outro com água de poço com condutividade elétrica (CEa de 0,5 dS m-1. As respostas fisiológicas foram avaliadas mensalmente e os dados de produção foram obtidos no período de novembro a janeiro. Os teores foliares de N-aminossolúveis e prolina foram mais elevados nas plantas cultivadas em condições de sequeiro do que naquelas irrigadas, porém não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para as trocas gasosas, teores de carboidratos solúveis, K+, Na+ e Cl-. Entretanto, com exceção da fotossíntese, todas as variáveis estudadas apresentaram alterações com as épocas de coleta. Apesar das alterações em algumas variáveis ao longo do experimento, a produtividade das plantas não foi afetada pelo estresse hídrico.The exploitation of cashew under irrigated conditions has been very promising, especially in the state of Ceará, however, the response of this crop to the water regime depends on the genotype. This work attempts to compare the physiological and biochemical responses (content of organic and inorganic solutes and gas exchange and yield of precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L plants under two water regimes (irrigated and rainfed. The experiment was conducted at the experimental field of Embrapa Agroind

  13. Intragroup emotions: physiological linkage and social presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eJärvelä

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion – communicative expression and physiological state – to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member’s physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence.

  14. Intragroup Emotions: Physiological Linkage and Social Presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Simo; Kätsyri, Jari; Ravaja, Niklas; Chanel, Guillaume; Henttonen, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion-communicative expression and physiological state-to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression) and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology) was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member's physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence.

  15. Intragroup Emotions: Physiological Linkage and Social Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Simo; Kätsyri, Jari; Ravaja, Niklas; Chanel, Guillaume; Henttonen, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion—communicative expression and physiological state—to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression) and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology) was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member's physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence. PMID:26903913

  16. Implantable Nanosensors: Towards Continuous Physiologic Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ruckh, Timothy T.; Clark', Heather A.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous physiologic monitoring would add greatly to both home and clinical medical treatment for chronic conditions. Implantable nanosensors are a promising platform for designing continuous monitoring systems. This feature reviews design considerations and current approaches towards such devices.

  17. Microarrays for global expression constructed with a low redundancy set of 27,500 sequenced cDNAs representing an array of developmental stages and physiological conditions of the soybean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retzel Ernest

    2004-09-01

    stages and physiological conditions of the soybean plant. We also demonstrate that the quality of the data from the soybean cDNA microarrays is sufficiently reliable to examine isogenic lines that differ with respect to a mutant phenotype and thereby to define a small list of candidate genes potentially encoding or modulated by the mutant phenotype.

  18. PHYSIOLOGY OF ACID BASE BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid-base, electrolyte, and metabolic disturbances are common in the intensive care unit. Almost all critically ill patients often suffer from compound acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Successful evaluation and management of such patients requires recognition of common patterns (e.g., metabolic acidosis and the ability to dissect one disorder from another. The intensivists needs to identify and correct these condition with the easiest available tools as they are the associated with multiorgan failure. Understanding the elements of normal physiology in these areas is very important so as to diagnose the pathological condition and take adequate measures as early as possible. Arterial blood gas analysis is one such tool for early detection of acid base disorder. Physiology of acid base is complex and here is the attempt to simplify it in our day to day application for the benefit of critically ill patients.

  19. Efeitos da dessecação de plantas de soja no potencial fisiológico e sanitário das sementes Effects of desiccation on the physiological potential and sanitary condition of seeds from soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz de Souza Lacerda

    2005-01-01

    /98, respectively. The desiccants applied during the season agricultural year 1996/97 were: paraquat, diquat, paraquat+diquat mix at the doses 400; 300; 200+150 e 400 g a.i.ha-1, respectively. In 1997/98 the same desiccants were used, at the same doses, with additional treatment application of ammonium glufosinate at the dose of 400 g a.i.ha-1. The desiccants were applied three times in 1996/97 and four times in 1997/98 with 5 days intervals starting at the R6 stage. According to the environmental conditions of this research the best desiccation time was when soybean plants had 80% to 90% of pods with yellow and brown coloration and seeds with 45% to 60% of water content. There were no effects of any of the desiccants tested in the physiological and sanitary potential required for commercialization of the seeds.

  20. Quantifying the effect of nighttime interactions between roots and canopy physiology and their control of water and carbon cycling on feedbacks between soil moisture and terrestrial climatology under variable environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domec, Jean-Christophe [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Palmroth, Sari [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Oren, Ram [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Swenson, Jennifer [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); King, John S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Noormets, Asko [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this project is to characterize and quantify how the temporal variability of hydraulic redistribution (HR) and its physiological regulation in unmanaged and complex forests is affecting current water and carbon exchange and predict how future climate scenarios will affect these relationships and potentially feed back to the climate. Specifically, a detailed study of ecosystem water uptake and carbon exchange in relation to root functioning was proposed in order to quantify the mechanisms controlling temporal variability of soil moisture dynamic and HR in three active AmeriFlux sites, and to use published data of two other inactive AmeriFlux sites. Furthermore, data collected by our research group at the Duke Free Air CO2 enrichment (FACE) site was also being utilized to further improve our ability to forecast future environmental impacts of elevated CO2 concentration on soil moisture dynamic and its effect on carbon sequestration and terrestrial climatology. The overarching objective being to forecast, using a soil:plant:atmosphere model coupled with a biosphere:atmosphere model, the impact of root functioning on land surface climatology. By comparing unmanaged sites to plantations, we also proposed to determine the effect of land use change on terrestrial carbon sequestration and climatology through its effect on soil moisture dynamic and HR. Our simulations of HR by roots indicated that in some systems HR is an important mechanism that buffers soil water deficit, affects energy and carbon cycling; thus having significant implications for seasonal climate. HR maintained roots alive and below 70% loss of conductivity and our simulations also showed that the increased vapor pressure deficit at night under future conditions was sufficient to drive significant nighttime transpiration at all sites, which reduced HR. This predicted reduction in HR under future climate conditions played an important regulatory role in land atmosphere interactions

  1. Polyamines in plant physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galston, A. W.; Sawhney, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing.

  2. Advances in physiological computing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairclough, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    This edited collection will provide an overview of the field of physiological computing, i.e. the use of physiological signals as input for computer control. It will cover a breadth of current research, from brain-computer interfaces to telemedicine.

  3. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  4. Physiology of in vitro culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesús Cañal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture procedures described up to the eighties, did not made any mention to the environmental control of in vitro plant development. However, growth rate, development and many of the physiologic-morphologic features of the in vitro grown plants are influenced by the culture vessel. The increasing knowledge about the environmental control of culture vessels under sterile conditions, is helping to change micorpropagation procedures. The in vitro environment with lower rate ventilation, brings about low flow rates of matter and energy, with minimum variations of temperature, high relative humidity and large daily changes of the concentration of CO2 inside the culture vessel. The type of culture vessel (size, shape, fabric and closing system can influence the evolution of the atmosphere along the time of culture. Although submitted to different stresses factors plant can be grown in vitro, but plants can be faulty in their anatomy, morphology and physiology. As a consequence, these plants shown a phenotype unable to survive to ex vitro conditions. Different strategies can be used to control the atmosphere along the different phases of micropropagation, in heterotrophic, mixotrophic or autotrophic cultures. The election of the best strategy will be based on different factors as species, number of transplantes required, or quality-price relationship. enviromental control, tissue culture, micropropagation Keywords: in vitro enviromental, characteristic physiology,

  5. Automatic duress alarms through physiological response monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehrig, S.C.

    1977-07-01

    Physiological response monitoring under controlled conditions can provide an effective means for passively determining if the wearer is under moderate to severe stresses. By monitoring the heart rate (HR) and galvanic skin response (GSR) of an individual, it is possible to detect in real time the increase in heart rate and GSR levels due to physiological reactions to mental duress. With existing physiological monitoring equipment, however, the work load of the wearer must be well defined since it is impossible, without additional data, to distinguish mental duress responses from those resulting from moderate physical exertion. Similarly, environmental conditions should be constrained within set limits to avoid masking increases in GSR levels due to metntal stress from those associated with increased perspiration. These constraints should not prove overly restrictive and would allow an integrated security system utilizing physiological monitoring equipment to provide an effective real time, automated early warning system for detection of mental duress or death of the wearer

  6. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  7. Endogenous Pyrogen Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisel, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the physiology of endogenous pyrogen (EP), the fever-producing factor of cellular origin. Included are: its hormone-like role, its molecular nature, bioassay procedures, cellular production and mechanisms of EP action. (SA)

  8. Biophysics and cell physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, P.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on research activities in the fields of physiology and low-temperature biology of mammalian embryos; effects of sub-zero temperatures on eggs and embryos of sea urchins; survival of frozen-thawed human red cells; effects of radiation on physiology of Escherichia coli; transfer of triplet electronic energy in dinucleotides; effects of x radiation on DNA degradation; energy deposition by neutrons; photosynthesis; excision repair of uv-induced pyrimidine dimers in DNA of plant cells

  9. Physiology of Ramadan fasting

    OpenAIRE

    Shokoufeh Bonakdaran

    2016-01-01

    Considering the emphasis of Islam on the importance of fasting, Muslims attempt to fast from dawn until sunset during the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting is associated with several benefits for normal and healthy individuals. However, it could pose high risks to the health of diabetic patients due to certain physiological changes. This study aimed to compare the physiological changes associated with fasting in healthy individuals and diabetic patients during Ramadan. Furthermore, we reviewed t...

  10. Personalized physiological medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Can

    2017-12-28

    This paper introduces the concept of personalized physiological medicine that is specifically directed at the needs of the critically ill patient. This differs from the conventional view of personalized medicine, characterized by biomarkers and gene profiling, instead focusing on time-variant changes in the pathophysiology and regulation of various organ systems and their cellular and subcellular constituents. I propose that personalized physiological medicine is composed of four pillars relevant to the critically ill patient. Pillar 1 is defined by the frailty and fitness of the patient and their physiological reserve to cope with the stress of critical illness and therapy. Pillar 2 involves monitoring of the key physiological variables of the different organ systems and their response to disease and therapy. Pillar 3 concerns the evaluation of the success of resuscitation by assessment of the hemodynamic coherence between the systemic and microcirculation and parenchyma of the organ systems. Finally, pillar 4 is defined by the integration of the physiological and clinical data into a time-learning adaptive model of the patient to provide feedback about the function of organ systems and to guide and assess the response to disease and therapy. I discuss each pillar and describe the challenges to research and development that will allow the realization of personalized physiological medicine to be practiced at the bedside for critically ill patients.

  11. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  12. Human physiological models of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Gary S

    2007-12-01

    Despite the wide prevalence and important consequences of insomnia, remarkably little is known about its pathophysiology. Available models exist primarily in the psychological domain and derive from the demonstrated efficacy of behavioral treatment approaches to insomnia management. However, these models offer little specific prediction about the anatomic or physiological foundation of chronic primary insomnia. On the other hand, a growing body of data on the physiology of sleep supports a reasonably circumscribed overview of possible pathophysiological mechanisms, as well as the development of physiological models of insomnia to guide future research. As a pragmatic step, these models focus on primary insomnia, as opposed to comorbid insomnias, because the latter is by its nature a much more heterogeneous presentation, reflecting the effects of the distinct comorbid condition. Current understanding of the regulation of sleep and wakefulness in mammalian brain supports four broad candidate areas: 1) disruption of the sleep homeostat; 2) disruption of the circadian clock; 3) disruption of intrinsic systems responsible for the expression of sleep states; or 4) disruption (hyperactivity) of extrinsic systems capable of over-riding normal sleep-wake regulation. This review examines each of the four candidate pathophysiological mechanisms and the available data in support of each. While studies that directly test the viability of each model are not yet available, descriptive data on primary insomnia favor the involvement of dysfunctional extrinsic stress-response systems in the pathology of primary chronic insomnia.

  13. Chemostat Culture for Yeast Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Emily O; Dunham, Maitreya J

    2017-07-05

    The use of chemostat culture facilitates the careful comparison of different yeast strains growing in well-defined conditions. Variations in physiology can be measured by examining gene expression, metabolite levels, protein content, and cell morphology. In this protocol, we show how a combination of sample types can be collected during harvest from a single 20-mL chemostat in a ministat array, with special attention to coordinating the handling of the most time-sensitive sample types. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. Human physiology in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  15. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive......, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant...... Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from...

  16. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences (Niger. J. Physiol. Sci.) is a biannual publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria. It covers diverse areas of research in physiological sciences, publishing reviews in current research areas and original laboratory and clinical research in physiological sciences. Other websites ...

  17. Simulated Exercise Physiology Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Pivarnik, James M.

    This book consists of a lab manual and computer disks for either Apple or IBM hardware. The lab manual serves as "tour guide" for the learner going through the various lab experiences. The manual contains definitions, proper terminology, and other basic information about physiological principles. It is organized so a step-by-step procedure may be…

  18. Physiology Flies with Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Amita

    2017-11-30

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for elucidating molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock. From studies beginning in fruit flies, we now know that circadian regulation pervades most biological processes and has strong ties to human health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Personalized physiological medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ince, Can

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of personalized physiological medicine that is specifically directed at the needs of the critically ill patient. This differs from the conventional view of personalized medicine, characterized by biomarkers and gene profiling, instead focusing on time-variant

  20. Physiological responses to hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Thomas; Thoresen, Marianne

    2015-04-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is the only treatment currently recommended for moderate or severe encephalopathy of hypoxic‒ischaemic origin in term neonates. Though the effects of hypothermia on human physiology have been explored for many decades, much of the data comes from animal or adult studies; the latter originally after accidental hypothermia, followed by application of controlled hypothermia after cardiac arrest or trauma, or during cardiopulmonary bypass. Though this work is informative, the effects of hypothermia on neonatal physiology after perinatal asphyxia must be considered in the context of a prolonged hypoxic insult that has already induced a number of significant physiological sequelae. This article reviews the effects of therapeutic hypothermia on respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic parameters, including glycaemic control and feeding requirements. The potential pitfalls of blood‒gas analysis and overtreatment of physiological changes in cardiovascular parameters are also discussed. Finally, the effects of hypothermia on drug metabolism are covered, focusing on how the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and dosing requirements of drugs frequently used in neonatal intensive care may change during therapeutic hypothermia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Face of Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between the physiology of the emotions and the display of character in Victorian Britain. Charles Bell and others had begun to link certain physiological functions, such as respiration, with the expression of feelings such as fear, regarding the heart and other internal organs as instruments by which the emotions were made visible. But a purely functional account of the emotions, which emerged through the development of reflex physiology during the second half of the century, would dramatically alter the nature of feelings and the means of observing them. At the same time, instinctual or acquired sympathy, which had long underpinned the accurate reading of expressions, became a problem to be surmounted by new 'objectively'. Graphic recording instruments measuring a variety of physiological functions and used with increasing frequency in clinical diagnostics became of fundamental importance for tracing the movement of feelings during the period prior to the development of cinematography. They remained, in the form of devices such as the polygraph, a crucial and controversial means of measuring affective states, beneath the potentially deceptive surface of the body.

  2. 21 CFR 870.2910 - Radiofrequency physiological signal transmitter and receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiofrequency physiological signal transmitter... Devices § 870.2910 Radiofrequency physiological signal transmitter and receiver. (a) Identification. A radiofrequency physiological signal transmitter and receiver is a device used to condition a physiological signal...

  3. Evaluation of physiological screening techniques for drought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper summarizes the results of a project aimed to evaluate the use of physiological traits (such as canopy temperature and chlorophyll content) in determining drought tolerance of durum wheat genotypes under a variety of environmental conditions. Six durum wheat genotypes were planted in rainfed and ...

  4. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  5. Physiological aspects of forest disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, H.

    1986-01-01

    Many kinds of forest disease having the most varied causes are currently classified as 'forest die-back'. These include for one part diseases of obvious etiology: infectious diseases, damage from frost and drought, as well as harmful effects of defined air pollutants from known sources. But apart from this, a fast growing tendency is noted for extensive damage to appear whose origin is not yet clearly elucidated and which are probably the result of many factors, in other words, which can be termed as 'chain disease'. A striking fact is that any scientist who has so far attributed that last-mentioned disease condition of forests to any single decisive cause, has chosen one from his own specific scientific field. Physiologic-biochemical analysis of the damage symptoms is impaired by the fact that trees are, for obvious biological reasons, difficult objects for providing precise data. Yet reliable statements can be made on the paths by which wet and dry depositions penetrate into the plant organs, the penetration of pollutants into the cell, their points of attack in cells and tissue (above all photosynthesis, material transport, and hormone balance), and their influence on the correlations between the individual organs. Particular attention should be paid to possible or indirect effects on the mycorrhiza of forest trees, i.e. on the symbiosis between roots and fungi. The physiologic-biochemical investigations and considerations reported provide circumstantial evidence, but no proof regarding the causes hitherto unexplained. (orig.) [de

  6. Circadian physiology of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-11-25

    A majority of mammalian genes exhibit daily fluctuations in expression levels, making circadian expression rhythms the largest known regulatory network in normal physiology. Cell-autonomous circadian clocks interact with daily light-dark and feeding-fasting cycles to generate approximately 24-hour oscillations in the function of thousands of genes. Circadian expression of secreted molecules and signaling components transmits timing information between cells and tissues. Such intra- and intercellular daily rhythms optimize physiology both by managing energy use and by temporally segregating incompatible processes. Experimental animal models and epidemiological data indicate that chronic circadian rhythm disruption increases the risk of metabolic diseases. Conversely, time-restricted feeding, which imposes daily cycles of feeding and fasting without caloric reduction, sustains robust diurnal rhythms and can alleviate metabolic diseases. These findings highlight an integrative role of circadian rhythms in physiology and offer a new perspective for treating chronic diseases in which metabolic disruption is a hallmark. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Applied physiology of triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, M L; Douglas, P S

    1995-04-01

    The triathlon is a 3-event endurance sport in which athletes compete sequentially in swimming, cycling and running. The primary determinant of success is the ability to sustain a high rate of energy expenditure for prolonged periods of time. Exercise training-induced physiological adaptations in virtually all systems of the body allow the athlete to accomplish this. Aerobic capacity (measured as maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max), economy of motion (submaximal VO2) and fractional utilisation of maximal capacity (%VO2max) reflect the integrated responses of these physiological adaptations. Numerous studies have reported relatively high mean VO2max values for various groups of triathletes that are comparable to those reported for athletes in single-event endurance sports and clearly above those reported for untrained individuals. In shorter distance triathlons and in studies using recreational (rather than elite) triathletes, VO2max is related to performance in the corresponding event of the triathlon (e.g. tethered swimming VO2max with swim time). In longer events and with more elite triathletes, VO2max correlates less well with performance. The physiological adaptations that correspond to and facilitate improved VO2max occur centrally in the cardiovascular system, centred on increased maximal cardiac output, and peripherally in the metabolic systems, centred around increased arterio-venous O2 (a-v O2) difference. While a high VO2max in individuals is clearly of importance to triathlon performance, energy output must be sustained for long periods of time, making economy of motion also very important. Studies suggests that competitive swimmers have better swimming economy than triathletes. However, since many triathletes have previously been competitive swimmers this finding is questionable. The finding suggests that triathletes from nonswimming backgrounds would benefit from improving swimming technique rather than concentrating training workouts solely on distance. In

  8. Alterações das características fisiológicas da bananeira sob condições de fertirrigação Alteration of the physiologic characteristics in banana under fertirrigation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Soares de Melo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de fertilizantes via sistema de irrigação tem se tornado uma prática importante para o suprimento de nutrientes na fruticultura. No entanto, é necessário estudar o efeito dessa aplicação sobre a fisiologia da bananeira a fim de aumentar a eficiência do uso desses insumos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos de doses de nitrogênio e potássio, via água de irrigação, sobre as características fisiológicas da bananeira, cultivar 'Prata-Anã', nos tabuleiros costeiros do Estado de Sergipe. O experimento foi conduzido no campo, utilizando um fatorial 4x4 com quatro blocos casualizados, na Estação Experimental da Universidade Federal de Sergipe. Foram testados dois fatores: nitrogênio (0; 250; 500 e 750, em kg ha-1 de N, na forma de uréia e potássio (0; 290; 580 e 870, em kg ha-1 de K2O, na forma de cloreto de potássio. Foram determinadas: a taxa de assimilação de CO², a transpiração, a condutância estomática, a concentração interna de CO² e as eficiências no uso da água e da carboxilação. A condutância estomática foi reduzida, principalmente, na fertilização com 700kg ha-1 de N e na ausência de K, afetando as trocas gasosas e, conseqüentemente, o processo fotossintético. Em situações de maior disponibilidade de potássio, as bananeiras necessitam de menores quantidades de nitrogênio para manutenção da eficiência no uso da água, como conseqüência da melhoria no ajuste estomático.Fertilizer application through the irrigation system, has become an important way to supply nutrients to fruit trees. However, it is necessary to study its effects on the banana tree physiology, in order to improve fertilizer use efficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate doses of nitrogen and potassium through irrigation water, on the physiological characteristics of the banana tree, cv. 'Prata-Anã', in the coastal tablelands of Sergipe State. The experiment was established in the field

  9. CH2 - Lighting and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Altomonte

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the designed performances of the new CH2 building in Melbourne, Australia. CH2 is an environmentally significant project that involves biomimicry of natural systems to produce indoor conditions that are conducive to user comfort, health and productivity. This paper focuses on lighting and physiology and examines the solutions chosen for artificial and natural lighting and the likely effects these will have on building occupants. The purpose of the paper is to critically comment on the adopted strategy and, cognisance of contemporary thinking in lighting design, to judge the effectiveness of this aspect of the project with a view to later verification and post-occupancy review. The paper concludes that CH2 is an exemplar of lighting innovation that provides valuable lessons to designers of office buildings, particularly in the Melbourne CSD.

  10. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger David John

    2012-01-01

    damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses......Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged...... by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner...

  11. The emergence of Applied Physiology within the discipline of Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M

    2016-08-01

    Despite the availability and utilization of the physiology textbooks authored by Albrecht von Haller during the 18th century that heralded the modern age of physiology, not all physicians or physiologists were satisfied with its presentation, contents, or application to medicine. Initial reasons were fundamental disagreements between the "mechanists," represented by Boerhaave, Robinson, and von Haller, and the "vitalists," represented by the faculty and graduates of the Montpellier School of Medicine in France, notably, Bordeu and Barthez. Subsequently, objections originated from Europe, United Kingdom, and the United States in publications that focused not only on the teaching of physiology to medical and secondary students, but on the specific applications of the content of physiology to medicine, health, hygiene, pathology, and chronic diseases. At the turn of the 20th century, texts began to appear with applied physiology in their titles and in 1926, physician Samson Wright published a textbook entitled Applied Physiology that was intended for both medical students and the medical profession. Eleven years later, physicians Best and Taylor published The Physiological Basis of Medical Practice: A University of Toronto Texbook in Applied Physiology Although both sets of authors defined the connection between applied physiology and physiology, they failed to define the areas of physiology that were included within applied physiology. This was accomplished by the American Physiological Society (APS) Publications Committee in 1948 with the publication of the Journal of Appplied Physiology, that stated the word "applied" would broadly denote human physiology whereas the terms stress and environment would broadly include work, exercise, plus industrial, climatic and social factors. NIH established a study section (SS) devoted to applied physiology in 1964 which remained active until 2001 when it became amalgamated into other SSs. Before the end of the 20th century when

  12. Parâmetros fisiológicos de mudas de copaíba sob diferentes substratos e condições de sombreamento Physiological parameters in seedlings of copaiba under different shade conditions and substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Reis Dutra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar parâmetros fisiológicos de mudas de copaíba produzidas sob o efeito de diferentes níveis de sombreamento e tipos de substratos. O experimento teve a duração de 130 dias e foi conduzido em blocos casualizados no esquema fatorial 5x4, com cinco substratos: Bioplant®; 70% vermiculita + 30% casca de arroz carbonizada; 40% vermiculita + 30% casca de arroz carbonizada + 30% fibra de coco; 50% vermiculita + 30% casca de arroz carbonizada + 20% areia; 70% vermiculita + 15% casca de arroz carbonizada + 15% vermicomposto de resíduo de indústria têxtil; quatro níveis de sombreamento (100, 70, 50 e 30% do pleno sol e três repetições. O nível de sombreamento de 50% em relação ao pleno sol possibilitou a produção de mudas de copaíba com maiores teores de clorofila b e clorofila total, além de proporcionar os menores valores de transpiração diária e ao longo do dia das plantas. A área foliar, os teores de clorofila e a transpiração das mudas de copaíba independem do tipo de substrato, podendo ser produzidas em qualquer um dos meios de crescimento avaliados.This research aimed to evaluate physiological parameters of seedlings of copaiba produced under the effect of different shading levels and types of substrates. The experiment lasted 130 days and was conducted in randomized blocks in factorial scheme 5x4 with five substrates: Bioplant®, 70% vermiculite + 30% rice hulls, 40% vermiculite + 30% rice charred hulls + 30% fiber coconut, 50% vermiculite + 30% rice charred hulls + 20% sand, 70% vermiculite + 15% rice charred hulls + 15% vermicompost residue of textile industry; four shading levels (100, 70, 50 and 30% full sun and three replications. The shade level of 50% compared to full sun, enabled the production of seedlings of Copaiba with higher concentrations of chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll, and provided the lowest daily transpiration throughout the day and the plants. The leaf

  13. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de Ocimum selloi benth: sob condições de luz, temperatura e tempo de armazenamento Physiological quality of Ocimum selloi Benth: seeds under conditions of light, temperature and storage time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Corrêa do Bomfim Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O atroveran ou elixir-paregórico (Ocimum selloi Benth. é uma espécie aromática nativa do Brasil, produtora de óleo essencial rico em metil-chavicol. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a influência da temperatura, luz e tempo de armazenamento em diferentes ambientes sobre a germinação e o vigor de sementes de O. selloi. Inicialmente, testou-se o efeito da presença e ausência de luz branca sob fotoperíodo de 12 horas para determinar o fotoblastismo das sementes em diferentes temperaturas (20, 25, 30 e 35ºC. Em seguida, testou-se a germinação e emergência no armazenamento sob duas temperaturas (ambiente e câmara fria aos 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 10 e 12 meses de armazenamento. A espécie foi classificada como fotoblástica neutra, apresentando germinação em ampla faixa de temperatura (20 a 30ºC. A germinação das sementes manteve-se por doze meses de armazenamento em câmara fria e à temperatura ambiente, entretanto, o vigor decresce a partir de seis meses em armazenamento sob temperatura ambiente."Atroveran" or "elixir-paregórico" (Ocimum selloi Benth. is a Brazilian species that produces an essential oil rich in methyl chavicol. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of light, temperature and time of storage in different environments on the germination and vigor of O. selloi seeds. We initially tested the influence of presence and absence of white light in a 12-hour photoperiod to determine the photoblastism of the seeds under different temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35ºC. The physiological quality of seeds conserved under two temperatures (room temperature and cold chamber was tested at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 10 and 12 months of storage. The species was classified as neutral photoblastic with germination at a wide temperature range (20ºC-30°C. Germination was maintained for twelve months of storage in cold chamber at room temperature, but the vigor was reduced in seeds kept at room temperature after the sixth month of storage.

  14. Comparative investigation of physiological responses of field-grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An important consideration in designing and managing forage systems is the knowledge of the physiological response mechanisms to cutting, especially when water deficit conditions are prevailing. The objective of this study was to determine the physiological response of Medicago sativa and Festuca arundinacea to ...

  15. Physiology of woody plants

    CERN Document Server

    Hazewinkel, Michiel; Pallardy, Stephen G

    1996-01-01

    This completely revised classic volume is an up-to-date synthesis of the intensive research devoted to woody plants. Intended primarily as a text for students and a reference for researchers, this interdisciplinary book should be useful to a broad range of scientists from agroforesters, agronomists, and arborists to plant pathologists, ecophysiologists, and soil scientists. Anyone interested in plant physiology will find this text invaluable. Key Features * Includes supplementary chapter summaries and lists of general references * Provides a solid foundation of reference information * Thoroughly updated classic text/reference.

  16. The Physiology of Adventitious Roots1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Bianka; Rasmussen, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious roots are plant roots that form from any nonroot tissue and are produced both during normal development (crown roots on cereals and nodal roots on strawberry [Fragaria spp.]) and in response to stress conditions, such as flooding, nutrient deprivation, and wounding. They are important economically (for cuttings and food production), ecologically (environmental stress response), and for human existence (food production). To improve sustainable food production under environmentally extreme conditions, it is important to understand the adventitious root development of crops both in normal and stressed conditions. Therefore, understanding the regulation and physiology of adventitious root formation is critical for breeding programs. Recent work shows that different adventitious root types are regulated differently, and here, we propose clear definitions of these classes. We use three case studies to summarize the physiology of adventitious root development in response to flooding (case study 1), nutrient deficiency (case study 2), and wounding (case study 3). PMID:26697895

  17. Human factors estimation methods using physiological informations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Ken-ichi; Yoshino, Kenji; Nakasa, Hiroyasu

    1984-01-01

    To enhance the operational safety in the nuclear power plant, it is necessary to decrease abnormal phenomena due to human errors. Especially, it is essential to basically understand human behaviors under the work environment for plant maintenance workers, inspectors, and operators. On the above stand point, this paper presents the results of literature survey on the present status of human factors engineering technology applicable to the nuclear power plant and also discussed the following items: (1) Application fields where the ergonomical evaluation is needed for workers safety. (2) Basic methodology for investigating the human performance. (3) Features of the physiological information analysis among various types of ergonomical techniques. (4) Necessary conditions for the application of in-situ physiological measurement to the nuclear power plant. (5) Availability of the physiological information analysis. (6) Effectiveness of the human factors engineering methodology, especially physiological information analysis in the case of application to the nuclear power plant. The above discussions lead to the demonstration of high applicability of the physiological information analysis to nuclear power plant, in order to improve the work performance. (author)

  18. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  19. International Thermal Physiology Symposium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, Nigel

    2001-01-01

    Partial Contents: THE EFFECT OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION UNDER BRIGHT LIGHT CONDITION ON THERMOREGURATOLY RESPONSES TO HYPERTHERMIA, ADENOSINE AND DOPAMINE AS NEUROMODULATORS IN HYPOXIC HYPOTHERMIA IN CONSCIOUS RATS, ROLE...

  20. Morpho-physiological characterization of Indian wheat genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-14

    May 14, 2014 ... Key words: Wheat, morphological parameters, physiological growth attributes, proline. INTRODUCTION ... few years, climatic conditions have been drastically changed and ..... Poster presented in the XXVIIIth Meeting of the.

  1. Home geriatric physiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Toshiyo

    2012-10-01

    In an ageing society, the elderly can be monitored with numerous physiological, physical and passive devices. Sensors can be installed in the home for continuous mobility assistance and unobtrusive disease prevention. This review presents several modern sensors, which improve the quality of life and assist the elderly, disabled people and their caregivers. The main concept of geriatric sensors is that they are capable of providing assistance without limiting or disturbing the subject's daily routine, giving him or her greater comfort, pleasure and well-being. Furthermore, this review includes associated technologies of wearable/implantable monitoring systems and the 'smart-house' project. This review concludes by discussing future challenges of the future aged society.

  2. Home geriatric physiological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Toshiyo

    2012-01-01

    In an ageing society, the elderly can be monitored with numerous physiological, physical and passive devices. Sensors can be installed in the home for continuous mobility assistance and unobtrusive disease prevention. This review presents several modern sensors, which improve the quality of life and assist the elderly, disabled people and their caregivers. The main concept of geriatric sensors is that they are capable of providing assistance without limiting or disturbing the subject's daily routine, giving him or her greater comfort, pleasure and well-being. Furthermore, this review includes associated technologies of wearable/implantable monitoring systems and the ‘smart-house’ project. This review concludes by discussing future challenges of the future aged society. (topical review)

  3. Physiology for engineers applying engineering methods to physiological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formulated and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies. Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reacti...

  4. Procedures of Exercise Physiology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Phillip A.; Fortney, Suzanne; Greenisen, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Squires, William

    1998-01-01

    This manual describes the laboratory methods used to collect flight crew physiological performance data at the Johnson Space Center. The Exercise Countermeasures Project Laboratory is a standard physiology laboratory; only the application to the study of human physiological adaptations to spaceflight is unique. In the absence of any other recently published laboratory manual, this manual should be a useful document staffs and students of other laboratories.

  5. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  6. Smolt physiology and endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  7. Clinical physiology grand rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jeremy; Schwartzstein, Richard; Irish, Julie; Almeida, Jacqueline; Roberts, David

    2013-04-01

    Clinical Physiology Grand Rounds (CPGR) is an interactive, case-based conference for medical students designed to: (1) integrate preclinical and clinical learning; (2) promote inductive clinical reasoning; and (3) emphasise students as peer teachers. CPGR specifically encourages mixed learning level student interactions and emphasises the use of concept mapping. We describe the theoretical basis and logistical considerations for an interactive, integrative, mixed-learner environment such as CPGR. In addition, we report qualitative data regarding students' attitudes towards and perceptions of CPGR. Medical students from first to fourth year participate in a monthly, interactive conference. The CPGR was designed to bridge gaps and reinforce linkages between basic science and clinical concepts, and to incorporate interactive vertical integration between preclinical and clinical students. Medical education and content experts use Socratic, interactive teaching methods to develop real-time concept maps to emphasise the presence and importance of linkages across curricula. Student focus groups were held to assess attitudes towards and perceptions of the mixed-learner environment and concept maps in CPGR. Qualitative analyses of focus group transcripts were performed to develop themes and codes describing the students' impressions of CPGR. CPGR is a case-based, interactive conference designed to help students gain an increased appreciation of linkages between basic science and clinical medicine concepts, and an increased awareness of clinical reasoning thought processes. Success is dependent upon explicit attention being given to goals for students' integrated learning. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  8. Gastrointestinal physiology and digestive disorders in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaly, Travis; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Vaughn, Bradley V

    2009-11-01

    The dynamic interplay of the digestive system and sleep is an excellent example of brain-body interaction. New advances in measuring techniques provide an opportunity to evaluate physiology that is dependent upon the sleep/wake state or circadian rhythm and potentially differentiate between normal and pathological conditions. Sleep-related changes in gastrointestinal physiology create vulnerabilities to digestive issues such as reflux, whereas disorders such as duodenal ulcers raise the importance of circadian variations in digestive system function. Advances in the area of normal sleep physiology have furthered our understanding of the underlying cause of irritable bowel syndrome, and the mechanisms by which sleep disruption may aggravate inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, important early work has shown that the treatment of digestive disorders such as reflux can improve sleep quality just as the improvement in sleep may aid in the treatment of digestive disorders. For the clinician, these forward steps in our knowledge mark the start of an era in which understanding the effects of the sleep/wake state and circadian rhythms on gastrointestinal physiology promise to yield novel diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities.

  9. Impact of human emotions on physiological characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partila, P.; Voznak, M.; Peterek, T.; Penhaker, M.; Novak, V.; Tovarek, J.; Mehic, Miralem; Vojtech, L.

    2014-05-01

    Emotional states of humans and their impact on physiological and neurological characteristics are discussed in this paper. This problem is the goal of many teams who have dealt with this topic. Nowadays, it is necessary to increase the accuracy of methods for obtaining information about correlations between emotional state and physiological changes. To be able to record these changes, we focused on two majority emotional states. Studied subjects were psychologically stimulated to neutral - calm and then to the stress state. Electrocardiography, Electroencephalography and blood pressure represented neurological and physiological samples that were collected during patient's stimulated conditions. Speech activity was recording during the patient was reading selected text. Feature extraction was calculated by speech processing operations. Classifier based on Gaussian Mixture Model was trained and tested using Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients extracted from the patient's speech. All measurements were performed in a chamber with electromagnetic compatibility. The article discusses a method for determining the influence of stress emotional state on the human and his physiological and neurological changes.

  10. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Anatomy and physiology of sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cour, F; Droupy, S; Faix, A; Methorst, C; Giuliano, F

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge of the physiology of male and female sexuality has advanced considerably. Initially there is always desire with its biological neuroendocrine components and its emotional field which is particularly marked in women. There is a distinction between "spontaneous" sexual desire related to intrinsic affective, cognitive stimuli, and fantasies, and "reactive" sexual desire in response to physical arousal. There are similarities between men and women concerning the activation of cerebral zones in sexual arousal contexts in laboratory conditions. The neural pathways for sexual arousal are similar between men and women, bringing into play the sympathetic centres of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord and, at the sacral level, the parasympathetic center and the motoneurons controlling the muscular contractions of the pelviperineal striated muscles. Genital sensitivity is mainly transmitted by the pudendal nerve in both men and women. Sexual arousal in men consists of penile erection, and ejaculation accompanied with orgasm. In women, sexual arousal causes increase in blood to flow to the vagina leading to lubrication and to the vulva leading to the erection of the clitoris and vulvar hyperaemia. The orgasm which can be multiple in women is accompanied by contractions of the striated perineal muscles. Several neurotransmitters are closely involved in the control of sexuality at the central level: dopamine, ocytocin, serotonin, and peripheral: nitric oxide and noradrenaline in men, vasoactive intestinal peptide and neuropeptide Y in women. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Anatomical physiology of spatial extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciçek, Metehan; Gitelman, Darren; Hurley, Robert S E; Nobre, Anna; Mesulam, Marsel

    2007-12-01

    Neurologically intact volunteers participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment that simulated the unilateral (focal) and bilateral (global) stimulations used to elicit extinction in patients with hemispatial neglect. In peristriate areas, attentional modulations were selectively sensitive to contralaterally directed attention. A higher level of mapping was observed in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In these areas, there was no distinction between contralateral and ipsilateral focal attention, and the need to distribute attention globally led to greater activity than either focal condition. These physiological characteristics were symmetrically distributed in the IPS and IFG, suggesting that the effects of unilateral lesions in these 2 areas can be compensated by the contralateral hemisphere. In the IPL, the greater activation by the bilateral attentional mode was seen only in the right hemisphere. Its contralateral counterpart displayed equivalent activations when attention was distributed to the right, to the left, or bilaterally. Within the context of this experiment, the IPL of the right hemisphere emerged as the one area where unilateral lesions can cause the most uncompensated and selective impairment of global attention (without interfering with unilateral attention to either side), giving rise to the phenomenon of extinction.

  13. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite the universal use of bowel preparation before colonoscopy and colorectal surgery, the physiologic effects have not been described in a standardized setting. This study was designed to investigate the physiologic effects of bowel preparation. METHODS: In a prospective study, 12...

  14. Physiological conditions for the effective interpretation of radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overington, I.

    1989-01-01

    A wide range of factors influence the ability of the human observer to perceive detail in images. Most of these factors are of some significance in interpretation of one or more types of radiographic image. Human observer performance may be conveniently categorized in terms of multiparametric threshold surfaces, suprathreshold visibility and observer variance. The general multiparametric trends of human threshold performance are discussed, together with the implications for visibility. The importance and implications of observer variance are then explored, with particular reference to their effects on search processes. Finally, attempts are made to highlight the implications of some of the factors on typical radiographic interpretation tasks and on the adequacy of certain types of phantom image used for equipment calibration. (author)

  15. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Sauerheber

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity ...

  16. Human perinatal immunity in physiological conditions and during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Well, Gijs T J; Daalderop, Leonie A; Wolfs, Tim; Kramer, Boris W

    2017-12-01

    The intrauterine environment was long considered sterile. However, several infectious threats are already present during fetal life. This review focuses on the postnatal immunological consequences of prenatal exposure to microorganisms and related inflammatory stimuli. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems of the fetus and neonate are immature, which makes them highly susceptible to infections. There is good evidence that prenatal infections are a primary cause of preterm births. Additionally, the association between antenatal inflammation and adverse neonatal outcomes has been well established. The lung, gastrointestinal tract, and skin are exposed to amniotic fluid during pregnancy and are probable targets of infection and subsequent inflammation during pregnancy. We found a large number of studies focusing on prenatal infection and the host response. Intrauterine infection and fetal immune responses are well studied, and we describe clinical data on cellular, cytokine, and humoral responses to different microbial challenges. The link to postnatal immunological effects including immune paralysis and/or excessive immune activation, however, turned out to be much more complicated. We found studies relating prenatal infectious or inflammatory hits to well-known neonatal diseases such as respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Despite these data, a direct link between prenatal hits and postnatal immunological outcome could not be undisputedly established. We did however identify several unresolved topics and propose questions for further research.

  17. Renal glucose metabolism in normal physiological conditions and in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsahli, Mazen; Gerich, John E

    2017-11-01

    The kidney plays an important role in glucose homeostasis via gluconeogenesis, glucose utilization, and glucose reabsorption from the renal glomerular filtrate. After an overnight fast, 20-25% of glucose released into the circulation originates from the kidneys through gluconeogenesis. In this post-absorptive state, the kidneys utilize about 10% of all glucose utilized by the body. After glucose ingestion, renal gluconeogenesis increases and accounts for approximately 60% of endogenous glucose release in the postprandial period. Each day, the kidneys filter approximately 180g of glucose and virtually all of this is reabsorbed into the circulation. Hormones (most importantly insulin and catecholamines), substrates, enzymes, and glucose transporters are some of the various factors influencing the kidney's role. Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased renal glucose uptake and release in the fasting and the post-prandial states. Additionally, glucosuria in these patients does not occur at plasma glucose levels that would normally produce glucosuria in healthy individuals. The major abnormality of renal glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetes appears to be impaired renal glucose release during hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Immobilisation of living bacteria for AFM imaging under physiological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louise Meyer, Rikke; Zhou, Xingfei; Tang, Lone; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Kingshott, Peter; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) holds great potential for studying the nanoscale surface structures of living cells, and to measure their interactions with abiotic surfaces, other cells, or specific biomolecules. However, the application of AFM in microbiology is challenging due to the difficulty of immobilising bacterial cells to a flat surface without changing the cell surface properties or cell viability. We have performed an extensive and thorough study of how to functionalise surfaces in order to immobilise living bacteria for AFM studies in liquid environments. Our aim was to develop a scheme which allows bacterial cells to be immobilised to a flat surface with sufficient strength to avoid detachment during the AFM scanning, and without affecting cell surface chemistry, structure, and viability. We compare and evaluate published methods, and present a new, reproducible, and generally applicable scheme for immobilising bacteria cells for an AFM imaging. Bacterial cells were immobilised to modified glass surfaces by physical confinement of cells in microwells, physisorption to positively charged surfaces, covalent binding to amine- or carboxyl-terminated surfaces, and adsorption to surfaces coated with highly adhesive polyphenolic proteins originating from the mussel Mytilus edulis. Living cells could be immobilised with all of these approaches, but many cells detached when immobilised by electrostatic interactions and imaged in buffers like PBS or MOPS. Cells were more firmly attached when immobilised by covalent binding, although some cells still detached during AFM imaging. The most successful method revealed was immobilisation by polyphenolic proteins, which facilitated firm immobilisation of the cells. Furthermore, the cell viability was not affected by this immobilisation scheme, and adhesive proteins thus provide a fast, reproducible, and generally applicable scheme for immobilising living bacteria for an AFM imaging.

  19. Transparent superwetting nanofilms with enhanced durability at model physiological condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwangbo, Sunghee; Heo, Jiwoong; Lin, Xiangde; Choi, Moonhyun; Hong, Jinkee

    2016-01-01

    There have been many studies on superwetting surfaces owing to the variety of their potential applications. There are some drawbacks to developing these films for biomedical applications, such as the fragility of the microscopic roughness feature that is vital to ensure superwettability. But, there are still only a few studies that have shown an enhanced durability of nanoscale superwetting films at certain extreme environment. In this study, we fabricated intrinsically stable superwetting films using the organosilicate based layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method in order to control nano-sized roughness of the multilayer structures. In order to develop mechanically and chemically robust surfaces, we successfully introduced polymeric silsesquioxane as a building block for LbL assembly with desired fashion. Even in the case that the superhydrophobic outer layers were damaged, the films maintained their superhydrophobicity because of the hydrophobic nature of their inner layers. As a result, we successfully fabricated superwetting nano-films and evaluated their robustness and stability. PMID:26764164

  20. Adropin – physiological and pathophysiological role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Marczuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adropin is a peptide hormone that was discovered in 2008 by Kumar et al. This protein consists of 76 amino acids, and it was originally described as a secreted peptide, with residues 1-33 encoding a secretory signal peptide sequence. The amino acid sequence of this protein in humans, mice and rats is identical. While our knowledge of the exact physiological roles of this poorly understood peptide continues to evolve, recent data suggest a role in energy homeostasis and the control of glucose and fatty acid metabolism. This protein is encoded by the Enho gene, which is expressed primarily in the liver and the central nervous system. The regulation of adropin secretion is controversial. Adropin immunoreactivity has been reported by several laboratories in the circulation of humans, non-human primates and rodents. However, more recently it has been suggested that adropin is a membrane-bound protein that modulates cell-cell communication. Moreover, adropin has been detected in various tissues and body fluids, such as brain, cerebellum, liver, kidney, heart, pancreas, small intestine, endothelial cells, colostrum, cheese whey and milk. The protein level, as shown by previous research, changes in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Adropin is involved in carbohydrate-lipid metabolism, metabolic diseases, central nervous system function, endothelial function and cardiovascular disease. The knowledge of this interesting protein, its exact role and mechanism of action is insufficient. This article provides an overview of the existing literature about the role of adropin, both in physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

  1. Bioactive lipids in kidney physiology and pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sałata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids not only have structural functions, but also play an important role as signaling and regulatory molecules and participate in many cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. Bioactive lipids act both as extracellular mediators, which are associated with receptors on the surface of cells, and intracellular mediators triggering different signal pathways. They are present and active in physiological conditions, and are also involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation, asthma, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension. Bioactive lipids such as derivatives of arachidonic acid and sphingolipids have an important role in renal development, physiology and in many renal diseases. Some of them are potential indicators of kidney damage degree and/or function of the transplanted kidneys.

  2. Physiological characteristics of bacteria isolated from water brines within permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, V.; Rivkina, E.; Laurinavichuis, K.; Pecheritsina, S.; Gilichinsky, D.

    2004-01-01

    In the Arctic there are lenses of overcooled water brines (cryopegs) sandwiched within permafrost marine sediments 100 120 thousand years old. We have investigated the physiological properties of the pure cultures of anaerobic Clostridium sp. strain 14D1 and two strains of aerobic bacteria Psychrobacter sp. isolated from these cryopegs. The structural and physiological characteristics of new bacteria from water brines have shown their ability to survive and develop under harsh conditions, such as subzero temperatures and high salinity.

  3. Physiologic profile of professional cricketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, James A; Ford, Paul A

    2010-11-01

    This study aims to provide a physiologic profile of professional cricketers and note positional differences at the start of the 2007/08 competitive season. Fifteen participants (9 bowlers, 6 batsmen) aged 25.0 ± 5.0 years (mean ± SD) took part in this study. Participants (bowlers and batsmen) completed a series of field-based fitness assessments: body composition (sum of 7 skinfolds, 72.5 ± 16.5 and 65.5 ± 19.3 mm, respectively), flexibility (sit and reach 8.1 ± 10.3 and 6.0 ± 6.2 cm, respectively), predicted maximal oxygen uptake (multistage shuttle run, 54.1 ± 2.8 and 56.1 ± 4.5 ml-1·kg-1·min-1, respectively), upper- (medicine ball throw, 7.7 ± 0.6 and 7.0 ± 0.1 m, respectively) and lower-body strength (countermovement jump, 45.7 ± 5.8 and 43.9 ± 4.1 cm, respectively), speed (sprint 17.7 m, 2.76 ± 0.6 and 2.77 ± 0.1 s, respectively), and explosive power (repeated jump, 31.0 ± 2.0 and 34.1 ± 4.8 cm, respectively). The data provided the physical fitness profile for each player, which, compared with normative data, identified that this cohort of professional cricketers had some superior fitness parameters compared with the general population, and where applicable, were comparable with other professional athletes. In addition, after effect size calculations, the results showed that some physical fitness differences existed between playing positions. Cricket professionals possess a superior level of physical fitness and strength, and conditioning coaches should seek to progress these physical parameters and further identify position-specific physical requirements to progress the modern game.

  4. Cancer Pain Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Bannister, Kirsty; Dickenson, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of inflammatory and neuropathic pains have been elucidated and translated to patient care by the use of animal models of these pain states. Cancer pain has lagged behind since early animal models of cancer-induced bone pain were based on the systemic injection of carcinoma cells....... This precluded systematic investigation of specific neuronal and pharmacological alterations that occur in cancer-induced bone pain. In 1999, Schwei et al. described a murine model of cancer-induced bone pain that paralleled the clinical condition in terms of pain development and bone destruction, confined...... to the mouse femur. This model prompted related approaches and we can now state that cancer pain may include elements of inflammatory and neuropathic pains but also unique changes in sensory processing. Cancer induced bone pain results in progressive bone destruction, elevated osteoclast activity...

  5. Physiological demands of downhill mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Jamie F; Drury, C Taylor; Ivey, Adam C; Warburton, Darren E R

    2012-12-01

    Mountain biking is a popular recreational pursuit and the physiological demands of cross-country style riding have been well documented. However, little is known regarding the growing discipline of gravity-assisted downhill cycling. We characterised the physiological demands of downhill mountain biking under typical riding conditions. Riding oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and heart rate (HR) were measured on 11 male and eight female experienced downhill cyclists and compared with data during a standardised incremental to maximum (VO(2max)) exercise test. The mean VO(2) while riding was 23.1 ± 6.9 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1) or 52 ± 14% of VO(2max) with corresponding heart rates of 146 ± 11 bpm (80 ± 6% HRmax). Over 65% of the ride was in a zone at or above an intensity level associated with improvements in health-related fitness. However, the participants' heart rates and ratings of perceived exertion were artificially inflated in comparison with the actual metabolic demands of the downhill ride. Substantial muscular fatigue was evident in grip strength, which decreased 5.4 ± 9.4 kg (5.5 ± 11.2%, P = 0.03) post-ride. Participation in downhill mountain biking is associated with significant physiological demands, which are in a range associated with beneficial effects on health-related fitness.

  6. Physiological and psychological assessment of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihashi, R.; Ohira, Masayoshi; Kimura, Teiji; Fujiwara, Takayuki

    The psycho-physiological effects of several sound stimulations were investigated to evaluate the relationship between a psychological parameter, such as subjective perception, and a physiological parameter, such as the heart rate variability (HRV). Eight female students aged 21-22 years old were tested. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and the movement of the chest-wall for estimating respiratory rate were recorded during three different sound stimulations; (1) music provided by a synthesizer (condition A); (2) birds twitters (condition B); and (3) mechanical sounds (condition C). The percentage power of the low-frequency (LF; 0.05<=0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF; 0.15<=0.40 Hz) components in the HRV (LF%, HF%) were assessed by a frequency analysis of time-series data for 5 min obtained from R-R intervals in the ECG. Quantitative assessment of subjective perception was also described by a visual analog scale (VAS). The HF% and VAS value for comfort in C were significantly lower than in either A and/or B. The respiratory rate and VAS value for awakening in C were significantly higher than in A and/or B. There was a significant correlation between the HF% and the value of the VAS, and between the respiratory rate and the value of the VAS. These results indicate that mechanical sounds similar to C inhibit the para-sympathetic nervous system and promote a feeling that is unpleasant but alert, also suggesting that the HRV reflects subjective perception.

  7. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  8. Physiology of fish endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plisetskaya, E M

    1989-06-01

    From the very beginning of physiological studies on the endocine pancreas, fish have been used as experimental subjects. Fish insulin was one of the first vertebrate insulins isolated and one of the first insulins whose primary and then tertiary structures were reported. Before a second pancreatic hormone, glucagon, was characterized, a physiologically active 'impurity', similar to that in mammalian insulin preparations, was found in fish insulins.Fish have become the most widely used model for studies of biosynthesis and processing of the pancreatic hormones. It seems inconceivable, therefore, that until the recent past cod and tuna insulins have been the only purified piscine islet hormones available for physiological experiments. The situation has changed remarkably during the last decade.In this review the contemporary status of physiological studies on the fish pancreas is outlined with an emphasis on the following topics: 1) contents of pancreatic peptides in plasma and in islet tissue; 2) actions of piscine pancreatic hormones in fish; 3) specific metabolic consequences of an acute insufficiency of pancreatic peptides; 4) functional interrelations among pancreatic peptides which differ from those of mammals. The pitfalls, lacunae and the perspectives of contemporary physiological studies on fish endocrine pancreas are outlined.

  9. Perinatal broiler physiology between hatching and chick collection in 2 hatching systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de L.J.F.; Wagenberg, van A.V.; Decuypere, E.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about physiological responses of early- versus late-hatching chicks to early posthatch conditions in broiler practice. We investigated effects of hatching time on perinatal broiler physiology in 2 hatching systems, differing in conditions: a conventional hatcher, where chicks are

  10. Physiological Assessment of Water Stress in Potato Using Spectral Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Angela P; Alarcón, Andrés; Valbuena, Raúl I; Galeano, Carlos H

    2017-01-01

    Water stress in potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) causes considerable losses in yield, and therefore, potato is often considered to be a drought sensitive crop. Identification of water deficit tolerant potato genotypes is an adaptation strategy to mitigate the climatic changes that are occurring in the Cundiboyacense region in Colombia. Previous studies have evaluated potato plants under water stress conditions using physiological analyses. However, these methodologies require considerable amounts of time and plant material to perform these measurements. This study evaluated and compared the physiological and spectral traits between two genotypes, Diacol Capiro and Perla Negra under two drought levels (10 and 15 days without irrigation from flowering). Reflectance information was used to calculate indexes which were associated with the physiological behavior in plants. The results showed that spectral information was correlated (ρ < 0.0001) with physiological variables such as foliar area (FA), total water content (H 2 Ot), relative growth rate of potato tubers (RGTtub), leaf area ratio (LAR), and foliar area index (AFI). In general, there was a higher concentration of chlorophyll under drought treatments. In addition, Perla Negra under water deficit treatments did not show significant differences in its physiological variables. Therefore, it could be considered a drought tolerant genotype because its physiological performance was not affected under water stress conditions. However, yield was affected in both genotypes after being subject to 15 days of drought. The results suggested that reflectance indexes are a useful and affordable approach for potato phenotyping to select parent and segregant populations in breeding programs.

  11. Growth physiology and dimorphism of Mucor circinelloides (syn. racemosus) during submerged batch cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcintyre, Mhairi; Breum, J.; Arnau, J.

    2002-01-01

    Mucor circinelloides is being investigated as a possible host for the production of heterologous proteins. Thus, the environmental conditions defining the physiology and morphology of this dimorphic fungus have been investigated in submerged batch cultivation. The optimal conditions for growth...

  12. Clinical usefulness of physiological components obtained by factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Eiji; Murata, Hajime; Matsuda, Hirofumi; Yokoyama, Masao; Toyama, Hinako; Satoh, Tomohiko.

    1989-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of physiological components obtained by factor analysis was assessed in 99m Tc-DTPA renography. Using definite physiological components, another dynamic data could be analyzed. In this paper, the dynamic renal function after ESWL (Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy) treatment was examined using physiological components in the kidney before ESWL and/or a normal kidney. We could easily evaluate the change of renal functions by this method. The usefulness of a new analysis using physiological components was summarized as follows: 1) The change of a dynamic function could be assessed in quantity as that of the contribution ratio. 2) The change of a sick condition could be morphologically evaluated as that of the functional image. (author)

  13. Stimulating Student Interest in Physiology: The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ) was initiated in 2003 during the author's last sabbatical from the University of Malaya. At this inaugural event, there were just seven competing teams from Malaysian medical schools. The challenge trophy for the IMSPQ is named in honor of Prof. A. Raman, who was the first Malaysian Professor of…

  14. From Physiology to Prevention: Further remarks on a physiological imperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Jouanjean

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Physiology, is the fundamental and functional expression of life. It is the study of all the representative functions of Man in all his capacities, and in particular, his capacity to work. It is very possible to establish a link between a physiological and physiopathological state, the capacity of work and the economy, which can be understood as the articulation between the physiological capacities of Man and the production of work. If these functions are innately acquired by Man they are likewise maintained by regulatory functions throughout life. The stability of these regulatory mechanisms represent the state of good health. The management of this state, constitutes Primary Prevention where both chronic and acute physiopathology defines an alteration in these regulatory mechanisms. We deduce from this reasoning that a tripartite management adapted to the physiological situation is viable and that by choosing parameters specific to individual and collective behavior, it is possible to inject, and combine, at each level and to each demand in order to budget a healthcare system in a more balanced and equitable way. 

  15. The Limits of Exercise Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Brendan M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-01-01

    Many of the established positive health benefits of exercise have been documented by historical discoveries in the field of exercise physiology. These investigations often assess limits: the limits of performance, or the limits of exercise-induced health benefits. Indeed, several key findings have...... been informed by studying highly trained athletes, in addition to healthy or unhealthy people. Recent progress has been made in regard to skeletal muscle metabolism and personalized exercise regimes. In this perspective, we review some of the historical milestones of exercise physiology, discuss how...

  16. Misophonia: physiological investigations and case descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren eEdelstein

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Misophonia is a relatively unexplored chronic condition in which a person experiences autonomic arousal (analogous to an involuntary fight-or-flight response to certain innocuous or repetitive sounds such as chewing, pen clicking and lip smacking. Misophonics report anxiety, panic and rage when exposed to trigger sounds, compromising their ability to complete everyday tasks and engage in healthy and normal social interactions. Across two experiments, we measured behavioral and physiological characteristics of the condition. Interviews (Experiment 1 with misophonics showed that the most problematic sounds are generally related to other people's behavior (pen clicking, chewing sounds. Misophonics are however not bothered when they produce these trigger sounds themselves, and some report mimicry as a coping strategy. Next, (Experiment 2 we tested the hypothesis that misophonics’ subjective experiences evoke an anomalous physiological response to certain auditory stimuli. Misophonic individuals showed heightened ratings and skin conductance responses to auditory, but not visual stimuli, relative to a group of typically developed controls, supporting this general viewpoint and indicating that misophonia is a disorder that produces distinct autonomic effects not seen in typically developed individuals.

  17. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences (Niger. J. Physiol. Sci.) is a biannual publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria. It covers diverse areas of research in physiological sciences, publishing reviews in current research areas and original laboratory and clinical research in physiological ...

  18. Physiological conjunction of allelochemicals and desert plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosef Friedjung, Avital; Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Dudai, Nativ; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Plants exchange signals with other physical and biological entities in their habitat, a form of communication termed allelopathy. The underlying principles of allelopathy and secondary-metabolite production are still poorly understood, especially in desert plants. The coordination and role of secondary metabolites were examined as a cause of allelopathy in plants thriving under arid and semiarid soil conditions. Desert plant species, Origanum dayi, Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia judaica from two different sources (cultivar cuttings and wild seeds) were studied in their natural habitats. Growth rate, relative water content, osmotic potential, photochemical efficiency, volatile composition and vital factors of allelopathy were analyzed at regular intervals along four seasons with winter showing optimum soil water content and summer showing water deficit conditions. A comprehensive analysis of the volatile composition of the leaves, ambient air and soil in the biological niche of the plants under study was carried out to determine the effects of soil water conditions and sample plants on the surrounding flora. Significant morpho-physiological changes were observed across the seasons and along different soil water content. Metabolic analysis showed that water deficit was the key for driving selective metabolomic shifts. A. judaica showed the least metabolic shifts, while A. sieberi showed the highest shifts. All the species exhibited high allelopathic effects; A. judaica displayed relatively higher growth-inhibition effects, while O. dayi showed comparatively higher germination-inhibition effects in germination assays. The current study may help in understanding plant behavior, mechanisms underlying secondary-metabolite production in water deficit conditions and metabolite-physiological interrelationship with allelopathy in desert plants, and can help cull economic benefits from the produced volatiles.

  19. Physiological conjunction of allelochemicals and desert plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avital Yosef Friedjung

    Full Text Available Plants exchange signals with other physical and biological entities in their habitat, a form of communication termed allelopathy. The underlying principles of allelopathy and secondary-metabolite production are still poorly understood, especially in desert plants. The coordination and role of secondary metabolites were examined as a cause of allelopathy in plants thriving under arid and semiarid soil conditions. Desert plant species, Origanum dayi, Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia judaica from two different sources (cultivar cuttings and wild seeds were studied in their natural habitats. Growth rate, relative water content, osmotic potential, photochemical efficiency, volatile composition and vital factors of allelopathy were analyzed at regular intervals along four seasons with winter showing optimum soil water content and summer showing water deficit conditions. A comprehensive analysis of the volatile composition of the leaves, ambient air and soil in the biological niche of the plants under study was carried out to determine the effects of soil water conditions and sample plants on the surrounding flora. Significant morpho-physiological changes were observed across the seasons and along different soil water content. Metabolic analysis showed that water deficit was the key for driving selective metabolomic shifts. A. judaica showed the least metabolic shifts, while A. sieberi showed the highest shifts. All the species exhibited high allelopathic effects; A. judaica displayed relatively higher growth-inhibition effects, while O. dayi showed comparatively higher germination-inhibition effects in germination assays. The current study may help in understanding plant behavior, mechanisms underlying secondary-metabolite production in water deficit conditions and metabolite-physiological interrelationship with allelopathy in desert plants, and can help cull economic benefits from the produced volatiles.

  20. FROM PHYSIOLOGICAL TO PATHOLOGICAL METEOSENSITIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Yabluchanskiy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the problem of physiological and pathological meteosensitivity (meteodependency or meteopathy.We introduce and discuss the definition for individual meteodependency, define factors, mechanisms, clinical signs, diagnosis, and approaches to prophylaxy and treatment of individual pathological meteosensitivity.

  1. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  2. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  3. Electronic Textbook in Human Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broering, Naomi C.; Lilienfield, Lawrence S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development of an electronic textbook in human physiology at the Georgetown University Medical Center Library that was designed to enhance learning and visualization through a prototype knowledge base of core instructional materials stored in digital format on Macintosh computers. The use of computers in the medical curriculum is…

  4. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunao eUchida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. Thus, research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960’s, with a focus primarily on sleep EEG (CNS sleep changes. Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. More recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. As physical exercise mostly affects somatic functions, endocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS changes that occur during sleep should be affected by daytime exercise. Since endocrinological, metabolic and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, building from standard polysomnographic (PSG techniques. Incorporating measures of somatic physiology in the quantitative assessment of sleep could further our understanding of sleep's function as an auto-regulatory, global phenomenon.

  5. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals Andreas...825-2025 email: andreas.fahlman@tamucc.edu Peter L. Tyack School of Biology Sea Mammal Research Unit Scottish Oceans Institute...OBJECTIVES This project is separated into three aims: Aim 1: Develop a new generation of tags/data logger for marine mammals that will

  6. Nitric oxide: a physiologic messenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, C J; Dinerman, J L; Snyder, S H

    1994-02-01

    To review the physiologic role of nitric oxide, an unusual messenger molecule that mediates blood vessel relaxation, neurotransmission, and pathogen suppression. A MEDLINE search of articles published from 1987 to 1993 that addressed nitric oxide and the enzyme that synthesizes it, nitric oxide synthase. Animal and human studies were selected from 3044 articles to analyze the clinical importance of nitric oxide. Descriptions of the structure and function of nitric oxide synthase were selected to show how nitric oxide acts as a biological messenger molecule. Biochemical and physiologic studies were analyzed if the same results were found by three or more independent observers. Two major classes of nitric oxide synthase enzymes produce nitric oxide. The constitutive isoforms found in endothelial cells and neurons release small amounts of nitric oxide for brief periods to signal adjacent cells, whereas the inducible isoform found in macrophages releases large amounts of nitric oxide continuously to eliminate bacteria and parasites. By diffusing into adjacent cells and binding to enzymes that contain iron, nitric oxide plays many important physiologic roles. It regulates blood pressure, transmits signals between neurons, and suppresses pathogens. Excess amounts, however, can damage host cells, causing neurotoxicity during strokes and causing the hypotension associated with sepsis. Nitric oxide is a simple molecule with many physiologic roles in the cardiovascular, neurologic, and immune systems. Although the general principles of nitric oxide synthesis are known, further research is necessary to determine what role it plays in causing disease.

  7. High resolution NMR spectroscopy of physiological fluids: from metabolism to physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vion-Dury, J.; Nicoli, F.; Torri, G.; Torri, J.; Kriat, M.; Sciaky, M.; Davin, A.; Viout, P.; Confort-Gouny, S.; Cozzone, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    High resolution NMR spectroscopy of physiological fluids provides quantitative, qualitative and dynamic information on the metabolic status of the interstitial and plasma compartments under a variety of pathophysiological conditions. The simultaneous detection and quantitation by NMR spectroscopy of numerous compounds of the intermediary metabolism offers a new insight in the understanding of the 'milieu interieur'.NMR spectroscopy of physiological fluids offers a unique way to define and monitor the global metabolic homeostasis in humans. The development of this analytical approach is still limited by the scarcity of pluridisciplinary teams able to fully exploit the wealth of information present on the NMR spectrum of a fluid. While application in pharmacology and toxicology is already established, the main areas of current development are cancer, hereditary metabolic disorders, organ transplantation and neurological diseases

  8. Physiological correlates and emotional specificity of human piloerection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Mathias; Kaernbach, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Piloerection is known as an indicator of strong emotional experiences. However, little is known about the physiological and emotional specificity of this psychophysiological response. In the presented study, piloerection was elicited by audio stimuli taken from music and film episodes. The physiological response accompanying the incidence of piloerection was recorded with respect to electrodermal, cardiovascular and respiratory measures and compared to a matched control condition. The employment of an optical recording system allowed for a direct and objective assessment of visible piloerection. The occurrence of piloerection was primarily accompanied by an increase of phasic electrodermal activity and increased respiration depth as compared to a matched control condition. This physiological response pattern is discussed in the context of dominant theories of human piloerection. Consideration of all available evidence suggests that emotional piloerection represents a valuable indicator of the state of being moved or touched. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Aberdeen polygons: computer displays of physiological profiles for intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C A; Logie, R H; Gilhooly, K J; Ross, D G; Ronald, A

    1996-03-01

    The clinician in an intensive therapy unit is presented regularly with a range of information about the current physiological state of the patients under care. This information typically comes from a variety of sources and in a variety of formats. A more integrated form of display incorporating several physiological parameters may be helpful therefore. Three experiments are reported that explored the potential use of analogue, polygon diagrams to display physiological data from patients undergoing intensive therapy. Experiment 1 demonstrated that information can be extracted readily from such diagrams comprising 8- or 10-sided polygons, but with an advantage for simpler polygons and for information displayed at the top of the diagram. Experiment 2 showed that colour coding removed these biases for simpler polygons and the top of the diagram, together with speeding the processing time. Experiment 3 used polygons displaying patterns of physiological data that were consistent with typical conditions observed in the intensive care unit. It was found that physicians can readily learn to recognize these patterns and to diagnose both the nature and severity of the patient's physiological state. These polygon diagrams appear to have some considerable potential for use in providing on-line summary information of a patient's physiological state.

  10. Physiological Based Simulator Fidelity Design Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Thomas; Hamel, Nancy; Postnikov, Alex; Hoke, Jaclyn; McLean, Angus L. M. Thom, III

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the role of flight simulation has reinforced assumptions in aviation that the degree of realism in a simulation system directly correlates to the training benefit, i.e., more fidelity is always better. The construct of fidelity has several dimensions, including physical fidelity, functional fidelity, and cognitive fidelity. Interaction of different fidelity dimensions has an impact on trainee immersion, presence, and transfer of training. This paper discusses research results of a recent study that investigated if physiological-based methods could be used to determine the required level of simulator fidelity. Pilots performed a relatively complex flight task consisting of mission task elements of various levels of difficulty in a fixed base flight simulator and a real fighter jet trainer aircraft. Flight runs were performed using one forward visual channel of 40 deg. field of view for the lowest level of fidelity, 120 deg. field of view for the middle level of fidelity, and unrestricted field of view and full dynamic acceleration in the real airplane. Neuro-cognitive and physiological measures were collected under these conditions using the Cognitive Avionics Tool Set (CATS) and nonlinear closed form models for workload prediction were generated based on these data for the various mission task elements. One finding of the work described herein is that simple heart rate is a relatively good predictor of cognitive workload, even for short tasks with dynamic changes in cognitive loading. Additionally, we found that models that used a wide range of physiological and neuro-cognitive measures can further boost the accuracy of the workload prediction.

  11. Physiological and biochemical relationship under drought stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... Some statistical procedures like correlation, stepwise regression, factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to study the relationship between wheat grain yield and some physiological parameters under drought conditions. Results reveal that the ratio fv/fm of chlorophyll fluorescence is the most.

  12. water deficit effects on morpho-physiologicals parameters in durum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Chahbar

    1 sept. 2016 ... ABSTRACT. Various morpho-physiological characters r rate water loss, stomatal density, stomata genotypes under two hydrous conditions strategies develops by each genotype have present an appreciable variability intrasp related to the adaptation to the water defici for relative water content who is ...

  13. Physiological responses of Vallisneria spiraslis L. induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two-flume experiment with submerged plant Vallisneria spiraslis L. was conducted to investigate the effects of different hydraulic conditions on physiological responses when exposed to water polluted with copper (Cu) and nitrogen (N). Plants were divided into two groups and grown for 120 h in hydrodynamic and ...

  14. Growth and physiological aspects of bell pepper ( Capsicum annuum )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate growth and physiological aspects of 'All Big' bell pepper, under saline stress and exogenous application of proline on the leaves. The research was conducted in pots adapted as drainage lysimeters under greenhouse conditions, using sandy-loam eutrophic Regolithic Neosol, in the ...

  15. Physiological and haematological indices of two Nigerian goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introducing an indigenous or exotic breed to unfamiliar environment paves way for livestock improvement. This study examined the physiological and haematological indices of 24Red Sokoto (RS) and West African Dwarf (WAD) goats reared under uniform condition in Ilorin, to determine adaptability of RS goats over a ...

  16. Effects of low temperature and drought on the physiological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To find out how oil palm adapts to the environmental conditions, the dynamics of a series of important physiological components derived from the leaves of potted oil palm seedlings under drought stress (DS) (water with holding) and low temperature stress (LTS) (10°C) were studied. The results showed that low temperature ...

  17. Physiological and biochemical relationship under drought stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some statistical procedures like correlation, stepwise regression, factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to study the relationship between wheat grain yield and some physiological parameters under drought conditions. Results reveal that the ratio fv/fm of chlorophyll fluorescence is the most effective parameter to ...

  18. Understanding the physiology of Lactobacillus plantarum at zero growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goffin, P.; van de Bunt, B.; Giovane, M.; Leveau, J.H.J.; Höppener-Ogawa, S.; Teusink, B.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2010-01-01

    Situations of extremely low substrate availability, resulting in slow growth, are common in natural environments. To mimic these conditions, Lactobacillus plantarum was grown in a carbon-limited retentostat with complete biomass retention. The physiology of extremely slow-growing L. plantarum—as

  19. The role of physiological active substances implant adaptation to stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronina, L.; Morachevskaya, E.

    2009-01-01

    It is known, that brassinosteroids are capable in small quantities (10 - 12-10 - 7M) to optimize physiology-biochemical processes in plants in stressful conditions. the aim of this study was to investigate the role of anti stress and protective properties of phyto hormone 24-epibrassinolide (24-epiBS). in view of its functional features and biological activity. (Author)

  20. Radioanatomy and physiology of liver and biliary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antochanu, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Peculiarities of the structure and functioning of liver and biliary tract are considered. Comparison with anatomy and physiology of these healthy organs is carried out. The know ledge of radioanatomy of the given organs is shown to be the necessary condition of right interpretation of roentgenological data

  1. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the plethora of studies discussing the benefits of vitamin D on physiological functioning, few mathematical models of vitamin D predict the response of the body on low-concentration supplementation of vitamin D under sunlight-restricted conditions. This study developed a ...

  2. Study on Driver Visual Physiological Characteristics in Urban Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the integrated traffic environment, human factor is always a main factor of the three elementary factors, besides the vehicle and road factor. The driver physiological and psychological characteristics have an important impact especially on traffic safety in urban road traffic conditions. Some typical traffic scenes in condition of urban road, such as light signal control at intersection, overtaking, and passing, are selected for condition analysis. An eye movement apparatus was used to obtain driver eye closure, blink frequency, and other visual physiological indicators in the traffic conditions of urban road. The regular patterns of driver visual characteristics in the corresponding scenes were analyzed in detail to provide data and theoretical support for the further research on traffic safety of urban environment from the viewpoint of driver psychology and behavior.

  3. Physiological Studies of Arctic Carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    All transmitters were maintained in a cold sterilant ( benzalkonium chloride ) until implanted in a bear. Radio-transmitters for monitoring temperature...body was unknown, particularly during the winter when bears are in dens and there is a generalized reduction in metabolism and other physiological... reduction in core body temperature from summer to winter closely agrees with those reported earlier for bears maintained in captivity under simulated

  4. System Theory and Physiological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R W

    1963-05-03

    Engineers and physiologists working together in experimental and theoretical studies predict that the application of system analysis to biological processes will increase understanding of these processes and broaden the base of system theory. Richard W. Jones, professor of electrical engineering at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, and John S. Gray, professor of physiology at Northwestern's Medical School, discuss these developments. Their articles are adapted from addresses delivered in Chicago in November 1962 at the 15th Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology.

  5. Gut Melatonin in Vertebrates: Chronobiology and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Saumen Kumar Maitra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, following discovery in the bovine pineal gland, has been detected in several extra-pineal sources including gastrointestinal tract or gut. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT is the key regulator of its biosynthesis. Melatonin in pineal is rhythmically produced with a nocturnal peak in synchronization with environmental light-dark cycle. A recent study on carp reported first that melatonin levels and intensity of a ~23kDa AANAT protein in each gut segment also exhibit significant daily variations but, unlike pineal, show a peak at midday in all seasons. Extensive experimental studies ruled out direct role of light-dark conditions in determining temporal pattern of gut melatoninergic system in carp, and opened up possible role of environmental non-photic cue(s as its synchronizer. Based on mammalian findings, physiological significance of gut derived melatonin also appears unique because its actions at local levels sharing paracrine and/or autocrine functions have been emphasized. The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize existing data on the chronobiology and physiology of gut melatonin and to emphasize their relation with the same hormone derived in the pineal in vertebrates including fish.

  6. Radiation oncology: radiobiological and physiological perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwad, H.K.

    1990-01-01

    This book deals with the normal tissue and tumor radiation-induced responses in terms of the underlying radiobiological and physiological process. Coverage includes the following topics: Functional test for normal tissue responses. Relation to the underlying target cell, Clinical structural end-points, e.g., increased lung density in CT-scan. Conditions and parameters of the LQ-model in clinical applications. An NSD-type of formalism is still clinically applicable. Clinical importance of the kinetics of recovery. The notion of normal tissue tolerance and tumor control. The steepness of the response curve. How accurate radiotherpy should be. The volume effect: clinical, biological and physiological perspectives. The tumor bed effect, residual damage and the problems of reirradiation. Radiation-induced perturbations of the immune response. Clinical consequences. Exploitation to a therapeutic benefit. Hypoxia in human solid tumors. Probing and methods of control. Growth of human tumors. Parameters, measurement and clinical implications. The dose-rate effect. The optimum use of low dose rate irradiation in human cancer

  7. Klismaphilia--a physiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, J

    1982-10-01

    Dr. Joanne Denko coined the work klismaphilia to describe the practices of some of her patients who enjoyed the use of enemas as a sexual stimulant. Since then questions occasionally appear in the professional literature asking about the relationship between enemas and sexual pleasure. This paper considers some of the physiological aspects of the human sexual apparatus that relate to anal sensitivity and explores why klismaphilia can be sexually grafifying. The paper starts with a discussion of the physiological basis for anal sensitivity and anal masturbation in both the human male and the human female. The paper then goes on to relate all this to the sexual sensations received from an enema, and discusses the similarities and differences between all these types of stimulation. Some of the psychological aspects of klismaphilia are also considered in relationship to the physiology involved. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of masked anal masturbation among the population at large. A comprehensive list of references from the literature is given to support these findings.

  8. Physiological roles of CNS muscarinic receptors gained from knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Sørensen, Gunnar; Dencker, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    receptors modulating neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release in many brain regions, shaping neuronal plasticity, and affecting functions ranging from motor and sensory function to cognitive processes. As gene targeting technology evolves including the use of conditional, cell type specific strains......, knockout mice are likely to continue to provide valuable insights into brain physiology and pathophysiology, and advance the development of new medications for a range of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addictions, as well as non-opioid analgesics...

  9. Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Feedback, D. L.; Feiverson, A. H.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts, S. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J.; Spiering, B. A.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes might affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on lunar and Martian surfaces. To date, changes in functional performance have not been systematically studied or correlated with physiological changes. To understand how changes in physiological function impact functional performance an interdisciplinary pre/postflight testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) has been developed that systematically evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The overall objectives of the FTT are to: Develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for Constellation. Determine the ability to perform these tasks after flight. Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements. Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures. The functional test battery was designed to address high priority tasks identified by the Constellation program as critical for mission success. The set of functional tests making up the FTT include the: 1) Seat Egress and Walk Test, 2) Ladder Climb Test, 3) Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, 4) Rock Translation Test, 5) Jump Down Test, 6) Torque Generation Test, and 7) Construction Activity Board Test. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper and lower body muscle strength, power, fatigue, control and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers will perform both functional and physiological tests before and after short (Shuttle) and long-duration (ISS) space flight. Data will be collected on R+0 (Shuttle only), R

  10. Physiological indices of seawater readiness in postspawning steelhead kelts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Jessica; Moffitt, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Management goals to improve the recovery of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) stocks at risk of extinction include increasing the proportion of postspawning fish that survive and spawn again. To be successful, postspawning steelhead (kelts) migrating downstream to the ocean must prepare physiologically and physically for a seawater transition. We sampled blood, gill filaments, and evaluated the external condition of migrating kelts from an ESA-listed population in the Snake/Columbia River system over two consecutive years to evaluate their physiological readiness for transition to seawater. We chose attributes often considered as measures of preparation for seawater in juveniles, including gill Na+,K+ ATPase activity, plasma electrolytes and hormones to consider factors related to external condition, size and sex. We found kelts in good external condition had plasma profiles similar to downstream-migrating smolts. In addition, we found more than 80% of kelts ranked in good external condition had smolt-like body silvering. We compared measures from migrating kelts with samples obtained from hatchery fish at the time of spawning to confirm that Na+, K+ ATPase activity in kelts was significantly elevated over spawning fish. We found significant differences in gill Na+, K+ ATPase activity in migrating kelts between the years of sampling, but little indication of influence of fish condition. We conclude that the postspawning steelhead sampled exhibited a suite of behaviours, condition and physiology characteristic of fish prepared for successful transition to a seawater environment.

  11. Anatomy and physiology of the esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaghan, M

    1999-02-01

    Modern diagnosis and treatment of esophageal disease is a result of progress in assessing the anatomy and physiology of the esophagus, as well as refinements in anesthetic and surgical techniques. Esophageal carcinoma spreads rapidly and metastasizes easily. The tendency for early spread and the absence of symptoms result in late diagnosis that reduces treatment options and cure rates. Lifestyle (i.e., use of alcohol and tobacco), nutritional deficiencies, ingestion of nitrosamines, and mutagen-inducing fungi are blamed for cancer of the esophagus. Other pathologic conditions (e.g., achalasia, Barrett's epithelium, gastric reflux, hiatal hernia) are potential contributors to the development of carcinoma. Nurses are in key positions to identify the existence of factors contributing to premalignant or malignant lesions and to educate patients and make the appropriate referrals.

  12. Physiological Basis for Prompt Health Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VINCENT, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    As input to design considerations precluding worker radiological exposure that could lead to an acute health effect from a postulated accident condition, an assessment of the short term health effects was performed. To assure that the impact of the accident scenario on the individual is appropriately considered, both external and internal exposures are included in the evaluation. The focus of this evaluation was to develop a quantitative basis from which to consider the level of exposure postulated in an accident that could lead to a defined physiological impact for short term health effects. This paper does not assess latent health effects of radiological exposure associated with normal operations or emergency response guidelines as these are clearly articulated in existing regulations and ICRP documents. The intent of this paper is to facilitate a dialogue on the appropriate meaning of currently undefined terms such as ''significant'' exposure and ''high-hazard material'' in DSA development

  13. Physiology of excitable membranes: proceedings of the 28th International Congress of Physiological Sciences, Budapest, 1980

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salánki, J; Meves, H

    1981-01-01

    ... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Regulatory Functions of the CNS. Principles of Motion and Organization Regulatory Functions of the CNS. Subsystems Physiology of Non-excitable Cells Physiology...

  14. Physiological responses in barley to applications of lanthanum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, N.; Maheswaran, J.; Peverill, K.; Meehan, B.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Chinese research and glasshouse investigations carried out in Victoria by the authors have shown that several plant species, when treated with Rare Earth Elements (REEs), retain greater amounts of moisture under water stressed conditions. The physiological adaptation of the plant to retain moisture in response to REE treatment however, has not been investigated. A glasshouse trial is currently in progress to study the physiological and agronomic responses of barley (cv. Schooner) grown in pots to application of lanthanum (0, 5 and 10 kg/ha), at a concentration of 0.05%, under well-watered (field capacity) and water-deficit (25 - 30% field capacity) conditions. Lanthanum was applied both directly to the soil and as a foliar spray. The physiological measurements include, photosynthetic rate, leaf water potential, osmotic potential, relative water content, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency. Measured agronomic parameters include plant height, tiller production, leaf area development, total grain weight, total biomass, root and shoot ratio and harvest index. Analysis of plant tissue for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and La to study the relationship between application of REE and nutrient uptake is also being carried out. The paper discusses physiological and agronomic changes in barley plants in response to treatment with lanthanum, under conditions of water stress

  15. Towards Individualized Physiology Lecturing in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye Samuel

    1 (1): 13 - 16. Journal of African Association of Physiological Sciences ... import from validated text format question series and seamless use of any computer program or internet .... Silverthorn D U, Human Physiology, an Integrated. Approach ...

  16. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educational - Medicine Prize Related The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to people and ... this page MLA style: "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine – Educational". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media ...

  17. Physiological determinants of human acute hypoxia tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    AbstractIntroduction. We investigated possible physiological determinants of variability in hypoxia tolerance in subjects given a 5-minute normobaric exposure to 25,000 ft equivalent. Physiological tolerance to hypoxia was defined as the magnitude of...

  18. Archives: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 19 of 19 ... Archives: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Physiology of High-Altitude Acclimatization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Sonam Chawla1 Shweta Saxena2. Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Delhi; Experimental Biology Division Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences Defence Research and Development Organisation Lucknow Road, Timarpur Delhi 110054 ...

  20. Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults is available for download and contains physiological parameters values for healthy older human adults (age 60...

  1. Bridging the gap between chemistry, physiology, and evolution: Quantifying the functionality of sperm whale myoglobin mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasmeh, Pouria; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2011-01-01

    This work merges a large set of previously reported thermochemical data for myoglobin (Mb) mutants with a physiological model of O2-transport and -storage. The model allows a quantification of the functional proficiency of myoglobin (Mb) mutants under various physiological conditions, i.e. O2-con...

  2. Bengt Saltin and exercise physiology: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    This perspective highlights some of the key contributions of Professor Bengt Saltin (1935-2014) to exercise physiology. The emergence of exercise physiology from work physiology as his career began is discussed as are his contributions in a number of areas. Saltin's open and question-based style of leadership is a model for the future of our field.

  3. Lacrimal system physiology: radioisotope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rossi, G.; Salvatori, M.; Focosi, F.; Dickmann, A.

    1982-01-01

    Lacrimal scintigraphy was used to illustrate the physiology of the lacrimal drainage system in 37 normal patients. Sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate was dropped on to the conjunctive near the lateral chantus and serial images were displayed dynamically on a video display. It was concluded that this technique provides a very sensitive and reproducible test of the functional status of nasolacrimal drainage along with a graphic documentation at any given time and thus could be extremely useful in the diagnosis of lacrimal pathology. (U.K.)

  4. Physiological blunting during pregnancy extends to induced relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, Janet A; Mendelson, Tamar; Williams, Erica L; Costigan, Kathleen A

    2012-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that pregnancy is accompanied by hyporesponsivity to physical, cognitive, and psychological challenges. This study evaluates whether observed autonomic blunting extends to conditions designed to decrease arousal. Physiological and psychological responsivity to an 18-min guided imagery relaxation protocol in healthy pregnant women during the 32nd week of gestation (n=54) and non-pregnant women (n=28) was measured. Data collection included heart period (HP), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), tonic and phasic measures of skin conductance (SCL and NS-SCR), respiratory period (RP), and self-reported psychological relaxation. As expected, responses to the manipulation included increased HP, RSA, and RP and decreased SCL and NS-SCR, followed by post-manipulation recovery. However, responsivity was attenuated for all physiological measures except RP in pregnant women, despite no difference in self-reported psychological relaxation. Findings support non-specific blunting of physiological responsivity during pregnancy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Interpretation of physiological indicators of motivation: Caveats and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Michael; Slade, Kate

    2017-09-01

    Motivation scientists employing physiological measures to gather information about motivation-related states are at risk of committing two fundamental errors: overstating the inferences that can be drawn from their physiological measures and circular reasoning. We critically discuss two complementary approaches, Cacioppo and colleagues' model of psychophysiological relations and construct validation theory, to highlight the conditions under which these errors are committed and provide guidance on how to avoid them. In particular, we demonstrate that the direct inference from changes in a physiological measure to changes in a motivation-related state requires the demonstration that the measure is not related to other relevant psychological states. We also point out that circular reasoning can be avoided by separating the definition of the motivation-related state from the hypotheses that are empirically tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Complexity and network dynamics in physiological adaptation: an integrated view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffy, György; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2014-05-28

    Living organisms constantly interact with their surroundings and sustain internal stability against perturbations. This dynamic process follows three fundamental strategies (restore, explore, and abandon) articulated in historical concepts of physiological adaptation such as homeostasis, allostasis, and the general adaptation syndrome. These strategies correspond to elementary forms of behavior (ordered, chaotic, and static) in complex adaptive systems and invite a network-based analysis of the operational characteristics, allowing us to propose an integrated framework of physiological adaptation from a complex network perspective. Applicability of this concept is illustrated by analyzing molecular and cellular mechanisms of adaptation in response to the pervasive challenge of obesity, a chronic condition resulting from sustained nutrient excess that prompts chaotic exploration for system stability associated with tradeoffs and a risk of adverse outcomes such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Deconstruction of this complexity holds the promise of gaining novel insights into physiological adaptation in health and disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Physiological characterisation of acuB deletion in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Susan Lisette; De Jongh, Willem Adriaan; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    The acuB gene of Aspergillus niger is an ortholog of facB in Aspergillus nidulans. Under carbon-repression conditions, facB is repressed, thereby preventing acetate metabolism when the repressing carbon source is present. Even though facB is reported to be repressed directly by CreA, it is believed...... that a basal level of FacB activity exists under glucose-repressive conditions. In the present study, the effect of deletion of acuB on the physiology of A. niger was assessed. Differences in organic acid and acetate production, enzyme activities and extracellular amino and non-amino organic acid production...... were determined under glucose-repressing and -derepressing conditions. Furthermore, consumption of alternative carbon sources (e.g. xylose, citrate, lactate and succinate) was investigated. It was shown that AcuB has pleiotropic effects on the physiology of A. niger. The results indicate that metabolic...

  8. Physiological responses at short distances from a parametric speaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Soomin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, parametric speakers have been used in various circumstances. In our previous studies, we verified that the physiological burden of the sound of parametric speaker set at 2.6 m from the subjects was lower than that of the general speaker. However, nothing has yet been demonstrated about the effects of the sound of a parametric speaker at the shorter distance between parametric speakers the human body. Therefore, we studied this effect on physiological functions and task performance. Nine male subjects participated in this study. They completed three consecutive sessions: a 20-minute quiet period as a baseline, a 30-minute mental task period with general speakers or parametric speakers, and a 20-minute recovery period. We measured electrocardiogram (ECG photoplethysmogram (PTG, electroencephalogram (EEG, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Four experiments, one with a speaker condition (general speaker and parametric speaker, the other with a distance condition (0.3 m and 1.0 m, were conducted respectively at the same time of day on separate days. To examine the effects of the speaker and distance, three-way repeated measures ANOVA (speaker factor x distance factor x time factor were conducted. In conclusion, we found that the physiological responses were not significantly different between the speaker condition and the distance condition. Meanwhile, it was shown that the physiological burdens increased with progress in time independently of speaker condition and distance condition. In summary, the effects of the parametric speaker at the 2.6 m distance were not obtained at the distance of 1 m or less.

  9. Major component analysis of dynamic networks of physiologic organ interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kang K L; Ma, Qianli D Y; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Bartsch, Ronny P

    2015-01-01

    The human organism is a complex network of interconnected organ systems, where the behavior of one system affects the dynamics of other systems. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse physiologic systems under varied conditions is a challenge due to the complexity in the output dynamics of the individual systems and the transient and nonlinear characteristics of their coupling. We introduce a novel computational method based on the concept of time delay stability and major component analysis to investigate how organ systems interact as a network to coordinate their functions. We analyze a large database of continuously recorded multi-channel physiologic signals from healthy young subjects during night-time sleep. We identify a network of dynamic interactions between key physiologic systems in the human organism. Further, we find that each physiologic state is characterized by a distinct network structure with different relative contribution from individual organ systems to the global network dynamics. Specifically, we observe a gradual decrease in the strength of coupling of heart and respiration to the rest of the network with transition from wake to deep sleep, and in contrast, an increased relative contribution to network dynamics from chin and leg muscle tone and eye movement, demonstrating a robust association between network topology and physiologic function. (paper)

  10. The physiology of the normal human breast: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Dixie; Gordon, Eva J; Casano, Ashley; Lahti, Sarah Michelle; Nguyen, Tinh; Preston, Alex; Tondre, Julie; Wu, Kuan; Yanase, Tiffany; Chan, Henry; Chia, David; Esfandiari, Mahtash; Himmel, Tiffany; Love, Susan M

    2011-12-01

    The physiology of the nonlactating human breast likely plays a key role in factors that contribute to the etiology of breast cancer and other breast conditions. Although there has been extensive research into the physiology of lactation, few reports explore the physiology of the resting mammary gland, including mechanisms by which compounds such as hormones, drugs, and potential carcinogens enter the breast ducts. The purpose of this study was to explore transport of exogenous drugs into ductal fluid in nonlactating women and determine if their concentrations in the fluid are similar to those observed in the breast milk of lactating women. We selected two compounds that have been well characterized during lactation, caffeine and cimetidine. Caffeine passively diffuses into breast milk, but cimetidine is actively transported and concentrated in breast milk. After ingestion of caffeine and cimetidine, 14 nonlactating subjects had blood drawn and underwent ductal lavage at five time points over 12 h to measure drug levels in the fluid and blood. The concentrations of both caffeine and cimetidine in lavage fluid were substantially less than those observed in breast milk. Our results support recent evidence that the cimetidine transporter is not expressed in the nonlactating mammary gland, and highlight intriguing differences in the physiology and molecular transport of the lactating and nonlactating breast. The findings of this exploratory study warrant further exploration into the physiology of the nonlactating mammary gland to elucidate factors involved in disease initiation and progression.

  11. Systems physiology in dairy cattle: nutritional genomics and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loor, Juan J; Bionaz, Massimo; Drackley, James K

    2013-01-01

    Microarray development changed the way biologists approach the holistic study of cells and tissues. In dairy cattle biosciences, the application of omics technology, from spotted microarrays to next-generation sequencing and proteomics, has grown steadily during the past 10 years. Omics has found application in fields such as dairy cattle nutritional physiology, reproduction, and immunology. Generating biologically meaningful data from omics studies relies on bioinformatics tools. Both are key components of the systems physiology toolbox, which allows study of the interactions between a condition (e.g., nutrition, physiological state) with tissue gene/protein expression and the associated changes in biological functions. The nature of physiologic and metabolic adaptations in dairy cattle at any stage of the life cycle is multifaceted, involves multiple tissues, and is dynamic, e.g., the transition from late-pregnancy to lactation. Application of integrative systems physiology in periparturient dairy cattle has already advanced knowledge of the simultaneous functional adaptations in liver, adipose, and mammary tissue.

  12. Employee subjective well-being and physiological functioning: An integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuykendall, Lauren; Tay, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that worker subjective well-being influences physiological functioning-an early signal of poor health outcomes. While several theoretical perspectives provide insights on this relationship, the literature lacks an integrative framework explaining the relationship. We develop a conceptual model explaining the link between subjective well-being and physiological functioning in the context of work. Integrating positive psychology and occupational stress perspectives, our model explains the relationship between subjective well-being and physiological functioning as a result of the direct influence of subjective well-being on physiological functioning and of their common relationships with work stress and personal resources, both of which are influenced by job conditions.

  13. Imaging of small amounts of pleural fluid. Part two - physiologic pleural fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocijancic, I.

    2006-01-01

    Background. There are only a few articles reporting the possibility of radiographic and sonographic detection of physiologic pleural fluid in healthy individuals. In the last decade the advent of sonographic equipments enables the detection of small amounts of physiologic pleural fluid in about 20% of healthy individuals. In certain physiologic conditions (i.e. pregnancy) the physiologic pleural fluid could be detected more frequently by chest ultrasonography. Conclusions. A positive result, if detected, should not be taken as a sign of the occult thoracic disease. (author)

  14. Physiological Effects of Touching Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumi Ikei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the physiological effects of touching wood with the palm, in comparison with touching other materials on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Eighteen female university students (mean age, 21.7  ±  1.6 years participated in the study. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentrations were measured in the left/right prefrontal cortex using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV was used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF component of HRV, which reflected parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF/HF ratio, which reflected sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated white oak, marble, tile, and stainless steel were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed, participants touched the materials for 90 s. As a result, tactile stimulation with white oak significantly (1 decreased the oxy-Hb concentration in the left/right prefrontal cortex relative to marble, tile, and stainless steel and (2 increased ln(HF-reflected parasympathetic nervous activity relative to marble and stainless steel. In conclusion, our study revealed that touching wood with the palm calms prefrontal cortex activity and induces parasympathetic nervous activity more than other materials, thereby inducing physiological relaxation.

  15. Environmental Physiology and Diving Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Bosco

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Man’s experience and exploration of the underwater environment has been recorded from ancient times and today encompasses large sections of the population for sport enjoyment, recreational and commercial purpose, as well as military strategic goals. Knowledge, respect and maintenance of the underwater world is an essential development for our future and the knowledge acquired over the last few dozen years will change rapidly in the near future with plans to establish secure habitats with specific long-term goals of exploration, maintenance and survival. This summary will illustrate briefly the physiological changes induced by immersion, swimming, breath-hold diving and exploring while using special equipment in the water. Cardiac, circulatory and pulmonary vascular adaptation and the pathophysiology of novel syndromes have been demonstrated, which will allow selection of individual characteristics in order to succeed in various environments. Training and treatment for these new microenvironments will be suggested with description of successful pioneers in this field. This is a summary of the physiology and the present status of pathology and therapy for the field.

  16. Physiologically based pharmacokinetics model for estimating urinary excretion of short half-life nuclides in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, K.; Kai, M.; Konishi, E.; Kusama, T.; Aoki, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The biokinetic model in ICRP 53 is used for calculating absorbed dose to each organ of a patient in nuclear medicine. The ICRP model is a simple compartment model based on human data; however, the model cannot produce the biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals under various physiological conditions. On the other hand, a physiologically based pharmacokinetics model (PBPK model) can describe the flow of radiopharmaceuticals as a compartment model for any physiological conditions theoretically. The PBPK model was applied especially for the kidney-bladder dynamics, and similar results obtained compared with the ICRP model. This suggests the possibility of the PBPK model for predicting the biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals under various physiological conditions. (Author)

  17. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P; Liu, Kang K L; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2015-01-01

    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems.

  18. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Liu, Kang K. L.; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2015-01-01

    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems. PMID:26555073

  19. Independence among physiological traits suggests flexibility in the face of ecological demands on phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buehler, D.M.; Vézina, F.; Goymann, W.; Schwabl, I.; Versteegh, M.; Tieleman, B.I.; Piersma, T.

    2012-01-01

    Phenotypic flexibility allows animals to adjust their physiology to diverse environmental conditions encountered over the year. Examining how these varying traits covary gives insights into potential constraints or freedoms that may shape evolutionary trajectories. In this study, we examined

  20. Physiological Responses to Thermal Stress and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyota, Hiroyuki; Ohya, Akira; Yamagata, Junko; Suzuki, Takashi; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Kawabata, Takashi

    The simple and noninvasive measuring methods of bioinstrumentation in humans is required for optimization of air conditioning and management of thermal environments, taking into consideration the individual specificity of the human body as well as the stress conditions affecting each. Changes in human blood circulation were induced with environmental factors such as heat, cold, exercise, mental stress, and so on. In this study, the physiological responses of human body to heat stress and exercise were investigated in the initial phase of the developmental research. We measured the body core and skin temperatures, skin blood flow, and pulse wave as the indices of the adaptation of the cardiovascular system. A laser Doppler skin blood flowmetry using an optical-sensor with a small portable data logger was employed for the measurement. These results reveal the heat-stress and exercise-induced circulatory responses, which are under the control of the sympathetic nerve system. Furthermore, it was suggested that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system could be evaluated from the signals of the pulse wave included in the signals derived from skin blood flow by means of heart rate variability assessments and detecting peak heights of velocity-plethysmogram.

  1. Cesium-137: A physiological disruptor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souidi, Maamar; Grison, Stephane; Dublineau, Isabelle; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Lestaevel, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Today, radiation protection is a major issue for the nuclear industry throughout the world, particularly in France. The 2011 disaster of Fukushima Dai-ichi has brought back to public attention questions about the risks associated with nuclear power for civilian purposes. The risk of accidental release of radioactive molecules, including cesium-137 ( 137 Cs), from these facilities cannot be completely eliminated. The non-cancer-related health consequences of chronic exposure to this radionuclide remain poorly understood. After absorption, cesium is distributed throughout the body. The toxicity of 137 Cs is due mainly to its radiological properties. Studies in humans report that 137 Cs impairs the immune system and induces neurological disorders. Children appear more susceptible than adults to its toxic effects. In animals, and most particularly in rodents, low-dose internal contamination disrupts the sleep-wake cycle, but without behavioural disorders. Impairment of the cardiovascular system has also been observed. Physiologic systems such as the metabolism of vitamin D, cholesterol and steroid hormones are altered, although without leading to the emergence of diseases with clinical symptoms. Recently, a metabolomics study based on contamination levels comparable to those around Chernobyl after the accident showed that it is possible to identify individual rats chronically exposed to low doses of 137 Cs, even though the exposure was too low to affect the standard clinical markers. In conclusion, the scientific evidence currently available, particularly that from experimental animal models exposed to chronic contamination, suggests that 137 Cs is likely to affect many physiologic and metabolic functions. Thus, it could contribute, with other artificial substances in the environment, to increasing the risk of developing non-cancer diseases in some regions. (authors)

  2. The physiology of mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellizzeri, Franco M; Marcora, Samuele M

    2007-01-01

    Mountain biking is a popular outdoor recreational activity and an Olympic sport. Cross-country circuit races have a winning time of approximately equal 120 minutes and are performed at an average heart rate close to 90% of the maximum, corresponding to 84% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). More than 80% of race time is spent above the lactate threshold. This very high exercise intensity is related to the fast starting phase of the race; the several climbs, forcing off-road cyclists to expend most of their effort going against gravity; greater rolling resistance; and the isometric contractions of arm and leg muscles necessary for bike handling and stabilisation. Because of the high power output (up to 500W) required during steep climbing and at the start of the race, anaerobic energy metabolism is also likely to be a factor of off-road cycling and deserves further investigation. Mountain bikers' physiological characteristics indicate that aerobic power (VO2max >70 mL/kg/min) and the ability to sustain high work rates for prolonged periods of time are prerequisites for competing at a high level in off-road cycling events. The anthropometric characteristics of mountain bikers are similar to climbers and all-terrain road cyclists. Various parameters of aerobic fitness are correlated to cross-country performance, suggesting that these tests are valid for the physiological assessment of competitive mountain bikers, especially when normalised to body mass. Factors other than aerobic power and capacity might influence off-road cycling performance and require further investigation. These include off-road cycling economy, anaerobic power and capacity, technical ability and pre-exercise nutritional strategies.

  3. Translational physiology: from molecules to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Douglas R

    2013-07-15

    The term 'translational research' was coined 20 years ago and has become a guiding influence in biomedical research. It refers to a process by which the findings of basic research are extended to the clinical research setting (bench to bedside) and then to clinical practice and eventually health policy (bedside to community). It is a dynamic, multidisciplinary research approach. The concept of translational physiology applies the translational research model to the physiological sciences. It differs from the traditional areas of integrative and clinical physiology by its broad investigative scope of basic research to community health. Translational physiology offers exciting opportunities, but presently is under-developed and -utilized. A key challenge will be to expand physiological research by extending investigations to communities of patients and healthy (or at risk) individuals. This will allow bidirectional physiological investigation throughout the translational continuum: basic research observations can be studied up to the population level, and mechanisms can be assessed by 'reverse translation' in clinical research settings and preclinical models based on initial observations made in populations. Examples of translational physiology questions, experimental approaches, roadblocks and strategies for promotion are discussed. Translational physiology provides a novel framework for physiology programs and an investigational platform for physiologists to study function from molecular events to public health. It holds promise for enhancing the completeness and societal impact of our work, while further solidifying the critical role of physiology in the biomedical research enterprise.

  4. Study on human physiological parameters for monitoring of mental works in the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Ken-ichi; Yoshino, Kenji; Ishii, Keiichiro; Nakasa, Hiroyasu; Shigeta, Sadayoshi.

    1982-01-01

    To prevent outbreaks of the wrong operation and judgement in the nuclear power plant, human conditions of body and mind should be taken into consideration particularly for the mental works such as inspection and monitoring. To estimate human conditions quantitatively by the measurement of human physiological parameters, this paper presents the following experimental results. (1) Physiological parameters are estimated from both sides of biological meanings and the applicability to field works. (2) Time variation of the parameters is investigated in mental simulation tests in order to select a good indicator of mental fatigue. (3) Correlation analysis between mental fatigue indexes and physiological parameters shows that the heart rate is a best indicator. (author)

  5. Metabolic-flux dependent regulation of microbial physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsios, Athanasios; Ortega, Álvaro D; Wit, Ernst C; Heinemann, Matthias

    2018-04-01

    According to the most prevalent notion, changes in cellular physiology primarily occur in response to altered environmental conditions. Yet, recent studies have shown that changes in metabolic fluxes can also trigger phenotypic changes even when environmental conditions are unchanged. This suggests that cells have mechanisms in place to assess the magnitude of metabolic fluxes, that is, the rate of metabolic reactions, and use this information to regulate their physiology. In this review, we describe recent evidence for metabolic flux-sensing and flux-dependent regulation. Furthermore, we discuss how such sensing and regulation can be mechanistically achieved and present a set of new candidates for flux-signaling metabolites. Similar to metabolic-flux sensing, we argue that cells can also sense protein translation flux. Finally, we elaborate on the advantages that flux-based regulation can confer to cells. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Method and System for Physiologically Modulating Videogames and Simulations which Use Gesture and Body Image Sensing Control Input Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T. (Inventor); Stephens, Chad L. (Inventor); Habowski, Tyler (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Method for physiologically modulating videogames and simulations includes utilizing input from a motion-sensing video game system and input from a physiological signal acquisition device. The inputs from the physiological signal sensors are utilized to change the response of a user's avatar to inputs from the motion-sensing sensors. The motion-sensing system comprises a 3D sensor system having full-body 3D motion capture of a user's body. This arrangement encourages health-enhancing physiological self-regulation skills or therapeutic amplification of healthful physiological characteristics. The system provides increased motivation for users to utilize biofeedback as may be desired for treatment of various conditions.

  7. 14{sup C}-Metampicillin stability in several physiological

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimeno, F; Casas, F; Carriazo, D

    1981-07-01

    Degradation of 14{sup C}-metampicillin incorporated to several physiological sera for medical uses has been studied. Influence of environmental conditions as well as possible interaction with the solvent have been specially analyzed. Degradation level of the labelled multiplication has been determined and its degradation products have been separated by using chromatographic and radiochemical methods. Likewise, the 14{sup C}-metam picill synthesis has been described. Finally, the results obtained have been discussed and evaluated. (Author) 9 refs.

  8. Diffuse optical tomography with physiological and spatial a priori constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intes, Xavier; Maloux, Clemence; Guven, Murat; Yazici, Birzen; Chance, Britton

    2004-01-01

    Diffuse optical tomography is a typical inverse problem plagued by ill-condition. To overcome this drawback, regularization or constraining techniques are incorporated in the inverse formulation. In this work, we investigate the enhancement in recovering functional parameters by using physiological and spatial a priori constraints. More accurate recovery of the two main functional parameters that are the blood volume and the relative saturation is demonstrated through simulations by using our method compared to actual techniques. (note)

  9. Physiological Event Prediction in Evaluations of Underwater Breathing Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    Navy Experimental Diving Unit TA 15-02 321 Bullfinch Rd. NEDU TR 16-04 Panama City, FL 32407-7015 October 2016 Physiological...Diving unit 321 Bullfinch Road Panama City, Florida 32407-7015 NEDU TR 16-04 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY...varying dive conditions. The so-called maximum respiratory impedance model was calibrated on Navy manned dive results, and this paper describes the use

  10. Physiological blunting during pregnancy extends to induced relaxation

    OpenAIRE

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Mendelson, Tamar; Williams, Erica L.; Costigan, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that pregnancy is accompanied by hyporesponsivity to physical, cognitive, and psychological challenges. This study evaluates whether observed autonomic blunting extends to conditions designed to decrease arousal. Physiological and psychological responsivity to an 18-minute guided imagery relaxation protocol in healthy pregnant women during the 32nd week of gestation (n = 54) and non-pregnant women (n = 28) was measured. Data collection included heart period (HP)...

  11. The integumentary system: anatomy, physiology and function of skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Ella; Hendry, Charles; Alistair, Farley

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, examines the anatomy and physiology of skin, also termed the integumentary system. Skin is composed of two main layers, the epidermis and dermis. The structure of the epidermis and dermis are described and their functions are discussed. Accessory structures, such as nails and hair are also considered. Although many diseases of the skin exist, two common conditions--psoriasis and decubitus ulcers--are described in this article.

  12. 14C-Metampicillin stability in several physiological sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimeno de Osso, F.; Casas Medica, F.; Carriazo Tovar, D.

    1981-01-01

    Degradation of 14 C -metampicillin incorporated to several physiological sera for medical uses has been studied. Influence of environmental conditions as well as possible interaction with the solvent have been specially analyzed. Degradation level of the labelled multiplication has been determined and its degradation products have been separated by using chromatographic and radiochemical methods. Likewise, the 14 C -metam picill synthesis has been described. Finally, the results obtained have been discussed and evaluated. (Author) 9 refs

  13. Chromosomal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Chromosomal conditions Chromosomal conditions ... Disorders See also: Genetic counseling , Your family health history Last reviewed: February, 2013 ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & ...

  14. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  15. Computational Modeling of Space Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Griffin, Devon W.

    2016-01-01

    The Digital Astronaut Project (DAP), within NASAs Human Research Program, develops and implements computational modeling for use in the mitigation of human health and performance risks associated with long duration spaceflight. Over the past decade, DAP developed models to provide insights into space flight related changes to the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and the musculoskeletal system. Examples of the models and their applications include biomechanical models applied to advanced exercise device development, bone fracture risk quantification for mission planning, accident investigation, bone health standards development, and occupant protection. The International Space Station (ISS), in its role as a testing ground for long duration spaceflight, has been an important platform for obtaining human spaceflight data. DAP has used preflight, in-flight and post-flight data from short and long duration astronauts for computational model development and validation. Examples include preflight and post-flight bone mineral density data, muscle cross-sectional area, and muscle strength measurements. Results from computational modeling supplement space physiology research by informing experimental design. Using these computational models, DAP personnel can easily identify both important factors associated with a phenomenon and areas where data are lacking. This presentation will provide examples of DAP computational models, the data used in model development and validation, and applications of the model.

  16. Physiology of the hormetic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totter, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Beneficial (hormetic) effects of ionizing radiation have been largely ignored in developing radiobiological theory, chiefly because a suitable explanatory hypothesis is lacking. Examination of the relevant literature has revealed that food restriction effects in animals resemble those of low-level, low-LET, whole-body ionizing radiation exposure (without food restriction) in two major respects: increased longevity and change in the variance of longevity. These physiological changes can be interpreted as resulting from alteration of the steady-state flux of oxygen radicals which affect the endocrine balance. Oxy-radical-producing, low-level ionizing radiation exposure (whole body) is interpreted by the body as excess food intake, thus lowering the appetite and reducing caloric intake which, in turn, increases longevity. The greater variance in longevity accompanying increases in the median age at death with food restriction alters the ratio of long-lived to short-lived descendants and hastens the population's adaptation to semi-permanently diminished rates of food supply. Less variance and earlier mean ages at death result from an increased rate of food supply. Whole-body ionizing radiation exposure results in a mixed response, because it reduces caloric intake while signaling that an increase has occurred

  17. Food, physiology and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varum, F J O; Hatton, G B; Basit, A W

    2013-12-05

    Gastrointestinal physiology is dynamic and complex at the best of times, and a multitude of known variables can affect the overall bioavailability of drugs delivered via the oral route. Yet while the influences of food and beverage intake as just two of these variables on oral drug delivery have been extensively documented in the wider literature, specific information on their effects remains sporadic, and is not so much contextually reviewed. Food co-ingestion with oral dosage forms can mediate several changes to drug bioavailability, yet the precise mechanisms underlying this have yet to be fully elucidated. Likewise, the often detrimental effects of alcohol (ethanol) on dosage form performance have been widely observed experimentally, but knowledge of which has only moderately impacted on clinical practice. Here, we attempt to piece together the available subject matter relating to the influences of both solid and liquid foodstuffs on the gastrointestinal milieu and the implications for oral drug delivery, with particular emphasis on the behaviour of modified-release dosage forms, formulation robustness and drug absorption. Providing better insight into these influences, and exemplifying cases where formulations have been developed or modified to circumvent their associated problems, can help to appropriately direct the design of future in vitro digestive modelling systems as well as oral dosage forms resilient to these effects. Moreover, this will help to better our understanding of the impact of food and alcohol intake on normal gut behaviour and function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Virtual physiological human: training challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Patricia V; Narracott, Andrew V; McCormack, Keith; Bisbal, Jesus; Martin, Carlos; Bijnens, Bart; Brook, Bindi; Zachariou, Margarita; Freixa, Jordi Villà I; Kohl, Peter; Fletcher, Katherine; Diaz-Zuccarini, Vanessa

    2010-06-28

    The virtual physiological human (VPH) initiative encompasses a wide range of activities, including structural and functional imaging, data mining, knowledge discovery tool and database development, biomedical modelling, simulation and visualization. The VPH community is developing from a multitude of relatively focused, but disparate, research endeavours into an integrated effort to bring together, develop and translate emerging technologies for application, from academia to industry and medicine. This process initially builds on the evolution of multi-disciplinary interactions and abilities, but addressing the challenges associated with the implementation of the VPH will require, in the very near future, a translation of quantitative changes into a new quality of highly trained multi-disciplinary personnel. Current strategies for undergraduate and on-the-job training may soon prove insufficient for this. The European Commission seventh framework VPH network of excellence is exploring this emerging need, and is developing a framework of novel training initiatives to address the predicted shortfall in suitably skilled VPH-aware professionals. This paper reports first steps in the implementation of a coherent VPH training portfolio.

  19. A comprehensive physiologically based pharmacokinetic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Published physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models from peer-reviewed articles are often well-parameterized, thoroughly-vetted, and can be utilized as excellent resources for the construction of models pertaining to related chemicals. Specifically, chemical-specific parameters and in vivo pharmacokinetic data used to calibrate these published models can act as valuable starting points for model development of new chemicals with similar molecular structures. A knowledgebase for published PBPK-related articles was compiled to support PBPK model construction for new chemicals based on their close analogues within the knowledgebase, and a web-based interface was developed to allow users to query those close analogues. A list of 689 unique chemicals and their corresponding 1751 articles was created after analysis of 2,245 PBPK-related articles. For each model, the PMID, chemical name, major metabolites, species, gender, life stages and tissue compartments were extracted from the published articles. PaDEL-Descriptor, a Chemistry Development Kit based software, was used to calculate molecular fingerprints. Tanimoto index was implemented in the user interface as measurement of structural similarity. The utility of the PBPK knowledgebase and web-based user interface was demonstrated using two case studies with ethylbenzene and gefitinib. Our PBPK knowledgebase is a novel tool for ranking chemicals based on similarities to other chemicals associated with existi

  20. A Method of High Throughput Monitoring Crop Physiology Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Multispectral Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; Qian, Xiangjie; Zhang, Lan; Xu, Sailong; Li, Haifeng; Xia, Xiaojian; Dai, Liankui; Xu, Liang; Yu, Jingquan; Liu, Xu

    2018-01-01

    We present a high throughput crop physiology condition monitoring system and corresponding monitoring method. The monitoring system can perform large-area chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and multispectral imaging. The monitoring method can determine the crop current condition continuously and non-destructively. We choose chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and relative reflectance of multispectral as the indicators of crop physiological status. Using tomato as experiment subject, the typical crop physiological stress, such as drought, nutrition deficiency and plant disease can be distinguished by the monitoring method. Furthermore, we have studied the correlation between the physiological indicators and the degree of stress. Besides realizing the continuous monitoring of crop physiology, the monitoring system and method provide the possibility of machine automatic diagnosis of the plant physiology. Highlights: A newly designed high throughput crop physiology monitoring system and the corresponding monitoring method are described in this study. Different types of stress can induce distinct fluorescence and spectral characteristics, which can be used to evaluate the physiological status of plants.

  1. A physiological perspective on the neuroscience of eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Nori

    2014-09-01

    I present the thesis that 'being physiological,' i.e., analyzing eating under conditions that do not perturb, or minimally perturb, the organism's endogenous processes, should be a central goal of the neuroscience of eating. I describe my understanding of 'being physiological' based on [i] the central neural-network heuristic of CNS function that traces back to Cajal and Sherrington, [ii] research on one of the simpler problems in the neuroscience of eating, identification of endocrine signals that control eating. In this context I consider natural meals, physiological doses and ranges, and antagonist studies. Several examples involve CCK. Next I describe my view of the cutting edge in the molecular neuroscience of eating as it has evolved from the discovery of leptin signaling through the application of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic methods. Finally I describe some novel approaches that may advance the neuroscience of eating in the foreseeable future. I conclude that [i] the neuroscience of eating may soon be able to discern 'physiological' function in the operation of CNS networks mediating eating, [ii] the neuroscience of eating should capitalize on methods developed in other areas of neuroscience, e.g., improved methods to record and manipulate CNS function in behaving animals, identification of canonical regional circuits, use of population electrophysiology, etc., and [iii] subjective aspects of eating are crucial aspects of eating science, but remain beyond mechanistic understanding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physiological and biochemical contributions to the problems of smoke damage research. III. The influence of strong spasmodic doses of SO/sub 2/ on the CO/sub 2/ absorption and on certain constituents of the needles of Picea abies and Pinus mugo under laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, M; Boertitz, S; Polster, H

    1964-01-01

    Potted young plants show assimilation depressions of various degrees before smoke damage becomes visible. Needles or parts of needles without any outward injuries can recover within a few weeks. Individual differences in outward appearance as well as in physiological behavior were found with the species investigated. Contrary to assimilation, the variations of pH-values as well as those of the sugar-, and amino-acid balances of saps pressed from needles are measurable within the lethal region only. 18 references, 9 figures.

  3. Physiological parameters for oral delivery and in vitro testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudie, Deanna M; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

    2010-10-04

    Pharmaceutical solid oral dosage forms must undergo dissolution in the intestinal fluids of the gastrointestinal tract before they can be absorbed and reach the systemic circulation. Therefore, dissolution is a critical part of the drug-delivery process. The rate and extent of drug dissolution and absorption depend on the characteristics of the active ingredient as well as properties of the dosage form. Just as importantly, characteristics of the physiological environment such as buffer species, pH, bile salts, gastric emptying rate, intestinal motility, and hydrodynamics can significantly impact dissolution and absorption. While significant progress has been made since 1970 when the first compendial dissolution test was introduced (USP apparatus 1), current dissolution testing does not take full advantage of the extensive physiologic information that is available. For quality control purposes, where the question is one of lot-to-lot consistency in performance, using nonphysiologic test conditions that match drug and dosage form properties with practical dissolution media and apparatus may be appropriate. However, where in vitro-in vivo correlations are desired, it is logical to consider and utilize knowledge of the in vivo condition. This publication critically reviews the literature that is relevant to oral human drug delivery. Physiologically relevant information must serve as a basis for the design of dissolution test methods and systems that are more representative of the human condition. As in vitro methods advance in their physiological relevance, better in vitro-in vivo correlations will be possible. This will, in turn, lead to in vitro systems that can be utilized to more effectively design dosage forms that have improved and more consistent oral bioperformance.

  4. Respiratory physiology during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, J

    1999-08-01

    Despite the rapid adaptation to extrauterine life, the respiratory system of an infant is not simply a miniaturized version of that of an adult, since the rapid somatic growth that occurs during the first year of life is accompanied by major developmental changes in respiratory physiology. The highly compliant chest wall of the infant results in relatively low transpulmonary pressures at end expiration with increased tendency of the small peripheral airways to close during tidal breathing. This not only impairs gas exchange and ventilation-perfusion balance, particularly in dependent parts of the lung, but, together with the small absolute size of the airways, renders the infant and young child particularly susceptible to airway obstruction. Premature airways are highly compliant structures compared with those of mature newborns or adults. This increased compliance can cause airway collapse, resulting in increased airways resistance, flow limitation, poor gas exchange and increased work of breathing. Although there is clear evidence that airway reactivity is present from birth, its role in wheezing lower respiratory tract illnesses in young infants may be overshadowed by pre-existing abnormalities of airway geometry and lung mechanics, or by pathological changes such as airway oedema and mucus hypersecretion. Attempts to assess age-related changes in airway reactivity or response to aerosol therapy in the very young is confounded by changes in breathing patterns and the fact that infants are preferential nose breathers. There is increasing evidence that pre-existing abnormalities of respiratory function, associated with adverse events during foetal life (including maternal smoking during pregnancy), and familial predisposition to wheezing are important determinants of wheezing illnesses during the first years of life. This emphasizes the need to identify and minimize any factors that threaten the normal development of the lung during this critical period if

  5. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  6. Physiological Bases of Bulimia, and Antidepressant Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzfeld, Andrew R.

    This paper reviews the literature on the physiological causes of bulimia and investigates the rationale behind the usage of antidepressant medication in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. No definite conclusions can be stated regarding the physiology of bulimia, but a number of hypotheses are suggested. It appears that the hypothalamus is involved…

  7. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Editor-in-Chief, Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences, Department of Physiology ... (c) The page following the title page should contain a brief summary and up to six key words. ... (g) Discussion: Should be related to the results presented. ... should be followed; however references must be kept to a maximum of 10.

  8. Cardiac anatomy and physiology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaghan, M

    1998-04-01

    This article reviews the normal anatomy and physiology of the heart. Understanding the normal anatomic and physiologic relationships described in this article will help perioperative nurses care for patients who are undergoing cardiac procedures. Such knowledge also assists nurses in educating patients about cardiac procedures and about activities that can prevent, reverse, or improve cardiac illness.

  9. Physiology and biochemistry of honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite their tremendous economic importance, honey bees are not a typical model system for studying general questions of insect physiology. This is primarily due to the fact that honey bees live in complex social settings which impact their physiological and biochemical characteristics. Not surpris...

  10. Physiological characteristics of an aging Olympic athlete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Fritzdorf, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the physiological basis of continued world-class performance of a world-class rower who won medals (3 gold and 2 bronze) at five consecutive Olympic Games.......To investigate the physiological basis of continued world-class performance of a world-class rower who won medals (3 gold and 2 bronze) at five consecutive Olympic Games....

  11. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  12. Exercise Physiology. Basic Stuff Series I. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Milan; And Others

    The fundamentals of exercise physiology (the study of the physiological effects of bodily exertion) form the basis for this booklet designed for teachers of physical education. The scientific principles underlying the building of muscular strength and flexibility are described and illustrated. Topics covered include: (1) muscular strength,…

  13. Anatomy and Physiology of the Small Bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Neil; Lacy, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Comprehension of small intestine physiology and function provides a framework for the understanding of several important disease pathways of the gastrointestinal system. This article reviews the development, anatomy and histology of the small bowel in addition to physiology and digestion of key nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Endothelial microparticles (EMP in physiology and pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sierko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial microparticles (EMP are released from endothelial cells (ECs in the process of activation and/or apoptosis. They harbor adhesive molecules, enzymes, receptors and cytoplasmic structures and express a wide range of various constitutive antigens, typical for ECs, at their surface. Under physiological conditions the concentration of EMP in the blood is clinically insignificant. However, it was reported that under pathological conditions EMP concentration in the blood might slightly increase and contribute to blood coagulation, angiogenesis and inflammation. It has been shown that EMP directly and indirectly contribute to the activation of blood coagulation. Endothelial microparticles directly participate in blood coagulation through their surface tissue factor (TF – a major initiator of blood coagulation. Furthermore, EMP exhibit procoagulant potential via expression of negatively charged phospholipids at their surface, which may promote assembly of coagulation enzymes (TF/VII, tenases and prothrombinase complexes, leading to thrombus formation. In addition, they provide a binding surface for coagulation factors: IXa, VIII, Va and IIa. Moreover, it is possible that EMP transfer TF from TF-bearing EMP to activated platelets and monocytes by binding them through adhesion molecules. Also, EMP express von Willebrand factor, which may facilitate platelet aggregation. Apart from their procoagulant properties, it was demonstrated that EMP may express adhesive molecules and metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9 at their surface and release growth factors, which may contribute to angiogenesis. Additionally, surface presence of C3 and C4 – components of the classical pathway – suggests pro-inflammatory properties of these structures. This article contains a summary of available data on the biology and pathophysiology of endothelial microparticles and their potential role in blood coagulation, angiogenesis and inflammation.

  15. CNC proteins in physiology and pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gęgotek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available CNC proteins consist of Bach1, Bach2 and 4 homologous transcription factors: Nrf1, Nrf2, Nrf3 and p45NF-E2. Transcription factors belonging to this group of proteins play a crucial role in protection of cells against oxidative stress. Under physiological conditions, they remain in the cytoplasm in the inactive form or are degraded. However, in oxidative stress conditions, they are translocated to the nucleus, and bind to DNA in the ARE sequence. Consequently, there is transcription of genes encoding cytoprotective proteins, such as phase II enzymes, or low molecular weight antioxidant proteins (i.e., thioredoxin, ferritin, metallothionein responsible for protecting cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS action. The activity of transcriptional proteins depends directly on the redox state of the cell. ROS as second messenger signals, control inhibitors of cytoplasmic CNC proteins or potentiate the activity of kinases (MAPK, PKC, PI3K, PERK, leading to phosphorylation of transcription factors. This is conducive to translocation of these molecules into the nucleus and to formation of complexes that initiate the gene expression. Disorders of regulation of the activity of transcription factors belonging to the CNC proteins caused by gene mutations, epigenetic modifications or increased activity of p62, p21, or k-Ras, B-Raf and c-Myc oncogenes, induce changes in the level of ARE-dependent gene expression, which can lead even to the development of carcinogenesis. On the other hand, Nrf transcription factors, inducing the expression of antioxidants and enzymes responsible for the detoxification of xenobiotics, can be considered as a potential target of the action of chemopreventive factors in anticancer therapy.

  16. [CNC proteins in physiology and pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gęgotek, Agnieszka; Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta

    2015-07-06

    CNC proteins consist of Bach1, Bach2 and 4 homologous transcription factors: Nrf1, Nrf2, Nrf3 and p45NF-E2. Transcription factors belonging to this group of proteins play a crucial role in protection of cells against oxidative stress. Under physiological conditions, they remain in the cytoplasm in the inactive form or are degraded. However, in oxidative stress conditions, they are translocated to the nucleus, and bind to DNA in the ARE sequence. Consequently, there is transcription of genes encoding cytoprotective proteins, such as phase II enzymes, or low molecular weight antioxidant proteins (i.e., thioredoxin, ferritin, metallothionein) responsible for protecting cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS) action. The activity of transcriptional proteins depends directly on the redox state of the cell. ROS as second messenger signals, control inhibitors of cytoplasmic CNC proteins or potentiate the activity of kinases (MAPK, PKC, PI3K, PERK), leading to phosphorylation of transcription factors. This is conducive to translocation of these molecules into the nucleus and to formation of complexes that initiate the gene expression. Disorders of regulation of the activity of transcription factors belonging to the CNC proteins caused by gene mutations, epigenetic modifications or increased activity of p62, p21, or k-Ras, B-Raf and c-Myc oncogenes, induce changes in the level of ARE-dependent gene expression, which can lead even to the development of carcinogenesis. On the other hand, Nrf transcription factors, inducing the expression of antioxidants and enzymes responsible for the detoxification of xenobiotics, can be considered as a potential target of the action of chemopreventive factors in anticancer therapy.

  17. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

  19. Miscellaneous conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Hoffman, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on numerous conditions (systemic diseases, metabolic diseases, etc.) that may also affect the foot and ankle. In many cases, imaging of the foot and ankle is not performed for primary diagnostic purposes. However, radiographic changes do occur with these conditions. Therefore, it is important to be aware of radiographic abnormalities that these diseases may cause in the foot and ankle

  20. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David J.; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes...... broad applications for conservation physiology research if it provides a universal mechanism to link physiological function with ecological performance and population dynamics of fishes, through effects of abiotic conditions on aerobic metabolic scope. The available data indicate, however......, that the paradigm is not universal, so further research is required on a wide diversity of species. Fish physiologists should interact closely with researchers developing ecological models, in order to investigate how integrating physiological information improves confidence in projecting effects of global change...

  1. Exercise and Training at Altitudes: Physiological Effects and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cecilia Vargas Pinilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in altitude leads to a proportional fall in the barometric pressure, and a decrease in atmospheric oxygen pressure, producing hypobaric hypoxia that affects, in different degrees, all body organs, systems and functions. The chronically reduced partial pressure of oxygen causes that individuals adapt and adjust to physiological stress. These adaptations are modulated by many factors, including the degree of hypoxia related to altitude, time of exposure, exercise intensity and individual conditions. It has been established that exposure to high altitude is an environmental stressor that elicits a response that contributes to many adjustments and adaptations that influence exercise capacity and endurance performance. These adaptations include in crease in hemoglobin concentration, ventilation, capillary density and tissue myoglobin concentration. However, a negative effect in strength and power is related to a decrease in muscle fiber size and body mass due to the decrease in the training intensity. Many researches aim at establishing how training or living at high altitudes affects performance in athletes. Training methods, such as living in high altitudes training low, and training high-living in low altitudes have been used to research the changes in the physical condition in athletes and how the physiological adaptations to hypoxia can enhanceperformance at sea level. This review analyzes the literature related to altitude training focused on how physiological adaptations to hypoxic environments influence performance, and which protocols are most frequently used to train in high altitudes.

  2. The role of physiology in the development of golf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark F

    2010-08-01

    The attainment of consistent high performance in golf requires effective physical conditioning that is carefully designed and monitored in accordance with the on-course demands the player will encounter. Appreciating the role that physiology plays in the attainment of consistent performance, and how a player's physicality can inhibit performance progression, supports the notion that the application of physiology is fundamental for any player wishing to excel in golf. With cardiorespiratory, metabolic, hormonal, musculoskeletal and nutritional demands acting on the golfer within and between rounds, effective physical screening of a player will ensure physiological and anatomical deficiencies that may influence performance are highlighted. The application of appropriate golf-specific assessment methods will ensure that physical attributes that have a direct effect on golf performance can be measured reliably and accurately. With the physical development of golf performance being achieved through a process of conditioning with the purpose of inducing changes in structural and metabolic functions, training must focus on foundation whole-body fitness and golf-specific functional strength and flexibility activities. For long-term player improvement to be effective, comprehensive monitoring will ensure the player reaches an optimal physical state at predetermined times in the competitive season. Through continual assessment of a player's physical attributes, training effectiveness and suitability, and the associated adaptive responses, key physical factors that may impact most on performance success can be determined.

  3. A physiologically based kinetic model for bacterial sulfide oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, Johannes B M; de Graaff, Marco; van den Bosch, Pim L F; Boelee, Nadine C; Keesman, Karel J; Janssen, Albert J H

    2013-02-01

    In the biotechnological process for hydrogen sulfide removal from gas streams, a variety of oxidation products can be formed. Under natron-alkaline conditions, sulfide is oxidized by haloalkaliphilic sulfide oxidizing bacteria via flavocytochrome c oxidoreductase. From previous studies, it was concluded that the oxidation-reduction state of cytochrome c is a direct measure for the bacterial end-product formation. Given this physiological feature, incorporation of the oxidation state of cytochrome c in a mathematical model for the bacterial oxidation kinetics will yield a physiologically based model structure. This paper presents a physiologically based model, describing the dynamic formation of the various end-products in the biodesulfurization process. It consists of three elements: 1) Michaelis-Menten kinetics combined with 2) a cytochrome c driven mechanism describing 3) the rate determining enzymes of the respiratory system of haloalkaliphilic sulfide oxidizing bacteria. The proposed model is successfully validated against independent data obtained from biological respiration tests and bench scale gas-lift reactor experiments. The results demonstrate that the model is a powerful tool to describe product formation for haloalkaliphilic biomass under dynamic conditions. The model predicts a maximum S⁰ formation of about 98 mol%. A future challenge is the optimization of this bioprocess by improving the dissolved oxygen control strategy and reactor design. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 5α-reductases in human physiology: an unfolding story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traish, Abdulmaged M

    2012-01-01

    5α-reductases are a family of isozymes expressed in a wide host of tissues including the central nervous system (CNS) and play a pivotal role in male sexual differentiation, development and physiology. A comprehensive literature search from 1970 to 2011 was made through PubMed and the relevant information was summarized. 5α reductases convert testosterone, progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, aldosterone and corticosterone into their respective 5α-dihydro-derivatives, which serve as substrates for 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes. The latter transforms these 5α-reduced metabolites into a subclass of neuroactive steroid hormones with distinct physiological functions. The neuroactive steroid hormones modulate a multitude of functions in human physiology encompassing regulation of sexual differentiation, neuroprotection, memory enhancement, anxiety, sleep and stress, among others. In addition, 5α -reductase type 3 is also implicated in the N-glycosylation of proteins via formation of dolichol phosphate. The family of 5α-reductases was targeted for drug development to treat pathophysiological conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical use of 5α-reductase inhibitors was well established, the scope and the magnitude of the adverse side effects of such drugs, especially on the CNS, is still unrecognized due to lack of knowledge of the various physiological functions of this family of enzymes, especially in the CNS. There is an urgent need to better understand the function of 5α-reductases and the role of neuroactive steroids in human physiology in order to minimize the potential adverse side effects of inhibitors targeting 5α-reductases to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenic alopecia.

  5. Physiological mechanisms of the effect of weightlessness on the body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasyan, I. I.; Kopanev, V. I.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental data show that physiological reactions observed under weightlessness conditions are caused by: (1) The direct effect of weightlessness, as a consequence of decrease (""disappearance'') of the weight of body tissues and organs; and (2) the mediated effect of weightlessness, as a result of changes in the functional state of the central nervous system and the cooperative work of the analyzers. The human body adopts to weightless conditions under the prolonged effects of it. In this case, four periods can be distinguished: The first period, a transitional process lasting from 1 to 24 hours; second period, initial adaptation to conditions of weightlessness and readjustment of all functional systems of the body; the third period, adaptation to the unusual mechanical conditions of the external environment, lasting from 3 to 8 days and more; and the fourth period, the stage of possible imbalance of the functions and the systems of some astronauts, as a result of the prolonged effect of weightlessness.

  6. Developing Physiologic Models for Emergency Medical Procedures Under Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Nigel; O'Quinn, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Several technological enhancements have been made to METI's commercial Emergency Care Simulator (ECS) with regard to how microgravity affects human physiology. The ECS uses both a software-only lung simulation, and an integrated mannequin lung that uses a physical lung bag for creating chest excursions, and a digital simulation of lung mechanics and gas exchange. METI s patient simulators incorporate models of human physiology that simulate lung and chest wall mechanics, as well as pulmonary gas exchange. Microgravity affects how O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the lungs. Procedures were also developed to take into affect the Glasgow Coma Scale for determining levels of consciousness by varying the ECS eye-blinking function to partially indicate the level of consciousness of the patient. In addition, the ECS was modified to provide various levels of pulses from weak and thready to hyper-dynamic to assist in assessing patient conditions from the femoral, carotid, brachial, and pedal pulse locations.

  7. Environmental stressors influencing hormones and systems physiology in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Environmental stressors undoubtedly influence organismal biology, specifically the endocrine system that, in turn, impact cattle at the systems physiology level. Despite the significant advances in understanding the genetic determinants of the ideal dairy or beef cow, there is a grave lack of understanding of the systems physiology and effects of the environmental stressors that interfere with the endocrine system. This is a major problem because the lack of such knowledge is preventing advances in understanding gene-environment interactions and developing science-based solutions to these challenges. In this review, we synthesize the current knowledge on the nature of the major environmental stressors, such as climate (heat, cold, wind, and humidity), nutrition (feeds, feeding systems, and endocrine disruptors) and management (housing density and conditions, transportation, weaning practices). We summarize the impact of each one of these factors on cattle at the systems level, and provide solutions for the challenges. PMID:24996419

  8. Urban plant physiology: adaptation-mitigation strategies under permanent stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfapietra, Carlo; Peñuelas, Josep; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-02-01

    Urban environments that are stressful for plant function and growth will become increasingly widespread in future. In this opinion article, we define the concept of 'urban plant physiology', which focuses on plant responses and long term adaptations to urban conditions and on the capacity of urban vegetation to mitigate environmental hazards in urbanized settings such as air and soil pollution. Use of appropriate control treatments would allow for studies in urban environments to be comparable to expensive manipulative experiments. In this opinion article, we propose to couple two approaches, based either on environmental gradients or manipulated gradients, to develop the concept of urban plant physiology for assessing how single or multiple environmental factors affect the key environmental services provided by urban forests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 14-3-3 proteins in plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, Fiona C; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Zupanska, Agata K; Ferl, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Plant 14-3-3 isoforms, like their highly conserved homologues in mammals, function by binding to phosphorylated client proteins to modulate their function. Through the regulation of a diverse range of proteins including kinases, transcription factors, structural proteins, ion channels and pathogen defense-related proteins, they are being implicated in an expanding catalogue of physiological functions in plants. 14-3-3s themselves are affected, both transcriptionally and functionally, by the extracellular and intracellular environment of the plant. They can modulate signaling pathways that transduce inputs from the environment and also the downstream proteins that elicit the physiological response. This review covers some of the key emerging roles for plant 14-3-3s including their role in the response to the plant extracellular environment, particularly environmental stress, pathogens and light conditions. We also address potential key roles in primary metabolism, hormone signaling, growth and cell division. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Seiei; Takahashi, Wakoh; Takagi, Shigeharu; Fujii, Hirofumi; Ide, Michiru; Shohtsu, Akira

    1998-01-01

    The intestine is a well-known site of physiological 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation in positron emission tomography (PET). To identify factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the intestine, the intensity of FDG uptake was evaluated in a total of 1,068 healthy adults. Non-attenuation-corrected whole-body PET images were obtained for all subjects and visually evaluated. Subjects were then classified into two groups according to the intensity of intestinal FDG uptake. Sex, age, presence or absence of constipation, and serum glucose, hemoglobin A 1 c, and free fatty acid levels were compared between the two groups. High intestinal FDG uptake was observed at an overall rate of 11.0%. Sex (female), age, and bowel condition (constipation) were found to affect intestinal FDG uptake. The factors we identified lead to further questions the relationship between intestinal motility and glucose uptake that warrant further study. (author)

  11. The Physiology of Microbial Symbionts in Fungus-Farming Termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Costa, Rafael

    . The termites provide the fungus with optimal growth conditions (e.g., stable temperature and humidity), as well as with constant inoculation of growth substrate and protection against alien fungi. In reward, the fungus provides the termites with a protein-rich fungal biomass based diet. In addition...... with their symbionts are main decomposer of organic matter in Africa, and this is reflect of a metabolic complementarity to decompose plant biomass in the genome of the three organisms involved in this symbiosis. Many of the physiological aspects of this symbiosis remain obscure, and here I focus on physiology...... of microbial symbionts associated with fungus-growing termites. Firstly, by using a set of enzyme assays, plant biomass compositional analyses, and RNA sequencing we gained deeper understanding on what enzymes are produced and active at different times of the decomposition process. Our results show that enzyme...

  12. Physiological Characterization of Fungal Inoculum for Biotechnological Remediation of Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Ballaminut

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the bioremediating potential of Lentinus crinitus CCIBt2611 according to the physiological condition of the inoculum. Inoculum was prepared using sugarcane ground husk (C:N 90, at several physiological ages and applied in soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol. The inoculum's potential was assessed by evaluating the mycelium's vigor at soil's colonization, determination of peroxidase and phenoloxidase activities, in vitro degradation of Remazol Brilliant Blue R and in vivo degradation of pentachlorophenol. The results showed that the assessed parameters were relevant to identify the quality of the inoculum. For L. crinitus, 10 day old inoculum showed good soil-colonization speed with significant enzymatic activities, indicating the role of Manganese-dependent peroxidase and laccase in degradation, and efficient degradation of pentachlorophenol.

  13. Physiologic stress interventions in cardiac imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buda, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Physiologic stress interventions are designed to assess the reserve capability of coronary flow and myocardial function. In the normal individual, a sufficiently intense physiologic stress may increase coronary flow and cardiac output by 500% to 600%. However, in patients with cardiac disease, these reserve responses may be absent, or considerably blunted. Thus, physiologic stress testing has proved extremely helpful in detecting cardiac abnormalities when resting cardiac function appears normal. Although dynamic exercise remains the standard approach to physiologic stress testing, a number of other interventions have been used, including: (1) isometric exercise, (2) atrial pacing, (3) cold pressor testing, (4) postextrasystolic potentiation, (5) volume loading, and (6) negative intrathoracic pressure. Each of these may be considered an alternative physiologic intervention whenever dynamic exercise is not feasible. These alternative approaches are important since, in our experience, 20% to 30% of subjects are unable to perform dynamic exercise, or exercise inadequately to produce a sufficiently intense cardiac stress. This chapter reviews physiologic considerations, indications, contraindications, protocols, and results of these physiologic stress interventions when used in combination with cardiac radionuclide procedures

  14. Quantitative Circulatory Physiology: an integrative mathematical model of human physiology for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Sean R; Hodnett, Benjamin L; Summers, Richard L; Coleman, Thomas G; Hester, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    We have developed Quantitative Circulatory Physiology (QCP), a mathematical model of integrative human physiology containing over 4,000 variables of biological interactions. This model provides a teaching environment that mimics clinical problems encountered in the practice of medicine. The model structure is based on documented physiological responses within peer-reviewed literature and serves as a dynamic compendium of physiological knowledge. The model is solved using a desktop, Windows-based program, allowing students to calculate time-dependent solutions and interactively alter over 750 parameters that modify physiological function. The model can be used to understand proposed mechanisms of physiological function and the interactions among physiological variables that may not be otherwise intuitively evident. In addition to open-ended or unstructured simulations, we have developed 30 physiological simulations, including heart failure, anemia, diabetes, and hemorrhage. Additional stimulations include 29 patients in which students are challenged to diagnose the pathophysiology based on their understanding of integrative physiology. In summary, QCP allows students to examine, integrate, and understand a host of physiological factors without causing harm to patients. This model is available as a free download for Windows computers at http://physiology.umc.edu/themodelingworkshop.

  15. Defining the Physiological Factors that Contribute to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Arzeno, N.; Buxton, R.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I.; Lawrence, E.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts, S. H.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes might affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on lunar and Martian surfaces. To date, changes in functional performance have not been systematically studied or correlated with physiological changes. To understand how changes in physiological function impact functional performance an interdisciplinary pre/postflight testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) has been developed that systematically evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The overall objective of the FTT is to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to performance of functional tests that are representative of critical mission tasks. This study will identify which physiological systems contribute the most to impaired performance on each functional test. This will allow us to identify the physiological systems that play the largest role in decrement in functional performance. Using this information we can then design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight. The functional test battery was designed to address high priority tasks identified by the Constellation program as critical for mission success. The set of functional tests making up the FTT include the: 1) Seat Egress and Walk Test, 2) Ladder Climb Test, 3) Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, 4) Rock Translation Test, 5) Jump Down Test, 6) Torque Generation Test, and 7) Construction Activity Board Test. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor

  16. Suppression of enhanced physiological tremor via stochastic noise: initial observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Trenado

    Full Text Available Enhanced physiological tremor is a disabling condition that arises because of unstable interactions between central tremor generators and the biomechanics of the spinal stretch reflex. Previous work has shown that peripheral input may push the tremor-related spinal and cortical systems closer to anti-phase firing, potentially leading to a reduction in tremor through phase cancellation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether peripherally applied mechanical stochastic noise can attenuate enhanced physiological tremor and improve motor performance. Eight subjects with enhanced physiological tremor performed a visuomotor task requiring the right index finger to compensate a static force generated by a manipulandum to which Gaussian noise (3-35 Hz was applied. The finger position was displayed on-line on a monitor as a small white dot which the subjects had to maintain in the center of a larger green circle. Electromyogram (EMG from the active hand muscles and finger position were recorded. Performance was measured by the mean absolute deviation of the white dot from the zero position. Tremor was identified by the acceleration in the frequency range 7-12 Hz. Two different conditions were compared: with and without superimposed noise at optimal amplitude (determined at the beginning of the experiment. The application of optimum noise reduced tremor (accelerometric amplitude and EMG activity and improved the motor performance (reduced mean absolute deviation from zero. These data provide the first evidence of a significant reduction of enhanced physiological tremor in the human sensorimotor system due to application of external stochastic noise.

  17. Nitrite: A physiological store of nitric oxide and modulator of mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sruti Shiva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrite, long considered a biologically inert metabolite of nitric oxide (NO oxidation, is now accepted as a physiological storage pool of NO that can be reduced to bioactive NO in hypoxic conditions to mediate a spectrum of physiological responses in blood and tissue. This graphical review will provide a broad overview of the role of nitrite in physiology, focusing on its formation and reduction to NO as well as its regulation of the mitochondrion—an emerging subcellular target for its biological actions in tissues.

  18. Physiological quality of soybean seeds produced in four edaphoclimatic regions of Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Frandoloso,Volmir; Meneghello,Géri Eduardo; André,Maria Ângela; Deuner,Cristiane; Menegaz,Winicius

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:The production of soybeans in the state of Santa Catarina is quite significant in the national context, since the state is recognized for producing seeds with high standards of physiological quality, due to the use of modern technologies and favorable climatic conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of soybean seeds produced by major companies in the state of Santa Catarina, analyzed in three seasons: harvesting (reception at UBS), after processing...

  19. Impact of Different Personal Protective Clothing on Wildland Firefighters' Physiological Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Carballo-Leyenda, Belén; Villa, José G.; López-Satué, Jorge; Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose A.

    2017-01-01

    Wildfire firefighting is an extremely demanding occupation performed under hot environment. The use of personal protective clothing (PPC) is needed to protect subjects from the thermal exposure. However, the additional use of PPC may increase the wildland firefighters' physiological strain, and consequently limit their performance. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of four different PPC on the physiological strain of wildland firefighters under moderate conditions (30?C and 30% ...

  20. The influence of low frequency magnetic field upon cultivable plant physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochalska, M.

    2008-01-01

    The 16 Hz frequency and 5 mT magnetic flux density as well as alternating magnetic field influence the field germination physiological yield-forming features and the yield of sugar have been investigated. The profitable influence of the investigated factor at physiological yield-forming features, causing an increase in sugar beet root and leaf yield, was shown. The beneficial influence on the yield is especially clear in unfavourable weather conditions. (author)

  1. Stress Physiology of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Alegría, Ángel; Bron, Peter A.; de Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Lemos, José A.; Linares, Daniel M.; Ross, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Turroni, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Varmanen, Pekka; Ventura, Marco; Zúñiga, Manuel; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important starter, commensal, or pathogenic microorganisms. The stress physiology of LAB has been studied in depth for over 2 decades, fueled mostly by the technological implications of LAB robustness in the food industry. Survival of probiotic LAB in the host and the potential relatedness of LAB virulence to their stress resilience have intensified interest in the field. Thus, a wealth of information concerning stress responses exists today for strains as diverse as starter (e.g., Lactococcus lactis), probiotic (e.g., several Lactobacillus spp.), and pathogenic (e.g., Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp.) LAB. Here we present the state of the art for LAB stress behavior. We describe the multitude of stresses that LAB are confronted with, and we present the experimental context used to study the stress responses of LAB, focusing on adaptation, habituation, and cross-protection as well as on self-induced multistress resistance in stationary phase, biofilms, and dormancy. We also consider stress responses at the population and single-cell levels. Subsequently, we concentrate on the stress defense mechanisms that have been reported to date, grouping them according to their direct participation in preserving cell energy, defending macromolecules, and protecting the cell envelope. Stress-induced responses of probiotic LAB and commensal/pathogenic LAB are highlighted separately due to the complexity of the peculiar multistress conditions to which these bacteria are subjected in their hosts. Induction of prophages under environmental stresses is then discussed. Finally, we present systems-based strategies to characterize the “stressome” of LAB and to engineer new food-related and probiotic LAB with improved stress tolerance. PMID:27466284

  2. Morphological, physiological and biochemical studies on Pyricularia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-02-28

    Feb 28, 2014 ... compounds seem to reflect inherent biochemical and physiological differences among P. grisea isolates .... solutions for imaging and microscopy, soft image system .... characteristics among 12 P. grisea isolates from rice were.

  3. Reproductive physiology of the male camelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P W; Johnson, L W

    1994-07-01

    The physiology of reproduction with emphasis on endocrinology of llamas and alpacas is addressed. Information regarding male anatomy, puberty, testicular function, semen description, and sexual behavior is also included.

  4. SOME PSYCHO CULTURAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    This study sought to find out the extent to which some psycho cultural and ... psycho cultural and physiological variables (gender, age, traditional beliefs about ..... (Ed.) Confronting the AIDS Epidemic, ... Counselling Psychology, 6 (1): 39-57.

  5. Physiological responses induced by pleasant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Shigeki; Kim, Yeon-Kyu

    2005-01-01

    The specific physiological responses induced by pleasant stimuli were investigated in this study. Various physiological responses of the brain (encephaloelectrogram; EEG), autonomic nervous system (ANS), immune system and endocrine system were monitored when pleasant stimuli such as odors, emotional pictures and rakugo, a typical Japanese comical story-telling, were presented to subjects. The results revealed that (i) EEG activities of the left frontal brain region were enhanced by a pleasant odor; (ii) emotional pictures related to primitive element such as nudes and erotic couples elevated vasomotor sympathetic nervous activity; and (iii) an increase in secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and a decrease in salivary cortisol (s-cortisol) were induced by rakugo-derived linguistic pleasant emotion. Pleasant emotion is complicated state. However, by considering the evolutionary history of human being, it is possible to assess and evaluate pleasant emotion from certain physiological responses by appropriately summating various physiological parameters.

  6. (Helianthus annuus L.) on physiology of wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (15), pp. 3555-3559, 4 ... physiology of wheat seedlings including protein, proline, sugars, DNA, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and .... (1956) as modified by Johnson et al. (1966).

  7. Three-dimensional printing physiology laboratory technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkin, Matthew S; Widder, Emily; Shao, Connie; Holzem, Katherine M; Gloschat, Christopher; Gutbrod, Sarah R; Efimov, Igor R

    2013-12-01

    Since its inception in 19th-century Germany, the physiology laboratory has been a complex and expensive research enterprise involving experts in various fields of science and engineering. Physiology research has been critically dependent on cutting-edge technological support of mechanical, electrical, optical, and more recently computer engineers. Evolution of modern experimental equipment is constrained by lack of direct communication between the physiological community and industry producing this equipment. Fortunately, recent advances in open source technologies, including three-dimensional printing, open source hardware and software, present an exciting opportunity to bring the design and development of research instrumentation to the end user, i.e., life scientists. Here we provide an overview on how to develop customized, cost-effective experimental equipment for physiology laboratories.

  8. Physiological and molecular insights into drought tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological and molecular insights into drought tolerance. Sagadevan G Mundree, Bienyameen Baker, Shaheen Mowla, Shaun Peters, Saberi Marais, Clare Vander Willigen, Kershini Govender, Alice Maredza, Samson Muyanga, Jill M Farrant, Jennifer A Thomson ...

  9. A multidimensional analysis of physiological and mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... investigates the various physiological and mechanical techniques employed by archers of varying skill levels. ... Keywords: archery; muscle activations; heart rate; bow movement; postural sway ...

  10. Some Recent Advances in Plant Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    A popular review of plant physiological research, emphasizing those apsects of plant metabolism where there has been a recent shift in emphasis that is not yet reflected in secondary school advanced texts. (AL)

  11. Cerebral blood flow: Physiologic and clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 46 chapters divided among nine sections. The section titles are: Historical Perspectives; Cerebrovascular Anatomy; Cerebrovascular Physiology; Methods of Clinical Measurement; Experimental Methods; Imaging of Cerebral Circulation; Cerebrovascular Pathophysiology; Cerebrovascular Pharmacology; and Surgical and Interventional Augmentation

  12. Bone Conduction: Anatomy, Physiology, and Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry, Paula; Letowski, Tomasz R

    2007-01-01

    .... This report combines results of an extensive literature review of the anatomy and physiology of human hearing, theories behind the mechanisms of bone conduction transmission, devices for use in bone...

  13. Physiological and antioxidant responses of three leguminous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... 2College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhoug University, Yangzhoug, ... The study investigated the physiological behaviors and antioxidant responses ... into H2O2, which is further scavenged by CAT and various.

  14. Oximetry: A Reflective Tool for the Detection of Physiological Expression of Emotions in a Science Education Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The pulse oximeter is a device that measures the oxygen concentration (or oxygen saturation--SpO[subscript 2]); heart rate, and heartbeat of a person at any given time. This instrument is commonly used in medical and aerospace fields to monitor physiological outputs of a patient according to health conditions or physiological yields of a flying…

  15. Physiological selection criteria in forage grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The plant breeder has to develop varieties that provide the most efficient conversion of environmental inputs and have sufficient resistance to environmental stress. The most important physiological features that determine crop production and for which the plant breeder will have to select are discussed. Tracer studies may be of help to the breeder at the investigational level but in the longer term may also provide direct screening techniques for certain of the important physiological characteristics. (author)

  16. Distinguishing hyperhidrosis and normal physiological sweat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Linnea; Gyldenløve, Mette; Zachariae, Claus

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to establish reference intervals for normal physiological axillary and palmar sweat production. METHODS: Gravimetric testing was performed in 75 healthy control subjects. Subsequently, these results were compared with findings in a cohort of patients with hyperhidrosis and with the results...... 100 mg/5 min. CONCLUSIONS: A sweat production rate of 100 mg/5 min as measured by gravimetric testing may be a reasonable cut-off value for distinguishing axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis from normal physiological sweat production....

  17. Genetic approaches in comparative and evolutionary physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgham, Jamie T.; Kelly, Scott A.; Garland, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Whole animal physiological performance is highly polygenic and highly plastic, and the same is generally true for the many subordinate traits that underlie performance capacities. Quantitative genetics, therefore, provides an appropriate framework for the analysis of physiological phenotypes and can be used to infer the microevolutionary processes that have shaped patterns of trait variation within and among species. In cases where specific genes are known to contribute to variation in physiological traits, analyses of intraspecific polymorphism and interspecific divergence can reveal molecular mechanisms of functional evolution and can provide insights into the possible adaptive significance of observed sequence changes. In this review, we explain how the tools and theory of quantitative genetics, population genetics, and molecular evolution can inform our understanding of mechanism and process in physiological evolution. For example, lab-based studies of polygenic inheritance can be integrated with field-based studies of trait variation and survivorship to measure selection in the wild, thereby providing direct insights into the adaptive significance of physiological variation. Analyses of quantitative genetic variation in selection experiments can be used to probe interrelationships among traits and the genetic basis of physiological trade-offs and constraints. We review approaches for characterizing the genetic architecture of physiological traits, including linkage mapping and association mapping, and systems approaches for dissecting intermediary steps in the chain of causation between genotype and phenotype. We also discuss the promise and limitations of population genomic approaches for inferring adaptation at specific loci. We end by highlighting the role of organismal physiology in the functional synthesis of evolutionary biology. PMID:26041111

  18. Bringing Physiology into PET of the Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Keiding, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Several physiologic features make interpretation of PET studies of liver physiology an exciting challenge. As with other organs, hepatic tracer kinetics using PET is quantified by dynamic recording of the liver after the administration of a radioactive tracer, with measurements of time–activity curves in the blood supply. However, the liver receives blood from both the portal vein and the hepatic artery, with the peak of the portal vein time–activity curve being delayed and dispersed compared...

  19. The Physical, Chemical and Physiological Limits of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Schulze-Makuch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Life on Earth displays an incredible diversity in form and function, which allows it to survive not only physical extremes, but also periods of time when it is exposed to non-habitable conditions. Extreme physiological adaptations to bridge non-habitable conditions include various dormant states, such as spores or tuns. Here, we advance the hypothesis that if the environmental conditions are different on some other planetary body, a deviating biochemistry would evolve with types of adaptations that would manifest themselves with different physical and chemical limits of life. In this paper, we discuss two specific examples: putative life on a Mars-type planet with a hydrogen peroxide-water solvent and putative life on a Titan-type planetary body with liquid hydrocarbons as a solvent. Both examples would have the result of extending the habitable envelope of life in the universe.

  20. Aquatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses...

  1. Physiologic AV valvular insufficiency in cine MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yoon Hyung; Kang, Eun Joo; Baik, Seung Kug; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi [Wallace Memorial Baptist Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    To give a help in the interpretation of cardiac cine-MR examination, the extent, shape, and timing of appearance of signal void regions near atrioventricular(A-V) valve prospectively evaluate in the healthy population. Using an axial gradient-echo technique with small flip angle, repetition time(TR) of 36 msec and echo time(TE) of 22 msec, 20 volunteers without known valvular abnormalities undertook cardiac cine-MR imaging including atrioventricular valve areas. Transient signal void was observed within the near the tricuspid(13/20 = 65%) and mitral valves(9/20 = 45%), respectively, which is so called {sup p}hysioloic atrioventricular valvular insufficiency{sup .} Eight subjects revealed the signal void areas near both tricuspid and mitral valves but, 5 subjects did not show any evidence of physiologic insufficiency. This physiologic condition does not extend more than 1 cm proximal to A-V valve plane and is generally observed only during early systole. Its morphology is semilunar or triangular configuration with the base to the valve plane in most cases of normal tricuspid insufficiency and small globular appearance in most cases of normal mitral insufficiency. Awareness of normal signal void areas near the A-V valve and their characteristics is critical in the interpretation of cardiac cine MR examinations and maybe helpful in the study of the normal cardiac physiology.

  2. Physiologic AV valvular insufficiency in cine MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Yoon Hyung; Kang, Eun Joo; Baik, Seung Kug; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi

    1994-01-01

    To give a help in the interpretation of cardiac cine-MR examination, the extent, shape, and timing of appearance of signal void regions near atrioventricular(A-V) valve prospectively evaluate in the healthy population. Using an axial gradient-echo technique with small flip angle, repetition time(TR) of 36 msec and echo time(TE) of 22 msec, 20 volunteers without known valvular abnormalities undertook cardiac cine-MR imaging including atrioventricular valve areas. Transient signal void was observed within the near the tricuspid(13/20 = 65%) and mitral valves(9/20 = 45%), respectively, which is so called p hysioloic atrioventricular valvular insufficiency . Eight subjects revealed the signal void areas near both tricuspid and mitral valves but, 5 subjects did not show any evidence of physiologic insufficiency. This physiologic condition does not extend more than 1 cm proximal to A-V valve plane and is generally observed only during early systole. Its morphology is semilunar or triangular configuration with the base to the valve plane in most cases of normal tricuspid insufficiency and small globular appearance in most cases of normal mitral insufficiency. Awareness of normal signal void areas near the A-V valve and their characteristics is critical in the interpretation of cardiac cine MR examinations and maybe helpful in the study of the normal cardiac physiology

  3. CaMKII in sinoatrial node physiology and dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuejin eWu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The calcium and calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII is present in sinoatrial node (SAN pacemaker cells and is required for physiological fight or flight SAN beating rate responses. Inhibition of CaMKII in SAN does not affect baseline heart rate, but reduces heart rate increases in response to physiological stress. CaMKII senses intracellular calcium (Ca2+ changes, oxidation status and hyperglycemia to phosphorylate substrates that regulate Ca2+-sensitive proteins, such as L-type Ca2+ channels, phospholamban (PLN, and cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2. All of these substrates are involved in the SAN pacemaking mechanism. Excessive CaMKII activity, as occurs under pathological conditions such as heart failure, ischemia and diabetes, can promote intracellular Ca2+ overload and reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Oxidation of CaMKII (ox-CaMKII locks CaMKII into a constitutively active configuration that contributes to SAN cell apoptosis and fibrosis. This ox-CaMKII-mediated loss of functional SAN cells contributes to sinoatrial node dysfunction (SND and sudden death. Thus, CaMKII has emerged as a central regulator of physiological SAN responses and a key determinant of SND.

  4. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF SALINITY TOLERANCE IN PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa YILDIZ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress limits plant productivity in arid and semi arid regions. Salt stress causes decrease in plant growth by adversely affecting physiological processes, especially photosynthesis. Salinity tolerance is defined as the ability of plant to maintain normal rowth and development under salt conditions. Salt stress results in accumulation of low molecular weight compounds, termed compatible solutes, which do not interfere with the normal biochemical reactions. These compatible solutes such as carbohydrates, polyols, amino acids and amides, quaternary ammonium compounds, polyamines andsoluble proteins may play a crucial role in osmotic adjustment, protection of macromolecules, maintenance of cellular pH and detoxification of free radicals. On the other hand, plants subjected to environmental stresses such as salinity produce reactive oxygen species (ROS and these ROS are efficiently eliminated by antioxidant enzyme systems. In plant breeding studies, the use of some physiological and biochemical markers for improving the salt tolerance in plants is crucial. In this review, the possibility of using some physiological and biochemical markers as selection criteria for salt tolerance is discussed.

  5. Circadian rhythm and sleep influences on digestive physiology and disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughn BV

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bradley V Vaughn, Sean Rotolo, Heidi L Roth Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Circadian rhythms and sleep influence a variety of physiological functions, including the digestive system. The digestive system also has intrinsic rhythms that interact dynamically with circadian rhythms. New advances in understanding the interaction of these rhythms and sleep provide the prospect of evaluating their role in normal physiology and the link of their disruption to pathological conditions. Recent work has demonstrated that sleep and circadian factors influence appetite, nutrient absorption, and metabolism. Disruption of sleep and circadian rhythms may increase vulnerability to digestive disorders, including reflux, ulcers, inflammatory bowel issues, irritable bowel disease, and gastrointestinal cancer. As our knowledge of the link between circadian timing and gastrointestinal physiology grows, so do our opportunities to provide promising diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for gastrointestinal disorders. Keywords: digestion, digestive diseases, gastrointestinal reflux, sleep, circadian rhythm 

  6. ALTERNATIVE FOR REDUCING PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS IN ‘BARTLETT’ PEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOISES ZUCOLOTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT ‘Bartlett’ pears from different harvest dates were assessed regarding to cold storage potential and reduction of physiological disorder incidence. Three harvests, the first (HD1, second (HD2, and third (HD3, were carried out at weekly intervals. The pears were assessed after the harvest, with no exposition to the temperature conditioning, after 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 days at 0 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH and after three and six days at room temperature (20 ± 1 °C. Fruit from the early harvest (HD1 showed the smallest incidence of physiological disorder during both cold and room temperature storage. The disorder symptoms became apparent in HD1 fruit after 20 days at cold storage followed by three days at 20 °C, whereas HD2 and HD3 fruit showed the symptoms before being kept in a cold room. ‘Bartlett’ pears harvested at 70.75 N flesh firmness can be stored at 0 ± 1 °C for up to 40 days and preferably commercialized within three days, when they reach the firmness for eating. The extension of cold storage as well as the trade period can result in higher physiological disorder incidence and loss of sensorial quality.

  7. Monitoring physiology and behavior using Android in phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Telmo; Brás, Susana; Soares, Sandra C; Fernandes, José Maria

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present an Android-based system Application - AWARE - for the assessment of the person's physiology and behavior outside of the laboratory. To accomplish this purpose, AWARE delivers context dependent audio-visual stimuli, embedded into the subject's real-world perception, via marker/vision-based augmented reality (AR) technology. In addition, it employs external measuring resources connected via Bluetooth, as well as the smartphone's integrated resources. It synchronously acquires the experiment's video (camera input with AR overlay), physiologic responses (with a dedicated ECG measuring device) and behavior (through movement and location, with accelerometer/gyroscope and GPS, respectively). Psychological assessment is heavily based on laboratory procedures, even though it is known that these settings disturb the subjects' natural reactions and condition. The major idea of this application is to evaluate the participant condition, mimicking his/her real life conditions. Given that phobias are rather context specific, they represent the ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of a mobile system application. AWARE allowed presenting AR stimuli (e.g., 3D spiders) and quantifying the subjects' reactions non-intrusively (e.g., heart rate variation) - more emphatic in the phobic volunteer when presented with spider vs non phobic stimulus. Although still a proof of concept, AWARE proved to be flexible, and straightforward to setup, with the potential to support ecologically valid monitoring experiments.

  8. A modular, programmable measurement system for physiological and spaceflight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, John W.; Ricks, Robert D.; Miles, Christopher J.

    1993-02-01

    The NASA-Ames Sensors 2000] Program has developed a small, compact, modular, programmable, sensor signal conditioning and measurement system, initially targeted for Life Sciences Spaceflight Programs. The system consists of a twelve-slot, multi-layer, distributed function backplane, a digital microcontroller/memory subsystem, conditioned and isolated power supplies, and six application-specific, physiological signal conditioners. Each signal condition is capable of being programmed for gains, offsets, calibration and operate modes, and, in some cases, selectable outputs and functional modes. Presently, the system has the capability for measuring ECG, EMG, EEG, Temperature, Respiration, Pressure, Force, and Acceleration parameters, in physiological ranges. The measurement system makes heavy use of surface-mount packaging technology, resulting in plug in modules sized 125x55 mm. The complete 12-slot system is contained within a volume of 220x150x70mm. The system's capabilities extend well beyond the specific objectives of NASA programs. Indeed, the potential commercial uses of the technology are virtually limitless. In addition to applications in medical and biomedical sensing, the system might also be used in process control situations, in clinical or research environments, in general instrumentation systems, factory processing, or any other applications where high quality measurements are required.

  9. Effect of oxygen levels on the physiology of dendritic cells: implications for adoptive cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futalan, Diahnn; Huang, Chien-Tze; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G H; Larsson, Marie; Messmer, Davorka

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based adoptive tumor immunotherapy approaches have shown promising results, but the incidence of tumor regression is low and there is an evident call for identifying culture conditions that produce DCs with a more potent Th1 potential. Routinely, DCs are differentiated in CO(2) incubators under atmospheric oxygen conditions (21% O(2)), which differ from physiological oxygen levels of only 3-5% in tissue, where most DCs reside. We investigated whether differentiation and maturation of DCs under physiological oxygen levels could produce more potent T-cell stimulatory DCs for use in adoptive immunotherapy. We found that immature DCs differentiated under physiological oxygen levels showed a small but significant reduction in their endocytic capacity. The different oxygen levels did not influence their stimuli-induced upregulation of cluster of differentiation 54 (CD54), CD40, CD83, CD86, C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7), C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR or the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or a cytokine cocktail. However, DCs differentiated under physiological oxygen level secreted higher levels of IL-12(p70) after exposure to LPS or CD40 ligand. Immature DCs differentiated at physiological oxygen levels caused increased T-cell proliferation, but no differences were observed for mature DCs with regard to T-cell activation. In conclusion, we show that although DCs generated under atmospheric or physiological oxygen conditions are mostly similar in function and phenotype, DCs differentiated under physiological oxygen secrete larger amounts of IL-12(p70). This result could have implications for the use of ex vivo-generated DCs for clinical studies, since DCs differentiated at physiological oxygen could induce increased Th1 responses in vivo.

  10. A valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-15

    This reports is about valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials. It includes ten reports: maintenance condition of functional foods in Korea by Kim, Byeong Tae, management plan and classification of functional foods by Jung, Myeong Seop, measurement method vitality of functional foods for preventing diabetes, measurement way of aging delayed activation by Lee, Jae Yong, improvement on effectiveness of anti hypertension by functional foods by Park, Jeon Hong, and practice case for the method of test on anti gastritis antiulcer by Lee, Eun Bang.

  11. A valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    This reports is about valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials. It includes ten reports: maintenance condition of functional foods in Korea by Kim, Byeong Tae, management plan and classification of functional foods by Jung, Myeong Seop, measurement method vitality of functional foods for preventing diabetes, measurement way of aging delayed activation by Lee, Jae Yong, improvement on effectiveness of anti hypertension by functional foods by Park, Jeon Hong, and practice case for the method of test on anti gastritis antiulcer by Lee, Eun Bang.

  12. Application of 14C to physiological studies of insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Okitsugu

    1977-01-01

    The specificity of insects which has been resolved as a result of using tracers such as 14 C etc. and the metabolic ground of vital condition which is not observed in other biotic groups were discussed. As for carbohydrate metabolism, trehalose metabolism, the relation between formation of polyhydric alcohol and quiescence, and energy production system were mentioned. As for lipid metabolism, mobilization of diglyceride among tissues, purification and properties of diglyceride-carrying lipoprotein, and the physiological action of lipoprotein were cited. The specific metabolisms of insects were summarized from the viewpoints of energy production and its distribution mechanism in vivo. (Ichikawa, K.)

  13. Can Architectural Design alter the Physiological reaction to Psychosocial Stress ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson Fich, Lars; Jönsson, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2014-01-01

    Is has long been established, that views to natural scenes can a have a dampening effect on physiological stress responses. However, as people in Europe, Canada and North America today spent 50-85% of their time indoors, attention might also be paid to how the artificial man-made indoor environment...... is computer generated and properties of the space therefore can be systematically varied, we measured saliva cortisol and heart rate variability in participants in a closed room versus a room with openings. As shown by a significant linear contrast interaction between groups and TSST conditions, participants...

  14. Physiological Responses and Hedonics During Prolonged Physically Interactive Videogame Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Antonio S; Barkley, Jacob E; Hafen, Paul S; Navalta, James

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to assess physiologic responses and hedonics (i.e., liking) during prolonged physically interactive videogame play. Participants (n = 24) completed three 30-minute videogame conditions on separate days in a random order. During two of the conditions participants played physically interactive videogames (Nintendo of America, Inc. [Redmond, WA] "Wii™ Fit" "Basic Run" and "Basic Step"). During the third condition participants played a traditional/sedentary game ("Tanks!"), which required minimal physical movement for gameplay. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was assessed using indirect calorimetry throughout each condition and averaged every 5 minutes. Liking was assessed via visual analog scale at the 15- and 30-minute time points during each condition. Mean VO2 was significantly (P videogame (5.39 ± 1.0 mL/kg/minute, 1.5 ± 0.1 METs). "Basic Step" was also greater (P videogame conditions. Furthermore, because liking was similar across all gaming conditions, participants may be willing to substitute the physically interactive videogames in place of the traditional/sedentary game.

  15. A Brief History of Bacterial Growth Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moselio eSchaechter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Arguably, microbial physiology started when Leeuwenhoek became fascinated by observing a Vorticella beating its cilia, my point being that almost any observation of microbes has a physiological component. With the advent of modern microbiology in the mid 19th century, the field became recognizably distinctive with such discoveries as anaerobiosis, fermentation as a biological phenomenon, and the nutritional requirements of microbes. Soon came the discoveries of Winogradsky and his followers of the chemical changes in the environment that result from microbial activities. Later, during the first half of the 20th century, microbial physiology became the basis for much of the elucidation of central metabolism.Bacterial physiology then became a handmaiden of molecular biology and was greatly influenced by the discovery of cellular regulatory mechanisms. Microbial growth, which had come of age with the early work of Hershey, Monod, and others, was later pursued by studies on a whole cell level by what became known as the Copenhagen School. During this time, the exploration of physiological activities became coupled to modern inquiries into the structure of the bacterial cell.Recent years have seen the development of a further phase in microbial physiology, one seeking a deeper quantitative understanding of phenomena on a whole cell level. This pursuit is exemplified by the emergence of systems biology, which is made possible by the development of technologies that permit the gathering of information in huge amounts. As has been true through history, the research into microbial physiology continues to be guided by the development of new methods of analysis. Some of these developments may well afford the possibility of making stunning breakthroughs.

  16. Physiological responses to salinity in solanum lycopersicum l. varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, B.M.; Montiel, L.G.H.; Perez, J.J.R.; Puente, E.O.R.

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide over 30% of irrigated and 7% of rainfed agriculture has been limited by salinity stress. Tolerance of crops to salinity varies and negatively affects agricultural productivity. Despite the plethora of information on NaCl tolerance mechanisms, it is still not completely elucidated. The purpose of this research was to determine NaCl tolerance of eight tomato varieties (Tropic, Feroz, Ace, Super Rio Grande, Yaqui, Missouri, Vita and Floradade) by evaluating their physiological traits. These varieties were exposed to salinity stress by the addition of NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM). The physiological variables measured were stomatal conductance, water potential, chlorophyll a, b, total, indirect chlorophyll content, leaf temperature, transpiration and relative water content. The results showed differences in tolerance between varieties in terms of NaCl concentrations and there was interaction between varieties * NaCl in the majority of physiological variables. Symptoms of NaCl stress in the tomato plants were leaf wilting, desiccation, necrosis, and death. All measured variables decreased as salinity increased, except for relative water content and leaf temperature, values of both these variables increased with higher concentrations of NaCl. Physiological traits may be used as an effective means for screening for salinity tolerance in tomato varieties. Amongst the tomato varieties evaluated were Missouri the most tolerant, and Rio Grande the least tolerant. The results indicate that the varieties best tolerant to NaCl conditions from most to least tolerant in successive orderare: Missouri, followed by Ace, Yaqui, Tropic, Floradade, Feroz, Vita and Rio Grande. (author)

  17. Characterization of Gladiolus Germplasm Using Morphological, Physiological, and Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niraj; Pal, Ashish K; Roy, R K; Tewari, S K; Tamta, Sushma; Rana, T S

    2018-04-01

    Estimation of variability and genetic relationships among breeding materials is one of the important strategies in crop improvement programs. Morphological (plant height, spike length, a number of florets/spike), physiological (chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and rapid light curve parameters) and Directed amplification of minisatellite DNA (DAMD) markers were used to investigate the relationships among 50 Gladiolus cultivars. Cluster analysis based on morphological data, physiological characteristics, molecular markers, and cumulative data discriminated all cultivars into seven, five, seven, and six clusters in the unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram, respectively. The results of the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) also supported UPGMA clustering. Variations among the Gladiolus cultivars at phenotypic level could be due to the changes in physiology, environmental conditions, and genetic variability. DAMD analysis using 10 primers produced 120 polymorphic bands with 80% polymorphism showing polymorphic information content (PIC = 0.28), Marker index (MI = 3.37), Nei's gene diversity (h = 0.267), and Shannon's information index (I = 0.407). Plant height showed a positive significant correlation with Spike length and Number of florets/spike (r = 0.729, p < 0.001 and r = 0.448, p = 0.001 respectively). Whereas, Spike length showed positive significant correlation with Number of florets/spike (r = 0.688, p < 0.001) and Chlorophyll content showed positive significant correlation with Electron transport rate (r = 0.863, p < 0.001). Based on significant morphological variations, high physiological performance, high genetic variability, and genetic distances between cultivars, we have been able to identify diverse cultivars of Gladiolus that could be the potential source as breeding material for further genetic improvement in this ornamental crop.

  18. Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice provides information based on scientific literature about physiological parameters. Modelers...

  19. Assessing interactions among multiple physiological systems during walking outside a laboratory: An Android based gait monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejdić, E.; Millecamps, A.; Teoli, J.; Rothfuss, M. A.; Franconi, N. G.; Perera, S.; Jones, A. K.; Brach, J. S.; Mickle, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Gait function is traditionally assessed using well-lit, unobstructed walkways with minimal distractions. In patients with subclinical physiological abnormalities, these conditions may not provide enough stress on their ability to adapt to walking. The introduction of challenging walking conditions in gait can induce responses in physiological systems in addition to the locomotor system. There is a need for a device that is capable of monitoring multiple physiological systems in various walking conditions. To address this need, an Android-based gait-monitoring device was developed that enabled the recording of a patient's physiological systems during walking. The gait-monitoring device was tested during self-regulated overground walking sessions of fifteen healthy subjects that included 6 females and 9 males aged 18 to 35 years. The gait-monitoring device measures the patient's stride interval, acceleration, electrocardiogram, skin conductance and respiratory rate. The data is stored on an Android phone and is analyzed offline through the extraction of features in the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. The analysis of the data depicted multisystem physiological interactions during overground walking in healthy subjects. These interactions included locomotion-electrodermal, locomotion-respiratory and cardiolocomotion couplings. The current results depicting strong interactions between the locomotion system and the other considered systems (i.e., electrodermal, respiratory and cardivascular systems) warrant further investigation into multisystem interactions during walking, particularly in challenging walking conditions with older adults. PMID:26390946

  20. Dehydration: physiology, assessment, and performance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of dehydration assessment and presents a unique evaluation of the dehydration and performance literature. The importance of osmolality and volume are emphasized when discussing the physiology, assessment, and performance effects of dehydration. The underappreciated physiologic distinction between a loss of hypo-osmotic body water (intracellular dehydration) and an iso-osmotic loss of body water (extracellular dehydration) is presented and argued as the single most essential aspect of dehydration assessment. The importance of diagnostic and biological variation analyses to dehydration assessment methods is reviewed and their use in gauging the true potential of any dehydration assessment method highlighted. The necessity for establishing proper baselines is discussed, as is the magnitude of dehydration required to elicit reliable and detectable osmotic or volume-mediated compensatory physiologic responses. The discussion of physiologic responses further helps inform and explain our analysis of the literature suggesting a ≥ 2% dehydration threshold for impaired endurance exercise performance mediated by volume loss. In contrast, no clear threshold or plausible mechanism(s) support the marginal, but potentially important, impairment in strength, and power observed with dehydration. Similarly, the potential for dehydration to impair cognition appears small and related primarily to distraction or discomfort. The impact of dehydration on any particular sport skill or task is therefore likely dependent upon the makeup of the task itself (e.g., endurance, strength, cognitive, and motor skill). © 2014 American Physiological Society.