WorldWideScience

Sample records for physiological capacity compared

  1. Tuna comparative physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jeffrey B; Dickson, Kathryn A

    2004-11-01

    Thunniform swimming, the capacity to conserve metabolic heat in red muscle and other body regions (regional endothermy), an elevated metabolic rate and other physiological rate functions, and a frequency-modulated cardiac output distinguish tunas from most other fishes. These specializations support continuous, relatively fast swimming by tunas and minimize thermal barriers to habitat exploitation, permitting niche expansion into high latitudes and to ocean depths heretofore regarded as beyond their range.

  2. Physiological and stroke parameters to assess aerobic capacity in swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Mariana F M; Caputo, Fabrizio; Lucas, Ricardo D; Denadai, Benedito S; Greco, Camila C

    2012-09-01

    To identify the speed corresponding to anaerobic threshold using the D-max method for both blood lactate and biomechanical stroke parameters determined in an incremental swimming test and to compare this information with the speed corresponding to the maximal lactate steady state (SMLSS). Five male long-distance swimmers and 8 triathletes (N=13; age 23.8±9.5 y, height 1.76±0.1 m, weight 71.3±9.8 kg) performed the following protocols: maximal 400-m test to determine maximal aerobic speed (S400); 7×200-m incremental test to determine the speed corresponding to the D-max point on the blood lactate (SLa), stroke-rate (SSR), stroke-length (SSL), and stroke-index (SSI) responses; and two to four 30-min submaximal tests to determine the SMLSS. SLA (1.18±0.08 m/s), SSI (1.18±0.08 m/s), SSR (1.17±0.1 m/s), and SSL (1.16±0.09 m/s) were not significantly different from each other or from SMLSS (1.13±0.08 m/s). There were high correlations between SLA, SSI, SSR, SSL, and SMLSS (r=.91, .89, .85, and .80, respectively). The typical errors of estimate for SLA (3.2%), SSI (3.7%), SSR (4.1%), and SSL (4.7%) suggest good validity of these variables to predict SMLSS. Furthermore, all physiological and biomechanical variables were moderately to highly correlated with S400 (r=.73-.95). It is possible to obtain a physiological index of aerobic capacity and performance using simple biomechanical measurements during an incremental test without performing blood lactate analyses.

  3. Exercise capacity and selected physiological factors by ancestry and residential altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianba; Berntsen, Sveinung; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Several physiological compensatory mechanisms have enabled Tibetans to live and work at high altitude, including increased ventilation and pulmonary diffusion capacity, both of which serve to increase oxygen transport in the blood. The aim of the present study was to compare exercise capacity...... (maximal power output) and selected physiological factors (arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate at rest and during maximal exercise, resting hemoglobin concentration, and forced vital capacity) in groups of native Tibetan children living at different residential altitudes (3700 vs. 4300 m above sea...... saturation at rest, lung volume, and arterial oxygen saturation were significantly associated with exercise capacity at a given altitude, but could not fully account for the differences in exercise capacity observed between ancestry groups or altitudes. CONCLUSIONS: The superior exercise capacity in native...

  4. Measurements for improvement of running capacity. : Physiological and biomechanical evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Gullstrand, Lennart

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Running is included in a large number of sports and one of the most well investigated modes of locomotion in both physiology and biomechanics. This thesis focuses on how some new methods from both areas may be used to capture running capacity in mid-distance and distance running from laboratory and field recordings. Measurement of running economy is included and defined as oxygen uptake at a given submaximal velocity in a steady-state condition. Running economy...

  5. Predicting physiological capacity of human load carriage - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, Jace; Billing, Daniel; Neesham-Smith, Daniel; Aisbett, Brad

    2016-01-01

    This review article aims to evaluate a proposed maximum acceptable work duration model for load carriage tasks. It is contended that this concept has particular relevance to physically demanding occupations such as military and firefighting. Personnel in these occupations are often required to perform very physically demanding tasks, over varying time periods, often involving load carriage. Previous research has investigated concepts related to physiological workload limits in occupational settings (e.g. industrial). Evidence suggests however, that existing (unloaded) workload guidelines are not appropriate for load carriage tasks. The utility of this model warrants further work to enable prediction of load carriage durations across a range of functional workloads for physically demanding occupations. If the maximum duration for which personnel can physiologically sustain a load carriage task could be accurately predicted, commanders and supervisors could better plan for and manage tasks to ensure operational imperatives were met whilst minimising health risks for their workers.

  6. Physiology of temperature regulation: comparative aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicego, Kênia C; Barros, Renata C H; Branco, Luiz G S

    2007-07-01

    Few environmental factors have a larger influence on animal energetics than temperature, a fact that makes thermoregulation a very important process for survival. In general, endothermic species, i.e., mammals and birds, maintain a constant body temperature (Tb) in fluctuating environmental temperatures using autonomic and behavioural mechanisms. Most of the knowledge on thermoregulatory physiology has emerged from studies using mammalian species, particularly rats. However, studies with all vertebrate groups are essential for a more complete understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of Tb. Ectothermic vertebrates-fish, amphibians and reptiles-thermoregulate essentially by behavioural mechanisms. With few exceptions, both endotherms and ectotherms develop fever (a regulated increase in Tb) in response to exogenous pyrogens, and regulated hypothermia (anapyrexia) in response to hypoxia. This review focuses on the mechanisms, particularly neuromediators and regions in the central nervous system, involved in thermoregulation in vertebrates, in conditions of euthermia, fever and anapyrexia.

  7. Physiological capacity and physical testing in male elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Madsen, K.; Aagaard, P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the physical demands placed on male elite team handball (TH) players in relation to playing position. Methods: Male elite TH field players were evaluated during match-play over a six season time span using physiological measurements and by subseque...... physical testing. Results: Mean heart rate and relative workload during match-play (n=41) were 163±5 beats·min-1 (group means±SD) and 70.9±6.0 % of VO2-max, respectively. Relative workload was lower (p...

  8. Physiological capacity and physical testing in male elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Madsen, K.; Aagaard, P.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the present study was to examine the physical demands placed on male elite team handball players in relation to playing position. METHODS: Male elite team handball field players were evaluated during match-play over a six season time span using physiological measurements...... in "Jump and Reach" testing was 0.71 ± 0.08 m (range: 0.61-0.86 m). Maximal ball throwing speed was observed using the set shot with 3-step run-up (92.8 ± 5.3 km·h⁻¹, range: 75.8-108.2 km·h⁻¹). CONCLUSION: Modern male elite team handball imposes moderate-to-high demands on the aerobic energy system...... and high demands on the anaerobic energy systems during certain periods of the match. Indications of temporary fatigue and a subsequent decline in performance were observed, since the relative workload decreased both in the first and in the second half of the match. Physiological profiles and physical test...

  9. Physiological capacity and physical testing in male elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Madsen, K.; Aagaard, P.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the present study was to examine the physical demands placed on male elite team handball players in relation to playing position. METHODS: Male elite team handball field players were evaluated during match-play over a six season time span using physiological measurements...... and by subsequent physical testing. RESULTS: Mean heart rate and relative workload during match-play (N.=41) were 163 ± 5 beats·min⁻¹ (group means±SD) and 70.9 ± 6.0% of VO(2-max), respectively. Relative workload was lower (P... in "Jump and Reach" testing was 0.71 ± 0.08 m (range: 0.61-0.86 m). Maximal ball throwing speed was observed using the set shot with 3-step run-up (92.8 ± 5.3 km·h⁻¹, range: 75.8-108.2 km·h⁻¹). CONCLUSION: Modern male elite team handball imposes moderate-to-high demands on the aerobic energy system...

  10. Hormesis, allostatic buffering capacity and physiological mechanism of physical activity: a new theoretic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guolin; He, Hong

    2009-05-01

    Despite great progress made in sports medicine, the physiological mechanism of moderate physical activity-induced physical fitness remains only partly understood. Combined with the hormetic characteristic of physical activity and property of allostasis, we first propose the hormesis induced allostatic buffering capacity enhancement as a physiological mechanism to explain the moderate physical activity-induced physical fitness. As stressful stimulus, physical activity can induce several stresses in the host, including eustress ('good stress') and distress ('bad stress'), which may have both positive and negative effects. Too little or too much physical activities will introduce too weak eustress or too strong distress and result in allostasis load through weakening allostatic buffering capacity or damaging allostatic buffering capacity respectively. However, moderate physical activities will introduce eustress and contribute to the hormesis induced allostatic buffering capacity enhancement, which benefits organism.

  11. Visuospatial Working Memory Capacity Predicts Physiological Arousal in a Narrative Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Lisa; Nicoladis, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Physiological arousal that occurs during narrative production is thought to reflect emotional processing and cognitive effort (Bar-Haim et al. in Dev Psychobiol 44:238-249, 2004). The purpose of this study was to determine whether individual differences in visuospatial working memory and/or verbal working memory capacity predict physiological arousal in a narrative task. Visuospatial working memory was a significant predictor of skin conductance level (SCL); verbal working memory was not. When visuospatial working memory interference was imposed, visuospatial working memory was no longer a significant predictor of SCL. Visuospatial interference also resulted in a significant reduction in SCL. Furthermore, listener ratings of narrative quality were contingent upon the visuospatial working memory resources of the narrator. Potential implications for educators and clinical practitioners are discussed.

  12. Genomic and physiological analysis reveals versatile metabolic capacity of deep-sea Photobacterium phosphoreum ANT-2200.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng-Da; Santini, Claire-Lise; Zhang, Wei-Jia; Barbe, Valérie; Mangenot, Sophie; Guyomar, Charlotte; Garel, Marc; Chen, Hai-Tao; Li, Xue-Gong; Yin, Qun-Jian; Zhao, Yuan; Armengaud, Jean; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Martini, Séverine; Pradel, Nathalie; Vidaud, Claude; Alberto, François; Médigue, Claudine; Tamburini, Christian; Wu, Long-Fei

    2016-05-01

    Bacteria of the genus Photobacterium thrive worldwide in oceans and show substantial eco-physiological diversity including free-living, symbiotic and piezophilic life styles. Genomic characteristics underlying this variability across species are poorly understood. Here we carried out genomic and physiological analysis of Photobacterium phosphoreum strain ANT-2200, the first deep-sea luminous bacterium of which the genome has been sequenced. Using optical mapping we updated the genomic data and reassembled it into two chromosomes and a large plasmid. Genomic analysis revealed a versatile energy metabolic potential and physiological analysis confirmed its growth capacity by deriving energy from fermentation of glucose or maltose, by respiration with formate as electron donor and trimethlyamine N-oxide (TMAO), nitrate or fumarate as electron acceptors, or by chemo-organo-heterotrophic growth in rich media. Despite that it was isolated at a site with saturated dissolved oxygen, the ANT-2200 strain possesses four gene clusters coding for typical anaerobic enzymes, the TMAO reductases. Elevated hydrostatic pressure enhances the TMAO reductase activity, mainly due to the increase of isoenzyme TorA1. The high copy number of the TMAO reductase isoenzymes and pressure-enhanced activity might imply a strategy developed by bacteria to adapt to deep-sea habitats where the instant TMAO availability may increase with depth.

  13. Physiological basis for the differences of productive capacity among tillers in winter wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hai-cheng; CAI Tie; WANG Zhen-lin; HE Ming-rong

    2015-01-01

    The quality or structure of a wheat population is signiifcantly affected by the compositions of tilers. Little has been known about the physiological basis for the differences of productive capacity among tilers. Two winter wheat cultivars, Shannong 15 (SN15) and Shannong 8355 (SN8355), were used to investigate the differences of productive capacity among tilers and analyze the physiological mechanisms that determine the superior tiler group. Low-position tilers (early initiated tilers) had a higher yield per spike than high-position tilers (late initiated tilers) in both cultivars, which was due to their more grain number per spike, more fertile spikelet per spike, less sterile spikelet per spike and higher grain weight. According to cluster analysis, tilers of SN15 were classiifed into 2 groups: superior tiler group including main stem (0), the ifrst primary tiler (I) and the second primary tiler (II); and inferior tiler group including the third primary tiler (III) and the ifrst secondary tiler (I-p). Tilers of SN8355 were classiifed into 3 groups: superior tiler group (0 and I), intermediate tiler group (II and III) and inferior tiler group (I-p). In comparison with other tiler groups, the superior tiler group had higher photosynthetic rate of lfag leaves, higher antioxidant enzyme (SOD, POD and CAT) activities and lower levels of lipid peroxidation in leaves, higher grain ifling rate in both superior and inferior grains during grain ifling, higher single-stem biological yield and larger single-stem economic coefifcient. Correlation analysis showed that yield per spike was positively and signiifcantly correlated with the lfag leaf photosynthetic rate, grain ifling rate, the antioxidant enzyme activities and soluble protein content (except for SN15 at 5 days post-anthesis (DPA)) of lfag leaf, the single-stem biological yield, and the single-stem economic coefif-cient. Remarkable negative correlation was also found between yield per spike and MDA content of lfag

  14. Physiological assessment of isolated running does not directly replicate running capacity after triathlon-specific cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebarria, Naroa; Hunt, Julie; Ingham, Steve; Ferguson, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon running is affected by prior cycling and power output during triathlon cycling is variable in nature. We compared constant and triathlon-specific variable power cycling and their effect on subsequent submaximal running physiology. Nine well-trained male triathletes (age 24.6 ± 4.6 years, [Formula: see text] 4.5 ± 0.4 L · min(-1); mean ± SD) performed a submaximal incremental run test, under three conditions: no prior exercise and after a 1 h cycling trial at 65% of maximal aerobic power with either a constant or a variable power profile. The variable power protocol involved multiple 10-90 s intermittent efforts at 40-140% maximal aerobic power. During cycling, pulmonary ventilation (22%, ± 14%; mean; ± 90% confidence limits), blood lactate (179%, ± 48%) and rating of perceived exertion (7.3%, ± 10.2%) were all substantially higher during variable than during constant power cycling. At the start of the run, blood lactate was 64%, ± 61% higher after variable compared to constant power cycling, which decreased running velocity at 4 mM lactate threshold by 0.6, ± 0.9 km · h(-1). Physiological responses to incremental running are negatively affected by prior cycling and, to a greater extent, by variable compared to even-paced cycling. Testing and training of triathletes should account foe higher physiological cost of triathlon-specific cycling and its effect on subsequent running.

  15. Physiologic Determinants of Exercise Capacity in Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: A Multidimensional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Stephanie; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Langlois, Carole; Bricout, Nicolas; Aguilaniu, Bernard; Bellocq, Agnes; Le Rouzic, Olivier; Dominique, Stephane; Delobbe, Alain; François, Geraldine; Tazi, Abdellatif; Wallaert, Benoit; Chenivesse, Cecile

    2017-01-01

    Background Reduced exercise capacity severely impacts quality of life in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Ascertaining mechanisms that impair exercise capacity is necessary to identify targets for symptomatic treatments. Methods Dyspnea, pulmonary function tests and cardiopulmonary exercise test were analysed in 62 study participants. Data were compared between subjects with impaired and normal aerobic capacity (V’O2 peak less than 84% versus 84% predicted or more). Data were reduced using a principal component analysis. Multivariate analysis included V’O2 peak as the dependent variable and principal components as covariates. Results V’O2 peak was reduced in 44 subjects (71%). Subjects with impaired aerobic capacity presented: (i) decreased FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, DLCO and DLCO/VA and increased AaDO2, (ii) increased ventilatory equivalents at ventilatory threshold, VD/VT peak, AaDO2 peak and PaCO2 peak and decreased ventilatory reserve and PaO2 peak. There was no difference between groups in dyspnea scores. Principal component analysis extracted 4 principal components interpreted as follows: PC1: gas exchange; PC2: “pseudorestriction”; PC3: exercise-induced hyperpnea; PC4: air trapping. Multivariate analysis explained 65% of V’O2 peak. The 4 principal components were independently associated with V’O2 peak (βcoefficients: PC1: 9.3 [4.6; 14], PC2: 7.5 [3; 11.9], PC3: -5.3 [-9.6;-1.], PC4: -9.8 [-14,9;-4.7]). Conclusion Impaired exercise capacity is frequent in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is mainly caused by pulmonary changes but is not associated with increased dyspnea intensity. Therefore, treating the lung represents a relevant approach for improving exercise capacity, even in patients experiencing mild dyspnea. PMID:28072848

  16. Comparative Fecal Metagenomics Unveils Unique Functional Capacity of the Swine Gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncovering the taxonomic composition and functional capacity within the swine gut microbial consortia is of great importance to animal physiology and health and to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Limited information on the physiological...

  17. Comparative Fecal Metagenomics Unveils Unique Functional Capacity of the Swine Gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncovering the taxonomic composition and functional capacity within the swine gut microbial consortia is of great importance to animal physiology and health and to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Limited information on the physiological...

  18. Measures to summarize and compare the predictive capacity of markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wen; Pepe, Margaret

    2009-10-01

    The predictive capacity of a marker in a population can be described using the population distribution of risk (Huang et al. 2007; Pepe et al. 2008a; Stern 2008). Virtually all standard statistical summaries of predictability and discrimination can be derived from it (Gail and Pfeiffer 2005). The goal of this paper is to develop methods for making inference about risk prediction markers using summary measures derived from the risk distribution. We describe some new clinically motivated summary measures and give new interpretations to some existing statistical measures. Methods for estimating these summary measures are described along with distribution theory that facilitates construction of confidence intervals from data. We show how markers and, more generally, how risk prediction models, can be compared using clinically relevant measures of predictability. The methods are illustrated by application to markers of lung function and nutritional status for predicting subsequent onset of major pulmonary infection in children suffering from cystic fibrosis. Simulation studies show that methods for inference are valid for use in practice.

  19. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: advancing the predictive capacity of models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorgensen, C.; Peck, M.A.; Antognarelli, F.; Teal, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology to diff

  20. Comparative approaches to the study of physiology: Drosophila as a physiological tool

    OpenAIRE

    Neckameyer, Wendi S.; Argue, Kathryn J.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have detailed the extensive conservation of developmental signaling pathways between the model system, Drosophila melanogaster, and mammalian models, but researchers have also profited from the unique and highly tractable genetic tools available in this system to address critical questions in physiology. In this review, we have described contributions that Drosophila researchers have made to mathematical dynamics of pattern formation, cardiac pathologies, the way in which pai...

  1. Comparative evaluation of antioxidant capacities of thiol-based antioxidants measured by different in vitro methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Nilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Cekiç, Sema Demirci; Apak, Reşat

    2011-02-15

    Thiol-type compounds are an important class of strong antioxidants and main determinants of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of cellular homogenates. The TAC of thiol mixtures and the corresponding TEAC (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) values of individual thiols were determined by the CUPRAC (CUPric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity) method, and the results were compared with those found by reference assays for method validation. Synthetic mixtures of thiols were prepared, and the expected and found TAC values (in mM trolox (TR) equivalents) of these mixtures showed a good agreement. The technique of standard additions was performed for thiol mixtures and human serum, and the absorbance results confirmed that apparent chemical deviations from Beer's law were absent in the system. The CUPRAC results were compared with those of reference methods, namely 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)/persulphate and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP). As being a most important thiol (-SH) peptide at in vivo conditions, glutathione (GSH) showed a TEAC value of 0.57 in the CUPRAC method, as opposed to the corresponding value (1.51) in the ABTS/persulphate method. The ABTS/persulphate result was not in accordance with the reversible 1-e oxidation of GSH to the corresponding disulfide that is expected to occur under physiological conditions. FRAP did not give consistent results, and even at relatively high concentrations of GSH, the TEAC(FRAP) value was only 0.07. The thiol-type antioxidant-bearing pharmaceuticals of Brunac eye drop, Trom and Mentopin effervescent tablets containing N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) were assayed with HPLC for comparison, and the obtained results for NAC were in accordance with those found with CUPRAC.

  2. Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  3. Comparing Individual Instruction & Lecture Formats in Human Anatomy & Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Fred H.

    1989-01-01

    Provides a description of and information about an individualized program in science at Central Community College. Reports on a study which compares lecture with individualized instruction. Concludes that there were no significant differences between heterogeneous groups, and there are advantages and disadvantages to each method. Diagrams and…

  4. An experimental comparative analyse between three low capacity PLCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, G. N.; Diniş, C. M.; lagăr, A.; Popa, I.

    2017-01-01

    PLCs are used increasingly more often in industrial applications and beyond. PLCs from different companies involved different programming languages. Some of the PLCs can be programmed in all languages, while others do not. For three types of PLCs was made an application for a traffic light with priority. PLCs usually have a general and a special set of instructions that only some of these are found from a PLC to another. Programs were made with specific instruction set of respectively PLC. The programs were carried out in three languages. For a case study, it makes a comparative analysis between three programming languages.

  5. Mitochondrial Physiology in the Major Arbovirus Vector Aedes aegypti: Substrate Preferences and Sexual Differences Define Respiratory Capacity and Superoxide Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Juliana B. R. Correa; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F.

    2015-01-01

    Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step

  6. Mitochondrial physiology in the major arbovirus vector Aedes aegypti: substrate preferences and sexual differences define respiratory capacity and superoxide production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana B R Correa Soares

    Full Text Available Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data

  7. Mitochondrial physiology in the major arbovirus vector Aedes aegypti: substrate preferences and sexual differences define respiratory capacity and superoxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Juliana B R Correa; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F

    2015-01-01

    Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step

  8. Comparative cardiovascular physiology: future trends, opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggren, W W; Christoffels, V M; Crossley, D A; Enok, S; Farrell, A P; Hedrick, M S; Hicks, J W; Jensen, B; Moorman, A F M; Mueller, C A; Skovgaard, N; Taylor, E W; Wang, T

    2014-02-01

    The inaugural Kjell Johansen Lecture in the Zoophysiology Department of Aarhus University (Aarhus, Denmark) afforded the opportunity for a focused workshop comprising comparative cardiovascular physiologists to ponder some of the key unanswered questions in the field. Discussions were centred around three themes. The first considered function of the vertebrate heart in its various forms in extant vertebrates, with particular focus on the role of intracardiac shunts, the trabecular ('spongy') nature of the ventricle in many vertebrates, coronary blood supply and the building plan of the heart as revealed by molecular approaches. The second theme involved the key unanswered questions in the control of the cardiovascular system, emphasizing autonomic control, hypoxic vasoconstriction and developmental plasticity in cardiovascular control. The final theme involved poorly understood aspects of the interaction of the cardiovascular system with the lymphatic, renal and digestive systems. Having posed key questions around these three themes, it is increasingly clear that an abundance of new analytical tools and approaches will allow us to learn much about vertebrate cardiovascular systems in the coming years.

  9. Comparative physiology of sound localization in four species of owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volman, S F; Konishi, M

    1990-01-01

    Bilateral ear asymmetry is found in some, but not all, species of owls. We investigated the neural basis of sound localization in symmetrical and asymmetrical species, to deduce how ear asymmetry might have evolved from the ancestral condition, by comparing the response properties of neurons in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICx) of the symmetrical burrowing owl and asymmetrical long-eared owl with previous findings in the symmetrical great horned owl and asymmetrical barn owl. In the ICx of all of these owls, the neurons had spatially restricted receptive fields, and auditory space was topographically mapped. In the symmetrical owls, ICx units were not restricted in elevation, and only azimuth was mapped in ICx. In the barn owl, the space map is two-dimensional, with elevation forming the second dimension. Receptive fields in the long-eared owl were somewhat restricted in elevation, but their tuning was not sharp enough to determine if elevation is mapped. In every species, the primary cue for azimuth was interaural time difference, although ICx units were also tuned for interaural intensity difference (IID). In the barn owl, the IIDs of sounds with frequencies between about 5 and 8 kHz vary systematically with elevation, and the IID selectivity of ICx neurons primarily encodes elevation. In the symmetrical owls, whose ICx neurons do not respond to frequencies above about 5 kHz, IID appears to be a supplementary cue for azimuth. We hypothesize that ear asymmetry can be exploited by owls that have evolved the higher-frequency hearing necessary to generate elevation cues. Thus, the IID selectivity of ICx neurons in symmetrical owls may preadapt them for asymmetry; the neural circuitry that underlies IID selectivity is already present in symmetrical owls, but because IID is not absolutely required to encode azimuth it can come to encode elevation in asymmetrical owls.

  10. Community Prevention Coalition Context and Capacity Assessment: Comparing the United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louis D.; Chilenski, Sarah M.; Ramos, Rebeca; Gallegos, Nora; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Effective planning for community health partnerships requires understanding how initial readiness--that is, contextual factors and capacity--influences implementation of activities and programs. This study compares the context and capacity of drug and violence prevention coalitions in Mexico to those in the United States. Measures of coalition…

  11. Heart Rate Variability: New Perspectives on Physiological Mechanisms, Assessment of Self-regulatory Capacity, and Health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCraty, Rollin; Shaffer, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability, the change in the time intervals between adjacent heartbeats, is an emergent property of interdependent regulatory systems that operates on different time scales to adapt to environmental and psychological challenges. This article briefly reviews neural regulation of the heart and offers some new perspectives on mechanisms underlying the very low frequency rhythm of heart rate variability. Interpretation of heart rate variability rhythms in the context of health risk and physiological and psychological self-regulatory capacity assessment is discussed. The cardiovascular regulatory centers in the spinal cord and medulla integrate inputs from higher brain centers with afferent cardiovascular system inputs to adjust heart rate and blood pressure via sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent pathways. We also discuss the intrinsic cardiac nervous system and the heart-brain connection pathways, through which afferent information can influence activity in the subcortical, frontocortical, and motor cortex areas. In addition, the use of real-time HRV feedback to increase self-regulatory capacity is reviewed. We conclude that the heart's rhythms are characterized by both complexity and stability over longer time scales that reflect both physiological and psychological functional status of these internal self-regulatory systems.

  12. Exercise capacity in the Bidirectional Glenn physiology: Coupling cardiac index, ventricular function and oxygen extraction ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecilla, Carolina; Khiabani, Reza H; Trusty, Phillip; Sandoval, Néstor; Fogel, Mark; Briceño, Juan Carlos; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2015-07-16

    In Bi-directional Glenn (BDG) physiology, the superior systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation are in series. Consequently, only blood from the superior vena cava is oxygenated in the lungs. Oxygenated blood then travels to the ventricle where it is mixed with blood returning from the lower body. Therefore, incremental changes in oxygen extraction ratio (OER) could compromise exercise tolerance. In this study, the effect of exercise on the hemodynamic and ventricular performance of BDG physiology was investigated using clinical patient data as inputs for a lumped parameter model coupled with oxygenation equations. Changes in cardiac index, Qp/Qs, systemic pressure, oxygen extraction ratio and ventricular/vascular coupling ratio were calculated for three different exercise levels. The patient cohort (n=29) was sub-grouped by age and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) at rest. It was observed that the changes in exercise tolerance are significant in both comparisons, but most significant when sub-grouped by PVR at rest. Results showed that patients over 2 years old with high PVR are above or close to the upper tolerable limit of OER (0.32) at baseline. Patients with high PVR at rest had very poor exercise tolerance while patients with low PVR at rest could tolerate low exercise conditions. In general, ventricular function of SV patients is too poor to increase CI and fulfill exercise requirements. The presented mathematical model provides a framework to estimate the hemodynamic performance of BDG patients at different exercise levels according to patient specific data.

  13. Physiology: Capacity for Hormone Production of Cultured Trophoblast Cells Obtained from Placentae at Term and in Early Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Problem: There is an increased doubt about the identity of isolated cytotrophoblast cells at term. Therefore, we compared pregnancy serum levels of three hormones [human placental lactogen (hPL), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and leptin] with the capacity for hormone production of early placentae [EP; 8–13 weeks of gestation (WG)] and term placentae (TP; 38–42 WG).

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of living systems : Applications in comparative physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanDenThillart, G; VanWaarde, A

    The most attractive feature of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is the noninvasive and nondestructive measurement of chemical compounds in intact tissues. MRS already has many applications in comparative physiology, usually based on observation of P-31, since the levels of phosphorus

  15. Physiological Responses to Firefighting in Extreme Temperatures Do Not Compare to Firefighting in Temperate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Windisch

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine physiological responses to two different simulated firefighting exercises: a firefighting exercise with flashovers, smoke, poor visibility and extreme temperatures (300° in a burning container and a standard firefighting exercise in temperate conditions. Furthermore, a second purpose of the study was to find out if the contribution of strength and endurance capacities to firefighting performance changes when the demands of the firefighting exercise change.Methods: Sixteen professional firefighters performed a maximum treadmill test, strength testing, a standard simulated firefighting exercise (SFE without heat and flashovers and a firefighting exercise with a simulation of the flashover phenomenon in a burning container (FOT. The treadmill testing was used to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak, ventilatory threshold (VT1 and respiratory compensation point (RCP. Three intensity zones were identified according to heart rate (HR values corresponding to VT1 and RCP: zone 1–HR below VT1, zone 2-HR between VT1 and RCP, zone 3–HR above RCP. Firefighting performance was determined by a simple time-strain-air depletion model (TSA taking the sum of z-transformed parameters of time to finish the exercise, strain in terms of mean heart rate, and air depletion from the breathing apparatus. Correlations were then established between TSA based firefighting performance parameters and fitness variables representing strength and endurance.Results: HR was significantly lower during SFE (79.9 ± 6.9%HRmax compared to FOT (85.4 ± 5.2%HRmax. During SFE subjects spent 24.6 ± 30.2% of time in zone 1, 65.8 ± 28.1% in zone 2 and 9.7 ± 16.6% in zone 3. During FOT subjects spent 16.3 ± 12.8% in zone 1, 50.4 ± 13.2% in zone 2 and 33.3 ± 16.6% in zone 3. Out of all correlations, relative VO2peak showed the highest relation to mean HR during SFE (−0.593 as well as FOT (−0.693.Conclusions: Endurance in terms of

  16. Metabolic capacity of Bacillus cereus strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 interlinked with comparative genomics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, M.; Been, M.W.H.J. de; Zwietering, M.H.; Moezelaar, R.; Abee, T.

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is an important food-borne pathogen and spoilage organism. In this study, numerous phenotypes and the genomes of B.?cereus strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 were analysed to compare their metabolic capacity and stress resistance potential. The growth performance of the two strains wa

  17. Comparing the glucuronidation capacity of the feline liver with substrate-specific glucuronidation in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beusekom, C D; Fink-Gremmels, J; Schrickx, J A

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the overall glucuronidation capacity of cats, using prototypic substrates identified for human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). To this end, Michaelis-Menten kinetics were established for the substrates using feline hepatic microsomal fractions, and results were compar

  18. Intraspecific variation in thermal tolerance and acclimation capacity in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis): physiological implications for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, Bradley C; Burness, Gary; Burgomaster, Kirsten A; Currie, Suzanne; McDermid, Jenni L; Wilson, Chris C

    2014-01-01

    Cold-water fishes are becoming increasingly vulnerable as changing thermal conditions threaten their future sustainability. Thermal stress and habitat loss from increasing water temperatures are expected to impact population viability, particularly for inland populations with limited adaptive resources. Although the long-term persistence of cold-adapted species will depend on their ability to cope with and adapt to changing thermal conditions, very little is known about the scope and variation of thermal tolerance within and among conspecific populations and evolutionary lineages. We studied the upper thermal tolerance and capacity for acclimation in three captive populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from different ancestral thermal environments. Populations differed in their upper thermal tolerance and capacity for acclimation, consistent with their ancestry: the northernmost strain (Lake Nipigon) had the lowest thermal tolerance, while the strain with the most southern ancestry (Hill's Lake) had the highest thermal tolerance. Standard metabolic rate increased following acclimation to warm temperatures, but the response to acclimation varied among strains, suggesting that climatic warming may have differential effects across populations. Swimming performance varied among strains and among acclimation temperatures, but strains responded in a similar way to temperature acclimation. To explore potential physiological mechanisms underlying intraspecific differences in thermal tolerance, we quantified inducible and constitutive heat shock proteins (HSP70 and HSC70, respectively). HSPs were associated with variation in thermal tolerance among strains and acclimation temperatures; HSP70 in cardiac and white muscle tissues exhibited similar patterns, whereas expression in hepatic tissue varied among acclimation temperatures but not strains. Taken together, these results suggest that populations of brook trout will vary in their ability to cope with a

  19. Comparing nurse managers and nurses' perceptions of nurses' self-leadership during capacity building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Karien; Cairns, Lindi

    2014-05-01

    This paper compares the perceptions of nurse managers and nurses about self-leadership of professional nurses while taking ownership of capacity building during unit management. The Nursing Strategy for South Africa states that the competency of nurses is dependent upon factors that lead to capacity building. A quantitative design was followed by conducting a survey. The target population included nurse managers and professional nurses working at an academic public hospital in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. The findings indicate shortcomings in relation to advising professional nurses about self-direction while taking ownership of their daily pressures and stresses associated with unit management. Professional nurses should develop their confidence by focusing on their self-leadership strengths when managing a unit. Recommendations are made to promote self-leadership while taking ownership of nurses during capacity building of unit management. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Long-term adaptation capacity of ponies: effect of season and feed restriction on blood and physiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, L; Riek, A; Gerken, M

    2017-07-10

    Domesticated horses are increasingly kept under semi-natural housing conditions, whereas their adaptation capacity is not fully investigated. In all, 10 Shetland pony mares were held under semi-extensive conditions for 1 year. In winter animals were allocated into two feeding groups (60% and 100% of maintenance energy requirement, respectively). Triiodothyronine, thyroxine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), total bilirubin, total protein, triglyceride, glucose, insulin and hair length were measured at monthly intervals, whereas BW, body condition score, cresty neck score and resting heart rate were recorded every 2 weeks. From summer to winter all Ponies showed a reduction in resting heart rate (P0.05). Refeeding of restrictively fed ponies resulted in a rapid increase in resting heart rate and BW and a return of blood parameters to reference values. Adequately supplied animals adapted without difficulty to varying environmental conditions, whereas feed restriction in ponies during winter resulted in reduced resting heart rates suggesting a reduced basal metabolic rate. The energy restriction was compensated by mobilizing body fat reserves which led to changes in blood parameters. Refeeding in feed restricted animals revealed a remarkably quick recovery of physiological and blood parameters to reference values. We therefore suggest that year round-outdoor housing can be a suitable housing system for robust horse breeds provided that an adequate food supply is available.

  1. Comparative study of Newtonian physiological blood flow through normal and stenosed carotid artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Matiur; Hossain, Md. Anwar; Mamun, Khairuzzaman; Akhter, Most. Nasrin

    2017-06-01

    A numerical simulation is performed to investigate Newtonian physiological flows behavior on three dimensional idealized carotid artery (CA) and single stenosed (75% by area) carotid artery(SCA). The wall vessel is set as rigid during simulation. Bifurcated blood vessel are simulated by using three-dimensional flow analysis. Physiological and parabolic velocity profiles are set out to fix the conditions of inlet boundaries of artery. In other hand, physiological waveform is an important part of compilation and it is successfully done by utilization of Fourier series having sixteen harmonics. The investigation has a Reynolds number range of 94 to 1120. Low Reynolds number k — ω model has been used as governing equation. The investigation has been carried out to characterize the flow behavior of blood in two geometry, namely, (i) Normal carotid artery (CA) and (ii) Stenosed carotid artery (SCA). The Newtonian model has been used to study the physics of fluid. The findings of the two models are thoroughly compared in order to observe there behavioral sequence of flows. The numerical results were presented in terms of velocity, pressure, wall shear stress distributions and cross sectional velocities as well as the streamlines contour. Stenosis disturbs the normal pattern of blood flow through the artery as reduced area. At stenosis region velocity and peak Reynolds number rapidly increase and Reynolds number reach transitional and turbulent region. These flow fluctuation and turbulence have bad effect to the blood vessel which makes to accelerate the progress of stenosis.

  2. Comparative Research of Residents’ Effect Perception and Participation Capacity and Willingness on Pro-poor Tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqing; HUANG; Hong; SHU

    2014-01-01

    In this article,comparative research on residents’ effect perception,participation capacity and willingness on Pro-poor Tourism( PPT) is given based on the questionnaire carried out in Wulong County and Fengjie County in Three Gorges Area,Chongqing,China. Some technologies,such as SPSS 13. 0,ANOVA and T-test are applied to analyze the data and results show Wulong residents’ perception behavior is better than that of Fengjie residents. Moreover,the residents with different demographic characteristics have different participation behavior.Finally,multiple regression analysis is applied to identify the key factors influencing residents’ perception behavior,that is participation willingness and positive economic effect perception,positive social and cultural effect perception and participation capacity.

  3. Comparative fecal metagenomics unveils unique functional capacity of the swine gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinson John

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering the taxonomic composition and functional capacity within the swine gut microbial consortia is of great importance to animal physiology and health as well as to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Nonetheless, limited information on the functional diversity of the swine gut microbiome is available. Results Analysis of 637, 722 pyrosequencing reads (130 megabases generated from Yorkshire pig fecal DNA extracts was performed to help better understand the microbial diversity and largely unknown functional capacity of the swine gut microbiome. Swine fecal metagenomic sequences were annotated using both MG-RAST and JGI IMG/M-ER pipelines. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated that swine fecal microbiomes were dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. At a finer phylogenetic resolution, Prevotella spp. dominated the swine fecal metagenome, while some genes associated with Treponema and Anareovibrio species were found to be exclusively within the pig fecal metagenomic sequences analyzed. Functional analysis revealed that carbohydrate metabolism was the most abundant SEED subsystem, representing 13% of the swine metagenome. Genes associated with stress, virulence, cell wall and cell capsule were also abundant. Virulence factors associated with antibiotic resistance genes with highest sequence homology to genes in Bacteroidetes, Clostridia, and Methanosarcina were numerous within the gene families unique to the swine fecal metagenomes. Other abundant proteins unique to the distal swine gut shared high sequence homology to putative carbohydrate membrane transporters. Conclusions The results from this metagenomic survey demonstrated the presence of genes associated with resistance to antibiotics and carbohydrate metabolism suggesting that the swine gut microbiome may be shaped by husbandry practices.

  4. From tissue to silicon to plastic: 3D printing in comparative anatomy and physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Nørgård, Mathias Ørum

    2016-01-01

    modelling has entered the scene. However, comprehending complex anatomical structures is hampered by reproduction on flat inherently two-dimensional screens. One way to circumvent this problem is in the production of 3D printed scale models. We have applied computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging...... to produce digital models of animal anatomy well suited to be printed on low cost 3D printers. In this communication we report how to apply such technology in comparative anatomy and physiology to aid discovery, description, comprehension and communication, and we seek to inspire fellow researchers...

  5. Immunological measurement of transferrin compared with chemical measurement of total iron-binding capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, S H; Rosenthal, W A; Milewski, K A

    1975-07-01

    Because of uncertainty as to the molecular weight of transferrin, a previous comparison [Von der Heul et al., Clin. Chim. Acta 38, 347 (1972)] between transferrin content of serum and total iron-binding capacity cannot be definitive. We found a conversion factor for expressing the maximum amount of iron bound by 1 mg of transferrin. We compared the resulting calculated value with values obtained by three other methods for measuring total iron-binding capacity. We agree with the previous observation that the latter, as measured radioisotopically, give higher results than would be judged from the transferrin content but the same as those for two chemical methods. The diffusion rate of transferrin in agar was the same irrespective of the degree of iron saturation. Serum transferrin concentrations were low in patients with anemia resulting from malignancy, chronic disorders, and cirrhosis of the liver, and high or normal in patients with iron deficiency anemia and in pregnant women or women who were taking birth-control pills. Measurement of transferrin concentration can be used to distinguish iron deficiency anemia from anemia resulting from chronic disorders, but offers no advantages over existing methods for estimating total iron-binding capacity.

  6. Physiological Responses to Treadmill Running With Body Weight Support in Hypoxia Compared to Normoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ben J; Thake, Charles Douglas

    2017-03-24

    Anecdotal reports suggest elite sports clubs combine lower body positive pressure (LBPP) rehabilitation with a hypoxic stimulus in order to maintain or increase physiological and metabolic strain, which are reduced during LBPP. However the effects of hypoxia on cardiovascular and metabolic response during LBPP rehabilitation is unknown. Evaluate the use of normobaric hypoxia as a means to increase physiological strain during body weight supported (BWS) running. Cross over study. Controlled laboratory. Seven familiarized males (mean ± SD; age, 20 ± 1 years; height, 1.77 ± 0.05 meters; mass, 69.4 ± 5.1 kg; haemoglobin 15.2 ± 0.8 g.dL(-1)). completed a normoxic and hypoxic (FIO2 = 0.14) trial, during which they ran at 8km.hr(-1) on an Alter-G(TM) treadmill with 0, 30 and 60% BWS in a randomised order for 10 minutes interspersed with 5 minutes of recovery. Arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, oxygen delivery and measurments of metabolic strain via indirect calorimetry. Hypoxic exercise reduced SpO2 and elevated heart rate at each level of BWS compared to normoxia. However, the reduction in SpO2 was attenuated at 60% BWS compared to 0% and 30% and consequently oxygen delivery was better maintained at 60% BWS. Hypoxia is a practically useful means of increasing physiological strain during BWS rehabilitation. In light of the maintenance of SpO2 and oxygen delivery at increasing levels of BWS, fixed haemoglobin saturations rather than a fixed altitude is recommended in order to maintain an aerobic stimulus.

  7. Approaches to developing the capacity of health policy analysis institutes: a comparative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Sara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To review and assess (i the factors that facilitate the development of sustainable health policy analysis institutes in low and middle income countries and (ii the nature of external support for capacity development provided to such institutes. Methods Comparative case studies of six health policy analysis institutes (3 from Asia and 3 from Africa were conducted. In each region an NGO institute, an institute linked to government and a university based institute were included. Data collection comprised document review, semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and discussion of preliminary findings with institute staff. Findings The findings are organized around four key themes: (i Financial resources: three of the institutes had received substantial external grants at start-up, however two of these institutes subsequently collapsed. At all but one institute, reliance upon short term, donor funding, created high administrative costs and unpredictability. (ii Human resources: the retention of skilled human resources was perceived to be key to institute success but was problematic at all but one institute. In particular staff often moved to better paid positions elsewhere once having acquired necessary skills and experience, leaving remaining senior staff with heavy workloads. (iii Governance and management: board structures and roles varied according to the nature of institute ownership. Boards made important contributions to organizational capacity through promoting continuity, independence and fund raising. Routine management systems were typically perceived to be strong. (iv Networks: linkages to policy makers helped promote policy influences. External networks with other research organizations, particularly where these were longer term institutional collaborations helped promote capacity. Conclusions The development of strong in-country analytical and research capacity to guide health policy development is critical, yet

  8. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIHEMOLYTIC CAPACITIES OF PLANTS OF INDIAN ORIGIN USING MULTIPLE ANTIOXIDANT ASSAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepinderjeet Singh Joshan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with both in-vitro assessment of antioxidant activity and anti-hemolytic effects of Ficus bengalensis, Calendula officinalis and Juglans regia. Total flavonoids and phenolics also were determined by using aluminum nitrate and Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric methods respectively. The antioxidant capacity of sample was assessed through reducing power assay, DPPH-scavenging effect,metal chelation assay and superoxide scavenging assay. The extract of Calendula officinalis was found to be more efficient in as antioxidant and anti-hemolytic agents using the in vitro assays as compared to Ficus bengalensis and Juglans regia.

  9. Comparing Resource Adequacy Metrics and Their Influence on Capacity Value: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

    2014-04-01

    Traditional probabilistic methods have been used to evaluate resource adequacy. The increasing presence of variable renewable generation in power systems presents a challenge to these methods because, unlike thermal units, variable renewable generation levels change over time because they are driven by meteorological events. Thus, capacity value calculations for these resources are often performed to simple rules of thumb. This paper follows the recommendations of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation?s Integration of Variable Generation Task Force to include variable generation in the calculation of resource adequacy and compares different reliability metrics. Examples are provided using the Western Interconnection footprint under different variable generation penetrations.

  10. Comparative Education and Research Capacity Building: Reflections on International Transfer and the Significance of Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Crossley

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in comparative and international education, along with a fundamental reconceptualisation of this distinctive multidisciplinary field of study. The nature and significance of these developments are explored with particular reference to their implications for broader research capacity building initiatives worldwide. In doing so, a critique of the international transfer of globally dominant research modalities and strategies is presented--along with arguments for increased attention to context sensitivity in both international development cooperation and educational research in general. Illustrative examples that support these arguments are drawn from the author's own research, from an analysis of emergent educational policy debates in the UK, and from related studies being carried out in Malaysia. In concluding, the strategic role of comparative research traditions and perspectives in a rapidly globalizing world is highlighted, while supporting the promotion of new initiative and research centres for comparative and international education.

  11. Comparative study of random and oriented antibody immobilization techniques on the binding capacity of immunosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausaite-Minkstimiene, A; Ramanaviciene, A; Kirlyte, J; Ramanavicius, A

    2010-08-01

    A comparative study of four different antibody immobilization techniques that are suitable for modification of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chip (SPR-chip) is reported. Antibodies against human growth hormone (anti-HGH) were used as the model system. The evaluated SPR-chip modification techniques were (i) random immobilization of intact anti-HGH (intact-anti-HGH) via self-assembled monolayer (SAM) based on 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA); (ii) random immobilization of intact-anti-HGH within carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) hydrogel by direct covalent amine coupling technique; (iii) oriented coupling of intact-anti-HGH via Fc-fragment to protein-G layer assembled on SAM consisting of MUA (MUA/pG); (iv) oriented immobilization of fragmented anti-HGH antibodies (frag-anti-HGH) via their native thiol-groups directly coupled to the gold. To liberate these thiol groups, the intact-anti-HGH was chemically "divided" into two frag-anti-HGH fragments by chemical reduction with 2-mercaptoethylamine (2-MEA). Optimal concentration of 2-MEA for preparation of anti-HGH was 15 mM. The surface concentration of immobilized antibodies and the antigen binding capacity for all four differently modified SPR-chips was evaluated and compared. The maximum surface concentration of immobilized intact-anti-HGH was obtained by immobilizing the antibody within CMD-hydrogel. The maximal antigen binding capacity was obtained by SPR-chip based on intact-anti-HGH immobilized via MUA/pG. The immobilization based on application of frag-anti-HGH was found to be the most suitable for design of SPR-immunosensor for HGH detection, due to its sufficient antigen binding capacity, simplicity, and low cost in respect to the currently evaluated techniques.

  12. Comparative physiological and proteomic analyses of poplar (Populus yunnanensis plantlets exposed to high temperature and drought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    Full Text Available Plantlets of Populus yunnanensis Dode were examined in a greenhouse for 48 h to analyze their physiological and proteomic responses to sustained heat, drought, and combined heat and drought. Compared with the application of a single stress, simultaneous treatment with both stresses damaged the plantlets more heavily. The plantlets experienced two apparent response stages under sustained heat and drought. During the first stage, malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS contents were induced by heat, but many protective substances, including antioxidant enzymes, proline, abscisic acid (ABA, dehydrin, and small heat shock proteins (sHSPs, were also stimulated. The plants thus actively defended themselves against stress and exhibited few pathological morphological features, most likely because a new cellular homeostasis was established through the collaborative operation of physiological and proteomic responses. During the second stage, ROS homeostasis was overwhelmed by substantial ROS production and a sharp decline in antioxidant enzyme activities, while the synthesis of some protective elements, such as proline and ABA, was suppressed. As a result, photosynthetic levels in P. yunnanensis decreased sharply and buds began to die, despite continued accumulation of sHSPs and dehydrin. This study supplies important information about the effects of extreme abiotic environments on woody plants.

  13. Advances in comparative physiology from high-speed imaging of animal and fluid motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, George V; Madden, Peter G A

    2008-01-01

    Since the time of Muybridge and Marey in the last half of the nineteenth century, studies of animal movement have relied on some form of high-speed or stop-action imaging to permit analysis of appendage and body motion. In the past ten years, the advent of megapixel-resolution high-speed digital imaging with maximal framing rates of 250 to 100,000 images per second has allowed new views of musculoskeletal function in comparative physiology that now extend to imaging flow around moving animals and the calculation of fluid forces produced by animals moving in fluids. In particular, the technique of digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) has revolutionized our ability to understand how moving animals generate fluid forces and propel themselves through air and water. DPIV algorithms generate a matrix of velocity vectors through the use of image cross-correlation, which can then be used to calculate the force exerted on the fluid as well as locomotor work and power. DPIV algorithms can also be applied to images of moving animals to calculate the velocity of different regions of the moving animal, providing a much more detailed picture of animal motion than can traditional digitizing methods. Although three-dimensional measurement of animal motion is now routine, in the near future model-based kinematic reconstructions and volumetric analyses of animal-generated fluid flow patterns will provide the next step in imaging animal biomechanics and physiology.

  14. Comparing the Local Climate Change and its Effects on Physiological Aspects and Yield of Ramie Cultivated in Different Biophysical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Subandi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments in three different biophysical environments were conducted in Jatinangor, Sumedang District, Jatitujuh. Majalengka District and Bandung District of West Java Province, Indonesia. The experiment were conducted to evaluate the environments, seasons, manure, nitrogen and potassium effect on the physiological aspects and yield of ramie plant (Boehmerianivea L. Gaud.The locations diverse at different elevation, rainfall type and soil type and atmospheric regimes. The experiments passed the years 2000-2001. The experiment in Sumedang regency was continued with two other experiments in 2007, and experiment in Bandung district was conducted in 2014.The field experiments design used in all the locations were randomized block design arranged in factorial pattern with two factors and two replications. Climatic analysis is done by comparing the atmospheric data of 2000-2001 and the data of 2002-2007 and the data of 2014. Assumed that all the local atmospheric data are atmospheric data under influence of climatic global change. Results of the experiments were: Jatitujuh region is not suitable for ramie cultivation. Dosage of waterw3=35%-40% of Field Capacity affecting sufficient growth on plant.The minimum dosage at which plant survive to produce yield is representing the most efficient input of production.Water supply for ramie plant could be designed to the most efficient volume to maintain the need of metabolism.

  15. Chelatococcus thermostellatus sp. nov., a new thermophile for bioplastic synthesis: comparative phylogenetic and physiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammad H A; Lebbe, Liesbeth; Willems, Anne; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    The poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), PHB, accumulating thermophilic strain MW9(T), isolated from an aerobic organic waste treatment plant, was characterized by detailed physiological and phylogenetic studies. The strain is a Gram-stain-negative, rod shaped, non-spore forming member of Alphaproteobacteria. It shows optimum growth at 50 °C. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the strain together with five very similar isolates, was affiliated to the genus Chelatococcus (Ibrahim et al. in J Appl Microbiol 109:1579-1590, 2010). Rep-PCR genomic fingerprints and partial dnaK gene sequence also revealed that these isolates are very similar, but differ from other Chelatococcus type strains. The major fatty acids were similar to those of other strains of the genus Chelatococcus. DNA-DNA hybridization of strain MW9(T) with Chelatococcus species type strains revealed 11.0-47.7 % relatedness. G+C content of DNA was 67.1 mol%, which is comparable with the other strains of Chelatococcus species. The physiological and phenotypic characteristics of the new strain MW9(T) are sufficient to differentiate it from previously described species in the genus Chelatococcus. Strain MW9(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Chelatococcus, for which the name Chelatococcus thermostellatus is proposed. The type strain is MW9(T) (=LMG 27009(T) = DSM 28244(T)). Compared to known Chelatococcus strains, strain MW9(T) could be a potent candidate for bioplastic production at elevated temperature.

  16. Comparative carotenoid compositions during maturation and their antioxidative capacities of three citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kyung-Mi; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated total carotenoid content, comparative carotenoid composition, vitamin C content, and total antioxidant capacity of three citrus varieties which are Yuza (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tabaka), Kjool (Citrus unshiu Marcow), and Dangyooja (Citrus grandis Osbeck). Seven carotenoids were identified, with β-cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin, and zeaxanthin being predominant in citrus varieties. Ripening increased the total carotenoid in three citrus varieties. Individual carotenoid of canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, and α-carotene in citrus varieties decreased with maturation, whereas the others increased with ripening. Yuza exhibited the highest total antioxidant capacity in 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, with VCEAC values of 582.9 mg/100 g and 451.5 mg/100g, respectively. The relative VCEAC values were vitamin C (1.00)>lycopene (0.375), α-carotene (0.304), β-carotene (0.289), β-cryptoxanthin (0.242), and zeaxanthin (0.099). These results indicate that Yuza contains higher amounts of total carotenoids, individual carotenoids, and vitamin C than other Korean citrus varieties.

  17. Comparative evaluation of the polyphenol composition and antioxidant capacity of propolis and Echinacea purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya S. Georgieva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate and compare total phenolics and total flavonoides, and antioxidant capacity of propolis and Echinacea purpurea ethanol extracts. Methods: Propolis and dried Echinacea purpurea extracts were obtained by extraction methods. The extracts were tested for total phenol and total flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. Results: The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids of propolis were found to be higher than Echinacea. The E.purpurea extract exhibited nearly 10 times lower antioxidant content in comparison with the propolis extracts. The 70% ethanol extract of propolis presented maximum antioxidant content, and the IC50 concentration was found to be higher in the 96% ethanol extract. However, both of the propolis extracts exhibited similar antioxidant activities. Conclusions: In the present study, the extracts of Echinacea purpurea and propolis were studied as sources of natural antioxidants. The results from the antioxidant assays show that all extracts can act as radical scavengers to a certain extent. They exhibit potent antioxidant activity in different solvent concentrations. Further studies in this area are in progress. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(1.000: 51-56

  18. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS FOR METAL BINDING CAPACITY OF CYSTEINE BY USING UV-VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivendu Ranjan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The metal binding capacity of cysteine with three different metals Nickel, Copper and Lead was studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometer for which absorbance values were taken after interaction of cysteine with metal salt solutions (10ppm and 100ppm. Before taking above absorbance dilution factor was set using cysteine stock. The increase in peak intensity was observed when metal salt solution and metal saltcysteine solution were compared. Based on peak shift and peak intensity finally it can be concluded that the binding capacity of cysteine with Nickel is more, followed by lead and copper. The normal chromophore activity in cysteine is due to the sulphur in which the transition takes place from non bonding orbital’s to the excited antibonding orbital in the range of 210-215nm range. The binding of the metals with cysteine may affect the chromophore activity and may also lead to structural damage of the chromophore. This can give the decrease in the peak intensity or the complete shift in the peak. These results suggest that cysteine metal binding ability can be used for the removal of the metals in water purification. Also this property can be used in removal of metals from our body considering the fact that cysteine may not show adverse effect in the system. So we can go for designing a new type of drug containing cysteine which helps to prevent the accumulation of such metals and thus prevent us from adverse effect.

  19. Comparative metagenomics demonstrating different degradative capacity of activated biomass treating hydrocarbon contaminated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Trilok Chandra; Pal, Rajesh Ramavadh; Shastri, Sunita; Jadeja, Niti B; Kapley, Atya

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the diverse degradative capacity of activated biomass, when exposed to different levels of total dissolved solids (TDS) using a comparative metagenomics approach. The biomass was collected at two time points to examine seasonal variations. Four metagenomes were sequenced on Illumina Miseq platform and analysed using MG-RAST. STAMP tool was used to analyse statistically significant differences amongst different attributes of metagenomes. Metabolic pathways related to degradation of aromatics via the central and peripheral pathways were found to be dominant in low TDS metagenome, while pathways corresponding to central carbohydrate metabolism, nitrogen, organic acids were predominant in high TDS sample. Seasonal variation was seen to affect catabolic gene abundance as well as diversity of the microbial community. Degradation of model compounds using activated sludge demonstrated efficient utilisation of single aromatic ring compounds in both samples but cyclic compounds were not efficiently utilised by biomass exposed to high TDS.

  20. Comparative physiological and transcriptional analyses of two contrasting drought tolerant alfalfa varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli eQuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of major environmental determinants of plant growth and productivity. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa is a legume perennial forage crop native to the arid and semi-arid environment, which is an ideal candidate to study the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring drought resistance in plants. In this study, drought stress responses of two alfalfa varieties, Longdong and Algonquin, were comparatively assayed at the physiological, morphological and transcriptional levels. Under control condition, the drought-tolerant Longdong with smaller leaf size and lower stomata density showed less water loss than the drought-sensitive Algonquin. After exposing to drought stress, Longdong showed less severe cell membrane damage, more proline and ascorbate (ASC contents and less accumulation of H2O2 than Algonquin. Moreover, significantly higher antioxidant enzymes activities after drought treatment were found in Longdong when compared with Algonquin. In addition, transcriptional expression analysis showed that Longdong exhibited significantly higher transcripts of drought-responsive genes in leaf and root under drought stress condition. Taken together, these results indicated that Longdong variety was more drought-tolerant than Algonquin variety as evidenced by less leaf firing, more lateral root number, higher relative aboveground/underground biomass per plant and survival rate.

  1. Worthing Physiological Score vs Revised Trauma Score in Outcome Prediction of Trauma patients; a Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhjavan-Shahraki, Babak; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Hajighanbari, Mohammad Javad; Karimi, Parviz; Baikpour, Masoud; Mirzay Razaz, Jalaledin; Yaseri, Mehdi; Shahsavari, Kavous; Mahdizadeh, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Awareness about the outcome of trauma patients in the emergency department (ED) has become a topic of interest. Accordingly, the present study aimed to compare the rapid trauma score (RTS) and worthing physiological scoring system (WPSS) in predicting in-hospital mortality and poor outcome of trauma patients. Methods: In this comparative study trauma patients brought to five EDs in different cities of Iran during the year 2016 were included. After data collection, discriminatory power and calibration of the models were assessed and compared using STATA 11. Results: 2148 patients with the mean age of 39.50±17.27 years were included (75.56% males). The AUC of RTS and WPSS models for prediction of mortality were 0.86 (95% CI: 0.82-0.90) and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.87-0.94), respectively (p=0.006). RTS had a sensitivity of 71.54 (95% CI: 62.59-79.13) and a specificity of 97.38 (95% CI: 96.56-98.01) in prediction of mortality. These measures for the WPSS were 87.80 (95% CI: 80.38-92.78) and 83.45 (95% CI: 81.75-85.04), respectively. The AUC of RTS and WPSS in predicting poor outcome were 0.81 (95% CI: 0.77-0.85) and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.92), respectively (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The findings showed a higher prognostic value for the WPSS model in predicting mortality and severe disabilities in trauma patients compared to the RTS model. Both models had good overall performance in prediction of mortality and poor outcome. PMID:28286838

  2. Capacity building efforts and perceptions for wildlife surveillance to detect zoonotic pathogens: comparing stakeholder perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwind, Jessica S; Goldstein, Tracey; Thomas, Kate; Mazet, Jonna A K; Smith, Woutrina A

    2014-01-01

    .... The PREDICT project, a component of United States Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats program, has introduced capacity building efforts to increase zoonotic pathogen...

  3. Analytical traceability of melon (Cucumis melo var reticulatus): proximate composition, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in relation to cultivar, plant physiology state, and seasonal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maietti, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Paola; Stagno, Caterina; Bordiga, Matteo; Travaglia, Fabiano; Locatelli, Monica; Arlorio, Marco; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2012-06-01

    Two morphologically different cultivars of Italian melons (Baggio and Giusto) were characterized considering samples harvested in different times, at the beginning (BPP) and at the end of the physiological plant production period (EPP). Proximate composition, protein, minerals, pH, phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, condensed tannins, and flavonoids were measured, showing a significant decrease in EPP samples (phenolics, antioxidant capacity, condensed tannins, and flavonoids); ascorbic acid decreased in Giusto cv, carotenoids in Baggio cv. Mineral content increased in either the cultivars (EPP samples). Year-to-year difference was significantly highlighted; the plant growing cycle significantly affected the chemotype. Despite these effects, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) permitted the discrimination of Baggio from Giusto cv, and the discrimination of BPP from EPP samples as well.

  4. Eight-Week Training Cessation Suppresses Physiological Stress but Rapidly Impairs Health Metabolic Profiles and Aerobic Capacity in Elite Taekwondo Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Sung, Yu-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Changes in an athlete’s physiological and health metabolic profiles after detraining have not been studied in elite Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. To enable a better understanding of these physiological changes to training cessation, this study examined the effects of 8-weeks detraining on the aerobic capacity, body composition, inflammatory status and health metabolic profile in elite TKD athletes. Sixteen elite TKD athletes (age: 21.0 ± 0.8 yrs, BMI: 22.4 ± 3.9 kg/m2; Mean ± SD; 11 males and 5 females) participated in this study. Physical activity level assessment using computerized physical activity logs was performed during the competitive preparation season (i.e. one-week before national competition) and at two week intervals throughout the detraining period. Participant aerobic capacity, body fat, and blood biomarkers were measured before and after detraining, and the blood biomarker analyses included leukocyte subpopulations, blood glucose, insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), and cortisol. Eight-week detraining increased DHEA-S/cortisol ratio (+57.3%, p = 0.004), increased insulin/cortisol ratio (+59.9%, p = 0.004), reduced aerobic power (–2.43%, p = 0.043), increased body fat accumulation (body fat%: +21.3%, p < 0.001), decreased muscle mass (muscle mass%: –4.04%, p < 0.001), and elevated HOMA-IR (the biomarker of systemic insulin resistance; +34.2%, p = 0.006). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a systemic inflammatory index, increased by 48.2% (p = 0.005). The change in aerobic capacity was correlated with the increased fat mass (r = –0.429, p = 0.049) but not with muscle loss. An increase in the NLR was correlated to the changes in HOMA-IR (r = 0.44, p = 0.044) and aerobic capacity (r = –0.439, p = 0.045). We demonstrate that 8-week detraining suppresses physiological stress but rapidly results in declines in athletic performance and health metabolic profiles, including reduced aerobic capacity, increased body fat, muscle

  5. Eight-Week Training Cessation Suppresses Physiological Stress but Rapidly Impairs Health Metabolic Profiles and Aerobic Capacity in Elite Taekwondo Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Liao

    Full Text Available Changes in an athlete's physiological and health metabolic profiles after detraining have not been studied in elite Taekwondo (TKD athletes. To enable a better understanding of these physiological changes to training cessation, this study examined the effects of 8-weeks detraining on the aerobic capacity, body composition, inflammatory status and health metabolic profile in elite TKD athletes. Sixteen elite TKD athletes (age: 21.0 ± 0.8 yrs, BMI: 22.4 ± 3.9 kg/m2; Mean ± SD; 11 males and 5 females participated in this study. Physical activity level assessment using computerized physical activity logs was performed during the competitive preparation season (i.e. one-week before national competition and at two week intervals throughout the detraining period. Participant aerobic capacity, body fat, and blood biomarkers were measured before and after detraining, and the blood biomarker analyses included leukocyte subpopulations, blood glucose, insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S, and cortisol. Eight-week detraining increased DHEA-S/cortisol ratio (+57.3%, p = 0.004, increased insulin/cortisol ratio (+59.9%, p = 0.004, reduced aerobic power (-2.43%, p = 0.043, increased body fat accumulation (body fat%: +21.3%, p < 0.001, decreased muscle mass (muscle mass%: -4.04%, p < 0.001, and elevated HOMA-IR (the biomarker of systemic insulin resistance; +34.2%, p = 0.006. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, a systemic inflammatory index, increased by 48.2% (p = 0.005. The change in aerobic capacity was correlated with the increased fat mass (r = -0.429, p = 0.049 but not with muscle loss. An increase in the NLR was correlated to the changes in HOMA-IR (r = 0.44, p = 0.044 and aerobic capacity (r = -0.439, p = 0.045. We demonstrate that 8-week detraining suppresses physiological stress but rapidly results in declines in athletic performance and health metabolic profiles, including reduced aerobic capacity, increased body fat, muscle loss

  6. Eight-Week Training Cessation Suppresses Physiological Stress but Rapidly Impairs Health Metabolic Profiles and Aerobic Capacity in Elite Taekwondo Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Sung, Yu-Chi; Chou, Chun-Chung; Chen, Chung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Changes in an athlete's physiological and health metabolic profiles after detraining have not been studied in elite Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. To enable a better understanding of these physiological changes to training cessation, this study examined the effects of 8-weeks detraining on the aerobic capacity, body composition, inflammatory status and health metabolic profile in elite TKD athletes. Sixteen elite TKD athletes (age: 21.0 ± 0.8 yrs, BMI: 22.4 ± 3.9 kg/m2; Mean ± SD; 11 males and 5 females) participated in this study. Physical activity level assessment using computerized physical activity logs was performed during the competitive preparation season (i.e. one-week before national competition) and at two week intervals throughout the detraining period. Participant aerobic capacity, body fat, and blood biomarkers were measured before and after detraining, and the blood biomarker analyses included leukocyte subpopulations, blood glucose, insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), and cortisol. Eight-week detraining increased DHEA-S/cortisol ratio (+57.3%, p = 0.004), increased insulin/cortisol ratio (+59.9%, p = 0.004), reduced aerobic power (-2.43%, p = 0.043), increased body fat accumulation (body fat%: +21.3%, p < 0.001), decreased muscle mass (muscle mass%: -4.04%, p < 0.001), and elevated HOMA-IR (the biomarker of systemic insulin resistance; +34.2%, p = 0.006). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a systemic inflammatory index, increased by 48.2% (p = 0.005). The change in aerobic capacity was correlated with the increased fat mass (r = -0.429, p = 0.049) but not with muscle loss. An increase in the NLR was correlated to the changes in HOMA-IR (r = 0.44, p = 0.044) and aerobic capacity (r = -0.439, p = 0.045). We demonstrate that 8-week detraining suppresses physiological stress but rapidly results in declines in athletic performance and health metabolic profiles, including reduced aerobic capacity, increased body fat, muscle loss, insulin

  7. Institutional capacity and corruption: State Courts of Accounts in comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enivaldo Carvalho da Rocha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relation between the institutional capacity of the State Courts of Accounts and corruption. Methodologically, we combine descriptive and multivariate statistics to analyze a database compiled from Melo, Pereira and Figueiredo (2009 and Ferraz and Finan (2011. In particular, we use principal component analysis to estimate an indicator of institutional capacity as the percentage of the state budget, budget transparency and seniority of each Court. We also employ a linear ordinary least squares (OLS model to estimate the effect of institutional capacity on the incidence of corruption. The results suggest that: (1 in comparison, Sao Paulo presents the Court with greater institutional capacity, while Mato Grosso do Sul presents the worst performance; (2 on average, the larger the budget of the Court, the lower the level of transparency and (3 the higher the institutional capacity of the Court, the higher the probability of detecting corruption.

  8. Comparative analysis of environmental carrying capacity of the Bohai Sea Rim area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu; Liu, Yi; Chen, Jining; Zhang, Tianzhu; Zeng, Siyu

    2011-11-01

    Environmental carrying capacity is an essential metric for measuring regional sustainability. Although the term "carrying capacity" has been applied for over a century, the concept definition, quantitative methods and comprehensive evaluation remain arguable. This study analyzed the carrying capacity of four environmental elements, including water resources, air, surface water and offshore sea, and integrated them into a comprehensive index to represent overall regional profiles of resources and environment. The method was then applied to thirteen municipalities in the Bohai Sea Rim area, one of the most rapidly developing regions in transition China. The results show that the comprehensive environmental carrying capacity of the municipalities in the south sub-region were largest in 2007, while that of the west municipalities were lowest. The regional economic development exceeded the overall environmental carrying capacity by 36% and the west sub-region area deserves overwhelming attention for future industrial allocation.

  9. Building academic health centers' capacity to shape and respond to comparative effectiveness research policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLare, Jordan M; Conway, Patrick H; Rowe, John W

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, the focus on comparative effectiveness research (CER), the funding available to support it, and the range of possible effects of CER policy on academic health centers (AHCs) have increased substantially. CER has implications for the research, education, and clinical care components of AHCs' missions. The current funding and policy environment have created specific opportunities for AHCs to shape and respond to CER policies across the four dimensions of the CER enterprise: research, human and scientific capital, data infrastructure, and translation and dissemination. Characteristics such as the degree of physician-hospital integration, the status of a health information technology infrastructure, and the presence of a well-developed cross-functional health services research capacity linked to the care delivery enterprise could help AHCs respond to these opportunities and influence future policies. AHCs are also essential to the development of methodologies and the training of the next cadre of researchers. Further, a focus on understanding what works in health care and increasing adoption of evidence-based practice must become embedded in the fabric of AHCs. Those AHCs most successful in responding to the CER challenge may leverage it as a point of differentiation in the marketplace for health care and lead transformational improvements in health.

  10. Causal-comparative study analyzing student success in hybrid anatomy and physiology courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jacqueline Anita

    In the biological sciences, higher student success levels are achieved in traditionally formatted, face-to-face coursework than in hybrid courses. The methodologies used to combine hybrid and in-person elements to the course need to be applied to the biological sciences to emulate the success seen in the traditional courses since the number of hybrid course offerings at community colleges are rapidly increasing. Research has delineated that creating online collaborative communities and increasing student engagement all function to increase student successful outcomes. This causal-comparative study was conducted using student data from four sections of hybrid, introductory anatomy and physiology courses over the 2011 and 2012 calendar years. The study included two sources of data: unit exam scores and student surveys. Analysis of the unit exam scores determined that there were statistically significant differences in student success and achievement by the implementation of the following web-enhanced technologies: a) discussion boards, b) Breeze, and c) Wiki tools. In the scope of this study, student success and achievement was defined as a student earning a C (70%) or higher at the completion of the course. There were a total of 29 surveys conducted per each unit during the 2012 semesters that related to the web-enhanced technologies implemented into the course: Discussion boards, BreezeRTM, and Wiki tools. Demographic data was also compiled on all of the students enrolled in the classes during this study to demonstrate that there is no specified niche or trend seen in the students enrolling for this particular course. Unit 1 was used as a baseline to compare the students from the two years. It was determined that the students were not significantly different in aptitude levels at the beginning of the courses based on their Unit 1 exam scores. Inferential statistical analysis was done to examine student success and achievement using the following tools: t-test of

  11. Coronal Sealing Capacity of Temporary Restorative Materials in Pediatric Dentistry: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Shabnam; Seraj, Bahman; Heidari, Alireza; Mirdamadi, Atousa; Shahrabi, Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study is to compare the coronal microleakage of three common temporary restorative materials, namely Coltosol, Compoglass, and Zonalin, used in pediatric dentistry after endodontic treatment at different time intervals (1 week, 1, and 2 months) using dye penetration. Access cavities were prepared in 72 intact extracted premolar teeth. The samples were divided into three groups (n = 24) and filled with Coltosol, Compoglass, or Zonalin. After thermal cycling for 500 cycles (5-55°C), the teeth were immersed in 1% methylene blue dye at 37°C for 1 week (n = 8), 1 month (n = 8), and 2 months (n = 8). The samples were sectioned buccolingually, and the linear depth of dye penetration was measured using a stereomicroscope at 16 × magnification. The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. There were no significant differences in the micro-leakage values of Coltosol and Zonalin or Zonalin and Com-poglass groups at 1 week (p > 0.05) or 1 month (p > 0.05) intervals, but a significant difference was noted between Coltosol and Compoglass groups (p 0.05). At 1 week or 1 month of use, Coltosol showed better coronal seal. At 2 months, there was no significant difference apparent between the groups. A longer time lapse was associated with an increased likelihood of microleakage. Milani S, Seraj B, Heidari A, Mirdamadi A, Shahrabi M. Coronal Sealing Capacity of Temporary Restorative Materials in Pediatric Dentistry: A Comparative Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(2):115-118.

  12. Comparing capacity coefficient and dual task assessment of visual multitasking workload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaha, Leslie M.

    2017-07-14

    Capacity coefficient analysis could offer a theoretically grounded alternative approach to subjective measures and dual task assessment of cognitive workload. Workload capacity or workload efficiency is a human information processing modeling construct defined as the amount of information that can be processed by the visual cognitive system given a specified of amount of time. In this paper, I explore the relationship between capacity coefficient analysis of workload efficiency and dual task response time measures. To capture multitasking performance, I examine how the relatively simple assumptions underlying the capacity construct generalize beyond the single visual decision making tasks. The fundamental tools for measuring workload efficiency are the integrated hazard and reverse hazard functions of response times, which are defined by log transforms of the response time distribution. These functions are used in the capacity coefficient analysis to provide a functional assessment of the amount of work completed by the cognitive system over the entire range of response times. For the study of visual multitasking, capacity coefficient analysis enables a comparison of visual information throughput as the number of tasks increases from one to two to any number of simultaneous tasks. I illustrate the use of capacity coefficients for visual multitasking on sample data from dynamic multitasking in the modified Multi-attribute Task Battery.

  13. Physiological Research of Defence Interest in India Part II: Studies in Thermal Stress Noise Exposure Hazards Bioclimatology Physical Work Capacity and Effects of Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Ramaswamy

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evaluation of the caloric requirements of our defence personnel under various operational scenarios has helped rationalise the service ration scale appropriate to each scenario. Some of our troops have often to work under extremely hot-dry or hot-cold environments which are generally known have adverse effect on the human body. Consequently, the nature of heat illness cases among army personnel and the contributing factors, the requirements of sodium and potassium in summer, quantification of the impact of thermal stress on the physical work capacity and mental functions, prediction of endurance time and safe exposure time while working under hot environments, have been extensively studied. Exposure to high noise levels is a hazard during gunfire as well as operation of machinery such as engines of ships. Auditory and non-auditory effects due to exposure, and the measures to minimise noise exposure, have been studied. Durations of safe exposure to different noise levels have been prescribed. Another important area covered is the effect of ageing on physical and capacities. The findings would be useful in the optimal deployment of troops in different tasks. Defence physiologists have also carried out basic research whose results would be handy in the setting of norms and standards for important physiological parameters and for the ergonomic/physiological evaluation of implements and instruments.

  14. Physiologically based biokinetic (PBBK) modeling of safrole bioactivation and detoxification in humans as compared with rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martati, Erryana; Boersma, Marelle G; Spenkelink, Albertus; Khadka, Dambar B; van Bladeren, Peter J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Punt, Ans

    2012-08-01

    A physiologically based biokinetic (PBBK) model for the alkenylbenzene safrole in humans was developed based on in vitro- and in silico-derived kinetic parameters. With the model obtained, the time- and dose-dependent formation of the proximate and ultimate carcinogenic metabolites, 1-hydroxysafrole and 1-sulfooxysafrole in human liver were estimated and compared with previously predicted levels of these metabolites in rat liver. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to predict interindividual variation in the formation of these metabolites in the overall population. For the evaluation of the model performance, a comparison was made between the predicted total amount of urinary metabolites of safrole and the reported total levels of metabolites in the urine of humans exposed to safrole, which adequately matched. The model results revealed no dose-dependent shifts in safrole metabolism and no relative increase in bioactivation at dose levels up to 100mg/kg body weight/day. Species differences were mainly observed in the detoxification pathways of 1-hydroxysafrole, with the formation of 1-oxosafrole being a main detoxification pathway of 1-hydroxysafrole in humans but a minor pathway in rats, and glucuronidation of 1-hydroxysafrole being less important in humans than in rats. The formation of 1-sulfooxysafrole was predicted to vary 4- to 17-fold in the population (fold difference between the 95th and median, and 95th and 5th percentile, respectively), with the median being three to five times higher in human than in rat liver. Comparison of the PBBK results for safrole with those previously obtained for the related alkenylbenzenes estragole and methyleugenol revealed that differences in 1-sulfooxy metabolite formation are limited, being only twofold to fivefold.

  15. Genetic, physiological and comparative genomic studies of hypertension and insulin resistance in the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Coan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously mapped hypertension-related insulin resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs to rat chromosomes 4, 12 and 16 using adipocytes from F2 crosses between spontaneously hypertensive (SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, and subsequently identified Cd36 as the gene underlying the chromosome 4 locus. The identity of the chromosome 12 and 16 genes remains unknown. To identify whole-body phenotypes associated with the chromosome 12 and 16 linkage regions, we generated and characterised new congenic strains, with WKY donor segments introgressed onto an SHR genetic background, for the chromosome 12 and 16 linkage regions. We found a >50% increase in insulin sensitivity in both the chromosome 12 and 16 strains. Blood pressure and left ventricular mass were reduced in the two congenic strains consistent with the congenic segments harbouring SHR genes for insulin resistance, hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. Integrated genomic analysis, using physiological and whole-genome sequence data across 42 rat strains, identified variants within the congenic regions in Upk3bl, RGD1565131 and AABR06087018.1 that were associated with blood pressure, cardiac mass and insulin sensitivity. Quantitative trait transcript analysis across 29 recombinant inbred strains showed correlation between expression of Hspb1, Zkscan5 and Pdgfrl with adipocyte volume, systolic blood pressure and cardiac mass, respectively. Comparative genome analysis showed a marked enrichment of orthologues for human GWAS-associated genes for insulin resistance within the syntenic regions of both the chromosome 12 and 16 congenic intervals. Our study defines whole-body phenotypes associated with the SHR chromosome 12 and 16 insulin-resistance QTLs, identifies candidate genes for these SHR QTLs and finds human orthologues of rat genes in these regions that associate with related human traits. Further study of these genes in the congenic strains will lead to robust identification of the

  16. Epigenetics as a source of variation in comparative animal physiology - or - Lamarck is lookin' pretty good these days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggren, Warren W

    2014-03-01

    Considerable variation is inherent both within and between comparative physiological data sets. Known sources for such variation include diet, gender, time of day and season of experiment, among many other factors, but a meta-analysis of physiological studies shows that surprisingly few studies report controlling for these factors. In fact, less than 3% of comparative physiological papers mention epigenetics. However, our understanding of epigenetic influences on physiological processes is growing rapidly, and it is highly likely that epigenetic phenomena are an additional 'hidden' source of variation, particularly in wild-caught specimens. Recent studies have shown epigenetic inheritance of commonly studied traits such as metabolic rate (water fleas Daphnia magna; emu, Dromaius novaellandiae), hypoxic tolerance, cardiac performance (zebrafish, Danio rerio), as well as numerous morphological effects. The ecological and evolutionary significance of such epigenetic inheritance is discussed in a comparative physiological context. Finally, against this context of epigenetic inheritance of phenotype, this essay also provides a number of caveats and warnings regarding the interpretation of transgenerational phenotype modification as a true epigenetic phenomenon. Parental effects, sperm storage, multiple paternity and direct gamete exposure can all be confounding factors. Epigenetic inheritance may best be studied in animal models that can be maintained in the laboratory over multiple generations, to yield parental stock that themselves are free of epigenetic effects from the historical experiences of their parents.

  17. Higher photosynthetic capacity and different functional trait scaling relationships in erect bryophytes compared with prostrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Liu, Xin; Bao, Weikai

    2016-02-01

    Ecophysiological studies of bryophytes have generally been conducted at the shoot or canopy scale. However, their growth forms are diverse, and knowledge of whether bryophytes with different shoot structures have different functional trait levels and scaling relationships is limited. We collected 27 bryophyte species and categorised them into two groups based on their growth forms: erect and prostrate species. Twenty-one morphological, nutrient and photosynthetic traits were quantified. Trait levels and bivariate trait scaling relationships across species were compared between the two groups. The two groups had similar mean values for shoot mass per area (SMA), light saturation point and mass-based nitrogen (N(mass)) and phosphorus concentrations. Erect bryophytes possessed higher values for mass-based chlorophyll concentration (Chl(mass)), light-saturated assimilation rate (A(mass)) and photosynthetic nitrogen/phosphorus use efficiency. N(mass), Chl(mass) and A(mass) were positively related, and these traits were negatively associated with SMA. Furthermore, the slope of the regression of N(mass) versus Chl(mass) was steeper for erect bryophytes than that for prostrate bryophytes, whereas this pattern was reversed for the relationship between Chl(mass) and A(mass). In conclusion, erect bryophytes possess higher photosynthetic capacities than prostrate species. Furthermore, erect bryophytes invest more nitrogen in chloroplast pigments to improve their light-harvesting ability, while the structure of prostrate species permits more efficient light capture. This study confirms the effect of growth form on the functional trait levels and scaling relationships of bryophytes. It also suggests that bryophytes could be good models for investigating the carbon economy and nutrient allocation of plants at the shoot rather than the leaf scale.

  18. Effect of environmental factors and cell physiological state on Pulsed Electric Fields resistance and repair capacity of various strains of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somolinos, M; García, D; Mañas, P; Condón, S; Pagán, R

    2008-06-10

    The aim was to determine the resistance variation of four strains of Escherichia coli to Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF), the role of the sigma factor RpoS in PEF resistance, as well as the influence of several environmental factors and the cell physiological state on the PEF resistance and repair capacity. The rpoS null mutant, E. coli BJ4L1, exhibited decreased PEF resistance as compared with its wild-type parent, BJ4. W3110 and O157:H7 were the most PEF-resistant strains: whereas 2 and more than 3 Log10 cycles of BJ4 and BJ4L1 cells, respectively, were inactivated after 50 pulses at 35 kV/cm, only 0.5 Log10 cycle of inactivation of W3110 and O157:H7 was attained. A different pattern was observed and the resistance variation among strains was largely reduced, when selective recovery media were used. At exponential growth phase, the resistance of the four strains was lower, and more than 4 Log10 cycles of inactivation of all strains tested were attained at 30 kV/cm. Previous heat and cold shock treatments scarcely influenced cell PEF resistance. PEF survival increased with the reduction in water activity of the treatment medium to 0.94: the occurrence of sublethally injured cells was negligible, and less than 1 Log10 cycle of inactivation was attained at 35 kV/cm. PEF-treated cells were sensitive to a subsequent storage at pH 4.0 or in the presence of sorbic acid, attaining a final inactivation of 4-5 Log10 cycles after 24 hour-incubation. In conclusion, the work confirms the role of rpoS in PEF resistance. E. coli strains exhibit large differences in PEF resistance. These differences were less important when cells were recovered under selective conditions. Both resistance variation among strains and occurrence of sublethal damage were noticeably influenced by the environmental factors tested.

  19. An Evaluation of the Use of Student-Centred Investigations in Teaching Comparative Animal Physiology to Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, John I.; Bonsall, Marie

    1995-01-01

    Taught comparative animal physiology to undergraduates (n=31) using student-centered (open-ended) investigations in small groups. Questionnaires and discussion found that students appeared to value learning through their own experience as highly as they did being taught and valued the opportunity to establish and develop skills less easily…

  20. Combining and comparing EEG, peripheral physiology and eye-related measures for the assessment of mental workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Brouwer, A.M.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2014-01-01

    While studies exist that compare different physiological variables with respect to their association with mental workload, it is still largely unclear which variables supply the best information about momentary workload of an individual and what is the benefit of combining them. We investigated

  1. Physiologically Based Biokinetic (PBBK) Modeling of Safrole Bioactivation and Detoxification in Humans as Compared With Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martati, E.; Boersma, M.G.; Spenkelink, A.; Khadka, D.B.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Rietjens, I.; Punt, A.

    2012-01-01

    A physiologically based biokinetic (PBBK) model for the alkenylbenzene safrole in humans was developed based on in vitro- and in silico-derived kinetic parameters. With the model obtained, the time- and dose-dependent formation of the proximate and ultimate carcinogenic metabolites, 1'-hydroxysafrol

  2. Genome Sequences of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 (Revised) and NZ9000 and Comparative Physiological Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linares, D.M.; Kok, J.; Poolman, B.

    2010-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 and its parent MG1363 are the most commonly used lactic acid bacteria for expression and physiological studies. We noted unexpected but significant differences in the growth behaviors of both strains. We sequenced the entire genomes of the original NZ9000 and MG1363 strains

  3. A comparative study of relational learning capacity in honeybees (Apis mellifera and stingless bees (Melipona rufiventris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mauricio Moreno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Learning of arbitrary relations is the capacity to acquire knowledge about associations between events or stimuli that do not share any similarities, and use this knowledge to make behavioural choices. This capacity is well documented in humans and vertebrates, and there is some evidence it exists in the honeybee (Apis mellifera. However, little is known about whether the ability for relational learning extends to other invertebrates, although many insects have been shown to possess excellent learning capacities in spite of their small brains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a symbolic matching-to-sample procedure, we show that the honeybee Apis mellifera rapidly learns arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, reaching 68.2% correct choice for pattern-colour relations and 73.3% for colour-pattern relations. However, Apis mellifera does not transfer this knowledge to the symmetrical relations when the stimulus order is reversed. A second bee species, the stingless bee Melipona rufiventris from Brazil, seems unable to learn the same arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, although it exhibits excellent discrimination learning. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results confirm that the capacity for learning arbitrary relations is not limited to vertebrates, but even insects with small brains can perform this learning task. Interestingly, it seems to be a species-specific ability. The disparity in relational learning performance between the two bee species we tested may be linked to their specific foraging and recruitment strategies, which evolved in adaptation to different environments.

  4. Comparing the glucuronidation capacity of the feline liver with substrate-specific glucuronidation in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beusekom, C D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314836497; Fink-Gremmels, J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/119949997; Schrickx, J A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483114X

    This study aimed to assess the overall glucuronidation capacity of cats, using prototypic substrates identified for human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). To this end, Michaelis-Menten kinetics were established for the substrates using feline hepatic microsomal fractions, and results were

  5. Genome-guided analysis of physiological capacities of Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans provides insights into environmental adaptations and syntrophic acetate oxidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Müller

    Full Text Available This paper describes the genome-based analysis of Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans strain Re1, a syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacterium (SAOB. Principal issues such as environmental adaptations, metabolic capacities, and energy conserving systems have been investigated and the potential consequences for syntrophic acetate oxidation discussed. Briefly, in pure culture, T. acetatoxydans grows with different organic compounds and produces acetate as the main product. In a syntrophic consortium with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, it can also reverse its metabolism and instead convert acetate to formate/H2 and CO2. It can only proceed if the product formed is continuously removed. This process generates a very small amount of energy that is scarcely enough for growth, which makes this particular syntrophy of special interest. As a crucial member of the biogas-producing community in ammonium-rich engineered AD processes, genomic features conferring ammonium resistance, bacterial defense, oxygen and temperature tolerance were found, as well as attributes related to biofilm formation and flocculation. It is likely that T. acetatoxydans can form an electrochemical gradient by putative electron-bifurcating Rnf complex and [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases, as observed in other acetogens. However, genomic deficiencies related to acetogenic metabolism and anaerobic respiration were discovered, such as the lack of formate dehydrogenase and F1F0 ATP synthase. This has potential consequences for the metabolic pathways used under SAO and non-SAO conditions. The two complete sets of bacteriophage genomes, which were found to be encoded in the genome, are also worthy of mention.

  6. Capacity of the aquatic fern (Salvinia minima Baker) to accumulate high concentrations of nickel in its tissues, and its effect on plant physiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, Ignacio I.; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Talavera-May, Carlos; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M., E-mail: jorgesm@cicy.mx

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We document the capacity of an aquatic fern to hyper-accumulate Ni. • Effects of high Ni concentrations uptake on plant performance is documented. • High concentration of Ni in tissues damage photosynthesis. • Damage is related to carboxylation mechanisms than to electron transfer efficiency. • S. minima is a good candidate for remediation of water bodies contaminated with Ni. - Abstract: An experiment was designed to assess the capacity of Salvinia minima Baker to uptake and accumulate nickel in its tissues and to evaluate whether or not this uptake can affect its physiology. Our results suggest that S. minima plants are able to take up high amounts of nickel in its tissues, particularly in roots. In fact, our results support the idea that S. minima might be considered a hyper-accumulator of nickel, as it is able to accumulate 16.3 mg g{sup −1} (whole plant DW basis). Our results also showed a two-steps uptake pattern of nickel, with a fast uptake of nickel at the first 6 to 12 h of being expose to the metal, followed by a slow take up phase until the end of the experiment at 144 h. S. minima thus, may be considered as a fern useful in the phytoremediation of residual water bodies contaminated with this metal. Also from our results, S. minima can tolerate fair concentrations of the metal; however, at concentrations higher than 80 μM Ni (1.5 mg g{sup −1} internal nickel concentration), its physiological performance can be affected. For instance, the integrity of cell membranes was affected as the metal concentration and exposure time increased. The accumulation of high concentrations of internal nickel did also affect photosynthesis, the efficiency of PSII, and the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, although at a lower extent.

  7. Processed tart cherry products--comparative phytochemical content, in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Boxin; Bosak, Kristen N; Brickner, Paula R; Iezzoni, Dominic G; Seymour, E Mitchell

    2012-05-01

    Processing of fruits and vegetables affects their phytochemical and nutrient content. Tart cherries are commercially promoted to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. However, processing affects their phytochemical content and may affect their related health benefits. The current study compares the in vitro antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory cyclooxygenase activity of processed tart cherry (Prunus cerasus) products-cherry juice concentrate, individually quick-frozen cherries, canned cherries, and dried cherries. Cherry products were analyzed for total anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin content and profile. On a per serving basis, total anthocyanins were highest in frozen cherries and total proanthocyanidins were highest in juice concentrate. Total phenolics were highest in juice concentrate. Juice concentrate had the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and peroxynitrite radical averting capacity (NORAC). Dried cherries had the highest hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) and superoxide radical averting capacity (SORAC). Processed tart cherry products compared very favorably to the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture-reported ORAC of other fresh and processed fruits. Inhibition of in vitro inflammatory COX-1 activity was greatest in juice concentrate. In summary, all processed tart cherry products possessed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, but processing differentially affected phytochemical content and in vitro bioactivity. On a per serving basis, juice concentrate was superior to other tart cherry products.

  8. Capacity of the aquatic fern (Salvinia minima Baker) to accumulate high concentrations of nickel in its tissues, and its effect on plant physiological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Ignacio I; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Talavera-May, Carlos; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2014-10-01

    An experiment was designed to assess the capacity of Salvinia minima Baker to uptake and accumulate nickel in its tissues and to evaluate whether or not this uptake can affect its physiology. Our results suggest that S. minima plants are able to take up high amounts of nickel in its tissues, particularly in roots. In fact, our results support the idea that S. minima might be considered a hyper-accumulator of nickel, as it is able to accumulate 16.3 mg g(-1) (whole plant DW basis). Our results also showed a two-steps uptake pattern of nickel, with a fast uptake of nickel at the first 6 to 12h of being expose to the metal, followed by a slow take up phase until the end of the experiment at 144 h. S. minima thus, may be considered as a fern useful in the phytoremediation of residual water bodies contaminated with this metal. Also from our results, S. minima can tolerate fair concentrations of the metal; however, at concentrations higher than 80 μM Ni (1.5 mg g(-1) internal nickel concentration), its physiological performance can be affected. For instance, the integrity of cell membranes was affected as the metal concentration and exposure time increased. The accumulation of high concentrations of internal nickel did also affect photosynthesis, the efficiency of PSII, and the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, although at a lower extent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ascending auditory interneurons in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus (Walker): comparative physiology and direct connections with afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, R M

    1988-05-01

    Ascending auditory interneurons of the cricket, Teleogryllus commodus (Walker), were investigated using simultaneous intracellular and extracellular recording in order to identify units which had previously been characterized only by extracellular recording. The morphology and physiology of the large adapting unit (LAU: Fig. 1) and of the small tonic unit (STU: Fig. 2) of Teleogryllus correspond well to those of the ascending neuron 2 (AN2) and the ascending neuron 1 (AN1) of Gryllus (Figs. 1, 2), respectively. A summary of the ascending auditory interneurons described by various authors in 5 species of crickets is presented in order to establish common identities. Physiological evidence for direct connections between auditory afferents and the ascending auditory interneurons AN1 (STU) and AN2 (LAU) is presented. Simultaneous intracellular recordings from receptors and interneurons in response to sound as well as the activity of auditory interneurons upon electrical stimulation of the tympanal nerve reveal short and constant latencies of receptor-evoked synaptic activity in AN1 (STU) and AN2 (LAU).

  10. COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR STUDY OF SOME SHEEP BREEDS IN SAUDI ARABIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. AL-Harbi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Naemi, Heri, Najdi and Sawakni sheep breeds inhabiting Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were studied on both physiological and molecular bases. Native polyacrylamide gel-electrophoreses for two enzymes Malate Dehydrogenase (Mdh and Malic Enzyme (Me recorded 5 isoenzyme loci from which 4 were polymorphic and 1 was monomorphic. Mdh showed three fractions, the first was recorded in Sawakni and Najdi breeds, the second was monomorphic and was recorded in all breeds while the third was recorded in all except Heri. Malic enzyme showed two polymorphic fractions, the first was recorded in Heri and Naemi and the second was recorded in all breeds. Both metabolic enzymes activities were higher in Sawakni than in the native breeds. 607, 227, 498 and 595 bp nucleotides from CO1, ND4, cytb genes and d-loop, respectively, were sequenced with no base substitutions among and/or within breeds except for ND4 gene and d-loop. The molecular tree clustered the three breeds other than Naemi in one group and Naemi was basal. Isoenzymes therefore, discriminate clearly the studied breeds although they are not as accurate as molecular tools indicating their applicability with more efficiency in physiology than in genetics while the d-loop was efficient in discriminating the studied breeds phynotypically.

  11. Comparative physiology of vocal musculature in two odontocetes, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thometz, Nicole M; Dearolf, Jennifer L; Dunkin, Robin C; Noren, Dawn P; Holt, Marla M; Sims, Olivia C; Cathey, Brandon C; Williams, Terrie M

    2017-05-31

    The mechanism by which odontocetes produce sound is unique among mammals. To gain insight into the physiological properties that support sound production in toothed whales, we examined myoglobin content ([Mb]), non-bicarbonate buffering capacity (β), fiber-type profiles, and myosin heavy chain expression of vocal musculature in two odontocetes: the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus; n = 4) and the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena; n = 5). Both species use the same anatomical structures to produce sound, but differ markedly in their vocal repertoires. Tursiops produce both broadband clicks and tonal whistles, while Phocoena only produce higher frequency clicks. Specific muscles examined in this study included: (1) the nasal musculature around the phonic lips on the right (RNM) and left (LNM) sides of the head, (2) the palatopharyngeal sphincter (PPS), which surrounds the larynx and aids in pressurizing cranial air spaces, and (3) the genioglossus complex (GGC), a group of muscles positioned ventrally within the head. Overall, vocal muscles had significantly lower [Mb] and β than locomotor muscles from the same species. The PPS was predominately composed of small diameter slow-twitch fibers. Fiber-type and myosin heavy chain analyses revealed that the GGC was comprised largely of fast-twitch fibers (Tursiops: 88.6%, Phocoena: 79.7%) and had the highest β of all vocal muscles. Notably, there was a significant difference in [Mb] between the RNM and LNM in Tursiops, but not Phocoena. Our results reveal shared physiological characteristics of individual vocal muscles across species that enhance our understanding of key functional roles, as well as species-specific differences which appear to reflect differences in vocal capacities.

  12. [Outstanding German scientist Johannes Muller and his contribution to the development of modern physiology, comparative anatomy and embryology (to the 150 anniversary from the date of the death)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovskiĭ, L N

    2008-01-01

    The article presents data related to outstanding German scientist, morphologist, physiologist Ioganne Muller. His role the development of modern physiology, comparative anatomy and embryology is considered.

  13. Comparing the effects of minimal handling protocols on the physiological parameters of preterm infants receiving exogenous surfactant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Cabral

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The practice of minimal handling is recommended for preterm infants (PTIs. However, few studies have investigated the effects of this practice among these infants or the time needed to ensure greater physiological stability, especially after exogenous surfactant treatments. OBJECTIVE: The current study compared the effects of two protocols of minimal handling on the physiological variables of PTIs after surfactant therapy. METHOD : An exploratory prospective observational study was performed with 40 PTIs weighing less than 1,500 g. The infants were divided into two groups and monitored for 72 hours. One group received the standard minimal handling procedure during the first 12 hours after surfactant therapy; the other group (i.e., the modified group received minimal handling within 72 hours after surfactant therapy. Infant heart rate (HR, oxygen saturation, body temperature, and the adverse events associated with changes to these variables were monitored every 10 minutes. RESULTS : Significant between-group differences were not found with regard to the occurrence of the adverse events associated with physiological changes (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: The practice of minimal handling among very low birth weight infants did not alter their physiological stability when performed either 12 or 72 hours after surfactant therapy.

  14. Excessive nitrogen application dampens antioxidant capacity and grain filling in wheat as revealed by metabolic and physiological analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingan; Xie, Yan; Hu, Ling; Si, Jisheng; Wang, Zongshuai

    2017-01-01

    In this study, field-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was treated with normal (Nn) and excessive (Ne) levels of fertilizer N. Results showed that Ne depressed the activity of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase and increased the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was higher under Ne at anthesis and medium milk but similar at the early dough stage and significantly lower at the hard dough stage than that under Nn. The metabolomics analysis of the leaf responses to Ne during grain filling showed 99 metabolites that were different between Ne and Nn treatments, including phenolic and flavonoid compounds, amino acids, organic acids and lipids, which are primarily involved in ROS scavenging, N metabolism, heat stress adaptation and disease resistance. Organic carbon (C) and total N contents were affected by the Ne treatment, with lower C/N ratios developing after medium milk. Ultimately, grain yields decreased with Ne. Based on these data, compared with the normal N fertilizer treatment, we concluded that excessive N application decreased the ability to scavenge ROS, increased lipid peroxidation and caused significant metabolic changes disturbing N metabolism, secondary metabolism and lipid metabolism, which led to reduced grain filling in wheat. PMID:28233811

  15. A comparative study of slow and fast suryanamaskar on physiological function

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    Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous scientific studies have reported beneficial physiological changes after short- and long-term yoga training. Suryanamaskar (SN is an integral part of modern yoga training and may be performed either in a slow or rapid manner. As there are few studies on SN, we conducted this study to determine the differential effect of 6 months training in the fast and slow versions. Materials and Methods: 42 school children in the age group of 12-16 years were randomly divided into two groups of 21 each. Group I and Group II received 6 months training in performance of slow suryanamaskar (SSN and fast suryanamaskar (FSN, respectively. Results: Training in SSN produced a significant decrease in diastolic pressure. In contrast, training in FSN produced a significant increase in systolic pressure. Although there was a highly significant increase in isometric hand grip (IHG strength and hand grip endurance (HGE in both the groups, the increase in HGE in FSN group was significantly more than in SSN group. Pulmonary function tests showed improvements in both the groups though intergroup comparison showed no significance difference. Maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP and maximum expiratory pressure increased significantly in both the groups with increase of MIP in FSN group being more significant than in SSN. Conclusion: The present study reports that SN has positive physiological benefits as evidenced by improvement of pulmonary function, respiratory pressures, hand grip strength and endurance, and resting cardiovascular parameters. It also demonstrates the differences between SN training when performed in a slow and fast manner, concluding that the effects of FSN are similar to physical aerobic exercises, whereas the effects of SSN are similar to those of yoga training.

  16. Proposing a sequential comparative analysis for assessing multilateral health agency transformation and sustainable capacity: exploring the advantages of institutional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This article proposes an approach to comparing and assessing the adaptive capacity of multilateral health agencies in meeting country and individual healthcare needs. Most studies comparing multilateral health agencies have failed to clearly propose a method for conducting agency comparisons. Methods This study conducted a qualitative case study methodological approach, such that secondary and primary case study literature was used to conduct case study comparisons of multilateral health agencies. Results Through the proposed Sequential Comparative Analysis (SCA), the author found a more effective way to justify the selection of cases, compare and assess organizational transformative capacity, and to learn from agency success in policy sustainability processes. Conclusions To more affectively understand and explain why some multilateral health agencies are more capable of adapting to country and individual healthcare needs, SCA provides a methodological approach that may help to better understand why these agencies are so different and what we can learn from successful reform processes. As funding challenges continue to hamper these agencies' adaptive capacity, learning from each other will become increasingly important. PMID:24886283

  17. A comparative molecular-physiological study of submergence response in lowland and deepwater rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Straeten, D; Zhou, Z; Prinsen, E; Van Onckelen, H A; Van Montagu, M C

    2001-02-01

    Survival of rice (Oryza sativa) upon an extreme rise of the water level depends on rapid stem elongation, which is mediated by ethylene. A genomic clone (OS-ACS5) encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase, which catalyzes a regulatory step in ethylene biosynthesis, has been isolated from cv IR36, a lowland rice variety. Expression was induced upon short- and long-term submergence in cv IR36 and in cv Plai Ngam, a Thai deepwater rice variety. Under hypoxic conditions, abscisic acid and gibberellin had a reciprocal opposite effect on the activity of OS-ACS5. Gibberellin up-regulated and abscisic acid down-regulated OS-ACS5 mRNA accumulation. Growth experiments indicated that lowland rice responded to submergence with a burst of growth early on, but lacked the ability to sustain elongation growth. Sustained growth, characteristic for deepwater rice, was correlated with a prolonged induction of OS-ACS5. In addition, a more pronounced capacity to convert ACC to ethylene, a limited ACC conjugation, and a high level of endogenous gibberellin(20) were characteristic for the deepwater variety. An elevated level of OS-ACS5 messenger was found in cv IR36 plants treated with exogenous ACC. This observation was concomitant with an increase in the capacity of converting ACC to ethylene and in elongation growth, and resulted in prolonged survival. In conclusion, OS-ACS5 is involved in the rapid elongation growth of deepwater rice by contributing to the initial and long-term increase in ethylene levels. Our data also suggest that ACC limits survival of submerged lowland rice seedlings.

  18. A Comparative Molecular-Physiological Study of Submergence Response in Lowland and Deepwater Rice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Zhou, Zhongyi; Prinsen, Els; Van Onckelen, Harry A.; Van Montagu, Marc C.

    2001-01-01

    Survival of rice (Oryza sativa) upon an extreme rise of the water level depends on rapid stem elongation, which is mediated by ethylene. A genomic clone (OS-ACS5) encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase, which catalyzes a regulatory step in ethylene biosynthesis, has been isolated from cv IR36, a lowland rice variety. Expression was induced upon short- and long-term submergence in cv IR36 and in cv Plai Ngam, a Thai deepwater rice variety. Under hypoxic conditions, abscisic acid and gibberellin had a reciprocal opposite effect on the activity of OS-ACS5. Gibberellin up-regulated and abscisic acid down-regulated OS-ACS5 mRNA accumulation. Growth experiments indicated that lowland rice responded to submergence with a burst of growth early on, but lacked the ability to sustain elongation growth. Sustained growth, characteristic for deepwater rice, was correlated with a prolonged induction of OS-ACS5. In addition, a more pronounced capacity to convert ACC to ethylene, a limited ACC conjugation, and a high level of endogenous gibberellin20 were characteristic for the deepwater variety. An elevated level of OS-ACS5 messenger was found in cv IR36 plants treated with exogenous ACC. This observation was concomitant with an increase in the capacity of converting ACC to ethylene and in elongation growth, and resulted in prolonged survival. In conclusion, OS-ACS5 is involved in the rapid elongation growth of deepwater rice by contributing to the initial and long-term increase in ethylene levels. Our data also suggest that ACC limits survival of submerged lowland rice seedlings. PMID:11161052

  19. Comparative Assessment of Phenolic Content and in Vitro Antioxidant Capacity in the Pulp and Peel of Mango Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Guo, Xinbo; Fu, Xiong; Zhou, Lin; Chen, Youngsheng; Zhu, Yong; Yan, Huaifeng; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.), also called “the king of fruits”, is one of the most popular fruits in tropical regions. Pulp and peel samples of mango cultivars were analyzed to estimate total phenolic, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents. Phenolic acids, hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (hydro-PSC) and oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) in vitro were also determined. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were found maximum in the peel of Xiao Tainang and Da Tainang cultivars, respectively, whereas Xiao Tainang also exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. Noteworthy, concentrations of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids at 79.15, 64.33, 33.75, 27.19 and 13.62 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) were quantified for Da Tainang, Xiao Tainang and of Jidan cultivars, respectively. Comparatively, a higher level of phenolics and significant antioxidant capacity in mango peel indicated that it might be useful as a functional food and value-added ingredient to promote human health. PMID:26075869

  20. Comparative study of functional capacity and quality of life among obese and non-obese elderly people with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Neto, Mansueto; Araujo, Anderson Delano; Junqueira, Isabel Dayanne Almeida; Oliveira, Diego; Brasileiro, Alécio; Arcanjo, Fabio Luciano

    2016-01-01

    The association between osteoarthritis (OA) and obesity can lead to a reduced functional capacity, compromising the quality of life (QoL) of the elderly. To compare the functional capacity and QoL of obese and non-obese older adults with knee OA. The sample consisted of 35 subjects with OA divided into two groups, obese and non-obese subjects, according to their body mass index. To assess functional capacity, performance tests such as Timed Up and Go (TUG), gait speed test, and the six-minute walk test (6 MWT) were carried out. To assess QoL, WOMAC and SF-36 questionnaires were administered. We performed descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS software version 20.0. Elderly patients with OA were divided into two groups (obese, n=16; non-obese, n=19). Socio-demographic characteristics were similar between groups (p>0.05). The obese group showed a worst performance in TUG, brisk walking speed and 6 MWT. A more severe pain was found in the following items: "performing heavy housework chores", "going down stairs", "bending to floor" and "getting up from bed" in the obese group (pstairs", "rising from a chair", "standing" and "getting on/off toilet" (p0.05). OA associated with obesity caused a negative impact on functional capacity; however, quality of life scores were low, and no difference in obese and non-obese subjects was found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative study of functional capacity and quality of life among obese and non-obese elderly people with knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansueto Gomes-Neto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The association between osteoarthritis (OA and obesity can lead to a reduced functional capacity, compromising the quality of life (QoL of the elderly. Objective: To compare the functional capacity and QoL of obese and non-obese older adults with knee OA. Methods: The sample consisted of 35 subjects with OA divided into two groups, obese and non-obese subjects, according to their body mass index. To assess functional capacity, performance tests such as Timed Up and Go (TUG, gait speed test, and the six-minute walk test (6 MWT were carried out. To assess QoL, WOMAC and SF-36 questionnaires were administered. We performed descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS software version 20.0. Results: Elderly patients with OA were divided into two groups (obese, n = 16; non-obese, n = 19. Socio-demographic characteristics were similar between groups (p > 0.05. The obese group showed a worst performance in TUG, brisk walking speed and 6 MWT. A more severe pain was found in the following items: “performing heavy housework chores”, “going down stairs”, “bending to floor” and “getting up from bed” in the obese group (p 0.05. Conclusion: OA associated with obesity caused a negative impact on functional capacity; however, quality of life scores were low, and no difference in obese and non-obese subjects was found.

  2. Comparative Assessment of Phenolic Content and in Vitro Antioxidant Capacity in the Pulp and Peel of Mango Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Mehmood Abbasi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L., also called “the king of fruits”, is one of the most popular fruits in tropical regions. Pulp and peel samples of mango cultivars were analyzed to estimate total phenolic, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents. Phenolic acids, hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (hydro-PSC and oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC in vitro were also determined. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were found maximum in the peel of Xiao Tainang and Da Tainang cultivars, respectively, whereas Xiao Tainang also exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. Noteworthy, concentrations of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids at 79.15, 64.33, 33.75, 27.19 and 13.62 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW were quantified for Da Tainang, Xiao Tainang and of Jidan cultivars, respectively. Comparatively, a higher level of phenolics and significant antioxidant capacity in mango peel indicated that it might be useful as a functional food and value-added ingredient to promote human health.

  3. Comparative Assessment of Phenolic Content and in Vitro Antioxidant Capacity in the Pulp and Peel of Mango Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Guo, Xinbo; Fu, Xiong; Zhou, Lin; Chen, Youngsheng; Zhu, Yong; Yan, Huaifeng; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-06-12

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.), also called "the king of fruits", is one of the most popular fruits in tropical regions. Pulp and peel samples of mango cultivars were analyzed to estimate total phenolic, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents. Phenolic acids, hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (hydro-PSC) and oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) in vitro were also determined. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were found maximum in the peel of Xiao Tainang and Da Tainang cultivars, respectively, whereas Xiao Tainang also exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. Noteworthy, concentrations of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids at 79.15, 64.33, 33.75, 27.19 and 13.62 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) were quantified for Da Tainang, Xiao Tainang and of Jidan cultivars, respectively. Comparatively, a higher level of phenolics and significant antioxidant capacity in mango peel indicated that it might be useful as a functional food and value-added ingredient to promote human health.

  4. Physiological Characterization and Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of White and Green Leaves of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Kanakala, Surapathrudu; He, Yehua; Zhong, Xiaolan; Yu, Sanmiao; Li, Ruixue; Sun, Lingxia; Ma, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Leaf coloration is one of the most important and attractive characteristics of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. The chimeric character is not stable during the in vitro tissue culturing. Many regenerated plants lost economic values for the loss of the chimeric character of leaves. In order to reveal the molecular mechanisms involved in the albino phenotype of the leaf cells, the physiological and transcriptional differences between complete white (CWh) and green (CGr) leaf cells of A. comosus var. bracteatus were analyzed. A total of 1,431 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) in CGr and CWh leaves were identified using RNA-seq. A comparison to the COG, GO and KEGG annotations revealed DEGs involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis, chloroplast development and photosynthesis. Furthermore, the measurement of main precursors of chlorophyll in the CWh leaves confirmed that the rate-limiting step in chlorophyll biosynthesis, and thus the cause of the albino phenotype of the white cells, was the conversion of pyrrole porphobilinogen (PBG) to uroporphyrinogen III (Uro III). The enzyme activity of porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) and uroporporphyrinogn III synthase (UROS), which catalyze the transition of PBG to Uro III, was significantly decreased in the CWh leaves. Our data showed the transcriptional differences between the CWh and CGr plants and characterized key steps in chlorophyll biosynthesis of the CWh leaves. These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of pigment biosynthesis in the CWh leaf cells of A. comosus var. bracteatus.

  5. Comparative physiological and proteomic analysis reveal distinct regulation of peach skin quality traits by altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Karagiannis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of environment in fruit physiology has been established; however, knowledge regarding the effect of altitude in fruit quality traits is still lacking. Here, skin tissue quality characters were analysed in peach fruit (cv. June Gold, harvested in 16 orchards located in low (71.5 m mean or high (495. m mean altitutes sites. Data indicated that soluble solids concentration and fruit firmness at commercial harvest stage were unaffected by alitute. Peach grown at high-altitude environment displayed higher levels of pigmentation and specific antioxidant-related activity in their skin at the commercial harvest stage. Skin extracts from distinct developmental stages and growing altitudes exhibited different antioxidant ability against DNA strand-scission. The effects of altitude on skin tissue were further studied using a proteomic approach. Protein expression analysis of the mature fruits depicted altered expression of 42 proteins that are mainly involved in the metabolic pathways of defense, primary metabolism, destination/storage and energy. The majority of these proteins were up-regulated at the low-altitude region. High-altitude environment increased the accumulation of several proteins, including chaperone ClpC, chaperone ClpB, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1, TCP domain class transcription factor and lipoxygenase. We also discuss the altitude-affected protein variations, taking into account their potential role in peach ripening process. This study provides the first characterization of the peach skin proteome and helps to improve our understanding of peach’s response to altitude.

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DYEING EFFICIENCY AND RETENTION CAPACITY OF HERBAL HAIR DYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingle R.P

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, attempts were made to make a powder herbal hair dye that gives dark brown to black colour to hair, resembling natural hair colour with better dyeing effect and greater retention capacity on comparison with marketed herbal hair dye formulation. Most of the marketed herbal hair dye formulations contain para-phenylenediamine at 20-25% concentrations which is the main ingredient of commercial synthetic dyes. It is known to trigger allergic skin reactions in many people. Ayurvedic powder hair dye devoid of any synthetic agent was prepared in present research work and evaluated for dyeing efficiency. Different combinations of powdered leaves, fruits of plants like Madayantika, Bhringraj, Amla and Nilini were evaluated as hair dyes. The polyherbal hair dye compositions containing large proportion of Nili, Mehendi and 5% Bhringraj and Amla, blended with 5% loha bhasma were prepared and evaluated for physicochemical parameters like particle size, colour, pH, angle of repose and bulk density. Ayurvedic polyherbal powder hair dye of present investigation is semi-permanent in nature and exhibit better dyeing efficiency than marketed herbal hair dye.

  7. Zika Virus Is Not Uniquely Stable at Physiological Temperatures Compared to Other Flaviviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Leslie; Dowd, Kimberly A.; Smith, Alexander R. Y.; Pelc, Rebecca S.; DeMaso, Christina R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that has emerged as a global health threat due in part to its association with congenital abnormalities. Other globally relevant flaviviruses include dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV). High-resolution structures of ZIKV reveal many similarities to DENV and suggest some differences, including an extended glycan loop (D. Sirohi, Z. Chen, L. Sun, T. Klose, T. C. Pierson, et al., 352:467–470, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaf5316) and unique interactions among envelope (E) protein residues that were proposed to confer increased virion stability and contribute mechanistically to the distinctive pathobiology of ZIKV (V. A. Kostyuchenko, E. X. Lim, S. Zhang, G. Fibriansah, T. S. Ng, et al., Nature 533:425–428, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature17994). However, in the latter study, virus stability was inferred by measuring the loss of infectivity following a short incubation period. Here, we rigorously assessed the relative stability of ZIKV, DENV, and WNV by measuring changes in infectivity following prolonged incubation at physiological temperatures. At 37°C, the half-life of ZIKV was approximately twice as long as the half-life of DENV (11.8 and 5.2 h, respectively) but shorter than that of WNV (17.7 h). Incubation at 40°C accelerated the loss of ZIKV infectivity. Increasing virion maturation efficiency modestly increased ZIKV stability, as observed previously with WNV and DENV. Finally, mutations at E residues predicted to confer increased stability to ZIKV did not affect virion half-life. Our results demonstrate that ZIKV is not uniquely stable relative to other flaviviruses, suggesting that its unique pathobiology is explained by an alternative mechanism. PMID:27601578

  8. Red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteomics--Part II: Comparative proteomics and RBC patho-physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Erica M; Lutz, Hans U; Mann, Matthias; Thomas, Alan W

    2010-01-03

    Membrane proteomics offers unprecedented possibilities to compare protein expression in health and disease leading potentially to the identification of markers, of targets for therapeutics and to a better understanding of disease mechanisms. From transfusion medicine to infectious diseases, from cardiovascular affections to diabetes, comparative proteomics has made a contribution to the identification of proteins unique to RBCs of patients with specific illnesses shedding light on possible RBC markers for systemic diseases. In this review we will provide a short overview of some of the main achievements obtained by comparative proteomics in the field of RBC-related local and systemic diseases and suggest some additional areas of RBCs research to which comparative proteomics approaches could be fruitfully applied or extended in combination with biochemical techniques.

  9. A Comparative Study of Physiological Monitoring with a Wearable Opto-Electronic Patch Sensor (OEPS for Motion Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alzahrani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study in physiological monitoring between a wearable opto-electronic patch sensor (OEPS comprising a three-axis Microelectromechanical systems (MEMs accelerometer (3MA and commercial devices. The study aims to effectively capture critical physiological parameters, for instance, oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiration rate and heart rate variability, as extracted from the pulsatile waveforms captured by OEPS against motion artefacts when using the commercial probe. The protocol involved 16 healthy subjects and was designed to test the features of OEPS, with emphasis on the effective reduction of motion artefacts through the utilization of a 3MA as a movement reference. The results show significant agreement between the heart rates from the reference measurements and the recovered signals. Significance of standard deviation and error of mean yield values of 2.27 and 0.65 beats per minute, respectively; and a high correlation (0.97 between the results of the commercial sensor and OEPS. T, Wilcoxon and Bland-Altman with 95% limit of agreement tests were also applied in the comparison of heart rates extracted from these sensors, yielding a mean difference (MD: 0.08. The outcome of the present work incites the prospects of OEPS on physiological monitoring during physical activities.

  10. Comparative analyses of universal extraction buffers for assay of stress related biochemical and physiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chunyu; Chan, Zhulong; Yang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Comparative efficiency of three extraction solutions, including the universal sodium phosphate buffer (USPB), the Tris-HCl buffer (UTHB), and the specific buffers, were compared for assays of soluble protein, free proline, superoxide radical (O2∙-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR) in Populus deltoide. Significant differences for protein extraction were detected via sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Between the two universal extraction buffers, the USPB showed higher efficiency for extraction of soluble protein, CAT, GR, O2∙-, GPX, SOD, and free proline, while the UTHB had higher efficiency for extraction of APX, POD, and H2O2. When compared with the specific buffers, the USPB showed higher extraction efficiency for measurement of soluble protein, CAT, GR, and O2∙-, parallel extraction efficiency for GPX, SOD, free proline, and H2O2, and lower extraction efficiency for APX and POD, whereas the UTHB had higher extraction efficiency for measurement of POD and H2O2. Further comparisons proved that 100 mM USPB buffer showed the highest extraction efficiencies. These results indicated that USPB would be suitable and efficient for extraction of soluble protein, CAT, GR, GPX, SOD, H2O2, O2∙-, and free proline.

  11. Comparative analysis of fungal genomes reveals different plant cell wall degrading capacity in fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Fungi produce a variety of carbohydrate activity enzymes (CAZymes) for the degradation of plant polysaccharide materials to facilitate infection and/or gain nutrition. Identifying and comparing CAZymes from fungi with different nutritional modes or infection mechanisms may provide information for better understanding of their life styles and infection models. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, a systematic comparative analysis of fungal CAZymes across the entire fungal kingdom has not been reported. Results In this study, we systemically identified glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs), and glycosyltransferases (GTs) as well as carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) in the predicted proteomes of 103 representative fungi from Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. Comparative analysis of these CAZymes that play major roles in plant polysaccharide degradation revealed that fungi exhibit tremendous diversity in the number and variety of CAZymes. Among them, some families of GHs and CEs are the most prevalent CAZymes that are distributed in all of the fungi analyzed. Importantly, cellulases of some GH families are present in fungi that are not known to have cellulose-degrading ability. In addition, our results also showed that in general, plant pathogenic fungi have the highest number of CAZymes. Biotrophic fungi tend to have fewer CAZymes than necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungi. Pathogens of dicots often contain more pectinases than fungi infecting monocots. Interestingly, besides yeasts, many saprophytic fungi that are highly active in degrading plant biomass contain fewer CAZymes than plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, analysis of the gene expression profile of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum revealed that most of the CAZyme genes related to cell wall degradation were up-regulated during plant infection. Phylogenetic analysis also

  12. Comparing two socially optimal work allocation rules when having a profit optimizing subcontractor with ample capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2003-01-01

    We study a service system modelled as a single server queueing system where request for service either can be processed at the service system or by a subcontractor. In the former case the customer is incurred waiting costs but the service is free, while in the latter case the customer must pay...... are minimized. The two work allocation rules are characterized by one being centralized and randomized while the other is decentralized and deterministic. Form the subcontractors point of view the latter is preferred and under this rule he receives lesser requests but can charge a higher price compared...

  13. Comparing two socially optimal work allocation rules when having a profit optimizing subcontractor with ample capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    We study a service system modelled as a single server queuing system where request for service either can be processed at the service system or by a subcontractor. In the former case the customer is incurred waiting costs but the service is free, while in the latter case the customer must pay....... The two work allocation rules are characterized by one being centralized and randomized while the other is decentralized and deterministic. From the subcontractors point of view the latter is preferred and under this rule he receives lesser requests but can charge a higher price compared to the former. We...

  14. Comparing two socially optimal work allocation rules when having a profit optimizing subcontractor with ample capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    for the service but there is no waiting time, hence no waiting costs. Under the premises that the subcontractor prices his services in order to maximize his profit, we study two work allocation rules, which given the price of subcontractor seek to allocate work such that the costs of the customers are minimized......We study a service system modelled as a single server queuing system where request for service either can be processed at the service system or by a subcontractor. In the former case the customer is incurred waiting costs but the service is free, while in the latter case the customer must pay...... also show that from the customers point view, any of the two work allocation rules are to be preferred compared to the base case where there are no subcontractor. Udgivelsesdato: MAR...

  15. Bulking sludge for PHA production: Energy saving and comparative storage capacity with well-settled sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinxue Wen; Zhiqiang Chen; Changyong Wang; Nanqi Ren

    2012-01-01

    Two acetate-fed sequencing batch reactors (SBR) were operated under an aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) model (SBR#2) and with anaerobic phase before aerobic phase (SBR#1) to select mixed cultures with a high polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) storage response.Although kinetic selection based on storage response should bring about a predominance of floc-formers,a bulking sludge with storage response comparable to well-settled sludge was steadily established.An anaerobic phase was introduced before the aerobic phase in the ADF model to improve the sludge settleability (SBR #1),however,due to the consequent increased feast/famine ratio,the performance of SBR #1,in terms of both the maximum PHB (polyhydroxybutyrate) cell content and △PHB,was lower than that of SBR #2.SBR #2 gradually reached a steady state while SBR #1 failed suddenly after 50 days of operation.The maximum specific substrate uptake rate and storage rate for the selected bulking sludge were 0.4 Cmol Ac/(Cmol X.hr) and 0.18 Cmol Ac/(Cmol PHB.hr),respectively,resulting a yield of 0.45 Cmol PHB/(Cmol Ac) in SBR #2 in the culture enrichment phase.A maximum PHB content of 53% of total suspended solids and PHB storage rate of 1.36 Cmol Ac/(Cmol PHB.hr) was achieved at 10.2 hr in batch accumulation tests under nitrogen starvation.The results indicated that it was feasible to utilize filamentous bacteria to accumulate PHA with a rate comparable to well-settled sludge.Furthermore,the lower dissolved oxygen demand of filamentous bacteria would save energy required for aeration in the culture enrichment stage.

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis of embryonic and adult stem cells with extended and limited differentiation capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-Montoya, Fernando; Kidder, Benjamin L; Pauwelyn, Karen A; Chase, Lucas G; Luttun, Aernout; Crabbe, Annelies; Geraerts, Martine; Sharov, Alexei A; Piao, Yulan; Ko, Minoru SH; Hu, Wei-Shou; Verfaillie, Catherine M

    2007-01-01

    Background Recently, several populations of postnatal stem cells, such as multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs), have been described that have broader differentiation ability than classical adult stem cells. Here we compare the transcriptome of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs), MAPCs, and lineage-restricted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to determine their relationship. Results Applying principal component analysis, non-negative matrix factorization and k-means clustering algorithms to the gene-expression data, we identified a unique gene-expression profile for MAPCs. Apart from the ESC-specific transcription factor Oct4 and other ESC transcripts, some of them associated with maintaining ESC pluripotency, MAPCs also express transcripts characteristic of early endoderm and mesoderm. MAPCs do not, however, express Nanog or Sox2, two other key transcription factors involved in maintaining ESC properties. This unique molecular signature was seen irrespective of the microarray platform used and was very similar for both mouse and rat MAPCs. As MSC-like cells isolated under MAPC conditions are virtually identical to MSCs, and MSCs cultured in MAPC conditions do not upregulate MAPC-expressed transcripts, the MAPC signature is cell-type specific and not merely the result of differing culture conditions. Conclusion Multivariate analysis techniques clustered stem cells on the basis of their expressed gene profile, and the genes determining this clustering reflected the stem cells' differentiation potential in vitro. This comparative transcriptome analysis should significantly aid the isolation and culture of MAPCs and MAPC-like cells, and form the basis for studies to gain insights into genes that confer on these cells their greater developmental potency. PMID:17683608

  17. Comparative Transcriptomic Approach To Investigate Differences in Wine Yeast Physiology and Metabolism during Fermentation▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossouw, Debra; Olivares-Hernandes, Roberto; Nielsen, Jens; Bauer, Florian F.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial wine yeast strains of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been selected to satisfy many different, and sometimes highly specific, oenological requirements. As a consequence, more than 200 different strains with significantly diverging phenotypic traits are produced globally. This genetic resource has been rather neglected by the scientific community because industrial strains are less easily manipulated than the limited number of laboratory strains that have been successfully employed to investigate fundamental aspects of cellular biology. However, laboratory strains are unsuitable for the study of many phenotypes that are of significant scientific and industrial interest. Here, we investigate whether a comparative transcriptomics and phenomics approach, based on the analysis of five phenotypically diverging industrial wine yeast strains, can provide insights into the molecular networks that are responsible for the expression of such phenotypes. For this purpose, some oenologically relevant phenotypes, including resistance to various stresses, cell wall properties, and metabolite production of these strains were evaluated and aligned with transcriptomic data collected during alcoholic fermentation. The data reveal significant differences in gene regulation between the five strains. While the genetic complexity underlying the various successive stress responses in a dynamic system such as wine fermentation reveals the limits of the approach, many of the relevant differences in gene expression can be linked to specific phenotypic differences between the strains. This is, in particular, the case for many aspects of metabolic regulation. The comparative approach therefore opens new possibilities to investigate complex phenotypic traits on a molecular level. PMID:19700545

  18. Why Can’t Rodents Vomit? A Comparative Behavioral, Anatomical, and Physiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Charles C.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Wang, Hong; Kaus, James; Dienel, Samuel; Nagy, Allysa; Gathright, Gordon R.; Yates, Bill J.; Andrews, Paul L. R.

    2013-01-01

    The vomiting (emetic) reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus) or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver), Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria), and squirrel-related (mountain beaver) species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc), veratrine (sc), and copper sulfate (ig), failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted). These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew). Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity–key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation) compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed. PMID:23593236

  19. Why can't rodents vomit? A comparative behavioral, anatomical, and physiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C Horn

    Full Text Available The vomiting (emetic reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver, Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria, and squirrel-related (mountain beaver species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc, veratrine (sc, and copper sulfate (ig, failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted. These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew. Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed.

  20. Comparing acceleration and speed tuning in macaque MT: physiology and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, N S C; Ono, S; Mustari, M J; Ibbotson, M R

    2005-11-01

    Studies of individual neurons in area MT have traditionally investigated their sensitivity to constant speeds. We investigated acceleration sensitivity in MT neurons by comparing their responses to constant steps and linear ramps in stimulus speed. Speed ramps constituted constant accelerations and decelerations between 0 and 240 degrees /s. Our results suggest that MT neurons do not have explicit acceleration sensitivity, although speed changes affected their responses in three main ways. First, accelerations typically evoked higher responses than the corresponding deceleration rate at all rates tested. We show that this can be explained by adaptation mechanisms rather than differential processing of positive and negative speed gradients. Second, we inferred a cell's preferred speed from the responses to speed ramps by finding the stimulus speed at the latency-adjusted time when response amplitude peaked. In most cells, the preferred speeds inferred from deceleration were higher than those for accelerations of the same rate or from steps in stimulus speed. Third, neuron responses to speed ramps were not well predicted by the transient or sustained responses to steps in stimulus speed. Based on these findings, we developed a model incorporating adaptation and a neuron's speed tuning that predicted the higher inferred speeds and lower spike rates for deceleration responses compared with acceleration responses. This model did not predict acceleration-specific responses, in accordance with the lack of acceleration sensitivity in the neurons. The outputs of this single-cell model were passed to a population-vector-based model used to estimate stimulus speed and acceleration. We show that such a model can accurately estimate relative speed and acceleration using information from the population of neurons in area MT.

  1. Why can't rodents vomit? A comparative behavioral, anatomical, and physiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Charles C; Kimball, Bruce A; Wang, Hong; Kaus, James; Dienel, Samuel; Nagy, Allysa; Gathright, Gordon R; Yates, Bill J; Andrews, Paul L R

    2013-01-01

    The vomiting (emetic) reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus) or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver), Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria), and squirrel-related (mountain beaver) species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc), veratrine (sc), and copper sulfate (ig), failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted). These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew). Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation) compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed.

  2. Equine induced pluripotent stem cells have a reduced tendon differentiation capacity compared to embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Patricia Bavin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tendon injuries occur commonly in horses and their repair through scar tissue formation predisposes horses to a high rate of re-injury. Pluripotent stem cells may provide a cell replacement therapy to improve tendon tissue regeneration and lower the frequency of re-injury. We have previously demonstrated that equine embryonic stem cells (ESCs differentiate into the tendon cell lineage upon injection into the damaged horse tendon and can differentiate into functional tendon cells in vitro to generate artificial tendons. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have now been derived from horses but, to date, there are no reports on their ability to differentiate into tendon cells. As iPSCs can be produced from adult cell types, they provide a more accessible source of cells than ESCs, which require the use of horse embryos. The aim of this study was to compare tendon differentiation by ESCs and iPSCs produced through two independent methods. In 2-dimensional differentiation assays the iPSCs expressed tendon associated genes and proteins, which were enhanced by the presence of transforming growth factor-β3. However, in 3-dimensional differentiation assays the iPSCs failed to differentiate into functional tendon cells and generate artificial tendons. These results demonstrate the utility of the 3-dimensional in vitro tendon assay for measuring tendon differentiation and the need for more detailed studies to be performed on equine iPSCs to identify and understand their epigenetic differences from pluripotent ESCs prior to their clinical application.

  3. Comparative secretome analysis suggests low plant cell wall degrading capacity in Frankia symbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normand Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frankia sp. strains, the nitrogen-fixing facultative endosymbionts of actinorhizal plants, have long been proposed to secrete hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulases, pectinases, and proteases that may contribute to plant root penetration and formation of symbiotic root nodules. These or other secreted proteins might logically be involved in the as yet unknown molecular interactions between Frankia and their host plants. We compared the genome-based secretomes of three Frankia strains representing diverse host specificities. Signal peptide detection algorithms were used to predict the individual secretomes of each strain, and the set of secreted proteins shared among the strains, termed the core Frankia secretome. Proteins in the core secretome may be involved in the actinorhizal symbiosis. Results The Frankia genomes have conserved Sec (general secretory and Tat (twin arginine translocase secretion systems. The potential secretome of each Frankia strain comprised 4–5% of the total proteome, a lower percentage than that found in the genomes of other actinobacteria, legume endosymbionts, and plant pathogens. Hydrolytic enzymes made up only a small fraction of the total number of predicted secreted proteins in each strain. Surprisingly, polysaccharide-degrading enzymes were few in number, especially in strain CcI3, with more esterolytic, lipolytic and proteolytic enzymes having signal peptides. A total of 161 orthologous proteins belong to the core Frankia secretome. Of these, 52 also lack homologs in closely related actinobacteria, and are termed "Frankia-specific." The genes encoding these conserved secreted proteins are often clustered near secretion machinery genes. Conclusion The predicted secretomes of Frankia sp. are relatively small and include few hydrolases, which could reflect adaptation to a symbiotic lifestyle. There are no well-conserved secreted polysaccharide-degrading enzymes present in all three Frankia

  4. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  5. Diffusional limitations explain the lower photosynthetic capacity of ferns as compared with angiosperms in a common garden study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriquí, M; Cabrera, H M; Conesa, M À; Coopman, R E; Douthe, C; Gago, J; Gallé, A; Galmés, J; Ribas-Carbo, M; Tomás, M; Flexas, J

    2015-03-01

    Ferns are thought to have lower photosynthetic rates than angiosperms and they lack fine stomatal regulation. However, no study has directly compared photosynthesis in plants of both groups grown under optimal conditions in a common environment. We present a common garden comparison of seven angiosperms and seven ferns paired by habitat preference, with the aims of (1) confirming that ferns do have lower photosynthesis capacity than angiosperms and quantifying these differences; (2) determining the importance of diffusional versus biochemical limitations; and (3) analysing the potential implication of leaf anatomical traits in setting the photosynthesis capacity in both groups. On average, the photosynthetic rate of ferns was about half that of angiosperms, and they exhibited lower stomatal and mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm ), maximum velocity of carboxylation and electron transport rate. A quantitative limitation analysis revealed that stomatal and mesophyll conductances were co-responsible for the lower photosynthesis of ferns as compared with angiosperms. However, gm alone was the most constraining factor for photosynthesis in ferns. Consistently, leaf anatomy showed important differences between angiosperms and ferns, especially in cell wall thickness and the surface of chloroplasts exposed to intercellular air spaces.

  6. Combining and comparing EEG, peripheral physiology and eye-related measures for the assessment of mental workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Andreas Hogervorst

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While studies exist that compare different physiological variables with respect to their association with mental workload, it is still largely unclear which variables supply the best information about momentary workload of an individual and what is the benefit of combining them. We investigated workload using the n-back task, controlling for body movements and visual input. We recorded EEG, skin conductance, respiration, ECG, pupil size and eye blinks of 14 subjects. Various variables were extracted from these recordings and used as features in individually tuned classification models. Online classification was simulated by using the first part of the data as training set and the last part of the data for testing the models. The results indicate that EEG performs best, followed by eye related measures and peripheral physiology. Combining variables from different sensors did not significantly improve workload assessment over the best performing sensor alone. Best classification accuracy, a little over 90% (SD 4%, was reached for distinguishing between high and low workload on the basis of 2 minute segments of EEG and eye related variables. A similar and not significantly different performance of 86% (SD 5% was reached using only EEG from single electrode location Pz.

  7. A case study on multi-lane roundabouts under congestion: Comparing software capacity and delay estimates with field data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanwu Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on modern roundabouts performance are mostly based on data from singe lane roundabouts that are not heavily congested. For planners and designers interested in building multilane roundabouts for intersections with potential growth in future traffic, there has been a lack of existing studies with field data that provide reference values in terms of capacity and delay measurements. With the intent of providing such reference values, a case study was conducted by using the East Dowling Road Roundabouts in Anchorage, Alaska, which are currently operating with extensive queues during the evening peak hours. This research used multiple video camcorders to capture vehicle turning movements at the roundabouts as well as the progression of vehicle queues at the roundabout entrance approaches. With these video records, the number of vehicles in the queues can be accurately counted in any single minute during the peak hours. This study shows that unbalanced entrance flow patterns (i.e., one entrance has significant higher flow than others can intensify the queue and delay for the overall roundabouts. Then various software packages including RODEL, SIDRA and VISSIM were used to estimate several performance measurements, such as capacity, queue length, and delay, compared with the collected field data. With the comparison, it is found that all the three software packages overestimate multi-lane roundabout capacity before calibration. With default parameters, SIDRA and VISSIM tend to underestimate delays and queue lengths for the multi-lane roundabouts under congestion, while RODEL results in higher delay and queue length estimations at most of the entrance approaches.

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Capacities for Implementing Disability Policies in East African Countries: Functions of National Councils for Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Yokoyama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During the “African Decade of Persons with Disabilities (2000-2009”, East African countries witnessed significant achievements, especially in the development of law, collection of statistics and in funding. However, many persons with disability are still marginalised from opportunities in education, healthcare and employment.Purpose: With the pre-supposition that the lack of institutional capacities for implementing disability policies is the one major stumbling-block which hinders widespread delivery of social services to persons with disabilities in low-income countries, this study makes a comparative analysis of institutional capacities in the disability sectors of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.Method: The research methods adopted were a literature survey and a field survey. The framework for analysis consists of: 1 capacities and functions of disability units in central governments, 2 relationships between central and local governments in the disability sector, and 3 relationships between governments and organisations of persons with disability (DPOs. Special attention is paid to the status, roles and functions of national councils for disability (NCDs, the independent statutory bodies recently established in each of the three countries, with clear authority and duties for the implementation of disability policies. The NCDs enable multi-sectoral stakeholders to be involved in the implementation of disability policies; therefore, positive relationships between the governments and DPOs are essential for the smooth functioning of the NCDs.Results: While the result of the field survey in Tanzania reveals several effective approaches for the smooth operation of the NCD, further study is needed to verify whether these approaches would be applicable to other East African countries such as Kenya and Uganda.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.106

  9. Comparative studies of hemolymph physiology response and HIF-1 expression in different strains of Litopenaeus vannamei under acute hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lin; Li, Yuhu; Qiu, Liguo; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-06-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei has a high commercial value and is the primary cultured shellfish species globally. In this study, we have compared the hemolymph physiological responses between two L. vannamei strains under acute hypoxia. The results showed that hemocyanin concentration (HC) of strain A6410 was significantly higher than strain Zhengda; Total hemocyte counts (THC) decreased significantly in both strains under hypoxic stress (p 0.05), but in the gills and hepatopancreas under hypoxia for 12 h (p Litopenaeus vannamei was closely correlated with the expression level of HIF-1, and the higher expression level of HIF-1 to hypoxia, the lower tolerance to hypoxia in the early stage of hypoxia. These results can help to better understand the molecular mechanisms of hypoxic tolerance and speed up the selective breeding process of hypoxia tolerance in L. vannamei.

  10. Physiological and pathological left ventricular hypertrophy of comparable degree is associated with characteristic differences of in vivo hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, Attila; Németh, Balázs Tamás; Mátyás, Csaba; Hidi, László; Lux, Árpád; Ruppert, Mihály; Kellermayer, Dalma; Sayour, Alex Ali; Szabó, Lilla; Török, Marianna; Meltzer, Anna; Gellér, László; Merkely, Béla; Radovits, Tamás

    2016-03-01

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is a physiological or pathological response of LV myocardium to increased cardiac load. We aimed at investigating and comparing hemodynamic alterations in well-established rat models of physiological hypertrophy (PhyH) and pathological hypertrophy (PaH) by using LV pressure-volume (P-V) analysis. PhyH and PaH were induced in rats by swim training and by abdominal aortic banding, respectively. Morphology of the heart was investigated by echocardiography. Characterization of cardiac function was completed by LV P-V analysis. In addition, histological and molecular biological measurements were performed. Echocardiography revealed myocardial hypertrophy of similar degree in both models, which was confirmed by post-mortem heart weight data. In aortic-banded rats we detected subendocardial fibrosis. Reactivation of fetal gene program could be observed only in the PaH model. PhyH was associated with increased stroke volume, whereas unaltered stroke volume was detected in PaH along with markedly elevated end-systolic pressure values. Sensitive indexes of LV contractility were increased in both models, in parallel with the degree of hypertrophy. Active relaxation was ameliorated in athlete's heart, whereas it showed marked impairment in PaH. Mechanical efficiency and ventriculo-arterial coupling were improved in PhyH, whereas they remained unchanged in PaH. Myocardial gene expression of mitochondrial regulators showed marked differences between PaH and PhyH. We provided the first comparative hemodynamic characterization of PhyH and PaH in relevant rodent models. Increased LV contractility could be observed in both types of LV hypertrophy; characteristic distinction was detected in diastolic function (active relaxation) and mechanoenergetics (mechanical efficiency), which might be explained by mitochondrial differences.

  11. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  12. Physiological attributes of triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriano, R; Bishop, D

    2010-05-01

    Triathlons of all distances can be considered endurance events and consist of the individual disciplines of swimming, cycling and running which are generally completed in this sequential order. While it is expected that elite triathletes would possess high values for submaximal and maximal measures of aerobic fitness, little is known about how these values compare with those of single-sport endurance athletes. Earlier reviews, conducted in the 1980s, concluded that triathletes possessed lower V(O2(max)) values than other endurance athletes. An update of comparisons is of interest to determine if the physiological capacities of elite triathletes now reflect those of single-sport athletes or whether these physiological capacities are compromised by the requirement to cross-train for three different disciplines. It was found that although differences in the physiological attributes during swimming, cycling and running are evident among triathletes, those who compete at an international level possess V(O2(max)) values that are indicative of success in endurance-based individual sports. Furthermore, various physiological parameters at submaximal workloads have been used to describe the capacities of these athletes. Only a few studies have reported the lactate threshold among triathletes with the majority of studies reporting the ventilatory threshold. Although observed differences among triathletes for both these submaximal measures are complicated by the various methods used to determine them, the reported values for triathletes are similar to those for trained cyclists and runners. Thus, from the limited data available, it appears that triathletes are able to obtain similar physiological values as single-sport athletes despite dividing their training time among three disciplines.

  13. Anismus, Physiology, Radiology: Is It Time for Some Pragmatism? A Comparative Study of Radiological and Anorectal Physiology Findings in Patients With Anismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Lesley; Szczachor, Justina; Jawad, Ahsin; MacLeod, Andrew; Lim, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Anismus is a functional disorder featuring obstructive symptoms and paradoxical contractions of the pelvic floor. This study aims to establish diagnosis agreement between physiology and radiology, associate anismus with morphological outlet obstruction, and explore the role of sphincteric pressure and rectal volumes in the radiological diagnosis of anismus. Methods Consecutive patients were evaluated by using magnetic resonance imaging proctography/fluoroscopic defecography and anorectal physiology. Morphological radiological features were associated with physiology tests. A categorical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, and agreement was assessed via the kappa coefficient. A Mann-Whitney test was used to assess rectal volumes and sphincterial pressure distributions between groups of patients. A P-value of 0.05). The sphincterial straining pressure was 71 mmHg in the anismus group versus 12 mmHg. Radiology was likely to identify anismus when the straining pressure exceeded 50% of the resting pressure (P = 0.08). Conclusion Radiological techniques detect pelvic morphological abnormalities, but lead to overdiagnoses of anismus. No proctographic pathological feature predicts anismus reliably. A stronger pelvic floor paradoxical contraction is associated with a greater likelihood of detection by proctography. PMID:27847787

  14. Comparative genome and transcriptome analysis reveals distinctive surface characteristics and unique physiological potentials of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Huiluo

    2017-06-12

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was isolated from a hospital blood specimen in 1971 and has been widely used as a model strain to survey antibiotics susceptibilities, biofilm development, and metabolic activities of Pseudomonas spp.. Although four draft genomes of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 have been sequenced, the complete genome of this strain is still lacking, hindering a comprehensive understanding of its physiology and functional genome.Here we sequenced and assembled the complete genome of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 using the Pacific Biosciences SMRT (PacBio) technology and Illumina sequencing platform. We found that accessory genes of ATCC 27853 including prophages and genomic islands (GIs) mainly contribute to the difference between P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and other P. aeruginosa strains. Seven prophages were identified within the genome of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Of the predicted 25 GIs, three contain genes that encode monoxoygenases, dioxygenases and hydrolases that could be involved in the metabolism of aromatic compounds. Surveying virulence-related genes revealed that a series of genes that encode the B-band O-antigen of LPS are lacking in ATCC 27853. Distinctive SNPs in genes of cellular adhesion proteins such as type IV pili and flagella biosynthesis were also observed in this strain. Colony morphology analysis confirmed an enhanced biofilm formation capability of ATCC 27853 on solid agar surface compared to Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We then performed transcriptome analysis of ATCC 27853 and PAO1 using RNA-seq and compared the expression of orthologous genes to understand the functional genome and the genomic details underlying the distinctive colony morphogenesis. These analyses revealed an increased expression of genes involved in cellular adhesion and biofilm maturation such as type IV pili, exopolysaccharide and electron transport chain components in ATCC 27853 compared with PAO1. In addition, distinctive expression profiles of the

  15. Comparative proteomic and physiological analyses reveal the protective effect of exogenous calcium on the germinating soybean response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongqi; Yang, Runqiang; Han, Yongbin; Gu, Zhenxin

    2015-01-15

    suppressed under salt stress condition. According to previous studies, exogenous calcium counters the harmful effect of salt stress and increases the biomass and GABA content of germinating soybeans. Nevertheless, the precise molecular mechanism underlying the role of calcium in resistance to salt stress is still unknown. This paper is the first study employing comparative proteomic and physiological analyses to reveal the protective effect of exogenous calcium in the germinating soybean response to salt stress. Our study links the biological events with proteomic information and provides detailed peptide information on all identified proteins. The functions of those significantly changed proteins are also analyzed. The physiological and comparative proteomic analyses revealed the putative molecular mechanism of exogenous calcium treatment induced salt stress responses. The findings from this paper are beneficial to high GABA-rich germinating soybean biomass. Additionally, these findings also might be applicable to the genetic engineering of soybean plants to improve stress tolerance.

  16. Mercury species, selenium, metallothioneins and glutathione in two dolphins from the southeastern Brazilian coast: Mercury detoxification and physiological differences in diving capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrig, Helena A; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Seixas, Tercia G; Pinheiro, Ana Beatriz; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, the concentration of trace elements, total mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) and mercury forms (MeHg, Hginorg and HgSe) in the vulnerable coastal dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei and Sotalia guianensis were appraised and compared, using metallothioneins (MT) and glutathione (GSH) as biomarkers for trace element exposure. The trace element concentrations varied between muscle and liver tissues, with liver of all dolphin specimens showing higher Hg and Se concentrations than those found in muscle. Hg, MeHg and Hginorg molar concentrations showed a clear increase with Se molar concentrations in the liver of both dolphins, and Se concentrations were higher than those of Hg on a molar basis. Se plays a relevant role in the detoxification of MeHg in the hepatic tissue of both dolphins, forming Hg-Se amorphous crystals in liver. In contrast, MT were involved in the detoxification process of Hginorg in liver. GSH levels in P. blainvillei and S. guianensis muscle tissue suggest that these dolphins have different diving capacities. Muscle Hg concentrations were associated to this tripeptide, which protects dolphin cells against Hg stress.

  17. Comparing the Physiological, Socio-economic and Nutritional Status among Male and Female Undergraduate College Students of Metropolitan City of Kolkata

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the present days, increasing trend of eating disorders are noticed among college students (both male and female) which can disturb their overall physiological and health status. It is more prevalent in metropolitan cities, like Kolkata. But, the existing literature about the physiological and nutritional status of the undergraduate college students of Kolkata is insufficient. Aim: Thus, the objective of this small-scale cross-sectional study is to report and compare the prevale...

  18. Physiological mechanisms for high salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja) from Yellow River Delta, China: photosynthesis, osmotic regulation, ion flux and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Yan, Kun; Shao, Hongbo; Zhao, Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Glycine soja (BB52) is a wild soybean cultivar grown in coastal saline land in Yellow River Delta, China. In order to reveal the physiological mechanisms adapting to salinity, we examined photosynthesis, ion flux, antioxidant system and water status in Glycine soja under NaCl treatments, taking a cultivated soybean, ZH13, as control. Upon NaCl exposure, higher relative water content and water potential were maintained in the leaf of BB52 than ZH13, which might depend on the more accumulation of osmotic substances such as glycinebetaine and proline. Compared with ZH13, activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and contents of ascorbate, glutathione and phenolics were enhanced to a higher level in BB52 leaf under NaCl stress, which could mitigate the salt-induced oxidative damage in BB52. Consistently, lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde content was lower in BB52 leaf. Photosynthetic rate (Pn) was decreased by NaCl stress in BB52 and ZH13, and the decrease was greater in ZH13. The decreased Pn in BB52 was mainly due to stomatal limitation. The inhibited activation of rubisco enzyme in ZH13 due to the decrease of rubisco activase content became an important limiting factor of Pn, when NaCl concentration increased to 200 mM. Rubisco activase in BB52 was not affected by NaCl stress. Less negative impact in BB52 derived from lower contents of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the tissues, and non-invasive micro-test technique revealed that BB52 roots had higher ability to extrude Na(+) and Cl(-). Wild soybean is a valuable genetic resource, and our study may provide a reference for molecular biologist to improve the salt tolerance of cultivated soybean in face of farmland salinity.

  19. Physiological mechanisms for high salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja from Yellow River Delta, China: photosynthesis, osmotic regulation, ion flux and antioxidant capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chen

    Full Text Available Glycine soja (BB52 is a wild soybean cultivar grown in coastal saline land in Yellow River Delta, China. In order to reveal the physiological mechanisms adapting to salinity, we examined photosynthesis, ion flux, antioxidant system and water status in Glycine soja under NaCl treatments, taking a cultivated soybean, ZH13, as control. Upon NaCl exposure, higher relative water content and water potential were maintained in the leaf of BB52 than ZH13, which might depend on the more accumulation of osmotic substances such as glycinebetaine and proline. Compared with ZH13, activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and contents of ascorbate, glutathione and phenolics were enhanced to a higher level in BB52 leaf under NaCl stress, which could mitigate the salt-induced oxidative damage in BB52. Consistently, lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde content was lower in BB52 leaf. Photosynthetic rate (Pn was decreased by NaCl stress in BB52 and ZH13, and the decrease was greater in ZH13. The decreased Pn in BB52 was mainly due to stomatal limitation. The inhibited activation of rubisco enzyme in ZH13 due to the decrease of rubisco activase content became an important limiting factor of Pn, when NaCl concentration increased to 200 mM. Rubisco activase in BB52 was not affected by NaCl stress. Less negative impact in BB52 derived from lower contents of Na(+ and Cl(- in the tissues, and non-invasive micro-test technique revealed that BB52 roots had higher ability to extrude Na(+ and Cl(-. Wild soybean is a valuable genetic resource, and our study may provide a reference for molecular biologist to improve the salt tolerance of cultivated soybean in face of farmland salinity.

  20. Comparative physiological and transcriptomic analyses provide integrated insight into osmotic, cold, and salt stress tolerance mechanisms in banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Ding, Zehong; Tie, Weiwei; Yan, Yan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Chunlai; Liu, Juhua; Wang, Jiashui; Peng, Ming; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    The growth, development, and production of banana plants are constrained by multiple abiotic stressors. However, it remains elusive for the tolerance mechanisms of banana responding to multiple abiotic stresses. In this study, we found that Fen Jiao (FJ) was more tolerant to osmotic, cold, and salt stresses than BaXi Jiao (BX) by phenotypic and physiological analyses. Comparative transcriptomic analyses highlighted stress tolerance genes that either specifically regulated in FJ or changed more than twofold in FJ relative to BX after treatments. In total, 933, 1644, and 133 stress tolerance genes were identified after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments, respectively. Further integrated analyses found that 30 tolerance genes, including transcription factor, heat shock protein, and E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, could be commonly regulated by osmotic, cold, and salt stresses. Finally, ABA and ROS signaling networks were found to be more active in FJ than in BX under osmotic, cold, and salt treatments, which may contribute to the strong stress tolerances of FJ. Together, this study provides new insights into the tolerance mechanism of banana responding to multiple stresses, thus leading to potential applications in the genetic improvement of multiple abiotic stress tolerances in banana. PMID:28223714

  1. Uniaxial and Multiaxial Fatigue Life Prediction of the Trabecular Bone Based on Physiological Loading: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihhi, S J; Harun, M N; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Abdullah, Jaafar; Kamarul, T; Öchsner, Andreas; Syahrom, Ardiyansyah

    2015-10-01

    Fatigue assessment of the trabecular bone has been developed to give a better understanding of bone properties. While most fatigue studies are relying on uniaxial compressive load as the method of assessment, in various cases details are missing, or the uniaxial results are not very realistic. In this paper, the effect of three different load histories from physiological loading applied on the trabecular bone were studied in order to predict the first failure surface and the fatigue lifetime. The fatigue behaviour of the trabecular bone under uniaxial load was compared to that of multiaxial load using a finite element simulation. The plastic strain was found localized at the trabecular structure under multiaxial load. On average, applying multiaxial loads reduced more than five times the fatigue life of the trabecular bone. The results provide evidence that multiaxial loading is dominated in the low cycle fatigue in contrast to the uniaxial one. Both bone volume fraction and structural model index were best predictors of failure (p < 0.05) in fatigue for both types of loading, whilst uniaxial loading has indicated better values in most cases.

  2. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yao; Tang, Lina; Qiu, Quanyi; Xu, Tong; Liao, Jiangfu

    2015-01-01

    Land carrying capacity (LCC) explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA) and the index system method (ISM). EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approaches with data collected from Xiamen City, a typical region where rapid economic growth and urbanization are found in China. The results show that LCC assessments with EFA and ISM not only complement each other but also are mutually supportive. Both assessments suggest that decreases in arable land and increasingly high energy consumption have major negative effects on LCC and threaten sustainable development for Xiamen City. It is important for the local policy makers, planners and designers to reduce ecological deficits by controlling fossil energy consumption, protecting arable land and forest land from converting into other land types, and slowing down the speed of urbanization, and to promote sustainability by controlling rural-to-urban immigration, increasing hazard-free treatment rate of household garbage, and raising energy consumption per unit industrial added value. Although EFA seems more appropriate for estimating LCC for a resource-output or self-sufficient region and ISM is more suitable for a resource-input region, both approaches should be employed when perform LCC assessment in any places around the world.

  3. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Qian

    Full Text Available Land carrying capacity (LCC explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA and the index system method (ISM. EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approaches with data collected from Xiamen City, a typical region where rapid economic growth and urbanization are found in China. The results show that LCC assessments with EFA and ISM not only complement each other but also are mutually supportive. Both assessments suggest that decreases in arable land and increasingly high energy consumption have major negative effects on LCC and threaten sustainable development for Xiamen City. It is important for the local policy makers, planners and designers to reduce ecological deficits by controlling fossil energy consumption, protecting arable land and forest land from converting into other land types, and slowing down the speed of urbanization, and to promote sustainability by controlling rural-to-urban immigration, increasing hazard-free treatment rate of household garbage, and raising energy consumption per unit industrial added value. Although EFA seems more appropriate for estimating LCC for a resource-output or self-sufficient region and ISM is more suitable for a resource-input region, both approaches should be employed when perform LCC assessment in any places around the world.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Battery Behavior with Different Modes of Discharge for Optimal Capacity Sizing and BMS Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Battery-operated systems are always concerned about the proper management and sizing of a battery. A Traditional Battery Management System (BMS only includes battery-aware task scheduling based on the discharge characteristics of a whole battery pack and do not take into account the mode of the load being served by the battery. On the other hand, an efficient and intelligent BMS should monitor the battery at a cell level and track the load with significant consideration of the load mode. Depending upon the load modes, the common modes of discharge (MOD of a battery identified so far are Constant Power Mode (CPM, Constant Current Mode (CCM and Constant Impedance Mode (CIM. This paper comparatively analyzes the discharging behavior of batteries at an individual cell level for different load modes. The difference in discharging behavior from mode to mode represents the study of the mode-dependent behavior of the battery before its deployment in some application. Based on simulation results, optimal capacity sizing and BMS operation of battery for an assumed situation in a remote microgrid has been proposed.

  5. Bordetella pertussis isolates from Argentinean whooping cough patients display enhanced biofilm formation capacity compared to Tohama I reference strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eArnal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pertussis is a highly contagious disease mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis. Despite the massive use of vaccines since the 1950´s the disease has become re-emergent in 2000 with a shift in incidence from infants to adolescents and adults. Clearly, the efficacy of current cellular or acellular vaccines, formulated from bacteria grown in stirred bioreactors is limited, presenting a challenge for future vaccine development. For gaining insights into the role of B. pertussis biofilm development for host colonization and persistence within the host, we examined the biofilm forming capacity of eight argentinean clinical isolates recovered from 2001 to 2007. All clinical isolates showed an enhanced potential for biofilm formation compared to the reference strain Tohama I. We further selected the clinical isolate B. pertussis 2723, exhibiting the highest biofilm biomass production, for quantitative proteomic profiling by means of two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE coupled with mass spectrometry (MS, which was accompanied by targeted transcriptional analysis. Results revealed an elevated expression of several virulence factors, including adhesins involved in biofilm development. In addition, we observed a higher expression of energy metabolism enzymes in the clinical isolate compared to the Tohama I strain. Furthermore, all clinical isolates carried a polymorphism in the bvgS gene. This mutation was associated to an increased sensitivity to modulation and a faster rate of adhesion to abiotic surfaces. Thus, the phenotypic biofilm characteristics shown by the clinical isolates might represent an important, hitherto underestimated, adaptive strategy for host colonization and long time persistence within the host.

  6. Bordetella pertussis Isolates from Argentinean Whooping Cough Patients Display Enhanced Biofilm Formation Capacity Compared to Tohama I Reference Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Laura; Grunert, Tom; Cattelan, Natalia; de Gouw, Daan; Villalba, María I; Serra, Diego O; Mooi, Frits R; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Yantorno, Osvaldo M

    2015-01-01

    Pertussis is a highly contagious disease mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis. Despite the massive use of vaccines, since the 1950s the disease has become re-emergent in 2000 with a shift in incidence from infants to adolescents and adults. Clearly, the efficacy of current cellular or acellular vaccines, formulated from bacteria grown in stirred bioreactors is limited, presenting a challenge for future vaccine development. For gaining insights into the role of B. pertussis biofilm development for host colonization and persistence within the host, we examined the biofilm forming capacity of eight argentinean clinical isolates recovered from 2001 to 2007. All clinical isolates showed an enhanced potential for biofilm formation compared to the reference strain Tohama I. We further selected the clinical isolate B. pertussis 2723, exhibiting the highest biofilm biomass production, for quantitative proteomic profiling by means of two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry, which was accompanied by targeted transcriptional analysis. Results revealed an elevated expression of several virulence factors, including adhesins involved in biofilm development. In addition, we observed a higher expression of energy metabolism enzymes in the clinical isolate compared to the Tohama I strain. Furthermore, all clinical isolates carried a polymorphism in the bvgS gene. This mutation was associated to an increased sensitivity to modulation and a faster rate of adhesion to abiotic surfaces. Thus, the phenotypic biofilm characteristics shown by the clinical isolates might represent an important, hitherto underestimated, adaptive strategy for host colonization and long time persistence within the host.

  7. 7种观赏植物对甲醛的净化效果及生理响应%The Capacity on Purifying Indoor Formaldehyde Pollution and Physiology Response of 7 Ornamental Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许桂芳

    2012-01-01

    To select suitable plants for use in purified indoor formaldehyde pollution, seven species of ornamental plants were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing formaldehyde concentrations in a simulated fumigating box environment, and the absorption capacities were compared and ranked according to the net ratio of absorption and the reduction of formaldehyde in the unit leaf area. Meanwhile, the leaf plasma membrane permeability, MDA content and POD activity were measured to assess those plants' physiological responses to formaldehyde stress. The results indicated that the capacities of different plants in removing formaldehyde were different, and the order of the plants according to the absorption efficiency amount per unit of leaf area was Peperomia tetraphylla> Reineckea carnea> Aspidistra elatior> Crassula portulacea> Stromanthe sanguinea> Nidularium fulgens. The leaf relative conductivity, MDA content and POD activity of all the seven species changed after formaldehyde treatment and the resistances of different species to formaldehyde stress were different. According to formaldehyde removal capacity and the resistance measured in the experiment, 6 ornamental plants (including Peperomia tetraphylla, Reineckea carnea, Aspidistra elatior, Crassula portulacea, Stromanthe sanguine, Nidularium fulgens) had both higher removal capacities and higher resistance that were suitable to be used in indoor decoration.%为净化室内甲醛污染筛选出净化能力强的植物种类,以7种常见室内观赏植物为试材,采用气体密封舱熏气法,进行甲醛熏气处理,以净吸收率及单位叶面积甲醛减少量来比较植物吸收甲醛能力的大小,同时测定了熏气前后植物叶片的相对电导率、丙二醛含量及POD活性等指标.结果显示,被测植物在一定程度上均可以有效吸收甲醛,单位面积吸收量从大到小依次为椒草、吉祥草、一叶兰、燕子掌、紫背竹芋、锦巢凤梨、一品红.不同植物

  8. Comparative Assessment of Phenolic Content and in Vitro Antioxidant Capacity in the Pulp and Peel of Mango Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad Mehmood Abbasi; Xinbo Guo; Xiong Fu; Lin Zhou; Youngsheng Chen; Yong Zhu; Huaifeng Yan; Rui Hai Liu

    2015-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.), also called “the king of fruits”, is one of the most popular fruits in tropical regions. Pulp and peel samples of mango cultivars were analyzed to estimate total phenolic, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents. Phenolic acids, hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (hydro-PSC) and oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) in vitro were also determined. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were found maximum in the peel of Xiao Tainang and Da Ta...

  9. Aerobic Capacity, Physical Activity and Metabolic Risk Factors in Firefighters Compared with Police Officers and Sedentary Clerks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Leischik

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between the physical work environment and physiological performance measures, physical activity levels and metabolic parameters among German civil servants. A main focus in this study was to examine the group differences rather than measuring the absolute values in an occupational group.We prospectively examined 198 male German civil servants (97 firefighters [FFs], 55 police officers [POs] and 46 sedentary clerks [SCs]. For each parameter, the groups were compared using a linear regression adjusted for age.The 97 FFs showed a similar maximal aerobic power (VO2max l/min of 3.17±0.44 l/min compared with the POs, who had a maximal aerobic power of 3.13±0.62 l/min (estimated difference, POs vs. FFs: 0.05, CI: -0.12-0.23, p=0.553. The maximal aerobic power of the FFs was slightly higher than that of the SCs, who had a maximal aerobic power of 2.85±0.52 l/min (-0.21, CI: -0.39-0.04, p=0.018 vs. FFs. The average physical activity (in metabolic equivalents [METS]/week of the FFs was 3953±2688, whereas those of the POs was 2838±2872 (vs. FFs: -985, CI: -1941-30, p = 0.043 and of the SCs 2212±2293 (vs. FFs: -1598.8, CI: -2477-721, p = 0.000; vs. POs: -613.6, CI: -1617.4–390.3, p = 0.229, respectively [corrected]. For the FFs, the average body fat percentage was 17.7%±6.2, whereas it was 21.4%±5.6 for the POs (vs. FFs: 2.75, CI: 0.92-4.59, p=0.004 and 20.8%±6.5 for the SCs (vs. FFs: 1.98, CI: -0.28-4.25, p=0.086; vs. POs: -0.77, CI: 3.15-1.61, p=0.523. The average waist circumference was 89.8 cm±10.0 for the FFs, 97.8 cm±12.4 (5.63, CI: 2.10-9.15, p=0.002 for the POs, and 97.3±11.7 (vs. FFs: -4.89, CI: 1.24-8.55, p=0.009; vs. POs: -0.73, CI: -5.21-3.74, p=0.747 for the SCs.The FFs showed significantly higher physical activity levels compared with the SCs. The PO group had the highest cardiovascular risk of all of the groups because it included more participants with metabolic syndrome; furthermore, the POs

  10. Gymnosperms have increased capacity for electron leakage to oxygen (Mehler and PTOX reactions) in photosynthesis compared with angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirao, Masayoshi; Kuroki, Shu; Kaneko, Kaoru; Kinjo, Yuriko; Tsuyama, Michito; Förster, Britta; Takahashi, Shunichi; Badger, Murray R

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in photosynthesis by participating in a number of O2-consuming reactions. O2 inhibits CO2 fixation by stimulating photorespiration, thus reducing plant production. O2 interacts with photosynthetic electron transport in the chloroplasts' thylakoids in two main ways: by accepting electrons from PSI (Mehler reaction); and by accepting electrons from reduced plastoquinone (PQ) mediated by the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX). In this study, we show, using 101 plant species, that there is a difference in the potential for photosynthetic electron flow to O2 between angiosperms and gymnosperms. We found, from measurements of Chl fluorescence and leaf absorbance at 830 nm, (i) that electron outflow from PSII, as determined by decay kinetics of Chl fluorescence after application of a saturating light pulse, is more rapid in gymnosperms than in angiosperms; (ii) that the reaction center Chl of PSI (P700) is rapidly and highly oxidized in gymnosperms during induction of photosynthesis; and (iii) that these differences are dependent on oxygen. Finally, rates of O2 uptake measured by mass spectrometry in the absence of photorespiration were significantly promoted by illumination in dark-adapted leaves of gymnosperms, but not in those of angiosperms. The light-stimulated O2 uptake was around 10% of the maximum O2 evolution in gymnosperms and 1% in angiosperms. These results suggest that gymnosperms have increased capacity for electron leakage to oxygen in photosynthesis compared with angiosperms. The involvement of the Mehler reaction and PTOX in the electron flow to O2 is discussed.

  11. Physiological advantages of C4 grasses in the field: a comparative experiment demonstrating the importance of drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Samuel H; Ripley, Brad S; Martin, Tarryn; De-Wet, Leigh-Ann; Woodward, F Ian; Osborne, Colin P

    2014-06-01

    Global climate change is expected to shift regional rainfall patterns, influencing species distributions where they depend on water availability. Comparative studies have demonstrated that C4 grasses inhabit drier habitats than C3 relatives, but that both C3 and C4 photosynthesis are susceptible to drought. However, C4 plants may show advantages in hydraulic performance in dry environments. We investigated the effects of seasonal variation in water availability on leaf physiology, using a common garden experiment in the Eastern Cape of South Africa to compare 12 locally occurring grass species from C4 and C3 sister lineages. Photosynthesis was always higher in the C4 than C3 grasses across every month, but the difference was not statistically significant during the wettest months. Surprisingly, stomatal conductance was typically lower in the C3 than C4 grasses, with the peak monthly average for C3 species being similar to that of C4 leaves. In water-limited, rain-fed plots, the photosynthesis of C4 leaves was between 2.0 and 7.4 μmol m(-2) s(-1) higher, stomatal conductance almost double, and transpiration 60% higher than for C3 plants. Although C4 average instantaneous water-use efficiencies were higher (2.4-8.1 mmol mol(-1)) than C3 averages (0.7-6.8 mmol mol(-1)), differences were not as great as we expected and were statistically significant only as drought became established. Photosynthesis declined earlier during drought among C3 than C4 species, coincident with decreases in stomatal conductance and transpiration. Eventual decreases in photosynthesis among C4 plants were linked with declining midday leaf water potentials. However, during the same phase of drought, C3 species showed significant decreases in hydrodynamic gradients that suggested hydraulic failure. Thus, our results indicate that stomatal and hydraulic behaviour during drought enhances the differences in photosynthesis between C4 and C3 species. We suggest that these drought responses are

  12. Physiological advantages of C4 grasses in the field: a comparative experiment demonstrating the importance of drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Samuel H; Ripley, Brad S; Martin, Tarryn; De-Wet, Leigh-Ann; Woodward, F Ian; Osborne, Colin P

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to shift regional rainfall patterns, influencing species distributions where they depend on water availability. Comparative studies have demonstrated that C4 grasses inhabit drier habitats than C3 relatives, but that both C3 and C4 photosynthesis are susceptible to drought. However, C4 plants may show advantages in hydraulic performance in dry environments. We investigated the effects of seasonal variation in water availability on leaf physiology, using a common garden experiment in the Eastern Cape of South Africa to compare 12 locally occurring grass species from C4 and C3 sister lineages. Photosynthesis was always higher in the C4 than C3 grasses across every month, but the difference was not statistically significant during the wettest months. Surprisingly, stomatal conductance was typically lower in the C3 than C4 grasses, with the peak monthly average for C3 species being similar to that of C4 leaves. In water-limited, rain-fed plots, the photosynthesis of C4 leaves was between 2.0 and 7.4 μmol m−2 s−1 higher, stomatal conductance almost double, and transpiration 60% higher than for C3 plants. Although C4 average instantaneous water-use efficiencies were higher (2.4–8.1 mmol mol−1) than C3 averages (0.7–6.8 mmol mol−1), differences were not as great as we expected and were statistically significant only as drought became established. Photosynthesis declined earlier during drought among C3 than C4 species, coincident with decreases in stomatal conductance and transpiration. Eventual decreases in photosynthesis among C4 plants were linked with declining midday leaf water potentials. However, during the same phase of drought, C3 species showed significant decreases in hydrodynamic gradients that suggested hydraulic failure. Thus, our results indicate that stomatal and hydraulic behaviour during drought enhances the differences in photosynthesis between C4 and C3 species. We suggest that these drought responses

  13. The Role of Physical and Physiological Capacities and Their Modification on the Tolerance to Various Stress Experienced by Air Force Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-30

    who varied in their orthostatic tolerance but could be . I-. , . 6 matched with respect to their anthropometric features - somatotype - and...catecholainine levels are in progress. Testing continues on a broad spectrum of in- dividual somatotypes . Also in progress is the cross training of en...Specificity of Exercise Training with Primary Observations of Underlying Physiology B-I. The Effects of Body Somatotype and Training Modalities on Orthostatic

  14. A comparative analysis of transcriptomic, biochemical, and physiological responses to elevated ozone identifies species-specific mechanisms of resilience in legume crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendrek, Craig R; Koester, Robert P; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-01

    Current concentrations of tropospheric ozone ([O3]) pollution negatively impact plant metabolism, which can result in decreased crop yields. Interspecific variation in the physiological response of plants to elevated [O3] exists; however, the underlying cellular responses explaining species-specific differences are largely unknown. Here, a physiological screen has been performed on multiple varieties of legume species. Three varieties of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) were resilient to elevated [O3]. Garden pea showed no change in photosynthetic capacity or leaf longevity when exposed to elevated [O3], in contrast to varieties of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Global transcriptomic and targeted biochemical analyses were then done to examine the mechanistic differences in legume responses to elevated [O3]. In all three species, there was an O3-mediated reduction in specific leaf weight and total non-structural carbohydrate content, as well as increased abundance of respiration-related transcripts. Differences specific to garden pea included a pronounced increase in the abundance of GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE transcript, as well as greater contents of foliar glutathione, apoplastic ascorbate, and sucrose in elevated [O3]. These results suggest that garden pea may have had greater capacity for detoxification, which prevented net losses in CO2 fixation in an elevated [O3] environment.

  15. Randomised clinical study comparing the effectiveness and physiological effects of hypertonic and isotonic polyethylene glycol solutions for bowel cleansing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Hiro-o; Matsushita, Hiro-o; Yoshikawa, Kenjiro; Takagi, Ryo; Harada, Eiji; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Nakaoka, Michiko; Himori, Ryogo; Yoshida, Yuko; Satou, Kentarou; Imai, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Bowel cleansing is necessary before colonoscopy, but is a burden to patients because of the long cleansing time and large dose volume. A low-volume (2 L) hypertonic polyethylene glycol-ascorbic acid solution (PEG-Asc) has been introduced, but its possible dehydration effects have not been quantitatively studied. We compared the efficacy and safety including the dehydration risk between hypertonic PEG-Asc and isotonic PEG regimens. Design This was an observer-blinded randomised study. Participants (n=310) were allocated to receive 1 of 3 regimens on the day of colonoscopy: PEG-Asc (1.5 L) and water (0.75 L) dosed with 1 split (PEG-Asc-S) or 4 splits (PEG-Asc-M), or PEG-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES; 2.25 L) dosed with no split. Dehydration was analysed by measuring haematocrit (Ht). Results The cleansing time using the hypertonic PEG-Asc-S (3.33±0.48 hours) was significantly longer than that with isotonic PEG-ES (3.05±0.56 hours; p<0.001). PEG-Asc-M (3.00±0.53 hours) did not have this same disadvantage. Successful cleansing was achieved in more than 94% of participants using each of the 3 regimens. The percentage changes in Ht from baseline (before dosing) to the end of dosing with PEG-Asc-S (3.53±3.32%) and PEG-Asc-M (4.11±3.07%) were significantly greater than that with PEG-ES (1.31±3.01%). Conclusions These 3 lower volume regimens were efficacious and had no serious adverse effects. Even patients cleansed with isotonic PEG-ES showed significant physiological dehydration at the end of dosing. The four-split PEG-Asc-M regimen is recommended because of its shorter cleansing time without causing serious nausea. Trial registration number UMIN000013103; Results. PMID:27547443

  16. Physiologically based kinetic modeling of bioactivation and detoxification of the alkenylbenzene methyleugenol in human as compared with rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Subeihi, A.A.; Spenkelink, A.; Punt, A.; Boersma, M.G.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Rietjens, I.

    2012-01-01

    This study defines a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model for methyleugenol (ME) in human based on in vitro and in silico derived parameters. With the model obtained, bioactivation and detoxification of methyleugenol (ME) at different doses levels could be investigated. The outcomes of the curr

  17. Comparative polygenic analysis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and tolerance to high ethanol levels of cell proliferation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Thiago M; Foulquié-Moreno, María R; Hubmann, Georg; Duitama, Jorge; Swinnen, Steve; Goovaerts, Annelies; Yang, Yudi; Dumortier, Françoise; Thevelein, Johan M

    2013-06-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to accumulate ≥17% ethanol (v/v) by fermentation in the absence of cell proliferation. The genetic basis of this unique capacity is unknown. Up to now, all research has focused on tolerance of yeast cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. Comparison of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation in 68 yeast strains showed a poor correlation, but higher ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation clearly increased the likelihood of superior maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to identify the polygenic basis of these two complex traits using segregants from a cross of a haploid derivative of the sake strain CBS1585 and the lab strain BY. From a total of 301 segregants, 22 superior segregants accumulating ≥17% ethanol in small-scale fermentations and 32 superior segregants growing in the presence of 18% ethanol, were separately pooled and sequenced. Plotting SNP variant frequency against chromosomal position revealed eleven and eight Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for the two traits, respectively, and showed that the genetic basis of the two traits is partially different. Fine-mapping and Reciprocal Hemizygosity Analysis identified ADE1, URA3, and KIN3, encoding a protein kinase involved in DNA damage repair, as specific causative genes for maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. These genes, as well as the previously identified MKT1 gene, were not linked in this genetic background to tolerance of cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. The superior KIN3 allele contained two SNPs, which are absent in all yeast strains sequenced up to now. This work provides the first insight in the genetic basis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity in yeast and reveals for the first time the importance of DNA damage repair in yeast ethanol tolerance.

  18. Comparative polygenic analysis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and tolerance to high ethanol levels of cell proliferation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago M Pais

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to accumulate ≥17% ethanol (v/v by fermentation in the absence of cell proliferation. The genetic basis of this unique capacity is unknown. Up to now, all research has focused on tolerance of yeast cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. Comparison of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation in 68 yeast strains showed a poor correlation, but higher ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation clearly increased the likelihood of superior maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to identify the polygenic basis of these two complex traits using segregants from a cross of a haploid derivative of the sake strain CBS1585 and the lab strain BY. From a total of 301 segregants, 22 superior segregants accumulating ≥17% ethanol in small-scale fermentations and 32 superior segregants growing in the presence of 18% ethanol, were separately pooled and sequenced. Plotting SNP variant frequency against chromosomal position revealed eleven and eight Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs for the two traits, respectively, and showed that the genetic basis of the two traits is partially different. Fine-mapping and Reciprocal Hemizygosity Analysis identified ADE1, URA3, and KIN3, encoding a protein kinase involved in DNA damage repair, as specific causative genes for maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. These genes, as well as the previously identified MKT1 gene, were not linked in this genetic background to tolerance of cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. The superior KIN3 allele contained two SNPs, which are absent in all yeast strains sequenced up to now. This work provides the first insight in the genetic basis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity in yeast and reveals for the first time the importance of DNA damage repair in yeast ethanol tolerance.

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Physiological and Biochemical Parameters and Survival of Chickens for the Effects of Microclimatic Stress Factors During Incubation

    OpenAIRE

    Indyuhova E.N.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of two experiments, the findings reflect the influence of temperature and moisture stress on physiological and biochemical parameters of chickens and their viability during embryonic and early postembryonic development. It was found that under the influence of stress factors recorded increase in lipid peroxidation in chickens from day-old experimental groups; showed a reduction in the intensity of the major metabolism of young chickens day old.

  20. A comparative study of institutional adaptive capacity : South Saskatchewan River Basin, Canada, and Elqui River Basin, Northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauchyn, D.; Diaz, P.; Gauthier, D. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation discussed the strategies and materials developed for a five-year study of the capacity of institutions in two dryland regions (the South Saskatchewan River Basin in western Canada and the Elqui River Basin of north-central Chile) to adapt to the impacts of climate change. The purpose of the project was to obtain a systematic and comprehensive understanding of the capacities of regional institutions to formulate and implement strategies of adaptation to climate change risks and the forecasted impacts of climate change on the supply and management of water resources in dryland environments. Both regions are at different stages of social and environmental vulnerability and yet have a dry climate adjacent to a major mountain system and landscapes at risk of desertification, as well as an agricultural economy dependent on irrigation water derived from mountain snow and glaciers. tabs., figs.

  1. A comparative study of the hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity of activated sludge and membrane bioreactor wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jacque-Ann; Hofmann, Ron

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the hydroxyl radical scavenging characteristics of wastewater from five membrane bioreactor (MBR) and five activated sludge (AS) systems. The average values of the characteristics of both wastewater types was found to be significantly different at a 90% confidence interval in terms UV absorbance at 254 nm, alkalinity, and biopolymer concentration. Effluent organic matter (EfOM), with an average kOH,EfOM of (2.75 ± 1.04) × 10(8) M(-1)s(-1), was identified as the primary hydroxyl scavenger contributing to >70% of the background scavenging in all cases, except when nitrite exceeded 0.3 mg NO(2)(-)-N/L. The average scavenging capacity, EfOM scavenging capacity, and the EfOM reaction rate constant of the AS wastewaters exceeded that of the MBR. However, due to the small sample size (n = 5) and considerable variability in scavenging characteristics among the MBR wastewaters, the difference in EfOM reactivity between the two wastewaters was not statistically significant at a 90% confidence interval. Nevertheless, these preliminary findings suggest the possibility that MBR wastewaters may be more amenable to treatment by advanced oxidation. A plausible explanation is that MBRs were observed to reject biopolymers, and a strong correlation was observed between EfOM scavenging capacity and biopolymer concentration.

  2. A Test of Canine Olfactory Capacity: Comparing Various Dog Breeds and Wolves in a Natural Detection Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Polgár

    Full Text Available Many dog breeds are bred specifically for increased performance in scent-based tasks. Whether dogs bred for this purpose have higher olfactory capacities than other dogs, or even wolves with whom they share a common ancestor, has not yet been studied. Indeed, there is no standard test for assessing canine olfactory ability. This study aimed to create a simple procedure that requires no pre-training and to use it to measure differences in olfactory capacity across four groups of canines: (1 dog breeds that have been selected for their scenting ability; (2 dog breeds that have been bred for other purposes; (3 dog breeds with exaggerated short-nosed features; and (4 hand-reared grey wolves. The procedure involved baiting a container with raw turkey meat and placing it under one of four identical ceramic pots. Subjects were led along the row of pots and were tasked with determining by olfaction alone which of them contained the bait. There were five levels of increasing difficulty determined by the number of holes on the container's lid. A subsample of both dogs and wolves was retested to assess reliability. The results showed that breeds selected for scent work were better than both short-nosed and non-scent breeds. In the most difficult level, wolves and scenting breeds performed better than chance, while non-scenting and short-nosed breeds did not. In the retested samples wolves improved their success; however, dogs showed no change in their performances indicating that a single test may be reliable enough to assess their capacity. Overall, we revealed measurable differences between dog breeds in their olfactory abilities and suggest that the Natural Detection Task is a good foundation for developing an efficient way of quantifying them.

  3. A Test of Canine Olfactory Capacity: Comparing Various Dog Breeds and Wolves in a Natural Detection Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgár, Zita; Kinnunen, Mari; Újváry, Dóra; Miklósi, Ádám; Gácsi, Márta

    2016-01-01

    Many dog breeds are bred specifically for increased performance in scent-based tasks. Whether dogs bred for this purpose have higher olfactory capacities than other dogs, or even wolves with whom they share a common ancestor, has not yet been studied. Indeed, there is no standard test for assessing canine olfactory ability. This study aimed to create a simple procedure that requires no pre-training and to use it to measure differences in olfactory capacity across four groups of canines: (1) dog breeds that have been selected for their scenting ability; (2) dog breeds that have been bred for other purposes; (3) dog breeds with exaggerated short-nosed features; and (4) hand-reared grey wolves. The procedure involved baiting a container with raw turkey meat and placing it under one of four identical ceramic pots. Subjects were led along the row of pots and were tasked with determining by olfaction alone which of them contained the bait. There were five levels of increasing difficulty determined by the number of holes on the container's lid. A subsample of both dogs and wolves was retested to assess reliability. The results showed that breeds selected for scent work were better than both short-nosed and non-scent breeds. In the most difficult level, wolves and scenting breeds performed better than chance, while non-scenting and short-nosed breeds did not. In the retested samples wolves improved their success; however, dogs showed no change in their performances indicating that a single test may be reliable enough to assess their capacity. Overall, we revealed measurable differences between dog breeds in their olfactory abilities and suggest that the Natural Detection Task is a good foundation for developing an efficient way of quantifying them.

  4. Comparative analysis of the antioxidant and DNA protection capacities of Anadenanthera colubrina, Libidibia ferrea and Pityrocarpa moniliformis fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luís Cláudio Nascimento; da Silva, Carlos Alberto; de Souza, Renata Maria; José Macedo, Alexandre; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the antioxidant and DNA protection abilities of hydroalcoholic extracts from fruits of Anadenanthera colubrina (ACHE), Libidibia ferrea (LFHE) and Pityrocarpa moniliformis (PMHE). These extracts were tested by five antioxidant methods (phosphomolibdenium and reducing power assays; superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide scavenging) and DNA protection capacity. Total phenolic content was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method. ACHE exhibited the highest phenolic content (578 mg/g GAE), followed by LFHE (460 mg/g GAE) and PMHE (448 mg/g GAE). In phosphomolibdenium assay, ACHE showed 24.81% of activity in relation to ascorbic acid, whereas LFHE and PMHE had 21.08% and 18.05%, respectively. These plants showed high ability to inhibit reactive species tested with IC50 values ranged from 10.66 to 14.37 μg/mL for superoxide radical; 26.05 to 45.43 μg/mL for hydrogen peroxide; 178.42 to 182.98 μg/mL for reducing power; and 199.2 to 283 μg/mL for nitric oxide. Furthermore, these extracts had capacity to break the DNA damage induced by hydroxyl radicals. The antioxidant activity of these plants is related with their higher phenolic content and show that they may be used as source of bioactive compounds, relevant to the maintenance of oxidative stability of the food matrix, cosmetics and/or pharmaceutical preparations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative Study of Phenolic Profile, Antioxidant Capacity, and Color-composition Relation of Roselle Cultivars with Contrasting Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo-Méndez, Gustavo A; Jara-Palacios, M José; Escudero-Gilete, M Luisa; Gordillo, Belén; Hernanz, Dolores; Paredes-López, Octavio; Vanegas-Espinoza, Pablo E; Del Villar-Martínez, Alma A; Heredia, Francisco J

    2016-03-01

    Roselle is a plant that accumulates anthocyanins significantly, hence its importance as food coloring and as a source of antioxidant compounds for human health. This study was aimed to determine phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of methanolic extracts, and beverages obtained from native roselle cultivars in Mexico (Negra, Sudan, Rosa and Blanca) with different degrees of pigmentation, and to establish the color-composition relationship. Chromatographic methods were used to determine phenolic compounds: flavanols, flavonols, benzoic, hibiscus and phenolic acids as well as two main anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-sambubioside and delphinidin 3-sambubioside). The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by ABTS and FRAP assays. Tristimulus colorimetry showed to be a useful technique to determine the color-composition relationship, leading to equations that allowed to predict anthocyanin content of roselle (R > 0.84). Also, a stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) was developed in order to classify roselle cultivars. The obtained mathematical model could be an important tool to be used in colorimetric characterization of functional compounds used in food processing.

  6. Comparing the Heat Stress (DI, WBGT, SW Indices and the Men Physiological Parameters in Hot and Humid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Golbabaie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: Heat stress is considered as a serious threat to the health and safety of workers in many industries, including petrochemical and steel. Assessment of the heat stress is important from the disease prevention point of view and also for the safety and performance of workers at workplace. Although there are many indices to evaluate the heat stress, it is hard to select an applicable index for a wide range of weather conditions. The purpose of the study was to develop an optimal index based on physiological parameters in a petrochemical industry.  Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a petrochemical industry located in Assaluyeh (south of Iran. Twenty one healthy young men at different levels of fitness and heat acclimation volunteered to participate in the study. Physiological parameters including heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, skin temperature and oral temperature were measured during the working day over two consecutive weeks. Simultaneously, we measured the climatic parameters required to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT, required sweat rate (SWreq, and the discomfort index (DI indices. Results: All the measurements took place on 2 sites: Kar (working place and Paziresh (resting room. Our results showed  that the mean values of indices and physiological parameters   in Kar    for both acclimated and unacclimated groups were significantly higher than Paziresh (P<0.05. There was the strongest linear correlation between WBGT and heart rate (0.731, systolic blood pressure (0.695 and diastolic blood pressure (0.375 and skin temperature (0.451 respectively. The amounts of DI were 0.725, 0.446, 0.352, and 0.689 respectively. But the strongest linear relationship existed between SWreq and deep body temperature (0.766. Conclusion:  There were significant differences in the present indices and

  7. Towards more physiological manipulations of hormones in field studies: comparing the release dynamics of three kinds of testosterone implants, silastic tubing, time-release pellets and beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Rene; Trappschuh, Monika; Gahr, Manfred; Goymann, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    Hormone manipulations are of increasing interest in the areas of physiological ecology and evolution, because hormones are mediators of complex phenotypic changes. Often, however, hormone manipulations in field settings follow the approaches that have been used in classical endocrinology, potentially using supra-physiological doses. To answer ecological and evolutionary questions, it may be important to manipulate hormones within their physiological range. We compare the release dynamics of three kinds of implants, silastic tubing, time-release pellets, and beeswax pellets, each containing 3mg of testosterone. These implants were placed into female Japanese quail, and plasma levels of testosterone measured over a period of 30 days. Testosterone in silastic tubing led to supraphysiological levels. Also, testosterone concentrations were highly variable between individuals. Time-release pellets led to levels of testosterone that were slightly supraphysiological during the first days. Over the period of 30 days, however, testosterone concentrations were more consistent. Beeswax implants led to a physiological increase in testosterone and a relatively constant release. The study demonstrated that hormone implants in 10mm silastic tubing led to a supraphysiological peak in female quail. Thus, the use of similar-sized or even larger silastic implants in males or in other smaller vertebrates needs careful assessment. Time-release pellets and beeswax implants provide a more controlled release and degrade within the body. Thus, it is not necessary to recapture the animal to remove the implant. We propose beeswax implants as an appropriate procedure to manipulate testosterone levels within the physiological range. Hence, such implants may be an effective alternative for field studies.

  8. Reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  9. Comparative toxicity of physiological and biochemical parameters in Euglena gracilis to short-term exposure to potassium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Fernanda; Pinto, Luciano Henrique; Del Ciampo, Lineu Fernando; Lorenzi, Luciano; Heyder, Carmen Diamantina Teixeira; Häder, Donat Peter; Erzinger, Gilmar Sidnei

    2015-01-01

    Potassium sorbate is the potassium salt of sorbic acid, is a widespread and efficient antioxidant that has multiple functions in plants, traditionally associated with the reactions of photosynthesis; however, it has moderate toxicity to various species including rat, fish, bacteria and human health. The effects of potassium sorbate on the movement and photosynthetic parameters of Euglena gracilis were studied during short-term exposure. Potassium sorbate showed acute toxicity to the green flagellate E. gracilis affecting different physiological parameters used as endpoints in an automatic bioassay such as motility, precision of gravitational orientation (r-value), upward movement and alignment, with mean EC50 values of 2867.2 mg L(-1). The concentrations above 625 mg L(-1) of potassium sorbate induce an inhibition of the photosynthetic efficiency and electron transport rate and, in concentrations more than 2500.0 mg L(-1), the Euglena cells undergo a complete inhibition of photosynthesis even at low light irradiation.

  10. Comparative Physiological and Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Leaf Response to Cadmium-Induced Stress in Poplar (Populus yunnanensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang Yang

    Full Text Available Excess amounts of heavy metals are important environmental pollutants with significant ecological and nutritional effects. Cdmium (Cd is of particular concern because of its widespread occurrence and high toxicity. We conducted physiological and proteomic analyses to improve our understanding of the responses of Populus yunnanensis to Cd stress. The plantlets experienced two apparent stages in their response to Cd stress. During the first stage, transiently induced defense-response molecules, photosynthesis- and energy-associated proteins, antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs accumulated to enhance protein stability and establish a new cellular homeostasis. This activity explains why plant photosynthetic capability during this period barely changed. During the second stage, a decline of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO and HSP levels led to imbalance of the plant photosynthetic system. Additionally, the expression of Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MPK3, Mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MPK6 and a homeobox-leucine zipper protein was higher in the second stage. Higher expression of caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT may regulate plant cell wall synthesis for greater Cd storage. These genes may be candidates for further research and use in genetic manipulation of poplar tolerance to Cd stress.

  11. Comparative studies on the morphometry and physiology of European populations of the lagoon specialist Cerastoderma glaucum (Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Tarnowska

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal changes in the morphometric and physiological parameters of the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum (Bivalvia from the Baltic Sea (GD, the North Sea (LV, and the Mediterranean Sea (BL were investigated. The cockles from GD were much smaller than those from other populations due to osmotic stress. The female to male ratios did not differ significantly from 1:1. The northern populations (GD, LV had a monocyclic reproductive pattern, whereas the southern population (BL seemed to reproduce throughout the year. Seasonal changes in the contents of biochemical components appeared to be correlated with changes in trophic conditions and the reproductive cycle. Protein content was the highest in spring for all the populations. The highest lipid contents and lowest carbohydrate contents were noted in GD and BL in spring, while no marked differences were noted among seasons in LV (probably because the data from both sexes were pooled. Respiration rates in GD were the highest among the populations, which could have been due to osmotic stress. High metabolic rates expressed by high respiration rates in GD and LV in spring and autumn could have resulted from gamete development (in spring and phytoplankton blooms (in spring and autumn.

  12. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Two Vibrio toranzoniae Strains with Different Virulence Capacity Reveals Clues on Its Pathogenicity for Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, Aide; Gibas, Cynthia J.; Romalde, Jesús L.

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio toranzoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium of the Splendidus clade within the Vibrio genus. V. toranzoniae was first isolated from healthy clams in Galicia (Spain) but recently was also identified associated to disease outbreaks of red conger eel in Chile. Experimental challenges showed that the Chilean isolates were able to produce fish mortalities but not the strains isolated from clams. The aim of the present study was to determine the differences at the genomic level between the type strain of the species (CECT 7225T) and the strain R17, isolated from red conger eel in Chile, which could explain their different virulent capacity. The genome-based comparison showed high homology between both strains but differences were observed in certain gene clusters that include some virulence factors. Among these, we found that iron acquisition systems and capsule synthesis genes were the main differential features between both genomes that could explain the differences in the pathogenicity of the strains. Besides, the studied genomes presented genomic islands and toxins, and the R17 strain presented CRISPR sequences that are absent on the type strain. Taken together, this analysis provided important insights into virulence factors of V. toranzoniae that will lead to a better understanding of the pathogenic process. PMID:28194141

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Discriminative Capacity of EEG, Two ECG-Derived and Respiratory Signals in Automatic Sleep Staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Ebrahimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly accurate classification of sleep stages is possible based on EEG signals alone. However, reliable and high quality acquisition of these signals in the home environment is difficult. Instead, electrocardiogram (ECG and Respiratory (Res signals are easier to record and may offer a practical alternative for home monitoring of sleep. Therefore, automatic sleep staging was performed using ECG, Res (thoracic excursion and EEG signals from 31 nocturnal recordings of the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS polysomnography Database. Feature vectors were extracted from 0.5 min (standard epochs of sleep data by time-domain, frequency domain, time-frequency and nonlinear methods and optimized by using the Support Vector Machine-Recursive Feature Elimination (SVM-RFE method. These features were then classified by using a SVM. Classification based upon EEG features produced a Correct Classification Ratio CCR=0.92. In comparison, features derived from ECG signals alone, that is the combination of Heart Rate Variability (HRV, and ECG-Derived Respiration (EDR signals produced a CCR=0.54, while those features based on the combination of HRV and (thoracic Res signals resulted in a CCR=0.57. Overall comparison of the results based on standard epochs of EEG signals with those obtained from 5-minute (long epochs of cardiorespiratory signals, revealed that acceptable CCR=0.81 and discriminative capacity (Accuracy=89.32%, Specificity=92.88% and Sensitivity=78.64% were also achievable when using optimal feature sets derived from long epochs of the latter signals in sleep staging. In addition, it was observed that the presence of some artifacts (like bigeminy in the cardiorespiratory signals reduced the accuracy of automatic sleep staging more than the artifacts that contaminated the EEG signals.

  14. Reduced Need for Rescue Antiemetics and Improved Capacity to Eat in Patients Receiving Acupuncture Compared to Patients Receiving Sham Acupuncture or Standard Care during Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steineck, Gunnar; Börjeson, Sussanne

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate if consumption of emesis-related care and eating capacity differed between patients receiving verum acupuncture, sham acupuncture, or standard care only during radiotherapy. Methods. Patients were randomized to verum (n = 100) or sham (n = 100) acupuncture (telescopic blunt sham needle) (median 12 sessions) and registered daily their consumption of antiemetics and eating capacity. A standard care group (n = 62) received standard care only and delivered these data once. Results. More patients in the verum (n = 73 of 89 patients still undergoing radiotherapy; 82%, Relative Risk (RR) 1.23, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.01–1.50) and the sham acupuncture group (n = 79 of 95; 83%, RR 1.24, CI 1.03–1.52) did not need any antiemetic medications, as compared to the standard care group (n = 42 out of 63; 67%) after receiving 27 Gray dose of radiotherapy. More patients in the verum (n = 50 of 89; 56%, RR 1.78, CI 1.31–2.42) and the sham acupuncture group (n = 58 of 94 answering patients; 62%, RR 1.83, CI 1.20–2.80) were capable of eating as usual, compared to the standard care group (n = 20 of 63; 39%). Conclusion. Patients receiving acupuncture had lower consumption of antiemetics and better eating capacity than patients receiving standard antiemetic care, plausible by nonspecific effects of the extra care during acupuncture. PMID:28270851

  15. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE USE OF CMR POMADE (BELLISPERENIS + CALENDULA OFFICINALIS + MYRISTICASEBIFERA AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SOLUTION IN TISSUE SCARRING OF RATS (RATHUSNORVEGICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Fernandes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical market has several types of ointments that are used in animals for healing processes, arising from traumatic injuries or surgical procedures. The use of homeopathic medicines in the treatment of skin wounds has grown significantly, but no one knows for sure the efficiency of such drugs. Thus, this paper aimed to measure the drug's effectiveness CMR (Bellisperenis + Calendula officinalis Myristica sebifera in comparison to physiologic solution in treating skin wounds produced in rats. Standardized in the back of the animals on both sides (right and left evaluating the healing potential of homeopathic ointment CMR compared to saline lesions were performed.

  17. Clinical, Physiological and Radiological Features in Asthma with Incomplete Reversibility of Airflow Obstruction Compared with Those of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical features, pulmonary function and high-resolution computed chest tomography (HRCT findings of asthmatic patients with a component of incomplete reversibility of airflow obstruction (AIRAO with those of patients with smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.

  18. Morphological, physiological and proteomic analyses provide insights into the improvement of castor bean productivity of a dwarf variety in comparing with a high-stalk variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Hu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis displays a broad range of phenotypic diversity in size, with dwarf, common, and large-sized varieties. To better understand the differences in plant productivity between a high-stalk variety and a dwarf variety under normal growth conditions, we carried out a comparative proteomic study between Zhebi 100 (a high stalk variety and Zhebi 26 (a dwarf variety combined with agronomic and physiological analyses. Over 1000 proteins were detected, 38 of which differed significantly between the two varieties and were identified by mass spectrometry. Compared with Zhebi 100, we found that photosynthesis, energy, and protein biosynthesis related proteins decreased in abundance in Zhebi 26. The lower yield of the dwarf castor is likely related to its lower photosynthetic rate, therefore we hypothesize that the lower yield of the dwarf castor, in comparing to high stalk castor, could be increased by increasing planting density. Consequently, we demonstrated that at the higher planting density in Zhebi 26 (36,000 seedlings/hm² can achieve a higher yield than that of Zhebi 100 (12,000 seedlings/hm². Proteomic and physiological studies showed that for developing dwarf R. communis cultivar that is suitable for large scale-production (i.e. mechanical harvesting, it is imperative to identify the optimum planting density that will contribute to higher leaf area index, higher photosynthesis, and eventually higher productivity.

  19. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TEAM-BASED LEARNING ON THE TRADITIONAL METHOD OF CONDUCTING TUTORIALS IN PHYSIOLOGY FOR FIRST YEAR MBBS STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Vishweshwar Amalladinna

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In medical education, didactic lectures, tutorials, bedside clinics, etc. are some of the teaching-learning method incorporated in the curriculum. Most of the methods are teacher oriented where students are not involved much. Active participation of the students, i.e. student centered approach increases the understanding of the subject. In physiology, the tutorials are conducted to discuss the individual topics. It was observed that active participation of students in physiology tutorials is less. This study was undertaken to actively involve the students during tutorials and to assess their understanding by Team-Based Learning (TBL. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, the performance of the students in team-based learning was compared with the traditional learning. The pretest and post-test was conducted at the beginning and at the end of the tutorial in both the groups. In the study group, the tutorial topics were discussed in teams, whereas in control group, the tutorial was conducted by traditional method. RESULTS There was a significant increase in performance in post-test in study group compared to control group (p <0.001. TBL sessions will be more interesting and interacting compared to traditional method. TBL method improves the student’s understanding of the topics in detail and hence enhances the performance. CONCLUSION The different teaching-learning methods, which increase the student’s involvement should be implemented in the medical education to facilitate the learning process.

  20. Morphological, Physiological and Proteomic Analyses Provide Insights into the Improvement of Castor Bean Productivity of a Dwarf Variety in Comparing with a High-Stalk Variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenjun; Chen, Lin; Qiu, Xiaoyun; Lu, Hongling; Wei, Jia; Bai, Yueqing; He, Ningjia; Hu, Rongbin; Sun, Li; Zhang, Hong; Shen, Guoxin

    2016-01-01

    Ricinus communis displays a broad range of phenotypic diversity in size, with dwarf, common, and large-sized varieties. To better understand the differences in plant productivity between a high-stalk variety and a dwarf variety under normal growth conditions, we carried out a comparative proteomic study between Zhebi 100 (a high stalk variety) and Zhebi 26 (a dwarf variety) combined with agronomic and physiological analyses. Over 1000 proteins were detected, 38 of which differed significantly between the two varieties and were identified by mass spectrometry. Compared with Zhebi 100, we found that photosynthesis, energy, and protein biosynthesis related proteins decreased in abundance in Zhebi 26. The lower yield of the dwarf castor is likely related to its lower photosynthetic rate, therefore we hypothesize that the lower yield of the dwarf castor, in comparing to high stalk castor, could be increased by increasing planting density. Consequently, we demonstrated that at the higher planting density in Zhebi 26 (36,000 seedlings/hm2) can achieve a higher yield than that of Zhebi 100 (12,000 seedlings/hm2). Proteomic and physiological studies showed that for developing dwarf R. communis cultivar that is suitable for large scale-production (i.e., mechanical harvesting), it is imperative to identify the optimum planting density that will contribute to higher leaf area index, higher photosynthesis, and eventually higher productivity.

  1. A comparative calculation of the wind turbines capacities on the basis of the L-{sigma} criterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menet, Jean-Luc; Valdes, Laurent-Charles; Menart, Bruno [Universite de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambresis, Groupe de Recherche Energies et Environnement, Valenciennes, 59 (France)

    2001-04-01

    Usually, wind sites are equipped with fast-running Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines of the airscrew type, which has a high efficiency. In this article, the argument is put forward that the choice of a wind turbine must not be based only on high efficiency. We propose a comparative criterion adapted to the comparison of a horizontal axis wind turbine with a vertical axis wind turbine: the L-{sigma} criterion. This criterion consists in comparing wind turbines which intercept the same front width of wind, by allocating them a same reference value of the maximal mechanical stress on the blades or the paddles. On the basis of this criterion, a quantitative comparison points to a clear advantage of the Savonius rotors, because of their lower angular velocity, and provides some elements for the improvement of their rotor. (Author)

  2. Some Comparative Histomorphometrical Aspects Regarding Detoxifying Capacity of Garlic, Coriander and Chlorella, in Chronic Cd Contamination on Carassius gibelio Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Nicula

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to histomorphometrically compare the aspect of gill, intestinal and ovarian epithelium of Prussian carp specimens, simultaneously subjected to chronic intoxication with Cd and, to chelating and antioxidant effect of chlorella, coriander and garlic on this toxicant respectively. 150 Prussian carps, 10-12 g of weight were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment, E1 (10 ppm Cd into water, E2 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized garlic in feed, E3 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized coriander in feed, E4 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized chlorella in feed. Fragments of gill, small intestine and ovary were removed and analyzed by light microscopy and a specific QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histomorphometric study. Mentioned epithelium suffered evident histomorphologic and histomorphometric changes under the action of Cd and Cd plus chlorella, Cd plus coriander and Cd plus garlic respectively. Statistical processing data related to the gill lamellae length, intestinal villi height and chorion thickness of ovaries follicles revealed the existence of different degrees of significance between experimental groups compared.

  3. Physiological and proteomics analyses reveal the mechanism of Eichhornia crassipes tolerance to high-concentration cadmium stress compared with Pistia stratiotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd pollution is an environmental problem worldwide. Phytoremediation is a convenient method of removing Cd from both soil and water, but its efficiency is still low, especially in aquatic environments. Scientists have been trying to improve the ability of plants to absorb and accumulate Cd based on interactions between plants and Cd, especially the mechanism by which plants resist Cd. Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes are aquatic plants commonly used in the phytoremediation of heavy metals. In the present study, we conducted physiological and biochemical analyses to compare the resistance of these two species to Cd stress at 100 mg/L. E. crassipes showed stronger resistance and was therefore used for subsequent comparative proteomics to explore the potential mechanism of E. crassipes tolerance to Cd stress at the protein level. The expression patterns of proteins in different functional categories revealed that the physiological activities and metabolic processes of E. crassipes were affected by exposure to Cd stress. However, when some proteins related to these processes were negatively inhibited, some analogous proteins were induced to compensate for the corresponding functions. As a result, E. crassipes could maintain more stable physiological parameters than P. stratiotes. Many stress-resistance substances and proteins, such as proline and heat shock proteins (HSPs and post translational modifications, were found to be involved in the protection and repair of functional proteins. In addition, antioxidant enzymes played important roles in ROS detoxification. These findings will facilitate further understanding of the potential mechanism of plant response to Cd stress at the protein level.

  4. Integrating nitric oxide, nitrite and hydrogen sulfide signaling in the physiological adaptations to hypoxia: A comparative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fago, Angela; Jensen, Frank Bo; Tota, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrite (NO2-) are formed in vivo and are of crucial importance in the tissue response to hypoxia, particularly in the cardiovascular system, where these signaling molecules are involved in a multitude of processes including the regulation of vascular...... of the Society for Experimental Biology in 2011 in Glasgow. It also highlights the need and potential for a comparative approach of study and collaborative effort to identify potential link(s) between the signaling pathways involving NO, nitrite and H2S in the whole-body responses to hypoxia....

  5. Comparing the reinforcement capacity of welded steel mesh and a thin spray-on liner using large scale laboratory tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenjun Shan; Porter Ian; Nemcik Jan; Baafi Ernest

    2014-01-01

    Steel mesh is used as a passive skin confinement medium to supplement the active support provided by rock bolts for roof and rib control in underground coal mines. Thin spray-on liners (TSL) are believed to have the potential to take the place of steel mesh as the skin confinement medium in underground mines. To confirm this belief, large scale laboratory experiments were conducted to compare the behaviour of welded steel mesh and a TSL, when used in conjunction with rock bolts, in reinforcing strata with weak bedding planes and strata prone to guttering, two common rock conditions which exist in coal mines. It was found that while the peak load taken by the simulated rock mass with weak bedding planes acting as the control sample (no skin confinement) was 2494 kN, the corresponding value of the sample with 5 mm thick TSL reinforcement reached 2856 kN. The peak load of the steel mesh reinforced sample was only 2321 kN, but this was attributed to the fact that one of the rock bolts broke during the test. The TSL rein-forced sample had a similar post-yield behaviour as the steel mesh reinforced one. The results of the large scale guttering test indicated that a TSL is better than steel mesh in restricting rock movement and thus inhibiting the formation of gutters in the roof.

  6. Comparative physiology of allopatric Populus species: geographic clines in photosynthesis, height growth, and carbon isotope discrimination in common gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y; Guy, Robert D; Street, Nathaniel R; Robinson, Kathryn M; Silim, Salim N; Albrectsen, Benedicte R; Jansson, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Populus species with wide geographic ranges display strong adaptation to local environments. We studied the clinal patterns in phenology and ecophysiology in allopatric Populus species adapted to similar environments on different continents under common garden settings. As a result of climatic adaptation, both Populus tremula L. and Populus balsamifera L. display latitudinal clines in photosynthetic rates (A), whereby high-latitude trees of P. tremula had higher A compared to low-latitude trees and nearly so in P. balsamifera (p = 0.06). Stomatal conductance (g s) and chlorophyll content index (CCI) follow similar latitudinal trends. However, foliar nitrogen was positively correlated with latitude in P. balsamifera and negatively correlated in P. tremula. No significant trends in carbon isotope composition of the leaf tissue (δ(13)C) were observed for both species; but, intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi) was negatively correlated with the latitude of origin in P. balsamifera. In spite of intrinsically higher A, high-latitude trees in both common gardens accomplished less height gain as a result of early bud set. Thus, shoot biomass was determined by height elongation duration (HED), which was well approximated by the number of days available for free growth between bud flush and bud set. We highlight the shortcoming of unreplicated outdoor common gardens for tree improvement and the crucial role of photoperiod in limiting height growth, further complicating interpretation of other secondary effects.

  7. Comparative physiology and transcriptional networks underlying the heat shock response in Populus trichocarpa, Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, David [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Karve, Abhijit A [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Jawdy, Sara [ORNL; Allen, Sara M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The heat shock response continues to be layered with additional complexity as interactions and crosstalk among heat shock proteins (HSPs), the reactive oxygen network and hormonal signalling are discovered. However, comparative analyses exploring variation in each of these processes among species remain relatively unexplored. In controlled environment experiments, photosynthetic response curves were conducted from 22 to 42 C and indicated that temperature optimum of light-saturated photosynthesis was greater for Glycine max relative to Arabidopsis thaliana or Populus trichocarpa. Transcript profiles were taken at defined states along the temperature response curves, and inferred pathway analysis revealed species-specific variation in the abiotic stress and the minor carbohydrate raffinose/galactinol pathways. A weighted gene co-expression network approach was used to group individual genes into network modules linking biochemical measures of the antioxidant system to leaf-level photosynthesis among P. trichocarpa, G. max and A. thaliana. Network-enabled results revealed an expansion in the G. max HSP17 protein family and divergence in the regulation of the antioxidant and heat shock modules relative to P. trichocarpa and A. thaliana. These results indicate that although the heat shock response is highly conserved, there is considerable species-specific variation in its regulation.

  8. Comparative genomic analysis of Geobacter sulfurreducens KN400, a strain with enhanced capacity for extracellular electron transfer and electricity production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butler Jessica E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new strain of Geobacter sulfurreducens, strain KN400, produces more electrical current in microbial fuel cells and reduces insoluble Fe(III oxides much faster than the wildtype strain, PCA. The genome of KN400 was compared to wildtype with the goal of discovering how the network for extracellular electron transfer has changed and how these two strains evolved. Results Both genomes were re-annotated, resulting in 14 fewer genes (net in the PCA genome; 28 fewer (net in the KN400 genome; and ca. 400 gene start and stop sites moved. 96% of genes in KN400 had clear orthologs with conserved synteny in PCA. Most of the remaining genes were in regions of genomic mobility and were strain-specific or conserved in other Geobacteraceae, indicating that the changes occurred post-divergence. There were 27,270 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP between the genomes. There was significant enrichment for SNP locations in non-coding or synonymous amino acid sites, indicating significant selective pressure since the divergence. 25% of orthologs had sequence differences, and this set was enriched in phosphorylation and ATP-dependent enzymes. Substantial sequence differences (at least 12 non-synonymous SNP/kb were found in 3.6% of the orthologs, and this set was enriched in cytochromes and integral membrane proteins. Genes known to be involved in electron transport, those used in the metabolic cell model, and those that exhibit changes in expression during growth in microbial fuel cells were examined in detail. Conclusions The improvement in external electron transfer in the KN400 strain does not appear to be due to novel gene acquisition, but rather to changes in the common metabolic network. The increase in electron transfer rate and yield in KN400 may be due to changes in carbon flux towards oxidation pathways and to changes in ATP metabolism, both of which indicate that the overall energy state of the cell may be different. The

  9. Comparative effects of furnished and battery cages on egg production and physiological parameters in White Leghorn hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohle, K; Cheng, H-W

    2009-10-01

    Laboratory animal well-being can be improved by housing the animals in species-specific natural or near-to-natural environments. An enriched environment may have a similar effect on chickens. The purpose of this study was to examine if housing environment (furnished cages vs. battery cages) effects the well-being of laying hens. One hundred ninety-two 1-d-old non-beak-trimmed White Leghorn W-36 chicks were reared and randomly assigned into battery cages or furnished cages at 19 wk of age. The furnished cages had wire floors and solid metal walls, with perches, a dustbathing area, scratch pads, and a nestbox area with concealment curtain. Ten hens were housed per cage, providing a stocking density of 610 cm2 of floor space per hen. The battery cages were commercial wire cages containing 6 birds per cage, providing 645 cm2 of floor space per hen. Body weight and egg production were calculated from 25 to 60 wk of age. The peripheral concentrations of dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, corticosterone, and IgG were analyzed at 30, 40, 50, and 60 wk of age. Compared with the hens housed in the battery cages, the hens housed in the furnished cages were significantly heavier from 30 to 60 wk of age (P0.05). The concentrations of serotonin were reduced, whereas corticosterone was increased from 50 to 60 wk of age in the hens housed in the battery cages (Pcages, which may indicate that the hens housed in the battery cages were stressed. Although further studies remain to be completed, the present results suggest that furnished cages may be a favorable alternative for housing laying hens.

  10. How comparative psychology can shed light on human evolution: Response to Beran et al.'s discussion of "Cognitive capacities for cooking in chimpanzees".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Warneken, Felix

    2016-06-01

    We recently reported a study (Warneken & Rosati Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 282, 20150229, 2015) examining whether chimpanzees possess several cognitive capacities that are critical to engage in cooking. In a subsequent commentary, Beran, Hopper, de Waal, Sayers, and Brosnan Learning & Behavior (2015) asserted that our paper has several flaws. Their commentary (1) critiques some aspects of our methodology and argues that our work does not constitute evidence that chimpanzees can actually cook; (2) claims that these results are old news, as previous work had already demonstrated that chimpanzees possess most or all of these capacities; and, finally, (3) argues that comparative psychological studies of chimpanzees cannot adequately address questions about human evolution, anyway. However, their critique of the premise of our study simply reiterates several points we made in the original paper. To quote ourselves: "As chimpanzees neither control fire nor cook food in their natural behavior, these experiments therefore focus not on whether chimpanzees can actually cook food, but rather whether they can apply their cognitive skills to novel problems that emulate cooking" (Warneken & Rosati Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 282, 20150229, 2015, p. 2). Furthermore, the methodological issues they raise are standard points about psychological research with animals-many of which were addressed synthetically across our 9 experiments, or else are orthogonal to our claims. Finally, we argue that comparative studies of extant apes (and other nonhuman species) are a powerful and indispensable method for understanding human cognitive evolution.

  11. Comparative evaluations of organic matters and nitrogen removal capacities of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands: Domestic and nitrified wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jun J; Liang, Kang; Wu, Su Q; Zhang, Sheng H; Liang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Two groups of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) microcosms were established for treating two types of representative wastewater: domestic and nitrified wastewater under two loading rates (LRs) over about two years. Their removal capacities of organic substance and nitrogen as well as the effects of loading rate (LR), outflow temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration were investigated and compared. Efficient chemical oxygen demand (COD) eliminations were achieved by the IVCWs, with the mass removal rates increasing linearly with the increasing LRs strongly, achieving average value of 56.07 g m(-2) d(-1) at the highest loading rate. Nevertheless, the effluent COD concentrations also increased, with the average value exceeding Class I A discharge standard (compared to DO, temperature was more crucial for nitrogen removal, and the temperature dependence coefficient for TN removal of low LR of NW was significantly greater than others.

  12. COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF SPECIFIC YOGIC EXERCISES AND COMBINATION OF SPECIFIC YOGIC EXERCISES WITH AUTOGENIC TRAINING ON VITAL CAPACITY OF THE MIDDLE AGED MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURESH KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to find out the comparative effect of specific yogic exercises and combination of specific yogic exercises with autogenic training on vital capacity of the middle aged men. The study tried to find out type of training program that had a maximum effect on the vital capacity of the subjects. The study has been conducted on sixty middle aged men, in the age group of 30 to 50 years. The subjects (N=60 were at random divided into three equalgroups two experimental Groups and one control group, and group consisting of 20 middle aged men. Two experimental Groups participated in two different training programmes i.e. Specific yogic exercises and Combination of specific yogic exercises with autogenic training for twenty four weeks and control group performed the routine work. The data was collected were collected in beginning ,at the end of twelve week and twenty four week of training program in term of pre, mid and post test respectively by using Wetspirometer. The training schedule was prepared systematically and carefully,keeping the individual differences of the subjects and loading principals in mind. Repeated measures of ANOVA andNewman Keul’s test were applied to find out significance of mean difference among the three tests. ANACOVA andScheffe’s Post Hoc test were applied to determine the significance of mean difference among the three groups. From the results it was found that the Practice of the combination of specific yogic exercises with autogenic training is significantly effective than the specific yogic exercises programme and control group in improving the vital capacityamong the middle aged men. Twelve weeks’ practice of combination of specific yogic exercises with autogenic training significantly improved in the vital capacity among the middle aged men than the twenty four weeks of practice

  13. Salivary protein concentration, flow rate, buffer capacity and pH estimation: A comparative study among young and elderly subjects, both normal and with gingivitis and periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulki Shaila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the salivary protein concentration in gingivitis and periodontitis patients and compare the parameters like salivary total protein, salivary albumin, salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and flow rate in both young and elderly patients with simple methods. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects were grouped based on their age as young and elderly. Each group was subgrouped (20 subjects as controls, gingivitis and periodontitis. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from patients and flow rate was noted down during collection of the sample. Salivary protein estimation was done using the Biuret method and salivary albumin was assessed using the Bromocresol green method. pH was estimated with a pHmeter and buffering capacity was analyzed with the titration method. Student′s t-test, Fisher′s test (ANOVA and Tukey HSD (ANOVA tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: A very highly significant rise in the salivary total protein and albumin concentration was noted in gingivitis and periodontitis subjects of both young and elderly. An overall decrease in salivary flow rate was observed among the elderly, and also the salivary flow rate of women was significantly lower than that of men. Conclusion: S ignificant associations between salivary total protein and albumin in gingivitis and periodontitis were found with simple biochemical tests. A decrease in salivary flow rate among elderly and among women was noted.

  14. Comparative repair capacity of knee osteochondral defects using regenerated silk fiber scaffolds and fibrin glue with/without autologous chondrocytes during 36 weeks in rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemnejad, Somaieh; Khanmohammadi, Manijeh; Mobini, Sahba; Taghizadeh-Jahed, Masoud; Khanjani, Sayeh; Arasteh, Shaghayegh; Golshahi, Hannaneh; Torkaman, Giti; Ravanbod, Roya; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Moshiri, Ali; Tahmasebi, Mohammad-Naghi; Akhondi, Mohammad-Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    The reconstruction capability of osteochondral (OCD) defects using silk-based scaffolds has been demonstrated in a few studies. However, improvement in the mechanical properties of natural scaffolds is still challengeable. Here, we investigate the in vivo repair capacity of OCD defects using a novel Bombyx mori silk-based composite scaffold with great mechanical properties and porosity during 36 weeks. After evaluation of the in vivo biocompatibility and degradation rate of these scaffolds, we examined the effectiveness of these fabricated scaffolds accompanied with/without autologous chondrocytes in the repair of OCD lesions of rabbit knees after 12 and 36 weeks. Moreover, the efficiency of these scaffolds was compared with fibrin glue (FG) as a natural carrier of chondrocytes using parallel clinical, histopathological and mechanical examinations. The data on subcutaneous implantation in mice showed that the designed scaffolds have a suitable in vivo degradation rate and regenerative capacity. The repair ability of chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds was typically higher than the scaffolds alone. After 36 weeks of implantation, most parts of the defects reconstructed by chondrocytes-seeded silk scaffolds (SFC) were hyaline-like cartilage. However, spontaneous healing and filling with a scaffold alone did not eventuate in typical repair. We could not find significant differences between quantitative histopathological and mechanical data of SFC and FGC. The fabricated constructs consisting of regenerated silk fiber scaffolds and chondrocytes are safe and suitable for in vivo repair of OCD defects and promising for future clinical trial studies.

  15. Comparative analysis of the 1-mile run test evaluation formulae: Assessment of aerobic capacity in male law enforcement officers aged 20–23 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürhan Kayihan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare values of aerobic performance in the 1-mile run test (1-MRT using different formulae. Material and Methods: Aerobic capacities of 351 male volunteers working for the Turkish National Police within the age range of 20-23 years were evaluated by the 1-MRT and the 20-metre shuttle run (20-MST. VO2max values were estimated by the prediction equations developed by George et al. (1993, Cureton et al. (1995 and Kline et al. (1987 for the 1-MRT and by Leger and Lambert (1982 for the 20-MST. Results: The difference between the results of the different formulae was significant (p = 0.000. The correlation coefficient between the estimated VO2max using Cureton's equation, George's equation, Kline's equation and the 20-MST were 0.691 (p < 0.001, 0.486 (p < 0.001 and 0.608 (p < 0.001, respectively. The highest correlation coefficient was between the VO2max estimated by the 20-MST and Cureton's equation. Similarly, the highest correlation coefficient (r = -0.779 was between the 1-mile run time and the VO2max estimated by Cureton's equation. Conclusions: When analysing more vigorous exercise than sub-maximal exercise, we suggest that Cureton's equation be used to predict the VO2max from 1-mile run/walk performance in large numbers of healthy individuals with high VO2max. This research compares the use of 3 different formulae to estimate VO2max from 1-mile run/ walk performance in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years for the first time and reports the most accurate formula to use when evaluating aerobic capacities of large numbers of healthy individuals.

  16. Puzzle-based versus traditional lecture: comparing the effects of pedagogy on academic performance in an undergraduate human anatomy and physiology II lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetzik, Lucas; Deeter, Anthony; Parker, Jamie; Yukech, Christine

    2015-06-23

    A traditional lecture-based pedagogy conveys information and content while lacking sufficient development of critical thinking skills and problem solving. A puzzle-based pedagogy creates a broader contextual framework, and fosters critical thinking as well as logical reasoning skills that can then be used to improve a student's performance on content specific assessments. This paper describes a pedagogical comparison of traditional lecture-based teaching and puzzle-based teaching in a Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab. Using a single subject/cross-over design half of the students from seven sections of the course were taught using one type of pedagogy for the first half of the semester, and then taught with a different pedagogy for the second half of the semester. The other half of the students were taught the same material but with the order of the pedagogies reversed. Students' performance on quizzes and exams specific to the course, and in-class assignments specific to this study were assessed for: learning outcomes (the ability to form the correct conclusion or recall specific information), and authentic academic performance as described by (Am J Educ 104:280-312, 1996). Our findings suggest a significant improvement in students' performance on standard course specific assessments using a puzzle-based pedagogy versus a traditional lecture-based teaching style. Quiz and test scores for students improved by 2.1 and 0.4% respectively in the puzzle-based pedagogy, versus the traditional lecture-based teaching. Additionally, the assessments of authentic academic performance may only effectively measure a broader conceptual understanding in a limited set of contexts, and not in the context of a Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab. In conclusion, a puzzle-based pedagogy, when compared to traditional lecture-based teaching, can effectively enhance the performance of students on standard course specific assessments, even when the assessments only test a limited

  17. Comparing the Physiological, Socio-economic and Nutritional Status among Male and Female Undergraduate College Students of Metropolitan City of Kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, P

    2014-07-01

    In the present days, increasing trend of eating disorders are noticed among college students (both male and female) which can disturb their overall physiological and health status. It is more prevalent in metropolitan cities, like Kolkata. But, the existing literature about the physiological and nutritional status of the undergraduate college students of Kolkata is insufficient. Thus, the objective of this small-scale cross-sectional study is to report and compare the prevalence of malnutrition (both obesity and undernutrition) among undergraduate male and female college students of Kolkata, based on body mass index (BMI) and some direct and derived anthropometric measures describing the body composition of the subjects. This cross-sectional study conducted in October-December 2011. The present investigation was carried out in randomly selected male (mean age 20.9 [2.25]) and female college students (mean age 20.3 [2.34]) of Kolkata. A total of 100 students of different colleges has participated, having the age of 18-22 years. Measures included a total of 24 variables which included thirteen direct anthropometric measures and 11 derived variables. Analysis of collected data showed significantly higher BMI, fat mass, body adiposity index, but, lower waist-to-hip ratio, conicity index in female students. Anthropometric data also showed lower waist circumference and abdominal extension in female college students. Conversely, male students showed a higher fat free mass (FFM), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and thigh circumferences (TCs). Based on the findings of the present study, it can be reported that higher body fat distribution and increased propensity of being overweight/obese was observed in female students, though they have shown lower abdominal fat distribution, which is a cue of female physical attractiveness. However, male students are found to have a higher FFM, MUAC and TCs, which is the indicator of strength and energy.

  18. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  19. Comparing the Physiological, Socio-economic and Nutritional Status among Male and Female Undergraduate College Students of Metropolitan City of Kolkata

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sengupta, P

    2014-01-01

    .... It is more prevalent in metropolitan cities, like Kolkata. But, the existing literature about the physiological and nutritional status of the undergraduate college students of Kolkata is insufficient...

  20. Physiologically-based, predictive analytics using the heart-rate-to-Systolic-Ratio significantly improves the timeliness and accuracy of sepsis prediction compared to SIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Omar K; Hendren, Sandra; Santiago, Ethel; Nye, Brittany; Abraham, Prasad

    2017-04-01

    Enhancing the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment of severe sepsis by using physiologically-based, predictive analytical strategies has not been fully explored. We hypothesize assessment of heart-rate-to-systolic-ratio significantly increases the timeliness and accuracy of sepsis prediction after emergency department (ED) presentation. We evaluated the records of 53,313 ED patients from a large, urban teaching hospital between January and June 2015. The HR-to-systolic ratio was compared to SIRS criteria for sepsis prediction. There were 884 patients with discharge diagnoses of sepsis, severe sepsis, and/or septic shock. Variations in three presenting variables, heart rate, systolic BP and temperature were determined to be primary early predictors of sepsis with a 74% (654/884) accuracy compared to 34% (304/884) using SIRS criteria (p sepsis identification via detection of variations in HR-to-systolic ratio. This approach may lead to earlier sepsis workup and life-saving interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Physiological and comparative proteomic analysis reveals different drought responses in roots and leaves of drought-tolerant wild wheat (Triticum boeoticum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    Full Text Available To determine the proteomic-level responses of drought tolerant wild wheat (Triticum boeoticum, physiological and comparative proteomic analyses were conducted using the roots and the leaves of control and short term drought-stressed plants. Drought stress was imposed by transferring hydroponically grown seedlings at the 3-leaf stage into 1/2 Hoagland solution containing 20% PEG-6000 for 48 h. Root and leaf samples were separately collected at 0 (control, 24, and 48 h of drought treatment for analysis. Physiological analysis indicated that abscisic acid (ABA level was greatly increased in the drought-treated plants, but the increase was greater and more rapid in the leaves than in the roots. The net photosynthetic rate of the wild wheat leaves was significantly decreased under short-term drought stress. The deleterious effects of drought on the studied traits mainly targeted photosynthesis. Comparative proteomic analysis identified 98 and 85 differently changed protein spots (DEPs (corresponding to 87 and 80 unique proteins, respectively in the leaves and the roots, respectively, with only 6 mutual unique proteins in the both organs. An impressive 86% of the DEPs were implicated in detoxification and defense, carbon metabolism, amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, proteins metabolism, chaperones, transcription and translation, photosynthesis, nucleotide metabolism, and signal transduction. Further analysis revealed some mutual and tissue-specific responses to short-term drought in the leaves and the roots. The differences of drought-response between the roots and the leaves mainly included that signal sensing and transduction-associated proteins were greatly up-regulated in the roots. Photosynthesis and carbon fixation ability were decreased in the leaves. Glycolysis was down-regulated but PPP pathway enhanced in the roots, resulting in occurrence of complex changes in energy metabolism and establishment of a new homeostasis. Protein metabolism

  2. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  3. Heartbeat Registration Experiment (Rana Esculenta): Demonstration of the Preparatory Phase. A Case Study in the Design of a Video Presentation for Use in the Physiology Laboratory in the Department of Comparative Physiology at the Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, F. A.

    This case study describes the design of a video tape presentation for use in a college physiology laboratory. A goal of this color film is to demonstrate to the students those techniques involved in anaesthetising and preparing a frog for a laboratory experiment on the reaction of the heart to electrical and chemical stimuli. The film first shows…

  4. Assessing adaptive capacity of institutions to climate change : a comparative case study of the Dutch Wadden Sea and the Venice Lagoon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munaretto, S.; Klostermann, J.E.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we assess the adaptive capacity of relevant institutions for ecosystems and environmental management in two complex systems: the Dutch Wadden Sea and the Venice Lagoon. A new tool called the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) is used to diagnose strengths and weaknesses in the institutional

  5. Comparative evaluation of active learning and the traditional lectures in physiology: a case study of 200 level medical laboratory students of Imo State Unversity, Owerri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyaehie, U S B; Nwobodo, Ed; Njoku, C J; Inah, G A

    2007-01-01

    Currently, understanding of physiology and disease patterns is undergoing a fundamental paradigm shift with attendant shift in education of health professionals worldwide towards active learning to encourage exploration of connections and their relationships. We introduced problem-based learning to physiology teaching of medial laboratory students to confirm worldwide reports that active learning environments offer better learning opportunities over the traditional methods which is the predominant teaching method in Nigerian universities. Our findings indicate that problem-based learning increases students' attendance/participation in classes and performance in examination. We recommend the integration of active learning into physiology curriculum of Nigerian Universities.

  6. Physiological Networks: towards systems physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Bashan, Amir; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Havlin, Shlomo; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2012-02-01

    The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiologic systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse systems with different types of interactions is a challenge. Here, we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiologic network. We find that each physiologic state is characterized by a specific network structure, demonstrating a robust interplay between network topology and function. Across physiologic states the network undergoes topological transitions associated with fast reorganization of physiologic interactions on time scales of a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate new dimensions to the field of systems physiology.

  7. Comparative genomics analysis of a series of Yarrowia lipolytica WSH-Z06 mutants with varied capacity for α-ketoglutarate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Weizhu; Fang, Fang; Liu, Song; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Zhou, Jingwen

    2016-12-10

    Yarrowia lipolytica is one of the most intensively investigated α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG) producers, and metabolic engineering has proven effective for enhancing production. However, regulation of α-KG metabolism remains poorly understood. Genetic engineering of new strains is accompanied by potential safety concerns in some countries and regions. A series of mutants with varied capacity for α-KG production were obtained using random mutagenesis of Y. lipolytica WSH-Z06. Comparative genomics analysis was implemented to identify genes candidates associated with α-KG production. Manipulation of genes regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism could improve α-KG production, while genes involved in regulating transformation between keto acids and amino acids may decrease production. One gene associated with cell cycle control well represented in all mutants, whereas this gene involved in cell concentration do not appear to influence α-KG production. The results shed light on α-KG production in eukaryotic cells, and pave the way for a high-throughput screening and random mutagenesis method for enhancing α-KG production.

  8. the comparative analysis of indicators of quality of life and eyesight capacity among the patients after different types of eye mechanical injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kochergin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the comparative evaluation of indicators of quality of life and eyesight capacity among groups of patients with different types of eye mechanical trauma for studying of the possibility of the authentic qualitative and quantitative analysis.Methods: 120 patients (101 men and 19 women with a mechanical injury of an eye are included in research. the mean age was 42.3±17.4 years, from 18 to 74 years. Patients are divided according to the type of trauma: with a contusion — 67 patients (group A, with penetrating wounds — 53 patients (group B.Results: the study shows the expediency of early (at the stage of hospitalization determination by the patient his own condition, in order to trace dynamics in indicators of quality of life, timely reacting to them, making changes in treatment tactics in the post- traumatic period.Conclusion: Profound attention from experts for definition of strategy of recovering is demanded by a pain syndrome and a psy- chological stress of patients. the individual approach provides competent application of questionnaires, as tools of the assessment of quality of life.

  9. Comparative Research on Technology Absorptive Capacity Determinants among BRICS%金砖国家技术吸收能力因素比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凡

    2014-01-01

    As emerging economies,BRICS face absolutely different history and technology innovation background different from the western developed countries. Under the framework of the national innovation system,the amount of absorptive ca-pacity finally decides whether BRICS can realize the economic catch - up goal. After comparing the determinants on tech-nology absorptive capacity such as international trade,infrastructure,human capital,social systems and management quali-ty indicators in BRICS countries,suggestions are put forward for BRICS that the five countries should build high - tech tal-ents exchange platform centered by Russia,take infrastructure construction as the highlight of BRICS’Development Bank, strengthen corporate visits within BRIC countries and Jointly carry out technology foresight activities.%金砖国家作为新兴经济体,具有与西方发达国家完全不同的发展历史和技术创新背景,在国家创新系统框架下,技术吸收能力的大小最终决定金砖国家能否实现经济赶超目标。在比较分析金砖国家的国际贸易、基础设施、人力资本以及社会制度和管理质量等指标后提出,为了寻求金砖国家务实合作并提高各国的技术吸收能力,金砖国家内部应搭建以俄罗斯为中心的金砖国家高科技人才交流平台,明确以基础设施为核心的金砖国家开发银行投资方向,加强金砖国家内企业互访,联合开展技术创新预见活动。

  10. Comparing Antioxidant Capacities of Pomegranate Peel Extracts in Different Phases%石榴皮分级提取物的抗氧化性能比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐丽丽; 刘邻渭; 祝战斌

    2015-01-01

    研究比较四段分级提取石榴皮多酚产物的体外抗氧化活性的差异,并与VC进行了比较。结果表明:各级石榴皮多酚提取物都具有较强的清除自由基的能力,它们清除三种自由基的能力由大到小为:ABTS+自由基>DPPH·自由基>·OH自由基。石榴皮多酚粗提物经大孔树脂纯化以及乙酸乙酯萃取后,多酚含量提高,清除自由基的能力增强。各阶段产物对三种自由基的清除能力强弱顺序均为:乙酸乙酯相萃取物>树脂纯化物>水相保留物>VC>粗提物,它们的总抗氧化能力强弱顺序为:VC>乙酸乙酯相萃取物>树脂纯化物>水相保留物>粗提物,它们的还原能力强弱顺序为:乙酸乙酯相萃取物>树脂纯化物>VC>水相保留物>粗提物。这些结果说明:经过粗提、树脂纯化及乙酸乙酯萃取得到的石榴皮多酚具有相对最高的抗氧化性能。%The in vitro antioxidant capacities of the pomegranate peel polyphenols extracts collected at different separation stages were assayed and compared, with VC been as reference. The results showed that. All the extracts had obviously free radicals scavenging activities , which ranked of ABTS+·>DPPH·>·OH. From crude extract to resin purification product and then to ethyl acetate extraction phase product , the samples' total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity values were improved continually. The radical scavenging activities of the different samples were in the order of ethyl acetate phase extract>resin purification product>water phase extract>VC>crude extract, the total antioxidant capacities of them were in the order of VC>ethyl acetate phase extract>resin purification product>water phase extract>crude extract, and the reducing capabilityies of them were in the order of ethyl acetate phase extract>resin purification>VC>water phase extract>crude extract. These results indicate that we can get relatively highest

  11. Comparative transcriptome combined with morpho-physiological analyses revealed key factors for differential cadmium accumulation in two contrasting sweet sorghum genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juanjuan; Jia, Weitao; Lv, Sulian; Bao, Hexigeduleng; Miao, Fangfang; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Jinhui; Li, Jihong; Li, Dongsheng; Zhu, Cheng; Li, Shizhong; Li, Yinxin

    2017-07-13

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread soil contaminant threatening human health. As an ideal energy plant, sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) has great potential in phytoremediation of Cd-polluted soils, although the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, key factors responsible for differential Cd accumulation between two contrasting sweet sorghum genotypes (high-Cd accumulation one H18, and low-Cd accumulation one L69) were investigated. H18 exhibited a much higher ability of Cd uptake and translocation than L69. Furthermore, Cd uptake through symplasmic pathway and Cd concentrations in xylem sap were both higher in H18 than those in L69. Root anatomy observation found the endodermal apoplasmic barriers were much stronger in L69, which may restrict the Cd loading into xylem. The molecular mechanisms underlying these morpho-physiological traits were further dissected by comparative transcriptome analysis. Many genes involved in cell wall modification and heavy metal transport were found to be Cd-responsive DEGs and/or DEGs between these two genotypes. KEGG pathway analysis found phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway was over-represented, indicating this pathway may play important roles in differential Cd accumulation between two genotypes. Based on these results, a schematic representation of main processes involved in differential Cd uptake and translocation in H18 and L69 is proposed, which suggests that higher Cd accumulation in H18 depends on a multilevel coordination of efficient Cd uptake and transport, including efficient root uptake and xylem loading, less root cell wall binding, and weaker endodermal apoplasmic barriers. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts...... standard or governmental political objective exists. In most cases it was possible to select a set of indicators, including thresholds that are workable in a carrying capacity planning at the local administrative levels. Not all relevant sectors at the decentralized level were included. Indicators of SCC...

  13. Integrative Physiology of Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Stephen M; Carey, Hannah V

    2016-03-15

    Extended bouts of fasting are ingrained in the ecology of many organisms, characterizing aspects of reproduction, development, hibernation, estivation, migration, and infrequent feeding habits. The challenge of long fasting episodes is the need to maintain physiological homeostasis while relying solely on endogenous resources. To meet that challenge, animals utilize an integrated repertoire of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses that reduce metabolic rates, maintain tissue structure and function, and thus enhance survival. We have synthesized in this review the integrative physiological, morphological, and biochemical responses, and their stages, that characterize natural fasting bouts. Underlying the capacity to survive extended fasts are behaviors and mechanisms that reduce metabolic expenditure and shift the dependency to lipid utilization. Hormonal regulation and immune capacity are altered by fasting; hormones that trigger digestion, elevate metabolism, and support immune performance become depressed, whereas hormones that enhance the utilization of endogenous substrates are elevated. The negative energy budget that accompanies fasting leads to the loss of body mass as fat stores are depleted and tissues undergo atrophy (i.e., loss of mass). Absolute rates of body mass loss scale allometrically among vertebrates. Tissues and organs vary in the degree of atrophy and downregulation of function, depending on the degree to which they are used during the fast. Fasting affects the population dynamics and activities of the gut microbiota, an interplay that impacts the host's fasting biology. Fasting-induced gene expression programs underlie the broad spectrum of integrated physiological mechanisms responsible for an animal's ability to survive long episodes of natural fasting.

  14. Sublethal effects of copper sulphate compared to copper nanoparticles in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at low pH: physiology and metal accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bairuty, Genan A; Boyle, David; Henry, Theodore B; Handy, Richard D

    2016-05-01

    A few studies have investigated the interaction between copper toxicity and water pH in fishes, but little is known about the effects of acidic pH on the toxicity of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs). This study aimed to describe the sub-lethal toxic effects of Cu-NPs compared to CuSO4 at neutral and acidic water pH values in juvenile rainbow trout. Fish were exposed in triplicate (3 tanks/treatment) to control (no added Cu), or 20μgl(-1) of either Cu as CuSO4 or Cu-NPs, at pH 7 and 5 in a semi-static aqueous exposure regime for up to 7 days. Acidification of the water altered the mean primary particle size (at pH 7, 60±2nm and pH 5, 55±1nm) and dialysis experiments to measure dissolution showed an increased release of dissolved Cu from Cu-NPs at pH 5 compared to pH 7. Copper accumulation was observed in the gills of trout exposed to CuSO4 and Cu-NPs at pH 7 and 5, with a greater accumulation from the CuSO4 treatment than Cu-NPs at each pH. The liver also showed Cu accumulation with both Cu treatments at pH 7 only, whereas, the spleen and kidney did not show measurable accumulation of Cu at any of the water pH values. Exposure to acid water caused changes in the ionoregulatory physiology of control fish and also altered the observed effects of Cu exposure; at pH 5, branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was greater than at pH 7 and the inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity caused by exposure to CuSO4 at pH 7 was also not observed. There were some changes in haematology and depletion of plasma Na(+) at pH 7 and 5 due to Cu exposure, but there were few material-type or pH effects. Overall, the data show that the accumulation of Cu is greater from CuSO4 than Cu-NPs; however, understanding of the effects of low pH on bioavailability of CuSO4 may not be directly transferred to Cu-NPs without further consideration of the physico-chemical behaviour of Cu-NPs in acid water.

  15. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... and ACC may increase the political focus on resources and environmental issues and may help to move local authorities towards a more holistic spatial planning approach. A carrying capacity approach could be an inspiration for local spatial planning in developing countries. A spatial planning act...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  16. Comparing antioxidant capacity of purine alkaloids: a new, efficient trio for screening and discovering potential antioxidants in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Bun; Yi, Ruo-Nan; Cao, Ling-Fang; Li, Shan-Bing; Tan, Rui-Rong; Chen, Min; Li, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Chen; Li, Yi-Fang; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2015-06-01

    The most commonly applied strategies for the evaluation of antioxidant capacity are the chemical- or cell-based approaches. However, the results obtained from these methods might not reflect the antioxidant ability of test samples within organisms. In this study, we propose a combination of experiments, including oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), cellular antioxidant activity assay (CAA), and the chick embryo model, as an efficient trio to evaluate antioxidant capacity of food components. Taking purine alkaloids as example, results demonstrate that chemical and cellular method might misinterpret their true ability on antioxidation. In chick embryo model, caffeine and theacrine can significantly improve vessel density on chorioallantoic membrane and myocardial apoptosis. The mechanism can be involving multiple targets within the organism. We believe that the trio proposed can be widely utilized in screening massive number of antioxidant in a cost-effective way. It will also help discovering new antioxidants that are easily being omitted due to their relatively poor in vitro activities.

  17. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  18. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bent...

  19. Three-year comparative study of polyphenol contents and antioxidant capacities in fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars grown under organic and conventional conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Dea; Matt, Darja; Pedastsaar, Priit; Bender, Ingrid; Kazimierczak, Renata; Roasto, Mati; Kaart, Tanel; Luik, Anne; Püssa, Tõnu

    2014-06-04

    In the present study, four tomato cultivars were grown under organic and conventional conditions in separate unheated greenhouses in three consecutive years. The objective was to assess the influence of the cultivation system on the content of individual polyphenols, total phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of tomatoes. The fruits were analyzed for total phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and antioxidant capacity by the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Individual phenolic compounds were analyzed using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Among 30 identified and quantified polyphenols, significantly higher contents of apigenin acetylhexoside, caffeic acid hexoside I, and phloretin dihexoside were found in all organic samples. The content of polyphenols was more dependent on year and cultivar than on cultivation conditions. Generally, the cultivation system had minor impact on polyphenols content, and only a few compounds were influenced by the mode of cultivation in all tested cultivars during all three years.

  20. A Comparing Study of Two Evaluation Methods for the Anaerobic Capacity%两种评定无氧能力方法的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡秋

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to provide methodology basis for evaluating the anaerobic capacity of male Kayak athletes through applying two different measurations. With two groups of male Kayak athletes in different training levesl as subiects, the accumulated oxygen deficit test and 30s anaerobic power test were conducted on Kayak ergometer. It is indicated that both of the accumulated oxygen deficit test and 30s anaerobic power test are adaptive for evaluating the anaerobic capacity of male Kayak athletes. The anaerobic capacity determined with Kayak ergometer is more reliable due to its accordance with the characteristics of Kayak exercise. In contrast to the accumulated oxygen deficit test which is more suitable for anaerobic capacity evaluation of Kayak athletes with different training experience, the 30s anaerobic power test is beneficial for that of experienced Kayak athletes.%以两组不同训练水平的男子皮艇运动员为对象,在皮艇测功仪上分别进行了累积氧亏试验和30s无氧功率试验,以期为运动员无氧能力的评定提供方法学基础.结果表明:累积氧亏试验与30s无氧功率试验均可作为测量男子皮艇运动员无氧能力的方法,用皮艇测功仪测得的无氧能力更能反映皮艇运动的专项特点.累积氧亏试验适合评定不同训练水平的皮艇运动员,30s无氧功率试验则有利于评定水平较高的皮艇运动员无氧能力.

  1. Physiological effects of fibre-rich types of bread. 2. Dietary fibre from bread: digestibility by the intestinal microflora and water-holding capacity in the colon of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dokkum, W; Pikaar, N A; Thissen, J T

    1983-07-01

    Twelve young adult male volunteers were given a low-fibre white bread diet (9 g neutral-detergent fibre (NDF)/d) and a medium-fibre coarse-bran bread diet (22 g NDF/d), each lasting 20 d. In a third period of 20 d the volunteers were subdivided in groups of four, consuming a high-fibre coarse-bran bread diet (35 g NDF/d), a medium-fibre fine-bran diet (22 g NDF/d, bran particle size greater than 0.35 mm) or a wholemeal bread diet (22 g NDF/d). Digestion of dietary fibre and its components hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin were determined as well as colonic function. An increase of the amount of dietary fibre (through bran in bread) from 9 to 22 g NDF/d resulted in the following significant changes (P less than 0.01): increase in faecal wet weight of 63 g/d, decrease in the percentage of faecal dry weight from 27 to 24, increase in defaecation frequency of 0.2 stools/d and reduction of the intestinal transit time of 36 h. Further significant changes with regard to all factors mentioned were observed during the high-fibre diet. Faecal wet weight was significantly (P less than 0.05) lower with the fine-bran bread diet than with the coarse-bran bread on a similar fibre intake of 22 g NDF/d. Results obtained in the wholemeal-bread period did not show significant differences compared with those from the coarse-bran bread period of 22 g NDF/d. Mean digestibilities for the fibre from bread were: for NDF 0.34, for hemicellulose 0.46, for cellulose 0.20 and for lignin 0.04. The results obtained suggest that the theory of sponge activity of the fibre matrix structure is the predominant factor accounting for the water binding capacity of fibre in the colon.

  2. Does reduced precipitation trigger physiological and morphological drought adaptations in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.)? Comparing provenances across a precipitation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutzen, Florian; Meier, Ina Christin; Leuschner, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    Global warming and associated decreases in summer rainfall may threaten tree vitality and forest productivity in many regions of the temperate zone in the future. One option for forestry to reduce the risk of failure is to plant genotypes which combine high productivity with drought tolerance. Growth experiments with provenances from different climates indicate that drought exposure can trigger adaptive drought responses in temperate trees, but it is not well known whether and to what extent regional precipitation reduction can increase the drought resistance of a species. We conducted a common garden growth experiment with five European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations from a limited region with pronounced precipitation heterogeneity (816-544 mm year(-1)), where phylogenetically related provenances grew under small to large water deficits. We grew saplings of the five provenances at four soil moisture levels (dry to moist) and measured ∼30 morphological (leaf and root properties, root : shoot ratio), physiological (leaf water status parameters, leaf conductance) and growth-related traits (above- and belowground productivity) with the aim to examine provenance differences in the drought response of morphological and physiological traits and to relate the responsiveness to precipitation at origin. Physiological traits were more strongly influenced by provenance (one-third of the studied traits), while structural traits were primarily affected by water availability in the experiment (two-thirds of the traits). The modulus of leaf tissue elasticity ϵ reached much higher values late in summer in plants from moist origins resulting in more rapid turgor loss and a higher risk of hydraulic failure upon drought. While experimental water shortage affected the majority of morphological and productivity-related traits in the five provenances, most parameters related to leaf water status were insensitive to water shortage. Thus, plant morphology, and root

  3. Comparative susceptibility to permethrin of two Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Southern Benin, regarding mosquito sex, physiological status, and mosquito age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazaire Aïzoun

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: The resistance is a hereditary and dynamic phenomenon which can be due to metabolic mechanisms like overproduction of detoxifying enzymes activity. Many factors influence vector susceptibility to insecticide. Among these factors, there are mosquito sex, mosquito age, its physiological status. Therefore, it is useful to respect the World Health Organization criteria in the assessment of insecticide susceptibility tests in malaria vectors. Otherwise, susceptibility testing is conducted using unfed female mosquitoes aged 3-5 days old. Tests should also be carried out at (25±2 °C and (80±10% relative humidity.

  4. Physiological, movement and technical demands of centre-wicket Battlezone, traditional net-based training and one-day cricket matches: a comparative study of sub-elite cricket players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Will; Dascombe, Ben; Duffield, Rob

    2014-01-01

    This study compared physiological, physical and technical demands of Battlezone, traditional cricket training and one-day matches. Data were initially collected from 11 amateur, male cricket players (age: 22.2 ± 3.3 year, height: 1.82 ± 0.06 m body mass: 80.4 ± 9.8 kg) during four Battlezone and four traditional cricket training sessions encompassing different playing positions. Heart rate, blood lactate concentration, rating of perceived exertion and movement patterns of players were measured. Retrospective video analysis was performed to code for technical outcomes. Similar data were collected from 42 amateur, male cricket players (23.5 ± 4.7 year, 1.81 ± 0.07 m, 81.4 ± 11.4 kg) during one-day matches. Significant differences were found between Battlezone, traditional cricket training and one-day matches within each playing position. Specifically, Battlezone invoked the greatest physiological and physical demands from batsmen in comparison to traditional cricket training and one-day matches. However, the greatest technical demand for batsmen was observed during traditional cricket training. In regards to the other playing positions, a greater physiological, physical and technical demand was observed during Battlezone and traditional training than during one-day matches. These results suggest that the use of Battlezone and traditional cricket training provides players with a suitable training stimulus for replicating the physiological, physical and technical demands of one-day cricket.

  5. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  6. Detection and characterization of small hot fires: Comparing FireBird, BIRD, S-NPP VIIRS and MODIS capacities over gas flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, Gernot; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Lorenz, Eckehard; Kaiser, Johannes; Caseiro, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    According to recent research, black carbon has the second strongest effect on the earth climate system after carbon dioxide. In high Northern latitudes, industrial gas flares are an important source of black carbon, especially in winter. This fact is particularly relevant for the relatively fast observed climate change in the Arctic since deposition of black carbon changes the albedo of snow and ice, thus leading to a positive feedback cycle. Here we explore gas flare detection and Fire Radiative Power (FRP) retrievals of the German FireBird TET-1 and BIRD Hotspot Recognition Systems (HSRS), the VIIRS sensor on board of the S-NPP satellite, and the MODIS sensor using temporally close to near coincident data acquisitions. Comparison is based on level 2 products developed for fire detection for the different sensors; in the case of S-NPP VIIRS we use two products: the new VIIRS 750m algorithm based on MODIS collection 6, and the 350 m algorithm based on the VIIRS mid-infrared I (Imaging) band, which offers high resolution, but no FRP retrievals. Results indicate that the highest resolution FireBird sensors offer the best detection capacities, though the level two product shows false alarms, followed by the VIIRS 350 m and 750 m algorithms. MODIS has the lowest detection rate. Preliminary results of FRP retrievals show that FireBird and VIIRS algorithms have a good agreement. Given the fact that most gas flaring is at the detection limit for medium to coarse resolution space borne sensors - and hence measurement errors may be high - our results indicates that a quantitative evaluation of gas flaring using these sensors is feasible. Results shall be used to develop a gas flare detection algorithm for Sentinel-3, and a similar methodology will be employed to validate the capacity of Sentinel 3 to detect and characterize small high temperature sources such as gas flares.

  7. The comparative capacity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) validity scales to detect suspected malingering in a disability claimant sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Michael; Zhu, Jiani; Burchett, Danielle; Bury, Alison S; Bagby, R Michael

    2017-02-01

    The current study expands on past research examining the comparative capacity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher et al., 2001) and MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) overreporting validity scales to detect suspected malingering, as assessed by the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST; Miller, 2001), in a sample of public insurance disability claimants (N = 742) who were considered to have potential incentives to malinger. Results provide support for the capacity of both the MMPI-2 and the MMPI-2-RF overreporting validity scales to predict suspected malingering of psychopathology. The MMPI-2-RF overreporting validity scales proved to be modestly better predictors of suspected psychopathology malingering-compared with the MMPI-2 overreporting scales-in dimensional predictive models and categorical classification accuracy analyses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Nitrogen-detected TROSY yields comparable sensitivity to proton-detected TROSY for non-deuterated, large proteins under physiological salt conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Koh [National Institute for Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Molecular Profiling Research Center for Drug Discovery (Japan); Arthanari, Haribabu [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States); Imai, Misaki [Japan Biological Informatics Consortium, Research and Development Department (Japan); Wagner, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard-wagner@hms.harvard.edu [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States); Shimada, Ichio, E-mail: shimada@iw-nmr.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp [National Institute for Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Molecular Profiling Research Center for Drug Discovery (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Direct detection of the TROSY component of proton-attached {sup 15}N nuclei ({sup 15}N-detected TROSY) yields high quality spectra with high field magnets, by taking advantage of the slow {sup 15}N transverse relaxation. The slow transverse relaxation and narrow line width of the {sup 15}N-detected TROSY resonances are expected to compensate for the inherently low {sup 15}N sensitivity. However, the sensitivity of {sup 15}N-detected TROSY in a previous report was one-order of magnitude lower than in the conventional {sup 1}H-detected version. This could be due to the fact that the previous experiments were performed at low salt (0–50 mM), which is advantageous for {sup 1}H-detected experiments. Here, we show that the sensitivity gap between {sup 15}N and {sup 1}H becomes marginal for a non-deuterated, large protein (τ{sub c} = 35 ns) at a physiological salt concentration (200 mM). This effect is due to the high salt tolerance of the {sup 15}N-detected TROSY. Together with the previously reported benefits of the {sup 15}N-detected TROSY, our results provide further support for the significance of this experiment for structural studies of macromolecules when using high field magnets near and above 1 GHz.

  9. Comparative Proteomic and Physiological Analysis Reveals the Variation Mechanisms of Leaf Coloration and Carbon Fixation in a Xantha Mutant of Ginkgo biloba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinliang Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yellow-green leaf mutants are common in higher plants, and these non-lethal chlorophyll-deficient mutants are ideal materials for research on photosynthesis and plant development. A novel xantha mutant of Ginkgo biloba displaying yellow-colour leaves (YL and green-colour leaves (GL was identified in this study. The chlorophyll content of YL was remarkably lower than that in GL. The chloroplast ultrastructure revealed that YL had less dense thylakoid lamellae, a looser structure and fewer starch grains than GL. Analysis of the photosynthetic characteristics revealed that YL had decreased photosynthetic activity with significantly high nonphotochemical quenching. To explain these phenomena, we analysed the proteomic differences in leaves and chloroplasts between YL and GL of ginkgo using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. In total, 89 differential proteins were successfully identified, 82 of which were assigned functions in nine metabolic pathways and cellular processes. Among them, proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, carbohydrate/energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and protein metabolism were greatly enriched, indicating a good correlation between differentially accumulated proteins and physiological changes in leaves. The identifications of these differentially accumulated proteins indicates the presence of a specific different metabolic network in YL and suggests that YL possess slower chloroplast development, weaker photosynthesis, and a less abundant energy supply than GL. These studies provide insights into the mechanism of molecular regulation of leaf colour variation in YL mutants.

  10. A Comparative Study of Proteolytic Mechanisms during Leaf Senescence of Four Genotypes of Winter Oilseed Rape Highlighted Relevant Physiological and Molecular Traits for NRE Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Girondé

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter oilseed rape is characterized by a low N use efficiency related to a weak leaf N remobilization efficiency (NRE at vegetative stages. By investigating the natural genotypic variability of leaf NRE, our goal was to characterize the relevant physiological traits and the main protease classes associated with an efficient proteolysis and high leaf NRE in response to ample or restricted nitrate supply. The degradation rate of soluble proteins and D1 protein (a thylakoid-bound protein were correlated to N remobilization, except for the genotype Samouraï which showed a low NRE despite high levels of proteolysis. Under restricted nitrate conditions, high levels of soluble protein degradation were associated with serine, cysteine and aspartic proteases at acidic pH. Low leaf NRE was related to a weak proteolysis of both soluble and thylakoid-bound proteins. The results obtained on the genotype Samouraï suggest that the timing between the onset of proteolysis and abscission could be a determinant. The specific involvement of acidic proteases suggests that autophagy and/or senescence-associated vacuoles are implicated in N remobilization under low N conditions. The data revealed that the rate of D1 degradation could be a relevant indicator of leaf NRE and might be used as a tool for plant breeding.

  11. Capacity and Capacity Utilization in Fishing Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkley, James E; Squires, Dale

    1999-01-01

    Excess capacity of fishing fleets is one of the most pressing problems facing the world's fisheries and the sustainable harvesting of resource stocks. Considerable confusion persists over the definition and measurement of capacity and capacity utilization in fishing. Fishing capacity and capacity utilization, rather than capital (or effort) utilization, provide the appropriate framework. This paper provides both technological-economic and economic definitions of capacity and excess capacity i...

  12. Physiological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  13. STUDY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF INDIAN BOXERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Lal Khanna

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to study the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of Indian National boxers as well as to assess the cardiovascular adaptation to graded exercise and actual boxing round. Two different studies were conducted. In the first study [N = 60, (junior boxers below-19 yrs, n = 30, (senior boxers-20-25 yrs, n = 30] different morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were measured. In the second study (N = 21, Light Weight category- <54 kg, n = 7; Medium weight category <64 kg, n = 7 and Medium heavy weight category <75 kg, n = 7 cardiovascular responses were studied during graded exercise protocol and actual boxing bouts. Results showed a significantly higher (p < 0.05 stature, body mass, LBM, body fat and strength of back and grip in senior boxers compared to juniors. Moreover, the senior boxers possessed mesomorphic body conformation where as the juniors' possessed ectomorphic body conformation. Significantly lower (p < 0.05 aerobic capacity and anaerobic power were noted in junior boxers compared to seniors. Further, significantly higher (p < 0.05 maximal heart rates and recovery heart rates were observed in the seniors as compared to the juniors. Significantly higher maximum heart rates were noted during actual boxing compared to graded exercise. Blood lactate concentration was found to increase with the increase of workload during both graded exercise and actual boxing round. The senior boxers showed a significantly elevated (p < 0.05 levels of hemoblobin, blood urea, uric acid and peak lactate as compared to junior boxers. In the senior boxers significantly lower levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDLC were observed as compared to junior boxers. No significant change has been noted in HDLC between the groups. The age and level of training in boxing has significant effect on Aerobic, anaerobic component. The study of physiological responses during graded exercise

  14. Comparative study on the antioxidant capacity and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Citrus aurantifolia Swingle, C. aurantium L., and C. bergamia Risso and Poit. peel essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; Menichini, Federica; Mastellone, Vincenzo; Colica, Carmela; Menichini, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The interest in medicinal plant research and in the aroma-therapeutic effects of essential oils in humans has increased in recent years, especially for the treatment of pathologies of relevant social impact such as Alzheimer's disease. The present study was taken up to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity of the peel essential oils from three Citrus species, C. aurantifolia Swingle, C. aurantium L., and C. bergamia Risso & Poit. Essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and they contain mainly limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-terpinene, and linalyl acetate. C. aurantifolia oil showed the highest radical scavenging activity on ABTS assay (IC₅₀ value of 19.6 μg/mL), while C. bergamia exhibited a good antioxidant activity evaluated by the β-carotene bleaching test (IC₅₀ = 42.6 μg/mL after 60 min of incubation). C. aurantifolia inhibited more selectively AChE. Obtained data suggest a potential use of Citrus oils as a valuable new flavor with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products with particular relevance to supplements for the elderly. The demonstrated antioxidant activity and procholinesterase properties of Citrus essential oils suggested their use as a new potential source of natural antioxidant to added as extra-nutrient for using in food industries as a valuable new flavor with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products with particular relevance to supplements for the elderly. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Comparative effects of three 48-week community-based physical activity and exercise interventions on aerobic capacity, total cholesterol and mean arterial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Steven; Jimenez, Alfonso; Domone, Sarah; Beedie, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient research examines the treatment effectiveness of real-world physical activity (PA) interventions. We investigated the effects of 3 interventions on directly measured cardiovascular variables. All treatments and measures were administered in community settings by fitness centre staff. Participants were sedentary individuals receiving no medication to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk (n=369, age 43 ±5 years). In a semirandomised design, participants were allocated to a structured gym exercise programme (STRUC), unstructured gym exercise (FREE), physical activity counselling (PAC) or a measurement-only control condition (CONT). Measures were: predicted aerobic capacity (VO2: mL kg min), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP: mm Hg) and total cholesterol (TC: mmol/L), and were taken at baseline and 48 weeks. Data analysis indicated a statistically significant deterioration in TC in CONT (0.8%, SD=0.5, p=0.005), and a statistically significant improvement in MAP in STRUC (2.5%, SD=8.3, p=0.004). Following a median split by baseline VO2, paired-sample t tests indicated significant improvements in VO2 among low-fit participants in STRUC (3.5%, SD=4.8, p=0.003), PAC (3.3%, SD=7.7, p=0.050) and FREE (2.6%, SD=4.8, p=0.006), and significant deterioration of VO2 among high-fit participants in FREE (-2.0%, SD=5.6, p=0.037), and PAC (-3.2%, SD=6.4, p=0.031). Several forms of PA may offset increased cholesterol resulting from inactivity. Structured PA (exercise) might be more effective than either unstructured PA or counselling in improving blood pressure, and community-based PA interventions might be more effective in improving VO2 among low-fit than among high-fit participants.

  16. Comparative susceptibility to permethrin of two Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Southern Benin, regarding mosquito sex, physiological status, and mosquito age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nazaire Azoun; Rock Akpon; Roseric Azondekon; Alex Asidi; Martin Akogbto

    2014-01-01

    physiological status. Therefore, it is useful to respect the World Health Organization criteria in the assessment of insecticide susceptibility tests in malaria vectors. Otherwise, susceptibility testing is conducted using unfed female mosquitoes aged 3-5 days old. Tests should also be carried out at (25±2) °C and (80±10)% relative humidity.

  17. Potassium physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, S O

    1986-04-25

    Potassium is the most abundant exchangeable cation in the body. It exists predominantly in the intracellular fluid at concentrations of 140 to 150 meq/liter and in the extracellular fluid at concentrations of 3.5 to 5 meq/liter. The maintenance of the serum potassium concentration is a complex bodily function and results from the balance between intake, excretion, and distribution between intracellular and extracellular space. Ingested potassium is virtually completely absorbed from and minimally excreted through the intestine under nonpathologic circumstances. Renal excretion of potassium, which is the major chronic protective mechanism against abnormalities in potassium balance, depends on filtration, reabsorption, and a highly regulated distal nephron secretory process. Factors regulating potassium secretion include prior potassium intake, intracellular potassium, delivery of sodium chloride and poorly reabsorbable anions to the distal nephron, the urine flow rate, hormones such as aldosterone and beta-catecholamines, and the integrity of the renal tubular cell. The maintenance of distribution between the inside and outside of cells depends on the integrity of the cell membrane and its pumps, osmolality, pH, and the hormones insulin, aldosterone, beta 2-catecholamines, alpha-catecholamines, and prostaglandins. Both distribution across cell membranes and/or renal excretion of potassium may be altered by pharmacologic agents such as diuretics, alpha- and beta-catechol antagonists and agonists, depolarizing agents, and digitalis. Problems with hypokalemia and hyperkalemia can be analyzed on the basis of potassium physiology and pharmacology; proper treatment depends on an accurate analysis.

  18. A comparative study of perfusion CT and 99mTc-Hmpao spect measurement to assess cerebrovascular reserve capacity in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eicker S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Patients with internal carotid artery (ICA occlusion can demonstrate impaired cerebral vascular reserve (CVR. The detection of CVR using single photon emission CT (SPECT is nowadays widely accepted as a predictor in the diagnostic pathway in patients considered for cerebral revascularization. Recently perfusion CT (PCT gained widely acceptance in stroke imaging The present study was aimed at comparing the results of perfusion CT (PCT and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT with acetazolamide challenge in patients with ICA occlusion. Methods 13 patients were included in the prospective evaluation. Both PCT and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were performed before and after the administration of acetazolamide. In detail, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF, regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV, adapted time to peak (Tmax and mean transit times (MTT were compared with SPECT data. Results 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT demonstrated an impairment of CVR in six patients. A preserved CVR was present in seven patients. All patients with impaired CVR proven by SPECT had a delayed MTT (mean +2.98 s and a delayed Tmax (mean + 5.9 s, (both p Conclusion The prospective study demonstrated a highly significant correlation of perfusion parameters as' detected by 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT and the Tmax as detected by PCT in patients with ICA occlusion. Therefore this easy-to-perform technique seems to be an adequate method for the evaluation of cerebral perfusion in patients with ICA occlusion.

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells from cortical bone demonstrate increased clonal incidence, potency, and developmental capacity compared to their bone marrow–derived counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Blashki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we show that matrix dense cortical bone is the more potent compartment of bone than bone marrow as a stromal source for mesenchymal stem cells as isolated from adult rats. Lineage-depleted cortical bone-mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated >150-fold enrichment of colony forming unit–fibroblasts per cell incidence. compared to lineage-depleted bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells, corresponding to a 70-fold increase in absolute recovered colony forming unit–fibroblasts. The composite phenotype Lin−/CD45−/CD31−/VLA-1+/Thy-1+ enriched for clonogenic mesenchymal stem cells solely from cortical bone–derived cells from which 70% of clones spontaneously differentiated into all lineages of bone, cartilage, and adipose. Both populations generated vascularized bone tissue within subcutaneous implanted collagen scaffolds; however, cortical bone–derived cells formed significantly more osteoid than bone marrow counterparts, quantified by histology. The data demonstrate that our isolation protocol identifies and validates mesenchymal stem cells with superior clonal, proliferative, and developmental potential from cortical bone compared to the bone marrow niche although marrow persists as the typical source for mesenchymal stem cells both in the literature and current pre-clinical therapies.

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells from cortical bone demonstrate increased clonal incidence, potency, and developmental capacity compared to their bone marrow–derived counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashki, Daniel; Murphy, Matthew B; Ferrari, Mauro; Simmons, Paul J; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we show that matrix dense cortical bone is the more potent compartment of bone than bone marrow as a stromal source for mesenchymal stem cells as isolated from adult rats. Lineage-depleted cortical bone-mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated >150-fold enrichment of colony forming unit–fibroblasts per cell incidence. compared to lineage-depleted bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells, corresponding to a 70-fold increase in absolute recovered colony forming unit–fibroblasts. The composite phenotype Lin−/CD45−/CD31−/VLA-1+/Thy-1+ enriched for clonogenic mesenchymal stem cells solely from cortical bone–derived cells from which 70% of clones spontaneously differentiated into all lineages of bone, cartilage, and adipose. Both populations generated vascularized bone tissue within subcutaneous implanted collagen scaffolds; however, cortical bone–derived cells formed significantly more osteoid than bone marrow counterparts, quantified by histology. The data demonstrate that our isolation protocol identifies and validates mesenchymal stem cells with superior clonal, proliferative, and developmental potential from cortical bone compared to the bone marrow niche although marrow persists as the typical source for mesenchymal stem cells both in the literature and current pre-clinical therapies. PMID:27579159

  1. Umbilical cord-derived stem cells (MODULATISTTM show strong immunomodulation capacity compared to adipose tissue-derived or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Van Pham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs show great promise in regenerative medicine. Clinical applications of MSCs have recently increased significantly, especially for immune diseases. Autologous transplantation is considered a safe therapy. However, its main disadvantages are poor stability and quality of MSCs from patient to patient, and labor-intensive and time-consuming culture procedures. Therefore, allogeneic MSC transplantation has recently emerged as a potential replacement for autologous transplantation. and ldquo;Off the shelf and rdquo; MSC products, or so-called and ldquo;stem cell drugs and rdquo;, have rapidly developed; these products have already been approved in various countries, including Canada, Korea and Japan. This study aims to evaluate a new stem cell product or and ldquo;drug and rdquo;, termed ModulatistTM, derived from umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs, which have strong immunomodulatory properties, compared to bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs or adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs. Methods: ModulatistTM was produced from MSCs derived from whole umbilical cord (UC tissue (which includes Wharton's jelly and UC, according to GMP compliant procedures. Bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived MSCs were isolated and proliferated in standard conditions, according to GMP compliant procedures. Immunomodulation mediated by MSCs was assessed by allogenic T cell suppression and cytokine release; role of prostaglandin E2 in the immunomodulation was also evaluated. Results: The results showed that ModulatistTM exhibited stronger immunomodulation than BMMSC and ADSC in vitro. ModulatistTM strongly suppressed allogeneic T cells proliferation and decreased cytokine production, compared to BMMSCs and ADSCs. Conclusion: ModulatistTM is a strong immunomodulator and promising MSC product. It may be useful to modulate or treat autoimmune diseases. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(6.000: 687-696

  2. [Comparative study of the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the varying ploidy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the process of their growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkidchenko, A N; Orlova, V S; Rylkin, S S; Korogodin, V I

    1978-01-01

    The growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains having different ploidy was compared in the conditions of periodic cultivation, and was found to consist of two stages: (1) at the account of glucose utilization and (2) due to assimilation of cellular metabolites following a period of adaptation. The secondary growth was linear. The haploid, diploid and triploid strains differed in the character of growth, substrate utilization, the rate of respiration and the economic coefficient. Their qualitative protein composition was the same though certain changes were detected in the content of individual amino acids. The amount of essential amino acids (their sum) in proteins increased when the yeast started to oxidize cellular metabolites instead of glucose utilization.

  3. [Comparative morphological and physiological studies of the integumentary tissue and the content of molting hormone in the crayfish Orconectes limosus during a molt cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, R; Adelung, D

    1970-09-01

    The structural changes in the integumentary tissues during a molt cycle of the crayfishOrconectes limosus and the stages of the molt cycle are described. The incorporation of uridine-5-H(3) into the nuclei of the epidermis and the tegumental glands during the molt cycle was determined by autoradiography and grain counting. In the epidermal nuclei the incorporation reaches a peak immediately before molt; a first, poorly expressed peak seems to be reached in stageD 1 which is characterized by apolysis and the preparation for secretion of the new epicuticle. In the early premolt stages (D0, D1) the activity of the tegumental gland nuclei compared to that of the epidermal nuclei is higher than in the later premolt stages. A first peak is reached in stage D1, a second one of similar size in stage D4. In stage D2, during and shortly after the secretion of the new epicuticle, heavily labelled hemolymph cells are found in the integumentary tissue beneath the epidermis and between the epidermal cells.Compared toCarcinus maenas only an approximative estimation of the hormone titer could be achieved. This is due to technical difficulties in connection with the very low hormone content of the crayfish. Measurable amounts could be detected between the premolt stages D0 and D3. In this period a rise of the RNA synthesis was observed. The peak of RNA synthesis follows the peak of the molting hormone with a certain delay. This is in accordance with the hypothesis of hormonal control of RNA synthesis during the molt cycle in arthropods. A comparison of the time course of RNA synthesis in the crayfish with the better known time course of the hormone content inCarcinus maenas exhibits a good accordance.

  4. Enhanced oxidative capacity of ground squirrel brain mitochondria during hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Mallory A; Schwartz, Christine; Andrews, Matthew T

    2017-03-01

    During hibernation, thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) regularly cycle between bouts of torpor and interbout arousal (IBA). Most of the brain is electrically quiescent during torpor but regains activity quickly upon arousal to IBA, resulting in extreme oscillations in energy demand during hibernation. We predicted increased functional capacity of brain mitochondria during hibernation compared with spring to accommodate the variable energy demands of hibernation. To address this hypothesis, we examined mitochondrial bioenergetics in the ground squirrel brain across three time points: spring (SP), torpor (TOR), and IBA. Respiration rates of isolated brain mitochondria through complex I of the electron transport chain were more than twofold higher in TOR and IBA than in SP (P mitochondria compared with TOR and IBA (P mitochondria function more effectively during the hibernation season, allowing for rapid production of energy to meet demand when extreme physiological changes are occurring. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. A comparative study on the capacity of a range of food-grade particles to form stable O/W and W/O Pickering emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffus, Laudina J; Norton, Jennifer E; Smith, Paul; Norton, Ian T; Spyropoulos, Fotios

    2016-07-01

    Whilst literature describing edible Pickering emulsions is becoming increasingly available, current understanding of these systems still suffers from a lack of consistency in terms of the (processing and formulation) conditions within which these structures have been studied. The current study aims to provide a comparative analysis of the behaviour of different edible Pickering candidates and their ability to stabilise emulsion droplets, under well-controlled and uniform experimental conditions, in order to clearly identify the particle properties necessary for successful Pickering functionality. More specifically, an extensive investigation into the suitability of various food-grade material to act as Pickering particles and provide stable oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions was carried out. Polysaccharide and flavonoid particles were characterised in terms of their size, ζ-potential, interfacial activity and wettability, under equivalent conditions. Particles were subsequently used to stabilise 20% w/w O/W and W/O emulsions, in the absence of added surfactant or other known emulsifying agents, through different processing routes. All formed Pickering emulsions were shown to resist significant droplet size variation and remain stable at particle concentrations between 2 and 3% w/w. The main particle prerequisites for successful Pickering stabilisation were: particle size (200nm - 1μm); an affinity for the emulsion continuous phase and a sufficient particle charge to extend stability. Depending upon the employed emulsification process, the resulting emulsion formation and stability behaviour can be reasonably predicted a priori from the evaluation of specific particle characteristics.

  6. Comparative Proteomic, Physiological, Morphological, and Biochemical Analyses Reveal the Characteristics of the Diploid Spermatozoa of Allotetraploid Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Kang; Hu, Fangzhou; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Ming; Wang, Jing; Tao, Min; Luo, Kaikun; Zhao, Rurong; Qin, Qinbo; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Jinhui; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-02-01

    The generation of diploid spermatozoa is essential for the continuity of tetraploid lineages. The DNA content of diploid spermatozoa from allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp and common carp was nearly twice as great as that of haploid spermatozoa from common carp, and the durations of rapid and slow progressive motility were longer. We performed comparative proteomic analyses to measure variations in protein composition between diploid and haploid spermatozoa. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, 21 protein spots that changed in abundance were analyzed. As the common carp and the allotetraploid hybrids are not fully sequenced organisms, we identified proteins by Mascot searching against the National Center for Biotechnology Information non-redundant (NR) protein database for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), and verified them against predicted homologous proteins derived from transcriptomes of the testis. Twenty protein spots were identified successfully, belonging to four gene ontogeny categories: cytoskeleton, energy metabolism, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and other functions, indicating that these might be associated with the variation in diploid spermatozoa. This categorization of variations in protein composition in diploid spermatozoa will provide new perspectives on male polyploidy. Moreover, our approach indicates that transcriptome data are useful for proteomic analyses in organisms lacking full protein sequences.

  7. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  8. [Human physiology: kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  9. Physiological characteristics of international female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Sarah A; Brughelli, Matt; Harris, Nigel K

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological characteristics of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) eligible international female soccer players aged 14-36 years and to determine if measures were significantly different for players selected (i.e., starters) to the starting line up for an FIFA tournament as compared with those not selected (i.e., nonstarters). Fifty-one (N = 18 Under 17; N = 18 Under 20; N = 15 Senior) international female soccer players participated in this study. The subjects underwent measurements of anthropometry (height and body mass), lower body strength (isokinetic testing), sprint kinetics and kinematics (nonmotorized treadmill), leg power (unilateral jumping), and maximal aerobic velocity (30:15 intermittent fitness test) during the final preparatory stage for an FIFA event. Outcomes of the age group data indicate that differences in physiological capacities are evident for the Under 17 players as compared with those for the Under 20 and Senior capped international players, suggesting a plateau in the acquisition of physical qualities as players mature. Starters tended to be faster (effect size [ES] = 0.55-1.0, p velocity (ES = 0.78-2.45, p velocity (ES = 0.87, p players, where maximal aerobic velocity was the primary difference between starters and nonstarters (ES = 0.83-2.45, p players. Coaches should emphasize the development of speed, maximal aerobic velocity, and leg strength in developing female soccer players.

  10. Estimation of hand and wrist muscle capacities in rock climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigouroux, Laurent; Goislard de Monsabert, Benjamin; Berton, Eric

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the hand and wrist muscle capacities among expert rock climbers and compared them with those of non-climbers. The objective was to identify the adaptations resulting from several years of climbing practice. Twelve climbers (nine males and three females) and 13 non-climber males participated in this study. Each subject performed a set of maximal voluntary contractions about the wrist and the metacarpo-phalengeal joints during which net joint moments and electromyographic activities were recorded. From this data set, the muscle capacities of the five main muscle groups of the hand (wrist flexors, wrist extensors, finger flexors, finger extensors and intrinsic muscles) were estimated using a biomechanical model. This process consisted in adjusting the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and the maximal muscle stress value from an initial generic model. Results obtained from the model provided several new pieces of information compared to the analysis of only the net joint moments. Particularly, the capacities of the climbers were 37.1 % higher for finger flexors compared to non-climbers and were similar for finger extensor and for the other muscle groups. Climbers thus presented a greater imbalance between flexor and extensor capacities which suggests a potential risk of pathologies. The practice of climbing not only increased the strength of climbers but also resulted in specific adaptations among hand muscles. The proposed method and the obtained data could be re-used to optimize the training programs as well as the rehabilitation processes following hand pathologies.

  11. On Cellular MIMO Channel Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Koichi; Adachi, Fumiyuki; Nakagawa, Masao

    To increase the transmission rate without bandwidth expansion, the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has recently been attracting much attention. The MIMO channel capacity in a cellular system is affected by the interference from neighboring co-channel cells. In this paper, we introduce the cellular channel capacity and evaluate its outage capacity, taking into account the frequency-reuse factor, path loss exponent, standard deviation of shadowing loss, and transmission power of a base station (BS). Furthermore, we compare the cellular MIMO downlink channel capacity with those of other multi-antenna transmission techniques such as single-input multiple-output (SIMO) and space-time block coded multiple-input single-output (STBC-MISO). We show that the optimum frequency-reuse factor F that maximizes 10%-outage capacity is 3 and both 50%- and 90%-outage capacities is 1 irrespective of the type of multi-antenna transmission technique, where q%-outage capacity is defined as the channel capacity that gives an outage probability of q%. We also show that the cellular MIMO channel capacity is always higher than those of SIMO and STBC-MISO.

  12. Urban plant physiology: adaptation-mitigation strategies under permanent stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfapietra, Carlo; Peñuelas, Josep; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-02-01

    Urban environments that are stressful for plant function and growth will become increasingly widespread in future. In this opinion article, we define the concept of 'urban plant physiology', which focuses on plant responses and long term adaptations to urban conditions and on the capacity of urban vegetation to mitigate environmental hazards in urbanized settings such as air and soil pollution. Use of appropriate control treatments would allow for studies in urban environments to be comparable to expensive manipulative experiments. In this opinion article, we propose to couple two approaches, based either on environmental gradients or manipulated gradients, to develop the concept of urban plant physiology for assessing how single or multiple environmental factors affect the key environmental services provided by urban forests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Auxin physiology of the tomato mutant diageotropica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, S. G.; Rayle, D. L.; Cleland, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) mutant diageotropica (dgt) exhibits biochemical, physiological, and morphological abnormalities that suggest the mutation may have affected a primary site of auxin perception or action. We have compared two aspects of the auxin physiology of dgt and wild-type (VFN8) seedlings: auxin transport and cellular growth parameters. The rates of basipetal indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) polar transport are identical in hypocotyl sections of the two genotypes, but dgt sections have a slightly greater capacity for IAA transport. 2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid and ethylene reduce transport in both mutant and wild-type sections. The kinetics of auxin uptake into VFN8 and dgt sections are nearly identical. These results make it unlikely that an altered IAA efflux carrier or IAA uptake symport are responsible for the pleiotropic effects resulting from the dgt mutation. The lack of auxin-induced cell elongation in dgt plants is not due to insufficient turgor, as the osmotic potential of dgt cell sap is less (more negative) than that of VFN8. An auxin-induced increase in wall extensibility, as measured by the Instron technique, only occurs in the VFN8 plants. These data suggest dgt hypocotyls suffer a defect in the sequence of events culminating in auxin-induced cell wall loosening.

  14. The comparative study of effects of mental stress and physiological stress on the anxiety behavior in Sprague-Dawley rats%精神应激与生理应激对大鼠焦虑行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李功迎; 李凌江; 马洪霞

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of mental stress and physical stress on the anxiety behavior in SD rats.Methods 24 male SD rats were allocated into mental stress group,physiological stress group and control group randomly,and the Communication Box was applied to establish animal model of mental stress,then assessed their anxiety behavior through the Open field test and elevated plus nlaze test.Results In the Open field test.the numbers of squares crossed peripherally and centrally,and the grooming frequency significantly lowered in physiological stress group and in mental stress group compared with that in control group,and were significantly higher in mental stress group than in physiological stress group.The elevated plus maze test demonstrated similar results in the numbers of open arm entries and the time spent in open arms among these three groups.Conclusion In Communication Box model,the anxiety behavior level of physiological stress mats were higher than that in mental stress rats.%目的 比较精神应激与生理应激对SD大鼠焦虑行为的不同影响.方法 采用旁观电击大鼠应激模型作为精神应激模型,以旷场实验、高架十字迷宫实验评估精神应激大鼠与生理应激大鼠的焦虑行为.结果 在旷场实验中,外周格数、中央格数、以及修饰数均是生理应激组[分别是(21.60±22.99)个、(4.20±3.26)个、(5.80±2.35)次]低于精神应激组[分别是(47.60±20.87)个、(6.00±3.43)个、(7.00±2.69)次],精神应激组低于正常对照组[分别是(55.80±14.54)个、(7.00±3.47)个、(13.40±5.01)次],差异具有显著性;在高架十字迷宫实验中,开放臂次数以及开放臂时间也是生理应激组最低,精神应激组居中,正常对照组最高,差异具有显著性.结论 在旁观电击大鼠应激模型中,生理应激大鼠的焦虑水平较精神应激大鼠明显.

  15. Applied physiology of cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, I E

    1984-01-01

    Historically, the bicycle has evolved through the stages of a machine for efficient human transportation, a toy for children, a finely-tuned racing machine, and a tool for physical fitness development, maintenance and testing. Recently, major strides have been made in the aerodynamic design of the bicycle. These innovations have resulted in new land speed records for human powered machines. Performance in cycling is affected by a variety of factors, including aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance, and body composition. Bicycle races range from a 200m sprint to approximately 5000km. This vast range of competitive racing requires special attention to the principle of specificity of training. The physiological demands of cycling have been examined through the use of bicycle ergometers, rollers, cycling trainers, treadmill cycling, high speed photography, computer graphics, strain gauges, electromyography, wind tunnels, muscle biopsy, and body composition analysis. These techniques have been useful in providing definitive data for the development of a work/performance profile of the cyclist. Research evidence strongly suggests that when measuring the cyclist's aerobic or anaerobic capacity, a cycling protocol employing a high pedalling rpm should be used. The research bicycle should be modified to resemble a racing bicycle and the cyclist should wear cycling shoes. Prolonged cycling requires special nutritional considerations. Ingestion of carbohydrates, in solid form and carefully timed, influences performance. Caffeine appears to enhance lipid metabolism. Injuries, particularly knee problems which are prevalent among cyclists, may be avoided through the use of proper gearing and orthotics. Air pollution has been shown to impair physical performance. When pollution levels are high, training should be altered or curtailed. Effective training programmes simulate competitive conditions. Short and long interval training, blended with long

  16. Physiological effects in aromatherapy

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow pot...

  17. Functional and physiological properties of total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fibres derived from defatted rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Cheickna; Zhang, Hui

    2014-12-01

    Enzymatic- gravimetric method was used to obtain three fractions of dietary from defatted rice bran. The functional and physiological properties such as viscosity, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI), cholesterol and bile salt adsorption capacity of the resultant fractions were evaluated. Insoluble dietary fibre (IDF) and soluble dietary fibre (SDF) when compared showed that SDF exhibited significantly (p functional ingredients which can be added to various food products and dietetic, low-calorie high-fiber foods to enhance their nutraceutical properties and health benefits.

  18. Man’s physiological changes, temperature regulation and exercise capacity in sports in high temperature environment%高温环境下人体运动中的生理变化、体温调节及运动能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭泽华

    2016-01-01

    To summarize the reasons of man’s physiological changes and decreased sports capacity which are caused by high temperature in sports, and to investigate the relationship between body temperature and sports fatigue in the environment of high temperature during doing sports. By this way, the law can be found and the measures which can improve the athletes’body function, sports ability and sports performance will be formulated.%对人体在高温环境下运动所导致的生理变化及运动能力下降的原因进行分析,探讨高温环境下人体运动体温调节与运动疲劳之间的关系,并找出规律,制定应对措施,以期为改善运动员的身体机能及提高运动能力提供参考。

  19. [Aerobic capacity and quality of life in school children from 8 to 12].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Rodríguez García, Pedro L; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; Pérez-Soto, Juan J; Tarraga Marcos, Loreto; Tarraga Lopez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic capacity is a powerful physiological indicator of the overall health status. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between aerobic capacity and quality of life in a sample of 298 (159 girls) school children aged 8-12 years. Aerobic capacity was tested using the Course-Navette test. Quality of life was assessed using the KIDSCREEN-10 Index scale. Males showed higher performance in the Course-Navette test and highest values of VO2max (P<.001 for both). ANOVA statistical analysis showed that the quality of life was significantly higher in school children with increased level of aerobic capacity compared to those with a low level (P=.001). Children with high aerobic capacity showed higher quality of life scores in relation to their peers with low scores (P<.001). As for the females, significant differences were found among those with high aerobic capacity level and their peers low levels (P<.031). The results of this study suggest that school children with higher level of aerobic capacity show better results in the quality of life index. Long-term intervention studies are needed to verify if an aerobic capacity development programme may upgrade the quality of life of children and adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative Analysis of the Magnitude, Quality, Phenotype and Protective Capacity of SIV Gag-Specific CD8+ T Cells Following Human-, Simian- and Chimpanzee-Derived Recombinant Adenoviral Vector Immunisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kylie M.; Costa, Andreia Da; Yamamoto, Ayako; Berry, Dana; Lindsay, Ross W.B.; Darrah, Patricia A.; Wang, Lingshu; Cheng, Cheng; Kong, Wing-Pui; Gall, Jason G.D.; Nicosia, Alfredo; Folgori, Antonella; Colloca, Stefano; Cortese, Riccardo; Gostick, Emma; Price, David A.; Gomez, Carmen E.; Esteban, Mariano; Wyatt, Linda S.; Moss, Bernard; Morgan, Cecilia; Roederer, Mario; Bailer, Robert T.; Nabel, Gary J.; Koup, Richard A.; Seder, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviral vectors (rAds) are the most potent recombinant vaccines for eliciting CD8+ T cell-mediated immunity in humans; however, prior exposure from natural adenoviral infection can decrease such responses. Here we show low seroreactivity in humans against simian- (sAd11, sAd16), or chimpanzee-derived (chAd3, chAd63) compared to human-derived (rAd5, rAd28, rAd35) vectors across multiple geographic regions. We then compared the magnitude, quality, phenotype and protective capacity of CD8+ T cell responses in mice vaccinated with rAds encoding SIV Gag. Using a dose range (1 × 107 to 109 PU), we defined a hierarchy among rAd vectors based on the magnitude and protective capacity of CD8+ T cell responses, from most to least as: rAd5 and chAd3, rAd28 and sAd11, chAd63, sAd16, and rAd35. Selection of rAd vector or dose could modulate the proportion and/or frequency of IFNγ+TNFα+IL-2+ and KLRG1+CD127- CD8+ T cells, but strikingly ~30–80% of memory CD8+ T cells co-expressed CD127 and KLRG1. To further optimise CD8+ T cell responses, we assessed rAds as part of prime-boost regimens. Mice primed with rAds and boosted with NYVAC generated Gag-specific responses that approached ~60% of total CD8+ T cells at peak. Alternatively, priming with DNA or rAd28 and boosting with rAd5 or chAd3 induced robust and equivalent CD8+ T cell responses compared to prime or boost alone. Collectively, these data provide the immunologic basis for using specific rAd vectors alone or as part of prime-boost regimens to induce CD8+ T cells for rapid effector function or robust long-term memory, respectively. PMID:23390298

  1. Antioxidant capacity and physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Marciniak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is a presentation of current knowledge regarding the changes of plasma antioxidant capacity observed in response to physical exercise. Human body created the enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems, which play a protective role in the harmful impact of free radicals. Those two systems constitute what is known as the plasma total antioxidant capacity. The amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (NOS in combination with oxidation processes increases in some tissues during physiological response to physical exercise. These changes are observed after single bout of exercise as well as after regular training. The response of human body to physical exercise can be analysed using various models of exercise test. Application of repeated type of exhaustion allows for characterizing the ability of human body to adjust to the increased energy loss and increased oxygen consumption. This article presents the characteristics of components of plasma antioxidant capacity, the mechanisms of free radicals production and their role in human body. It discusses also the currently used methods of detecting changes in total antioxidant capacity and its individual elements in response to single bout of exercise and regular training. It presents the review of literature about research performed in groups of both regularly training and low exercise activity individuals as well as in group of healthy subjects and patients with circulation diseases.

  2. Capacity Statement for Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The subject “Railway capacity” is a combination of the capacity consumption and how the capacity is utilized. The capacity utilization of railways can be divided into 4 core elements: The number of trains; the average speed; the heterogeneity of the operation; and the stability. This article...... describes how the capacity consumption for railways can be worked out and analytical measurements of how the capacity is utilized. Furthermore, the article describes how it is possible to state and visualize railway capacity. Having unused railway capacity is not always equal to be able to operate more...

  3. Physiological and Biomechanical Mechanisms of Distance Specific Human Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M A

    2017-08-01

    Running events range from 60-m sprints to ultra-marathons covering 100 miles or more, which presents an interesting diversity in terms of the parameters for successful performance. Here, we review the physiological and biomechanical variations underlying elite human running performance in sprint to ultramarathon distances. Maximal running speeds observed in sprint disciplines are achieved by high vertical ground reaction forces applied over short contact times. To create this high force output, sprint events rely heavily on anaerobic metabolism, as well as a high number and large cross-sectional area of type II fibers in the leg muscles. Middle distance running performance is characterized by intermediates of biomechanical and physiological parameters, with the possibility of unique combinations of each leading to high-level performance. The relatively fast velocities in mid-distance events require a high mechanical power output, though ground reaction forces are less than in sprinting. Elite mid-distance runners exhibit local muscle adaptations that, along with a large anaerobic capacity, provide the ability to generate a high power output. Aerobic capacity starts to become an important aspect of performance in middle distance events, especially as distance increases. In distance running events, V˙O2max is an important determinant of performance, but is relatively homogeneous in elite runners. V˙O2 and velocity at lactate threshold have been shown to be superior predictors of elite distance running performance. Ultramarathons are relatively new running events, as such, less is known about physiological and biomechanical parameters that underlie ultra-marathon performance. However, it is clear that performance in these events is related to aerobic capacity, fuel utilization, and fatigue resistance. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in

  4. Physiological measurements of transition and resuscitation at birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonderen, Jeroen Johannes van

    2014-01-01

    The neonatal transition is characterized by major physiological changes in respiratory and hemodynamic function, which are predominantly initiated by breathing and clamping of the umbilical cord. Lung aeration leads to the establishment of functional residual capacity, allowing pulmonary gas exchang

  5. Physiological measurements of transition and resuscitation at birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonderen, Jeroen Johannes van

    2014-01-01

    The neonatal transition is characterized by major physiological changes in respiratory and hemodynamic function, which are predominantly initiated by breathing and clamping of the umbilical cord. Lung aeration leads to the establishment of functional residual capacity, allowing pulmonary gas

  6. Biological properties of extracellular vesicles and their physiological functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yáñez-Mó, María; Siljander, Pia R-M; Andreu, Zoraida; Zavec, Apolonija Bedina; Borràs, Francesc E; Buzas, Edit I; Buzas, Krisztina; Casal, Enriqueta; Cappello, Francesco; Carvalho, Joana; Colás, Eva; Cordeiro-da Silva, Anabela; Fais, Stefano; Falcon-Perez, Juan M; Ghobrial, Irene M; Giebel, Bernd; Gimona, Mario; Graner, Michael; Gursel, Ihsan; Gursel, Mayda; Heegaard, Niels H H; Hendrix, An; Kierulf, Peter; Kokubun, Katsutoshi; Kosanovic, Maja; Kralj-Iglic, Veronika; Krämer-Albers, Eva-Maria; Laitinen, Saara; Lässer, Cecilia; Lener, Thomas; Ligeti, Erzsébet; Linē, Aija; Lipps, Georg; Llorente, Alicia; Lötvall, Jan; Manček-Keber, Mateja; Marcilla, Antonio; Mittelbrunn, Maria; Nazarenko, Irina; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; Nyman, Tuula A; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Olivan, Mireia; Oliveira, Carla; Pállinger, Éva; Del Portillo, Hernando A; Reventós, Jaume; Rigau, Marina; Rohde, Eva; Sammar, Marei; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Santarém, N; Schallmoser, Katharina; Ostenfeld, Marie Stampe; Stoorvogel, Willem|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074352385; Stukelj, Roman; Van der Grein, Susanne G; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Wauben, Marca H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/112675735; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been recognized as potent vehicles of intercellular communication, both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This is due to their capacity to transfer proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, thereby influencing various physiological and pathological

  7. A Review of the Comparative Anatomy, Histology, Physiology and Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of Rats, Mice, Dogs and Non-human Primates. Relevance to Inhalation Toxicology and Human Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, R; Wright, J A

    2015-11-01

    There are many significant differences in the structural and functional anatomy of the nasal cavity of man and laboratory animals. Some of the differences may be responsible for the species-specific nasal lesions that are often observed in response to inhaled toxicants. This paper reviews the comparative anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nasal cavity of the rat, mouse, dog, monkey and man, highlighting factors that may influence the distribution of nasal lesions. Gross anatomical variations such as turbinate structure, folds or grooves on nasal walls, or presence or absence of accessory structures, may influence nasal airflow and species-specific uptake and deposition of inhaled material. In addition, interspecies variations in the morphological and biochemical composition and distribution of the nasal epithelium may affect the local tissue susceptibility and play a role in the development of species-specific nasal lesions. It is concluded that, while the nasal cavity of the monkey might be more similar to that of man, each laboratory animal species provides a model that responds in a characteristic and species-specific manner. Therefore for human risk assessment, careful consideration must be given to the anatomical differences between a given animal model and man.

  8. [The dynamics of physical work capacity among ageing truck drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurtsilava, O G; Bashkireva, A S; Khavinson, V Kh

    2013-01-01

    The studies of biological age, ageing rate, physical work capacity in professional lorry drivers were conducted. The examination revealed peculiarities of system organization of functions, which determine the physical work capacity levels. Dynamics of the ageing process of professional driver's organism in relation with calendar age and driving experience were shown using the biological age on physical work capacity model. The results point at the premature decrease of the physical work capacity in professional drivers. There was revealed premature contraction of the range of cardio-vascular system adaptive reactions on submaximum physical load in the drivers as compared with control group. It was proved, that premature age-related changes of physiologic indices in drivers are just "risk indicators", while long driving experience is a real risk factor, accelerating the ageing process. The "risk group" with manifestations of accelerating ageing was observed in 40-49-year old drivers with 15-19 years of professional experience. There was demonstrated the expediency of using the following methods for the age rate estimation according to biologic age indices and necessity of prophylactic measures for premature and accelerated ageing prevention among working population.

  9. Effects of types of media and NPK fertilizer on the rooting capacity of chrysanthemum cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budiarto, K.; Sulyo, Y.; Dwi, E.; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological status of chrysanthemum cuttings during rooting process highly influences plant growth and flower production. Amongst other aspects, rooting capacity of the cuttings is the most important. Rooting capacity is influenced by environmental conditions such as growing medium and nutrition.

  10. Effects of types of media and NPK fertilizer on the rooting capacity of chrysanthemum cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budiarto, K.; Sulyo, Y.; Dwi, E.; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological status of chrysanthemum cuttings during rooting process highly influences plant growth and flower production. Amongst other aspects, rooting capacity of the cuttings is the most important. Rooting capacity is influenced by environmental conditions such as growing medium and nutrition.

  11. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  12. Role of photoperiod on hormone concentrations and adaptive capacity in tree shrews, Tupaia belangeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhu, Wanlong; Wang, Zhengkun

    2012-11-01

    Environmental factors, such as photoperiod and temperature, play an important role in the regulation of an animal's physiology and behavior. In the present study, we examined the effects of short photoperiod (SD, 8L:16D) on body mass as well as on several physiological, hormonal, and biochemical measures indicative of thermogenic capacity, to test our hypothesis that short photoperiod stimulates increases thermogenic capacity and energy intake in tree shrews. At the end, these tree shrews (SD) had a significant higher body mass, energy intake, cytochrome C oxidase (COX) activity and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) content, serum tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) compared to LD (16L:8D) tree shrews. However, there were no significant differences in serum leptin and melatonin between the two groups. Together, these data suggest tree shrews employ a strategy of maximizing body growth and increasing energy intake in response to cues associated with short photoperiod.

  13. How general are current comparative physiology studies?: A quantitative review ¿Cuán general son los estudios en fisiología comparada actualmente?: Una revisión cuantitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO F. NESPOLO

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparative animal physiology and related fields (named here "ecological physiology" are entering a time of synthesis in the form of a quest for large scales patterns. However, these new approaches need to be supplied by great amounts of data, representative of existing animal forms. We tested whether this is the case by performing a quantitative survey in the most important media for ecological physiologists. We found that ecological physiologists have clear biases toward some taxonomic classes, which represent one third of existing animal phyla. Non-taxonomic characterization of animals (endothermy/ectothermy, aquatic/terrestrial, however, produced a more balanced picture. In addition, ecological physiologists appear to be mostly intraspecific biologists since the great majority of studies were performed in one species. Multispecific studies were the minority and comparable to two - species comparative studies. The later are still being published despite to have been strongly criticized in the past. Cross-tabulation analysis yielded results suggesting that natural populations, vertebrates and terrestrial animals are preferred over artificial populations, aquatic animals and invertebrates. Although we recognize the limitations of our survey, it has the value to indicate that historical biases need to be taken in consideration if more global approaches are being undertaking in this disciplineLa fisiología comparada y disciplinas relacionadas (definidas en este trabajo como "ecología fisiológica" han entrado a un período de síntesis en la forma de búsqueda de patrones a gran escala. Sin embargo, dichos enfoques necesitan ser provistos de una gran cantidad de datos que sean representativos de las formas animales existentes. Evaluamos si este es el caso, efectuando una revisión cuantitativa en el medio más importante para los ecólogos fisiológicos. Encontramos que los ecólogos fisiológicos tienen claros sesgos hacia ciertas clases taxon

  14. Retrospective study on prognostic importance of serum procalcitonin and amino - terminal pro - brain natriuretic peptide levels as compared to Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV Score on Intensive Care Unit admission, in a mixed Intensive Care Unit population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Timely decision making in Intensive Care Unit (ICU is very essential to improve the outcome of critically sick patients. Conventional scores like Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE IV are quite cumbersome with calculations and take minimum 24 hours. Procalcitonin has shown to have prognostic value in ICU/Emergency department (ED in disease states like pneumonia, sepsis etc. NTproBNP has demonstrated excellent diagnostic and prognostic importance in cardiac diseases. It has also been found elevated in non-cardiac diseases. We chose to study the prognostic utility of these markers on ICU admission. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: A Retrospective analysis of 100 eligible patients was done who had undergone PCT and NTproBNP measurements on ICU admission. Their correlations with all cause mortality, length of hospital stay, need for ventilator support, need for vasopressors were performed. Results: Among 100 randomly selected ICU patients, 28 were non-survivors. NTproBNP values on admission significantly correlated with all cause mortality (P = 0.036, AUC = 0.643 and morbidity (P = 0.000, AUC = 0.763, comparable to that of APACHE-IV score. PCT values on admission did not show significant association with mortality, but correlated well with morbidity and prolonged hospital length of stay (AUC = 0.616, P = 0.045. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated a good predictive value of NTproBNP, in terms of mortality and morbidity comparable to that of APACHE-IV score. Procalcitonin, however, was found to have doubtful prognostic importance. These findings need to be confirmed in a prospective larger study.

  15. Reproductive physiology and ovarian folliculogenesis examined via 1H-NMR metabolomics signatures: a comparative study of large and small follicles in three mammalian species (Bos taurus, Sus scrofa domesticus and Equus ferus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Nadine; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Grupen, Christopher G; Nadal-Desbarats, Lydie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the composition of follicular fluid (FF) collected from the small and large follicles of three mammalian species, Bos taurus, Sus scrofa domesticus, and Equus ferus caballus, that display distinct ovulatory properties. For each species, five large FF samples and five small FF samples were analyzed using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The FF metabolic profiles of the three species were very distinct. In cows and mares, the metabolic profiles of large FF and small FF were also very distinct. The concentrations of seventeen identified metabolites differed significantly between the sample groups. In mares, fourteen metabolites were found at much greater concentrations in large FF than in small FF (p<0.05). In cows, four metabolites differed in concentration between the large FF and small FF samples (p<0.05). A common feature of the monovulatory species was that the concentrations of α- and β-glucose were much greater in large FF compared with small FF (p<0.05). Sow FF was characterized by the apparent absence of citrate (detected in cow and mare FF), and the presence of succinate (not detected in cow and mare FF). Another obvious difference between species was the concentration of lactate, which was minimal in mare FF compared with cow and sow FF (p<0.05). The findings provide valuable insights into reproductive physiology broadly, and indicate that the activities of central metabolic enzymes differ enormously between these species. Future investigations into species-specific differences in follicle metabolism would increase our understanding of the processes critical to folliculogenesis and the acquisition of oocyte developmental competence.

  16. A critically appraised topic (CAT) to compare the effects of single and multi-cat housing on physiological and behavioural measures of stress in domestic cats in confined environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic cats have evolved from solitary, asocial predators and whilst they may display social behaviours, they can still exist as solitary survivors. Over-population and relinquishment of pet cats are ubiquitous problems worldwide, and rehoming centres (also known as rescues/ shelters) aim to ameliorate this by holding cats in confinement for a variable period until a new home is found. The provision of optimal housing for large numbers of cats in close confinement, such as in rehoming centres, is therefore inherently difficult. Under these conditions there is the potential for individuals to develop signs of physical and psychological ill health, and thus experience compromised welfare. Available information regarding housing practices that maximise welfare currently provides conflicting results, and as a consequence there are no unanimous housing recommendations. The aim of this study was therefore to review the evidence on the impact of single housing compared to multi-cat housing on stress in confined cats, as measured by physiological and/or behavioural outcomes. The review was conducted using a Critically Appraised Topic (CAT) format. A systematic search of electronic databases (CAB Abstracts, Zoological Records and Medline) was carried out to identify peer-reviewed literature comparing single and multi-cat housing in confined environments. Results A total of 959 papers were initially identified, six of which met sufficient criteria based on their relevance to be included within this review. All of the studies had significant limitations in design and methodology, including a lack of information on how groups were assigned, inconsistent handling and enrichment provision between groups, and lack of information on the socialisation status of cats. Conclusions Whilst some studies suggested that single housing may be less stressful for cats, others suggested group housing was less stressful. Several other important factors were however identified as

  17. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  18. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  19. Capacity Analysis on Multi-Lane Roundabouts: An Evaluation With Highway Capacity Manual 2010 Capacity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Ersoy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, capacity estimations with the incorporation of Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2010 method are evaluated. Parameter based sensitivity analysis on calculations with the new HCM formula and a comparative evaluation of the new methodology with two most common capacity analysis methods, i.e., the method of critical gap acceptance and the method of regression analysis, are performed. Maximum and minimum headway intervals of follow up time and critical gap parameters are alternated within the sensitivity analysis. The Transport Research Laboratory formula for regression and Australian formula for gap acceptance method are considered in comparison. Relative comparisons of predictions on capacity by HCM2010 method, regression analysis and gap acceptance method are presented considering field data obtained by observations at two roundabouts in Izmir, Turkey. The results of the study show that the HCM2010 formula led to lower capacity estimates than regression analysis and higher estimates than the gap acceptance method. Regarding the real capacity observations under high circulating flow-rates the HCM2010 method yielded to more appropriate results than the regression method. In addition to comparisons, studies on the sensitivity analysis show that entry capacity estimates possess sharper changes as smaller follow up headways are accepted.

  20. Análisis comparativo de la capacidad de salto en gimnastas de trampolín españoles. (Comparative analysis of the jumping capacity in Spanish trampoline gymnasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Vernetta Santana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe realizó un estudio para analizar la capacidad de salto en gimnastas de trampolín españoles y comparar distintas categorías entre sí, mediante un diseño descriptivo y transversal.La muestra estuvo compuesta por 60 gimnastas de trampolín pertenecientes a la élite nacional, agrupados según su grupo de edad y categoría competitiva, diferenciando en total 4 grupos: grupo de edad Sub-15 masculino (GM1, n = 23; 11,95 ± 1,79 años y femenino (GF1, n = 9; 11,44 ± 1,23 años; grupo de edad Absoluto masculino (GM2, n = 18; 20,72 ± 4,66 años y femenino (GF2, n = 10; 16,1 ± 2,02 años. Para evaluar la capacidad de salto se midió la altura en el SJ y CMJ, mediante plataforma de contacto; además se estimó la potencia mecánica según la fórmula de Sayers et al. (1991.Las diferencias significativas (pAbstractA study was conducted to analyze the jump capacity jump in Spanish trampoline gymnasts and compare different categories with each other, through a descriptive cross-sectional design.The sample consisted of 60 trampoline gymnasts belonging to the national elite, grouped by age and sex in different competitive categories, differentiating finally 4 groups: age group male Under-15 (GM1 n = 23; 11,95 ± 1,79 years and female (GF1 n = 9; 11,44 ± 1,23 years; age group male Absolute (GM2 n = 18; 20,72 ± 4,66 years and female (GF2 n = 10; 16,1 ± 2,02 years.To assess the jump capacity was measured height in the SJ and CMJ, through contact platform; additionally mechanical power was estimated according to the formula of Sayers et al. (1991.Significant differences were found (p

  1. Physiological effects in aromatherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapanee Hongratanaworakit

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow potential brain waves (contingent negativevariation, and eye blink rate or pupil functions, are used as indices for the measurement of the aroma effects

  2. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  3. Cardiovascular physiology and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Narayana S; Svatikova, Anna; Somers, Virend K

    2003-05-01

    effects of sleep could be objectively differentiated from the effects of rest and recumbency. Furthermore, the specific effects of sleep onset and termination, and the effects of different sleep stages, could be assessed. Technological advances, with consequently enhanced and relatively non-invasive approaches to cardiovascular regulation, have greatly broadened our understanding of the effects of sleep stage on cardiovascular function. Continuous monitoring of simultaneous measures of polysomnographic and cardiovascular variables enables characterization of the effects of dynamic changes and rapid transitions in sleep stage, such as arousals. The capacity for measuring acute and immediate changes in autonomic, EEG and hemodynamic responses to sleep and arousal on a continuous basis has played an important role in enabling us to understand the interplay between changes in EEG and changes in the more peripheral measurements of neural and circulatory variables, such as sympathetic nerve traffic, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) (8-10), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) (11-16), and intraneural measurement of sympathetic nerve traffic to muscle (MSNA) (17-22) and skin (SSNA) (23-24) have further advanced our understanding of mechanisms linking sleep and cardiovascular physiology.

  4. Discontinuous symplectic capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehmisch, K.; Ziltener, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the spherical capacity is discontinuous on a smooth family of ellipsoidal shells. Moreover, we prove that the shell capacity is discontinuous on a family of open sets with smooth connected boundaries.

  5. Responsibility and Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    That responsible moral agency presupposes certain mental capacities, constitutes a widely accepted view among theorists. Moreover, it is often assumed that degrees in the development of the relevant capacities co-vary with degrees of responsibility. In this article it is argued that, the move from...... the view that responsibility requires certain mental capacities to the position that degrees of responsibility co-vary with degrees of the development of the mental capacities, is premature....

  6. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  7. 我国四大区域城乡统筹发展能力评价和比较分析%An Evaluative and Comparative Analysis of Capacities for Urban and Rural Development among Four Regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周纪昌

    2012-01-01

    根据城乡统筹发展能力的内涵和动力机制构建城乡统筹发展能力评价指标体系.采用2005-2009年的面板数据,运用全局主成分分析法对我国四大区域的城乡统筹发展能力进行动态的综合评价,并从统筹城乡政策与决策支撑能力、经济协调发展能力和社会协调发展能力三个层面来对四大区域的城乡统筹发展能力进行具体的比较,分析四大区域城乡统筹发展能力各方面的差距以及变动趋势。%This paper presents a discussion on the construction of an evaluation index system for assessing urban and rural development capacities based on an investigation into the dimensions and the motivation mechanisms of capacities for balanced development of urban and rural areas. Adopting the panel data of the years 2005-2009 and by way of the global principal component analysis, the paper makes a dynamic and comprehensive evaluation on the capacities for balanced urban and rural development in four regions of China. Specific comparisons between these four regions in terms of their capacities for urban and rural development are also made from such three aspects as the capacity for policy and decision making, the capacity for coordinated economic development, and the capacity for coordinated social development, with a view to gaining a deeper insight into the disparities and trends in the changing capacities for balanced urban and rural development among the four regions.

  8. Prediction of outcome from intensive care: a prospective cohort study comparing Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and III prognostic systems in a United Kingdom intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, D H; Taylor, B L; Millar, B; Smith, G B

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of two prognostic systems to predict hospital mortality in adult intensive care patients. Prospective cohort study. A mixed medical and surgical intensive care unit (ICU) in the United Kingdom. A total of 1,144 patients consecutively admitted to the study. None. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and III prognostic systems were applied to assess probabilities of hospital mortality, which were compared with the actual outcome. The overall goodness-of-fit of both models was assessed. Hospital death rates were higher than those predicted by each system. Risk estimates showed a strong positive correlation between both systems (nonsurvivors r2 = 0.756, p best overall total correct classification rate was 80.6% for APACHE III and 77.9% for APACHE II (both for a decision criterion of 40%). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.806 and 0.847 for APACHE II and III, respectively, confirming the better discrimination of APACHE III. When patients were classified by diagnostic categories, risk predictions did not fit uniformly across the spectrum of disease groups. For both models, mortality ratios were highest for trauma patients and lowest for the group with respiratory disease. APACHE II predictions for patients with gastrointestinal disease were significantly better. Risk estimates for surgical admissions were superior with APACHE II (MR = 1.27) compared with APACHE III (MR = 1.56), but were similar for medical patients (1.22 vs. 1.28 for APACHE II and III, respectively). Bias induced by factors reflecting the clinical practice in an individual ICU (e.g., admission criteria, treatment before admission) may have considerable impact on risk estimates. The identification of such factors appears to be a prerequisite for the meaningful interpretation of observed and predicted death rates on the individual ICU level. Both predictive models demonstrated a similar degree of overall goodness-of-fit. APACHE

  9. Comparative Study of Strawberry(Fragaria ananassa Duchesne) Leaves Photosynthetic Capacity at Different Ages%不同叶龄草莓叶片光合能力比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程建军; 高照全; 吴晓云

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The essay aims to find out the photosynthetic characteristics of Zhangji strawberry leaves at different ages,and provide a theoretical basis for its high yield and good quality cultivation in protective cultivation. [ Method ] The photo synthetic parameters of Zhangji Strawberry in facility environment were determined,and the amount of chlorophyll in the leaves was compared. [ Result] The results showed the photosynthetic rate of strawberry leaves appeared to be a sine wave in one day. At noon,the "nap" of new leaves was more obvious than that of the other leaves. The response trend of photosynthesis of leaves with different folia ages was more or less the same,in other words,the brighter the sunshine was,the bigger the photosynthetic rate was. According to the result,the photosynthetic rate of function leaves in brighter sunshine was obviously bigger than that of new or older leaves. The average photosynthetic rate of function leaves in the daytime was 7.93 μmol/( m2 · s) ,and the new leaves was 5.24 μmol/( m2 · s),while the older leaves was 3.54 μmol/( m2 ·s). The amount of chlorophyll of function leaves was more and consistene with its strong photosynthetic capacity. [Conclusion] The photosynthetic capacity of function leaves is bigger than that of new leaves and older leaves.%[目的]探索不同叶龄“章姬”草莓(Fragaria ananassa Duchesne)叶片的光合特性,为该品种在保护地条件下的高产优质栽培提供理论依据.[方法]对“章姬”草莓在设施条件下的光合参数进行测定,并对其叶绿素含量进行了比较研究.[结果]草莓的光合速率在一天当中大致呈正弦曲线.在晴天中午时新叶的“午休”比中部和内膛叶片明显.不同叶龄叶片对光照的响应趋势基本一致,光照越强,光合速率越大,功能叶片在高光强下的光合速率明显大于新生叶和老叶.白天功能叶片的平均光合速率为7.93 μmol/(m2·s),新叶为5.24 μmol/(m2

  10. Estimation of Aerobic Capacity (VO2-max and Physical Work Capacity in Laborers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedeghe Hosseinabadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Measurement of Maximum aerobic capacity (VO2-max is important in physiologically fitting the laborers to the job. This study was conducted to estimate the aerobic capacity and physical work capacity (PWC of workers of galvanize department of Semnan rolling pipe Company and also determine the relative frequency of workers whom their jobs were proportional to their physical work capacity . Methods: 50 male workers of Semnan rolling pipe company were selected randomly to participate in this cross-sectional study. Tuxworth & shahnavaz methods were applied to measure instances VO2-MAX. Independent-Sample t-test and correlation technique were used to analysis the data by SPSS software. Results: Average maximum aerobic capacity of workers was 2.88± .033 liters per minute and the average of physical work capacity was 4.76 ± 0.54 kilocalories per minute. There was a significant relationship between body mass index and aerobic capacity. The result showed that 36 percent of subjects expend more energy than their physical work capacity to perform their duties during the work time. Conclusion: According to the ILO classification, the average physical work capacity of the workers fall into a category of light energy;accordingly, on average, these workers had physical ability to performe less or lighter duties. More than one-third of these workers need to undergo job modification or to change their present job to a job with less energy consumption.

  11. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need...... special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  12. Evaluation of railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the relatively new UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. The UIC 406 method is an easy and effective way of calculating the capacity consumption, but it is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different...... capacity consumptions. This paper describes the UIC 406 method and how it is expounded in Denmark. The paper describes the importance of choosing the right length of the line sections examined and how line sections with multiple track sections are examined. Furthermore, the possibility of using idle...... capacity to run more trains is examined. The paper presents a method to examine the expected capacity utilization of future timetables. The method is based on the plan of operation instead of the exact (known) timetable. At the end of the paper it is described how it is possible to make capacity statements...

  13. Comparative study on the blood physiological and biochemical indexes of snakehead with nine mating groups%九种交配组合鳢血液生理生化指标的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾运丁; 王超; 周爱国; 邹记兴

    2013-01-01

    对来源于乌鳢(Channa argus)、斑鳢(C.maculate)及杂交鳢作为亲鱼彼此之间的交配繁殖得到的九种组合鳢的血液部分生理生化指标做了比较分析.其中G1-G9分别代表斑鳢(♀)×斑鳢(♂)、斑鳢(♀)×乌鳢(♂)、斑鳢(♀)×杂交鳢(♂)、乌鳢(♀)×斑鳢(♂)、乌鳢(♀)×乌鳢(♂)、乌鳢(♀)×杂交鳢(♂)、杂交鳢(♀)×斑鳢(♂)、杂交鳢(♀)×乌鳢(♂)、杂交鳢(♀)×杂交鳢(♂).结果显示:从血液生理指标来看,红细胞计数(RBC)结果为G2 >G4 >G1 >G5 >G8 >G9 >G7 >G6 >G3,白细胞计数(WBC)结果为G2 >G4 >G5>G6>Gl>G9 >G3 >G7 >G8,血栓细胞计数(PLT)结果为G2 >G1 >G4 >G5 >G8 >G9 >G7 >G6 >G3,血细胞压积(HCT)的结果为G2 >G1 >G4 >G5 >G8 >G9 >G7 >G3 >G6,血红蛋白(HGB)的结果为G2 >G1 >G4 >G5 >G8>G9> G6 >G7 >G3,平均红细胞蛋白含量(MCH)的结果为G4 >G5 >G2 >G1 >G6 >G8 >G9 >G7 >G3,平均红细胞蛋白浓度(MCHC)的结果为G4 >G5> G2 >G1 >G6 >G8 >G3 >G9 >G7,红细胞平均体积(MCV)和红细胞分布宽度(RDW-CV)无显著差异.从血液生化指标来看,总蛋白(TP)的大小为G5 >G4 >G2 >G1 >G6 >G3 >G7>G8>G9,谷草转氨酶(AST)的大小为G2 >G4 >Gl >G5 >G3 >G6 >G7 >G8 >G9,甘油三酯(TG)的大小为G5>G1 >G2 >G4 >G3 >G6 >G7 >G8 >G9,胆固醇(CHOL)和谷丙转氨酶(ALT)无显著差异.综合分析九种交配组合鳢的血液生理及生化指标可以看出,G2(斑鳢(♀)×乌鳢(♂))和G4(乌鳢(♀)×斑鳢(♂))相对于其他的组合有明显的“杂种优势”.%The blood physiological and biochemical indexes of nine groups snakehead which came from mating with each other of Channa argus,C.maculate and hybrid snakehead,were determined and comparative studied.G1-G9 represen-ted C.maculate (♀) × C.maculate (♂),C.maculate (♀) × C.argus (♂),C.maculate (♀) × hybrid

  14. Advances in physiological computing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairclough, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    This edited collection will provide an overview of the field of physiological computing, i.e. the use of physiological signals as input for computer control. It will cover a breadth of current research, from brain-computer interfaces to telemedicine.

  15. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  16. Physiology of sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ron

    2007-07-01

    The elite athlete represents the extreme of the human gene pool, where genetic endowment is developed by an intensive training programme. Sport encompasses many different activities, calling for different physical and mental attributes. Understanding the physiology of exercise provides insights into normal physiological function.

  17. Physiological changes in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    SOMA-PILLAY, Priya; Catherine, Nelson-Piercy; Tolppanen, Heli; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Physiological changes occur in pregnancy to nurture the developing foetus and prepare the mother for labour and delivery. Some of these changes influence normal biochemical values while others may mimic symptoms of medical disease. It is important to differentiate between normal physiological changes and disease pathology. This review highlights the important changes that take place during normal pregnancy.

  18. Capacity sharing of water reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Norman J.; Musgrave, Warren F.

    1988-05-01

    The concept of a water use property right is developed which does not apply to water volumes as such but to a share of the capacity (not contents) of river storage reservoirs and their inflows. The shareholders can withdraw water from their share over time in accordance with their preferences for stability of water deliveries. The reservoir authority does not manage reservoir releases but keeps record of individual shareholder's withdrawals and net inflows to monitor the quantity of water in each shareholder's capacity share. A surplus of total reservoir contents over the sum of the contents of the individual shareholder's capacity shares will accrue over time. Two different criteria for its periodic distribution among shareholders are compared. A previous paper Dudley (this issue(b)) noted a loss of short-run economic efficiency as reservoir and farm management decision making become separated. This is largely overcome by capacity sharing which allows each user to integrate the management of their portion of the reservoir and their farming operations. The nonattenuated nature of the capacity sharing water rights also promotes long-run economic efficiency.

  19. Capacity Building in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...

  20. Physiological vagility: correlations with dispersal and population genetic structure of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Stanley S; Drewes, Robert C; Hedrick, Michael S; Hancock, Thomas V

    2014-01-01

    Physiological vagility represents the capacity to move sustainably and is central to fully explaining the processes involved in creating fine-scale genetic structure of amphibian populations, because movement (vagility) and the duration of movement determine the dispersal distance individuals can move to interbreed. The tendency for amphibians to maintain genetic differentiation over relatively short distances (isolation by distance) has been attributed to their limited dispersal capacity (low vagility) compared with other vertebrates. Earlier studies analyzing genetic isolation and population differentiation with distance treat all amphibians as equally vagile and attempt to explain genetic differentiation only in terms of physical environmental characteristics. We introduce a new quantitative metric for vagility that incorporates aerobic capacity, body size, body temperature, and the cost of transport and is independent of the physical characteristics of the environment. We test our metric for vagility with data for dispersal distance and body mass in amphibians and correlate vagility with data for genetic differentiation (F'(ST)). Both dispersal distance and vagility increase with body size. Differentiation (F'(ST)) of neutral microsatellite markers with distance was inversely and significantly (R2=0.61) related to ln vagility. Genetic differentiation with distance was not significantly related to body mass alone. Generalized observations are validated with several specific amphibian studies. These results suggest that interspecific differences in physiological capacity for movement (vagility) can contribute to genetic differentiation and metapopulation structure in amphibians.

  1. Measures of Financial Capacity: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghesquiere, Angela R; McAfee, Caitlin; Burnett, Jason

    2017-05-23

    Capacity to manage finances and make financial decisions can affect risk for financial exploitation and is often the basis for legal determinations of conservatorship/guardianship. Several structured assessments of financial capacity have been developed, but have not been compared regarding their focus, validity, or reliability. Therefore, we conducted a review of financial capacity measures to examine these factors. We searched electronic databases, reference lists in identified articles, conference proceedings and other grey literature for measures of financial capacity. We then extracted data on the length and domains of each measure, the population for which they were intended, and their validity and reliability. We identified 10 structured measures of financial capacity. Most measures could be completed in 25-30 min, and were designed to be administered to older adults with some level of cognitive impairment. Reliability and validity were high for most. Measurement of financial capacity is complex and multidimensional. When selecting a measure of financial capacity, consideration should be made of the population of focus and the domains of capacity to be assessed. More work is needed on the cultural sensitivity of financial capacity measures, their acceptability, and their use in clinical work. Better understanding of when, and to whom, to administer different financial capacity measures could enhance the ability to accurately detect those suffering from impaired financial capacity, and prevent related negative outcomes like financial exploitation.

  2. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MEN DURING SLEEP DEPRIVATION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of 84 hours of sleep deprivation were examined in a group of six young men and compared with a group of six controls. Subjects were... sleep deprivation , physiological regulating systems are relatively unaffected by sleep loss. (Author)

  3. Comparative efficacy on dogs of a single topical treatment with fipronil/(S-methoprene or weekly physiological hygiene shampoos against Ctenocephalides felis in a simulated flea-infested environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beugnet F.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Flea infestations of pets continue to persist due to the lack of knowledge of flea biology and ecology. It is not unusual that pet owners believe regular hygiene, such as shampooing their dogs can replace regular insecticidal treatment. The objective of this study was to compare in a flea simulated environment, modelling exposure similar to that found in a home, that the use of regular physiological shampoo does not control fleas adequately when compared to a long acting topical formulation. Three groups of six dogs were formed: one untreated control group, one group treated monthly with the topical formulation of fipronil/(S-methoprene, and a third group treated weekly with a hygiene shampoo. All dogs were infested with adult unfed Ctenocephalides felis fleas (200 ± 5 on Days -28 and -21. Each animal’s sleeping box was fitted with a plastic cup mounted to the inside roof of the box. The sleeping bench of each animal was covered with a carpet to accommodate flea development. The dogs were maintained in their kennels throughout the study. In order to maintain the environmental flea challenge, C. felis pupae (100 ± 5 were placed in the plastic cup in each animal’s sleeping box on Days -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. The dogs were combed and fleas counted weekly on Days -1, 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, and 51. The fleas were placed immediately back on the dogs. On Day 60, fleas were counted and removed. Flea infestations in the untreated control group at each count averaged between 46.2 and 74.2 fleas throughout the study. The average number of fleas infesting dogs was significantly different (p < 0.05 between the untreated and the two treatment groups and between the two treatment groups at all counts throughout the two months study (Days 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, 51 and 60. The efficacy was never below 99.1% in the fipronil/(S-methoprene group, and efficacy in the shampoo group was never above 79.2%. Weekly shampooing in treatment

  4. Absorptive capacity and smart companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moro González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current competitive environment is substantially modifying the organizations’ learning processes due to a global increase of available information allowing this to be transformed into knowledge. This opportunity has been exploited since the nineties by the tools of “Business Analytics” and “Business Intelligence” but, nevertheless, being integrated in the study of new organizational capacities engaged in the process of creating intelligence inside organizations is still an outstanding task. The review of the concept of absorptive capacity and a detailed study from the perspective of this new reality will be the main objective of study of this paper.Design/methodology/approach: By comparing classical absorptive capacity and absorptive capacity from the point of view of information management tools in each one of the three stages of the organizational learning cycle, some gaps of the former are overcome/fulfilled. The academic/bibliographical references provided in this paper have been obtained from ISI web of knowledge, Scopus and Dialnet data bases, supporting the state of affairs on absorptive capacity and thereafter filtering by "Business Intelligence" and "Business Analytics". Specialized websites and Business Schools` Publications there have also been included, crowning the content on information management tools used that are currently used in the strategic consulting.Findings: Our contribution to the literature is the development of "smart absorptive capacity". This is a new capacity emerging from the reformulation of the classical concept of absorptive capacity wherein some aspects of its definition that might have been omitted are emphasized. The result of this new approach is the creation of a new Theoretical Model of Organizational Intelligence, which aims to explain, within the framework of the Resources and Capabilities Theory, the competitive advantage achieved by the so-called smart companies

  5. In Vitro Bile Acid Binding Capacities of Red Leaf Lettuce and Cruciferous Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Isabelle F; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2017-09-13

    In the present study, we tested the bile acid binding capacity of red leaf lettuce, red cabbage, red kale, green kale, and Brussels sprouts through in vitro digestion process by simulating mouth, gastric, and intestinal digestion using six bile acids at physiological pH. Green and red kale exhibited significantly higher (86.5 ± 2.9 and 89.7 ± 0.9%, respectively) bile acid binding capacity compared to the other samples. Further, three different compositions of bile acids were tested to understand the effect on different health conditions. To predict the optimal dose for bile acid binding, we established a logistic relationship between kale dose and bile acid binding capacity. The results indicated that kale showed significantly higher bile acid binding capacity (82.5 ± 2.9% equivalent to 72.06 mg) at 1.5 g sample and remained constant up to 2.5 g. In addition, minimally processed (microwaved 3 min or steamed 8 min) green kale showed significantly enhanced bile acid binding capacity (91.1 ± 0.3 and 90.2 ± 0.7%, respectively) compared to lyophilized kale (85.5 ± 0.24%). Among the six bile acids tested, kale preferentially bound hydrophobic bile acids chenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid. Therefore, regular consumption of kale, especially minimally processed kale, can help excrete more bile acids and, thus, may lower the risk of hypercholesterolemia.

  6. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  7. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...

  8. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Growth in rail traffic has not been matched by increases in railway infrastructure. Given this capacity challenge and the current restrictions on public spending, the allocation and the utilization of existing railway capacity are more important than ever. Great Britain has had the greatest growth...... in rail passenger kilometers of European countries since 1996. However, costs are higher and efficiency is lower than European best practice. This paper provides an innovative methodology for assessing the efficiency of passenger operators in capacity utilization. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used...... to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...

  9. Fetal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychik, J

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of the fetus is physiologically different than the adult, mature system. Unique characteristics of the myocardium and specific channels of blood flow differentitate the physiology of the fetus from the newborn. Conditions of increased preload and afterload in the fetus, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, result in unique and complex pathophysiological states. Echocardiography has improved our understanding of human fetal cadiovasvular physiology in the normal and diseased states, and has expanded our capability to more effectively treat these disease processes.

  10. Bivalve carrying capacity in coastal ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dame, R.F.; Prins, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    carrying capacity of suspension feeding bivalves in 11 coastal and estuarine ecosystems is examined. Bivalve carrying capacity is defined in terms of water mass residence time, primary production time and bivalve clearance time. Turnover times for the 11 ecosystems are compared both two and three di

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Pedagogies of Animal Physiology in Agricultural Colleges and Universities%高等农业院校动物生理学不同教学法比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾新红; 胡建民; 杨建成; 刘梅; 林树梅; 冯颖

    2012-01-01

    Pedagogical reform is both an eternal teaching and research task and the key to improving the quality of education and teaching.Animal Physiology taught in agricultural colleges and universities is typically strong for theory,concept and abstract content.In order to achieve the goals of spending fewer teaching hours,teaching newer contents,reaching a higher level and producing better effects,teachers should choose appropriate teaching methods according to different contents.Whether the chosen pedagogy is proper or not will produce direct effects on the teaching quality and the teaching purpose.An analysis of the three main teaching methods(linguistic form,direct form and training form) on Animal Physiology in agricultural colleges and universities is made.And the application of Animal Physiology to the introduction and discussion of different teaching methods provides a new thinking of reform for the optimization of the teaching mode of Animal Physiology and the improvement of the teaching quality of Animal Physiology.%教学法的改革是教学研究永恒的课题,是提高教育教学质量的关键。高等农业院校动物生理学具有理论性强、概念多和内容抽象等特点。为达到课时要少、内容要新、水平要高、效果要好的目的,教师必须针对不同内容选用适当的教学法。教学法得当与否将直接影响教学质量和教学目的的实现。通过对高等农业院校动物生理学语言形式、直接形式和实训方式等三类主要教学法进行分析,运用动物生理学介绍与探讨不同教学法,为优化动物生理学教学模式和提高动物生理学教学质量提供一种改革的新思路。

  12. Human exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    that relates to the occurrence of hypoxia/anoxia in the natural life of the animal. The hypoxic/anoxic performance of the heart muscle correlates positively with the glycolytic capacity relative to the aerobic capacity, and this performance also tends to be high in hearts having a low aerobic or maximal...

  13. Age-Related Patterns of Physical and Physiological Characteristics in Adolescent Wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Demirkan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the physical and physiological differences as dependent on age of young wrestlers. One hundred and twenty-six 15 – 17 year old wrestlers volunteered as subjects in the present study. The physical and physiological profiles included body weight, height, body mass index, flexibility, anaerobic power, aerobic endurance, strength, speed, and body composition. The statistically significant (p<0.05 results are as follows: Age group 17 (AG 17 had significantly higher leg and arm anaerobic power and capacity (leg power: 952±216 Watt (W; arm power: 684±194 W and leg capacity: 489±101 W; arm capacity: 354±88 respectively as compared to the AG15 with (leg power: 718±279 Watt (W; arm power: 458±149 W and leg capacity: 376±132 W; arm capacity: 247±86 W respectively. AG17 wrestlers were significantly faster than AG 15 (4.29±.25 second - 4.53±.30 second respectively. AG 15 wrestlers had significantly lower right and left hand grip strength (right: 36.4±10.7 kg, left: 34.9±10 kg than AG 16 (right: 43.9±8.4kg, left: 42.5±7.8 kg and AG17 wrestlers (right: 46.6±8.7kg, left: 46.4±8.3 kg. In conclusion The results of this study suggest that height, body weight, fat free mass, arms – legs anaerobic power and capacity, speeds and hand grip strengths were increased both in one age range and in two ages range together with age progression, but it was clearly seen statistical differences in two ages range.

  14. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  15. Comparation on Wind Power Collection Capacity of Meshed and Radial Grids%格式网与链状网汇集风电功率能力的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘连光; 韩龙艳; 蒋智化; 刘自发

    2014-01-01

    集中式风电场的风机台数多,风电功率大,为了提高风电场集电网的可靠性,提出采用10 kV或35 kV格式网建设风电场的集电网。建立格式网模式风电场集电网的拓扑结构、停运率评估模型,提出格式网和链状集电网的停运率指标,利用MATLAB/Simulink搭建格式网和链状集电网的停运率仿真模型,比较2种集电网电缆故障切除前后汇集母线的电压电流水平以及2种电网汇集风电功率的能力,对比实例中格式网和链状集电网的电缆投资和电量收益。结果表明:链状网等效电量不足期望值是格式网等效电量不足期望值的4.6倍,格式网集电网比链状集电网的总体收益高61.2万元,格式网汇集的风电功率大,有利于风电功率的送出,投资前景良好。%For great number of wind turbines and large wind power of centralized wind farms,10 kV or 35 kV meshed grids were proposed to build power collection grids of wind farms,in order to improve the reliability of power collection grids.The topology of meshed power collection grid and its outage rate evaluation model were established,and the outage rate evaluation index of both meshed and radial power collection grids were calculated.The outage simulation models of the two power collection grids were built on MATLAB /Simulink software platform,and the current level and voltage level of collecting bus before and after the fault being cut off in the two grids were analyzed,and the power collection capacity of meshed power collection grid for wind farm was studied,and the cable investment and power income of the two grids were compared.The results show that the equivalent expected energy not supplied(EENS)of radial power collection grid is 4.6 times as much as that of meshed power collection grid,and the total income of meshed power collection grid is 0.612 million RMB more than that of radial power collection grid,and meshed power collection grid is

  16. Physiological mechanisms of prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G

    2017-08-12

    Psychophysiological perspectives can provide unique insights into the nature and motivations of children's prosociality and inform our understanding of individual differences. Here, I review current research on prosociality involving some of the most common physiological measures in developmental psychology, including cortisol, various sympathetic nervous system measures, and high-frequency heart rate variability. The literature has been quite mixed, in part because the link between physiology and prosociality is context-dependent and person-dependent. However, recent advances are refining our understanding of the basic physiological mechanisms of prosociality. Resting physiology that contributes to a balance of regulation and vigilance prepares children to effectively cope with future social challenges, like noticing and attending to the needs of others. Experiencing some arousal is an important aspect of empathy-related responding, but physiological patterns of both heightened and hypoarousal can undermine prosociality. Physiological flexibility in response to others' needs may support emotional and behavioral flexibility important for prosociality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  18. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from......Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...

  19. Ethephon induced abscission in mango: physiological fruitlet responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Helmut Hagemann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruitlet abscission of mango is typically very severe, causing considerable production losses worldwide. Consequently, a detailed physiological and molecular characterization of fruitlet abscission in mango is required to describe the onset and time-dependent course of this process. To identify the underlying key mechanisms of abscission, ethephon, an ethylene releasing substance, was applied at two concentrations (600 ppm, 7200 ppm during the midseason drop stage of mango. The abscission process is triggered by ethylene diffusing to the abscission zone where it binds to specific receptors and thereby activating several key physiological responses at the cellular level. The treatments reduced significantly the capacity of polar auxin transport through the pedicel at one day after treatment and thereafter when compared to untreated pedicels. The transcript levels of the ethylene receptor genes MiETR1 and MiERS1 were significantly upregulated in the pedicel and pericarp at one, two and three days after the ethephon application with 7200 ppm, except for MiETR1 in the pedicel, when compared to untreated fruitlet. In contrast, ethephon applications with 600 ppm did not affect expression levels of MiETR1 in the pedicel and of MiERS1 in the pericarp; however, MiETR1 in the pericarp at day two and MiERS1 in the pedicel at days two and three were significantly upregulated over the controls. Moreover, two novel short versions of the MiERS1 were identified and detected more often in the pedicel of treated than untreated fruitlets at all sampling times. Sucrose concentration in the fruitlet pericarp was significantly reduced to the control at two days after both ethephon treatments. In conclusion, it is postulated that the ethephon-induced abscission process commences with a reduction of the polar auxin transport capacity in the pedicel, followed by an upregulation of ethylene receptors and finally a decrease of the sucrose concentration in the fruitlets.

  20. Successful Implementation of Inquiry-Based Physiology Laboratories in Undergraduate Major and Nonmajor Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casotti, G.; Rieser-Danner, L.; Knabb, M. T.

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that inquiry-based physiology laboratories improve students' critical- and analytical-thinking skills. We implemented inquiry-based learning into three physiology courses: Comparative Vertebrate Physiology (majors), Human Physiology (majors), and Human Anatomy and Physiology (nonmajors). The aims of our curricular…

  1. Successful Implementation of Inquiry-Based Physiology Laboratories in Undergraduate Major and Nonmajor Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casotti, G.; Rieser-Danner, L.; Knabb, M. T.

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that inquiry-based physiology laboratories improve students' critical- and analytical-thinking skills. We implemented inquiry-based learning into three physiology courses: Comparative Vertebrate Physiology (majors), Human Physiology (majors), and Human Anatomy and Physiology (nonmajors). The aims of our curricular…

  2. Neuropeptide physiology in helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, Angela; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic worms come from two distinct, distant phyla, Nematoda (roundworms) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms). The nervous systems of worms from both phyla are replete with neuropeptides and there is ample physiological evidence that these neuropeptides control vital aspects of worm biology. In each phyla, the physiological evidence for critical roles for helminth neuropeptides is derived from both parasitic and free-living members. In the nematodes, the intestinal parasite Ascaris suum and the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans have yielded most of the data; in the platyhelminths, the most physiological data has come from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) have many varied effects (excitation, relaxation, or a combination) on somatic musculature, reproductive musculature, the pharynx and motor neurons in nematodes. Insulin-like peptides (INSs) play an essential role in nematode dauer formation and other developmental processes. There is also some evidence for a role in somatic muscle control for the somewhat heterogeneous grouping ofpeptides known as neuropeptide-like proteins (NLPs). In platyhelminths, as in nematodes, FLPs have a central role in somatic muscle function. Reports of FLP physiological action in platyhelminths are limited to a potent excitation of the somatic musculature. Platyhelminths are also abundantly endowed with neuropeptide Fs (NPFs), which appear absent from nematodes. There is not yet any data linking platyhelminth NPF to any particular physiological outcome, but this neuropeptide does potently and specifically inhibit cAMP accumulation in schistosomes. In nematodes and platyhelminths, there is an abundance of physiological evidence demonstrating that neuropeptides play critical roles in the biology of both free-living and parasitic helminths. While it is certainly true that there remains a great deal to learn about the biology of neuropeptides in both phyla, physiological evidence presently available points

  3. CO diffusion capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, U.

    1979-01-01

    We measured in 287 persons the pulmonary CO diffusion capacity with the steady-state and the single breath methods, applying apnoeic periods of 4 and 10 seconds duration. The aspects methodical significance, polyclinical applicability and pathognostic relevance with respect to other approved pulmonary functional tests are discussed. Differing pulmonary diffusion capacity values found in normal persons or in patients suffering from silicosis, pulmonary fibrosis, Boeck's disease or rheumatoid arthritis, were investigated and critically evaluated.

  4. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  5. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  6. Repeated Sprint Ability in Young Basketball Players (Part 2): The Chronic Effects of Multidirection and of One Change of Direction Are Comparable in Terms of Physiological and Performance Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attene, Giuseppe; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Bragazzi, Nicola L; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Pizzolato, Fabio; Zagatto, Alessandro M; Dal Pupo, Juliano; Oggianu, Marcello; Migliaccio, Gian M; Mannucci Pacini, Elena; Padulo, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 5-week training program, consisting of repeated 30-m sprints, on two repeated sprint ability (RSA) test formats: one with one change of direction (RSA) and the other with multiple changes of direction (RSM). Thirty-six young male and female basketball players (age 16.1 ± 0.9 years), divided into two experimental groups, were tested for RSA, RSM, squat jump, counter-movement jump, and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery-Level-1 (Yo-Yo IR1) test, before and after a 4-week training program and 1 week of tapering. One group performed 30-m sprints with one change of direction (RSA group, RSAG), whereas the other group performed multidirectional 30-m sprints (RSM group, RSMG). Both groups improved in all scores in the post-intervention measurements (P repeated 30-m sprints, either with one change of direction or multidirectional, induce similar physiological and performance responses in young basketball players, but have a different psycho-physiological impact.

  7. Physiological adaptations to interval training and the role of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnis, Martin J; Gibala, Martin J

    2017-05-01

    Interval exercise typically involves repeated bouts of relatively intense exercise interspersed by short periods of recovery. A common classification scheme subdivides this method into high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 'near maximal' efforts) and sprint interval training (SIT; 'supramaximal' efforts). Both forms of interval training induce the classic physiological adaptations characteristic of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) such as increased aerobic capacity (V̇O2 max ) and mitochondrial content. This brief review considers the role of exercise intensity in mediating physiological adaptations to training, with a focus on the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism. With respect to skeletal muscle adaptations, cellular stress and the resultant metabolic signals for mitochondrial biogenesis depend largely on exercise intensity, with limited work suggesting that increases in mitochondrial content are superior after HIIT compared to MICT, at least when matched-work comparisons are made within the same individual. It is well established that SIT increases mitochondrial content to a similar extent to MICT despite a reduced exercise volume. At the whole-body level, V̇O2 max is generally increased more by HIIT than MICT for a given training volume, whereas SIT and MICT similarly improve V̇O2 max despite differences in training volume. There is less evidence available regarding the role of exercise intensity in mediating changes in skeletal muscle capillary density, maximum stroke volume and cardiac output, and blood volume. Furthermore, the interactions between intensity and duration and frequency have not been thoroughly explored. While interval training is clearly a potent stimulus for physiological remodelling in humans, the integrative response to this type of exercise warrants further attention, especially in comparison to traditional endurance training. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  8. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  9. Physiological plasticity increases resilience of ectothermic animals to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebacher, Frank; White, Craig R.; Franklin, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how climate change affects natural populations remains one of the greatest challenges for ecology and management of natural resources. Animals can remodel their physiology to compensate for the effects of temperature variation, and this physiological plasticity, or acclimation, can confer resilience to climate change. The current lack of a comprehensive analysis of the capacity for physiological plasticity across taxonomic groups and geographic regions, however, constrains predictions of the impacts of climate change. Here, we assembled the largest database to date to establish the current state of knowledge of physiological plasticity in ectothermic animals. We show that acclimation decreases the sensitivity to temperature and climate change of freshwater and marine animals, but less so in terrestrial animals. Animals from more stable environments have greater capacity for acclimation, and there is a significant trend showing that the capacity for thermal acclimation increases with decreasing latitude. Despite the capacity for acclimation, climate change over the past 20 years has already resulted in increased physiological rates of up to 20%, and we predict further future increases under climate change. The generality of these predictions is limited, however, because much of the world is drastically undersampled in the literature, and these undersampled regions are the areas of greatest need for future research efforts.

  10. Human physiology in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  11. Circadian physiology of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-11-25

    A majority of mammalian genes exhibit daily fluctuations in expression levels, making circadian expression rhythms the largest known regulatory network in normal physiology. Cell-autonomous circadian clocks interact with daily light-dark and feeding-fasting cycles to generate approximately 24-hour oscillations in the function of thousands of genes. Circadian expression of secreted molecules and signaling components transmits timing information between cells and tissues. Such intra- and intercellular daily rhythms optimize physiology both by managing energy use and by temporally segregating incompatible processes. Experimental animal models and epidemiological data indicate that chronic circadian rhythm disruption increases the risk of metabolic diseases. Conversely, time-restricted feeding, which imposes daily cycles of feeding and fasting without caloric reduction, sustains robust diurnal rhythms and can alleviate metabolic diseases. These findings highlight an integrative role of circadian rhythms in physiology and offer a new perspective for treating chronic diseases in which metabolic disruption is a hallmark.

  12. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from......Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive......, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant...

  13. The biological aspects of physiological anthropology with reference to its five keywords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Koichi

    2005-05-01

    The methodology of physiological anthropology has been defined in the capacity of an independent academic field by five keywords: environmental adaptability, technological adaptability, physiological polymorphism, whole-body coordination and functional potentiality, clearly suggesting the direction of approach to human beings in the field of physiological anthropology. Recently, these keywords have attracted a great deal of attention from physiological anthropologists in Japan. Physiological anthropology is based on a biological framework. From the viewpoint of biology, it is essential to discuss the biological function of human behavior. In this brief conceptual manuscript, the biological aspects of physiological anthropology are discussed in relation to the five keywords.

  14. Reappraising suppression: subjective and physiological correlates of experiential suppression in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eLemaire

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion regulation strategies based on suppressing behavioural expressions of emotion have been considered maladaptive. However this may not apply to suppressing the emotional experience (experiential suppression. The aim of this study was to define the effect of experiential suppression on subjective and physiological emotional responses. Methods: Healthy adults (N=101 were characterized in terms of the temperament, personality, and hedonic capacity using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Fawcett-Clark Pleasure Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Participants were shown positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System under two conditions, passive viewing and experiential suppression. During both conditions, subjective ratings of the intensity and duration of emotional responses and physiological measures of skin conductance (SC and cardiac inter-beat interval (IBI to each picture were recorded.Results: Negative pictures elicited the most intense physiological and emotional responses regardless of experimental condition. Ratings of emotional intensity were not affected by condition. In contrast, experiential suppression, compared to passive viewing, was associated with decreased duration of the emotional response, reduced maximum SC amplitude and longer IBIs independent of age, picture valence, personality traits, hedonic capacity and anxiety. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that experiential suppression may represent an adaptive emotion regulation mechanism associated with reduced arousal and cardiovascular activation.

  15. Activated sludge inhibition capacity index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Surerus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic compounds in sewage or industrial wastewater may inhibit the biological activity of activated sludge impairing the treatment process. This paper evaluates the Inhibition Capacity Index (ICI for the assessment of activated sludge in the presence of toxicants. In this study, activated sludge was obtained from industrial treatment plants and was also synthetically produced. Continuous respirometric measurements were carried out in a reactor, and the oxygen uptake rate profile obtained was used to evaluate the impact of inhibiting toxicants, such as dissolved copper, phenol, sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate and amoxicillin, on activated sludge. The results indicate that ICI is an efficient tool to quantify the intoxication capacity. The activated sludge from the pharmaceutical industry showed higher resistance than the sludge from other sources, since toxicants are widely discharged in the biological treatment system. The ICI range was from 58 to 81% when compared to the synthetic effluent with no toxic substances.

  16. 中国寿险业综合融资能力的动态比较及特征分析%Comparative Study and Character Analysis of the Financing Capacity for China Life Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初立苹; 粟芳

    2013-01-01

    寿险业近年的融资量不断增加,但偿付能力却未根本改变。本文利用熵值法和动态评价法,计算了各寿险公司2007-2010年的综合融资能力,分析了综合融资能力的差异以及在内部融资、债务融资和股权融资的表现差异和融资特征。结果表明,大型公司的综合融资能力具有明显优势;内部融资能力对寿险公司的影响一直较弱;股权融资的影响力度略大于债务融资,中国寿险业具有明显的股权融资偏好。进一步分析显示,大公司具有较强的内部融资能力,但在债务融资和股权融资方面没有明显优势,同时,外资寿险公司的综合融资能力普遍不高,在各融资渠道方面都有待改善。%Life insurance companies need more capitals because of the premium increases in these years .But the solven-cy hasn't changed at all , so it is urgent for companies to find a way to increase the comprehensive financing capability .Using entropy method and dynamic evaluation , the comprehensive financing capacity of Chinese life insurance market was analyzed from 2007 to 2010.The results showed that big companies have obvious advantages in comprehensive financing capacity .Ac-cording to the weight of financing channel , internal financing was the smallest one;equity financing was more important than that of debt financing , which showed that life insurance companies in China also prefer to publish stocks .Each company per-formed differently in each financing channel .Those big companies performed very well in the internal financing because of the higher profit ratio .But they didn't have obvious advantages in debt and equity financing .The financing capacity of foreign life insurance companies should be improved in the future as they performed not very well either in the comprehensive financing ca -pability or each channel .The paper finally indicates that insurance companies should improve the profit if they want to

  17. Aging, Functional Capacity and Eccentric Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, Mandy L.; Willems, Mark E.T.

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a multi-factorial process that ultimately induces a decline in our physiological functioning, causing a decreased health-span, quality of life and independence for older adults. Exercise participation is seen as a way to reduce the impact of aging through maintenance of physiological parameters. Eccentric exercise is a model that can be employed with older adults, due to the muscle’s ability to combine high muscle force production with a low energy cost. There may however be a risk of muscle damage before the muscle is able to adapt. The first part of this review describes the process of aging and how it reduces aerobic capacity, muscle strength and therefore functional mobility. The second part highlights eccentric exercise and the associated muscle damage, in addition to the repeated bout effect. The final section reviews eccentric exercise interventions that have been completed by older adults with a focus on the changes in functional mobility. In conclusion, eccentric endurance exercise is a potential training modality that can be applied to older adults for improving muscle strength, aerobic capacity and functional ability. However, further research is needed to assess the effects on aerobic capacity and the ideal prescription for eccentric endurance exercise. PMID:24307968

  18. Relationships between D1 protein, xanthophyll cycle and photodamage-resistant capacity in rice (Orysa sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Relationships between D1 protein, xanthophyll cycle and subspecific difference of photodamage-resistant capacity have been studied in O. japonica rice varieties 02428 and 029 (photoinhibition-tolerance) and O. indica rice varieties 3037 and Palghar (photoinhibition-sensitivity) and their reciprocal cross F1 hybrids after photoinhibitory treatment. It was shown that PSⅡ photochemical efficiency (Fv /Fm) decreased, and xanthophyll cycle from violaxanthin (V), via anaxanthin (A), to zeaxanthin (Z) was enhanced and non-photochemical quenching (qN) increased accordingly in SM-pretreated leaves of rice when the synthesis of D1 protein was inhibited, and that there was a decrease in qN and, as a result, more loss of D1 protein and a big decrease in Fv /Fm in DTT-pretreated leaves when xanthophyll cycle was inhibited. O. japonica subspecies had a higher maintaining capacity of D1 protein and a decrease of Fv /Fm in a more narrow range, and exhibited more resistance against photodamage, as compared with O. indica subspecies. The above physiological indexes in reciprocal cross F1 hybrids, though between the values of their parents, were closer to maternal lines than to paternal lines. Experimental results support the concept that the turnover capacity for D1 protein is an important physiological basis of photoinhibition-tolerance, and will provide the physiological basis for selection of the photoinhibition-tolerant parents and develop a new approach to breed hybrids with high photosynthetic efficiency.

  19. Physiological responses of genotypes soybean to simulated drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonóra Krivosudská

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate possible genetic variation in the sensitivity of soybean cultivars for nitrogen fixation rates in response to soil drying. The work confirmed that the selected physiological characteristics (RWC, osmotic potential, stress index and created nodules on roots are good evaluating parameters for the determination of water stress in plant. In the floricultural year 2014 an experiment with four genetic resources of soybean was launched. Sowing of Maverick (USA, Drina (HRV, Nigra (SVK and Polanka (CZK genotypes was carried out in the containers of 15 l capacity. This stress had a negative impact on the physiological parameters. By comparing the RWC values, the decrease was more significant at the end of dehydration, which was monitored in Maverick and Drina genotypes using the Nitrazon inoculants and water stress effect. Inoculated stressed Nigra and Polanka genotypes have kept higher water content till the end of dehydration period. Also the proline accumulation was monitored during the water stress, whilst higher content of free proline reached of Maverick. More remarkable decrease of osmotic potential was again registered in a foreign Drina and Maverick genotypes in the inoculated variations. Nigra and Polanka genotypes responses not so significant in the given conditions.

  20. Ex vivo measures of muscle mitochondrial capacity reveal quantitative limits of oxygen delivery by the circulation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert; Saltin, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    of the body mass will be discussed in relation to mitochondrial capacity measured ex vivo. These analyses reveal that as the mass of muscle engaged in exercise increases from one-leg knee extension, to 2-arm cranking, to 2-leg cycling and x-country skiing, the magnitude of blood flow and oxygen delivery...... decrease. Accordingly, a 2-fold higher oxygen delivery and oxygen uptake per unit muscle mass are seen in vivo during 1-leg exercise compared to 2-leg cycling indicating a significant limitation of the circulation during exercise with a large muscle mass. This analysis also reveals that mitochondrial......Muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity measured ex vivo provides a physiological reference to assess cellular oxidative capacity as a component in the oxygen cascade in vivo. In this article, the magnitude of muscle blood flow and oxygen uptake during exercise involving a small-to-large fraction...

  1. Physiological characteristics of elite sport parachutists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitrick, R W; Holmes, D L; Murphy, M

    1985-04-01

    The physiological characteristics of 10 male elite sport parachutists (31.6 +/- 3.69 years of age) were determined and compared to 10 male non-sport parachutist controls (30.2 +/- 4.31 years) and other selected elite athletes. The typical sport parachutist was a highly educated (16.4 +/- 2.41 years), first born (9 out of 10), and, more often than not, single individual. During their mean 10.8 years of sport parachuting, these individuals made an average total number of 1,950 jumps (range 980 to 3,100) with a mean of 237.5 jumps during each of the last three years. Mean total free fall time was 22 h and 40 min. Compared to the non-sport parachutist control group, the elite sport parachutists were significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in aerobic power (47.4 +/- 9.04 vs. 37.2 +/- 4.67 ml X kg-1 X min-1), vital capacity (5.27 +/- 0.49 vs. 5.05 +/- 0.31 L), maximum heart rate (203.2 +/- 9.2 vs. 190.1 +/- 7.4 bpm), and back hyperextension flexibility (21.12 +/- 4.1 vs. 18.41 +/- 2.4 in). The elite sport parachutist were also significantly lower (p less than 0.05) in relative (%) body fat when compared to the control group (15.7 +/- 4.51 vs. 20.1 +/- 2.12%). The two groups were not significantly different (p greater than 0.05) with respect to resting heart rate, absolute body weight, dominant hand-grip strength, or lower back/hamstring flexibility as measured by the sit-and-reach test. Regarding somatotype, the elite sport parachutist can be classified as a balanced mesomorph. Compared to other selected elite athletes, the sport parachutists were lower in aerobic power and higher in relative body fat, yet with a summation of triceps, suprailiac, and abdominal skinfolds in the acceptable range for male athletes. The elite sport parachutists were approximately mid-range in absolute body weight and lower back/hamstring flexibility when compared to other selected elite athletes. Based on the findings of this study, there is evidence to suggest that some form of regular

  2. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  3. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  4. Capacity Maximizing Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  5. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore......, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces speed and capacity by around 5-8%, whereas snow primarily reduces capacity. Other weather variables......-parametrically against traffic density and in step 2 the residuals from step 1 are regressed linearly against the weather variables. The choice of a non-parametric method is made to avoid constricting ties from a parametric specification and because the focus here is not on the relationship between traffic flow...

  6. Evaluation of Physiological Control Systems for Rotary Left Ventricular Assist Devices: An In-Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Jo P; Stevens, Michael C; Bartnikowski, Nicole; Fraser, John F; Gregory, Shaun D; Tansley, Geoff

    2016-08-01

    Rotary left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) show weaker response to preload and greater response to afterload than the native heart. This may lead to ventricular suction or pulmonary congestion, which can be deleterious to the patient's recovery. A physiological control system which optimizes responsiveness of LVADs may reduce adverse events. This study compared eight physiological control systems for LVAD support against constant speed mode. Pulmonary (PVR) and systemic (SVR) vascular resistance changes, a passive postural change and exercise were simulated in a mock circulation loop to evaluate the controller's ability to prevent suction and congestion and to increase exercise capacity. Three active and one passive control systems prevented ventricular suction at high PVR (500 dyne s cm(-5)) and low SVR (600 dyne s cm(-5)) by decreasing LVAD speed (by 200-515 rpm) and by increasing LVAD inflow cannula resistance (up to 1000 dyne s cm(-5)) respectively. These controllers increased LVAD preload sensitivity (to 0.196-2.415 L min(-1) mmHg(-1)) compared to the other control systems and constant speed mode (0.039-0.069 L min(-1) mmHg(-1)). The same three active controllers increased pump speed (600-800 rpm) and thus LVAD flow by 4.5 L min(-1) during exercise which increased exercise capacity. Physiological control systems that prevent adverse events and/or increase exercise capacity may help improve LVAD patient conditions.

  7. COMPARISON OF SELECTED PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIABLES OF PLAYERS BELONGING TO VARIOUS DISTANCE RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satpal Yadav

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the selected physiological variables namely; maximum oxygen consumption, vital capacity, resting heart rate and hemoglobin content among various distance runners. Thesubjects were selected from the male athlete’s of Gwalior district of various distance runners i.e. short, middle and long distance runners for this study. Ten (10 male athletes from each groups namely short, middle and long distance groups were selected as the subject for the study. Selected physiological variables such as maximum oxygen consumption, vital capacity, resting heart rate and hemoglobin content were presented to compare the players belonging to various distance runners namely short, middle and long distance. To see the significant difference of selected physiological variables among the players belonging to various distance runners the analysis of variance “F-ratio” was applied at.05 level of significance. For further analysis “Post-Hoc Test” (LSD Test was applied. The short distance runners had shown significantly different level of VO2 max (72.727 in comparison to middle distance (75.854 and long distance (77.094 runners. However, the middle and long distance runners had shown more or less same level of VO2. Further long distance runners had shown better efficiency of heart as its mean value (56.3 was lowest among all the three groups in relation to resting heartrate. On the other hand long, middle and short distance runners had shown more or less same vital capacity and hemoglobin content with a small range of variation.

  8. Enriching Absorptive Capacity Through Social Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotho, Jasper Jaap; Becker-Ritterspach, Florian; Saka-Helmhout, Ayse

    Absorptive capacity is frequently highlighted as a key determinant of knowledge transfer within MNEs. But how individual behaviour translates to absorptive capacity at the subsidiary level, and exactly how this is contingent on subsidiaries’ social context, remains under-addressed. This not only...... their organization’s capacity to put new knowledge to use. To address this shortcoming we conduct an in-depth comparative case study of a headquarters-initiated knowledge transfer initiative at two subsidiaries of the same MNE. The findings demonstrate that social interaction is a key requirement for subsidiary....... These insights contribute to the absorptive capacity literature by demonstrating the scale and scope of social interaction as the key link between individual- and organizational-level absorptive capacity....

  9. Enriching Absorptive Capacity through Social Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Saka-Helmhout, Ayse; Becker-Ritterspach, Florian

    2012-01-01

    their organization's capacity to put new knowledge to use. To address this shortcoming we conduct an in-depth comparative case study of a headquarters-initiated knowledge transfer at two subsidiaries of the same multinational enterprise. The findings demonstrate that social interaction is a prerequisite...... for subsidiary absorptive capacity as it enables employees to participate in the transformation of new knowledge to the local context and the development of local applications. The findings also illustrate how organizational conditions at the subsidiary level can impact subsidiary absorptive capacity by enabling......Absorptive capacity is frequently highlighted as a key determinant of knowledge transfer within multinational enterprises. But how individual behaviour translates into absorptive capacity at the subsidiary level, and how this is contingent on subsidiaries' social context, remains under...

  10. The Face of Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between the physiology of the emotions and the display of character in Victorian Britain. Charles Bell and others had begun to link certain physiological functions, such as respiration, with the expression of feelings such as fear, regarding the heart and other internal organs as instruments by which the emotions were made visible. But a purely functional account of the emotions, which emerged through the development of reflex physiology during the second half of the century, would dramatically alter the nature of feelings and the means of observing them. At the same time, instinctual or acquired sympathy, which had long underpinned the accurate reading of expressions, became a problem to be surmounted by new 'objectively'. Graphic recording instruments measuring a variety of physiological functions and used with increasing frequency in clinical diagnostics became of fundamental importance for tracing the movement of feelings during the period prior to the development of cinematography. They remained, in the form of devices such as the polygraph, a crucial and controversial means of measuring affective states, beneath the potentially deceptive surface of the body.

  11. Starting Physiology: Bioelectrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-01-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The…

  12. Physiology of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, David W; Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF Far from a simple absence of wakefulness, sleep is an active, regulated, and metabolically distinct state, essential for health and well-being. In this article, the authors review the fundamental anatomy and physiology of sleep and its regulation, with an eye toward interactions between sleep and metabolism.

  13. Differences in energy capacities between tennis players and runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Dario; Vucetić, Vlatko; Zugaj, Sanja

    2013-05-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine differences between elite athletes and tennis players in order to provide a clearer picture regarding the energy demands in modern tennis. Forty-eight (48) athletes and 24 tennis players from Croatian national leagues were compared in morphological and physiological parameters of an all-out incremental treadmill test with gas exchange measurements. Tennis players' HRmax (192.96+/-7.75 bpm) shows values that are most different to 400-meters sprinters (200.13+/-6.95 bpm). Maximum running speed of tennis players on the treadmill (vmax) is no different with the speed achieved by sprinters, while there are significant differences among other athletes. Values in running speed at anaerobic threshold (vAnT) show no statistically significant difference with the values for athlete sprinters and 400-m sprinters. Values of RvO2max for tennis players indicate significant similarities with athlete sprinters and 400-m sprinters while the values of RvO2AnT are nearly identical with the values for sprinters and show no statistically significant differences (ptennis players approximate most different those of the middle and long distance runners. This singles out the possible importance of the anaerobic capacity and the high level of sprint endurance in tennis players. Knowing these characteristics is the basis for planning and implementing training systems that will enable the increase and optimal usage of energy capacities of tennis players in possibly improving sports results.

  14. Status of physiology education in US Doctor of Pharmacy programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A; Khan, Seher A; Talukder, Rahmat M

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the current status of physiology education in US Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) programs. A survey instrument was developed and distributed through SurveyMonkey to American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Biological Sciences section members of 132 PharmD programs. Survey items focused on soliciting qualitative and quantitative information on the delivery of physiology curricular contents and faculty perceptions of physiology education. A total of 114 programs responded to the survey, resulting in a response rate of 86%. Out of 114 schools/colleges, 61 programs (54%) offered standalone physiology courses, and 53 programs (46%) offered physiology integrated with other courses. When integrated, the average contact hours for physiology contents were significantly reduced compared with standalone courses (30 vs. 84 h, P physiology contents. Eighty percent of the responding faculty (n = 204) agree/strongly agree that physiology is underemphasized in PharmD curriculum. Moreover, 67% of the respondents agree/strongly agree that physiology should be taught as a standalone foundational course. A wide variation in the depth and breadth of physiology course offerings in US PharmD programs remains. The reduction of physiology contents is evident when physiology is taught as a component of integrated courses. Given current trends that favor integrated curricula, these data suggest that additional collaboration among basic and clinical science faculty is required to ensure that physiology contents are balanced and not underemphasized in a PharmD curriculum.

  15. Human Physiology in an Aquatic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, David R; Moon, Richard E; Krasney, John J; Held, Heather E; Zamparo, Paola

    2015-09-20

    Water covers over 70% of the earth, has varying depths and temperatures and contains much of the earth's resources. Head-out water immersion (HOWI) or submersion at various depths (diving) in water of thermoneutral (TN) temperature elicits profound cardiorespiratory, endocrine, and renal responses. The translocation of blood into the thorax and elevation of plasma volume by autotransfusion of fluid from cells to the vascular compartment lead to increased cardiac stroke volume and output and there is a hyperperfusion of some tissues. Pulmonary artery and capillary hydrostatic pressures increase causing a decline in vital capacity with the potential for pulmonary edema. Atrial stretch and increased arterial pressure cause reflex autonomic responses which result in endocrine changes that return plasma volume and arterial pressure to preimmersion levels. Plasma volume is regulated via a reflex diuresis and natriuresis. Hydrostatic pressure also leads to elastic loading of the chest, increasing work of breathing, energy cost, and thus blood flow to respiratory muscles. Decreases in water temperature in HOWI do not affect the cardiac output compared to TN; however, they influence heart rate and the distribution of muscle and fat blood flow. The reduced muscle blood flow results in a reduced maximal oxygen consumption. The properties of water determine the mechanical load and the physiological responses during exercise in water (e.g. swimming and water based activities). Increased hydrostatic pressure caused by submersion does not affect stroke volume; however, progressive bradycardia decreases cardiac output. During submersion, compressed gas must be breathed which introduces the potential for oxygen toxicity, narcosis due to nitrogen, and tissue and vascular gas bubbles during decompression and after may cause pain in joints and the nervous system.

  16. Study on comparing the antioxidant capacity of angustifolia polyphenol in different fruits and leaves%沙枣不同果、叶中多酚类物质抗氧化能力比较的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹丹; 李炳奇; 陈韩英; 童德军; 刘红

    2011-01-01

    The polyphenol in fruits and leaves from Elaeagnus oxcarpa and Elaeagnus moorcroftii was extracted by using acetone,and the antioxidant activities were studied. The scavenging capacities of polyphenol in different materials on hydroxyl free radical,superoxide anion radical and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl were assayed. Meanwhile,the inhibition effect of lipid peroxidation was studied with thiobarbituric acid(TBA)method. The results showed that the polyphenol in green fruit and tender leaf of Elaeagnus oxcarpa had better scavenging capacity on ·OH,O-2·and DPPH· during 8 kinds of material,moreover,the scavenging ratio was above 50%,respectively. And the inhibition effect of lipid peroxidation was higher than other material obviously. Elaeagnus oxcarpa had better antioxidant activities than Elaeagnus moorcroftii in vitro.%采用丙酮温浸法对尖果沙枣和大果沙枣果、叶中多酚物质进行提取并研究其抗氧化活性。通过测定不同材料多酚提取物对羟自由基(·OH)、超氧阴离子自由基(O2-·)以及2,2二苯代苦味肼基(DPPH·)的清除率,并利用硫代巴比妥酸法(TBA法)测定其对脂质过氧化的抑制作用。结果表明:八种实验材料中,尖果沙枣青果和嫩叶多酚提取物对·OH、O2-·、DPPH·均具有较好的清除作用,且清除率均高于50%,同时对脂质过氧化的抑制作用明显高于其余实验材料。尖果沙枣较大果沙枣具有更好的体外抗氧化活性。

  17. Conceptual Learning: Enhancing Student Understanding of Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, Micah J.

    Students are leaving undergraduate science programs without the knowledge and skills they are expected to have. This is apparent in professional programs, such as medical and veterinary school, where students do not possess the critical thinking skills necessary to be successful. Physiology is a required discipline for these professional programs and often before, as a pre-requisite. Physiology classrooms are an excellent place to teach critical thinking skills because the content consists of integrated processes. Therefore, in one study, it was investigated whether focusing on physiological concepts improved student understanding of physiology in both a non-physiological science course, Invertebrate Zoology, and in an undergraduate physiology course. An educational intervention was used in Invertebrate Zoology, where students were exposed to human physiology concepts that were similar to comparative physiology concepts they had learned during the semester. A pre-/post-test was used to assess learning gains. In a second study, the use of multimedia file usage was correlated to student exam scores in a physiology course. This was done to see if providing additional study materials that focused on specific concepts improved student understanding, as assessed using exam scores. Overall these studies indicate that encouraging assimilation of new concepts that expand upon material from lecture may help students gain a more complete understanding of a concept. The integration of these concepts into pre-existing conceptual frameworks may serve to teach students valuable critical thinking skills such as evaluation of new ideas within their current understanding and synthesizing the new content with the existing information. Focusing on this type of conceptual learning may enable students to apply content knowledge and think through problems. Additionally, focusing on concepts may enable students to improve their understanding of material without being overwhelmed by

  18. Testamentary capacity and delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptzin, Benjamin; Peisah, Carmelle; Shulman, Kenneth; Finkel, Sanford

    2010-09-01

    With the aging of the population there will be a substantial transfer of wealth in the next 25 years. The presence of delirium can complicate the evaluation of an older person's testamentary capacity and susceptibility to undue influence but has not been well examined in the existing literature. A subcommittee of the IPA Task Force on Testamentary Capacity and Undue Influence undertook to review how to assess prospectively and retrospectively testamentary capacity and susceptibility to undue influence in patients with delirium. The subcommittee identified questions that should be asked in cases where someone changes their will or estate plan towards the end of their life in the presence of delirium. These questions include: was there consistency in the patient's wishes over time? Were these wishes expressed during a "lucid interval" when the person was less confused? Were the patient's wishes clearly expressed in response to open-ended questions? Is there clear documentation of the patient's mental status at the time of the discussion? This review with some case examples provides guidance on how to consider the question of testamentary capacity or susceptibility to undue influence in someone undergoing an episode of delirium.

  19. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

  20. The concept of function in modern physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Etienne

    2014-06-01

    An overview of the scientific literature shows that the concept of function is central in physiology. However, the concept itself is not defined by physiologists. On the other hand, the teleological, namely, the 'goal-directed' dimension of function, and its subsequent explanatory relevance, is a philosophical problem. Intuitively, the function of a trait in a system explains why this trait is present, but, in the early 1960s, Ernest Nagel and Carl Hempel have shown that this inference cannot be logically founded. However, they showed that self-regulated systems are teleological. According to the selectionist theories, the function of an item is its effect that has been selected by natural selection, a process that explains its presence. As they restrict the functional attribution of a trait to its past selective value and not its current properties, these theories are inconsistent with the concept of function in physiology. A more adequate one is the causal role theory, for which a function of a trait in a system is its causal contribution to the functional capacity of the system. However, this leaves unsolved the question of the 'surplus meaning' of the teleological dimension of function. The significance of considering organisms as 'purpose-like' (teleological) systems may reside not in its explanatory power but in its methodological fruitfulness in physiology. In this view, the teleological dimension of physiological functions is convergent to but not imported from, the teleological dimension of evolutionary biology.

  1. The concept of function in modern physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the scientific literature shows that the concept of function is central in physiology. However, the concept itself is not defined by physiologists. On the other hand, the teleological, namely, the ‘goal-directed’ dimension of function, and its subsequent explanatory relevance, is a philosophical problem. Intuitively, the function of a trait in a system explains why this trait is present, but, in the early 1960s, Ernest Nagel and Carl Hempel have shown that this inference cannot be logically founded. However, they showed that self-regulated systems are teleological. According to the selectionist theories, the function of an item is its effect that has been selected by natural selection, a process that explains its presence. As they restrict the functional attribution of a trait to its past selective value and not its current properties, these theories are inconsistent with the concept of function in physiology. A more adequate one is the causal role theory, for which a function of a trait in a system is its causal contribution to the functional capacity of the system. However, this leaves unsolved the question of the ‘surplus meaning’ of the teleological dimension of function. The significance of considering organisms as ‘purpose-like’ (teleological) systems may reside not in its explanatory power but in its methodological fruitfulness in physiology. In this view, the teleological dimension of physiological functions is convergent to but not imported from, the teleological dimension of evolutionary biology. PMID:24882809

  2. Physiological demands of competitive basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narazaki, K; Berg, K; Stergiou, N; Chen, B

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess physiological demands of competitive basketball by measuring oxygen consumption (VO2) and other variables during practice games. Each of 12 players (20.4 +/- 1.1 years) was monitored in a 20-min practice game, which was conducted in the same way as actual games with the presence of referees and coaches. VO2 was measured by a portable system during the game and blood lactate concentration (LA) was measured in brief breaks. Subjects were also videotaped for time-motion analysis. Female and male players demonstrated respective VO2 of 33.4 +/- 4.0 and 36.9 +/- 2.6 mL/kg/min and LA of 3.2 +/- 0.9 and 4.2 +/- 1.3 mmol/L in the practice games (P>0.05). They spent 34.1% of play time running and jumping, 56.8% walking, and 9.0% standing. Pre-obtained VO(2max) was correlated to VO(2) during play (r=0.673) and to percent of duration for running and jumping (r=0.935 and 0.962 for females and males, respectively). This study demonstrated a greater oxygen uptake for competitive basketball than that estimated based on a previous compendium. The correlation between aerobic capacity and activity level suggests the potential benefit of aerobic conditioning in basketball.

  3. Obesity and Asthma: Physiological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Brashier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity induces some pertinent physiological changes which are conducive to either development of asthma or cause of poorly controlled asthma state. Obesity related mechanical stress forces induced by abdominal and thoracic fat generate stiffening of the lungs and diaphragmatic movements to result in reduction of resting lung volumes such as functional residual capacity (FRC. Reduced FRC is primarily an outcome of decreased expiratory reserve volume, which pushes the tidal breathing more towards smaller high resistance airways, and consequentially results in expiratory flow limitation during normal breathing in obesity. Reduced FRC also induces plastic alteration in the small collapsible airways, which may generate smooth muscle contraction resulting in increased small airway resistance, which, however, is not picked up by spirometric lung volumes. There is also a possibility that chronically reduced FRC may generate permanent adaptation in the very small airways; therefore, the airway calibres may not change despite weight reduction. Obesity may also induce bronchodilator reversibility and diurnal lung functional variability. Obesity is also associated with airway hyperresponsiveness; however, the mechanism of this is not clear. Thus, obesity has effects on lung function that can generate respiratory distress similar to asthma and may also exaggerate the effects of preexisting asthma.

  4. Information Capacity of Energy Harvesting Sensor Nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Rajesh, R

    2010-01-01

    Sensor nodes with energy harvesting sources are gaining popularity due to their ability to improve the network life time and are becoming a preferred choice supporting 'green communication'. We study such a sensor node with an energy harvesting source and compare various architectures by which the harvested energy is used. We find its Shannon capacity when it is transmitting its observations over an AWGN channel and show that the capacity achieving energy management policy is the same as the throughput optimal policy. We also obtain the capacity for the system with energy inefficiencies in storage and an achievable rate when energy conserving sleep-wake modes are supported.

  5. Use of a physiological profile to document motor impairment in ageing and in clinical groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, S R; Delbaere, K; Gandevia, S C

    2016-08-15

    Ageing decreases exercise performance and is frequently accompanied by reductions in cognitive performance. Deterioration in the physiological capacity to stand, locomote and exercise can manifest itself as falling over and represents a significant deterioration in sensorimotor control. In the elderly, falling leads to serious morbidity and mortality with major societal costs. Measurement of a suite of physiological capacities that are required for successful motor performance (including vision, muscle strength, proprioception and balance) has been used to produce a physiological profile assessment (PPA) which has been tracked over the age spectrum and in different diseases (e.g. multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease). As well as measures of specific physiological capacities, the PPA generates an overall 'score' which quantitatively measures an individual's cumulative risk of falling. The present review collates data from the PPA (and the physiological capacities it measures) as well as its use in strategies to reduce falls in the elderly and those with different diseases. We emphasise that (i) motor impairment arises via reductions in a wide range of sensorimotor abilities; (ii) the PPA approach not only gives a snapshot of the physiological capacity of an individual, but it also gives insight into the deficits among groups of individuals with particular diseases; and (iii) deficits in seemingly restricted and disparate physiological domains (e.g. vision, strength, cognition) are funnelled into impairments in tasks requiring upright balance. Motor impairments become more prevalent with ageing but careful physiological measurement and appropriate interventions offer a way to maximise health across the lifespan.

  6. Comparative genomic analysis as a tool for biologicaldiscovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Marcelo A.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Biology is a discipline rooted in comparisons. Comparative physiology has assembled a detailed catalogue of the biological similarities and differences between species, revealing insights into how life has adapted to fill a wide-range of environmental niches. For example, the oxygen and carbon dioxide carrying capacity of vertebrate has evolved to provide strong advantages for species respiring at sea level, at high elevation or within water. Comparative- anatomy, -biochemistry, -pharmacology, -immunology and -cell biology have provided the fundamental paradigms from which each discipline has grown.

  7. Neonatal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Michael H

    2013-11-01

    The pediatric surgeon deals with a large number and variety of congenital defects in neonates that frequently involve early surgical intervention and care. Because the neonatal cardiac physiology is unique, starting with the transition from fetal circulation and including differences in calcium metabolism and myocardial microscopic structure and function, it serves the pediatric surgeon well to have a sound understanding of these principles and how they directly and indirectly affect their plans and treatments. In addition, many patients will have associated congenital heart disease that can also dramatically influence not only the surgical and anesthetic care but also the timing and planning of procedures. Finally, the pediatric surgeon is often called upon to treat conditions and complications associated with complex congenital heart disease such as feeding difficulties, bowel perforations, and malrotation in heterotaxy syndromes. In this article, we will review several unique aspects of neonatal cardiac physiology along with the basic physiology of the major groups of congenital heart disease to better prepare the training and practicing pediatric surgeon for care of these complex and often fragile patients.

  8. Biological properties of extracellular vesicles and their physiological functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yáñez-Mó, María; Siljander, Pia R-M; Andreu, Zoraida; Zavec, Apolonija Bedina; Borràs, Francesc E; Buzas, Edit I; Buzas, Krisztina; Casal, Enriqueta; Cappello, Francesco; Carvalho, Joana; Colás, Eva; Cordeiro-da Silva, Anabela; Fais, Stefano; Falcon-Perez, Juan M; Ghobrial, Irene M; Giebel, Bernd; Gimona, Mario; Graner, Michael; Gursel, Ihsan; Gursel, Mayda; Heegaard, Niels H H; Hendrix, An; Kierulf, Peter; Kokubun, Katsutoshi; Kosanovic, Maja; Kralj-Iglic, Veronika; Krämer-Albers, Eva-Maria; Laitinen, Saara; Lässer, Cecilia; Lener, Thomas; Ligeti, Erzsébet; Linē, Aija; Lipps, Georg; Llorente, Alicia; Lötvall, Jan; Manček-Keber, Mateja; Marcilla, Antonio; Mittelbrunn, Maria; Nazarenko, Irina; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; Nyman, Tuula A; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Olivan, Mireia; Oliveira, Carla; Pállinger, Éva; Del Portillo, Hernando A; Reventós, Jaume; Rigau, Marina; Rohde, Eva; Sammar, Marei; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Santarém, N; Schallmoser, Katharina; Ostenfeld, Marie Stampe; Stoorvogel, Willem; Stukelj, Roman; Van der Grein, Susanne G; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Wauben, Marca H M; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been recognized as potent vehicles of intercellular communication, both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This is due to their capacity to transfer proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, thereby influencing various physiological and pathological functi

  9. Building Partner Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In a similar manner, globalization has also created new realities, such as in the case of food production where choice now affects demand as much as...quantity did in the past. “Two major factors drive food requirements [and market prices]: a growing global population and prosperity that expands...argued earlier, to expend effort in other nations without consideration of building capacity and resiliency risks strategic failure and wastage of

  10. Markets and Institutional Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2010-01-01

    Adequate explanations concerning the introduction of production and consumption of organic food in Denmark imply the necessity to engage a certain understanding of markets. Markets should subsequently not be seen as entities nor places but as complex relations between human actors. Further, the e......, the establishment, maintenance and development of markets are depending on the capacity of the actors to enter into continuous and enhancing interplay....

  11. Comparative study of physiological parameter and grain yield on different sunflower hybrid populations%不同向日葵品种群体光合生理参数及产量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔良基; 王德兴; 宋殿秀; 孙恩玉; 刘金刚

    2011-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted to study the physiological parameter and grain yield on 3 sunflower hybrid populations. Result showed that leaf area index were developed very fast. The time of the max leaf area index were at 51 d after seedling emergence. The leaf area index varied with different sunflower hybrids with a range of 3.57 ~ 5.64. Biological yield and grain yield had significant positive correlation with the photosynthesis potential of the population. The average net photosynthetic rates were 5.08 to 7.02g/m2 · d, and varied with different sunflower hybrids and years. The trends of biological yield accumulation were "fast - slow - fast", and conformed to the Logistic equation model. Distribution ratio of biomass in various organs was stem (grain) > grain (stem) > leaf >head > petiole. The average percentages of grain ( economical index) were 29.7% and 34.4% in two years. The economical index of early maturity sunflower was higher than that of middle maturity sunflower.%以3个向日葵品种为材料,通过两年的田间试验研究向日葵群体的光合生理特征.结果表明,向日葵群体的叶面积指数(LAI)增长极快,出苗后第51d前后即达到最大值(LAImax)3.57~5.64.群体光合势与生物产量和子实产量呈极显著正相关.平均净光合率因品种和年份而异,范围在5.08~7.02g/m2·d.生物产量积累动态趋势为"慢-快-慢",符合Logistic方程.生物产量在各个器官中的分配比例一般为:茎秆(或子实)>子实(或茎秆)>叶片>葵盘>叶柄,子实所占比例即经济系数两年平均为29.7%和34.4%,因年份而异.早熟品种的经济系数大于中早熟和中熟品种.

  12. Physiological characteristics of elite dancers of different dance styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liiv, Helena; Jürimäe, Toivo; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Hannus, Aave; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed to study international level dancesport dancer's aerobic capacity during incremental test and competition simulation in relation to the gender, dance style and international ranking. A total of 30 couples (12 Standard, 7 Latin American and 11 Ten Dance; aged 22.8 ± 6.6 years male and 22.0 ± 6.4 years female) performed an incremental treadmill test and competition simulation. In this study for the first time we carried out longer than one round competition simulation and compared three different dancesport styles (Standard, Latin American and Ten Dance). The results showed that dancers of these three dance styles had similar aerobic capacity values. The average maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) values were 59.6 ± 5.1 and 51.2 ± 6.2 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1) for male and female dancers, respectively. Competition simulation showed that Latin American Dance discipline is physiologically more intensive compared to Standard and Ten Dance styles especially for the female dancers. It appeared that male and female Standard dancers tended to perform at lower intensity than anaerobic threshold (AT) during competition simulation (male 97.3 ± 2.9%; female 97.9 ± 3.6%), while Latin (male 101.4 ± 2.9%; female 106.7 ± 5.9%) and Ten Dance (male 100.7 ± 6.4%; female 99.2 ± 5.6%) competition intensity was higher compared to AT level of athletes. The highest heart rate during competition simulation was always found during the last dances (Paso Double, Jive or Quickstep) and in the last round of each dance style. No significant relationship between VO2max values and international rankings was registered.

  13. Competence building capacity shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather

  14. Taurine Supplementation Improves Functional Capacity, Myocardial Oxygen Consumption, and Electrical Activity in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Ashourpore, Eadeh

    2017-07-04

    Taurine is an amino acid found abundantly in the heart in very high concentrations. It is assumed that taurine contributes to several physiological functions of mammalian cells, such as osmoregulation, anti-inflammation, membrane stabilization, ion transport modulation, and regulation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of taurine supplementation on functional capacity, myocardial oxygen consumption, and electrical activity in patients with heart failure. In a double-blind and randomly designed study, 16 patients with heart failure were assigned to two groups: taurine (TG, n = 8) and placebo (PG, n = 8). TG received 500-mg taurine supplementation three times per day for two weeks. Significant decrease in the values of Q-T segments (p taurine concentration, T wave, Q-T segment, physical capacities, and lower values of cardiovascular capacities were detected post-supplementation in TG as compared with PG (all p values Taurine significantly enhanced the physical function and significantly reduced the cardiovascular function parameters following exercise. Our results also suggest that the short-term taurine supplementation is an effective strategy for improving some selected hemodynamic parameters in heart failure patients. Together, these findings support the view that taurine improves cardiac function and functional capacity in patients with heart failure. This idea warrants further study.

  15. Physiologic basis for understanding quantitative dehydration assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Charkoudian, Nisha; Sawka, Michael N

    2013-03-01

    Dehydration (body water deficit) is a physiologic state that can have profound implications for human health and performance. Unfortunately, dehydration can be difficult to assess, and there is no single, universal gold standard for decision making. In this article, we review the physiologic basis for understanding quantitative dehydration assessment. We highlight how phenomenologic interpretations of dehydration depend critically on the type (dehydration compared with volume depletion) and magnitude (moderate compared with severe) of dehydration, which in turn influence the osmotic (plasma osmolality) and blood volume-dependent compensatory thresholds for antidiuretic and thirst responses. In particular, we review new findings regarding the biological variation in osmotic responses to dehydration and discuss how this variation can help provide a quantitative and clinically relevant link between the physiology and phenomenology of dehydration. Practical measures with empirical thresholds are provided as a starting point for improving the practice of dehydration assessment.

  16. Representation of Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-03-01

    An important issue for electricity system operators is the estimation of renewables' capacity contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to the resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly assessment of the Effective Load-Carrying Capacity, are considered to be the most robust and widely-accepted techniques for addressing this resource variability. This report compares estimates of solar PV capacity value by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model against two sources. The first comparison is against values published by utilities or other entities for known electrical systems at existing solar penetration levels. The second comparison is against a time-series ELCC simulation tool for high renewable penetration scenarios in the Western Interconnection. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons, despite being resolved at a super-hourly temporal resolution. Two results are relevant for other capacity-based models that use a super-hourly resolution to model solar capacity value. First, solar capacity value should not be parameterized as a static value, but must decay with increasing penetration. This is because -- for an afternoon-peaking system -- as solar penetration increases, the system's peak net load shifts to later in the day -- when solar output is lower. Second, long-term planning models should determine system adequacy requirements in each time period in order to approximate LOLP calculations. Within the ReEDS model we resolve these issues by using a capacity value estimate that varies by time-slice. Within each time period the net load and shadow price on ReEDS's planning reserve constraint signals the relative importance of additional firm capacity.

  17. Functional residual capacity: the human windbag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villars, Penelope S; Kanusky, Joseph T; Levitzky, Michael G

    2002-10-01

    Like the windbag of a bagpipe, the functional residual capacity (FRC) is the lung volume that acts as a reservoir of air for physiologic use. This reserve volume is particularly important during the period of apnea that occurs during induction of general anesthesia. The balance of the inward elastic recoil of the lung and the outward chest wall forces determines the FRC. Inward recoil forces are dependent on the interaction between the fibrous skeleton of the lung tissue and the alveolar surface tension regulated by pulmonary surfactant. Positioning and the use of inhaled and intravenous anesthetics influence outward chest wall forces. Factors that affect the FRC may be altered by volume recruitment maneuvers such as administration of vital capacity breaths, the application of positive end-expiratory pressure, and/or maintenance of anesthesia with a fraction of inspired oxygen of less than 1.0. This course reviews the basic anatomy and physiology of the FRC during the perioperative period. Understanding the processes that contribute to intraoperative loss of lung volume and knowledge of interventions that can allay them are paramount to providing a reliable and safe general anesthetic.

  18. Computer analysis of slow vital capacity spirograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primiano, F P; Bacevice, A E; Lough, M D; Doershuk, C F

    1982-01-01

    We have developed a digital computer program which evaluates the vital capacity and its subdivisions, expiratory reserve volume and inspiratory capacity. The algorithm examines the multibreath spirogram, a continuous record of quiet breathing interspersed among repeated slow, large volume maneuvers. Quiet breaths are recognized by comparing features of each breath to the respective average and variation of these features for all breaths. A self-scaling, iterative procedure is used to identify those end-tidal points that most likely represent the subject's functional residual capacity. A least-squared error baseline is then fit through these points to partition the vital capacity. Twenty-three spirograms from patients with documented pulmonary disease were independently analyzed by the computer, a pulmonary function technician, and the laboratory supervisor. No practical differences were found among the results. However, the computer's values, in contrast to those of the technician, were reproducible on repeated trials and free of computational and transcriptional errors.

  19. The effect of increased physical activity on pulmonary diffusing capacity in unfit women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Joseph M; Smoliga, James M; Zavorsky, Gerald S

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether short-term high-intensity aerobic interval training improves resting pulmonary diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO) and carbon monoxide (DLCO). Twenty-eight sedentary women [mean (SD) age 32 (11) years, body mass index 24.3 (5.7) kg m(-2)] were randomly assigned to either a self-directed moderate-intensity physical activity (n = 14) group or a supervised high-intensity aerobic interval training group (n = 14). The moderate physical activity group and the aerobic interval training group increased weekly physical activity energy expenditure by 800 and 1600 kcal week(-1), respectively. After 6 weeks, aerobic capacity increased to a similar exent in both groups (mean improvement 8%, effect size 0.39). The DLNO, but not DLCO, increased to a similar extent in both groups, by 4% or 3.0 (5.7) [95% confidence interval 0.8, 5.2] ml min(-1) mmHg(-1) m(-2) from pre- to post-training (effect size 0.27). There was no correlation between the change in aerobic capacity and the change in DLNO (P > 0.05) or between the change in aerobic capacity and the change in total weekly physical activity energy expenditure (P > 0.05). Interval training does not provide additional improvements in DLNO or aerobic capacity compared with self-directed moderate-intensity physical activity (4-6 metabolic equivalent tasks, 800 kcal week(-1), for 6 weeks) in unfit women. Despite the slight improvement in both DLNO and aerobic capacity, true meaningful physiological changes in these parameters remain questionable.

  20. Success stories and emerging themes in conservation physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madliger, Christine L; Cooke, Steven J; Crespi, Erica J; Funk, Jennifer L; Hultine, Kevin R; Hunt, Kathleen E; Rohr, Jason R; Sinclair, Brent J; Suski, Cory D; Willis, Craig K R; Love, Oliver P

    2016-01-01

    The potential benefits of physiology for conservation are well established and include greater specificity of management techniques, determination of cause-effect relationships, increased sensitivity of health and disturbance monitoring and greater capacity for predicting future change. While descriptions of the specific avenues in which conservation and physiology can be integrated are readily available and important to the continuing expansion of the discipline of 'conservation physiology', to date there has been no assessment of how the field has specifically contributed to conservation success. However, the goal of conservation physiology is to foster conservation solutions and it is therefore important to assess whether physiological approaches contribute to downstream conservation outcomes and management decisions. Here, we present eight areas of conservation concern, ranging from chemical contamination to invasive species to ecotourism, where physiological approaches have led to beneficial changes in human behaviour, management or policy. We also discuss the shared characteristics of these successes, identifying emerging themes in the discipline. Specifically, we conclude that conservation physiology: (i) goes beyond documenting change to provide solutions; (ii) offers a diversity of physiological metrics beyond glucocorticoids (stress hormones); (iii) includes approaches that are transferable among species, locations and times; (iv) simultaneously allows for human use and benefits to wildlife; and (v) is characterized by successes that can be difficult to find in the primary literature. Overall, we submit that the field of conservation physiology has a strong foundation of achievements characterized by a diversity of conservation issues, taxa, physiological traits, ecosystem types and spatial scales. We hope that these concrete successes will encourage the continued evolution and use of physiological tools within conservation-based research and management

  1. Quantum reading capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Lupo, Cosmo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L.

    2011-11-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario.

  2. Enhancing human capacities

    CERN Document Server

    Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Enhancing Human Capacities is the first to review the very latest scientific developments in human enhancement. It is unique in its examination of the ethical and policy implications of these technologies from a broad range of perspectives. Presents a rich range of perspectives on enhancement from world leading ethicists and scientists from Europe and North America The most comprehensive volume yet on the science and ethics of human enhancement Unique in providing a detailed overview of current and expected scientific advances in this area Discusses both general conceptual and ethical issues

  3. Physiological responses to Tai Chi in stable patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-Hui; Guo, Hong-Xi; Lu, Gan; Zhang, Ning; He, Bai-Ting; Zhou, Lian; Luo, Y M; Polkey, M I

    2016-01-15

    We compared the physiological work, judged by oxygen uptake, esophageal pressure swing and diaphragm electromyography, elicited by Tai Chi compared with that elicited by constant rate treadmill walking at 60% of maximal load in eleven patients with COPD (Mean FEV1 61% predicted, FEV1/FVC 47%). Dynamic hyperinflation was assessed by inspiratory capacity and twitch quadriceps tension (TwQ) elicited by supramaximal magnetic stimulation of the femoral nerve was also measured before and after both exercises. The EMGdi and esophageal pressure at the end of exercise were similar for both treadmill exercise and Tai Chi (0.109±0.047 mV vs 0.118±0.061 mV for EMGdi and 22.3±7.1 cmH2O vs 21.9±8.1 cmH2O for esophageal pressure). Moreover the mean values of oxygen uptake during Tai Chi and treadmill exercise did not differ significantly: 11.3 ml/kg/min (51.1% of maximal oxygen uptake derived from incremental exercise) and 13.4 ml/kg/min (52.5%) respectively, p>0.05. Respiratory rate during Tai Chi was significantly lower than that during treadmill exercise. Both Tai Chi and treadmill exercise elicited a fall in IC at end exercise, indicating dynamic hyperinflation, but this was statistically significant only after treadmill exercise. TwQ decreased significantly after Tai Chi but not after treadmill. We conclude that Tai Chi constitutes a physiologically similar stimulus to treadmill exercise and may therefore be an acceptable modality for pulmonary rehabilitation which may be culturally more acceptable in some parts of the world.

  4. Vasogenic shock physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiria Gkisioti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sotiria Gkisioti, Spyros D MentzelopoulosDepartment of Intensive Care Medicine, University of Athens Medical School, Evaggelismos General Hospital, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Shock means inadequate tissue perfusion by oxygen-carrying blood. In vasogenic shock, this circulatory failure results from vasodilation and/or vasoplegia. There is vascular hyporeactivity with reduced vascular smooth muscle contraction in response to α1 adrenergic agonists. Considering vasogenic shock, one can understand its utmost importance, not only because of its association with sepsis but also because it can be the common final pathway for long-lasting, severe shock of any cause, even postresuscitation states. The effective management of any patient in shock requires the understanding of its underlying physiology and pathophysiology. Recent studies have provided new insights into vascular physiology by revealing the interaction of rather complicated and multifactorial mechanisms, which have not been fully elucidated yet. Some of these mechanisms, such as the induction of nitric oxide synthases, the activation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels, and vasopressin deficiency, have gained general acceptance and are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of vasodilatory shock. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the pathogenesis of vasogenic shock.Keywords: nitric oxide synthases, KATP channels, vasopressin, H2S, vasoplegic syndrome

  5. Physiology of bile secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alejandro Esteller

    2008-01-01

    The formation of bile depends on the structural and functional integrity of the bile-secretory apparatus and its impairment,in different situations,results in the syndrome of cholestasis.The structural bases that permit bile secretion as well as various aspects related with its composition and flow rate in physiological conditions will first be reviewed.Canalicular bile is produced by polarized hepatocytes that hold transporters in their basolateral (sinusoidal) and apical (canalicular) plasma membrane.This review summarizes recent data on the molecular determinants of this primary bile formation.The major function of the biliary tree is modification of canalicular bile by secretory and reabsorptive processes in bileduct epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) as bile passes through bile ducts.The mechanisms of fluid and solute transport in cholangiocytes will also be discussed.In contrast to hepatocytes where secretion is constant and poorly controlled,cholangiocyte secretion is regulated by hormones and nerves.A short section dedicated to these regulatory mechanisms of bile secretion has been included.The aim of this revision was to set the bases for other reviews in this series that will be devoted to specific issues related with biliary physiology and pathology.

  6. Comparative genomic mapping of the bovine Fragile Histidine Triad (FHIT tumour suppressor gene: characterization of a 2 Mb BAC contig covering the locus, complete annotation of the gene, analysis of cDNA and of physiological expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussaha Mekki

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Fragile Histidine Triad gene (FHIT is an oncosuppressor implicated in many human cancers, including vesical tumors. FHIT is frequently hit by deletions caused by fragility at FRA3B, the most active of human common fragile sites, where FHIT lays. Vesical tumors affect also cattle, including animals grazing in the wild on bracken fern; compounds released by the fern are known to induce chromosome fragility and may trigger cancer with the interplay of latent Papilloma virus. Results The bovine FHIT was characterized by assembling a contig of 78 BACs. Sequence tags were designed on human exons and introns and used directly to select bovine BACs, or compared with sequence data in the bovine genome database or in the trace archive of the bovine genome sequencing project, and adapted before use. FHIT is split in ten exons like in man, with exons 5 to 9 coding for a 149 amino acids protein. VISTA global alignments between bovine genomic contigs retrieved from the bovine genome database and the human FHIT region were performed. Conservation was extremely high over a 2 Mb region spanning the whole FHIT locus, including the size of introns. Thus, the bovine FHIT covers about 1.6 Mb compared to 1.5 Mb in man. Expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and Northern blot, and was found to be ubiquitous. Four cDNA isoforms were isolated and sequenced, that originate from an alternative usage of three variants of exon 4, revealing a size very close to the major human FHIT cDNAs. Conclusion A comparative genomic approach allowed to assemble a contig of 78 BACs and to completely annotate a 1.6 Mb region spanning the bovine FHIT gene. The findings confirmed the very high level of conservation between human and bovine genomes and the importance of comparative mapping to speed the annotation process of the recently sequenced bovine genome. The detailed knowledge of the genomic FHIT region will allow to study the role of FHIT in bovine cancerogenesis

  7. Physiological Employment Standards III: physiological challenges and consequences encountered during international military deployments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C; Castellani, John W; Warr, Bradley J; Sharp, Marilyn A; Henning, Paul C; Spiering, Barry A; Scofield, Dennis E

    2013-11-01

    Modern international military deployments in austere environments (i.e., Iraq and Afghanistan) place considerable physiological demands on soldiers. Significant physiological challenges exist: maintenance of physical fitness and body composition, rigors of external load carriage, environmental extremes (heat, cold, and altitude), medical illnesses, musculoskeletal injuries, traumatic brain injuries, post-traumatic stress disorder, and environmental exposure hazards (i.e., burn pits, vehicle exhaust, etc.). To date there is very little published research and no comprehensive reviews on the physiological effects of deployments. The purpose of this paper is to overview what is currently known from the literature related mainly to current military conflicts with regard to the challenges and consequences from deployments. Summary findings include: (1) aerobic capacity declines while muscle strength, power and muscular endurance appear to be maintained, (2) load carriage continues to tax the physical capacities of the Soldier, (3) musculoskeletal injuries comprise the highest proportion of all injury categories, (4) environmental insults occur from both terrestrial extremes and pollutant exposure, and (5) post-deployment concerns linger for traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder. A full understanding of these responses will assist in identifying the most effective risk mitigation strategies to ensure deployment readiness and to assist in establishment of military employment standards.

  8. 胡杨多态叶光合和水分生理的比较%Comparative study on photosynthesis and water physiology of polymorphic leaves of Populus euphratica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白雪; 张淑静; 郑彩霞; 郝建卿; 李文海; 杨扬

    2011-01-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics,stomatal characteristics and water physiology of dentate broad-ovate leaves and lanceolate leaves from Populus euphratica were studied in this paper.The results showed that Pn of dentate broad-ovate leaves was higher than that of lanceolate leaves.Under normal conditions,the light compensation points of dentate broad-ovate leaves and lanceolate leaves were 60 and 75 μmol/(m2·s) respectively,the light saturation point of both was above 1 800 μmol/(m2·s).Both of them could not reach the light saturation point under normal conditions.Tr,stomatal density and size of dentate broad-ovate leaves were higher than that of lanceolate leaves,while the stomatal opening rate was lower than that of lanceolate leaves.Ψ100,Ψ0 and the difference of the two values of dentate broad-ovate leaves were lower than that of lanceolate leaves.The ε values of dentate broad-ovate leaves and lanceolate leaves were 8.432 4 and 2.359 7 respectively.The average hydraulic conductivity of branches with dentate broad-ovate leaves and lanceolate leaves was 6.61×10-5 and 5.19×10-5 kg/(s·MPa);and the reduction of hydraulic conductivity of dentate broad-ovate leaves and lanceolate leaves was 0.06×10-5 and 1.88×10-5 kg/(s·MPa) respectively after drought stress,this indicated that the hydraulic conductivity of branches with dentate broad-ovate leaves was relatively stable in dry environments.The study shows that,the light energy efficiency and water stress tolerance ability of dentate broad-ovate leaves are higher than that of lanceolate leaves,maybe these changes are the results of leaves of P.euphratica to adapt to the environmental stress during their development.%对胡杨大树典型多态叶--锯齿卵圆形和披针形叶的光合特性、气孔特性及水分生理进行了系统研究。结果表明,锯齿卵圆形叶的Pn高于披针形叶。自然条件下,锯齿卵圆形叶的光补偿点为60μmol/(m2.s),披针形叶为75

  9. Role of thermal physiology and bioenergetics on adaptation in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri): the experiment test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yang, Fang; Wang, Zheng-kun; Zhu, Wan-long

    2017-01-01

    Ambient conditions, as temperature and photoperiod, play a key role in animals’ physiology and behaviors. To test the hypothesis that the maximum thermal physiological and bioenergetics tolerances are induced by extreme environments in Tupaia belangeri. We integrated the acclimatized and acclimated data in several physiological, hormonal, and biochemical markers of thermogenic capacity and bioenergetics in T. belangeri. Results showed that T. belangeri increased body mass, thermogenesis capacity, protein contents and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity of liver and brown adipose tissue in winter-like environments, which indicated that temperature was the primary signal for T. belangeri to regulate several physiological capacities. The associated photoperiod signal also elevated the physiological capacities. The regulations of critical physiological traits play a primary role in meeting the survival challenges of winter-like condition in T. belangeri. Together, to cope with cold, leptin may play a potential role in thermogenesis and body mass regulation, as this hormonal signal is associated with other hormones. The strategies of thermal physiology and bioenergetics differs between typical Palearctic species and the local species. However, the maximum thermal physiology and bioenergetic tolerance maybe is an important strategy to cope with winter-like condition of T. belangeri. PMID:28145515

  10. Aristotle on physiology of logos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benéitez Prudencio, José Javier

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a view of Aristotle’s understanding of the relation of human intellect to human body. Given that for Aristotle intellect is a ‘psychic’ capacity or power: does Aristotle think of human understanding as a part or aspect of form (ειδος of the human body, in the way that the other powers (i.e. sensitive and nutritive are both parts of the form of an animal body? This question is still in dispute, but the objective in my inquiry is to justify the possibilities of an Aristotelian’s physiology of mind or thought.

    El presente artículo trata de estudiar la relación del entendimiento humano con el cuerpo en el pensamiento aristotélico. Dado que para Aristóteles la inteligencia constituye una capacidad o facultad ‘psíquica’, podríamos preguntarnos si no piensa, entonces, que sea una parte o un aspecto de la forma (ειδος del cuerpo humano, de la misma manera que se da esta relación con los otras facultades (así, por ejemplo, con la sensación y la nutrición. La cuestión es motivo todavía de disputa. El objetivo de mi investigación radica en justificar las posibilidades de una fisiología aristotélica de la mente o del pensamiento.

  11. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  12. Heat Capacity in Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Ninad V.; Sharp, Kim A.

    2005-05-01

    Heat capacity (Cp) is one of several major thermodynamic quantities commonly measured in proteins. With more than half a dozen definitions, it is the hardest of these quantities to understand in physical terms, but the richest in insight. There are many ramifications of observed Cp changes: The sign distinguishes apolar from polar solvation. It imparts a temperature (T) dependence to entropy and enthalpy that may change their signs and which of them dominate. Protein unfolding usually has a positive ΔCp, producing a maximum in stability and sometimes cold denaturation. There are two heat capacity contributions, from hydration and protein-protein interactions; which dominates in folding and binding is an open question. Theoretical work to date has dealt mostly with the hydration term and can account, at least semiquantitatively, for the major Cp-related features: the positive and negative Cp of hydration for apolar and polar groups, respectively; the convergence of apolar group hydration entropy at T ≈ 112°C; the decrease in apolar hydration Cp with increasing T; and the T-maximum in protein stability and cold denaturation.

  13. Capacity value assessments of wind power: Capacity value assessments of wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Ibanez, Eduardo [General Electric (GE) Energy Consulting, Schenectady NY USA; Kiviluoma, Juha [Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus (VTT), Espoo Finland; Holttinen, Hannele [Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus (VTT), Espoo Finland; Söder, Lennart [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm Sweden

    2016-10-05

    This article describes some of the recent research into the capacity value of wind power. With the worldwide increase in wind power during the past several years, there is increasing interest and significance regarding its capacity value because this has a direct influence on the amount of other (nonwind) capacity that is needed. We build on previous reviews from IEEE and IEA Wind Task 25a and examine recent work that evaluates the impact of multiple-year data sets and the impact of interconnected systems on resource adequacy. We also provide examples that explore the use of alternative reliability metrics for wind capacity value calculations. We show how multiple-year data sets significantly increase the robustness of results compared to single-year assessments. Assumptions regarding the transmission interconnections play a significant role. To date, results regarding which reliability metric to use for probabilistic capacity valuation show little sensitivity to the metric.

  14. Network Physiology: Mapping Interactions Between Networks of Physiologic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Bartsch, Ronny P.

    The human organism is an integrated network of interconnected and interacting organ systems, each representing a separate regulatory network. The behavior of one physiological system (network) may affect the dynamics of all other systems in the network of physiologic networks. Due to these interactions, failure of one system can trigger a cascade of failures throughout the entire network. We introduce a systematic method to identify a network of interactions between diverse physiologic organ systems, to quantify the hierarchical structure and dynamics of this network, and to track its evolution under different physiologic states. We find a robust relation between network structure and physiologic states: every state is characterized by specific network topology, node connectivity and links strength. Further, we find that transitions from one physiologic state to another trigger a markedly fast reorganization in the network of physiologic interactions on time scales of just a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. This reorganization in network topology occurs simultaneously and globally in the entire network as well as at the level of individual physiological systems, while preserving a hierarchical order in the strength of network links. Our findings highlight the need of an integrated network approach to understand physiologic function, since the framework we develop provides new information which can not be obtained by studying individual systems. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate the development of a new field, Network Physiology.

  15. Workshop on moisture buffer capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003......Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003...

  16. Big Change in PF Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Paraformaldehyde (PF) production in China has grown to a considerable scale today. The total capacity was around 90 thousand t/a in 2006. Since 2007, the production capacity of PF has increased drastically.

  17. Leaf photosynthetic rate of tropical ferns is evolutionarily linked to water transport capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Bao; Sun, Mei; Cao, Kun-Fang; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Jiao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Ferns usually have relatively lower photosynthetic potential than angiosperms. However, it is unclear whether low photosynthetic potential of ferns is linked to leaf water supply. We hypothesized that there is an evolutionary association of leaf water transport capacity with photosynthesis and stomatal density in ferns. In the present study, a series of functional traits relating to leaf anatomy, hydraulics and physiology were assessed in 19 terrestrial and 11 epiphytic ferns in a common garden, and analyzed by a comparative phylogenetics method. Compared with epiphytic ferns, terrestrial ferns had higher vein density (Dvein), stomatal density (SD), stomatal conductance (gs), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax), but lower values for lower epidermal thickness (LET) and leaf thickness (LT). Across species, all traits varied significantly, but only stomatal length (SL) showed strong phylogenetic conservatism. Amax was positively correlated with Dvein and gs with and without phylogenetic corrections. SD correlated positively with Amax, Dvein and gs, with the correlation between SD and Dvein being significant after phylogenetic correction. Leaf water content showed significant correlations with LET, LT, and mesophyll thickness. Our results provide evidence that Amax of the studied ferns is linked to leaf water transport capacity, and there was an evolutionary association between water supply and demand in ferns. These findings add new insights into the evolutionary correlations among traits involving carbon and water economy in ferns.

  18. Single Cell Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Pierre; Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Kettunen, Petronella; Vriz, Sophie; Jullien, Ludovic; Bensimon, David

    The possibility to control at specific times and specific places the activity of biomolecules (enzymes, transcription factors, RNA, hormones, etc.) is opening up new opportunities in the study of physiological processes at the single cell level in a live organism. Most existing gene expression systems allow for tissue specific induction upon feeding the organism with exogenous inducers (e.g., tetracycline). Local genetic control has earlier been achieved by micro-injection of the relevant inducer/repressor molecule, but this is an invasive and possibly traumatic technique. In this chapter, we present the requirements for a noninvasive optical control of the activity of biomolecules and review the recent advances in this new field of research.

  19. [Physiology of the neuropeptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, M J; Martínez-Martos, J M; Mayas, M D; Carrera, M P; Ramírez- Expósito, M J

    In the present review, the characteristics of mammalian neuropeptides have been studied. Neuropeptides are widely distributed not only in the nervous system but also in the periphery. They are synthesised by neurons as large precursor molecules (pre propeptides) which have to be cleaved and modified in order to form the mature neuropeptides. Neuropeptides may exert actions as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and/or neurohormones. In the neurons, they coexist with classic transmitters and often with other peptides. After their releasing, they bind to especific receptors to exert their action in the target cell. Most of these receptors belongs to a family of G protein coupled receptors. Finally, peptidases are the enzymes involved in the degradation of neuropeptides. Conclusions. In the last years, the number of known neuropeptides and the understanding of their functions have been increased. With these data, present investigations are looking for the treatment of different pathologies associated with alterations in the physiology of neuropeptides.

  20. Estimation of the Adaptive Capacities of the Cardiovascular System in Pregnant Females by Active Orthostatic Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Struk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was undertaken to study the adaptive capacities of the cardiovascular system (CVS in physiological full-term pregnancy, by using the active orthostatic test (AOT and to analyze cardiac rhythm variability (CRV. The study covered 49 low-risk group females during 38—39-week physiological pregnancy, who had indications for planned surgery -cesarean section. Before surgery, during an anesthesiological examination, all the pregnant females performed AOT during which ECG was continuously recorded. For CRV estimation, 5-min ECG fragments recorded in the standing and lying positions. AOT could reveal a normal orthostatic response (NOR in 37 pregnant females, postural orthostatic tachycardia (POT in 8 and orthostatic hypotension in 4. No relationship was found between the clinical characteristics and the types of responses to AOT. At the same time, comparison of CVS demonstrated that the baseline enhanced activity of the sympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system was typical of females with POT as compared with females showing a NOR. Thus, estimation of CRV parameters in pregnant females permits predetermination of adaptive CVS capacities, which is important to be taken into account in choosing an anesthesiological support and modes of hemodynamic correction when cesarean section is performed.

  1. Nature of the coupling between neural drive and force-generating capacity in the human quadriceps muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, François; Goupille, Clément; Baum, Daniel; Raiteri, Brent J; Hodges, Paul W; Tucker, Kylie

    2015-11-22

    The force produced by a muscle depends on both the neural drive it receives and several biomechanical factors. When multiple muscles act on a single joint, the nature of the relationship between the neural drive and force-generating capacity of the synergistic muscles is largely unknown. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the ratio of neural drive and the ratio of muscle force-generating capacity between two synergist muscles (vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM)) in humans. Twenty-one participants performed isometric knee extensions at 20 and 50% of maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). Myoelectric activity (surface electromyography (EMG)) provided an index of neural drive. Physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) was estimated from measurements of muscle volume (magnetic resonance imaging) and muscle fascicle length (three-dimensional ultrasound imaging) to represent the muscles' force-generating capacities. Neither PCSA nor neural drive was balanced between VL and VM. There was a large (r = 0.68) and moderate (r = 0.43) correlation between the ratio of VL/VM EMG amplitude and the ratio of VL/VM PCSA at 20 and 50% of MVC, respectively. This study provides evidence that neural drive is biased by muscle force-generating capacity, the greater the force-generating capacity of VL compared with VM, the stronger bias of drive to the VL.

  2. Chronic exposure to soil salinity in terrestrial species: Does plasticity and underlying physiology differ among specialized ground-dwelling spiders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, D; Puzin, C; Foucreau, N; Bouchereau, A; Pétillon, J

    2016-07-01

    In salt marshes, the alternation of low and high tides entails rapid shifts of submersion and aerial exposure for terrestrial communities. In these intertidal environments, terrestrial species have to deal with an osmotic loss in body water content and an increase in sodium chloride concentration when salt load increases. In salt marshes, spiders represent an abundant arthropod group, whose physiological ecology in response to variations of soil salinity must be further investigated. In this study, we compared the effect of salinity on the survival and physiology of three species of Lycosidae; two salt marsh species (Arctosa fulvolineata and Pardosa purbeckensis) and one forest species (P. saltans). Spiders were individually exposed at three salinity conditions (0‰, 35‰ and 70‰) and survival, changes in body water content, hemolymph ions (Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+); ICP-MS technique) and metabolites (mainly amino acids, polyols, sugars; LC and GC techniques) were assessed. The survival of the forest species P. saltans was very quickly hampered at moderate and high salinities. In this spider, variations of hemolymph ions and metabolites revealed a quick loss of physiological homeostasis and a rapid salt-induced dehydration of the specimens. Conversely, high survival durations were measured in the two salt-marsh spiders, and more particularly in A. fulvolineata. In both P. purbeckensis and A. fulvolineata, the proportion of Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+) remained constant at the three experimental conditions. Accumulation of hemolymph Na(+) and amino acids (mainly glutamine and proline) demonstrated stronger osmoregulatory capacities in these salt-marsh resident spiders. To conclude, even if phylogenetically close (belonging to the same, monophyletic, family), we found different physiological capacities to cope with salt load among the three tested spider species. Nevertheless, physiological responses to salinity were highly consistent with the realized

  3. Physiology for engineers applying engineering methods to physiological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formulated and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies. Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reacti...

  4. Network Physiology reveals relations between network topology and physiological function

    CERN Document Server

    Bashan, Amir; Kantelhardt, Jan W; Havlin, Shlomo; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; 10.1038/ncomms1705

    2012-01-01

    The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiologic systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse systems with different types of interactions is a challenge. Here, we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiologic network. We find that each physiologic state is characterized by a specific network structure, demonstrating a robust interplay between network topology and function. Across physiologic states the network undergoes topological transitions associated with fast reorganization of physiologic interactions on time scales of a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate the development of a new field, Network Physiology.

  5. Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are t

  6. Automatization and working memory capacity in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raalten, Tamar R; Ramsey, Nick F; Jansma, J Martijn; Jager, Gerry; Kahn, René S

    2008-03-01

    Working memory (WM) dysfunction in schizophrenia is characterized by inefficient WM recruitment and reduced capacity, but it is not yet clear how these relate to one another. In controls practice of certain cognitive tasks induces automatization, which is associated with reduced WM recruitment and increased capacity of concurrent task performance. We therefore investigated whether inefficient function and reduced capacity in schizophrenia was associated with a failure in automatization. FMRI data was acquired with a verbal WM task with novel and practiced stimuli in 18 schizophrenia patients and 18 controls. Participants performed a dual-task outside the scanner to test WM capacity. Patients showed intact performance on the WM task, which was paralleled by excessive WM activity. Practice improved performance and reduced WM activity in both groups. The difference in WM activity after practice predicted performance cost in controls but not in patients. In addition, patients showed disproportionately poor dual-task performance compared to controls, especially when processing information that required continuous adjustment in WM. Our findings support the notion of inefficient WM function and reduced capacity in schizophrenia. This was not related to a failure in automatization, but was evident when processing continuously changing information. This suggests that inefficient WM function and reduced capacity may be related to an inability to process information requiring frequent updating.

  7. Physiological and Medical Aspects That Put Women Soldiers at Increased Risk for Overuse Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Fleischmann, Chen; Yanovich, Ran; Heled, Yuval

    2015-11-01

    Anthropometric and physiological factors place female soldiers at a disadvantage relative to male soldiers in most aspects of physical performance. Average aerobic and anaerobic fitness levels are lower in women than in men. Thus, women have a lower overall work capacity and must exert themselves more than men to achieve the same output. The lower weight and fat-free mass and the higher body fat of women are associated with lower muscle strength and endurance, placing them at a disadvantage compared with men in performing military tasks such as lifting and carrying weights, or marching with a load. Working at a higher percentage of their maximal capacity to achieve the same performance levels as men, women tire earlier. Their smaller size, skeletal anatomy, and different bone geometry also predispose women to a higher incidence of exercise-related injuries. Consequently, the attrition rate of female soldiers in combat units is higher than that of their male counterparts. This review summarizes the literature on gender-related physiological and anatomical differences that put female soldiers at an increased risk of exercise-related injuries.

  8. Morpho-physiological response of Colobanthus quitensis and Juncus bufonius under different simulations of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Lillo, Eduardo; Cuba-Díaz, Marely; Rifo, Sergio

    2017-03-01

    Global warming has caused an increase in ambient temperature in Antarctica, which has led to changes in water availability due to increases of precipitation and the melting of permafrost. This scenario of climate change is shown to improve growth conditions, as well as increase populations and local expansion of native and non-native species in the Maritime Antarctic. We hypothesize that the combined effect of the increase in temperature and water availability will enhance the eco-physiological performance in Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. and Juncus bufonius L., being more evident in the non-native species. To test this, a combined effect of temperatures and water availability (4°C H2O (field capacity), 4 °C + H2O (40% more than field capacity),15°C H2O, 15 °C + H2O, 20°C H2O and 20 °C + H2O) on morphological and physiological variables on both species were assessed. Temperatures and water availability increased significantly, which enhanced variables such as plant length, number of inflorescences, Fv/Fm and chlorophyll content for both species. When evaluating both species separately, we determined that the most crucial climate factor for the growth and development of C. quitensis was water availability, while the main determinate factor for the growth and development of J. bufonius was temperature. Also, through the simulated temperature rise and increased water availability, J. bufonius reached higher growth rates compared to C. quitensis.

  9. Random Access Transport Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Jeffrey G; Kountouris, Marios; Haenggi, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We develop a new metric for quantifying end-to-end throughput in multihop wireless networks, which we term random access transport capacity, since the interference model presumes uncoordinated transmissions. The metric quantifies the average maximum rate of successful end-to-end transmissions, multiplied by the communication distance, and normalized by the network area. We show that a simple upper bound on this quantity is computable in closed-form in terms of key network parameters when the number of retransmissions is not restricted and the hops are assumed to be equally spaced on a line between the source and destination. We also derive the optimum number of hops and optimal per hop success probability and show that our result follows the well-known square root scaling law while providing exact expressions for the preconstants as well. Numerical results demonstrate that the upper bound is accurate for the purpose of determining the optimal hop count and success (or outage) probability.

  10. Working capacity and cervical dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martikainen, Kirsti K; Luukkaala, Tiina H; Marttila, Reijo J

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this questionnaire study was to assess the effect of cervical dystonia on patients' working capacity. Of the 303 working-aged members of the Finnish Dystonia Association (N = 433) who participated in the study 247 (82%) had cervical dystonia. Their median age was 50 years, the median duration of CD symptoms was 12.3 years. Most (78%) subjects were on botulinum toxin treatment. Ninety-seven (39%) had retired because of CD at a median age of 48 years; 96 (39%) of the subjects were working: 87 full-time and 9 part-time. The remaining participants were on sick leave, unemployed, studying or retired of other reasons. Retirement occurred more than ten years earlier compared with the general Finnish population. All possibilities to help CD patients to continue longer in work should be considered early.

  11. Network physiology reveals relations between network topology and physiological function

    OpenAIRE

    Bashan, Amir; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Havlin, Shlomo; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2012-01-01

    The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiological systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse systems with different types of interactions is a challenge. Here we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiological network. We find that each physiological state is...

  12. Increased carrying capacity with perennial forage kochia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrying capacity can be increased on grass-dominated rangeland pastures by including perennial forage kochia (Kochia prostrata) as one of the plant components. The objectives of the study reported here were to compare the differences of traditional winter pastures versus pastures with forage kochi...

  13. Aging and verbal working memory capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Kralingen, R.B.A.S. van

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. The development of verbal working memory capacity over time was investigated. xxx Methods. Four different age groups were tested with the new standard computerized version of the reading span test (Van den Noort et al., 2006, 2008). xxx Results. Compared to the young adults, the old adu

  14. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    At the strategic level, railways currently use different indices to estimate how ‘value’ is generated by using railway capacity. However, railway capacity is a multidisciplinary area, and attempts to develop various indices cannot provide a holistic measure of operational efficiency. European...... railways are facing a capacity challenge which is caused by passenger and freight demand exceeding the track capacity supply. In the absence of a comprehensive railway capacity manual, methodologies are needed to assess how well railways use their track capacity. This paper presents a novel...... and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways...

  15. Physiology of vitreous surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefánsson, Einar

    2009-02-01

    Vitreous surgery has various physiological and clinical consequences, both beneficial and harmful. Vitrectomy reduces the risk of retinal neovascularization, while increasing the risk of iris neovascularization, reduces macular edema and stimulates cataract formation. These clinical consequences may be understood with the help of classical laws of physics and physiology. The laws of Fick, Stokes-Einstein and Hagen-Poiseuille state that molecular transport by diffusion or convection is inversely related to the viscosity of the medium. When the vitreous gel is replaced with less viscous saline, the transport of all molecules, including oxygen and cytokines, is facilitated. Oxygen transport to ischemic retinal areas is improved, as is clearance of VEGF and other cytokines from these areas, thus reducing edema and neovascularization. At the same time, oxygen is transported faster down a concentration gradient from the anterior to the posterior segment, while VEGF moves in the opposite direction, making the anterior segment less oxygenated and with more VEGF, stimulating iris neovascularization. Silicone oil is the exception that proves the rule: it is more viscous than vitreous humour, re-establishes the transport barrier to oxygen and VEGF, and reduces the risk for iris neovascularization in the vitrectomized-lentectomized eye. Modern vitreous surgery involves a variety of treatment options in addition to vitrectomy itself, such as photocoagulation, anti-VEGF drugs, intravitreal steroids and release of vitreoretinal traction. A full understanding of these treatment modalities allows sensible combination of treatment options. Retinal photocoagulation has repeatedly been shown to improve retinal oxygenation, as does vitrectomy. Oxygen naturally reduces VEGF production and improves retinal hemodynamics. The VEGF-lowering effect of photocoagulation and vitrectomy can be augmented with anti-VEGF drugs and the permeability effect of VEGF reduced with corticosteroids

  16. Procedures of Exercise Physiology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Phillip A.; Fortney, Suzanne; Greenisen, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Squires, William

    1998-01-01

    This manual describes the laboratory methods used to collect flight crew physiological performance data at the Johnson Space Center. The Exercise Countermeasures Project Laboratory is a standard physiology laboratory; only the application to the study of human physiological adaptations to spaceflight is unique. In the absence of any other recently published laboratory manual, this manual should be a useful document staffs and students of other laboratories.

  17. Capacity building for HIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gulis PhD

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: To integrate health impact assessment (HIA into existing decision-making processes requires not only methods and procedures but also well-trained experts, aware policy makers and appropriate institutions. Capacity building is the assistance which is provided to entities, which have a need to develop a certain skill or competence, or for general upgrading of performance ability. If a new technique is planned to be introduced there is a need for capacity building with no respect to levels (local, regional, national, international or sectors (health, environment, finance, social care, education, etc.. As such, HIA is a new technique for most of the new Member States and accession countries of the European Union.

    Methods: To equip individuals with the understanding and skills needed to launch a HIA or be aware of the availability of this methodology and to access information, knowledge and training, we focused on the organization of workshops in participating countries. The workshops served also as pilot events to test a “curriculum” for HIA; a set of basic topics and presentations had been developed to be tested during workshops. In spite of classical in-class workshops we aimed to organize e-learning events as a way to over come the “busyness” problem of decision makers.

    Results: Throughout March – October 2006 we organized and ran 7 workshops in Denmark, Turkey, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria, Slovak Republic and Hungary. Participants came from the public health sector (141, non-public health decision makers (113 and public health students (100. A concise curriculum was developed and tested during these workshops. Participants developed a basic understanding of HIA, skills to develop and use their own screening tools as well as scoping.Within the workshop in Denmark we tested an online, real-time Internet based training method; participants highly welcomed this

  18. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  19. Preeclampsia, biomarkers, syncytiotrophoblast stress, and placental capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Christopher W G; Staff, Anne Cathrine

    2015-10-01

    The maternal syndrome of preeclampsia is mediated by dysfunctional syncytiotrophoblast (STB). When this is stressed by uteroplacental malperfusion, its signaling to the mother changes, as part of a highly coordinated stress response. The STB signals are both proinflammatory and dysangiogenic such that the preeclamptic mother has a stronger vascular inflammatory response than normal, with an antiangiogenic bias. Angiogenic factors have limitations as preeclampsia biomarkers, especially for prediction and diagnosis of preeclampsia at term. However, if they are recognized as markers of STB stress, their physiological changes at term demonstrate that STB stress develops in all pregnancies. The biomarkers reveal that the duration of pregnancies is restricted by placental capacity, such that there is increasing placental dysfunction, at and beyond term. This capacity includes limitations imposed by the size of the uterus, the capacity of the uteroplacental circulation and, possibly, the supply of villous progenitor trophoblast cells. Limited placental capacity explains the increasing risks of postmaturity, including preeclampsia. Early-onset preeclampsia is predictable because STB stress and changes in its biomarkers are intrinsic to poor placentation, an early pregnancy pathology. Prediction of preeclampsia at term is not good because there is no early STB pathology. Moreover, biomarkers cannot accurately diagnose term preeclampsia against a background of universal STB dysfunction, which may or may not be clinically revealed before spontaneous or induced delivery. In this sense, postterm pregnancy is, at best, a pseudonormal state. However, the markers may prove useful in screening for women with more severe problems of postmaturity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Multi-Scale Sampling Strategy for Detecting Physiologically Significant Signals in AVIRIS Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, John A.; Lee, Lai-Fun; Qiu, Hong-Lie; Davis, Stephen; Roberts, Dar A.; Ustin, Susan L.

    1998-01-01

    Models of photosynthetic production at ecosystem and global scales require multiple input parameters specifying physical and physiological surface features. While certain physical parameters (e.g., absorbed photosynthetically active radiation) can be derived from current satellite sensors, other physiologically relevant measures (e.g., vegetation type, water status, carboxylation capacity, or photosynthetic light-use efficiency), are not generally directly available from current satellite sensors at the appropriate geographic scale. Consequently, many model parameters must be assumed or derived from independent sources, often at an inappropriate scale. An abundance of ecophysiological studies at the leaf and canopy scales suggests strong physiological control of vegetation-atmosphere CO2 and water vapor fluxes, particularly in evergreen vegetation subjected to diurnal or seasonal stresses. For example hot, dry conditions can lead to stomatal closure, and associated "downregulation" of photosynthetic biochemical processes, a phenomenon often manifested as a "midday photosynthetic depression". A recent study with the revised simple biosphere (SiB2) model demonstrated that photosynthetic downregulation can significantly impact global climate. However, at the global scale, the exact significance of downregulation remains unclear, largely because appropriate physiological measures are generally unavailable at this scale. Clearly, there is a need to develop reliable ways of extracting physiologically relevant information from remote sensing. Narrow-band spectrometers offer many opportunities for deriving physiological parameters needed for ecosystem and global scale photosynthetic models. Experimental studies on the ground at the leaf- to stand-scale have indicated that several narrow-band features can be used to detect plant physiological status. One physiological signal is caused by xanthophyll cycle pigment activity, and is often expressed as the Photochemical

  1. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic.

  2. Hypertension: physiology and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John E; Granger, Joey P; do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Dubinion, John; George, Eric; Hamza, Shereen; Speed, Joshua; Hall, Michael E

    2012-10-01

    Despite major advances in understanding the pathophysiology of hypertension and availability of effective and safe antihypertensive drugs, suboptimal blood pressure (BP) control is still the most important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and is globally responsible for more than 7 million deaths annually. Short-term and long-term BP regulation involve the integrated actions of multiple cardiovascular, renal, neural, endocrine, and local tissue control systems. Clinical and experimental observations strongly support a central role for the kidneys in the long-term regulation of BP, and abnormal renal-pressure natriuresis is present in all forms of chronic hypertension. Impaired renal-pressure natriuresis and chronic hypertension can be caused by intrarenal or extrarenal factors that reduce glomerular filtration rate or increase renal tubular reabsorption of salt and water; these factors include excessive activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, increased formation of reactive oxygen species, endothelin, and inflammatory cytokines, or decreased synthesis of nitric oxide and various natriuretic factors. In human primary (essential) hypertension, the precise causes of impaired renal function are not completely understood, although excessive weight gain and dietary factors appear to play a major role since hypertension is rare in nonobese hunter-gathers living in nonindustrialized societies. Recent advances in genetics offer opportunities to discover gene-environment interactions that may also contribute to hypertension, although success thus far has been limited mainly to identification of rare monogenic forms of hypertension. © 2012 American Physiological Society

  3. Physiology in Modelica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Mateják

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Modelica is an object-oriented language, in which models can be created and graphically represented by connecting instances of classes from libraries. These connections are not only assignments of values; they can also represent acausal equality. Even more, they can model Kirchhoff’s laws of circuits. In Modelica it is possible to develop library classes which are an analogy of electrical circuit components. The result of our work in this field is Physiolibrary (www.physiolibrary.org – a free, open-source Modelica library for human physiology. By graphical joining instances of Physiolibrary classes, user can create models of cardiovascular circulation, thermoregulation, metabolic processes, nutrient distribution, gas transport, electrolyte regulation, water distribution, hormonal regulation and pharmacological regulation. After simple setting of the parameters, the models are ready to simulate. After simulation, the user can examine variables as their values change over time. Representing the model as a diagram has also great educational advantages, because students are able to better understand physical principles when they see them modeled graphically.

  4. Smolt physiology and endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  5. Polyamines in plant physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galston, A. W.; Sawhney, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing.

  6. DOSHIC PHYSIOLOGY OF SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivprasad Chiplunkar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The balance of dosha  represents the healthy state and imbalance will cause various diseases. In normalcy doshas will be performing their own functions and individual doshas will be having their own specific sites. By telling the various sthana of each dosha, different function that is taken up by individual dosha in different sites has been highlighted.By mentioning ‘sparshanendriyam’ as one of the sthana of vata dosha the sensory functions of skin to vata dosha has been emphasised. By mentioning ‘sparshanam’ as one of the sthana of pittadosha, the function of colouring/pigmentation of skin, which is majorly carried out  by melanocytes by secreting melanin pigment has been highlighted. Meda is one among the sthanas of kapha dosha; this can be considered as the adipose tissue of skin/below skin. Since sweda is mala of meda it can be also considered as the secretions from the eccrine glands.With respect to skin, sensory functions, both tactile and thermal is carried out by vata dosha more specifically vyana vata, pigmentation to the skin carried out by meloncytes by secreting melanin, it is nothing but function of pitta dosha more specifically brajaka pitta with the help of udana vata and finally production of sweat in sweat glands is the function of kapha. So there is the need for further study and research regarding the sthanas of all three doshas in different structures/organs in the body and its physiology.

  7. Physiology of Volition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Mark

    The idea of free will is a conscious awareness of the brain concerning the nature of the movement that it produces. There is no evidence for it to be a driving force in movement generation. This review considers the physiology of movement generation and how the concepts of willing and agency might arise. Both the anatomical substrates and the timing of events are considered. Movement initiation and volition are not necessarily linked, and one line of evidence comes from consideration of patients with disorders of volition. Movement is generated subconsciously, and the conscious sense of willing the movement comes later, but the exact time of this event is difficult to assess because of the potentially illusory nature of introspection. The evidence suggests that movement is initiated in frontal lobe, particularly the mesial areas, and the sense of volition arises as the result of a corollary discharge from premotor and motor areas likely involving the parietal lobe. Agency probably involves a similar region in the parietal lobe and requires both the sense of volition and movement feedback.

  8. Quantum Reading Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Pirandola, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L

    2011-01-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory [S. Pirandola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 090504 (2011)]. In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e., a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of "parallel" channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of an infinite block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantify...

  9. Wireless Connectivity and Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Halldorsson, Magnus M

    2011-01-01

    Given $n$ wireless transceivers located in a plane, a fundamental problem in wireless communications is to construct a strongly connected digraph on them such that the constituent links can be scheduled in fewest possible time slots, assuming the SINR model of interference. In this paper, we provide an algorithm that connects an arbitrary point set in $O(\\log n)$ slots, improving on the previous best bound of $O(\\log^2 n)$ due to Moscibroda. This is complemented with a super-constant lower bound on our approach to connectivity. An important feature is that the algorithms allow for bi-directional (half-duplex) communication. One implication of this result is an improved bound of $\\Omega(1/\\log n)$ on the worst-case capacity of wireless networks, matching the best bound known for the extensively studied average-case. We explore the utility of oblivious power assignments, and show that essentially all such assignments result in a worst case bound of $\\Omega(n)$ slots for connectivity. This rules out a recent cla...

  10. Integrated flexible capacity and inventory management under flexible capacity uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Paç, Mehmet Fazıl

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. In a manufacturing environment with volatile demand, inventory management can be coupled with dynamic capacity adjustments for handling the fluctuations more effectively. In this study we consider the integrated management of inventory and flexible capacity management under seasonal stochastic demand and uncertain labor supply. The capacity planning problem is investigated from the workforce planning perspective. We consider a manufactu...

  11. Excess digestive capacity in predators reflects a life of feast and famine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jonathan B; Schindler, Daniel E

    2011-07-06

    A central challenge for predators is achieving positive energy balance when prey are spatially and temporally heterogeneous. Ecological heterogeneity produces evolutionary trade-offs in the physiological design of predators; this is because the ability to capitalize on pulses of food abundance requires high capacity for food-processing, yet maintaining such capacity imposes energetic costs that are taxing during periods of food scarcity. Recent advances in physiology show that when variation in foraging opportunities is predictable, animals may adjust energetic trade-offs by rapidly modulating their digestive system to track variation in foraging opportunities. However, it is increasingly recognized that foraging opportunities for animals are unpredictable, which should favour animals that maintain a capacity for food-processing that exceeds average levels of consumption (loads). Despite this basic principle of quantitative evolutionary design, estimates of digestive load:capacity ratios in wild animals are virtually non-existent. Here we provide an extensive assessment of load:capacity ratios for the digestive systems of predators in the wild, compiling 639 estimates across 38 species of fish. We found that piscine predators typically maintain the physiological capacity to feed at daily rates 2-3 times higher than what they experience on average. A numerical simulation of the trade-off between food-processing capacity and metabolic cost suggests that the observed level of physiological opportunism is profitable only if predator-prey encounters, and thus predator energy budgets, are far more variable in nature than currently assumed.

  12. Physical and physiological profile of elite karate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabène, Helmi; Hachana, Younés; Franchini, Emerson; Mkaouer, Bessem; Chamari, Karim

    2012-10-01

    This review focuses on the most important physical and physiological characteristics of karate athletes from the available scientific research. It has been established that karate's top-level performers require a high fitness level. Top-level male karate athletes are typified by low body fat and mesomorphic-ectomorphic somatotype characteristics. Studies dealing with body composition and somatotype of females are scarce. Aerobic capacity has been reported to play a major role in karate performance. It prevents fatigue during training and ensures the recovery processes during rest periods between two subsequent bouts of fighting activity within a fight and between two consecutive matches. It has been established that there is no significant difference between male and female kata (forms) and kumite (sparring/combat) athletes with regard to aerobic performance. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to support these findings. Concerning anaerobic performance, there is a difference in maximal power explored by the force-velocity test between national and international level karatekas (karate practitioners) but, for the maximum accumulated oxygen deficit test there is no difference between them. Muscle explosive power plays a vital role in a karateka's capacity for high-level performance. However, it has been revealed that vertical jump performance, maximal power and maximal velocity differed between national- and international-level karatekas. Moreover, it has been reported that karate performance relies more on muscle power at lower loads rather than higher ones. Thus, karate's decisive actions are essentially dependent on muscle explosive power in both the upper and lower limbs. With regard to dynamic strength, limited research has been conducted. The maximal absolute bench press, half-squat one-repetition maximum and performance of isokinetic tasks differed significantly between highly competitive and novice male karatekas. Studies on female karate athletes do

  13. The Power of Comparative Physiology: Evolution, Integration and Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    C.A.S. Turnbull and M.D. store development in nursing harbor seal Dearing. Univ. of Utah. pups. C.A. Creelman , J.M. Burns and 13 7.13 Photoperiod...Cheryl Anne Creelman ’, Jennifer M Bums’, Jason F Schroer’: ’University of Alaska Trude Eva Reich, Paul Keim, Stan L. Lindstedt: Northern Arizona...7.52 Creelman , C., 7.25 Gardner, M., 7.14 .IHsiyh, S., 46.24 Baker. P., 46.19 Crossley 11, D., 45.5 Garland, Jr., T., 2.3, 26. 1, Huierma, H., 46.24

  14. Capacity Bounds and High-SNR Capacity of MIMO Intensity-Modulation Optical Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2017-06-01

    The capacity of the intensity modulation direct detection multiple-input multiple-output channel is studied. Therein, the nonnegativity constraint of the transmit signal limits the applicability of classical schemes, including precoding. Thus, new ways are required for deriving capacity lower and upper bounds for this channel. To this end, capacity lower bounds are developed by deriving the achievable rates of two precoding-free schemes: Channel inversion and QR decomposition. The achievable rate of a DC-offset SVD-based scheme is also derived as a benchmark. Then, capacity upper bounds are derived and compared against the lower bounds. As a result, the capacity at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is characterized for the case where the number of transmit apertures is not larger than the number of receive apertures, and is shown to be achievable by the QR decomposition scheme. This is shown for a channel with average intensity or peak intensity constraints. For a channel with both constraints, the high-SNR capacity is approximated within a small gap. Extensions to a channel with more transmit apertures than receive apertures are discussed, and capacity bounds for this case are derived.

  15. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Ashraf; Nasr, Ahmed

    2013-03-01

    Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21-31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18-75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  16. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Nazir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  17. Causality in physiological signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Kraemer, Jan F; Penzel, Thomas; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Kurths, Jürgen; Wessel, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Health is one of the most important non-material assets and thus also has an enormous influence on material values, since treating and preventing diseases is expensive. The number one cause of death worldwide today originates in cardiovascular diseases. For these reasons the aim of understanding the functions and the interactions of the cardiovascular system is and has been a major research topic throughout various disciplines for more than a hundred years. The purpose of most of today's research is to get as much information as possible with the lowest possible effort and the least discomfort for the subject or patient, e.g. via non-invasive measurements. A family of tools whose importance has been growing during the last years is known under the headline of coupling measures. The rationale for this kind of analysis is to identify the structure of interactions in a system of multiple components. Important information lies for example in the coupling direction, the coupling strength, and occurring time lags. In this work, we will, after a brief general introduction covering the development of cardiovascular time series analysis, introduce, explain and review some of the most important coupling measures and classify them according to their origin and capabilities in the light of physiological analyses. We will begin with classical correlation measures, go via Granger-causality-based tools, entropy-based techniques (e.g. momentary information transfer), nonlinear prediction measures (e.g. mutual prediction) to symbolic dynamics (e.g. symbolic coupling traces). All these methods have contributed important insights into physiological interactions like cardiorespiratory coupling, neuro-cardio-coupling and many more. Furthermore, we will cover tools to detect and analyze synchronization and coordination (e.g. synchrogram and coordigram). As a last point we will address time dependent couplings as identified using a recent approach employing ensembles of time series. The

  18. Physiology of Visceral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, G F; Bielefeldt, Klaus

    2016-09-15

    Pain involving thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic organs is a common cause for physician consultations, including one-third of chronic pain patients who report that visceral organs contribute to their suffering. Chronic visceral pain conditions are typically difficult to manage effectively, largely because visceral sensory mechanisms and factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of visceral pain are poorly understood. Mechanistic understanding is particularly problematic in "functional" visceral diseases where there is no apparent pathology and pain typically is the principal complaint. We review here the anatomical organization of the visceral sensory innervation that distinguishes the viscera from innervation of all other tissues in the body. The viscera are innervated by two nerves that share overlapping functions, but also possess notably distinct functions. Additionally, the visceral innervation is sparse relative to the sensory innervation of other tissues. Accordingly, visceral sensations tend to be diffuse in character, are typically referred to nonvisceral somatic structures and thus are difficult to localize. Early arguments about whether the viscera were innervated ("sensate") and later, whether innervated by nociceptors, were resolved by advances reviewed here in the anatomical and functional attributes of receptive endings in viscera that contribute to visceral pain (i.e., visceral nociceptors). Importantly, the contribution of plasticity (i.e., sensitization) of peripheral and central visceral nociceptive mechanisms is considered in the context of persistent, chronic visceral pain conditions. The review concludes with an overview of the functional anatomy of visceral pain processing. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1609-1633, 2016. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Visual attention capacity after right hemisphere lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill

    2007-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in visual short-term memory (VSTM) including the neural basis of the function. Processing speed, another main aspect of visual attention capacity, has received less investigation. For both cognitive functions human lesion studies are sparse. We used...... a whole report experiment for estimation of these two parameters in 22 patients with right side stroke. Psychophysical performance was analyzed using Bundesen's [Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review, 97, 523-547] Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and compared...... for both VSTM capacity and ipsilesional processing speed. The study also showed that lesions in a large region of the right hemisphere, including the putamen, insula, and inferior frontal cortex, do not lead to general deficits in the capacity of visual attention. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr-8...

  20. DOE mixed waste treatment capacity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.A.; Wehrman, R.R.; Young, J.R.; Shaver, S.R.

    1994-06-01

    This initial DOE-wide analysis compares the reported national capacity for treatment of mixed wastes with the calculated need for treatment capacity based on both a full treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes to the Land Disposal Restrictions and on treatment of transuranic wastes to the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The status of treatment capacity is reported based on a fifty-element matrix of radiation-handling requirements and functional treatment technology categories. The report defines the classifications for the assessment, describes the models used for the calculations, provides results from the analysis, and includes appendices of the waste treatment facilities data and the waste stream data used in the analysis.

  1. The ultimate bearing capacity of ice beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available It is usually proposed that bearing capacity of the ice beam during its interaction with a sloping hydraulic structure is exhausted when tensile stresses in the beam’s cross-section reach some limit. But besides the tensile stress there is a compressive stress during the interaction with a sloping structure. This can change our estimations of the ultimate bearing capacity and load exerted on the structure. The purpose of the study was to estimate influence of the longitudinal compressive stress on the ice beam’s ultimate bearing capacity. The solution was obtained with the program complex LS-DYNA. Results of the mathematical modeling were compared with data of physical experiments conducted by Sodhi. Good correlation of the results gave possibility to conduct wide numerical experiments and to suggest corrections to the existing methodology.

  2. Available transmission capacity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škokljev Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective power system operation requires the analysis of vast amounts of information. Power market activities expose power transmission networks to high-level power transactions that threaten normal, secure operation of the power system. When there are service requests for a specific sink/source pair in a transmission system, the transmission system operator (TSO must allocate the available transfer capacity (ATC. It is common that ATC has a single numerical value. Additionally, the ATC must be calculated for the base case configuration of the system, while generation dispatch and topology remain unchanged during the calculation. Posting ATC on the internet should benefit prospective users by aiding them in formulating their requests. However, a single numerical value of ATC offers little for prospect for analysis, planning, what-if combinations, etc. A symbolic approach to the power flow problem (DC power flow and ATC offers a numerical computation at the very end, whilst the calculation beforehand is performed by using symbols for the general topology of the electrical network. Qualitative analysis of the ATC using only qualitative values, such as increase, decrease or no change, offers some new insights into ATC evaluation, multiple transactions evaluation, value of counter-flows and their impact etc. Symbolic analysis in this paper is performed after the execution of the linear, symbolic DC power flow. As control variables, the mathematical model comprises linear security constraints, ATC, PTDFs and transactions. The aim is to perform an ATC sensitivity study on a five nodes/seven lines transmission network, used for zonal market activities tests. A relatively complicated environment with twenty possible bilateral transactions is observed.

  3. Assessing prebaccalaureate human physiology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, V L

    1998-12-01

    Two surveys were conducted between 1994 and 1996. The purpose of the initial survey was to obtain demographic information about prebaccaulareate human physiology courses. Of the 117 responding physiology departments, 50% offered human physiology at the prebaccalaureate level to 14,185 students during the 1994-1995 academic year. The mean was 245 students per year (+/- 30 SE). Class size was limited by 44% of the respondents. Prebaccaluareate human physiology was offered as a separate course from anatomy by 93% of the departments. Sixty-one percent scheduled the course once a year. The purpose of the second survey was to determine how physiology departments evaluated prebaccalaureate physiology courses and faculty. All responding departments utilized student feedback; 38% of the departments included physiology chair review, 38% peer review, and 9% allied health faculty review. Twenty-eight percent of allied health programs evaluated the course. Results indicated that, whereas a significant number of undergraduate students are enrolled in prebaccaluareate physiology courses annually, those courses appear to lack formal, consistent formative evaluation.

  4. Negative heat capacity of sodium clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Nava, J A; Michaelian, K; Reyes-Nava, Juan A.; Garzon, Ignacio L.; Michaelian, Karo

    2003-01-01

    Heat capacities of Na_N, N = 13, 20, 55, 135, 142, and 147, clusters have been investigated using a many-body Gupta potential and microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. Negative heat capacities around the cluster melting-like transition have been obtained for N = 135, 142, and 147, but the smaller clusters (N = 13, 20, and 55) do not show this peculiarity. By performing a survey of the cluster potential energy landscape (PEL), it is found that the width of the distribution function of the kinetic energy and the spread of the distribution of potential energy minima (isomers), are useful features to determine the different behavior of the heat capacity as a function of the cluster size. The effect of the range of the interatomic forces is studied by comparing the heat capacities of the Na_55 and Cd_55 clusters. It is shown that by decreasing the range of the many-body interaction, the distribution of isomers characterizing the PEL is modified appropriately to generate a negative heat capacity in the Cd_...

  5. Peak capacity in unidimensional chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neue, Uwe Dieter

    2008-03-14

    The currently existing knowledge about peak capacity in unidimensional separations is reviewed. The majority of the paper is dedicated to reversed-phase gradient chromatography, covering specific techniques as well as the subject of peak compression. Other sections deal with peak capacity in isocratic chromatography, size-exclusion chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography. An important topic is the limitation of the separation power and the meaning of the concept of peak capacity for real applications.

  6. Physiologic Status Monitoring via the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, G; Ciccarelli, G; Schwartz, S; Hughes, T; Boettcher, T; Barman, R; Langer, R; Swiston, A

    2015-01-01

    Reliable, real-time heart and respiratory rates are key vital signs used in evaluating the physiological status in many clinical and non-clinical settings. Measuring these vital signs generally requires superficial attachment of physically or logistically obtrusive sensors to subjects that may result in skin irritation or adversely influence subject performance. Given the broad acceptance of ingestible electronics, we developed an approach that enables vital sign monitoring internally from the gastrointestinal tract. Here we report initial proof-of-concept large animal (porcine) experiments and a robust processing algorithm that demonstrates the feasibility of this approach. Implementing vital sign monitoring as a stand-alone technology or in conjunction with other ingestible devices has the capacity to significantly aid telemedicine, optimize performance monitoring of athletes, military service members, and first-responders, as well as provide a facile method for rapid clinical evaluation and triage.

  7. Body composition and physiological characteristics of law enforcement officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitler, D L; Jones, G; Hawkins, J; Dudka, L

    1987-12-01

    The physical work capacity, body composition, and physiological characteristics of 12 law enforcement officers (9 males, 3 females) were measured. Subjects included a representative sample from the occupational categories of detective, staff, investigative and patrol officer. Mean maximal oxygen uptake of the men was 42.1 +/- 8.9 ml.kg-1min-1 with mean values of 41.5 +/- 8.7 ml.kg-1min-1 for the women. Measurement of body composition indicated an average of 24.4 +/- 7.1% body fat for the men and 30.9 +/- 1.2% for the women. Muscular power, strength, and endurance as measured by isolated limb flexion-extension movement and fitness test performance was considered average with no excessive bilateral differences. The results of this study were compared with other investigations of law enforcement officers of similar age groups. The officers displayed average or above health and physical fitness scores for their age classification and were able to complete all police task-oriented tests.

  8. Capacity Building in Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... development in this area. Furthermore, capacity building should ensure that the focus is on building sound institutions and governance rather than just high-level IT-infrastructures.    This overall approach to capacity building in land management is used for implementing a new land policy reform in Malawi...

  9. Mitochondrial physiology in the skeletal and cardiac muscles is altered in torrent ducks, Merganetta armata, from high altitudes in the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Neal J; Ivy, Catherine M; Alza, Luis; Cheek, Rebecca; York, Julia M; Chua, Beverly; Milsom, William K; McCracken, Kevin G; Scott, Graham R

    2016-12-01

    Torrent ducks inhabit fast-flowing rivers in the Andes from sea level to altitudes up to 4500 m. We examined the mitochondrial physiology that facilitates performance over this altitudinal cline by comparing the respiratory capacities of permeabilized fibers, the activities of 16 key metabolic enzymes and the myoglobin content in muscles between high- and low-altitude populations of this species. Mitochondrial respiratory capacities (assessed using substrates of mitochondrial complexes I, II and/or IV) were higher in highland ducks in the gastrocnemius muscle - the primary muscle used to support swimming and diving - but were similar between populations in the pectoralis muscle and the left ventricle. The heightened respiratory capacity in the gastrocnemius of highland ducks was associated with elevated activities of cytochrome oxidase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase and malate dehydrogenase (MDH). Although respiratory capacities were similar between populations in the other muscles, highland ducks had elevated activities of ATP synthase, lactate dehydrogenase, MDH, hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase and creatine kinase in the left ventricle, and elevated MDH activity and myoglobin content in the pectoralis. Thus, although there was a significant increase in the oxidative capacity of the gastrocnemius in highland ducks, which correlates with improved performance at high altitudes, the variation in metabolic enzyme activities in other muscles not correlated to respiratory capacity, such as the consistent upregulation of MDH activity, may serve other functions that contribute to success at high altitudes. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Capacity Measurement with the UIC 406 Capacity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Schittenhelm, Bernd; Kaas, Anders H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the fast and effective UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. It is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different capacity consumptions. Therefore, this article describes how the methodology is expounded...

  11. A conceptual framework for the emerging discipline of conservation physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coristine, Laura E.; Robillard, Cassandra M.; Kerr, Jeremy T.; O'Connor, Constance M.; Lapointe, Dominique; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Current rates of biodiversity decline are unprecedented and largely attributed to anthropogenic influences. Given the scope and magnitude of conservation issues, policy and management interventions must maximize efficiency and efficacy. The relatively new field of conservation physiology reveals the physiological mechanisms associated with population declines, animal–environment relationships and population or species tolerance thresholds, particularly where these relate to anthropogenic factors that necessitate conservation action. We propose a framework that demonstrates an integrative approach between physiology, conservation and policy, where each can inform the design, conduct and implementation of the other. Each junction of the conservation physiology process has the capacity to foster dialogue that contributes to effective implementation, monitoring, assessment and evaluation. This approach enables effective evaluation and implementation of evidence-based conservation policy and management decisions through a process of ongoing refinement, but may require that scientists (from the disciplines of both physiology and conservation) and policy-makers bridge interdisciplinary knowledge gaps. Here, we outline a conceptual framework that can guide and lead developments in conservation physiology, as well as promote innovative research that fosters conservation-motivated policy. PMID:27293654

  12. Applied physiology of swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, J M; Montpetit, R R

    1986-01-01

    Scientific research in swimming over the past 10 to 15 years has been oriented toward multiple aspects that relate to applied and basic physiology, metabolism, biochemistry, and endocrinology. This review considers recent findings on: 1) specific physical characteristics of swimmers; 2) the energetics of swimming; 3) the evaluation of aerobic fitness in swimming; and 4) some metabolic and hormonal aspects related to swimmers. Firstly, the age of finalists in Olympic swimming is not much different from that of the participants from other sports. They are taller and heavier than a reference population of the same age. The height bias in swimming may be the reason for lack of success from some Asian and African countries. Experimental data point toward greater leanness, particularly in female swimmers, than was seen 10 years ago. Overall, female swimmers present a range of 14 to 19% body fat whereas males are much lower (5 to 10%). Secondly, the relationship between O2 uptake and crawl swimming velocity (at training and competitive speeds) is thought to be linear. The energy cost varies between strokes with a dichotomy between the 2 symmetrical and the 2 asymmetrical strokes. Energy expenditure in swimming is represented by the sum of the cost of translational motion (drag) and maintenance of horizontal motion (gravity). The cost of the latter decreases as speed increases. Examination of the question of size-associated effects on the cost of swimming using Huxley's allometric equation (Y = axb) shows an almost direct relationship with passive drag. Expressing energy cost in litres of O2/m/kg is proposed as a better index of technical swimming ability than the traditional expression of VO2/distance in L/km. Thirdly, maximal direct conventional techniques used to evaluate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) in swimming include free swimming, tethered swimming, and flume swimming. Despite the individual peculiarities of each method, with similar experimental conditions

  13. Morpho-physiological response of Acacia auriculiformis as influenced by seawater induced salinity stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, A.; Rahman, M.; Nihad, S.A.I.; Howlader, R.A.; Akand, M.H.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: To evaluate the morpho-physiological changes of Acacia auriculiformis in response to seawater induced salinity stress along with its tolerance limit. Area of study: Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Bangladesh. Material and methods: Three saline treatments (4, 8, 12 dS m-1) were applied to six-month aged Acacia auriculiformis seedlings from January 2014 to June 2014 and the tap water was used as control treatment. To observe salinity effects, the following parameters were measured by using various established techniques: plant height and leaf number, plant biomass, shoot and root distribution as well as shoot and root density, water uptake capacity (WUC), water saturation deficit (WSD) and water retention capacity (WRC), exudation rate, and cell membrane stability. Main results: Diluted seawater caused a notable reduction in shoot and root distribution in addition to shoot and root density, though plant height, leaf number and plant biomass were found to be decreased to some extent compared to control plants. Water status of the plant also altered when plants were subjected to salinity stress. Nevertheless, membrane stability revealed good findings towards salinity tolerance. Research highlights: Considering the above facts, despite salinity exerts some negative effects on overall plant performance, interestingly the percent reduction value doesn’t exceed 50% as compared to control plants, and the plants were successful to tolerate salinity stress till the end of the experiment (150 days) through adopting some tolerance mechanisms. Abbreviations used: BSMRAU (Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University); RCBD (randomized complete block design); DATI (days after treatment imposition); RWC (relative water content); WUC (water uptake capacity); WSD (water saturation deficit); WRC (water retention capacity); FW (fresh weight); DW (dry weight); TW (turgid weight); ROS (reactive oxygen species). (Author)

  14. Digestive capacity predicts diet diversity in Neotropical frugivorous bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña-Vázquez, Romeo A; Ruiz-Sanchez, Eduardo; Herrera-Alsina, Leonel; Schondube, Jorge E

    2015-09-01

    1. Predicting the diet diversity of animals is important to basic and applied ecology. Knowledge of diet diversity in animals helps us understand niche partitioning, functional diversity and ecosystem services such as pollination, pest control and seed dispersal. 2. There is a negative relationship between the length of the digestive tract and diet diversity in animals; however, the role of digestive physiology in determining diet diversity has been ignored. This is especially important in vertebrates with powered flight because, unlike non-flying vertebrates, they have limitations that may constrain gut size. 3. Here, we evaluate the relationship between digestive capacity and diet diversity in Carollinae and Stenodermatinae frugivorous bats. These bats disperse the seeds of plants that are key to Neotropical forest regeneration. 4. Our results show that digestive capacity is a good predictor of diet diversity in Carollinae and Stenodermatinae frugivorous bats (R(2) = 0·77). 5. Surprisingly, the most phylogenetically closely related species were not similar in their digestive capacity or diet diversity. The lack of a phylogenetic signal for the traits evaluated implies differences in digestive physiology and diet in closely related species. 6. Our results highlight the predictive usefulness of digestive physiology for understanding the feeding ecology of animals. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  15. Desempeño fisiológico, estacionalidad y plasticidad fenotípica en pequeños mamíferos: microevolución de la capacidad de cambio en rasgos termorregulatorios Physiological performance, seasonality and phenotypic plasticity in small mammals: microevolution of change capacity in thermoregulatory characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO F. NESPOLO

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Los ajustes fisiológicos que por aclimatación térmica modifican el fenotipo a corto plazo tendrían una importancia central en aquellos pequeños mamíferos que habitan ambientes térmicamente fluctuantes. Bajo la premisa de que esta capacidad de cambio es adaptativa, en las últimas décadas un gran número de trabajos ha reportado y discutido el patrón desde variadas perspectivas. Sin embargo, esta premisa ha estado siempre relegada a las discusiones y muy pocas veces se ha puesto a prueba teórica o empíricamente, a pesar de que la biología evolutiva y la genética cuantitativa han desarrollado extensamente las herramientas para hacerlo. Creo que esta desconexión histórica se debe a un número de factores ya mencionado previamente por varios autores, que se discuten aquí brevemente. El área ha alcanzado la madurez suficiente como para experimentar un cambio de paradigma en dirección a cuantificar y probar cuantitativamente hipótesis adaptativas en torno a la ecofisiología de la aclimatación. En este ensayo se exponen y desarrollan los recursos que permitirían en último término modelar la evolución de los caracteres termorregulatorios claves de los pequeños endotermos que habitan ambientes estacionales. Esto es, determinando la plasticidad fenotípica asociada a estas variables, usando la norma de reacción como caracter y estimando sus varianzas genéticas aditivas y covarianzas, para construir la matriz de varianza-covarianza genética aditiva. Estos elementos, junto con la estimación del gradiente de selección como un índice de la presión de selección natural permitiría completar el modelo que predice la respuesta evolutiva a la selección natural en una población.Physiological adjustments that change the short term phenotype due thermal acclimation should be of central importance in small mammals that inhabit seasonal thermal environments. Under the premise of adaptation, a great number of works have reported and

  16. Fiscal Capacity Equalisation in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten A.; Ishemoi, Lewis J.

    2010-01-01

    Fiscal equalisation aims at enabling decentralised governments to supply similar services at similar tax rates. In order to equalise fiscal disparities, differences in both fiscal capacities and in fiscal needs have to be measured. This paper focuses on the measurement of fiscal capacity in a develo

  17. Improving African health research capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Wallace, Samantha A; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront is the migrat...

  18. Fiscal Capacity Equalisation in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten A.; Ishemoi, Lewis J.

    2010-01-01

    Fiscal equalisation aims at enabling decentralised governments to supply similar services at similar tax rates. In order to equalise fiscal disparities, differences in both fiscal capacities and in fiscal needs have to be measured. This paper focuses on the measurement of fiscal capacity in a develo

  19. Checking Capacity for MIMO Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    Wireless system capacity can be added by increasing the number of antennas in a MIMO setup or by carefully optimizing the performance of a smaller number of antennas.......Wireless system capacity can be added by increasing the number of antennas in a MIMO setup or by carefully optimizing the performance of a smaller number of antennas....

  20. Information capacity of quantum observable

    CERN Document Server

    Holevo, A S

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the classical capacities of quantum-classical channels corresponding to measurement of observables. Special attention is paid to the case of continuous observables. We give the formulas for unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities $C,C_{ea}$ and consider some explicitly solvable cases which give new examples of entanglement-breaking channels with $C_{ea}>C.$

  1. The western painted turtle genome, a model for the evolution of extreme physiological adaptations in a slowly evolving lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, H Bradley; Minx, Patrick; Warren, Daniel E; Shedlock, Andrew M; Thomson, Robert C; Valenzuela, Nicole; Abramyan, John; Amemiya, Chris T; Badenhorst, Daleen; Biggar, Kyle K; Borchert, Glen M; Botka, Christopher W; Bowden, Rachel M; Braun, Edward L; Bronikowski, Anne M; Bruneau, Benoit G; Buck, Leslie T; Capel, Blanche; Castoe, Todd A; Czerwinski, Mike; Delehaunty, Kim D; Edwards, Scott V; Fronick, Catrina C; Fujita, Matthew K; Fulton, Lucinda; Graves, Tina A; Green, Richard E; Haerty, Wilfried; Hariharan, Ramkumar; Hernandez, Omar; Hillier, LaDeana W; Holloway, Alisha K; Janes, Daniel; Janzen, Fredric J; Kandoth, Cyriac; Kong, Lesheng; de Koning, A P Jason; Li, Yang; Literman, Robert; McGaugh, Suzanne E; Mork, Lindsey; O'Laughlin, Michelle; Paitz, Ryan T; Pollock, David D; Ponting, Chris P; Radhakrishnan, Srihari; Raney, Brian J; Richman, Joy M; St John, John; Schwartz, Tonia; Sethuraman, Arun; Spinks, Phillip Q; Storey, Kenneth B; Thane, Nay; Vinar, Tomas; Zimmerman, Laura M; Warren, Wesley C; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K

    2013-03-28

    We describe the genome of the western painted turtle, Chrysemys picta bellii, one of the most widespread, abundant, and well-studied turtles. We place the genome into a comparative evolutionary context, and focus on genomic features associated with tooth loss, immune function, longevity, sex differentiation and determination, and the species' physiological capacities to withstand extreme anoxia and tissue freezing. Our phylogenetic analyses confirm that turtles are the sister group to living archosaurs, and demonstrate an extraordinarily slow rate of sequence evolution in the painted turtle. The ability of the painted turtle to withstand complete anoxia and partial freezing appears to be associated with common vertebrate gene networks, and we identify candidate genes for future functional analyses. Tooth loss shares a common pattern of pseudogenization and degradation of tooth-specific genes with birds, although the rate of accumulation of mutations is much slower in the painted turtle. Genes associated with sex differentiation generally reflect phylogeny rather than convergence in sex determination functionality. Among gene families that demonstrate exceptional expansions or show signatures of strong natural selection, immune function and musculoskeletal patterning genes are consistently over-represented. Our comparative genomic analyses indicate that common vertebrate regulatory networks, some of which have analogs in human diseases, are often involved in the western painted turtle's extraordinary physiological capacities. As these regulatory pathways are analyzed at the functional level, the painted turtle may offer important insights into the management of a number of human health disorders.

  2. Comparative Study on the Physiological Characters of the Three Nursery Seedlings for the Early Hybrid Rice%杂交早稻旱育秧、水育秧和板田 育秧方式秧苗素质比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德光; 蔡明历; 段志红; 刘承柳

    1999-01-01

    比较南方稻区并存的旱育秧、板田育秧和水育秧3种主要育秧方式秧苗的形态、生理及抗逆性表明,旱育苗根系发达,生长健壮,活力高,吸收氮、磷、钾能力强;叶片宽大健挺,叶鞘粗短,分蘖到位率高;生理素质优良,干物质积累多,组织充实,碳、氮代谢协调,抗逆性如抗寒性、立苗能力和抗涝能力明显优于板田育秧和水育秧。%Compared three seedling-raising methods-the dry nursery seedling (DNS), the untilled paddy nursery seedling (UPNS) and the paddy nursery seedling (PNS) both physiologically and morphologically the experiment results indicated that the quality of DNS was supperior to that of UPNS +PNS. The DNS had larger, stronger and more active root system responsible for high rooting ability and high N, P and K uptake; the above-ground part was also more healthy for DNS. The leaves were wider, longer and more vigourous, and their tillers grew basically eonincident with sychronous growth of leaves. Apart from these, the physiological characters of DNS were better than those of the others, for instance, more dry matter and more harmonious rate of N5 P and K uptake and metabolism of carbon and nitrogen. The tolerance to adverse conditions like cold and water-logging was superior to that of the UPNS +PNS, of course, the young UPNS vigor was better also. Otherwise, the paper discussed some aspects on the range of three seedling-raising methods.

  3. Understanding the physiology of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2013-03-01

    The physiology of schizophrenia includes complex genetic and environmental interactions. Current treatment largely focuses on positive symptoms, but many patients with schizophrenia present with additional symptoms and conditions that hinder their social and occupational functioning. The study of the physiology of this disorder has expanded beyond dopamine dysfunction to include the glutamate, serotonin, and nicotinic/acetylcholine systems, as well as physiologic abnormalities such as diabetes and inflammation. Clinicians who understand these additional problem areas can incorporate them into their assessment and treatment plans for patients with schizophrenia. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  4. Some psycho-physiological aspects of ecstasy in recent research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Ahlberg

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this article is to present some psycho-physiological perspectives of recent date concerned with the phenomenon of ecstasy. As almost none of this research has yet been assimilated by comparative religion, the focus here is on illustrating some of the background for renewed speculation on the relationship between psyche and soma. Traditional Western science has usually operated with a distinction between external and internal processes. Perhaps owing to this idea of the independence of our internal processes from our intentional consciousness, reports from other cultures such as those concerning the extraordinary achievements of holy men (e.g. their capacity to lie buried for days, or survive unclothed at very low temperatures have tended to be ignored as fantastic rumours (which, to some extent, is certainly true and myths. In a similar way the varieties of religious ecstatic states have often been countered with a shrug by psychiatrists. The recently renewed interest in consciousness within general psychology, together with what may be called marginal psychology and the drug revolt of youth culture have, however, provoked new speculation concerning human potential, speculation which in due time might also benefit comparative religion. From the perspective of comparative religion the primary concern is with cultural tradition and interpretation. Among our many new potential methods for better understanding ecstatic phenomena by means of experimental methods, biofeedback has been the most sensational one. It is above all the research in biofeedback that has forced many scientists to reconsider their view of the autonomic nervous system as a system completely independent of human will and control.

  5. Water stress and recovery in the performance of two Eucalyptus globulus clones: physiological and biochemical profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Barbara; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Neves, Lucinda; Brossa, Ricard; Dias, Maria Celeste; Costa, Armando; Castro, Bruno B; Araújo, Clara; Santos, Conceição; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Pinto, Glória

    2014-04-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are among the most productive forest stands in Portugal and Spain, being mostly used for pulp production and, more recently, as an energy crop. However, the region's Mediterranean climate, with characteristic severe summer drought, negatively affects eucalypt growth and increases mortality. Although the physiological response to water shortage is well characterized for this species, evidence about the plants' recovery ability remains scarce. In order to assess the physiological and biochemical response of Eucalyptus globulus during the recovery phase, two genotypes (AL-18 and AL-10) were submitted to a 3-week water stress period at two different intensities (18 and 25% of field capacity), followed by 1 week of rewatering. Recovery was assessed 1 day and 1 week after rehydration. Drought reduced height, biomass, water potential, NPQ and gas exchange in both genotypes. Contrarily, the levels of pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F(v) /F(m) and (φPSII)), MDA and ABA increased. During recovery, the physiological and biochemical profile of stressed plants showed a similar trend: they experienced reversion of altered traits (MDA, ABA, E, g(s), pigments), while other parameters did not recover ((φPSII), NPQ). Furthermore, an overcompensation of CO(2) assimilation was achieved 1 week after rehydration, which was accompanied by greater growth and re-establishment of oxidative balance. Both genotypes were tolerant to the tested conditions, although clonal differences were found. AL-10 was more productive and showed a more rapid and dynamic response to rehydration (namely in carotenoid content, (φPSII) and NPQ) compared to clone AL-18. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  6. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  7. Variability for Biological Nitrogen Fixation Capacity in Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    As legumes, common beans have the capacity to form a symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria called rhizobia and fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. Common beans however are considered to be poor nitrogen fixers as compared to other legumes. Identification of genetic variability for N fixation capac...

  8. Plant Functions in Wetland and Aquatic Systems: Influence of Intensity and Capacity of Soil Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. DeLaune

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetland or hydric soils, in addition to excess water and limited air-filled porosity, are characterized by anaerobic or reducing conditions. Wetland plants have developed physiological and morphological adaptations for growing under these conditions. Various methods exist for measuring plant responses to reducing conditions in wetland and aquatic environments, including assessment of radial oxygen transport, cellular enzymatic transformations, changes in root structure, and nutrient uptake. However, a gap exists in quantifying the chemical properties and reducing nature of soil environment in which plant roots are grown. The variation in reducing conditions, oxygen demand, and other associated processes that occur in wetland soils makes it difficult to truly compare the plant responses reported in the literature. This review emphasizes soil-plant interactions in wetlands, drawing attention to the importance of quantifying the intensity and capacity of reduction and/or oxygen demand in wetland soils to allow proper evaluation of wetland plant responses to such conditions.

  9. Children's exercise capacity at high altitude in Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianba; Andersen, Lars Bo; Stigum, Hein; Ouzhuluobu; Bjertness, Espen

    2014-11-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (exercise capacity) is a vital parameter in the evaluation of adaptation to high altitude, providing an index of the integrated function of the oxygen transport system. Previous studies of maximal oxygen uptake in population at high altitude have mainly focused on adults and adolescents, though data on children are uncommon. Maximal oxygen uptake can be measured directly, using an oxygen analyser, or indirectly through the development of equations for estimation from the maximal power output (W(max)). Such estimations and studies of the physiological aspects of children's capacity to work and live at different altitudes in Tibet ancestry were not reported previously, although differences similar to those seen in adults may be expected to occur. The present paper summarized the findings of studies on exercise capacity among children living at high altitude in Tibet.

  10. Medical electronics and physiological measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, T.

    1989-07-01

    This article describes some recent developments in physiological measurement since the last `special issue' in 1978. Nine examples are given covering mature applications, new techniques and some `ideas for the future'. The need for good scientists in this interesting and challenging area is stressed. Physiological measurement is challenging because human physiology is complex. The examples described in this article illustrate some areas where cooperation between basic scientists, engineers, clinicians and, not least, patients has led to remarkable advances in our understanding of man and his physiology. Many challenges still lie ahead. There is no doubt that good quality graduates, with fresh minds and fresh enthusiasm, are needed to build on the foundation that has already been laid.

  11. Survey of Departments of Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, William F.

    1977-01-01

    Presents data of the 1976 survey of departments of physiology. Includes comparison to 1974 and 1975 data for number of academic positions available, department budgets, graduate students and post doctoral fellows, and salaries. (SL)

  12. Physiology of the fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, Torvid

    2005-12-01

    Our understanding of fetal circulatory physiology is based on experimental animal data, and this continues to be an important source of new insight into developmental mechanisms. A growing number of human studies have investigated the human physiology, with results that are similar but not identical to those from animal studies. It is time to appreciate these differences and base more of our clinical approach on human physiology. Accordingly, the present review focuses on distributional patterns and adaptational mechanisms that were mainly discovered by human studies. These include cardiac output, pulmonary and placental circulation, fetal brain and liver, venous return to the heart, and the fetal shunts (ductus venosus, foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus). Placental compromise induces a set of adaptational and compensational mechanisms reflecting the plasticity of the developing circulation, with both short- and long-term implications. Some of these aspects have become part of the clinical physiology of today with consequences for surveillance and treatment.

  13. Olfaction: anatomy, physiology and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Benignus, Vernon A.; Prah, James D.

    1982-01-01

    The anatomy, physiology and function of the olfactory system are reviewed, as are the normal effects of olfactory stimulation. It is speculated that olfaction may have important but unobtrusive effects on human behavior.

  14. Survey of Departments of Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, William F.

    1977-01-01

    Presents data of the 1976 survey of departments of physiology. Includes comparison to 1974 and 1975 data for number of academic positions available, department budgets, graduate students and post doctoral fellows, and salaries. (SL)

  15. Performance Comparison of Capacity Control Methods for Reciprocating Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Liu, G. B.; Zhao, Y. Y.; Li, L. L.

    2015-08-01

    Different capacity control methods are used for adjusting suction flow of reciprocating compressors to meet process need. Compared with recycle or bypass and suction throttling, three capacity control methods of speed control, clearance pockets and suction valve unloading are preferred due to their energy-saving at operating condition of partial load. The paper reviewed state of the art of the current capacity control technologies and their principles. A comprehensive mathematical model was developed to predict thermodynamic and dynamic performance of reciprocating compressors equipped with the capacity control systems of four above-mentioned methods. Comparison of shaft work and mechanical efficiency were conducted for different capacity control methods at the same condition. In addition, their influence on p-v diagram and valve motion were also studied, which is important for reliability and life of the reciprocating compressors. These results were helpful for selection of the capacity control systems by end-users and optimum design by manufacturers.

  16. Reductive capacity measurement of waste forms for secondary radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Yang, Jung-Seok; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2015-12-01

    The reductive capacities of dry ingredients and final solid waste forms were measured using both the Cr(VI) and Ce(IV) methods and the results were compared. Blast furnace slag (BFS), sodium sulfide, SnF2, and SnCl2 used as dry ingredients to make various waste forms showed significantly higher reductive capacities compared to other ingredients regardless of which method was used. Although the BFS exhibits appreciable reductive capacity, it requires greater amounts of time to fully react. In almost all cases, the Ce(IV) method yielded larger reductive capacity values than those from the Cr(VI) method and can be used as an upper bound for the reductive capacity of the dry ingredients and waste forms, because the Ce(IV) method subjects the solids to a strong acid (low pH) condition that dissolves much more of the solids. Because the Cr(VI) method relies on a neutral pH condition, the Cr(VI) method can be used to estimate primarily the waste form surface-related and readily dissolvable reductive capacity. However, the Cr(VI) method does not measure the total reductive capacity of the waste form, the long-term reductive capacity afforded by very slowly dissolving solids, or the reductive capacity present in the interior pores and internal locations of the solids.

  17. Storage Capacity Modeling of Reservoir Systems Employing Performance Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Saket Oskoui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing a prediction relationship for total (i.e. within-year plus over-year storage capacity of reservoir systems is beneficial because it can be used as an alternative to the analysis of reservoirs during designing stage and gives an opportunity to planner to examine and compare different cases in a fraction of time required for complete analysis where detailed analysis is not necessary. Existing relationships for storage capacity are mostly capable of estimating over-year storage capacity and total storage capacity can be obtained through relationships for adjusting over-year capacity and there is no independent relationship to estimate total storage capacity. Moreover these relationships do not involve vulnerability performance criterion and are not verified for Malaysia Rivers. In this study two different reservoirs in Southern part of Peninsular Malaysia, Melaka and Muar, are analyzed through a Monte Carlo simulation approach involving performance metrics. Subsequently the storage capacity results of the simulation are compared with those of the well-known existing equations. It is observed that existing models may not predict total capacity appropriately for Malaysian reservoirs. Consequently, applying the simulation results, two separate regression equations are developed to model total storage capacity of study reservoirs employing time based reliability and vulnerability performance measures.

  18. Innovation capacity in the public sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny; Ricard, Lykke Margot

    The aim of this paper is to establish a framework for the comparative analysis of the four cases (municipalities), which will link innovation environments (governance structures, social networks and leadership qualities) to innovation capacity and innovativeness. It begins with a discussion...... of innovation, and then describes the governance structures in each nation and the 'innovativeness' of the four nations and cities. It explores the theoretical importance of social network concepts and leadership dimensions to innovation, and provides an overview of the relationship between structures, networks...... and leadership and innovation capacity. The analysis provided for the single city of Copenhagen, outlines the framework for the future comparative analysis. - See more at: http://www.lipse.org/newspage/item/72#sthash.R9zfPdIz.dpuf...

  19. Physiological Control of Germline Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbard, E. Jane Albert; Korta, Dorota Z.; Dalfó, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The intersection between developmental programs and environmental conditions that alter physiology is a growing area of research interest. The C. elegans germ line is emerging as a particularly sensitive and powerful model for these studies. The germ line is subject to environmentally regulated diapause points that allow worms to withstand harsh conditions both prior to and after reproduction commences. It also responds to more subtle changes in physiological conditions. Recent studies demons...

  20. Seasonal changes in reindeer physiology

    OpenAIRE

    A. Reeta Pösö

    2005-01-01

    The seasonal changes in the photoperiod, temperature and availability of food need to be converted to hormonal signals in order to induce adaptations in the physiology of the reindeer. The most reliable of the seasonal changes in the environment is the photoperiod, which affects the reindeer physiology through pineal gland and its hormone, melatonin. Usually there are large diurnal changes in the concentration of melatonin, but in the reindeer the daily rhythm disappears during the arctic sum...

  1. Interference and memory capacity limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Szabó, Szilárd

    2017-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is thought to have a fixed and limited capacity. However, the origins of these capacity limitations are debated, and generally attributed to active, attentional processes. Here, we show that the existence of interference among items in memory mathematically guarantees fixed and limited capacity limits under very general conditions, irrespective of any processing assumptions. Assuming that interference (a) increases with the number of interfering items and (b) brings memory performance to chance levels for large numbers of interfering items, capacity limits are a simple function of the relative influence of memorization and interference. In contrast, we show that time-based memory limitations do not lead to fixed memory capacity limitations that are independent of the timing properties of an experiment. We show that interference can mimic both slot-like and continuous resource-like memory limitations, suggesting that these types of memory performance might not be as different as commonly believed. We speculate that slot-like WM limitations might arise from crowding-like phenomena in memory when participants have to retrieve items. Further, based on earlier research on parallel attention and enumeration, we suggest that crowding-like phenomena might be a common reason for the 3 major cognitive capacity limitations. As suggested by Miller (1956) and Cowan (2001), these capacity limitations might arise because of a common reason, even though they likely rely on distinct processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Physiologically relevant organs on chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Kyungsuk; Hong, Soon Gweon; Healy, Kevin E; Lee, Luke P

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in integrating microengineering and tissue engineering have generated promising microengineered physiological models for experimental medicine and pharmaceutical research. Here we review the recent development of microengineered physiological systems, or also known as "ogans-on-chips", that reconstitute the physiologically critical features of specific human tissues and organs and their interactions. This technology uses microengineering approaches to construct organ-specific microenvironments, reconstituting tissue structures, tissue-tissue interactions and interfaces, and dynamic mechanical and biochemical stimuli found in specific organs, to direct cells to assemble into functional tissues. We first discuss microengineering approaches to reproduce the key elements of physiologically important, dynamic mechanical microenvironments, biochemical microenvironments, and microarchitectures of specific tissues and organs in microfluidic cell culture systems. This is followed by examples of microengineered individual organ models that incorporate the key elements of physiological microenvironments into single microfluidic cell culture systems to reproduce organ-level functions. Finally, microengineered multiple organ systems that simulate multiple organ interactions to better represent human physiology, including human responses to drugs, is covered in this review. This emerging organs-on-chips technology has the potential to become an alternative to 2D and 3D cell culture and animal models for experimental medicine, human disease modeling, drug development, and toxicology.

  3. Distinguishing hyperhidrosis and normal physiological sweat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Linnea; Gyldenløve, Mette; Zachariae, Claus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperhidrosis is a condition in which the production of sweat is abnormally increased. No objective criteria for the diagnosis of hyperhidrosis exist, mainly because reference intervals for normal physiological sweat production at rest are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The main objective...... of this study was to establish reference intervals for normal physiological axillary and palmar sweat production. METHODS: Gravimetric testing was performed in 75 healthy control subjects. Subsequently, these results were compared with findings in a cohort of patients with hyperhidrosis and with the results...... derived from a review of data on hyperhidrosis published between 1980 and 2013. RESULTS: Approximately 90% of the controls had axillary and palmar sweat production rates of below 100 mg/5 min. In all except one of the axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis studies reviewed, average sweat production exceeded...

  4. Obesity: physiologic changes and challenges during laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamvu, Georgine; Zolnoun, Denniz; Boggess, John; Steege, John F

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this report was to describe the evidence for the benefits of laparoscopic surgery in obese patients, to review the physiologic abnormalities that are associated with obesity, and to explore surgical techniques that will enable surgeons to perform laparoscopy successfully in obese patients. This article is a review of the available literature on obesity, the physiologic changes that occur in obese patients, and the impact of these changes on laparoscopy outcomes. Obesity is associated with sudden death and a wide range of morbid conditions such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, angina, chronic obstructive disease, and diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have demonstrated that obese patients who undergo laparoscopy have shorter hospital stays, less postoperative pain, and fewer wound infections when compared with obese patients who undergo laparotomy. Laparoscopy patients also have fewer postoperative ileus and fevers. With thorough preparation and careful preoperative evaluation, laparoscopy can be performed safely and is the preferred surgical method in obese patients.

  5. Student Responses to a Hands-On Kinesthetic Lecture Activity for Learning about the Oxygen Carrying Capacity of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckler, Jennifer; Yu, Justin R.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a new hands-on, or "kinesthetic," activity for use in a physiology lecture hall to help students comprehend an important concept in cardiopulmonary physiology known as oxygen carrying capacity. One impetus for designing this activity was to address the needs of students who have a preference for kinesthetic…

  6. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V.; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T.; Porcari, John P.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key points Steady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained students Mild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state training HIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval training Enjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program PMID:26664271

  7. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T; Porcari, John P

    2015-12-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. There were significant (p training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5%) & mean (+4, +7 and +6%) power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p training in sedentary young adults. Key pointsSteady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained studentsMild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state trainingHIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval trainingEnjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program.

  8. Gene expression centroids that link with low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity and complex disease risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kivelä, Riikka; Silvennoinen, Mika; Lehti, Maarit; Rinnankoski-Tuikka,, Rita; Purhonen, Tatja; Ketola, Tarmo; Pullinen, Katri; Vuento, Meri; Mutanen, Niina; Maureen A Sartor; Reunanen, Hilkka; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    A strong link exists between low aerobic exercise capacity and complex metabolic diseases. To probe this linkage, we utilized rat models of low and high intrinsic aerobic endurance running capacity that differ also in the risk for metabolic syndrome. We investigated in skeletal muscle gene-phenotype relationships that connect aerobic endurance capacity with metabolic disease risk factors. The study compared 12 high capacity runners (HCRs) and 12 low capacity runners (LCRs) from generation 18 ...

  9. Symbiotic physiology promotes homeostasis in Daisyworld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Richard A; Lenton, Timothy M; Watson, Andrew J

    2011-04-07

    A connection is hypothesized between the physiological consequences of mutualistic symbiosis and life's average long-term impact on certain highly biologically conserved environmental variables. This hypothesis is developed analytically and with a variant of the Daisyworld model. Biological homeostasis is frequently effective due to co-ordination between opposing physiological "rein" functions, which buffer an organism in response to an external (often environmental) perturbation. It is proposed that during evolutionary history the pooling of different species' physiological functions in mutualistic symbioses increased the range of suboptimal environmental conditions that could be buffered against--a mutual tolerance benefit sometimes sufficient to outweigh the cost of cooperation. A related argument is that for a small number of biologically-crucial physical variables (i) the difference between organism interiors and the life-environment interface is relatively low, and (ii) the biologically optimum level of that variable is relatively highly conserved across different species. For such variables, symbiosis tends to cause (at a cost) an increase in the number of environmental buffering functions per unit of selection, which in turn biases the overall impact of the biota on the state of the variable towards the biological optimum. When a costly but more temperature-tolerant and physiologically versatile symbiosis between one black (warming) and one white (cooling) "daisy" is added to the (otherwise unaltered) Daisyworld parable, four new results emerge: (1) The extension of habitability to a wider luminosity range, (2) resistance to the impact of "cheater" white daisies with cold optima, that derive short-term benefit from environmental destabilisation, (3) the capacity to maintain residual, oscillatory regulation in response to forcings that change more rapidly than allele frequencies and (crucially) (4) "succession"-type dynamics in which the tolerant symbiosis

  10. Effect of salt and drought on growth, physiological and biochemical responses of two Tamarix species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawalibi V

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tamarix trees are considered of particular interest for afforestation and refo­restation of degraded areas prone to salinity and drought. In this study, a comparison of the performance and physiological responses of two species of Tamarix grown in saline and dried soils was carried out. Stem cuttings of T. aphylla and T. jordanis were collected from a location in the Negev desert and the plantlets obtained were subjected to four different soil treatments under semi-controlled conditions for 14 days. The treatments were: fresh water (C; salt (S: 150 mM of NaCl; drought (D: 50% field capacity; and a combined stress (DS: 150 mM of NaCl + 50% FC. Results showed a higher tolerance to salt stress of T. jordanis as compared with T. aphylla. The maintenance of high amount of cell carbohydrates, the high capacity of carbon assimilation and the active growth were considered as markers of salt tolerance in Tamarix spp. T. aphylla showed better performances in terms of growth and biomass production than T. jordanis in dry conditions. The high accumulation of sugars found in the leaves of T. aphylla under mild drought is considered a mechanism of acclimatization. The combined stress (salt+drought lowered the performance of plants as compared to salt and drought stress applied alone. The possible role of the accumulation of proline observed in the leaves of both species under stressful conditions is discussed.

  11. Physiological testing of basketball players: toward a standard evaluation of anaerobic fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delextrat, Anne; Cohen, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the changes in the rules of the game instituted in 2000 have modified the physiological factors of success in basketball. The performances of 8 elite male players and 8 average-level players were compared in order to identify which components of fitness among agility, speed, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and upper body strength were key determinants of performance in modern basketball. Each subject performed 7 tests, including vertical jump (VJ), 20-m sprint, agility T test, suicide sprint, 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), isokinetic testing of the knee extensors, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test. The statistical difference in the anaerobic performances was assessed by Student's t test. The main results showed that, compared to average-level players, elite-level players achieved significantly better performances in the agility T test (+6.2%), VJ test (+8.8%), peak torques developed by knee extensors (+20.2%), and 1RM bench press (+18.6%, p 0.05). These results emphasized the importance of anaerobic power in modern basketball, whereas anaerobic capacity does not seem to be a key aspect to consider. In this context, coaches are advised to avoid using exercises lasting >/=30 seconds in their physical fitness programs, but instead to focus on short and intense tests such as VJ, agility T test, and sprints over very short distances (5 or 10 m).

  12. High-altitude physiology: lessons from Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Peter D.; Simonson, Tatum S.; Wei, Guan; Wagner, Harrieth; Wuren, Tanna; Yan, Ma; Qin, Ga; Ge, Rili

    2013-05-01

    Polycythemia is a universal lowlander response to altitude; healthy Andean high-altitude natives also have elevated [Hb]. While this may enhance O2 transport to tissues, studies have shown that acute isovolumic changes in [Hb] do not affect exercise capacity. Many high-altitude Tibetans have evolved sea-level values of [Hb], providing a natural opportunity to study this issue. In 21 young healthy male Tibetans with [Hb] between 15 and 23 g/dl, we measured VO2MAX and O2 transport capacity at 4200m. VO2MAX was higher when [Hb] was lower (Pcardiac output and muscle O2 diffusional conductance, but neither ventilation nor the alveolar-arterial PO2 difference (AaPO2) varied with [Hb]. In contrast, Andean high altitude natives remain polycythemic with larger lungs and higher lung diffusing capacity, a smaller exercising AaPO2, and lower ventilation. The challenges now are (1) to understand the different adaptive pathways used by Andeans and Tibetans, and (2) to determine in Tibetans whether, during evolution, reduced [Hb] appeared first, causing compensatory cardiac and muscle adaptations, or if enhanced cardiac function and muscle O2 transport capacity appeared first, permitting secondary reduction in [Hb]. For (2), further research is necessary to determine the basis of enhanced cardiac function and muscle O2 transport, and identify molecular targets of evolution in heart and muscle. Putative mutations can then be timed and compared to appearance of those affecting [Hb].

  13. Research projects and capacity building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-10-04

    Oct 4, 2004 ... plan and a commitment to capacity building in the previously marginalised sectors. .... rather than active process, and diffusion, adoption and innovation .... personal results and business results are related, and how delays.

  14. Capacity Building in Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the compl