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Sample records for physiologic upper limit

  1. Physiologic upper limit of pore size in the blood-tumor barrier of malignant solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Gary L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of large pores in the blood-tumor barrier (BTB of malignant solid tumor microvasculature makes the blood-tumor barrier more permeable to macromolecules than the endothelial barrier of most normal tissue microvasculature. The BTB of malignant solid tumors growing outside the brain, in peripheral tissues, is more permeable than that of similar tumors growing inside the brain. This has been previously attributed to the larger anatomic sizes of the pores within the BTB of peripheral tumors. Since in the physiological state in vivo a fibrous glycocalyx layer coats the pores of the BTB, it is possible that the effective physiologic pore size in the BTB of brain tumors and peripheral tumors is similar. If this were the case, then the higher permeability of the BTB of peripheral tumor would be attributable to the presence of a greater number of pores in the BTB of peripheral tumors. In this study, we probed in vivo the upper limit of pore size in the BTB of rodent malignant gliomas grown inside the brain, the orthotopic site, as well as outside the brain in temporalis skeletal muscle, the ectopic site. Methods Generation 5 (G5 through generation 8 (G8 polyamidoamine dendrimers were labeled with gadolinium (Gd-diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid, an anionic MRI contrast agent. The respective Gd-dendrimer generations were visualized in vitro by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Following intravenous infusion of the respective Gd-dendrimer generations (Gd-G5, N = 6; Gd-G6, N = 6; Gd-G7, N = 5; Gd-G8, N = 5 the blood and tumor tissue pharmacokinetics of the Gd-dendrimer generations were visualized in vivo over 600 to 700 minutes by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. One additional animal was imaged in each Gd-dendrimer generation group for 175 minutes under continuous anesthesia for the creation of voxel-by-voxel Gd concentration maps. Results The estimated diameters of Gd-G7 dendrimers were 11 ± 1 nm and those of Gd-G8

  2. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  3. Upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldum, Helge L; Kleveland, Per M; Fossmark, Reidar

    2015-06-01

    Nordic research on physiology and pathophysiology of the upper gastrointestinal tract has flourished during the last 50 years. Swedish surgeons and physiologists were in the frontline of research on the regulation of gastric acid secretion. This research finally led to the development of omeprazole, the first proton pump inhibitor. When Swedish physiologists developed methods allowing the assessment of acid secretion in isolated oxyntic glands and isolated parietal cells, the understanding of mechanisms by which gastric acid secretion is regulated took a great step forward. Similarly, in Trondheim, Norway, the acid producing isolated rat stomach model combined with a sensitive and specific method for determination of histamine made it possible to evaluate this regulation qualitatively as well as quantitatively. In Lund, Sweden, the identification of the enterochromaffin-like cell as the cell taking part in the regulation of acid secretion by producing and releasing histamine was of fundamental importance both physiologically and clinically. Jorpes and Mutt established a center at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm for the purification of gastrointestinal hormones in the 1960s, and Danes followed up this work by excelling in the field of determination and assessment of biological role of gastrointestinal hormones. A Finnish group was for a long period in the forefront of research on gastritis, and the authors' own studies on the classification of gastric cancer and the role of gastrin in the development of gastric neoplasia are of importance. It can, accordingly, be concluded that Nordic researchers have been central in the research on area of the upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases.

  4. Physiologic upper limits of pore size of different blood capillary types and another perspective on the dual pore theory of microvascular permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin Hemant

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of our current understanding of microvascular permeability is based on the findings of classic experimental studies of blood capillary permeability to various-sized lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules. According to the classic small pore theory of microvascular permeability, which was formulated on the basis of the findings of studies on the transcapillary flow rates of various-sized systemically or regionally perfused endogenous macromolecules, transcapillary exchange across the capillary wall takes place through a single population of small pores that are approximately 6 nm in diameter; whereas, according to the dual pore theory of microvascular permeability, which was formulated on the basis of the findings of studies on the accumulation of various-sized systemically or regionally perfused non-endogenous macromolecules in the locoregional tissue lymphatic drainages, transcapillary exchange across the capillary wall also takes place through a separate population of large pores, or capillary leaks, that are between 24 and 60 nm in diameter. The classification of blood capillary types on the basis of differences in the physiologic upper limits of pore size to transvascular flow highlights the differences in the transcapillary exchange routes for the transvascular transport of endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules across the capillary walls of different blood capillary types. Methods The findings and published data of studies on capillary wall ultrastructure and capillary microvascular permeability to lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous molecules from the 1950s to date were reviewed. In this study, the blood capillary types in different tissues and organs were classified on the basis of the physiologic upper limits of pore size to the transvascular flow of lipid-insoluble molecules. Blood capillaries were classified as non-sinusoidal or sinusoidal on the basis of capillary wall

  5. The Limits of Exercise Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Brendan M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-01-01

    Many of the established positive health benefits of exercise have been documented by historical discoveries in the field of exercise physiology. These investigations often assess limits: the limits of performance, or the limits of exercise-induced health benefits. Indeed, several key findings have...

  6. Anatomy and physiology of the upper airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin-Yilmaz, Asli; Naclerio, Robert M

    2011-03-01

    The nose is the major portal of air exchange between the internal and external environment. The nose participates in the vital functions of conditioning inspired air toward a temperature of 37°C and 100% relative humidity, providing local defense and filtering inhaled particulate matter and gases. It also functions in olfaction, which provides both a defense and pleasure for the individual. Understanding normal physiology provides the basis for recognizing abnormalities.

  7. Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.

  8. Upper temperature limits of tropical marine ectotherms: global warming implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh Dung T Nguyen

    Full Text Available Animal physiology, ecology and evolution are affected by temperature and it is expected that community structure will be strongly influenced by global warming. This is particularly relevant in the tropics, where organisms are already living close to their upper temperature limits and hence are highly vulnerable to rising temperature. Here we present data on upper temperature limits of 34 tropical marine ectotherm species from seven phyla living in intertidal and subtidal habitats. Short term thermal tolerances and vertical distributions were correlated, i.e., upper shore animals have higher thermal tolerance than lower shore and subtidal animals; however, animals, despite their respective tidal height, were susceptible to the same temperature in the long term. When temperatures were raised by 1°C hour(-1, the upper lethal temperature range of intertidal ectotherms was 41-52°C, but this range was narrower and reduced to 37-41°C in subtidal animals. The rate of temperature change, however, affected intertidal and subtidal animals differently. In chronic heating experiments when temperature was raised weekly or monthly instead of every hour, upper temperature limits of subtidal species decreased from 40°C to 35.4°C, while the decrease was more than 10°C in high shore organisms. Hence in the long term, activity and survival of tropical marine organisms could be compromised just 2-3°C above present seawater temperatures. Differences between animals from environments that experience different levels of temperature variability suggest that the physiological mechanisms underlying thermal sensitivity may vary at different rates of warming.

  9. An upper limit for macromolecular crowding effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklos Andrew C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solutions containing high macromolecule concentrations are predicted to affect a number of protein properties compared to those properties in dilute solution. In cells, these macromolecular crowders have a large range of sizes and can occupy 30% or more of the available volume. We chose to study the stability and ps-ns internal dynamics of a globular protein whose radius is ~2 nm when crowded by a synthetic microgel composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid with particle radii of ~300 nm. Results Our studies revealed no change in protein rotational or ps-ns backbone dynamics and only mild (~0.5 kcal/mol at 37°C, pH 5.4 stabilization at a volume occupancy of 70%, which approaches the occupancy of closely packing spheres. The lack of change in rotational dynamics indicates the absence of strong crowder-protein interactions. Conclusions Our observations are explained by the large size discrepancy between the protein and crowders and by the internal structure of the microgels, which provide interstitial spaces and internal pores where the protein can exist in a dilute solution-like environment. In summary, microgels that interact weakly with proteins do not strongly influence protein dynamics or stability because these large microgels constitute an upper size limit on crowding effects.

  10. Upper limits on gravitational wave emission from 78 radio pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B; Adhikari, R; Agresti, J; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arain, M; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Aston, S; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Ballmer, S; Bantilan, H; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barton, M; Bayer, K; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Biswas, R; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Bogenstahl, J; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brinkmann, M; Brooks, A; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burmeister, O; Busby, D; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Cantley, C A; Cao, J; Cardenas, L; Castaldi, G; Cepeda, C; Chalkey, E; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chiadini, F; Christensen, N; Clark, J; Cochrane, P; Cokelaer, T; Coldwell, R; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Croce, R P; Crooks, D R M; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; D'Ambrosio, E; Dalrymple, J; Danzmann, K; Davies, G; De Bra, D; DeSalvo, R; Degallaix, J; Degree, M; Demma, T; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; Dhurandhar, S V; Di Credico, A; Dickson, J; Diederichs, G; Dietz, A; Doomes, E E; Drever, R W P; Dumas, J C; Dupuis, R J; Dwyer, J G; Díaz, M; Ehrens, P; Espinoza, E; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Fazi, D; Fejer, M M; Finn, L S; Fiumara, V; Fotopoulos, N; Franzen, A; Franzen, K Y; Freise, A; Frey, R E; Fricke, T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Galdi, V; Garofoli, J; Gholami, I; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Goda, K; Goetz, E; Goggin, L; González, G; Gossler, S; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, M; Greenhalgh, J; Gretarsson, A M; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Gustafson, R; Günther, M; Hage, B; Hammer, D; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G; Harstad, E; Hayler, T; Heefner, J; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hirose, E; Hoak, D; Hosken, D; Hough, J; Hoyland, D; Huttner, S H; Ingram, D; Innerhofer, E; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, Peter Ignaz Paul; Kalogera, V; Kasprzyk, D; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Khalili, F Ya; Kim, C; King, P; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R K; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Krämer, M; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leiner, J; Leonhardt, V; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Lindquist, P; Lockerbie, N A; Longo, M; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Lyne, A G; MacInnis, M; Machenschalk, B; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Malec, M; Mandic, V; Marano, S; Marka, S; Markowitz, J; Maros, E; Martin, I; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Matone, L; Matta, V; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McHugh, M; McKenzie, K; McWilliams, S; Meier, T; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C J; Meyers, D; Mikhailov, E; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Mow Lowry, C; Moylan, A; Mukherjee, S; Muller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murray, P; Myers, E; Myers, J; Müller, G; Newton, G; Nishizawa, A; Numata, K; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Patel, P; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pierro, V; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H; Plissi, M V; Postiglione, F; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Rabeling, D; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rainer, N; Rakhmanov, M; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ribichini, L; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Roddy, S; Rodríguez, A; Rogan, A M; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Route, R; Rowan, S; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Rüdiger, A; Sakata, S; Samidi, M; Sancho de la Jordana, L; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Saraf, S; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Savov, P; Schediwy, S; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Sidles, J A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Sinha, S; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Somiya, K; Strain, K A; Strom, D M; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, K X; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Takahashi, H; Tanner, D B; Taylor, R; Thacker, J; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thüring, A; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Trias, M; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D W; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vallisneri, M; Van Den Broeck, C; Varvella, M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Veitch, P; Villar, A; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Ward, H; Ward, R; Watts, K; Weidner, A; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C

    2007-01-01

    We present upper limits on the gravitational wave emission from 78 radio pulsars based on data from the third and fourth science runs of the LIGO and GEO600 gravitational wave detectors. The data from both runs have been combined coherently to maximise sensitivity. For the first time pulsars within binary (or multiple) systems have been included in the search by taking into account the signal modulation due to their orbits. Our upper limits are therefore the first measured for 56 of these pulsars. For the remaining 22, our results improve on previous upper limits by up to a factor of 10. For example, our tightest upper limit on the gravitational strain is 3.2e-25 for PSRJ1603-7202, and the equatorial ellipticity of PSRJ2124-3358 is less than 10e-6. Furthermore, our strain upper limit for the Crab pulsar is only three times greater than the fiducial spin-down limit.

  11. 42 CFR 447.304 - Adherence to upper limits; FFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adherence to upper limits; FFP. 447.304 Section 447... Noninstitutional Services § 447.304 Adherence to upper limits; FFP. (a) The Medicaid agency must not pay more than... payments may be made only up to the reasonable charge under Medicare. (c) FFP is not available for a...

  12. Upper limits on gravitational wave emission from 78 radio pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Ballmer, S.; Bantilan, H.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Belczynski, K.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A.; Brown, D. A.; Bullington, A.; Bunkowski, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Busby, D.; Butler, W. E.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cantley, C. A.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Carter, K.; Casey, M. M.; Castaldi, G.; Cepeda, C.; Chalkey, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chiadini, F.; Chin, D.; Chin, E.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Clark, J.; Cochrane, P.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C. N.; Coldwell, R.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Croce, R. P.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Dalrymple, J.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Degree, M.; Demma, T.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; di Credico, A.; Diederichs, G.; Dietz, A.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dupuis, R. J.; Dwyer, J. G.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Finn, L. S.; Fiumara, V.; Fotopoulos, N.; Franzen, A.; Franzen, K. Y.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Ganezer, K. S.; Garofoli, J.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L.; González, G.; Gossler, S.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, J.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hammer, D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Harstad, E.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hosken, D.; Hough, J.; Howell, E.; Hoyland, D.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D.; Innerhofer, E.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Jackrel, D.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalili, F. Ya.; Kim, C.; King, P.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R. K.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lee, B.; Lei, M.; Leiner, J.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Lindquist, P.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Longo, M.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Malec, M.; Mandic, V.; Marano, S.; Márka, S.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matone, L.; Matta, V.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McKenzie, K.; McNabb, J. W. C.; McWilliams, S.; Meier, T.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C. J.; Meyers, D.; Mikhailov, E.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mowlowry, C.; Moylan, A.; Mudge, D.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nash, T.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Nocera, F.; Numata, K.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Parameswariah, C.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Rabeling, D.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rawlins, K.; Ray-Majumder, S.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ribichini, L.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rogan, A. M.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Samidi, M.; de La Jordana, L. Sancho; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, G. H.; Sannibale, V.; Saraf, S.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Savov, P.; Sazonov, A.; Schediwy, S.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Sidles, J. A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Sinha, S.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Somiya, K.; Strain, K. A.; Strom, D. M.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, K.-X.; Sung, M.; Sutton, P. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarallo, M.; Taylor, R.; Taylor, R.; Thacker, J.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thüring, A.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Tyler, W.; Ugolini, D.; Ungarelli, C.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Broeck, C.; van Putten, M.; Varvella, M.; Vass, S.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.; Villar, A.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Ward, H.; Ward, R.; Watts, K.; Webber, D.; Weidner, A.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A.; Weiss, R.; Wen, S.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitbeck, D. M.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiley, S.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Wilmut, I.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wise, S.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Woods, D.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Wu, W.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yan, Z.; Yoshida, S.; Yunes, N.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M.; Zur Mühlen, H.; Zweizig, J.; Kramer, M.; Lyne, A. G.

    2007-08-01

    We present upper limits on the gravitational wave emission from 78 radio pulsars based on data from the third and fourth science runs of the LIGO and GEO 600 gravitational wave detectors. The data from both runs have been combined coherently to maximize sensitivity. For the first time, pulsars within binary (or multiple) systems have been included in the search by taking into account the signal modulation due to their orbits. Our upper limits are therefore the first measured for 56 of these pulsars. For the remaining 22, our results improve on previous upper limits by up to a factor of 10. For example, our tightest upper limit on the gravitational strain is 2.6×10-25 for PSR J1603-7202, and the equatorial ellipticity of PSR J2124 3358 is less than 10-6. Furthermore, our strain upper limit for the Crab pulsar is only 2.2 times greater than the fiducial spin-down limit.

  13. Upper Limits on O VI Emission from Voyager Observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jayant Murthy

    2002-03-01

    We have examined 426 Voyager fields distributed across the sky for O VI ( 1032/1038 Å) emission from the Galactic diffuse interstellar medium. No such emission was detected in any of our observed fields. Our most constraining limit was a 90% confidence upper limit of 2600 photons cm-2 sr-1 s-1 on the doublet emission in the direction (l, b) = (117.3, 50.6). Combining this with an absorption line measurement in nearly the same direction allows us to place an upper limit of 0.01 cm-3 on the electron density of the hot gas in this direction. We have placed 90% confidence upper limits of less than or equal to 10,000 photons cm-2 sr-1 s-1 on the O VI emission in 16 of our 426 observations.

  14. Upper limit map of a background of gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Ballmer, S.; Bantilan, H.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Belczynski, K.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A.; Brown, D. A.; Bullington, A.; Bunkowski, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Busby, D.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cantley, C. A.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Casey, M. M.; Castaldi, G.; Cepeda, C.; Chalkey, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chiadini, F.; Chin, D.; Chin, E.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Clark, J.; Cochrane, P.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C. N.; Coldwell, R.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Croce, R. P.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Dalrymple, J.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Degree, M.; Demma, T.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; di Credico, A.; Diederichs, G.; Dietz, A.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dupuis, R. J.; Dwyer, J. G.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Finn, L. S.; Fiumara, V.; Fotopoulos, N.; Franzen, A.; Franzen, K. Y.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Garofoli, J.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gossler, S.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, J.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hammer, D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Harstad, E.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hosken, D.; Hough, J.; Howell, E.; Hoyland, D.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D.; Innerhofer, E.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Jackrel, D.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalili, F. Ya.; Kim, C.; King, P.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R. K.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lee, B.; Lei, M.; Leiner, J.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Lindquist, P.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Longo, M.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Malec, M.; Mandic, V.; Marano, S.; Márka, S.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matone, L.; Matta, V.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McKenzie, K.; McNabb, J. W. C.; McWilliams, S.; Meier, T.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C. J.; Meyers, D.; Mikhailov, E.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mowlowry, C.; Moylan, A.; Mudge, D.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Numata, K.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Rabeling, D.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rawlins, K.; Ray-Majumder, S.; Re, V.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ribichini, L.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rogan, A. M.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Samidi, M.; Sancho de La Jordana, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Saraf, S.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Savov, P.; Schediwy, S.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Sidles, J. A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Sinha, S.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Somiya, K.; Strain, K. A.; Strom, D. M.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, K.-X.; Sung, M.; Sutton, P. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarallo, M.; Taylor, R.; Taylor, R.; Thacker, J.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thüring, A.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Tyler, W.; Ugolini, D.; Ungarelli, C.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Broeck, C.; Varvella, M.; Vass, S.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.; Villar, A.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Ward, H.; Ward, R.; Watts, K.; Webber, D.; Weidner, A.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A.; Weiss, R.; Wen, S.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitbeck, D. M.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Wilmut, I.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wise, S.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Woods, D.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Wu, W.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yan, Z.; Yoshida, S.; Yunes, N.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M.; Zur Mühlen, H.; Zweizig, J.

    2007-10-01

    We searched for an anisotropic background of gravitational waves using data from the LIGO S4 science run and a method that is optimized for point sources. This is appropriate if, for example, the gravitational wave background is dominated by a small number of distinct astrophysical sources. No signal was seen. Upper limit maps were produced assuming two different power laws for the source strain power spectrum. For an f-3 power law and using the 50 Hz to 1.8 kHz band the upper limits on the source strain power spectrum vary between 1.2×10-48Hz-1 (100Hz/f)3 and 1.2×10-47Hz-1 (100Hz/f)3, depending on the position in the sky. Similarly, in the case of constant strain power spectrum, the upper limits vary between 8.5×10-49Hz-1 and 6.1×10-48Hz-1. As a side product a limit on an isotropic background of gravitational waves was also obtained. All limits are at the 90% confidence level. Finally, as an application, we focused on the direction of Sco-X1, the brightest low-mass x-ray binary. We compare the upper limit on strain amplitude obtained by this method to expectations based on the x-ray flux from Sco-X1.

  15. An upper limit to polarized submillimetre emission in Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Seiffert, M; Scott, D; Halpern, M; Seiffert, Michael; Borys, Colin; Scott, Douglas; Halpern, Mark

    2006-01-01

    We report the results of pointed observations of the prototypical ultra-luminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220 at 850 microns using the polarimeter on the SCUBA instrument on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We find a Bayesian 99 per cent confidence upper limit on the polarized emission for Arp 220 of 1.54 per cent, averaged over the 15 arcsec beam-size. Arp 220 can serve as a proxy for other, more distant such galaxies. This upper limit constrains the magnetic field geometry in Arp 220 and also provides evidence that polarized ULIRGs will not be a major contaminant for next-generation cosmic microwave background polarization measurements.

  16. Upper limit map of a background of gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B; Adhikari, R; Agresti, J; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arain, M; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Aston, S; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Ballmer, S; Bantilan, H; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Belczynski, K; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Biswas, R; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Bogenstahl, J; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brinkmann, M; Brooks, A; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burmeister, O; Busby, D; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Cantley, C A; Cao, J; Cardenas, L; Casey, M M; Castaldi, G; Cepeda, C; Chalkey, E; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chiadini, F; Chin, D; Chin, E; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Clark, J; Cochrane, P; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C N; Coldwell, R; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coward, D; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Croce, R P; Crooks, D R M; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Dalrymple, J; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Davies, G; De Bra, D; Degallaix, J; Degree, M; Demma, T; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S V; Díaz, M; Dickson, J; Di Credico, A; Diederichs, G; Dietz, A; Doomes, E E; Drever, R W P; Dumas, J C; Dupuis, R J; Dwyer, J G; Ehrens, P; Espinoza, E; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Fazi, D; Fejer, M M; Finn, L S; Fiumara, V; Fotopoulos, N; Franzen, A; Franzen, K Y; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Galdi, V; Garofoli, J; Gholami, I; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Goda, K; Goetz, E; Goggin, L; González, G; Gossler, S; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, M; Greenhalgh, J; Gretarsson, A M; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Günther, M; Gustafson, R; Hage, B; Hammer, D; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G; Harstad, E; Hayler, T; Heefner, J; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hirose, E; Hoak, D; Hosken, D; Hough, J; Howell, E; Hoyland, D; Huttner, S H; Ingram, D; Innerhofer, E; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jackrel, D; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, Peter Ignaz Paul; Kalogera, V; Kasprzyk, D; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Khalili, F Ya; Kim, C; King, P; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R K; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lazzarini, A; Lee, B; Lei, M; Leiner, J; Leonhardt, V; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Lindquist, P; Lockerbie, N A; Longo, M; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Malec, M; Mandic, V; Marano, S; Marka, S; Markowitz, J; Maros, E; Martin, I; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Matone, L; Matta, V; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McHugh, M; McKenzie, K; McNabb, J W C; McWilliams, S; Meier, T; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C J; Meyers, D; Mikhailov, E; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Mow Lowry, C; Moylan, A; Mudge, D; Müller, G; Mukherjee, S; Muller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murray, P; Myers, E; Myers, J; Newton, G; Nishizawa, A; Numata, K; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Patel, P; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pierro, V; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H; Plissi, M V; Postiglione, F; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Rabeling, D; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rainer, N; Rakhmanov, M; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ribichini, L; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Roddy, S; Rodríguez, A; Rogan, A M; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Route, R; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Sakata, S; Samidi, M; Sancho de la Jordana, L; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Saraf, S; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Savov, P; Schediwy, S; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Sidles, J A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Sinha, S; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Somiya, K; Strain, K A; Strom, D M; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, K X; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Takahashi, H; Tanner, D B; Tarallo, M; Taylor, R; Thacker, J; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thüring, A; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Trias, M; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D W; Ungarelli, C; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vallisneri, M; Van Den Broeck, C; Varvella, M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Veitch, P; Villar, A; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L

    2007-01-01

    We searched for an anisotropic background of gravitational waves using data from the LIGO S4 science run and a method that is optimized for point sources. This is appropriate if, for example, the gravitational wave background is dominated by a small number of distinct astrophysical sources. No signal was seen. Upper limit maps were produced assuming two different power laws for the source strain power spectrum. For an f^-3 power law and using the 50 Hz to 1.8 kHz band the upper limits on the source strain power spectrum vary between 1.2e-48 Hz^-1 (100 Hz/f)^3 and 1.2e-47 Hz^-1 (100 Hz /f)^3, depending on the position in the sky. Similarly, in the case of constant strain power spectrum, the upper limits vary between 8.5e-49 Hz^-1 and 6.1e-48 Hz^-1. As a side product a limit on an isotropic background of gravitational waves was also obtained. All limits are at the 90% confidence level. Finally, as an application, we focused on the direction of Sco-X1, the closest low-mass X-ray binary. We compare the upper limi...

  17. Upper Limit on the Cosmological Gamma-ray Background

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    We show that the current extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) measurement below 100 GeV sets an upper limit on EGB itself at very high energy (VHE) above 100 GeV. The limit is conservative for the electromagnetic cascade emission from VHE EGB interacting with the cosmic microwave-to-optical background radiation not to exceed the current EGB measurement. The cascade component fits the measured VHE EGB spectrum rather well. However, once we add the contribution from known source classes, the Fermi VHE EGB observation exceeds or even violates the limit, which is approximated as E^2dN/dE < 4.5x10^-5 (E/100 GeV)^-0.7 MeV/cm^2/s/sr. The upper limit above 100 GeV is useful in the future to probe the EGB origin and the new physics like axion-like particles and Lorentz-invariance violation.

  18. Upper limits for air humidity based on human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole; Jørgensen, Anette S.

    1998-01-01

    respiratory cooling. Human subjects perceived the condition of their skin to be less acceptable with increasing skin humidity. Inhaled air was rated warmer, more stuffy and less acceptable with increasing air humidity and temperature. Based on the subjects' comfort responses, new upper limits for air humidity...

  19. The Upper Limit Size of Reservoir-Induced Earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Fuqiong; Zhang Yan; Wu Zhongliang; Ma Lijie

    2008-01-01

    We showed the relation between the magnitude of induced earthquake and the reservoir storage and dam height based on the global catalog from 1967 to 1989 compiled by Ding Yuanzhang (1989). By multiplying reservoir storage with dam height, we introduced a new parameter named EE. We found that the cases with specific EE and magnitude do not exceed a limit. Based on the discussion of its physics, we called EE the equivalent energy. We considered this limit as the upper limit of magnitude for reservoir-induced earthquakes. The result was proved by the recent cases occurring in China. This size limitation can be used as a helpful consideration for reservoir design.

  20. An upper limit on the neutrino rest mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowsik, R.; Mcclelland, J.

    1972-01-01

    It is pointed out that the measurement of the deceleration parameter by Sandage (1972) implies an upper limit of a few tens of electron volts on the sum of the masses of all the possible light, stable particles that interact only weakly. In the discussion of the problem, it is assumed that the universe is expanding from an initially hot and condensed state as envisaged in the 'big-bang' theories.

  1. Improved upper limit on Muonium to Antimuonium Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Abela, R; Bertl, W; Engfer, R; Von Weikersthal, B F; Grossmann, A; Hughes, V W; Jungmann, Klaus; Kampmann, D; Karpukhin, V V; Kisel, I V; Klaas, A; Korenchenko, S M; Kuchinskii, N A; Leuschner, A; Matthias, B E; Menz, R; Meyer, V; Mzhavia, D A; Otter, Gerd; Prokscha, T; Pruys, H S; zu Putlitz, Gisbert; Reichart, W; Reinhard, I; Renker, D; Sakhelashvili, T M; Schmidt, P V; Seeliger, R; Walter, H K; Willmann, L; Zhang, L

    1998-01-01

    A new experiment has been set up at the Paul Scherrer Institut to search for muonium to antimuonium conversion. No event was found to fulfil the requested signature which consists of the coincident detection of both constituents of the antiatom in its decay. Assuming an effective (V-A)$\\times$(V-A) type interaction an improved upper limit is established for the conversion probability of ${\\rm P_{M\\bar{M}}} \\leq 8 \\cdot 10^{-9}$ (90%C.L.), which is almost two orders of magnitude lower compared to previous results and provides a sensitive test for theoretical extensions of the standard model.

  2. Upper Limits on a Stochastic Background of Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B; Adhikari, R; Ageev, A; Allen, B; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Asiri, F; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Balasubramanian, R; Ballmer, S; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barnes, M; Barr, B; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Beausoleil, R; Belczynski, K; Bennett, R; Berukoff, S J; Betzwieser, J; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Bland, B; Bochner, B; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burgess, R; Busby, D; Butler, W E; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cantley, C A; Cardenas, L; Carter, K; Casey, M M; Castiglione, J; Chandler, A; Chapsky, J; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chickarmane, V; Chin, D; Christensen, N; Churches, D; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C; Coldwell, R; Coles, M; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crooks, D R M; Csatorday, P; Cusack, B J; Cutler, C; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Daw, E; De Bra, D; Delker, T; Dergachev, V; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S V; Di Credico, A; Ding, H; Drever, R W P; Dupuis, R J; Edlund, J A; Ehrens, P; Elliffe, E J; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fallnich, C; Farnham, D; Fejer, M M; Findley, T; Fine, M; Finn, L S; Franzen, K Y; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Ganezer, K S; Garofoli, J; Giaime, J A; Gillespie, A; Goda, K; González, G; Goler, S; Grandclément, P; Grant, A; Gray, C; Gretarsson, A M; Grimmett, D; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Günther, M; Gustafson, E; Gustafson, R; Hamilton, W O; Hammond, M; Hanson, J; Hardham, C; Harms, J; Harry, G; Hartunian, A; Heefner, J; Hefetz, Y; Heinzel, G; Heng, I S; Hennessy, M; Hepler, N; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hindman, N; Hoang, P; Hough, J; Hrynevych, M; Hua, W; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jennrich, O; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Johnston, W R; Jones, D I; Jones, L; Jungwirth, D; Kalogera, V; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kells, W; Kern, J; Khan, A; Killbourn, S; Killow, C J; Kim, C; King, C; King, P; Klimenko, S; Koranda, S; Kotter, K; Kovalik, Yu; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Landry, M; Langdale, J; Lantz, B; Lawrence, R; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lindquist, P; Liu, S; Logan, J; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Lyons, T T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majid, W; Malec, M; Mann, F; Marin, A; Marka, S; Maros, E; Mason, J; Mason, K; Matherny, O; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McHugh, M; McNabb, J W C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Miyoki, S; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Müller, G; Mukherjee, S; Murray, P; Myers, J; Nagano, S; Nash, T; Nayak, R; Newton, G; Nocera, F; Noel, J S; Nutzman, P; Olson, T; O'Reilly, B; Ottaway, D J; Ottewill, A; Ouimette, D A; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Parameswariah, C; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pitkin, M; Plissi, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rakhmanov, M; Rao, S R; Rawlins, K; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Redding, D; Regehr, M W; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reilly, K T; Reithmaier, K; Reitze, D H; Richman, S; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Rizzi, A; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Robison, L; Roddy, S; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Rong, H; Rose, D; Rotthoff, E; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Salzman, I; Sandberg, V; Sanders, G H; Sannibale, V; Sathyaprakash, B; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sazonov, A; Schilling, R; Schlaufman, K; Schmidt, V; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Seader, S E; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seel, S; Seifert, F; Sengupta, A S; Shapiro, C A; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Shu, Q Z; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sievers, L; Sigg, D; Sintes, A M; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, M R; Sneddon, P H; Spero, R; Stapfer, G; Steussy, D; Strain, K A; Strom, D; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T; Sumner, M C; Sutton, P J; Sylvestre, J; Takamori, A; Tanner, D B; Tariq, H; Taylor, I; Taylor, R; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Tibbits, M; Tilav, S; Tinto, M; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D W; Ungarelli, C; Vallisneri, M; Van Putten, M H P M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Wallace, L; Walther, H; Ward, H; Ware, B; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weidner, A; Weiland, U; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Welling, H; Wen, L; Wen, S; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wiley, S; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, P R; Williams, R; Willke, B; Wilson, A; Winjum, B J; Winkler, W; Wise, S; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yoshida, S; Zaleski, K D; Zanolin, M; Zawischa, I; Zhang, L; Zhu, R; Zotov, N P; Zucker, M; Zweizig, J

    2005-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) has performed a third science run with much improved sensitivities of all three interferometers. We present an analysis of approximately 200 hours of data acquired during this run, used to search for a stochastic background of gravitational radiation. We place upper bounds on the energy density stored as gravitational radiation for three different spectral power laws. For the flat spectrum, our limit of Omega_0<8.4e-4 in the 69-156 Hz band is ~10^5 times lower than the previous result in this frequency range.

  3. Upper limits on a stochastic background of gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B; Abbott, R; Adhikari, R; Agresti, J; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, J; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Balasubramanian, R; Ballmer, S; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Belczynski, K; Betzwieser, J; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Bland, B; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brown, D A; Buonanno, A; Busby, D; Butler, W E; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Cardenas, L; Carter, K; Casey, M M; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chen, Y; Chin, D; Christensen, N; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C N; Coldwell, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Dalrymple, J; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Davies, G; DeBra, D; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandar, S; Díaz, M; Di Credico, A; Drever, R W P; Dupuis, R J; Ehrens, P; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Finn, L S; Franzen, K Y; Frey, R E; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Ganezer, K S; Garofoli, J; Gholami, I; Giaime, J A; Goda, K; Goggin, L; González, G; Gray, C; Gretarsson, A M; Grimmett, D; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guenther, M; Gustafson, R; Hamilton, W O; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Hardham, C; Harry, G; Heefner, J; Heng, I S; Hewitson, M; Hindman, N; Hoang, P; Hough, J; Hua, W; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, L; Kalogera, V; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kells, W; Khan, A; Kim, C; King, P; Klimenko, S; Koranda, S; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Lindquist, P; Liu, S; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Lück, H; Luna, M; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Malec, M; Mandic, V; Marka, S; Maros, E; Mason, K; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McHugh, M; McNabb, J W C; Melissinos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C; Mikhailov, E; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Myers, E; Myers, J; Nash, T; Nocera, F; Noel, J S; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Parameswariah, C; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pitkin, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rakhmanov, M; Rawlins, K; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Regimbau, T; Reitze, D H; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Roddy, S; Rodriguez, A; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Sandberg, V; Sanders, G H; Sannibale, V; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sazonov, A; Schilling, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Seader, S E; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Sintes, A M; Smith, J; Smith, M R; Spjeld, O; Strain, K A; Strom, D M; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Tanner, D B; Taylor, R; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D; Ungarelli, C; Vallisneri, M; van Putten, M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Wallace, L; Ward, H; Ward, R; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weiland, U; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wiley, S; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Willke, B; Wilson, A; Winkler, W; Wise, S; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Woods, D; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yoshida, S; Zanolin, M; Zhang, L; Zotov, N; Zucker, M; Zweizig, J

    2005-11-25

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory has performed a third science run with much improved sensitivities of all three interferometers. We present an analysis of approximately 200 hours of data acquired during this run, used to search for a stochastic background of gravitational radiation. We place upper bounds on the energy density stored as gravitational radiation for three different spectral power laws. For the flat spectrum, our limit of omega0 < 8.4 x 10(-4) in the 69-156 Hz band is approximately 10(5) times lower than the previous result in this frequency range.

  4. Environments of massive stars and the upper mass limit

    CERN Document Server

    Crowther, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    The locations of massive stars (> 8 Msun) within their host galaxies is reviewed. These range from distributed OB associations to dense star clusters within giant HII regions. A comparison between massive stars and the environments of core-collapse supernovae and long duration Gamma Ray Bursts is made, both at low and high redshift. We also address the question of the upper stellar mass limit, since very massive stars (VMS, Minit >> 100 Msun) may produce exceptionally bright core-collapse supernovae or pair instability supernovae.

  5. What role does plant physiology play in limiting species distribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kauwe, M. G.; Medlyn, B. E.; Beaumont, L.; Duursma, R.; Baumgartner, J.

    2015-12-01

    To predict vulnerability of tree species to changes in climate, we need to understand what processes are currently limiting their distributions. Although the limits to distribution is among the most fundamental of ecological questions, there are few studies that determine quantitatively which processes can explain observed distributions. Focusing on two contrasting Eucalypt species, a fast-growing coastal species (E. saligna) and a slower-growing inland species (E. sideroxylon), we examined to what extent plant physiological characteristics limit species distributions. The ecophysiology of both species has been extensively characterised in both controlled and field environments. We parameterised an ecosystem model (GDAY, Generic Decomposition and Yield) for both species, using the best available experimental data. We then used the model to predict the spatial distribution of productivity for these species in eastern Australia, and compared these predictions with the actual distributions. The results of this comparison allow us to identify where the distributions of these species are limited by physiological constraints on productivity, and consequently their vulnerability to changes in climate.

  6. Low upper limit to methane abundance on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Christopher R; Mahaffy, Paul R; Atreya, Sushil K; Flesch, Gregory J; Farley, Kenneth A

    2013-10-18

    By analogy with Earth, methane in the Martian atmosphere is a potential signature of ongoing or past biological activity. During the past decade, Earth-based telescopic observations reported "plumes" of methane of tens of parts per billion by volume (ppbv), and those from Mars orbit showed localized patches, prompting speculation of sources from subsurface bacteria or nonbiological sources. From in situ measurements made with the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) on Curiosity using a distinctive spectral pattern specific to methane, we report no detection of atmospheric methane with a measured value of 0.18 ± 0.67 ppbv corresponding to an upper limit of only 1.3 ppbv (95% confidence level), which reduces the probability of current methanogenic microbial activity on Mars and limits the recent contribution from extraplanetary and geologic sources.

  7. LOTIS Upper Limits and the Prompt OT from GRB 990123

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G G; Hartmann, D H; Park, H S; Porrata, R A; Ables, E; Bionta, R; Band, D L; Barthelmy, S D; Cline, T; Gehrels, N; Ferguson, D H; Fishman, G; Kippen, R M; Kouveliotou, C; Hurley, K; Nemiroff, R; Sasseen, T

    2000-08-10

    GRB 990123 established the existence of prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System (LOTIS) has been conducting a fully automated search for this kind of simultaneous low energy emission from GRBs since October 1996. Although LOTIS has obtained simultaneous, or near simultaneous, coverage of the error boxes obtained with BATSE, IPN, XTE, and BeppoSAX for several GRBs, image analysis resulted in only upper limits. The unique gamma-ray properties of GRB 990123, such as very large fluence (top 0.4%) and hard spectrum, complicate comparisons with more typical bursts. We scale and compare gamma-ray properties, and in some cases afterglow properties, from the best LOTIS events to those of GRB 990123 in an attempt to determine whether the prompt optical emission of this event is representative of all GRBs. Furthermore, using LOTIS upper limits in conjunction with the relativistic blast wave model, we weakly constrain the GRB and afterglow parameters such as density of the circumburster medium and bulk Lorentz factor of the ejecta.

  8. Is there an upper limit to black hole masses?

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2008-01-01

    We make a case for the existence for ultra-massive black holes (UMBHs) in the Universe, but argue that there exists a likely upper limit to black hole masses of the order of $M \\sim 10^{10} \\msun$. We show that there are three strong lines of argument that predicate the existence of UMBHs: (i) expected as a natural extension of the observed black hole mass bulge luminosity relation, when extrapolated to the bulge luminosities of bright central galaxies in clusters; (ii) new predictions for the mass function of seed black holes at high redshifts predict that growth via accretion or merger-induced accretion inevitably leads to the existence of rare UMBHs at late times; (iii) the local mass function of black holes computed from the observed X-ray luminosity functions of active galactic nuclei predict the existence of a high mass tail in the black hole mass function at $z = 0$. Consistency between the optical and X-ray census of the local black hole mass function requires an upper limit to black hole masses. This...

  9. Effects of Increased Physiological Arousal on Upper Extremity Positional Awareness in Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kovacs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of increased physiological arousal on the ability to perceive upper extremity positional awareness in healthy young adults. Approach: Thirty-eight participants were pre- and post-tested for upper extremity positional awareness using a manual kinesthesiometer. Participants in the experimental group underwent a combination of the Stroop color-word task and timed arithmetic problems to produce a state of physiological arousal. Heart rate and blood pressure measurements were taken during data collection to assess levels of physiological arousal. Pre-and post-test absolute error scores for each participant were compared. Results: ANCOVA revealed a significant time effect (pConclusion: The results suggested positional awareness is altered under a state of elevated physiological arousal and that these results may have significant implications for individuals performing various types of motor skills.

  10. New upper limits on the lunar nanodust exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grava, C.; Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.; Retherford, K. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) FUV spectrograph onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) carried out a campaign to search for backscattering of sunlight from lunar exospheric nanodust grains, and investigate its dependence on meteoroid stream activity. This campaign was spurred by the detection of a broadband signal recently reported [Wooden et al., Nat. Geosc. 2016, accepted] from the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVS) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) during the Quadrantids - a major annual meteoroid stream encountered by the Earth-Moon system. The LADEE/UVS signal was found to be consistent with an extended exosphere of very small ( 20-30 nm radius) dust grains. Using Mie scattering models, we found that the scattered sunlight from such a dust cloud should be easily detectable by LRO/LAMP near its long wavelength limit of operation (170-190 nm) . LRO performed a series of inertial pointing stares as close as possible to the anti-sunward direction to maximize the backscattering efficiency or intensity from any exospheric dust as seen from LAMP. These stares also pointed at a region of the sky devoid of bright stars in order to minimize any background signal. The observations were targeted to coincide with the peak in activity of two major meteoroid streams: the Geminids (December 14th 2015) and the Quadrantids (January 4th 2016). The upper limit on the lunar nanodust concentration along LAMP line of sight that we derive for the Quadrantids meteoroid stream is 3x105 grains/cm2 assuming a grain size of 20 nm, equivalent to a dust mass concentration of 10-11 grams/cm2 (assuming spherical grains). These upper limits are at least 100 times smaller than the LADEE/UVS inferred column densities. We discuss the possible explanations and the implications of this discrepancy and we present analysis of the Geminid meteoroid stream campaign.

  11. Upper Limit for Sea Level Projections by 2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2015-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. We construct the probability density function of global sea level at 2100, estimating that sea level rises larger than 180 cm are less than 5% probable. An upper limit for global sea level rise of 190 cm is assembled by summing the highest estimates of individual sea level rise components simulated by process based models with the RCP8.5 scenario. The agreement between the methods may suggest more confidence than is warranted since large uncertainties remain due to the lack of scenario-dependent projections from ice sheet dynamical models, particularly for mass loss from marine-based fast flowing outlet glaciers in Antarctica.

  12. Upper Limit for the Decay $B^{-} \\to \\tau^{-}\\overline{\

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Ajinenko, I; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Bracko, M; Branchini, P; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Buschbeck, Brigitte; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crépé, S; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Ferro, F; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Geralis, T; Gerdyukov, L N; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, Sven Olof; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huber, M; Huet, K; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kernel, G; Kersevan, Borut P; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kurowska, J; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lane, D W; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Maltezos, S; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moraes, D; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neufeld, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Niezurawski, P; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Pavel, T; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp-Baudot, I; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Royon, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schwemling, P; Schwering, B; Schwickerath, U; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seibert, N; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siebel, M; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stanitzki, M; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorova-Nová, S; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tortosa, P; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Dam, P; Van den Boeck, W; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I B; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verdier, P; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zinchenko, A I; Zoller, P; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    2000-01-01

    Using the data sample of hadronic $Z^0$ decays collected by the DELPHI experiment in the 1992-1995 LEP1 period, the leptonic decay of the charged $B$ mesons (\\btauex) has been studied. The analysis was done in both leptonic \\taulm and hadronic \\tauxmm decay channels. No excess was observed in data and the upper limit BR(\\btauex) $<1.1 \\times 10^{-3}$ at the 90\\åonfidence level was obtained. This result is consistent with Standard Model expectations and puts a constraint on the ratio $\\tan \\beta / M_{H^{\\pm}} < 0.45$~(GeV$/c^2)^{-1} $ in the framework of models with two Higgs doublets (any type II Higgs doublet model). From the missing energy distribution, the branching ratio of \\btau was measured in the hadronic channel \\tauxm. The resunt&categ=c

  13. Pulsation, Mass Loss and the Upper Mass Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, J.; Corona-Galindo, M. G.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. La existencia de estrellas con masas en exceso de 100 M0 ha sido cuestionada por mucho tiempo. Lfmites superiores para la masa de 100 M0 han sido obtenidos de teorfas de pulsaci6n y formaci6n estelar. En este trabajo nosotros primero investigamos la estabilidad radial de estrellas masivas utilizando la aproximaci6n clasica cuasiadiabatica de Ledoux, la aproximaci6n cuasiadiabatica de Castor y un calculo completamente no-adiabatico. Hemos encontrado que los tres metodos de calculo dan resultados similares siempre y cuando una pequefia regi6n de las capas externas de la estrella sea despreciada para la aproximaci6n clasica. La masa crftica para estabilidad de estrellas masivas ha sido encontrada en acuerdo a trabajos anteriores. Explicamos Ia discrepancia entre este y trabajos anteriores por uno de los autores. Discunmos calculos no-lineales y perdida de masa con respecto a) lfmite superior de masa. The existence of stars with masses in excess of 100 M0 has been questioned for a very long time. Upper mass limits of 100 Me have been obtained from pulsation and star formation theories. In this work we first investigate the radial stability of massive stars using the classical Ledoux's quasiadiabatic approximation. the Castor quasiadiabatic approximation and a fully nonadiabatic calculation. We have found that the three methods of calculation give similar results provided that a small region in outer layers of the star be neglected for the classical approximation. The critical mass for stability of massive stars is found to be in agreement with previous work. We explain the reason for the discrepancy between this and previous work by one of the authors. We discuss non-linear calculations and mass loss with regard to the upper mass limit. Key words: STARS-MASS FUNCTION - STARS-MASS LOSS - STARS-PULSATION

  14. Physiological Modeling of Responses to Upper vs Lower Lobe Lung Volume Reduction in Homogeneous Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arschang eValipour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: In clinical trials, homogeneous emphysema patients have responded well to upper lobe volume reduction but not lower lobe volume reduction. Materials/Methods: To understand the physiological basis for this observation, a computer model was developed to simulate the effects of upper and lower lobe lung volume reduction on RV/TLC and lung recoil in homogeneous emphysema.Results: Patients with homogeneous emphysema received either upper or lower lobe volume reduction therapy based on findings of radionucleotide scintigraphy scanning. CT analysis of lobar volumes showed that patients undergoing upper (n=18; -265 mL/site and lower lobe treatment (n=11; -217 mL/site experienced similar reductions in lung volume. However, only upper lobe treatment improved FEV1 (+11.1±14.7% vs -4.4±15.8% and RV/TLC (-5.4± 8.1% vs -2.4±8.6%. Model simulations provided an unexpected explanation for this response. Increases in transpulmonary pressure subsequent to volume reduction increased RV/TLC in upper lobe alveoli, while caudal shifts in airway closure decreased RV/TLC in lower lobe alveoli. Upper lobe treatment, which eliminates apical alveoli with high RV/TLC values, lowers the average RV/TLC of the lung. Conversely, lower lobe treatment, which eliminates caudal alveoli with low RV/TLC values, has less effect. Conclusions: Lower lobe treatment in homogeneous emphysema is uniformly less effective than upper lobe treatment.

  15. The Physical, Chemical and Physiological Limits of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Schulze-Makuch, Alexander; Houtkooper, Joop M

    2015-07-17

    Life on Earth displays an incredible diversity in form and function, which allows it to survive not only physical extremes, but also periods of time when it is exposed to non-habitable conditions. Extreme physiological adaptations to bridge non-habitable conditions include various dormant states, such as spores or tuns. Here, we advance the hypothesis that if the environmental conditions are different on some other planetary body, a deviating biochemistry would evolve with types of adaptations that would manifest themselves with different physical and chemical limits of life. In this paper, we discuss two specific examples: putative life on a Mars-type planet with a hydrogen peroxide-water solvent and putative life on a Titan-type planetary body with liquid hydrocarbons as a solvent. Both examples would have the result of extending the habitable envelope of life in the universe.

  16. The Physical, Chemical and Physiological Limits of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Schulze-Makuch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Life on Earth displays an incredible diversity in form and function, which allows it to survive not only physical extremes, but also periods of time when it is exposed to non-habitable conditions. Extreme physiological adaptations to bridge non-habitable conditions include various dormant states, such as spores or tuns. Here, we advance the hypothesis that if the environmental conditions are different on some other planetary body, a deviating biochemistry would evolve with types of adaptations that would manifest themselves with different physical and chemical limits of life. In this paper, we discuss two specific examples: putative life on a Mars-type planet with a hydrogen peroxide-water solvent and putative life on a Titan-type planetary body with liquid hydrocarbons as a solvent. Both examples would have the result of extending the habitable envelope of life in the universe.

  17. The Physical, Chemical and Physiological Limits of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Schulze-Makuch, Alexander; Houtkooper, Joop M.

    2015-01-01

    Life on Earth displays an incredible diversity in form and function, which allows it to survive not only physical extremes, but also periods of time when it is exposed to non-habitable conditions. Extreme physiological adaptations to bridge non-habitable conditions include various dormant states, such as spores or tuns. Here, we advance the hypothesis that if the environmental conditions are different on some other planetary body, a deviating biochemistry would evolve with types of adaptations that would manifest themselves with different physical and chemical limits of life. In this paper, we discuss two specific examples: putative life on a Mars-type planet with a hydrogen peroxide-water solvent and putative life on a Titan-type planetary body with liquid hydrocarbons as a solvent. Both examples would have the result of extending the habitable envelope of life in the universe. PMID:26193325

  18. MAGIC upper limits on the GRB 090102 afterglow

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Fidalgo, D Carreto; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Farina, E; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Giavitto, G; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Knoetig, M L; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Partini, S; Persic, M; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Preziuso, S; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, T; Saito, K; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Sun, S; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Bouvier, A; Tajima, H; Longo, F

    2013-01-01

    Indications of a GeV component in the emission from GRBs are known since the EGRET observations during the 1990's and they have been confirmed by the data of the Fermi satellite. These results have, however, shown that our understanding of GRB physics is still unsatisfactory. The new generation of Cherenkov observatories and in particular the MAGIC telescope, allow for the first time the possibility to extend the measurement of GRBs from several tens up to hundreds of GeV energy range. Both leptonic and hadronic processes have been suggested to explain the possible GeV/TeV counterpart of GRBs. Observations with ground-based telescopes of very high energy photons (E>30 GeV) from these sources are going to play a key role in discriminating among the different proposed emission mechanisms, which are barely distinguishable at lower energies. MAGIC telescope observations of the GRB 090102 (z=1.547) field and Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data in the same time interval are analysed to derive upper limits of the ...

  19. The upper limit of aerobic power in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Nachbauer, Werner; Wilber, Randall

    2011-10-01

    Data on the upper limit of aerobic power in humans are scarce. Thus, here we demonstrate extraordinarily high V'O(2)max and submaximal exercise performance in a young elite cross country skier (22 years, 170 cm, 63 kg; hemoglobin: 16.8 g/dL) who was evaluated before winning an Olympic gold medal. The test was performed during progressive roller-ski exercise on an outdoor uphill track (7-10% incline). The athlete demonstrated a V'O(2)max of 90.6 mL/min/kg (45 s average; 26 METs; 5.7 L/min). But even more impressive than V'O(2)max was his ability to exercise at a V'O(2) of 65 mL/min/kg (71.4% V'O(2)max) at a lactate level of 1.6 mmol/L. At the self-selected maximal lactate steady state he consumed 78 mLO(2)/min/kg (85.7% V'O(2)max) with a corresponding lactate level of 4.4 mmol/L. These values rank among the highest ever demonstrated in human beings.

  20. Physiological techniques for detecting expiratory flow limitation during tidal breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Koulouris

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD often exhale along the same flow–volume curve during quiet breathing as they do during the forced expiratory vital capacity manoeuvre, and this has been taken as an indicator of expiratory flow limitation at rest (EFLT. Therefore, EFLT, namely attainment of maximal expiratory flow during tidal expiration, occurs when an increase in transpulmonary pressure causes no increase in expiratory flow. EFLT leads to small airway injury and promotes dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation, with concurrent dyspnoea and exercise limitation. In fact, EFLT occurs commonly in COPD patients (mainly in Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease III and IV stage, in whom the latter symptoms are common, but is not exclusive to COPD, since it can also be detected in other pulmonary and nonpulmonary diseases like asthma, acute respiratory distress syndrome, heart failure and obesity, etc. The existing up to date physiological techniques of assessing EFLT are reviewed in the present work. Among the currently available techniques, the negative expiratory pressure has been validated in a wide variety of settings and disorders. Consequently, it should be regarded as a simple, noninvasive, practical and accurate new technique.

  1. Upper limits on the total cosmic-ray luminosity of individual sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.C.; De Souza, V. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Supanitsky, A.D., E-mail: rita@ifsc.usp.br, E-mail: vitor@ifsc.usp.br, E-mail: supanitsky@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), CONICET-UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, upper limits on the total luminosity of ultra-high-energy cosmic-rays (UHECR) E > 10{sup 18} eV) are determined for five individual sources. The upper limit on the integral flux of GeV--TeV gamma-rays is used to extract the upper limit on the total UHECR luminosity of individual sources. The correlation between upper limit on the integral GeV--TeV gamma-ray flux and upper limit on the UHECR luminosity is established through the cascading process that takes place during propagation of the cosmic rays in the background radiation fields, as explained in reference [1]. Twenty-eight sources measured by FERMI-LAT, VERITAS and MAGIC observatories have been studied. The measured upper limit on the GeV--TeV gamma-ray flux is restrictive enough to allow the calculation of an upper limit on the total UHECR cosmic-ray luminosity of five sources. The upper limit on the UHECR cosmic-ray luminosity of these sources is shown for several assumptions on the emission mechanism. For all studied sources an upper limit on the ultra-high-energy proton luminosity is also set.

  2. Upper Limit in the Periodic Table of Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of rectangular hyperbolas is developed for the first time, by which a means for estimating the upper bound of the Periodic Table is established in calculating that its last element has an atom mass of 411.663243 and an atomic number (the nuclear charge of 155. The formulating law is given.

  3. Upper-limit power for self-guided propagation of intense lasers in underdense plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Min; Wang; Zheng-Ming; Sheng; Yu-Tong; Li; Jie; Zhang

    2013-01-01

    It is found that there is an upper-limit critical power for self-guided propagation of intense lasers in plasma in addition to the well-known lower-limit critical power set by the relativistic effect.Above this upper-limit critical power,the laser pulse experiences defocusing due to expulsion of local plasma electrons by the transverse ponderomotive force.Associated with the upper-limit power,a lower-limit critical plasma density is also found for a given laser spot size,below which self-focusing does not occur for any laser power.Both the upper-limit power and the lower-limit density are derived theoretically and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.The present study provides new guidance for experimental designs,where self-guided propagation of lasers is essential.

  4. Dark matter electron anisotropy. A universal upper limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borriello, Enrico [Universita ' ' Federico II' ' , Napoli (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche; INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Maccione, Luca [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Cuoco, Alessandro [Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    Indirect searches of particle Dark Matter (DM) with high energy Cosmic Rays (CR) are affected by large uncertainties, coming both from the DM side, and from poor understanding of the astrophysical backgrounds. We show that, on the contrary, the DM intrinsic degree of anisotropy in the arrival directions of high energy CR electrons and positrons does not suffer from these unknowns. Furthermore, if contributions from possible local sources are neglected, the intrinsic DM anisotropy sets the maximum degree of total anisotropy. As a consequence, if some anisotropy larger than the DM upper bound is detected, its origin could not be ascribed to DM, and would constitute an unambiguous evidence for the presence of astrophysical local discrete sources of high energy electrons and positrons. The Fermi-LAT will be able to probe such scenarios in the next years. (orig.)

  5. An Upper Limit of AC Huffman Code Length in JPEG Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Horie, Kenichi

    2009-01-01

    A strategy for computing upper code-length limits of AC Huffman codes for an 8x8 block in JPEG Baseline coding is developed. The method is based on a geometric interpretation of the DCT, and the calculated limits are as close as 14% to the maximum code-lengths. The proposed strategy can be adapted to other transform coding methods, e.g., MPEG 2 and 4 video compressions, to calculate close upper code length limits for the respective processing blocks.

  6. Upper Limit on Star Formation and Metal Enrichment in Minihalos

    CERN Document Server

    Cen, Renyue

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of negative radiative feedback from resident stars in minihalos is performed. It is found that the most effective mechanism to suppress star formation is provided by infrared photons from resident stars via photo-detachment of ${\\rm H^-}$. It is shown that a stringent upper bound on (total stellar mass, metallicity) of ($\\sim 1000{\\rm M_\\odot}$, $-3.3\\pm 0.2$) in any newly minted atomic cooling halo can be placed, with the actual values possibly significantly lower. This has both important physical ramifications on formation of stars and supermassive black seeds in atomic cooling halos at high redshift, pertaining to processes of low temperature metal cooling, dust formation and fragmentation, and direct consequences on the faint end galaxy luminosity function at high redshift and cosmological reionization. The luminosity function of galaxies at the epoch of reionization may be substantially affected due to the combined effect of a diminished role of minihalos and an enhanced contribution from Pop...

  7. Upper limit on star formation and metal enrichment in minihaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Renyue

    2017-02-01

    An analysis of negative radiative feedback from resident stars in minihaloes is performed. It is found that the most effective mechanism to suppress star formation is provided by infrared photons from resident stars via photodetachment of H-. It is shown that a stringent upper bound on (total stellar mass, metallicity) of (˜1000 M⊙, -3.3 ± 0.2) in any newly minted atomic cooling halo can be placed, with the actual values possibly significantly lower. This has both important physical ramifications on formation of stars and supermassive black seeds in atomic cooling haloes at high redshift, pertaining to processes of low-temperature metal cooling, dust formation and fragmentation, and direct consequences on the faint end galaxy luminosity function at high redshift and cosmological reionization. The luminosity function of galaxies at the epoch of reionization may be substantially affected due to the combined effect of a diminished role of minihaloes and an enhanced contribution from Population III stars in atomic cooling haloes. Upcoming results on reionization optical depth from Planck High-Frequency Instrument data may provide a significant constraint on and a unique probe of this star formation physical process in minihaloes. As a numerical example, in the absence of significant contributions from minihaloes with virial masses below 1.5 × 108 M⊙, the reionization optical depth is expected to be no greater than 0.065, whereas allowing for minihaloes of masses as low as (107 M⊙, 106.5 M⊙) to form stars unconstrained by this self-regulation physical process, the reionization optical depth is expected to exceed (0.075, 0.085), respectively.

  8. UPPER LIMITS FOR THE CONTACT ANGLES OF LIQUIDS ON SOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    available on equilibrium contact angles . These data were obtained under well- controlled and comparable experimental conditions for many liquids on...Earlier systematic studies of the angle of contact (theta) exhibited by drops of liquid on plane solid surfaces of low surface energy have made data...From the parameters defining this straight line, estimates can be made of the limiting contact angles for each liquid.

  9. Upper-airway flow limitation and transcutaneous carbon dioxide during sleep in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpilä, Ville; Jernman, Riina; Lassila, Katariina; Uotila, Jukka; Huhtala, Heini; Mäenpää, Johanna; Polo, Olli

    2017-08-01

    Sleep during pregnancy involves a physiological challenge to provide sufficient gas exchange to the fetus. Enhanced ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia may protect from deficient gas exchange, but sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) may predispose to adverse events. The aim of this study was to analyze sleep and breathing in healthy pregnant women compared to non-pregnant controls, with a focus on CO2 changes and upper-airway flow limitation. Healthy women in the third trimester and healthy non-pregnant women with normal body mass index (BMI) were recruited for polysomnography. Conventional analysis of sleep and breathing was performed. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide (TcCO2) was determined for each sleep stage. Flow-limitation was analyzed using the flattening index and TcCO2 values were recorded for every inspiration. Eighteen pregnant women and 12 controls were studied. Pregnancy was associated with shorter sleep duration and more superficial sleep. Apnea-hypopnea index, arterial oxyhemoglobin desaturation, flow-limitation, snoring or periodic leg movements were similar in the two groups. Mean SaO2 and minimum SaO2 were lower and average heart rate was higher in the pregnant group. TcCO2 levels did not differ between groups but variance of TcCO2 was smaller in pregnant women during non-rapid eye movement (NREM). TcCO2 profiles showed transient TcCO2 peaks, which seem specific to pregnancy. Healthy pregnancy does not predispose to SDB. Enhanced ventilatory control manifests as narrowing threshold of TcCO2 between wakefulness and sleep. Pregnant women have a tendency for rapid CO2 increases during sleep which might have harmful consequences if not properly compensated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Holography, the Cosmological Constant and the Upper Limit of the Number of e-foldings

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, R G

    2003-01-01

    If the source of the current accelerating expansion of the universe is a positive cosmological constant, Banks and Fischler argued that there exists an upper limit of the total number of e-foldings of inflation. We further elaborate on the upper limit in the senses of viewing the cosmological horizon as the boundary of a cavity and of the holographic D-bound in a de Sitter space. Assuming a simple evolution model of inflation, we obtain an expression of the upper limit in terms of the cosmological constant, the initial energy density and end energy density of inflation, and reheating temperature, and discuss how the upper limit is modified in the different evolution models of the universe. The holographic D-bound gives more high upper limit than the entropy threshold in the cavity. For the most extremal case where the initial energy density of inflation is as high as the Planck energy, and the reheating temperature is as low as the energy scale of nucleosynthesis, the former gives the upper limit as 146 and t...

  11. Multivariate analysis of adaptive capacity for upper thermal limits in Drosophila simulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerwaarden, B; Sgrò, C M

    2013-04-01

    Thermal tolerance is an important factor influencing the distribution of ectotherms, but our understanding of the ability of species to evolve different thermal limits is limited. Based on univariate measures of adaptive capacity, it has recently been suggested that species may have limited evolutionary potential to extend their upper thermal limits under ramping temperature conditions that better reflect heat stress in nature. To test these findings more broadly, we used a paternal half-sibling breeding design to estimate the multivariate evolutionary potential for upper thermal limits in Drosophila simulans. We assessed heat tolerance using static (basal and hardened) and ramping assays. Our analyses revealed significant evolutionary potential for all three measures of heat tolerance. Additive genetic variances were significantly different from zero for all three traits. Our G matrix analysis revealed that all three traits would contribute to a response to selection for increased heat tolerance. Significant additive genetic covariances and additive genetic correlations between static basal and hardened heat-knockdown time, marginally nonsignificant between static basal and ramping heat-knockdown time, indicate that direct and correlated responses to selection for increased upper thermal limits are possible. Thus, combinations of all three traits will contribute to the evolution of upper thermal limits in response to selection imposed by a warming climate. Reliance on univariate estimates of evolutionary potential may not provide accurate insight into the ability of organisms to evolve upper thermal limits in nature.

  12. Physiological performance of warm-adapted marine ectotherms: Thermal limits of mitochondrial energy transduction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Eloy; Hendricks, Eric; Menze, Michael A; Torres, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Thermal regimes in aquatic systems have profound implications for the physiology of ectotherms. In particular, the effect of elevated temperatures on mitochondrial energy transduction in tropical and subtropical teleosts may have profound consequences on organismal performance and population viability. Upper and lower whole-organism critical temperatures for teleosts suggest that subtropical and tropical species are not susceptible to the warming trends associated with climate change, but sub-lethal effects on energy transduction efficiency and population dynamics remain unclear. The goal of the present study was to compare the thermal sensitivity of processes associated with mitochondrial energy transduction in liver mitochondria from the striped mojarra (Eugerres plumieri), the whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) and the palometa (Trachinotus goodei), to those of the subtropical pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides) and the blue runner (Caranx crysos). Mitochondrial function was assayed at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C and results obtained for both tropical and subtropical species showed a reduction in the energy transduction efficiency of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system in most species studied at temperatures below whole-organism critical temperature thresholds. Our results show a loss of coupling between O2 consumption and ATP production before the onset of the critical thermal maxima, indicating that elevated temperature may severely impact the yield of ATP production per carbon unit oxidized. As warming trends are projected for tropical regions, increasing water temperatures in tropical estuaries and coral reefs could impact long-term growth and reproductive performance in tropical organisms, which are already close to their upper thermal limit.

  13. Intertidal oysters reach their physiological limit in a future high-CO2 world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanes, Elliot; Parker, Laura M; O'Connor, Wayne A; Stapp, Laura S; Ross, Pauline M

    2017-03-01

    Sessile marine molluscs living in the intertidal zone experience periods of internal acidosis when exposed to air (emersion) during low tide. Relative to other marine organisms, molluscs have been identified as vulnerable to future ocean acidification; however, paradoxically it has also been shown that molluscs exposed to high CO2 environments are more resilient compared with those molluscs naive to CO2 exposure. Two competing hypotheses were tested using a novel experimental design incorporating tidal simulations to predict the future intertidal limit of oysters in a high-CO2 world; either high-shore oysters will be more tolerant of elevated PCO2 because of their regular acidosis, or elevated PCO2  will cause high-shore oysters to reach their limit. Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata, were collected from the high-intertidal and subtidal areas of the shore and exposed in an orthogonal design to either an intertidal or a subtidal treatment at ambient or elevated PCO2 , and physiological variables were measured. The combined treatment of tidal emersion and elevated PCO2  interacted synergistically to reduce the haemolymph pH (pHe) of oysters, and increase the PCO2  in the haemolymph (Pe,CO2 ) and standard metabolic rate. Oysters in the intertidal treatment also had lower condition and growth. Oysters showed a high degree of plasticity, and little evidence was found that intertidal oysters were more resilient than subtidal oysters. It is concluded that in a high-CO2 world the upper vertical limit of oyster distribution on the shore may be reduced. These results suggest that previous studies on intertidal organisms that lacked tidal simulations may have underestimated the effects of elevated PCO2.

  14. Extravehicular activities limitations study. Volume 1: Physiological limitations to extravehicular activity in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr, Paul A.; Monson, Conrad B.; Santoro, Robert L.; Sears, William J.; Peterson, Donald H.; Smith, Malcolm

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the results of a comprehensive literature search on physiological aspects of EVA. Specifically, the topics covered are: (1) Oxygen levels; (2) Optimum EVA work; (3) Food and Water; (4) Carbon dioxide levels; (5) Repetitive decompressions; (6) Thermal, and (7) Urine collection. The literature was assessed on each of these topics, followed by statements on conclusions and recommended future research needs.

  15. Modelling reference conditions for the upper limit of Posidonia oceanica meadows: a morphodynamic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchi, Matteo; Misson, Gloria; Montefalcone, Monica; Archetti, Renata; Nike Bianchi, Carlo; Ferrari, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The upper portion of the meadows of the protected Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica occurs in the region of the seafloor mostly affected by surf-related effects. Evaluation of its status is part of monitoring programs, but proper conclusions are difficult to draw due to the lack of definite reference conditions. Comparing the position of the meadow upper limit with the beach morphodynamics (i.e. the distinctive type of beach produced by topography and wave climate) provided evidence that the natural landwards extension of meadows can be predicted. Here we present an innovative predictive cartographic approach able to identify the seafloor portion where the meadow upper limit should naturally lies (i.e. its reference conditions). The conceptual framework of this model is based on 3 essential components: i) Definition of the breaking depth geometry: the breaking limit represents the major constrain for the landward meadow development. We modelled the breaking limit (1 year return time) using the software Mike 21 sw. ii) Definition of the morphodynamic domain of the beach using the surf scaling index ɛ; iii) Definition of the P. oceanica upper limit geometry. We coupled detailed aerial photo with thematic bionomic cartography. In GIS environment, we modelled the seafloor extent where the meadow should naturally lies according to the breaking limit position and the morphodynamic domain of the beach. Then, we added the GIS layer with the meadow upper limit geometry. Therefore, the final output shows, on the same map, both the reference condition and the actual location of the upper limit. It make possible to assess the status of the landward extent of a given P. oceanica meadow and quantify any suspected or observed regression caused by anthropic factors. The model was elaborated and validated along the Ligurian coastline (NW Mediteraanean) and was positively tested in other Mediterranean areas.

  16. Climate determines upper, but not lower, altitudinal range limits of Pacific Northwest conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, A K; Ford, K R; HilleRisLambers, J

    2011-06-01

    Does climate determine species' ranges? Rapid rates of anthropogenic warming make this classic ecological question especially relevant. We ask whether climate controls range limits by quantifying relationships between climatic variables (precipitation, temperature) and tree growth across the altitudinal ranges of six Pacific Northwestern conifers on Mt. Rainier, Washington, USA. Results for three species (Abies amabilis, Callitropsis nootkatensis, Tsuga mertensiana) whose upper limits occur at treeline (> 1600 m) imply climatic controls on upper range limits, with low growth in cold and high snowpack years. Annual growth was synchronized among individuals at upper limits for these high-elevation species, further suggesting that stand-level effects such as climate constrain growth more strongly than local processes. By contrast, at lower limits climatic effects on growth were weak for these high-elevation species. Growth-climate relationships for three low-elevation species (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Thuja plicata, Tsuga heterophylla) were not consistent with expectations of climatic controls on upper limits, which are located within closed-canopy forest (climate controls altitudinal range limits at treeline, while local drivers (perhaps biotic interactions) influence growth in closed-canopy forests. Climate-change-induced range shifts in closed-canopy forests will therefore be difficult to predict accurately.

  17. Upper limits on the cosmological gravitational wave background and maser clocks in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polnarev, A. G.; Roxburgh, I. W.

    1995-04-01

    We consider the possibility of detecting gravitational waves through the measurement of a time varying phase shift using a hydrogen maser clock on a satellite. Such measurements enable us to put interesting upper limits on the contribution of the gravitational-wave background to the dimensionless density of the Universe. The requirements on residual accelerations and the sensitivity of an accelerometer on the spacecraft are shown to be realistic and could be achieved using the accelerometer technology developed by ONERA for the ARISTOTELES mission. Such an experiment placing upper limits on the cosmological gravitational wave background could be conducted using the proposed Russian satellite “Millimetron”.

  18. An Improved upper limit on the decay K^+ -> pi^+ mu^+ e^-

    CERN Document Server

    Sher, A; Atoyan, G S; Bassalleck, B; Bergman, D R; Cheung, N; Dhawan, S; Do, H; Egger, J; Eilerts, S; Harold, W; Issakov, V V; Kaspar, H; Kraus, D E; Lazarus, D M; Lichard, P; Lowe, J; Lozano, J; Ma, H; Majid, W; Pislak, S; Poblaguev, A A; Rehak, P; Sher, A; Thompson, J A; Truöl, P; Zeller, M E; Sher, Aleksey

    2005-01-01

    Based on results of a search for the lepton-family-number-violating decay $K^+ \\to \\pi^+\\mu^+ e^-$ with data collected by experiment E865 at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory, we place an upper limit on the branching ratio at $2.2 \\times 10^{-11}$ (90% C.L.). Combining the results with earlier E865 data and those of a previous experiment, E777, an upper limit on the branching ratio of $1.2 \\times 10^{-11}$ (90% C.L.) is obtained.

  19. From the Chloride of Tungsten to the Upper Limit of the Periodic Table of Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study of the physical chemical properties and the technology of manufac- turing chemically clean hexachloride of tungsten has led to unexpected results. It was found that each element of the Periodic Table of Elements has its own hyperbola in the graph “molecular mass — content of the element”. The hyperbolas differ according to the atomic mass of the elements. Lagrange’s theorem shows that the tops of the hyper- bolas approach to an upper limit. This upper limit means the heaviest element, which is possible in the Table. According to the calculation, its atomic mass is 411.66, while its number is 155.

  20. Acoustic observation of living organisms reveals the upper limit of the oxygen minimum zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Bertrand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs are expanding in the World Ocean as a result of climate change and direct anthropogenic influence. OMZ expansion greatly affects biogeochemical processes and marine life, especially by constraining the vertical habitat of most marine organisms. Currently, monitoring the variability of the upper limit of the OMZs relies on time intensive sampling protocols, causing poor spatial resolution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using routine underwater acoustic observations of the vertical distribution of marine organisms, we propose a new method that allows determination of the upper limit of the OMZ with a high precision. Applied in the eastern South-Pacific, this original sampling technique provides high-resolution information on the depth of the upper OMZ allowing documentation of mesoscale and submesoscale features (e.g., eddies and filaments that structure the upper ocean and the marine ecosystems. We also use this information to estimate the habitable volume for the world's most exploited fish, the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This opportunistic method could be implemented on any vessel geared with multi-frequency echosounders to perform comprehensive high-resolution monitoring of the upper limit of the OMZ. Our approach is a novel way of studying the impact of physical processes on marine life and extracting valid information about the pelagic habitat and its spatial structure, a crucial aspect of Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management in the current context of climate change.

  1. Influence of hydrodynamics on the upper explosion limit of ethene-air-nitrogen mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolk, Jeroen W.; Westerterp, K. Roel

    1999-01-01

    A large pilot plant was constructed to study the upper explosion limit of ethene-air-nitrogen mixtures under conditions of flow in a tube. Experiments were performed at pressures of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 MPa, gas temperatures between 298 and 573 K, and with ethene concentrations between 20 and 40 vol. %

  2. Upper limit to magnetism in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Hengartner, N.W.; Singh, S.; Zhernenkov, M.; Bruno, F.Y.; Santamaria, J.; Brinkman, Alexander; Huijben, Mark; Molegraaf, Hajo; de la Venta, J.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2011-01-01

    Using polarized neutron reflectometry we measured the neutron spin-dependent reflectivity from four LaAlO3/SrTiO3 superlattices. Our results imply that the upper limit for the magnetization averaged over the lateral dimensions of the sample induced by an 11 T magnetic field at 1.7 K is less than 2 G

  3. Outlier treatment for improving parameter estimation of group contribution based models for upper flammability limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Flammability data is needed to assess the risk of fire and explosions. This study presents a new group contribution (GC) model to predict the upper flammability limit UFL oforganic chemicals. Furthermore, it provides a systematic method for outlier treatment inorder to improve the parameter...

  4. Calculation of the upper flammability limit of methane/air mixtures at elevated pressures and temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Schoor, F; Verplaetsen, F; Berghmans, J

    2008-05-30

    Four different numerical methods to calculate the upper flammability limit of methane/air mixtures at initial pressures up to 10 bar and initial temperatures up to 200 degrees C are evaluated by comparison with experimental data. Planar freely propagating flames are calculated with the inclusion of a radiation heat loss term in the energy conservation equation to numerically obtain flammability limits. Three different reaction mechanisms are used in these calculations. At atmospheric pressure, the results of these calculations are satisfactory. At elevated pressures, however, large discrepancies are found. The spherically expanding flame calculations only show a marginal improvement compared with the planar flame calculations. On the other hand, the application of a limiting burning velocity with a pressure dependence Su,lim approximately p(-1/2) is found to predict the pressure dependence of the upper flammability limit very well, whereas the application of a constant limiting flame temperature is found to slightly underestimate the temperature dependence of the upper flammability limit.

  5. Upper limit set by causality on the tidal deformability of a neutron star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oeveren, Eric D.; Friedman, John L.

    2017-04-01

    A principal goal of gravitational-wave astronomy is to constrain the neutron star equation of state (EOS) by measuring the tidal deformability of neutron stars. The tidally induced departure of the waveform from that of a point particle [or a spinless binary black hole (BBH)] increases with the stiffness of the EOS. We show that causality (the requirement that the speed of sound be less than the speed of light for a perfect fluid satisfying a one-parameter equation of state) places an upper bound on tidal deformability as a function of mass. Like the upper mass limit, the limit on deformability is obtained by using an EOS with vsound=c for high densities and matching to a low density (candidate) EOS at a matching density of order nuclear saturation density. We use these results and those of Lackey et al. [Phys. Rev. D 89, 043009 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevD.89.043009] to estimate the resulting upper limit on the gravitational-wave phase shift of a black hole-neutron star (BHNS) binary relative to a BBH. Even for assumptions weak enough to allow a maximum mass of 4 M⊙ (a match at nuclear saturation density to an unusually stiff low-density candidate EOS), the upper limit on dimensionless tidal deformability is stringent. It leads to a still more stringent estimated upper limit on the maximum tidally induced phase shift prior to merger. We comment in an appendix on the relation among causality, the condition vsound

  6. Deep-Diving California Sea Lions: Are They Pushing Their Physiological Limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Their Physiological Limit? Paul J. Ponganis & Birgitte I. McDonald Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Scripps Institution of...Balancing the demands of exercise for energy conservation at depth. Journal of Experimental Biology 202: 2739-2748. Wright, A.K., K.V. Ponganis, B.I

  7. The galactocentric radius dependent upper mass limit of young star clusters: stochastic star formation ruled out

    CERN Document Server

    Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the distribution function of the masses of young star clusters is universal and can be purely interpreted as a probability density distribution function with a constant upper mass limit. As a result of this picture the masses of the most-massive objects are exclusively determined by the size of the sample. Here we show, with very high confidence, that the masses of the most-massive young star clusters in M33 decrease with increasing galactocentric radius in contradiction to the expectations from a model of a randomly sampled constant cluster mass function with a constant upper mass limit. Pure stochastic star formation is thereby ruled out. We use this example to elucidate how naive analysis of data can lead to unphysical conclusions.

  8. COMPTEL upper limits for Al-26 and Fe-60 from M82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgii, R.; Diehl, R.; Lichti, G.; Knoedlseder, J.; Oberlack, U.; Ryan, J.; vanSant, T.; Schoenfelder, V.

    1997-01-01

    Gamma ray lines from radioactive isotopes produced in supernova explosions provide information concerning the nucleosynthesis processes in stars before and during the explosion. Regions with high star formation rate are good candidates for such gamma ray lines. Starburst galaxies are examples of such regions with an explosive formation of massive stars. The emission of the most prominent starburst galaxy M 82 is analyzed. Two methods for the determination of the upper limits of fluxes are used to derive 2sigma upper limits for the fluxes of Al-26 and Fe-60 from Compton Gamma Ray Observatory data. These are found to be above the estimated fluxes originating from a supernova rate of 0.1 per year in M 82. An estimation of the necessary observation time for the detection of these fluxes with the Ge spectrometer onboard the International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory is given.

  9. Upper limit on spontaneous supercurrents in Sr2RuO4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Suk Bum

    2010-04-05

    It is widely believed that the perovskite Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} is an unconventional superconductor with broken time reversal symmetry. It has been predicted that superconductors with broken time reversal symmetry should have spontaneously generated supercurrents at edges and domain walls. We have done careful imaging of the magnetic fields above Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} single crystals using scanning Hall bar and SQUID microscopies, and see no evidence for such spontaneously generated supercurrents. We use the results from our magnetic imaging to place upper limits on the spontaneously generated supercurrents at edges and domain walls as a function of domain size. For a single domain, this upper limit is below the predicted signal by two orders of magnitude. We speculate on the causes and implications of the lack of large spontaneous supercurrents in this very interesting superconducting system.

  10. Upper Limits to Fluxes of Neutrinos and Gamma-Rays from Starburst Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Stecker, F W

    2006-01-01

    Loeb and Waxman have argued that high energy neutrinos from the decay of pions produced in interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar gas in starburst galaxies would be produced with a large enough flux to be observable. Here we obtain an upper limit to the diffuse neutrino flux from starburst galaxies which is a factor of $\\sim$5 lower than the flux which they predict. Compared with predicted fluxes from other extragalactic high energy neutrino sources, starburst neutrinos with $\\sim$ PeV energies would have a flux considerably below that predicted for AGN models. We also estimate an upper limit for the diffuse GeV $\\gamma$-ray flux from starbust galaxies to be $\\cal{O}

  11. Upper limits for PH3 and H2S in Titan's Atmosphere from Cassini CIRS

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Conor A; Irwin, Patrick G J; Horst, Sarah M; 10.1016/j.icarus.2013.02.024

    2013-01-01

    We have searched for the presence of simple P and S-bearing molecules in Titan's atmosphere, by looking for the characteristic signatures of phosphine and hydrogen sulfide in infrared spectra obtained by Cassini CIRS. As a result we have placed the first upper limits on the stratospheric abundances, which are 1 ppb (PH3) and 330 ppb (H2S), at the 2-sigma significance level.

  12. Prediction of upper flammability limit percent of pure compounds from their molecular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharagheizi, Farhad

    2009-08-15

    In this study, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) is presented to predict the upper flammability limit percent (UFLP) of pure compounds. The obtained model is a five parameters multi-linear equation. The parameters of the model are calculated only from chemical structure. The average absolute error and squared correlation coefficient of the obtained model over all 865 pure compounds used to develop the model are 9.7%, and 0.92, respectively.

  13. CALET Upper Limits on X-ray and Gamma-ray Counterparts of GW 151226

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O; Asano, K; Asaoka, Y; Bagliesi, M G; Bigongiari, G; Binns, W R; Bonechi, S; Bongi, M; Brog, P; Buckley, J H; Cannady, N; Castellini, G; Checchia, C; Cherry, M L; Collazuol, G; Di Felice, V; Ebisawa, K; Fuke, H; Guzik, T G; Hams, T; Hareyama, M; Hasebe, N; Hibino, K; Ichimura, M; Ioka, K; Ishizaki, W; Israel, M H; Javaid, A; Kasahara, K; Kataoka, J; Kataoka, R; Katayose, Y; Kato, C; Kawanaka, N; Kawakubo, Y; Kitamura, H; Krawczynski, H S; Krizmanic, J F; Kuramata, S; Lomtadze, T; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A M; Mitchell, J W; Miyake, S; Mizutani, K; Moiseev, A A; Mori, K; Mori, M; Mori, N; Motz, H M; Munakata, K; Murakami, H; Nakagawa, Y E; Nakahira, S; Nishimura, J; Okuno, S; Ormes, J F; Ozawa, S; Pacini, L; Palma, F; Papini, P; Penacchioni, A V; Rauch, B F; Ricciarini, S; Sakai, K; Sakamoto, T; Sasaki, M; Shimizu, Y; Shiomi, A; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stolzi, F; Takahashi, I; Takayanagi, M; Takita, M; Tamura, T; Tateyama, N; Terasawa, T; Tomida, H; Torii, S; Tsunesada, Y; Uchihori, Y; Ueno, S; Vannuccini, E; Wefel, J P; Yamaoka, K; Yanagita, S; Yoshida, A; Yoshida, K; Yuda, T

    2016-01-01

    We present upper limits in the hard X-ray and gamma-ray bands at the time of the LIGO gravitational-wave event GW 151226 derived from the CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) observation. The main instrument of CALET, CALorimeter (CAL), observes gamma-rays from ~1 GeV up to 10 TeV with a field of view of ~2 sr. The CALET gamma-ray burst monitor (CGBM) views ~3 sr and ~2pi sr of the sky in the 7 keV - 1 MeV and the 40 keV - 20 MeV bands, respectively, by using two different scintillator-based instruments. The CGBM covered 32.5% and 49.1% of the GW 151226 sky localization probability in the 7 keV - 1 MeV and 40 keV - 20 MeV bands respectively. We place a 90% upper limit of 2 x 10^{-7} erg cm-2 s-1 in the 1 - 100 GeV band where CAL reaches 15% of the integrated LIGO probability (~1.1 sr). The CGBM 7 sigma upper limits are 1.0 x 10^{-6} erg cm-2 s-1 (7-500 keV) and 1.8 x 10^{-6} erg cm-2 s-1 (50-1000 keV) for one second exposure. Those upper limits correspond to the luminosity of 3-4 x 10^{49} erg s-1 which is...

  14. Upper limit on the eta -> pi+pi- branching ratio with the KLOE experiment

    OpenAIRE

    KLOE collaboration

    2004-01-01

    We have searched with the KLOE detector for the P and CP violating decay eta -> pi^+pi^- in a sample of 1.55 x 10^7 eta's from the decay phi -> eta gamma of phi mesons produced in e+e- annihilations at DAFNE. No signal is found. We obtain the upper limit BR(eta -> pi^+pi^-) < 1.3 x 10^-5 at 90% confidence level.

  15. Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  16. Physiological impacts of ABA-JA interactions under water-limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ollas, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    Plant responses to drought stress depend on highly regulated signal transduction pathways with multiple interactions. This complex crosstalk can lead to a physiological outcome of drought avoidance or tolerance/resistance. ABA is the principal mediator of these responses due to the regulation of stomatal closure that determines plant growth and survival, but also other strategies of drought resistance such as osmotic adjustment. However, other hormones such as JA seem responsible for regulating a subset of plant responses to drought by regulating ABA biosynthesis and accumulation and ABA-dependent signalling, but also by ABA independent pathways. Here, we review recent reports of ABA-JA hormonal and molecular interactions within a physiological framework of drought tolerance. Understanding the physiological significance of this complex regulation offers opportunities to find strategies of drought tolerance that avoid unwanted side effects that limit growth and yield, and may allow biotechnological crop improvement.

  17. An upper limit on the $\\tau$ neutrino mass from three- and five-prong tau decays

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Comas, P; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Alemany, R; Becker, U; Bright-Thomas, P G; Casper, David William; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Lehraus, Ivan; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moneta, L; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Rousseau, D; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Tomalin, I R; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Boccali, T; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thomson, F; Buchmüller, O L; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Martin, E B; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Spagnolo, P; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Buck, P G; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Leroy, O; Motsch, F; Payre, P; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Antonelli, M; Ragusa, F; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Mannert, C; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Schune, M H; Tournefier, E; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Chambers, J T; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Kelly, M S; Lehto, M H; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zobernig, G

    1998-01-01

    A bound on the tau neutrino mass is established using the data collected from 1991 to 1995 at Ecm = M(Z) with the ALEPH detector. Two separate limits are derived by fitting the distribution of visible energy vs invariant mass in tau+ -> pi+ pi+ pi- nu and tau+ -> pi+ pi+ pi- pi- pi+ (pi0) nu decays. The two results are combined to obtain a 95 % confidence level upper limit of 18.2 MeV/c^2 on the mass of the tau neutrino.

  18. Higgs Mass Constraints on a Fourth Family: Upper and Lower Limits on CKM Mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanowitz, Michael S.

    2010-06-25

    Theoretical and experimental limits on the Higgs boson mass restrict CKM mixing of a possible fourth family beyond the constraints previously obtained from precision electroweak data alone. Existing experimental and theoretical bounds on m{sub H} already significantly restrict the allowed parameter space. Zero CKM mixing is excluded and mixing of order {theta}{sub Cabbibo} is allowed. Upper and lower limits on 3-4 CKM mixing are exhibited as a function of m{sub H}. We use the default inputs of the Electroweak Working Group and also explore the sensitivity of both the three and four family fits to alternative inputs.

  19. A sensitive upper limit to the circular polarization of the Crab nebula at λ3 mm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesemeyer, H.; Thum, C.; Morris, D.; Aumont, J.; Rosset, C.

    2011-04-01

    A new observation of the distribution of the circular polarization over the Crab Nebula supernova remnant yields an upper limit of Weiler 1997, ApJ, 475, 661) and <6% measured at 23 GHz (Wright & Forster 1980, ApJ, 239, 873). These limits are consistent with the polarization expected from an optically thin synchrotron source with the known physical properties of the Crab Nebula. This non-detection does not allow an estimate to be made of the relative contribution to the radio emission from electrons and positrons.

  20. Nutrient limitation and physiology mediate the fine-scale (de)coupling of biogeochemical cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appling, Alison P; Heffernan, James B

    2014-09-01

    Nutrients in the environment are coupled over broad timescales (days to seasons) when organisms add or withdraw multiple nutrients simultaneously and in ratios that are roughly constant. But at finer timescales (seconds to days), nutrients become decoupled if physiological traits such as nutrient storage limits, circadian rhythms, or enzyme kinetics cause one nutrient to be processed faster than another. To explore the interactions among these coupling and decoupling mechanisms, we introduce a model in which organisms process resources via uptake, excretion, growth, respiration, and mortality according to adjustable trait parameters. The model predicts that uptake can couple the input of one nutrient to the export of another in a ratio reflecting biological demand stoichiometry, but coupling occurs only when the input nutrient is limiting. Temporal nutrient coupling may, therefore, be a useful indicator of ecosystem limitation status. Fine-scale patterns of nutrient coupling are further modulated by, and potentially diagnostic of, physiological traits governing growth, uptake, and internal nutrient storage. Together, limitation status and physiological traits create a complex and informative relationship between nutrient inputs and exports. Understanding the mechanisms behind that relationship could enrich interpretations of fine-scale time-series data such as those now emerging from in situ solute sensors.

  1. The evaluation of physiologic decannulation readiness according to upper airway resistance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunli; Zhou, Liang; Wei, Chunsheng; Hoffman, Matthew R; Li, Cai; Jiang, Jack J

    2008-10-01

    To measure the upper-airway resistance in patients with tracheostomies and determine the value representing decannulation readiness. Fifty-six patients with tracheostomies resultant to laryngeal disease participated in this study. Forty patients met clinical criteria for decannulation; 16 did not. Subglottal pressure was measured with a tube connected to the tracheostomy tube, and airflow was monitored simultaneously using a facemask. Upper-airway resistance measurements were recorded during shallow and deep breathing. During both shallow and deep breathing, the inspiratory and expiratory resistances were significantly higher for the group unsuitable for decannulation (P resistance measures for diagnosis. Objective measurement of upper-airway resistance during shallow and deep breathing may be a useful parameter in determining decannulation readiness of tracheostomized patients.

  2. Transmission upper limit of band-pass double-layer FSS and method of transmission performance improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minjie Huang; Zhijun Meng

    2015-01-01

    The transmission upper limit of a double-layer frequency selective surface (FSS) with two infinitely thin metal arrays is pre-sented based on the study of the general equivalent transmission line model of a double-layer FSS. Results of theoretical analyses, numerical simulations and experiments show that this transmis-sion upper limit is independent of the array and the element, which indicates that it is impossible to achieve a transmission upper limit higher than this one under a given incident and dielectric-supporting condition by the design of the periodic array. Both the applicable condition and the possible application of the transmis-sion upper limit are discussed. The results show that the transmis-sion upper limit not only has a good reachability, but also provides a key to effectively improve the transmission performance of a double-layer FSS or more complex frequency selective structures.

  3. Upper limits on the probability of an interstellar civilization arising in the local Solar neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartin, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    At this point in time, there is very little empirical evidence on the likelihood of a space-faring species originating in the biosphere of a habitable world. However, there is a tension between the expectation that such a probability is relatively high (given our own origins on Earth), and the lack of any basis for believing the Solar System has ever been visited by an extraterrestrial colonization effort. From the latter observational fact, this paper seeks to place upper limits on the probability of an interstellar civilization arising on a habitable planet in its stellar system, using a percolation model to simulate the progress of such a hypothetical civilization's colonization efforts in the local Solar neighbourhood. To be as realistic as possible, the actual physical positions and characteristics of all stars within 40 parsecs of the Solar System are used as possible colony sites in the percolation process. If an interstellar civilization is very likely to have such colonization programmes, and they can travel over large distances, then the upper bound on the likelihood of such a species arising per habitable world is of the order of 10-3 on the other hand, if civilizations are not prone to colonize their neighbours, or do not travel very far, then the upper limiting probability is much larger, even of order one.

  4. Upper-bound limit analysis based on the natural element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Tao Zhou; Ying-Hua Liu

    2012-01-01

    The natural element method (NEM) is a newlydeveloped numerical method based on Voronoi diagram and Delaunay triangulation of scattered points,which adopts natural neighbour interpolation to construct trial functions in the framework of Galerkin method.Owing to its distinctive advantages,the NEM is used widely in many problems of computational mechanics.Utilizing the NEM,this paper deals with numerical limit analysis of structures made up of perfectly rigid-plastic material.According to kinematic theorem of plastic limit analysis,a mathematical programming natural element formulation is established for determining the upper bound multiplier of plane problems,and a direct iteration algorithm is proposed accordingly to solve it.In this algorithm,the plastic incompressibility condition is handled by two different treatments,and the nonlinearity and nonsmoothness of the goal function are overcome by distinguishing the rigid zones from the plastic zones at each iteration.The procedure implementation of iterative process is quite simple and effective because each iteration is equivalent to solving an associated elastic problem.The obtained limit load multiplier is proved to monotonically converge to the upper bound of true solution.Several benchmark examples are investigated to validate the significant performance of the NEM in the application field of limit analysis.

  5. Variability of Jovian ion winds: an upper limit for enhanced Joule heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Lystrup

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that short-timescale fluctuations about the mean electric field can significantly increase the upper atmospheric energy inputs at Jupiter, which may help to explain the high observed thermospheric temperatures. We present data from the first attempt to detect such variations in the Jovian ionosphere. Line-of-sight ionospheric velocity profiles in the Southern Jovian auroral/polar region are shown, derived from the Doppler shifting of H3+ infrared emission spectra. These data were recently obtained from the high-resolution CSHELL spectrometer at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. We find that there is no variability within this data set on timescales of the order of one minute and spatial scales of 640 km, putting upper limits on the timescales of fluctuations that would be needed to enhance Joule heating.

  6. An upper limit to the secular variation of the gravitational constant from white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    García-Berro, Enrique; Torres, Santiago; Althaus, Leandro G; Isern, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    A variation of the gravitational constant over cosmological ages modifies the main sequence lifetimes and white dwarf cooling ages. Using an state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary code we compute the effects of a secularly varying G on the main sequence ages and, employing white dwarf cooling ages computed taking into account the effects of a running G, we place constraints on the rate of variation of Newton's constant. This is done using the white dwarf luminosity function and the distance of the well studied open Galactic cluster NGC 6791. We derive an upper bound G'/G ~ -1.8 10^{-12} 1/yr. This upper limit for the secular variation of the gravitational constant compares favorably with those obtained using other stellar evolutionary properties, and can be easily improved if deep images of the cluster allow to obtain an improved white dwarf luminosity function.

  7. COMPTEL upper limits on gamma-ray line emission from Supernova 1991T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichti, G. G.; Bennett, K.; Herder, J. W. Den; Diehl, R.; Morris, D.; Ryan, J.; Schoenfelder, V.; Steinle, H.; Strong, A. W.; Winkler, C.

    1994-01-01

    The imaging Compton telescope COMPTEL on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) measures gamma-rays in the energy range 0.75-30 MeV with an energy resolution of 9.7% full width at half maximum (FWHM) at 1 MeV. From June 15 to 28, 1991 and again from October 3 to 17, 1991 the region containing the supernova SN 1991T was observed. A search for gamma-ray line emission from the supernova yields no detection of line emission from the supernova. 2 sigma upper limits for the two predicted lines at 847 keV and at 1.238 MeV of approximately equal to 3 x 10(exp -5) photons/(sq cm)(s) were derived. These limits are compared with the predictions of some theoretical models and constraints imposed by these limits on these models are discussed.

  8. COMPTEL upper limits on gamma-ray line emission from Supernova 1991T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichti, G. G.; Bennett, K.; Herder, J. W. Den; Diehl, R.; Morris, D.; Ryan, J.; Schoenfelder, V.; Steinle, H.; Strong, A. W.; Winkler, C.

    1994-01-01

    The imaging Compton telescope COMPTEL on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) measures gamma-rays in the energy range 0.75-30 MeV with an energy resolution of 9.7% full width at half maximum (FWHM) at 1 MeV. From June 15 to 28, 1991 and again from October 3 to 17, 1991 the region containing the supernova SN 1991T was observed. A search for gamma-ray line emission from the supernova yields no detection of line emission from the supernova. 2 sigma upper limits for the two predicted lines at 847 keV and at 1.238 MeV of approximately equal to 3 x 10(exp -5) photons/(sq cm)(s) were derived. These limits are compared with the predictions of some theoretical models and constraints imposed by these limits on these models are discussed.

  9. Upper Limits On High-Frequency Single-Source Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmrast, Daniel; Beklen, Elif; Chatterjee, Shami; Cordes, James M.; Dolch, Timothy; Ellis, Justin; Lam, Michael T.; McLaughlin, Maura; Pennucci, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    In the coming years, pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are poised to detect gravitational waves (GWs) from supermassive black hole binary systems. In addition to measuring the GW stochastic background, PTAs can also detect single-source GWs. By analyzing data taken over many years, PTAs are typically sensitive to nanohertz-frequency GW sources. However, the microhertz to millihertz GW frequency regime is outside the typical range of PTA sensitivity, and is relatively unexplored. Through analysis of multiple-hour long observations of particular pulsars routinely measured by the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav), we searched for continuous wave (CW) sources at GW frequencies in the microhertz to millihertz regime. Using such single-pulsar measurements taken by the NRAO Green Bank Telescope, we applied CW detection algorithms to the datasets. While no CW sources were detected within the data, new upper limits on the strains of single-source GWs were found in the GW frequency range of 10 microhertz to 1 millihertz. By repeatedly simulating sources with known strains, we determined the minimum strains required for CW detection, and showed that these minimum strains place upper limits on the strengths of potential sources. Due to the positions of the pulsars analyzed, we also placed stronger directional limits on CW sources in the high GW frequency regime.

  10. A Ground-Based Albedo Upper Limit for HD 189733b from Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Wiktorowicz, Sloane J; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Kopparla, Pushkar; Laughlin, Gregory P; Hermis, Ninos; Yung, Yuk L; Swain, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    We present 50 nights of polarimetric observations of HD 189733 in $B$ band using the POLISH2 aperture-integrated polarimeter at the Lick Observatory Shane 3-m telescope. This instrument, commissioned in 2011, is designed to search for Rayleigh scattering from short-period exoplanets due to the polarized nature of scattered light. Since these planets are spatially unresolvable from their host stars, the relative contribution of the planet-to-total system polarization is expected to vary with an amplitude of order 10 parts per million (ppm) over the course of the orbit. Non-zero and also variable at the 10 ppm level, the inherent polarization of the Lick 3-m telescope limits the accuracy of our measurements and currently inhibits conclusive detection of scattered light from this exoplanet. However, the amplitude of observed variability conservatively sets a $3 \\sigma$ upper limit to the planet-induced polarization of the system of 58 ppm in $B$ band, which is consistent with a previous upper limit from the POLI...

  11. Observational upper limits on the gravitational wave production of core collapse supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xing-Jiang; Blair, David

    2010-01-01

    The upper limit on the energy density of a stochastic gravitational wave (GW) background obtained from the two-year science run (S5) of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) is used to constrain the average GW production of core collapse supernovae (ccSNe). We assume that the ccSNe rate tracks the star formation history of the universe and show that the stochastic background energy density depends only weakly on the assumed average source spectrum. Using the ccSNe rate for $z\\leq10$, we scale the generic source spectrum to obtain an observation-based upper limit on the average GW emission. We show that the mean GW production can be constrained within $< (0.49-1.98)\\hspace{1mm} M_{\\odot} c^{2}$ depending on the average source spectrum. While these results are higher than the available energy for explosion in a core collapse event, second and third generation GW detectors will enable tighter constraints to be set on the GW emission from such systems. As experimental limits become str...

  12. EGRET upper limits on the high-energy gamma-ray emission of galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Reimer, O; Sreekumar, P; Mattox, J R

    2003-01-01

    We report EGRET upper limits on the high-energy gamma-ray emission from clusters of galaxies. EGRET observations between 1991 and 2000 were analyzed at positions of 58 individual clusters from a flux-limited sample of nearby X-ray bright galaxy clusters. Subsequently, a coadded image from individual galaxy clusters has been analyzed using an adequately adapted diffuse gamma-ray foreground model. The resulting 2 sigma upper limit for the average cluster is \\~ 6 x 10^{-9} cm^{-2} s^{-1} for E > 100 MeV. Implications of the non--detection of prominent individual clusters and of the general inability to detect the X-ray brightest galaxy clusters as a class of gamma-ray emitters are discussed. We compare our results with model predictions on the high-energy gamma-ray emission from galaxy clusters as well as with recent claims of an association between unidentified or unresolved gamma-ray sources and Abell clusters of galaxies and find these contradictory.

  13. Comparison of LIGO/Virgo upper limits with predicted compact binary merger rates

    CERN Document Server

    Belczynski, K; Holz, D; O'Shaughnessy, R; Bulik, T; Berti, E; Fryer, C; Dominik, M

    2015-01-01

    We compare evolutionary predictions of double compact object merger rate densities with initial and forthcoming LIGO/Virgo upper limits. We find that: (i) Due to the cosmological reach of advanced detectors, current conversion methods of population synthesis predictions into merger rate densities are insufficient. (ii) Our optimistic models are a factor of 18 below the initial LIGO/Virgo upper limits for BH-BH systems, indicating that a modest increase in observational sensitivity (by a factor of 2.5) may bring the first detections or first gravitational wave constraints on binary evolution. (iii) Stellar-origin massive BH-BH mergers should dominate event rates in advanced LIGO/Virgo and can be detected out to redshift z=2 with templates including inspiral, merger, and ringdown. Normal stars (<150 Msun) can produce such mergers with total redshifted mass up to 400 Msun. (iv) High black hole natal kicks can severely limit the formation of massive BH-BH systems (both in isolated binary and in dynamical dense...

  14. INTEGRAL upper limits on gamma-ray emission associated with the gravitational wave event GW150914

    CERN Document Server

    Savchenko, V; Mereghetti, S; Natalucci, L; Bazzano, A; Bozzo, E; Courvoisier, T J -L; Brandt, S; Hanlon, L; Kuulkers, E; Laurent, P; Lebrun, F; Roques, J P; Ubertini, P; Weidenspointner, G

    2016-01-01

    Using observations of the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), we put tight upper limits on the gamma-ray and hard X-ray prompt emission associated with the gravitational wave event \\gwevent, discovered by the LIGO/Virgo collaboration. The omni-directional view of the INTEGRAL/SPI-ACS has allowed us to constrain the fraction of energy emitted in the hard X-ray electromagnetic component for the full high-probability sky region of LIGO/Virgo trigger. Our upper limits on the hard X-ray fluence at the time of the event range from $F_{\\gamma}=2 \\times 10^{-8}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ to $F_{\\gamma}=10^{-6}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ in the 75 keV - 2 MeV energy range for typical spectral models. Our results constrain the ratio of the energy promptly released in gamma-rays in the direction of the observer to the gravitational wave energy E$_\\gamma/$E$_{GW}<10^{-6}$. We discuss the implication of gamma-ray limits on the characteristics of the gravitational wave source, based on the available predictions for prom...

  15. INTEGRAL gamma-ray upper limit on the gravitational wave GW150914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Carlo; Ubertini, Pietro; Courvoisier, Thierry; Kuulkers, Erik; Lebrun, Francois; Brandt, S.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Laurent, Philippe; Bozzo, Enrico; Roques, Jean-Pierre; Mereghetti, Sandro; Savchenko, Volodymyr

    2016-07-01

    Using observations of the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), we put tight upper limits on the gamma-ray and hard X-ray prompt emission associated with the gravitational wave event GW150914, discovered by the LIGO/Virgo collaboration. The omni-directional view of the INTEGRAL/SPI-ACS has allowed us to constrain the fraction of energy emitted in the hard X-ray electromagnetic component for the full high-probability sky region of LIGO/Virgo trigger. Our upper limits on the hard X-ray fluence at the time of the event range from F_{γ}=2 × 10^{-8} erg cm^{-2} to F_{γ}=10^{-6} erg cm^{-2} in the 75 keV - 2 MeV energy range for typical spectral models. Our results constrain the ratio of the energy promptly released in gamma-rays in the direction of the observer to the gravitational wave energy E_γ/E_{GW}<10^{-6}. We discuss the implication of gamma-ray limits on the characteristics of the gravitational wave source, based on the available predictions for prompt electromagnetic emission for this and forthcoming events. Our team has a memorandum of understanding to follow-up possible triggers issued in near real time from the analysis of the gravitational wave teams.

  16. INTEGRAL upper limits on gamma-ray emission associated with the gravitational wave event GW150914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Mereghetti, S.; Natalucci, L.; Kuulkers, E.

    2016-06-01

    Using observations of the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), we put tight upper limits on the gamma-ray and hard X-ray prompt emission associated with the gravitational wave event GW150914, discovered by the LIGO/Virgo collaboration. The omni-directional view of the INTEGRAL/SPI-ACS has allowed us to constrain the fraction of energy emitted in the hard X-ray electromagnetic component for the full high-probability sky region of LIGO/Virgo trigger. Our upper limits on the hard X-ray fluence at the time of the event range from F_{γ}=2 × 10^{-8} erg cm^{-2} to F_{γ}=10^{-6} erg cm^{-2} in the 75 keV - 2 MeV energy range for typical spectral models. Our results constrain the ratio of the energy promptly released in gamma-rays in the direction of the observer to the gravitational wave energy E_γ/E_{GW}<10^{-6}. We discuss the implication of gamma-ray limits on the characteristics of the gravitational wave source, based on the available predictions for prompt electromagnetic emission. This work has been possible thanks to a Memorandum of Understanding with the LIGO-Virgo scientific collaboration and is presented on behalf of a larger collaboration.

  17. Upper limits on the strength of periodic gravitational waves from PSR J1939+2134

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Allen et al.

    2003-12-11

    The first science run of the LIGO and GEO gravitational wave detectors presented the opportunity to test methods of searching for gravitational waves from known pulsars. Here we present new direct upper limits on the strength of waves from the pulsar PSR J1939+2134 using two independent analysis methods, one in the frequency domain using frequentist statistics and one in the time domain using Bayesian inference. Both methods show that the strain amplitude at Earth from this pulsar is less than a few times 10{sup -22}.

  18. Estimating the Upper Limit of Lifetime Probability Distribution, Based on Data of Japanese Centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanayama, Nobutane; Sibuya, Masaaki

    2016-08-01

    In modern biology, theories of aging fall mainly into two groups: damage theories and programed theories. If programed theories are true, the probability that human beings live beyond a specific age will be zero. In contrast, if damage theories are true, such an age does not exist, and a longevity record will be eventually destroyed. In this article, for examining real state, a special type of binomial model based on the generalized Pareto distribution has been applied to data of Japanese centenarians. From the results, it is concluded that the upper limit of lifetime probability distribution in the Japanese population has been estimated 123 years.

  19. All-sky upper limit for gravitational radiation from spinning neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Astone, P; Bassan, M; Borkowski, K M; Coccia, E; D'Antonio, S; Fafone, V; Giordano, G; Jaranowski, P; Królak, A; Marini, A; Modena, Y M I; Modestino, G; Moleti, A; Pallottino, G V; Pietka, M; Quintieri, G P L; Rocchi, A; Ronga, F; Terenzi, R; Visco, M

    2003-01-01

    We present results of the all-sky search for gravitational-wave signals from spinning neutron stars in the data of the EXPLORER resonant bar detector. Our data analysis technique was based on the maximum likelihood detection method. We briefly describe the theoretical methods that we used in our search. The main result of our analysis is an upper limit of ${\\bf 2\\times10^{-23}}$ for the dimensionless amplitude of the continuous gravitational-wave signals coming from any direction in the sky and in the narrow frequency band from 921.00 Hz to 921.76 Hz.

  20. Upper limits on the strength of periodic gravitational waves from PSR J1939+2134

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, B; Abbott, B; Abbott, R; Adhikari, R; Allen, B; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Asiri, F; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S V; Balasubramanian, R; Ballmer, S; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barker-Patton, C; Barnes, M; Barr, B; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Beausoleil, R; Belczynski, K; Bennett, R; Berukoff, S J; Betzwieser, J; Bhawal, B; Billingsley, G; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Bland-Weaver, B; Bochner, B; Bogue, L; Bork, R G; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Brau, J E; Brown, D A; Brozek, S; Bullington, A; Buonanno, A; Burgess, R; Busby, D; Butler, W E; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cantley, C A; Cardenas, L; Carter, K; Casey, M M; Castiglione, J; Chandler, A; Chapsky, J; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chen, Y; Chickarmane, V; Chin, D; Christensen, N; Churches, D; Colacino, C N; Coldwell, R; Coles, M; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crooks, D R M; Csatorday, P; Cusack, B J; Cutler, C; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Davies, R; Daw, E; De Bra, D; Delker, T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S V; Ding, H; Drever, R W P; Dupuis, R J; Ebeling, C; Edlund, J; Ehrens, P; Elliffe, E J; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fallnich, C; Farnham, D; Fejer, M M; Fine, M; Finn, L S; Flanagan, E; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V; Fyffe, M; Ganezer, K S; Giaime, J A; Gillespie, A; Goda, K; González, G; Gossler, S; Grandclément, P; Grant, A; Gray, C; Gretarsson, A M; Grimmett, D; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Günther, M; Gustafson, E; Gustafson, R; Hamilton, W O; Hammond, M; Hanson, J; Hardham, C; Harry, G; Hartunian, A; Heefner, J; Hefetz, Y; Heinzel, G; Heng, I S; Hennessy, M; Hepler, N; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hindman, N; Hoang, P; Hough, J; Hrynevych, M; Hua, W; Ingley, R; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jennrich, O; Johnson, W W; Johnston, W; Jones, L; Jungwirth, D; Kalogera, V; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kells, W; Kern, J; Khan, A; Killbourn, S; Killow, C J; Kim, C; King, C; King, P; Klimenko, S; Kloevekorn, P; Koranda, S; Kotter, K; Kovalik, Yu; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Landry, M; Langdale, J; Lantz, B; Lawrence, R; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leonhardt, V; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Lindquist, P; Liu, S; Logan, J; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Lück, H B; Lyons, T T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majid, W; Malec, M; Mann, F; Marin, A; Marka, S; Maros, E; Mason, J; Mason, K; Matherny, O; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McHugh, M; McNamara, P; Mendell, G; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Miyoki, S; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Müller, G; Mukherjee, S; Myers, J; Nagano, S; Nash, T; Naundorf, H; Nayak, R; Newton, G; Nocera, F; Nutzman, P; Olson, T; O'Reilly, B; Ottaway, D J; Ottewill, A; Ouimette, D A; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Papa, M A; Parameswariah, C; Parameshwaraiah, V; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pitkin, M; Plissi, M; Pratt, M; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rakhmanov, M; Rao, S R; Redding, D; Regehr, M W; Regimbau, T; Reilly, K T; Reithmaier, K; Reitze, D H; Richman, S; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rizzi, A; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Robison, L; Roddy, S; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Rong, H; Rose, D; Rotthoff, E; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Salzman, I; Sanders, G H; Sannibale, V; Sathyaprakash, B; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sazonov, A; Schilling, R; Schlaufman, K; Schmidt, V; Schofield, R; Schrempel, M; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seel, S; Sengupta, A S; Shapiro, C A; Shawhan, P S; Shoemaker, D H; Shu, Q Z; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sievers, L; Sigg, D; Sintes, A M; Skeldon, K D; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, M R; Sneddon, P; Spero, R; Stapfer, G; Strain, K A; Strom, D; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T; Sumner, M C; Sutton, P J; Sylvestre, J; Takamori, A; Tanner, D B; Tariq, H; Taylor, I; Taylor, R; Thorne, K S; Tibbits, M; Tilav, S; Tinto, M; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traeger, S; Traylor, G; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D W; Vallisneri, M; Van Putten, M H P M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Vorvick, C; Wallace, L; Walther, H; Ward, H; Ware, B; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weidner, A; Weiland, U; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Welling, H; Wen, L; Wen, S; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Willems, P A; Williams, P R; Williams, R; Willke, B; Wilson, A; Winjum, B J; Winkler, W; Wise, S; Wiseman, A G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yoshida, S; Zawischa, I; Zhang, L; Zotov, N P; Zucker, M; Zweizig, J

    2004-01-01

    The first science run of the LIGO and GEO gravitational wave detectors presented the opportunity to test methods of searching for gravitational waves from known pulsars. Here we present new direct upper limits on the strength of waves from the pulsar PSR J1939+2134 using two independent analysis methods, one in the frequency domain using frequentist statistics and one in the time domain using Bayesian inference. Both methods show that the strain amplitude at Earth from this pulsar is less than a few times $10^{-22}$.

  1. INTEGRAL Upper Limits on Gamma-Ray Emission Associated with the Gravitational Wave Event GW150914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Mereghetti, S.;

    2016-01-01

    Using observations of the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), we place upper limits on the gamma-ray and hard X-ray prompt emission associated with the gravitational wave event GW150914, which was discovered by the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration. The omnidirectional view...... in the 75 keV-2 MeV energy range for typical spectral models. Our results constrain the ratio of the energy promptly released in gamma-rays in the direction of the observer to the gravitational wave energy Eγ/EGW ... of the gravitational wave source, based on the available predictions for prompt electromagnetic emission....

  2. INTEGRAL Upper Limits on Gamma-Ray Emission Associated with the Gravitational Wave Event GW150914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Natalucci, L.;

    Using observations of the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), we place upper limits on the gamma-ray and hard X-ray prompt emission associated with the gravitational wave event GW150914, discovered by the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration. The omnidirectional view of the INTEGRAL...... MeV energy range for typical spectral models. Our results constrain the ratio of the energy promptly released in gamma-rays in the direction of the observer to the gravitational wave energy Eγ/EGW gravitational wave...

  3. Upper limits for a narrow resonance in the reaction p + p -> K^+ + (Lambda p)

    CERN Document Server

    Budzanowski, A; Clement, H; Hawranek, P; Hinterberger, F; Jahn, R; Joosten, R; Kilian, K; Kirillov, Da; Kirillov, Di; Kliczewski, S; Kolev, D; Kravcikova, M; Lesiak, M; Machner, H; Magiera, A; Martinska, G; Piskunov, N; Protic, D; Ritman, J; von Rossen, P; Roy, J; Sibirtsev, A; Sitnik, I; Siudak, R; Tsenov, R; Ulbrich, K; Urban, J; Wagner, G J

    2011-01-01

    The reaction pp -> K^+ + (Lambda p) has been measured at T_p = 1.953 GeV and \\Theta = 0 deg with a high missing mass resolution in order to study the Lambda p final state interaction. Narrow S = -1 resonances predicted by bag model calculations are not visible in the missing mass spectrum. Small structures observed in a previous experiment are not confirmed. Upper limits for the production cross section of a narrow resonance are deduced for missing masses between 2058 and 2105 MeV/c^2.

  4. Physiological and life history strategies of a fossil large mammal in a resource-limited environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Meike; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2009-12-01

    Because of their physiological and life history characteristics, mammals exploit adaptive zones unavailable to ectothermic reptiles. Yet, they perform best in energy-rich environments because their high and constant growth rates and their sustained levels of resting metabolism require continuous resource supply. In resource-limited ecosystems such as islands, therefore, reptiles frequently displace mammals because their slow and flexible growth rates and low metabolic rates permit them to operate effectively with low energy flow. An apparent contradiction of this general principle is the long-term persistence of certain fossil large mammals on energy-poor Mediterranean islands. The purpose of the present study is to uncover the developmental and physiological strategies that allowed fossil large mammals to cope with the low levels of resource supply that characterize insular ecosystems. Long-bone histology of Myotragus, a Plio-Pleistocene bovid from the Balearic Islands, reveals lamellar-zonal tissue throughout the cortex, a trait exclusive to ectothermic reptiles. The bone microstructure indicates that Myotragus grew unlike any other mammal but similar to crocodiles at slow and flexible rates, ceased growth periodically, and attained somatic maturity extremely late by approximately 12 years. This developmental pattern denotes that Myotragus, much like extant reptiles, synchronized its metabolic requirements with fluctuating resource levels. Our results suggest that developmental and physiological plasticity was crucial to the survival of this and, perhaps, other large mammals on resource-limited Mediterranean Islands, yet it eventually led to their extinction through a major predator, Homo sapiens.

  5. Upper Limit on the Diffuse Flux of Ultrahigh Energy Tau Neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argirò, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Boratav, M.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Demitri, I.; de Souza, V.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fonte, R.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Herrero, R.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, M.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Luna García, R.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Manceñido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martínez, J.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nguyen Thi, T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pękala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pham Ngoc, Diep; Pham Ngoc, Dong; Pham Thi, T. N.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodríguez Frías, D.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Smetniansky de Grande, N.; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Torresi, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2008-05-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau neutrinos that interact in Earth’s crust. Tau leptons from ντ charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant electromagnetic component. The data collected between 1 January 2004 and 31 August 2007 are used to place an upper limit on the diffuse flux of ντ at EeV energies. Assuming an Eν-2 differential energy spectrum the limit set at 90% C.L. is Eν2dNντ/dEν<1.3×10-7GeVcm-2s-1sr-1 in the energy range 2×1017eV

  6. Upper Limit on Gravitational Wave Backgrounds at 0.2 Hz with Torsion-bar Antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Ishidoshiro, Koji; Takamori, Akiteru; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Okada, Kenshi; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Kokuyama, Wataru; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Aso, Yoichi; Tsubono, Kimio

    2011-01-01

    We present the first upper limit on gravitational wave (GW) backgrounds at an unexplored frequency of 0.2 Hz using a torsion-bar antenna (TOBA). A TOBA was proposed to search for low-frequency GWs. We have developed a small-scaled TOBA and successfully found {\\Omega}gw(f) < 4.3 \\times 1017 at 0.2 Hz as demonstration of the TOBA's capabilities, where {\\Omega}gw (f) is the GW energy density per logarithmic frequency interval in units of the closure density. Our result is the first nonintegrated limit to bridge the gap between the LIGO band (around 100 Hz) and the Cassini band (10-6 - 10-4 Hz).

  7. Conservative upper limits on WIMP annihilation cross section from Fermi-LAT $\\gamma$-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Donato, F; De Romeri, V

    2011-01-01

    The spectrum of an isotropic extragalactic $\\gamma$-ray background (EGB) has been measured by the Fermi-LAT telescope at high latitudes. Two new models for the EGB are derived from the subtraction of unresolved point sources and extragalactic diffuse processes, which could explain from 30% to 70% of the Fermi-LAT EGB. Within the hypothesis that the two residual EGBs are entirely due to the annihilation of dark matter (DM) particles in the Galactic halo, we obtain $conservative$ upper limits on their annihilation cross section \\sigmav. Severe bounds on a possible Sommerfeld enhancement of the annihilation cross section are set as well. Finally, would {\\sigmav} be inversely proportional to the WIMP velocity, very severe limits are derived for the velocity-independent part of the annihilation cross section.

  8. Upper limit on the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy tau neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa, A F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Boratav, M; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; de Mello Junior, W J M; de Mello Neto, J R T; DeMitri, I; de Souza, V; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; DuVernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferry, S; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fonte, R; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; García, B; García Gámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gómez Berisso, M; Gómez Herrero, R; Gonçalves, P; Gonçalves do Amaral, M; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A F; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Leigui de Oliveira, M A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Lopez Agüera, A; Lozano Bahilo, J; Luna García, R; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mancarella, G; Manceñido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Marquez Falcon, H R; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Martínez Bravo, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Meli, A; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, Chr; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nguyen Thi, T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pacheco, N; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pham Ngoc, Diep; Pham Ngoc, Dong; Pham Thi, T N; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, A; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Rodríguez Frías, D; Rodriguez Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovánek, P; Schüssler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G

    2008-05-30

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau neutrinos that interact in Earth's crust. Tau leptons from nu(tau) charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant electromagnetic component. The data collected between 1 January 2004 and 31 August 2007 are used to place an upper limit on the diffuse flux of nu(tau) at EeV energies. Assuming an E(nu)(-2) differential energy spectrum the limit set at 90% C.L. is E(nu)(2)dN(nu)(tau)/dE(nu)<1.3 x 10(-7) GeV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) in the energy range 2 x 10(17) eV< E(nu)< 2 x 10(19) eV.

  9. A Low Upper Limit to the Lyman Continuum Emission of two galaxies at z 3

    CERN Document Server

    Giallongo, E; D'Odorico, S; Fontana, A

    2002-01-01

    Long exposure, long-slit spectra have been obtained in the UV/optical bands for two galaxies at z=2.96 and z=3.32 to investigate the fraction of ionizing UV photons escaping from high redshifts galaxies. The two targets are among the brightest galaxies discovered by Steidel and collaborators and they have different properties in terms of Lyman-alpha emission and dust reddening. No significant Lyman continuum emission has been detected. The noise level in the spectra implies an upper limit of f_{rel,esc}\\equiv 3 f(900)/f(1500)< 16% for the relative escape fraction of ionizing photons, after correction for absorption by the intervening intergalactic medium. This upper limit is 4 times lower than the previous detection derived from a composite spectrum of 29 Lyman break galaxies at z 3.4. If this value is typical of the escape fraction of the z 3 galaxies, and is added to the expected contribution of the QSO population, the derived UV background is in good agreement with the one derived by the proximity effec...

  10. Patient-tailored implantable cardioverter defibrillator testing using the upper limit of vulnerability: the TULIP protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Bernd; Lawo, Thomas; Zarse, Markus; Lubinski, Andrzej; Kreutzer, Ulrich; Mueller, Johannes; Schuchert, Andreas; Mitzenheim, Sabine; Danilovic, Dejan; Deneke, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of the TULIP (Threshold test using Upper Limit during ImPlantation) protocol, which was designed to provide a confirmed, low defibrillation energy value during implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation with only two induced ventricular fibrillation (VF) episodes. Ninety-eight patients (62 +/- 12 years, 86 male) from 13 clinical centres underwent an active can ICD implantation. A single coupling interval derived from electrocardiogram lead II during ventricular pacing was used for VF induction shocks at 13, 11, 9, and 6 J in a step-down manner until the upper limit of VF induction (ULVI) was determined. If ULVI >or=9 J, a defibrillation energy of ULVI + 4 J was tested. For ULVI <9 J, the defibrillation test energy was 9 J. In 79/98 patients (80.6%), two induced VF episodes were sufficient to obtain confirmed defibrillation energy of 11.1 +/- 3.3 J. The mean strength of the successful VF induction shock was 6.8 +/- 4.3 J, the coupling interval was 303 +/- 35 ms, and the number of delivered induction shocks until the first VF induction was 3.9 +/- 1.6. TULIP is a safe and simple device testing procedure allowing the determination of confirmed, low defibrillation energy in most patients with two VF episodes induced at a single coupling interval.

  11. Observational upper limits on the gravitational wave production of core collapse supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xing-Jiang; Howell, E.; Blair, D.

    2010-11-01

    The upper limit on the energy density of a stochastic gravitational wave (GW) background obtained from the 2-yr science run (S5) of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is used to constrain the average GW production of core collapse supernovae (ccSNe). We assume that the ccSNe rate tracks the star formation history of the Universe and show that the stochastic background energy density depends only weakly on the assumed average source spectrum. Using the ccSNe rate for z <= 10, we scale the generic source spectrum to obtain an observation-based upper limit on the average GW emission. We show that the mean energy emitted in GWs can be constrained within < (0.49-1.98)Msolarc2 depending on the average source spectrum. While these results are higher than the total available gravitational energy in a core collapse event, second- and third-generation GW detectors will enable tighter constraints to be set on the GW emission from such systems.

  12. Upper limit on the lifetime difference of short- and long-lived $B^0_s$ mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Banicz, K; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Easo, S; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hidas, P; Hirschfelder, J; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Iashvili, I; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, D H; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kunin, A; Lacentre, P E; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lavorato, A; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Marchesini, P A; Marian, G; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; Mazumdar, K; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Migani, D; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Muanza, G S; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Oh, Yu D; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pedace, M; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Pothier, J; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Raja, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Rind, O; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Sakar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Sauvage, G; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schneegans, M; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F; Zilizi, G

    1998-01-01

    An upper limit on the lifetime difference of short- and long-lived $\\rm B^0_s$ mesons has been obtained using an inclusive bottom hadron sample from 2 million hadronic Z decays collected by the L3 experiment at LEP. A lifetime fit has been performed on data samples separately enriched in neutral and charged b hadrons. An experimental upper limit on the decay rate difference of short- and long-lived $\\rm B^0_s$ mesons of \\begin{displaymath} ~~~~ {\\rm (|\\Delta\\Gamma|/\\Gamma)_{B^0_s}} < 0.67 ~~~~~~~\\mathrm{(95\\% \\; C.L.)} \\end{displaymath} has been determined. In addition, the lifetimes of $\\rm B^+$ and $\\rm B^0_d$ mesons have been measured to be $\\tau(\\rm B^+) = 1.66 \\pm 0.06 \\, \\pm 0.03 \\; \\mathrm{ps}$ and $\\tau(\\rm B^0_d) = 1.52 \\pm 0.06 \\, \\pm 0.04 \\; \\mathrm{ps}$, where the first errors are statistical and the second are systematic.

  13. Frequency of Painful Shoulder Limitation of Motion after Long Casting of Upper Extremity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Yavarikia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was determination of frequency of painful reduced shoulder motion after long casting of upper extremity and its relation with age , sex and education . The present work was a descriptive analytic prospective study and included 388 patients who referred to Mobasher hospital of Hamadan during 2001. The selected patients in recurrent referring to orthopedic department were classified to 10 age groups and were examined by researcher in 1 , 1.5 and 3 months after treatment and data was collected in check list. The primary data were analyzed with 2 & Anova by employing EPI 6. Out of 388 studied patients 73.5% after 3 months had no mobility limitation and 26.5% had some limitation. There was significant statistical difference in limitation of abduction shoulder joint movement after 1 , 1.5 and 3 months after treatment among 10 different age groups (P<0.05. Mobility limitation of internal rotation after 3 months in 74 cases (19.1%(P=0.0001. Final mobility limitation in 59.5% of female patients and 40.5% of male patients(P=0.001. Mobility limitation in 54.1% of illiterate people , 24.5% under high school diploma and 21.4% high school diploma and higher. Painful limitation of motion in 50-80 year aged is most frequent, then early mobility and physiotherapy in this age range is indicated. There is significant relation between sex and frozen shoulder and it is more common in females also in illiterate people.

  14. Constant enthalpy change value during pyrophosphate hydrolysis within the physiological limits of NaCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Satoshi; Kidokoro, Shun-ichi; Masaki, Kazuo; Nakasone, Kaoru; Sambongi, Yoshihiro

    2013-10-11

    A decrease in water activity was thought to result in smaller enthalpy change values during PPi hydrolysis, indicating the importance of solvation for the reaction. However, the physiological significance of this phenomenon is unknown. Here, we combined biochemistry and calorimetry to solve this problem using NaCl, a physiologically occurring water activity-reducing reagent. The pyrophosphatase activities of extremely halophilic Haloarcula japonica, which can grow at ∼4 M NaCl, and non-halophilic Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were maximal at 2.0 and 0.1 M NaCl, respectively. Thus, halophilic and non-halophilic pyrophosphatases exhibit distinct maximal activities at different NaCl concentration ranges. Upon calorimetry, the same exothermic enthalpy change of -35 kJ/mol was obtained for the halophile and non-halophiles at 1.5-4.0 and 0.1-2.0 M NaCl, respectively. These results show that solvation changes caused by up to 4.0 M NaCl (water activity of ∼0.84) do not affect the enthalpy change in PPi hydrolysis. It has been postulated that PPi is an ATP analog, having a so-called high energy phosphate bond, and that the hydrolysis of both compounds is enthalpically driven. Therefore, our results indicate that the hydrolysis of high energy phosphate compounds, which are responsible for biological energy conversion, is enthalpically driven within the physiological limits of NaCl.

  15. Constant Enthalpy Change Value during Pyrophosphate Hydrolysis within the Physiological Limits of NaCl*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Satoshi; Kidokoro, Shun-ichi; Masaki, Kazuo; Nakasone, Kaoru; Sambongi, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    A decrease in water activity was thought to result in smaller enthalpy change values during PPi hydrolysis, indicating the importance of solvation for the reaction. However, the physiological significance of this phenomenon is unknown. Here, we combined biochemistry and calorimetry to solve this problem using NaCl, a physiologically occurring water activity-reducing reagent. The pyrophosphatase activities of extremely halophilic Haloarcula japonica, which can grow at ∼4 m NaCl, and non-halophilic Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were maximal at 2.0 and 0.1 m NaCl, respectively. Thus, halophilic and non-halophilic pyrophosphatases exhibit distinct maximal activities at different NaCl concentration ranges. Upon calorimetry, the same exothermic enthalpy change of −35 kJ/mol was obtained for the halophile and non-halophiles at 1.5–4.0 and 0.1–2.0 m NaCl, respectively. These results show that solvation changes caused by up to 4.0 m NaCl (water activity of ∼0.84) do not affect the enthalpy change in PPi hydrolysis. It has been postulated that PPi is an ATP analog, having a so-called high energy phosphate bond, and that the hydrolysis of both compounds is enthalpically driven. Therefore, our results indicate that the hydrolysis of high energy phosphate compounds, which are responsible for biological energy conversion, is enthalpically driven within the physiological limits of NaCl. PMID:23965994

  16. Use of partition coefficients in flow-limited physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew D; Beard, Daniel A; Wu, Fan

    2012-08-01

    Permeability-limited two-subcompartment and flow-limited, well-stirred tank tissue compartment models are routinely used in physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling. Here, the permeability-limited two-subcompartment model is used to derive a general flow-limited case of a two-subcompartment model with the well-stirred tank being a specific case where tissue fractional blood volume approaches zero. The general flow-limited two-subcompartment model provides a clear distinction between two partition coefficients typically used in PBPK: a biophysical partition coefficient and a well-stirred partition coefficient. Case studies using diazepam and cotinine demonstrate that, when the well-stirred tank is used with a priori predicted biophysical partition coefficients, simulations overestimate or underestimate total organ drug concentration relative to flow-limited two-subcompartment model behavior in tissues with higher fractional blood volumes. However, whole-body simulations show predicted drug concentrations in plasma and lower fractional blood volume tissues are relatively unaffected. These findings point to the importance of accurately determining tissue fractional blood volume for flow-limited PBPK modeling. Simulations using biophysical and well-stirred partition coefficients optimized with flow-limited two-subcompartment and well-stirred models, respectively, lead to nearly identical fits to tissue drug distribution data. Therefore, results of whole-body PBPK modeling with diazepam and cotinine indicate both flow-limited models are appropriate PBPK tissue models as long as the correct partition coefficient is used: the biophysical partition coefficient is for use with two-subcompartment models and the well-stirred partition coefficient is for use with the well-stirred tank model.

  17. Upper limits for mass and radius of objects around Proxima Cen from SPHERE/VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, D.; Zurlo, A.; Milli, J.; Gratton, R.; Desidera, S.; Langlois, M.; Vigan, A.; Bonavita, M.; Antichi, J.; Avenhaus, H.; Baruffolo, A.; Biller, B.; Boccaletti, A.; Bruno, P.; Cascone, E.; Chauvin, G.; Claudi, R. U.; De Caprio, V.; Fantinel, D.; Farisato, G.; Girard, J.; Giro, E.; Hagelberg, J.; Incorvaia, S.; Janson, M.; Kral, Q.; Lagadec, E.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Lessio, L.; Meyer, M.; Peretti, S.; Perrot, C.; Salasnich, B.; Schlieder, J.; Schmid, H.-M.; Scuderi, S.; Sissa, E.; Thalmann, C.; Turatto, M.

    2017-03-01

    The recent discovery of an earth-like planet around Proxima Centauri has drawn much attention to this star and its environment. We performed a series of observations of Proxima Centauri using Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE), the planet-finder instrument installed at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT) UT3, using its near-infrared modules, InfraRed Dual-band Imager and Spectrograph (IRDIS) and IFS. No planet was detected directly, but we set upper limits on the mass up to 7 au by exploiting the AMES-COND models. Our IFS observations reveal that no planet more massive than ∼6-7 MJup can be present within 1 au. The dual-band imaging camera IRDIS also enables us to probe larger separations than other techniques such as radial velocity or astrometry. We obtained mass limits of the order of 4 MJup at separations of 2 au or larger, representing the most stringent mass limits at separations larger than 5 au available at the moment. We also made an attempt to estimate the radius of possible planets around Proxima using the reflected light. Since the residual noise for the observations is dominated by photon noise and thermal background, longer exposures in good observing conditions could improve the achievable contrast limit further.

  18. Dawn Mission’s Search for satellites at Ceres: Upper limits on size of orbital objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Lucy-Ann A.; Skillman, David R.; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Carsenty, Uri; Schroeder, Stefan E.; Li, Jian-Yang Y.; Rayman, Marc D.

    2015-11-01

    Hundreds of asteroids have small secondary satellites or are double, or even multiple body systems; yet dwarf planet Ceres doesn’t and isn’t. Ground-based and space-based telescopic searches have placed upper limits on the size of any secondary bodies gravitationally bound to Ceres of 1-2 km (Gehrels et al 1987, Bieryla et al. 2011). The Dawn project’s satellite working group designed and conducted a search during approach to Ceres and during high orbit concentrating its search close to Ceres’ limb where previous searches could not reach. Over 2000 images for both science and optical navigation were searched. In addition, a dedicated satellite search was conducted during two commanded off-nadir pointings. The acquired images extend 5.5° x 5.5° on either side of Ceres, at a range of ~ 145,000 km and solar phase angle at Ceres of 18°. No moving objects associated with Ceres were detected. The search extended down to Ceres’ limb (previous searches went to 500 km above the limb) and extended the upper limit for the non-detection to 30 +/- 6 and 45 +/-9 meter radius for effective exposure times of 114s and 19s respectively. An additional small search was conducted using the spacecraft's star tracker from which no objects were found. The Dawn mission’s search reduced the previous detection limit from Hubble Space Telescope images by two orders of magnitude. Why some asteroids have satellites and others don’t is a matter for dynamical speculation.

  19. Upper and lower limits of the proton stoichiometry of cytochrome c oxidation in rat liver mitoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynafarje, B; Costa, L E; Lehninger, A L

    1986-06-25

    The stoichiometry of vectorial H+ translocation coupled to oxidation of added ferrocytochrome c by O2 via cytochrome-c oxidase of rat liver mitoplasts was determined employing a fast-responding O2 electrode. Electron flow was initiated by addition of either ferrocytochrome c or O2. When the rates were extrapolated to level flow, the H+/O ratios in both cases were less than but closely approached 4; the directly observed H+/O ratios significantly exceeded 3.0. The mechanistic H+/O ratio was then more closely fixed by a kinetic approach that eliminates the necessity for measuring energy leaks and is independent of any particular model of the mechanism of energy transduction. From two sets of kinetic measurements, an overestimate and an underestimate and thus the upper and lower limits of the mechanistic H+/O ratio could be obtained. In the first set, the utilization of respiratory energy was systematically varied through changes in the concentrations of valinomycin or K+. From the slope of a plot of the initial rates of H+ ejection (JH) and O2 uptake (JO) obtained in such experiments, the upper limit of the H+/O ratio was in the range 4.12-4.19. In the second set of measurements, the rate of respiratory energy production was varied by inhibiting electron transport. From the slope of a plot of JH versus JO, the lower limit of the H+/O ratio, equivalent to that at level flow, was in the range 3.83-3.96. These data fix the mechanistic H+/O ratio for the cytochrome oxidase reaction of mitoplasts at 4.0, thus confirming our earlier measurements (Reynafarje, B., Alexandre, A., Davies, P., and Lehninger, A. L. (1982) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79, 7218-7222). Possible reasons for discrepancies in published reports on the H+/O ratio of cytochrome oxidase in various mitochondrial and reconstituted systems are discussed.

  20. An upper limit on hypertriton production in collisions of Ar(1.76 A GeV) + KCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agakishiev, G.; Belver, D.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Chernenko, S.; Destefanis, M.; Dohrmann, F.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gilardi, C.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Lang, S.; Lange, J. S.; Lapidus, K.; Liu, T.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Michel, J.; Morinière, E.; Mousa, J.; Müntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Rehnisch, L.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Scheib, T.; Schmah, A.; Schuldes, H.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wisniowski, M.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.

    2013-11-01

    A high-statistic data sample of Ar(1.76 AGeV)+KCl events recorded with HADES is used to search for a hypertriton signal. An upper production limit per centrality-triggered event of on the 3 level is derived. Comparing this value with the number of successfully reconstructed hyperons allows to determine an upper limit on the ratio , which is confronted with statistical and coalescence-type model calculations.

  1. Physiological and Biochemical Changes in Microcystis aeruginosa Qutz. in Phosphorus Limitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Ming OU; Yan WANG; Wei-Min CAI

    2005-01-01

    Effects of phosphorus limitation on the physiological and biochemical changes of the freshwater bloom alga Microcystis aeruginosa Qutz. are reported in the present study. As a result of phosphorus limitation, biomass was controlled to some extent and the protein content per cell in vivo decreased. However,the carbohydrate content per cell was higher in phosphorus limitation over the 8 d of cultivation. Soluble proteins were distinct in the media, whereas phosphorus deficiency induced the presence of a unique protein (16.2 kDa). Under conditions of phosphorus limitation, the activities of both superoxide dismutase and peroxidase per cell in vivo were lower than under normal conditions in the last cultivation. The in vivo absorption spectra of cells showed chlorophyll absorption peaks at 676 and 436 nm, over 10 nm red-shifted from the normal position; cells showed an absence of a chlorophyll c with an in vivo absorption peak at 623nm and an extraction absorption peak at 617 nm. The chlorophyll a/carotene and chlorophyll a/xanthophylls ratios decreased under conditions of phosphorus limitation, photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) was clearly lower, and the low-temperature fluorescence emission spectra indicated a higher peak at 683 nm and a lower peak at 721 nm relatively, with the 721 nm peak drifting slightly to the red and the 683 nm peak strengthened with a weakened 692 nm shoulder peak.

  2. Limits to physiological plasticity of the coral Pocillopora verrucosa from the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, M.

    2014-07-26

    Many coral species display changing distribution patterns across coral reef depths. While changes in the underwater light field and the ability to associate with different photosynthetic symbionts of the genus Symbiodinium explain some of the variation, the limits to physiological plasticity are unknown for most corals. In the central Red Sea, colonies of the branching coral Pocillopora verrucosa are most abundant in shallow high light environments and become less abundant in water depths below 10 m. To further understand what determines this narrow distribution, we conducted a cross-depths transplant experiment looking at physiological plasticity and acclimation in regard to depth. Colonies from 5, 10, and 20 m were collected, transplanted to all depths, and re-investigated after 30 and 210 d. All coral colonies transplanted downward from shallow to deep water displayed an increase in photosynthetic light-harvesting pigments, which resulted in higher photosynthetic efficiency. Shallow-water specimens transplanted to deeper water showed a significant decrease in total protein content after 30 and 210 d under low light conditions compared to specimens transplanted to shallow and medium depths. Stable isotope data suggest that heterotrophic input of carbon was not increased under low light, and consequently, decreasing protein levels were symptomatic of decreasing photosynthetic rates that could not be compensated for through higher light-harvesting efficiency. Our results provide insights into the physiological plasticity of P. verrucosa in changing light regimes and explain the observed depth distribution pattern. Despite its high abundance in shallow reef waters, P. verrucosa possesses limited heterotrophic acclimation potential, i.e., the ability to support its mainly photoautotrophic diet through heterotrophic feeding. We conclude that P. verrucosa might be a species vulnerable to sudden changes in underwater light fields resulting from processes such as

  3. CONSIDERATIONS ON ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF LYMPH VESSELS OF UPPER AERO DIGESTIVE ORGANS AND CERVICAL SATELLITE LYMPH NODE GROUP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupilan, Corina; Stan, C I

    2016-01-01

    The almost constant local regional development of the cancers of upper aero digestive organs requires the same special attention to cervical lymph node metastases, as well as to the primary neoplastic burning point. The surgical therapy alone or associated has a mutilating, damaging character, resulting in loss of an organ and function, most of the times with social implications, involving physical distortions with aesthetic consequences, which make the reintegration of the individual into society questionable. The problem of cervical lymph node metastases is vast and complex, reason why we approached several anatomical and physiological aspects of lymph vessels of the aero digestive organs. Among the available elements during treatment, the headquarters of the tumour, its histologic degree, and its infiltrative nature, each of them significantly influences the possibility of developing metastases.

  4. Effect of Therapeutic Sequence of Hot Pack and Ultrasound on Physiological Response Over Trigger Point of Upper Trapezius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjaboonyanupap

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Musculoskeletal pain is a common problem among athletes. Apart from sport injuries, the myofascial pain syndrome is another important problem that affects performance of the athlete. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of therapeutic sequences of the hot pack in combination with ultrasound on the physiological responses over the latent myofascial trigger point (LMTrP of upper trapezius muscle. Materials and Methods Thirty subjects with a latent myofascial trigger point (LMTrP in both sides of the upper trapezius muscle participated in the study (age 27.33 ± 4.34 years, weight 58.11 ± 7.47 kg, height 161.50 ± 5.82 cm, pressure pain threshold 2.28 ± 0.24 kg/cm2, pain intensity 7.17 ± 2.25 VAS. All subjects received both treatments (hot pack followed by ultrasound: HP + US; and ultrasound followed by hot pack: US + HP by randomization with a 24 to 48-hour interval between sessions. Outcome measures, including the tissue blood flow (TBF, pressure pain threshold (PPT, supra-thermal threshold (STT and visual analog scale (VAS were evaluated at baseline, immediately, after 30 minutes and after 60 minutes. Results The TBF and PPT significantly increased from baseline in both treatment conditions (i.e. HP + US and US + HP, while the HP + US condition showed a trend toward significant difference in VAS and STT in 45°C. Conclusions The application of HP and US treatment induces physiological responses (especially, TBF and PPT on the LMTrP. This finding provides the direction toward the management of MTrPs condition.

  5. Upper limit on the diffuse flux of cosmic ν with the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANTARES Collaboration; Biagi, Simone

    2011-03-01

    A search for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos, using data collected by the ANTARES neutrino telescope from December 2007 to December 2009 is presented. A (0.83×2π) sr sky was monitored for a total of 334 days of equivalent live time. The searched signal corresponds to an excess of events, produced by astrophysical sources, over the expected atmospheric neutrino background without any particular assumption on the source direction. the analysis are described. Since the number of detected events is compatible with the number of expected background events, a 90% c.l. upper limit on the diffuse ν flux with a E-2 spectrum is set at E2Φ=5.3×10-8 GeVcm-2s-1sr-1 in the energy range 20 TeV - 2.5 PeV. Other signal models with different energy shape were also tested and some rejected.

  6. VERITAS Upper Limit on the VHE Emission from the Radio Galaxy NGC 1275

    CERN Document Server

    Acciari, V A; Arlen, T; Aune, T; Bautista, M; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Boltuch, D; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Byrum, K; Cannon, A; Celik, O; Cesarini, A; Ciupik, L; Cogan, P; Cui, W; Dickherber, R; Duke, C; Fegan, S J; Finley, J P; Fortin, P; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Galante, N; Gall, D; Gibbs, K; Gillanders, G H; Godambe, S; Grube, J; Guenette, R; Gyuk, G; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Horan, D; Hui, C M; Humensky, T B; Imran, A; Kaaret, Philip; Karlsson, N; Kertzman, M; Kieda, D; Konopelko, A; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Lang, M J; Le Bohec, S; Maier, G; McCann, A; McCutcheon, M; Millis, J; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Pandel, D; Perkins, J S; Pohl, M; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reynolds, P T; Roache, E; Rose, H J; Schroedter, M; Sembroski, G H; Smith, A W; Steele, D; Swordy, S P; Theiling, M; Toner, J A; Varlotta, A; Vasilev, V V; Vincent, S; Wagner, R G; Wakely, S P; Ward, J E; Weekes, T C; Weinstein, A; Weisgarber, T; Williams, D A; Wissel, S; Wood, M; Zitzer, B; Kataoka, J; Cavazzuti, E; Cheung, C C; Lott, B; Thompson, D J; Tosti, G

    2009-01-01

    The recent detection by the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope of high-energy gamma-rays from the radio galaxy NGC 1275 makes the observation of the very high energy (VHE: E > 100 GeV) part of its broadband spectrum particularly interesting, especially for the understanding of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with misaligned multi-structured jets. The radio galaxy NGC 1275 was recently observed by VERITAS at energies above 100 GeV for about 8 hours. No VHE gamma-ray emission was detected by VERITAS from NGC 1275. A 99% confidence level upper limit of 2.1% of the Crab Nebula flux level is obtained at the decorrelation energy of approximately 340 GeV, corresponding to 19% of the power-law extrapolation of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) result.

  7. Swift X-Ray Upper Limits on Type Ia Supernova Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, B. R.; Immler, S.

    2012-01-01

    We have considered 53 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Swift X-Ray Telescope. None of the SNe Ia are individually detected at any time or in stacked images. Using these data and assuming that the SNe Ia are a homogeneous class of objects, we have calculated upper limits to the X-ray luminosity (0.2-10 keV) and mass-loss rate of L(sub 0.2-10) < 1.7 X 10(exp 38) erg/s and M(dot) < l.l X 10(exp -6) solar M/ yr x (V(sub w))/(10 km/s), respectively. The results exclude massive or evolved stars as the companion objects in SN Ia progenitor systems, but allow the possibility of main sequence or small stars, along with double degenerate systems consisting of two white dwarfs, consistent with results obtained at other wavelengths (e.g., UV, radio) in other studies.

  8. Gamma-ray upper limits on magnetars with 6 years of Fermi-LAT observations

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jian; Torres, Diego F; de Ona-Wilhelmi, Emma

    2016-01-01

    We report on the search for gamma-ray emission from 20 magnetars using 6 years of Fermi, Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations. No significant evidence for gamma-ray emission from any of the currently-known magnetars is found. We derived the most stringent upper limits to date on the 0.1--10 GeV emission of Galactic magnetars, which are estimated between $\\sim10^{-12}-10^{-11}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$. Gamma-ray pulsations were searched for the four magnetars having reliable ephemerides over the observing period, but none were detected. On the other hand, we also studied the gamma-ray morphology and spectra of seven Supernova Remnants associated or adjacent to the magnetars.

  9. Upper limits for the photoproduction cross section for the Phi--(1860) pentaquark state off the deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovanes Egiyan

    2012-01-01

    We searched for the {Phi}{sup --}(1860) pentaquark in the photoproduction process off the deuteron in the {Xi}{sup -} {pi}{sup -} decay channel using CLAS. The invariant mass spectrum of the {Xi}{sup -} {pi}{sup -} system does not indicate any statistically significant enhancement near the reported mass M = 1.860 GeV. The statistical analysis of the sideband-subtracted mass spectrum yields a 90% confidence level upper limit of 0.7 nb for the photoproduction cross section of {Phi}{sup --}(1860) with a consecutive decay into {Xi}{sup -} {pi}{sup -} in the photon energy range 4.5 GeV < E{sub {gamma}} < 5.5 GeV.

  10. Upper limits for Mass and Radius of objects around Proxima Cen from SPHERE/VLT

    CERN Document Server

    Mesa, D; Milli, J; Gratton, R; Desidera, S; Langlois, M; Vigan, A; Bonavita, M; Antichi, J; Avenhaus, H; Baruffolo, A; Biller, B; Boccaletti, A; Bruno, P; Cascone, E; Chauvin, G; Claudi, R U; De Caprio, V; Fantinel, D; Farisato, G; Girard, J; Giro, E; Hagelberg, J; Incorvaia, S; Janson, M; Kral, Q; Lagadec, E; Lagrange, A -M; Lessio, L; Meyer, M; Peretti, S; Perrot, C; Salasnich, B; Schlieder, J; Schmid, H -M; Scuderi, S; Sissa, E; Thalmann, C; Turatto, M

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of an earth-like planet around Proxima Centauri has drawn much attention to this star and its environment. We performed a series of observations of Proxima Centauri using SPHERE, the planet finder instrument installed at the ESO Very Large Telescope UT3, using its near infrared modules, IRDIS and IFS. No planet was directly detected but we set upper limits on the mass up to 7 au exploiting the AMES-COND models. Our IFS observations reveal that no planet more massive than ~6-7 M Jup can be present within 1 au. The dual band imaging camera IRDIS also enables us to probe larger separations than the other techniques like the radial velocity or astrometry. We obtained mass limits of the order of 4 M Jup at separations of 2 au or larger representing the most stringent mass limits at separations larger than 5 au available at the moment. We also did an attempt to estimate the radius of possible planets around Proxima using the reflected light. Since the residual noise for this observations are do...

  11. Vegetation dynamics at the upper elevational limit of vascular plants in Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Jiri; Dvorsky, Miroslav; Kopecky, Martin; Liancourt, Pierre; Hiiesalu, Inga; Macek, Martin; Altman, Jan; Chlumska, Zuzana; Rehakova, Klara; Capkova, Katerina; Borovec, Jakub; Mudrak, Ondrej; Wild, Jan; Schweingruber, Fritz

    2016-05-04

    A rapid warming in Himalayas is predicted to increase plant upper distributional limits, vegetation cover and abundance of species adapted to warmer climate. We explored these predictions in NW Himalayas, by revisiting uppermost plant populations after ten years (2003-2013), detailed monitoring of vegetation changes in permanent plots (2009-2012), and age analysis of plants growing from 5500 to 6150 m. Plant traits and microclimate variables were recorded to explain observed vegetation changes. The elevation limits of several species shifted up to 6150 m, about 150 vertical meters above the limit of continuous plant distribution. The plant age analysis corroborated the hypothesis of warming-driven uphill migration. However, the impact of warming interacts with increasing precipitation and physical disturbance. The extreme summer snowfall event in 2010 is likely responsible for substantial decrease in plant cover in both alpine and subnival vegetation and compositional shift towards species preferring wetter habitats. Simultaneous increase in summer temperature and precipitation caused rapid snow melt and, coupled with frequent night frosts, generated multiple freeze-thaw cycles detrimental to subnival plants. Our results suggest that plant species responses to ongoing climate change will not be unidirectional upward range shifts but rather multi-dimensional, species-specific and spatially variable.

  12. New Horizons Upper Limits on O2 in Pluto’s Present Day Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammer, J. A.; Stern, S. A.; Young, L. A.; Steffl, A. J.; Gladstone, G. R.; Olkin, C. B.; Weaver, H. A.; Ennico, K.; New Horizons Atmospheres, The; Alice UV Spectrograph Teams

    2017-08-01

    The surprising discovery by the Rosetta spacecraft of molecular oxygen (O2) in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko challenged our understanding of the inventory of this volatile species on and inside bodies from the Kuiper Belt. That discovery motivated our search for oxygen in the atmosphere of Kuiper Belt planet Pluto, because O2 is volatile even at Pluto’s surface temperatures. During the New Horizons flyby of Pluto in 2015 July, the spacecraft probed the composition of Pluto’s atmosphere using a variety of observations, including an ultraviolet solar occultation observed by the Alice UV spectrograph. As described in these reports, absorption by molecular species in Pluto’s atmosphere yielded detections of N2, as well as hydrocarbon species such as CH4, C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6. Our work here further examines this data to search for UV absorption from molecular oxygen (O2), which has a significant cross-section in the Alice spectrograph bandpass. We find no evidence for O2 absorption and place an upper limit on the total amount of O2 in Pluto’s atmosphere as a function of tangent height up to 700 km. In most of the atmosphere, this upper limit in line-of-sight abundance units is ˜3 × 1015 cm-2, which, depending on tangent height, corresponds to a mixing ratio of 10-6 to 10-4, far lower than in comet 67P/CG.

  13. Constraints on the bulk Lorentz factor of Gamma-Ray Burst jets from Fermi/LAT upper limits

    CERN Document Server

    Nava, L; Longo, F; Celotti, A; Omodei, N; Vianello, G; Bissaldi, E; Piran, T

    2016-01-01

    It is largely recognized that Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) jets involve ultra-relativistic motion. However, the value of the Lorentz factor Gamma_0 is still not clear and only lower limits are known for most bursts. We suggest here a new method to obtain upper limits on Gamma_0. The early high-energy synchrotron afterglow flux depends strongly on Gamma_0. Upper limits on GeV emission therefore provide uppers limit on Gamma_0. Applying this method to 190 Fermi GRBs that have not been detected by the Fermi-LAT we place upper limits on the high-energy afterglow flux, and in turn on Gamma_0. For bursts at a typical redshift z=2, we find values of the order of 200 (and above) for a homogeneous density medium, and in the range 100-400 for a wind-like medium. These upper limits are consistent with (and are very close to) lower limits and direct estimates inferred using other methods, suggesting that the typical Lorentz factors of GRB jets are of order a few hundred.

  14. Constraints on the bulk Lorentz factor of gamma-ray burst jets from Fermi /LAT upper limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, L.; Desiante, R.; Longo, F.; Celotti, A.; Omodei, N.; Vianello, G.; Bissaldi, E.; Piran, T.

    2017-02-01

    It is largely recognized that Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) jets involve ultra-relativistic motion. However, the value of the Lorentz factor Gamma_0 is still not clear and only lower limits are known for most bursts. We suggest here a new method to obtain upper limits on Gamma_0. The early high-energy synchrotron afterglow flux depends strongly on Gamma_0. Upper limits on GeV emission therefore provide uppers limit on Gamma_0. Applying this method to 190 Fermi GRBs that have not been detected by the Fermi-LAT we place upper limits on the high-energy afterglow flux, and in turn on Gamma_0. For bursts at a typical redshift z=2, we find values of the order of 200 (and above) for a homogeneous density medium, and in the range 100-400 for a wind-like medium. These upper limits are consistent with (and are very close to) lower limits and direct estimates inferred using other methods, suggesting that the typical Lorentz factors of GRB jets are of order a few hundred.

  15. Fractional flow reserve: physiological basis, advantages and limitations, and potential gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, George J; Klein, Lloyd W

    2015-01-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a physiological index of the severity of a stenosis in an epicardial coronary artery, based on the pressure differential across the stenosis. Clinicians are increasingly relying on this method because it is independent of baseline flow, relatively simple, and cost effective. The accurate measurement of FFR is predicated on maximal hyperemia being achieved by pharmacological dilation of the downstream resistance vessels (arterioles). When the stenosis causes FFR to be impaired by > 20%, it is considered to be significant and to justify revascularization. A diminished hyperemic response due to microvascular dysfunction can lead to a false normal FFR value, and a misguided clinical decision. The blunted vasodilation could be the result of defects in the signaling pathways modulated (activated or inhibited) by the drug. This might involve a downregulation or reduced number of vascular receptors, endothelial impairment, or an increased activity of an opposing vasoconstricting mechanism, such as the coronary sympathetic nerves or endothelin. There are data to suggest that microvascular dysfunction is more prevalent in post-menopausal women, perhaps due to reduced estrogen levels. The current review discusses the historical background and physiological basis for FFR, its advantages and limitations, and the phenomenon of microvascular dysfunction and its impact on FFR measurements. The question of whether it is warranted to apply gender-specific guidelines in interpreting FFR measurements is addressed.

  16. An upper limit on Early Mars atmospheric pressure from small ancient craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, E. S.; Williams, J.; Lucas, A.; Aharonson, O.

    2012-12-01

    Planetary atmospheres brake, ablate, and disrupt small asteroids and comets, filtering out small hypervelocity surface impacts and causing fireballs, airblasts, meteors, and meteorites. Hypervelocity craters 90% of the kinetic energy of >240 kg iron impactors; Titan's paucity of small craters is consistent with a model predicting atmospheric filtering of craters smaller than 6-8km; and on Venus, craters below ~20 km diameter are substantially depleted. Changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration are believed to be the single most important control on Mars climate evolution and habitability. Existing data requires an early epoch of massive atmospheric loss to space; suggests that the present-day rate of escape to space is small; and offers only limited evidence for carbonate formation. Existing evidence has not led to convergence of atmosphere-evolution models, which must balance poorly understood fluxes from volcanic degassing, surface weathering, and escape to space. More direct measurements are required in order to determine the history of CO2 concentrations. Wind erosion and tectonics exposes ancient surfaces on Mars, and the size-frequency distribution of impacts on these surfaces has been previously suggested as a proxy time series of Mars atmospheric thickness. We will present a new upper limit on Early Mars atmospheric pressure using the size-frequency distribution of 20-100m diameter ancient craters in Aeolis Dorsa, validated using HiRISE DTMs, in combination with Monte Carlo simulations of the effect of paleo-atmospheres of varying thickness on the crater flux. These craters are interbedded with river deposits, and so the atmospheric state they record corresponds to an era when Mars was substantially wetter than the present, probably >3.7 Ga. An important caveat is that our technique cannot exclude atmospheric collapse-reinflation cycles on timescales much shorter than the sedimentary basin-filling time, so it sets an upper limit on the density of a thick

  17. Updated gravitational-wave upper limits on the internal magnetic field strength of recycled pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Mastrano, Alpha

    2011-01-01

    Recent calculations of the hydromagnetic deformation of a stratified, non-barotropic neutron star are generalized to describe objects with superconducting interiors, whose magnetic permeability \\mu is much smaller than the vacuum value \\mu_0. It is found that the star remains oblate if the poloidal magnetic field energy is \\gtrsim 40% of total magnetic field energy, that the toroidal field is confined to a torus which shrinks as \\mu decreases, and that the deformation is much larger (by a factor \\sim \\mu_0/\\mu) than in a non-superconducting object. The results are applied to the latest direct and indirect upper limits on gravitational-wave emission from Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) and radio pulse timing (spin-down) observations of 81 millisecond pulsars, to show how one can use these observations to infer the internal field strength. It is found that the indirect spin-down limits already imply astrophysically interesting constraints on the poloidal-toroidal field ratio and diama...

  18. Revised upper limit to energy extraction from a Kerr black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D

    2014-12-31

    We present a new upper limit on the energy that may be extracted from a Kerr black hole by means of particle collisions in the ergosphere (i.e., the "collisional Penrose process"). Earlier work on this subject has focused largely on particles with critical values of angular momentum falling into an extremal Kerr black hole from infinity and colliding just outside the horizon. While these collisions are able to reach arbitrarily high center-of-mass energies, it is very difficult for the reaction products to escape back to infinity, effectively limiting the peak efficiency of such a process to roughly 130%. When we allow one of the initial particles to have impact parameter b>2M, and thus not get captured by the horizon, it is able to collide along outgoing trajectories, greatly increasing the chance that the products can escape. For equal-mass particles annihilating to photons, we find a greatly increased peak energy of Eout≈6×Ein. For Compton scattering, the efficiency can go even higher, with Eout≈14×Ein, and for repeated scattering events, photons can both be produced and escape to infinity with Planck-scale energies.

  19. New upper limit on strange quark matter abundance in cosmic rays with the PAMELA space experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, O; Barbarino, G C; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; De Donato, C; De Santis, C; De Simone, N; Di Felice, V; Formato, V; Galper, A M; Karelin, A V; Koldashov, S V; Koldobskiy, S; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Leonov, A; Malakhov, V; Marcelli, L; Martucci, M; Mayorov, A G; Menn, W; Mergè, M; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Monaco, A; Mori, N; Munini, R; Osteria, G; Palma, F; Panico, B; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Sarkar, R; Scotti, V; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Y I; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N

    2015-09-11

    In this work we present results of a direct search for strange quark matter (SQM) in cosmic rays with the PAMELA space spectrometer. If this state of matter exists it may be present in cosmic rays as particles, called strangelets, having a high density and an anomalously high mass-to-charge (A/Z) ratio. A direct search in space is complementary to those from ground-based spectrometers. Furthermore, it has the advantage of being potentially capable of directly identifying these particles, without any assumption on their interaction model with Earth's atmosphere and the long-term stability in terrestrial and lunar rocks. In the rigidity range from 1.0 to ∼1.0×10^{3}  GV, no such particles were found in the data collected by PAMELA between 2006 and 2009. An upper limit on the strangelet flux in cosmic rays was therefore set for particles with charge 1≤Z≤8 and mass 4≤A≤1.2×10^{5}. This limit as a function of mass and as a function of magnetic rigidity allows us to constrain models of SQM production and propagation in the Galaxy.

  20. A Revised Experimental Upper Limit on the Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Pendlebury, J  M; Ayres, N J; Baker, C A; Ban, G; Bison, G; Bodek, K; Burghoff, M; Geltenbort, P; Green, K; Griffith, W C; van der Grinten, M; Grujic, Z D; Harris, P G; Helaine, V; Iaydjiev, P; Ivanov, S N; Kasprzak, M; Kermaidic, Y; Kirch, K; Koch, H-C; Komposch, S; Kozela, A; Krempel, J; Lauss, B; Lefort, T; Lemiere, Y; May, D J R; Musgrave, M; Musgrave, M; Naviliat-Cuncic, O; Piegsa, F M; Pignol, G; Prashanth, P N; Quéméner, G; Rawlik, M; Rebreyend, D; Richardson, J D; Ries, D; Roccia, S; Rozpedzik, D; Schnabel, A; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Severijns, N; Shiers, D; Thorne, J A; Weis, A; Winston, O  J; Wursten, E; Zejma, J; Zsigmond, G

    2015-01-01

    We present for the first time a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the experimental results that set the current world sensitivity limit on the magnitude of the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron. We have extended and enhanced our earlier analysis to include recent developments in the understanding of the effects of gravity in depolarizing ultracold neutrons (UCN); an improved calculation of the spectrum of the neutrons; and conservative estimates of other possible systematic errors, which are also shown to be consistent with more recent measurements undertaken with the apparatus. We obtain a net result of $d_\\mathrm{n} = -0.21 \\pm 1.82 \\times10^{-26}$ $e$cm, which may be interpreted as a slightly revised upper limit on the magnitude of the EDM of $3.0 \\times10^{-26}$ $e$cm (90% CL) or $ 3.6 \\times10^{-26}$ $e$cm (95% CL). This paper is dedicated by the remaining authors to the memory of Prof. J. Michael Pendlebury.

  1. Combined upper limit on Standard Model Higgs boson production at CDF

    CERN Document Server

    Adrian, Buzatu

    2012-01-01

    The Higgs boson is the only elementary particle predicted by the Standard Model (SM) that has neither been confirmed nor refuted. The CDF collaboration has performed SM Higgs searches in many channels using $p\\pbar$ collisions at a centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}=1.96\\tev$. We present the latest combined Higgs boson search at CDF. Since the previous year's combination, the sensitivity is increased through the addition of new channels, the improvement of existing channels and the addition of new data samples. We also use the latest parton distribution functions and $gg \\rightarrow H$ theoretical cross sections when modelling the signal event yields. Using integrated luminosities of up to 8.2 $\\invfb$, we observe a good agreement between data and the background prediction. Since we do not see a Higgs boson excess, we set 95% CL upper limits on the Higgs boson cross section in the range between 100 and 200 $\\gevcc$, with 5 $\\gevcc$ increments. The observed (expected) limits for a 115 and a 165 $\\gevcc$ Higgs bos...

  2. Upper limits on the mass and luminosity of Population III-dominated galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yajima, Hidenobu

    2016-01-01

    We here derive upper limits on the mass and luminosity of Population III (POPIII) dominated proto-galaxies based on the collapse of primordial gas under the effect of angular momentum loss via Ly$\\alpha$ radiation drag and the gas accretion onto a galactic centre. Our model predicts that POPIII-dominated galaxies at z ~ 7 are hosted by haloes with $M_{\\rm halo} \\sim 1.5 \\times 10^{8} - 1.1 \\times 10^{9} \\rm ~M_{\\odot}$, that they have Ly$\\alpha$ luminosities of $L_{\\rm Ly\\alpha} \\sim 3.0 \\times 10^{42} - 2.1 \\times 10^{43}$ erg/s, stellar mass of $M_{\\rm star} \\sim 0.8 \\times 10^{5} - 2.5 \\times 10^{6} \\rm ~M_{\\odot}$, and outflowing gas with velocities $V_{\\rm out} \\sim 40$ km/s due to Ly$\\alpha$ radiation pressure. We show that the POPIII galaxy candidate CR7 violates the derived limits on stellar mass and Ly$\\alpha$ luminosity and thus is unlikely to be a POPIII galaxy. POPIII-dominated galaxies at z ~ 7 have HeII line emission that is ~1- 3 orders of magnitude lower then that of Ly$\\alpha$, they have high...

  3. Upper limits on gravitational wave bursts in LIGO's second science run

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, R; Ageev, A; Allen, B; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Asiri, F; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Balasubramanian, R; Ballmer, S; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barnes, M; Barr, B; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Beausoleil, R; Belczynski, K; Bennett, R; Berukoff, S J; Betzwieser, J; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Bland, B; Bochner, B; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burgess, R; Busby, D; Butler, W E; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cantley, C A; Cardenas, L; Carter, K; Casey, M M; Castiglione, J; Chandler, A; Chapsky, J; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chickarmane, V; Chin, D; Christensen, N; Churches, D; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C; Coldwell, R; Coles, M; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crooks, D R M; Csatorday, P; Cusack, B J; Cutler, C; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Daw, E; De Bra, D; Delker, T; Dergachev, V; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S V; Di Credico, A; Díaz, M; Ding, H; Drever, R W P; Dupuis, R J; Edlund, J A; Ehrens, P; Elliffe, E J; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fallnich, C; Farnham, D; Fejer, M M; Findley, T; Fine, M; Finn, L S; Franzen, K Y; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Ganezer, K S; Garofoli, J; Giaime, J A; Gillespie, A; Goda, K; González, G; Goler, S; Grandclément, P; Grant, A; Gray, C; Gretarsson, A M; Grimmett, D; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Günther, M; Gustafson, E; Gustafson, R; Hamilton, W O; Hammond, M; Hanson, J; Hardham, C; Harms, J; Harry, G; Hartunian, A; Heefner, J; Hefetz, Y; Heinzel, G; Heng, I S; Hennessy, M; Hepler, N; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hindman, N; Hoang, P; Hough, J; Hrynevych, M; Hua, W; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jennrich, O; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Johnston, W R; Jones, D I; Jones, L; Jungwirth, D; Kalogera, V; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kells, W; Kern, J; Khan, A; Killbourn, S; Killow, C J; Kim, C; King, C; King, P; Klimenko, S; Koranda, S; Kotter, K; Kovalik, Yu; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Landry, M; Langdale, J; Lantz, B; Lawrence, R; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lindquist, P; Liu, S; Logan, J; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Lyons, T T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majid, W; Malec, M; Mann, F; Marin, A; Marka, S; Maros, E; Mason, J; Mason, K; Matherny, O; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McHugh, M; McNabb, J W C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Miyoki, S; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Müller, G; Mukherjee, S; Murray, P; Myers, J; Nagano, S; Nash, T; Nayak, R; Newton, G; Nocera, F; Noel, J S; Nutzman, P; Olson, T; O'Reilly, B; Ottaway, D J; Ottewill, A; Ouimette, D A; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Parameswariah, C; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pitkin, M; Plissi, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rakhmanov, M; Rao, S R; Rawlins, K; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Redding, D; Regehr, M W; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reilly, K T; Reithmaier, K; Reitze, D H; Richman, S; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Rizzi, A; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Robison, L; Roddy, S; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Rong, H; Rose, D; Rotthoff, E; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Salzman, I; Sandberg, V; Sanders, G H; Sannibale, V; Sathyaprakash, B; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sazonov, A; Schilling, R; Schlaufman, K; Schmidt, V; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Seader, S E; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seel, S; Seifert, F; Sengupta, A S; Shapiro, C A; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Shu, Q Z; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sievers, L; Sigg, D; Sintes, A M; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, M R; Sneddon, P H; Spero, R; Stapfer, G; Steussy, D; Strain, K A; Strom, D; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T; Sumner, M C; Sutton, P J; Sylvestre, J; Takamori, A; Tanner, D B; Tariq, H; Taylor, I; Taylor, R; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Tibbits, M; Tilav, S; Tinto, M; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D W; Ungarelli, C; Vallisneri, M; Van Putten, M H P M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Wallace, L; Walther, H; Ward, H; Ware, B; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weidner, A; Weiland, U; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Welling, H; Wen, L; Wen, S; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wiley, S; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, P R; Williams, R; Willke, B; Wilson, A; Winjum, B J; Winkler, W; Wise, S; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yoshida, S; Zaleski, K D; Zanolin, M; Zawischa, I; Zhang, L; Zhu, R; Zotov, N P; Zucker, M; Zweizig, J

    2005-01-01

    We perform a search for gravitational wave bursts using data from the second science run of the LIGO detectors, using a method based on a wavelet time-frequency decomposition. This search is sensitive to bursts of duration much less than a second and with frequency content in the 100-1100Hz range. It features significant improvements in the instrument sensitivity and in the analysis pipeline with respect to the burst search previously reported by LIGO. Improvements in the search method allow exploring weaker signals, relative to the detector noise floor, while maintaining a low false alarm rate, O(0.1) microHz. The sensitivity in terms of the root-sum-square (rss) strain amplitude lies in the range of hrss~10^{-20} - 10^{-19}/sqrt(Hz) No gravitational wave signals were detected in 9.98 days of analyzed data. We interpret the search result in terms of a frequentist upper limit on the rate of detectable gravitational wave bursts at the level of 0.26 events per day at 90% confidence level. We combine this limit ...

  4. An upper limit on the mass of the black hole in Ursa Minor dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Lora, V; Raga, A; Esquivel, A

    2009-01-01

    The well-established correlations between the mass of massive black holes (BHs) in the nuclei of most studied galaxies and various global properties of their hosting galaxy lend support to the idea that dwarf galaxies and globular clusters could also host a BH in their centers. Direct kinematic detection of BHs in dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are seriously hindered by the small number of stars inside the gravitational influence region of the BH. The aim of this Letter is to establish an upper dynamical limit on the mass of the putative BH in the Ursa Minor (UMi) dSph galaxy. We present direct N-body simulations of the tidal disruption of the dynamical fossil observed in UMi, with and without a massive BH. We find that the observed substructure is incompatible with the presence of a massive BH of (2-3)x10^4 Msun within the core of UMi. These limits are consistent with the extrapolation of the M_{BH}-sigma relation to the M_{BH}<10^6 Msun regime. We also show that the BH may be off-center with respect to...

  5. A revised upper limit to energy extraction from a Kerr black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Schnittman, Jeremy D

    2014-01-01

    We present a new upper limit on the energy that may be extracted from a Kerr black hole by means of particle collisions in the ergosphere (i.e., the "Penrose process"). Earlier work on this subject has focused largely on particles with critical values of angular momentum falling into an extremal Kerr black hole from infinity and colliding just outside the horizon. While these collisions are able to reach arbitrarily high center-of-mass energies, it is very difficult for the reaction products to escape back to infinity, effectively limiting the peak efficiency of such a process to roughly $130\\%$. When we allow one of the initial particles to have $\\ell > 2M$, and thus not get captured by the horizon, it is able to collide along outgoing trajectories, greatly increasing the chance that the products can escape. For equal-mass particles annihilating to photons, we find a greatly increased peak energy of $E_{\\rm out} \\approx 6\\times E_{\\rm in}$. For Compton scattering, the efficiency can go even higher, with $E_{...

  6. Upper limits on the mass and luminosity of Population III-dominated galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Khochfar, Sadegh

    2017-05-01

    We here derive upper limits on the mass and luminosity of Population III (POPIII) dominated proto-galaxies based on the collapse of primordial gas under the effect of angular momentum loss via Lyα radiation drag and the gas accretion on to a galactic centre. Our model predicts that POPIII-dominated galaxies at z ˜ 7 are hosted by haloes with Mh ˜ 1.5 × 108-1.1 × 109 M⊙, that they have Lyα luminosities of LLyα ˜ 3.0 × 1042-2.1 × 1043 erg s- 1, stellar mass of Mstar ˜ 0.8 × 105-2.5 × 106 M⊙ and outflowing gas with velocities Vout ˜ 40 km s- 1 due to Lyα radiation pressure. We show that the POPIII galaxy candidate CR7 violates the derived limits on stellar mass and Lyα luminosity and thus is unlikely to be a POPIII galaxy. POPIII-dominated galaxies at z ˜ 7 have He ii line emission that is ˜1-3 orders of magnitude lower than that of Lyα, they have high Lyα equivalent width of ≳ 300 Å and should be found close to bright star-forming galaxies. The He ii 1640 Å line is in comfortable reach of next generation telescopes, like the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) or Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT).

  7. A Method for Calculation of the Upper Limit of Mendeleev's Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazan, Albert

    2010-03-01

    40 years ago some scientists claimed that elements heaviest than No.110 are impossible. The technics got much progress in the last years: element 118 has already been registered. Now, the researchers of Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia) claim that the Periodic Table will end with element 150. However they do not provide theoretical proofs to this claim, because the stability limits of electronic shells they calculated by means of Quantum Mechanics do not answer this question in exact. In contrast, I focused onto the contents of chemical compounds along the Table. The used method is as follows. First, it was found that, given any chemical compound, the contents of any element in it (per 1 gram-atom) is described by the equation of a equilateral hyperbola Y=K/X. Then the scaling coefficient was deduced for the hyperbolas, thus the atomic mass of the last (heaviest) element, 411.66, was found as the abscissa of the ultimate point of the arc drawn by the tops of the hyperbolas. With it, the number of the last element, 155, was found as a consequence. See: Khazan A. Upper Limit in Mendeleev's Periodic Table --- Element No.155. Svenska fysikarkivet, 2009.

  8. Upper limit on the diffuse flux of UHE tau neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration, The Pierre Auger

    2007-12-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau-neutrinos {nu}{sub {tau}} that interact in the Earth's crust. Tau leptons from {tau}{sub {tau}} charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant electromagnetic component. The data collected between 1 January 2004 and 31 August 2007 is used to place an upper limit on the diffuse flux of {nu}{sub {tau}} at EeV energies. Assuming an E{sub {nu}}{sup -2} differential energy spectrum the limit set at 90 % C.L. is E{sub {nu}}{sup 2} dN{sub {nu}{sub {tau}}}/dE{sub {nu}} < 1.3 x 10{sup -7} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} in the energy range 2 x 10{sup 17} eV < E{sub {nu}} < 2 x 10{sup 19} eV.

  9. BACE1 Physiological Functions May Limit Its Use as Therapeutic Target for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão, Soraia; Moechars, Diederik; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F; De Strooper, Bart

    2016-03-01

    The protease β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is required for the production of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, which is central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Chronic inhibition of this protease may temper amyloid production and cure or prevent AD. However, while BACE1 inhibitors are being pushed forward as drug candidates, a remarkable gap in knowledge on the physiological functions of BACE1 and its close homolog BACE2 becomes apparent. Here we discuss the major discoveries of the past 3 years concerning BACE1 biology and to what extent these could limit the use of BACE1 inhibitors in the clinic.

  10. Physiological and Transcriptional Responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Zinc Limitation in Chemostat Cultures †

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Raffaele; Hazelwood, Lucie A.; De Hulster, Erik A. F.; Walsh, Michael C.; Knijnenburg, Theo A.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.; Walker, Graeme M.; Pronk, Jack T.; Daran, Jean-Marc; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    Transcriptional responses of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Zn availability were investigated at a fixed specific growth rate under limiting and abundant Zn concentrations in chemostat culture. To investigate the context dependency of this transcriptional response and eliminate growth rate-dependent variations in transcription, yeast was grown under several chemostat regimens, resulting in various carbon (glucose), nitrogen (ammonium), zinc, and oxygen supplies. A robust set of genes that responded consistently to Zn limitation was identified, and the set enabled the definition of the Zn-specific Zap1p regulon, comprised of 26 genes and characterized by a broader zinc-responsive element consensus (MHHAACCBYNMRGGT) than so far described. Most surprising was the Zn-dependent regulation of genes involved in storage carbohydrate metabolism. Their concerted down-regulation was physiologically relevant as revealed by a substantial decrease in glycogen and trehalose cellular content under Zn limitation. An unexpectedly large number of genes were synergistically or antagonistically regulated by oxygen and Zn availability. This combinatorial regulation suggested a more prominent involvement of Zn in mitochondrial biogenesis and function than hitherto identified. PMID:17933919

  11. The influence of nitrate on the physiology of the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis grown under oxygen limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Pita, Will; Tiukova, Ievgeniia; Leite, Fernanda Cristina Bezerra; Passoth, Volkmar; Simões, Diogo Ardaillon; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2013-03-01

    A previous study showed that the use of nitrate by Dekkera bruxellensis might be an advantageous trait when ammonium is limited in sugarcane substrate for ethanol fermentation. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of nitrate on the yeast physiology during cell growth in different carbon sources under oxygen limitation. If nitrate was the sole source of nitrogen, D. bruxellensis cells presented slower growth, diminished sugar consumption and growth-associated ethanol production, when compared to ammonium. These results were corroborated by the increased expression of genes involved in the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and ATP synthesis. The presence of ammonium in the mixed medium restored most parameters to the standard conditions. This work may open up a line of investigation to establish the connection between nitrate assimilation and energetic metabolism in D. bruxellensis and their influence on its fermentative capacity in oxygen-limited or oxygen-depleted conditions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Digestive physiology comparisons of aquatic invertebrates in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauey, Blake W.; Amberg, Jon; Cooper, Scott T.; Grunwald, Sandra K.; Haro, Roger J.; Gaikowski, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Limited information is available on the composition of digestive enzymes present in unionid mussels and the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. Available information is nearly exclusive to species used for culture purposes. A commercially available enzyme assay kit was used to examine the effect of habitat within an ecosystem, season, and species on the activities of several digestive enzymes. We used Amblema plicata to represent native unionids, D. polymorpha, and also Hydropsyche orris as an outgroup to compare differences between mussels and other macroinvertebrates. The data indicated that neither location nor time affect the activities of the digestive enzymes tested; species was the only factor to affect the activity. Differences were found mostly between four enzymes: naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and β-galactosidase.

  13. Interaction between Posidonia oceanica meadows upper limit and hydrodynamics of four Mediterranean beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muro, Sandro; Ruju, Andrea; Buosi, Carla; Porta, Marco; Passarella, Marinella; Ibba, Angelo

    2017-04-01

    Posidonia oceanica meadow is considered to play an important role in the coastal geomorphology of Mediterranean beach systems. In particular, the importance of the meadow in protecting the coastline from erosion is well-recognized. Waves are attenuated by greater friction across seagrass meadows, which have the capacity to reduce water flow and therefore increase sediment deposition and accumulation as well as beach stability. The P. oceanica meadow upper limit usually occurs within the most dynamic zone of the beach system. Considering the great attention paid in the literature to the connection between the growth of P. oceanica and coastal hydrodynamics (Infantes et al., 2009; Vacchi et al., 2014; De Muro et al., 2016, 2017), this study aims at extending the previous work by investigating the combined influence of hydrodynamic parameters (e.g., wave-induced main currents and wave orbital velocity at the bottom) and different types of sea bottom (e.g., soft sediment, rocky substrates) on the position of the upper limit of the P. oceanica meadow. We applied this approach to 4 Mediterranean beach systems located on the Sardinian coastline (3 on the South and 1 on the North) and characterized by a wide range of orientations and incoming wave conditions. On these beaches, the extension of the P. oceanica meadows and the bathymetry have been obtained through detailed surveying campaigns and aerial photo analysis. In addition, high spatial resolution wave hydrodynamics have been reconstructed by running numerical simulations with Delft 3D. Offshore wave climate has been reconstructed by using measured datasets for those beaches that have a nearby buoy whose dataset is representative of the incoming wave conditions for that particular stretch of coast. Whereas, for those beaches with no availability of a representative measured dataset, wave climate has been analyzed from the NOAA hindcast dataset. From the whole range of incoming wave directions in deep waters, we

  14. The upper limits of the SNR in radiography and CT with polyenergetic x-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M

    2010-09-21

    The aim of the study is to determine the upper limits of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in radiography and computed tomography (CT) with polyenergetic x-ray sources. In x-ray imaging, monoenergetic x-rays provide a higher SNR compared to polyenergetic x-rays. However, the SNR in polyenergetic x-ray imaging can be increased when a photon-counting detector is used and x-rays are optimally weighted according to their energies. For a particular contrast/background combination and at a fixed x-ray entrance skin exposure, the SNR in energy-weighting x-ray imaging depends on tube voltage and can be maximized by selecting the optimal tube voltage. The SNR in energy-weighted x-ray images acquired at this optimal tube voltage is the highest SNR that can be achieved with polyenergetic x-ray sources. The optimal tube voltages and the highest SNR were calculated and compared to the SNR of monoenergetic x-ray imaging. Monoenergetic, energy-weighting polyenergetic and energy-integrating polyenergetic x-ray imagings were simulated at a fixed entrance skin exposure of 20 mR. The tube voltages varied in the range of 30-140 kVp with 10 kV steps. Contrast elements of CaCO(3), iodine, adipose and tumor with thicknesses of 280 mg cm(-2), 15 mg cm(-2), 1 g cm(-2) and 1 g cm(-2), respectively, inserted in a soft tissue background with 10 cm and 20 cm thicknesses, were used. The energy weighting also improves the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in CT when monoenergetic CT projections are optimally weighted prior to CT reconstruction (projection-based weighting). Alternatively, monoenergetic CT images are reconstructed, optimally weighted and composed to yield a final CT image (image-based weighting). Both projection-based and image-based weighting methods improve the CNR in CT. An analytical approach was used to determine which of these two weighting methods provides the upper limit of the CNR in CT. The energy-weighting method was generalized and expanded as a weighting method applicable

  15. An upper limit on the cosmic-ray luminosity of individual sources from gamma-ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supanitsky, A.D. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), CONICET-UBA (Argentina); Souza, V. de, E-mail: supanitsky@iafe.uba.ar, E-mail: vitor@ifsc.usp.br [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil)

    2013-12-01

    Different types of extragalactic objects are known to produce TeV gamma-rays. Some of these objects are the most probable candidates to accelerate cosmic rays up to 10{sup 20} eV. It is very well known that gamma-rays can be produced as a result of the cosmic ray propagation through the intergalactic medium. These gamma-rays contribute to the total flux observed in the direction of the source. In this paper we propose a new method to derive an upper limit on the cosmic-ray luminosity of an individual source based on the measured upper limit on the integral flux of GeV-TeV gamma-rays. We show how it is possible to calculate an upper limit on the cosmic-ray luminosity of a particular source and we explore the parameter space in which the current GeV-TeV gamma-ray measurements can offer a useful determination. We study in detail two particular sources, Pictor A and NGC 7469, and we calculate the upper limit on the proton luminosity of each source based on the upper limit on the integral gamma-ray flux measured by the H.E.S.S. telescopes.

  16. GeV Gamma-ray Flux Upper Limits from Clusters of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    al., M Ackermann et

    2010-01-01

    The detection of diffuse radio emission associated with clusters of galaxies indicates populations of relativistic leptons infusing the intracluster medium. Those electrons and positrons are either injected into and accelerated directly in the intracluster medium, or produced as secondary pairs by cosmic-ray ions scattering on ambient protons. Radiation mechanisms involving the energetic leptons together with decay of neutral pions produced by hadronic interactions have the potential to produce abundant GeV photons. Here, we report on the search for GeV emission from clusters of galaxies using data collected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) from August 2008 to February 2010. Thirty-three galaxy clusters have been selected according to their proximity and high mass, X-ray flux and temperature, and indications of non-thermal activity for this study. We report upper limits on the photon flux in the range 0.2-100 GeV towards a sample of observed clusters (typical va...

  17. Conservative upper limits on WIMP annihilation cross section from Fermi-LAT {\\gamma}-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Calore, Francesca; Donato, Fiorenza

    2011-01-01

    The spectrum of an isotropic extragalactic {\\gamma}-ray background (EGB) has been measured by the Fermi-LAT telescope at high latitudes. Two new models for the EGB are derived from the subraction of unresolved point sources and extragalactic diffuse processes, which could explain from 30% to 70% of the Fermi-LAT EGB. Within the hypothesis that the two residual EGBs are entirely due to the annihilation of dark matter (DM) particles in the Galactic halo, we obtain stringent upper limits on their annihilation cross section. Severe bounds on a possible Sommerfeld enhancement of the annihilation cross section are set as well. Finally, we consider models for DM annihilation depending on the inverse of the velocity and associate the EGBs to photons arising from the annihilation of DM in primordial halos. For DM velocities in protohalos of v ~ 10^-8 c, the annihilation cross section is constrained down to 10^-33 cm^3 /s for DM masses below 100 GeV. Given our choices for the EGB and the minimal DM modelling, the deriv...

  18. Upper Limits from Five Years of Blazar Observations with the VERITAS Cherenkov Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Biteau, J.; Buchovecky, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hütten, M.; Håkansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kelley-Hoskins, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nguyen, T.; Nieto, D.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weiner, O. M.; Weinstein, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Fumagalli, M.; Prochaska, J. X.

    2016-06-01

    Between the beginning of its full-scale scientific operations in 2007 and 2012, the VERITAS Cherenkov telescope array observed more than 130 blazars; of these, 26 were detected as very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray sources. In this work, we present the analysis results of a sample of 114 undetected objects. The observations constitute a total live-time of ˜570 hr. The sample includes several unidentified Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) sources (located at high Galactic latitude) as well as all the sources from the second Fermi-LAT catalog that are contained within the field of view of the VERITAS observations. We have also performed optical spectroscopy measurements in order to estimate the redshift of some of these blazars that do not have spectroscopic distance estimates. We present new optical spectra from the Kast instrument on the Shane telescope at the Lick observatory for 18 blazars included in this work, which allowed for the successful measurement or constraint on the redshift of four of them. For each of the blazars included in our sample, we provide the flux upper limit in the VERITAS energy band. We also study the properties of the significance distributions and we present the result of a stacked analysis of the data set, which shows a 4σ excess.

  19. IRAS-based whole-sky upper limit on Dyson Spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    A Dyson Sphere is a hypothetical construct of a star purposely cloaked by a thick swarm of broken-up planetary material to better utilize all of the stellar energy. A clean Dyson Sphere identification would give a significant signature for intelligence at work. A search for Dyson Spheres has been carried out using the 250,000 source database of the IRAS infrared satellite which covered 96% of the sky. The search has used the Calgary data collection of the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) to look for fits to blackbody spectra. Searches have been conducted for both pure (fully cloaked) and partial Dyson Spheres in the blackbody temperature region 100 {le} T {le} 600 K. Other stellar signatures that resemble a Dyson Sphere are reviewed. When these signatures are used to eliminate sources that mimic Dyson Spheres very few candidates remain and even these are ambiguous. Upper limits are presented for both pure and partial Dyson Spheres. The sensitivity of the LRS was enough to find solar-sized Dyson Spheres out to 300 pc, a reach that encompasses a million solar-type stars.

  20. Upper limits from the LIGO and TAMA detectors on the rate of gravitational-wave bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B; Adhikari, R; Ageev, A; Agresti, J; Akutsu, T; Allen, B; Allen, J; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Ando, M; Arai, K; Araya, A; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Asada, H; Ashley, M; Asiri, F; Aso, Y; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Balasubramanian, R; Ballmer, S; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barnes, M; Barr, B; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Beausoleil, R; Belczynski, K; Bennett, R; Berukoff, S J; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Bland, B; Bochner, B; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burgess, R; Busby, D; Butler, W E; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Cantley, C A; Cardenas, L; Carter, K; Casey, M M; Castiglione, J; Chandler, A; Chapsky, J; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chickarmane, V; Chin, D; Christensen, N; Churches, D; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C; Coldwell, R; Coles, M; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crooks, D R M; Csatorday, P; Cusack, B J; Cutler, C; D'Ambrosio, E; Dalrymple, J; Danzmann, K; Davies, G; Daw, E; De Bra, D; DeSalvo, R; Delker, T; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; Dhurandhar, S V; Di Credico, A; Ding, H; Drever, R W P; Dupuis, R J; Edlund, J A; Ehrens, P; Elliffe, E J; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fallnich, C; Farnham, D; Fejer, M M; Findley, T; Fine, M; Finn, L S; Franzen, K Y; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fujiki, Y; Fujimoto, M K; Fujita, R; Fukushima, M; Futamase, T; Fyffe, M; Ganezer, K S; Garofoli, J; Giaime, J A; Gillespie, A; Goda, K; Goggin, L; Goler, S; González, G; Grandclément, P; Grant, A; Gray, C; Gretarsson, A M; Grimmett, D; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Gustafson, E; Gustafson, R; Günther, M; Hamilton, W O; Hammond, M; Hamuro, Y; Hanson, J; Hardham, C; Harms, J; Harry, G; Hartunian, A; Haruyama, T; Hayama, K; Heefner, J; Hefetz, Y; Heinzel, G; Heng, I S; Hennessy, M; Hepler, N; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hindman, N; Hoang, P; Hough, J; Hrynevych, M; Hua, W; Iguchi, H; Iida, Y; Ioka, K; Ishizuka, H; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jennrich, O; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Johnston, W R; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, L; Jungwirth, D; Kalogera, V; Kamikubota, N; Kanda, N; Kaneyama, T; Karasawa, Y; Kasahara, K; Kasai, T; Katsavounidis, E; Katsuki, M; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, M; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Kern, J; Khan, A; Killbourn, S; Killow, C J; Kim, C; King, C; King, P; Klimenko, S; Kojima, Y; Kokeyama, K; Kondo, K; Koranda, S; Kotter, K; Kovalik, Yu; Kozai, Y; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Kudo, H; Kuroda, K; Kuwabara, T; Landry, M; Langdale, J; Lantz, B; Lawrence, R; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lindquist, P; Liu, S; Logan, J; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Luna, M; Lyons, T T; MacInnis, M; Machenschalk, B; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majid, W; Malec, M; Mandic, V; Mann, F; Marin, A; Marka, S; Maros, E; Mason, J; Mason, K; Matherny, O; Matone, L; Matsuda, N; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McHugh, M; McNabb, J W C; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C; Mikhailov, E; Mio, N; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miura, K; Miyakawa, O; Miyama, S; Miyoki, S; Mizusawa, H; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Moriwaki, S; Mossavi, K; Mukherjee, S; Murray, P; Musha, M; Myers, E; Myers, J; Müller, G; Nagano, S; Nagayama, Y; Nakagawa, K; Nakamura, T; Nakano, H; Nakao, K; Nash, T; Nayak, R; Newton, G; Nishi, Y; Nocera, F; Noel, J S; Numata, K; Nutzman, P; O'Reilly, B; Ogawa, Y; Ohashi, M; Ohishi, N; Okutomi, A; Olson, T; Oohara, K; Otsuka, S; Ottaway, D J; Ottewill, A; Ouimette, D A; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Parameswaran, A J; Parameswariah, C; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pitkin, M; Plissi, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rakhmanov, M; Rao, S R; Rawlins, K; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Redding, D; Regehr, M W; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reilly, K T; Reithmaier, K; Reitze, D H; Richman, S; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Rizzi, A; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Robison, L; Roddy, S; Rodríguez, A; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Rong, H; Rose, D; Rotthoff, E; Rowan, S; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Rüdiger, A; Saitô, Y; Sakata, S; Salzman, I; Sandberg, V; Sanders, G H; Sannibale, V; Sarin, P; Sasaki, M; Sathyaprakash, B; Sato, K; Sato, N; Sato, S; Sato, Y; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sazonov, A; Schilling, R; Schlaufman, K; Schmidt, V; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Seader, S E; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seel, S; Seifert, F; Sekido, A; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Seto, N; Shapiro, C A; Shawhan, P; Shibata, M; Shinkai, H; Shintomi, T; Shoemaker, D H; Shu, Q Z; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sievers, L; Sigg, D; Sintes, A M; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, M R; Sneddon, P H; Soida, K; Somiya, K; Spero, R; Spjeld, O; Stapfer, G; Steussy, D; Strain, K A; Strom, D; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T; Sumner, M C; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Suzuki, T; Sylvestre, J; Tagoshi, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, R; Takamori, A; Takemoto, S; Takeno, K; Tanaka, T; Taniguchi, K; Tanji, T; Tanner, D B; Tariq, H; Tatsumi, D; Taylor, I; Taylor, R; Telada, S; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Tibbits, M; Tilav, S; Tinto, M; Tokmakov, K V; Tokunari, M; Tomaru, T; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Tsubono, K; Tsuda, N; Tsunesada, Y; Tyler, W; Uchiyama, T; Ueda, A; Ueda, K; Ugolini, D W; Ungarelli, C; Vallisneri, M; Van Putten, M H P M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Wallace, L; Walther, H; Ward, H; Ward, R; Ware, B; Waseda, K; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weidner, A; Weiland, U; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Welling, H; Wen, L; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wiley, S; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, P R; Williams, R; Willke, B; Wilson, A; Winjum, B J; Winkler, W; Wise, S; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Woods, D; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, K; Yamazaki, T; Yanagi, Y; Yokoyama, J; Yoshida, S; Yoshida, T; Zaleski, K D; Zanolin, M; Zawischa, I; Zhang, L; Zhu, R; Zhu, Z H; Zotov, N P; Zucker, M; Zweizig, J

    2005-01-01

    We report on the first joint search for gravitational waves by the TAMA and LIGO collaborations. We looked for millisecond-duration unmodelled gravitational-wave bursts in 473 hr of coincident data collected during early 2003. No candidate signals were found. We set an upper limit of 0.12 events per day on the rate of detectable gravitational-wave bursts, at 90% confidence level. From simulations, we estimate that our detector network was sensitive to bursts with root-sum-square strain amplitude above approximately 1-3x10^{-19} Hz^{-1/2} in the frequency band 700-2000 Hz. We describe the details of this collaborative search, with particular emphasis on its advantages and disadvantages compared to searches by LIGO and TAMA separately using the same data. Benefits include a lower background and longer observation time, at some cost in sensitivity and bandwidth. We also demonstrate techniques for performing coincidence searches with a heterogeneous network of detectors with different noise spectra and orientatio...

  1. First upper limits on the radar cross section of cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Besson, D.; Blake, S. A.; Byrne, M.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Gillman, W. H.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J. C.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kunwar, S.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Prohira, S.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rezazadeh-Reyhani, A.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Schurig, D.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takai, H.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Venkatesh, S.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2017-01-01

    TARA (Telescope Array Radar) is a cosmic ray radar detection experiment colocated with Telescope Array, the conventional surface scintillation detector (SD) and fluorescence telescope detector (FD) near Delta, Utah, U.S.A. The TARA detector combines a 40 kW, 54.1 MHz VHF transmitter and high-gain transmitting antenna which broadcasts the radar carrier over the SD array and within the FD field of view, towards a 250 MS/s DAQ receiver. TARA has been collecting data since 2013 with the primary goal of observing the radar signatures of extensive air showers (EAS). Simulations indicate that echoes are expected to be short in duration (∼ 10 μs) and exhibit rapidly changing frequency, with rates on the order 1 MHz/μs. The EAS radar cross-section (RCS) is currently unknown although it is the subject of over 70 years of speculation. A novel signal search technique is described in which the expected radar echo of a particular air shower is used as a matched filter template and compared to waveforms obtained by triggering the radar DAQ using the Telescope Array fluorescence detector. No evidence for the scattering of radio frequency radiation by EAS is obtained to date. We report the first quantitative RCS upper limits using EAS that triggered the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector.

  2. Upper limits on the probability of an interstellar civilization arising in the local Solar neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Cartin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    At this point in time, there is very little empirical evidence on the likelihood of a space-faring species originating in the biosphere of a habitable world. However, there is a tension between the expectation that such a probability is relatively high (given our own origins on Earth), and the lack of any basis for believing the Solar System has ever been visited by an extraterrestrial colonization effort. This paper seeks to place upper limits on the probability of an interstellar civilization arising on a habitable planet in its stellar system, using a percolation model to simulate the progress of such a hypothetical civilization's colonization efforts in the local Solar neighborhood. To be as realistic as possible, the actual physical positions and characteristics of all stars within 40 parsecs of the Solar System are used as possible colony sites in the percolation process. If an interstellar civilization is very likely to have such colonization programs, and they can travel over large distances, then the...

  3. Force analysis of pile foundation in rock slope based on upper-bound theorem of limit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming-hua; LIU Jian-hua; LIU Dai-quan; WANG You

    2008-01-01

    Based on the characteristic that the potential sliding surfaces of rock slope are commonly in the shape of either line or fold line, analysis thought of conventional pile foundation in the flat ground under complex load condition was applied and the upper-bound theorem of limit analysis was used to compute thrust of rock layers with all possible distribution shapes. The interaction of slope and pile was considered design load in terms of slope thrust, and the finite difference method was derived to calculate inner-force and displacement of bridge pile foundation in rock slope under complex load condition. The result of example shows that the distribution model of slope thrust has certain impact on displacement and inner-force of bridge pile foundation. The maximum displacement growth rate reaches 54% and the maximum moment and shear growth rates reach only 15% and 20%, respectively, but the trends of inner-force and displacement of bridge pile foundation are basically the same as those of the conventional pile foundation in the flat ground. When the piles bear the same level lateral thrust, the distribution shapes of slope thrust have different influence on inner-force of pile foundation, especially the rectangle distribution, and the triangle thrust has the smallest displacement and inner-force of pile foundation.

  4. Upper limit on the cross section for reactor antineutrinos changing 22Na decay rates

    CERN Document Server

    de Meijer, R J

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present results of a long-term observation of the decay of 22Na in the presence of a nuclear fission reactor. The measurements were made outside the containment wall of and underneath the Koeberg nuclear power plant near Cape Town, South Africa. Antineutrino fluxes ranged from ~5*10^11 to 1.6*10^13 cm^-2 s^-1 during this period. We show that the coincidence summing technique provides a sensitive tool to measure a change in the total decay constant as well as the branching ratio between EC and beta+ decay of 22Na to the first excited state in 22Ne. We observe a relative change in count rate between reactor-ON and reactor-OFF equal to (-0.51+/-0.11)*10^-4. After evaluating possible systematic uncertainties we conclude that the effect is either due to a hidden instrumental cause or due to an interaction between antineutrinos and the 22Na nucleus. An upper limit of ~0.03 barn has been deduced for observing any change in the decay rate of 22Na due to antineutrino interactions.

  5. An upper limit to the variation in the fundamental constants at redshift z = 5.2

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A; Boone, F; Agafonova, I I; Reimers, D; Kozlov, M G

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We constrain a hypothetical variation in the fundamental physical constants over the course of cosmic time. Methods. We use unique observations of the CO(7-6) rotational line and the [CI] 3P_2 - 3P_1 fine-structure line towards a lensed galaxy at redshift z = 5.2 to constrain temporal variations in the constant F = alpha^2/mu, where mu is the electron-to-proton mass ratio and alpha is the fine-structure constant. The relative change in F between z = 0 and z = 5.2, dFF = (F_obs - F_lab)/F_lab, is estimated from the radial velocity offset, dV = V_rot - V_fs, between the rotational transitions in carbon monoxide and the fine-structure transition in atomic carbon. Results. We find a conservative value dV = 1 +/- 5 km/s (1sigma C.L.), which when interpreted in terms of dFF gives dFF < 2x10^-5. Independent methods restrict the mu-variations at the level of dmm < 1x10^-7 at z = 0.7 (look-back time t_z0.7 = 6.4 Gyr). Assuming that temporal variations in mu, if any, are linear, this leads to an upper limit...

  6. The role of the upper sample size limit in two-stage bioequivalence designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalis, Vangelis

    2013-11-01

    Two-stage designs (TSDs) are currently recommended by the regulatory authorities for bioequivalence (BE) assessment. The TSDs presented until now rely on an assumed geometric mean ratio (GMR) value of the BE metric in stage I in order to avoid inflation of type I error. In contrast, this work proposes a more realistic TSD design where sample re-estimation relies not only on the variability of stage I, but also on the observed GMR. In these cases, an upper sample size limit (UL) is introduced in order to prevent inflation of type I error. The aim of this study is to unveil the impact of UL on two TSD bioequivalence approaches which are based entirely on the interim results. Monte Carlo simulations were used to investigate several different scenarios of UL levels, within-subject variability, different starting number of subjects, and GMR. The use of UL leads to no inflation of type I error. As UL values increase, the % probability of declaring BE becomes higher. The starting sample size and the variability of the study affect type I error. Increased UL levels result in higher total sample sizes of the TSD which are more pronounced for highly variable drugs.

  7. Plutonium Critical Mass Curve Comparison to Mass at Upper Subcritical Limit (USL) Using Whisper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Monte Carlo Codes; Zhang, Ning [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Criticality Safety Division

    2016-09-27

    Whisper is computational software designed to assist the nuclear criticality safety analyst with validation studies with the MCNP® Monte Carlo radiation transport package. Standard approaches to validation rely on the selection of benchmarks based upon expert judgment. Whisper uses sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) methods to select relevant benchmarks to a particular application or set of applications being analyzed. Using these benchmarks, Whisper computes a calculational margin. Whisper attempts to quantify the margin of subcriticality (MOS) from errors in software and uncertainties in nuclear data. The combination of the Whisper-derived calculational margin and MOS comprise the baseline upper subcritical limit (USL), to which an additional margin may be applied by the nuclear criticality safety analyst as appropriate to ensure subcriticality. A series of critical mass curves for plutonium, similar to those found in Figure 31 of LA-10860-MS, have been generated using MCNP6.1.1 and the iterative parameter study software, WORM_Solver. The baseline USL for each of the data points of the curves was then computed using Whisper 1.1. The USL was then used to determine the equivalent mass for plutonium metal-water system. ANSI/ANS-8.1 states that it is acceptable to use handbook data, such as the data directly from the LA-10860-MS, as it is already considered validated (Section 4.3 4) “Use of subcritical limit data provided in ANSI/ANS standards or accepted reference publications does not require further validation.”). This paper attempts to take a novel approach to visualize traditional critical mass curves and allows comparison with the amount of mass for which the keff is equal to the USL (calculational margin + margin of subcriticality). However, the intent is to plot the critical mass data along with USL, not to suggest that already accepted handbook data should have new and more rigorous requirements for validation.

  8. Plant nutrition between chemical and physiological limitations: is a sustainable approach possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeno Varanini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of world population growth and the extent of malnutrition problems due to lack of food or to deficit of specific micronutrients bring to light the importance of plant nutrition in the context of a sustainable development. Beside these aspects, which force to use fertilizers, the topic of nutrient use efficiency of by plants is far from being solved: recent estimates of world cereals productions indicate that use efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers is not higher than 35%. These values are even smaller for phosphorus fertilizers (estimate of use efficiency between 10 and 30%, worsen by the fact that, with the present technology and on the basis of present knowledge, it is expected that the phosphorus reserves used for fertilizer production will be sufficient for less than 100 years. Efficiency problems have also been recently raised concerning the use of synthetic chelates to alleviate deficiency of micronutrients: these compounds have been shown to be extremely mobile along soil profile and to be only partially utilizable by plants. The low uptake efficiency of nutrients from soil is, in one hand, caused by several intrinsic characteristics of the biogeochemical cycle of nutrients, by the other, seems to be limited by biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrient absorption. Only recently, the complexity of these aspects has been apprehended and it has been realized that the programs of breeding had neglected these problematic. In this review aspects related to the acquisition of a macro- (N and a micro- (Fe nutrient, will be discussed. The aim is to show that improvements of mineral nutrient use efficiency can be achieved only through a scientific approach, considering the whole soil-plant system. Particularly emphasis will be put on aspect of molecular physiology relevant to the improvement of nutrient capture efficiency; furthermore, the role of naturally occurring organic molecules in optimizing the nutritional capacity of

  9. Plant nutrition between chemical and physiological limitations: is a sustainable approach possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pinton

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of world population growth and the extent of malnutrition problems due to lack of food or to deficit of specific micronutrients bring to light the importance of plant nutrition in the context of a sustainable development. Beside these aspects, which force to use fertilizers, the topic of nutrient use efficiency of by plants is far from being solved: recent estimates of world cereals productions indicate that use efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers is not higher than 35%. These values are even smaller for phosphorus fertilizers (estimate of use efficiency between 10 and 30%, worsen by the fact that, with the present technology and on the basis of present knowledge, it is expected that the phosphorus reserves used for fertilizer production will be sufficient for less than 100 years. Efficiency problems have also been recently raised concerning the use of synthetic chelates to alleviate deficiency of micronutrients: these compounds have been shown to be extremely mobile along soil profile and to be only partially utilizable by plants. The low uptake efficiency of nutrients from soil is, in one hand, caused by several intrinsic characteristics of the biogeochemical cycle of nutrients, by the other, seems to be limited by biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrient absorption. Only recently, the complexity of these aspects has been apprehended and it has been realized that the programs of breeding had neglected these problematic. In this review aspects related to the acquisition of a macro- (N and a micro- (Fe nutrient, will be discussed. The aim is to show that improvements of mineral nutrient use efficiency can be achieved only through a scientific approach, considering the whole soil-plant system. Particularly emphasis will be put on aspect of molecular physiology relevant to the improvement of nutrient capture efficiency; furthermore, the role of naturally occurring organic molecules in optimizing the nutritional capacity of

  10. An upper limit on hypertriton production in collisions of Ar(1.76 A GeV) + KCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agakishiev, G.; Chernenko, S.; Fateev, O.; Zanevsky, Y. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Garzon, J.A. [Univ. de Santiago de Compostela, LabCAF. F. Fisica, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Blanco, A.; Fonte, P.; Lopes, L.; Mangiarotti, A. [LIP-Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, Coimbra (Portugal); Boehmer, M.; Friese, J.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Jurkovic, M.; Kruecken, R.; Maier, L.; Weber, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Garching (Germany); Boyard, J.L.; Hennino, T.; Liu, T.; Moriniere, E.; Ramstein, B. [Universite Paris Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (UMR 8608), CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay Cedex (France); Destefanis, M.; Gilardi, C.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J.S.; Metag, V.; Spruck, B. [Justus Liebig Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Dohrmann, F.; Kaempfer, B.; Kotte, R.; Naumann, L.; Wendisch, C.; Wuestenfeld, J. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Dybczak, A.; Michalska, B.; Palka, M.; Przygoda, W.; Salabura, P.; Trebacz, R.; Wisniowski, M. [Jagiellonian University of Cracow, Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Lapidus, K.; Siebenson, J. [Excellence Cluster ' ' Origin and Structure of the Universe' ' , Garching (Germany); Finocchiaro, P.; Schmah, A.; Spataro, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Froehlich, I.; Lorenz, M.; Markert, J.; Michel, J.; Muentz, C.; Pachmayer, Y.C.; Pechenova, O.; Rehnisch, L.; Rustamov, A.; Scheib, T.; Schuldes, H.; Stroebele, H.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K. [Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Frankfurt (Germany); Galatyuk, T.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Ivashkin, A.; Karavicheva, T.; Kurepin, A.; Reshetin, A.; Sadovsky, A. [Russian Academy of Science, Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gumberidze, M. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Universite Paris Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (UMR 8608), CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay Cedex (France); Heinz, T.; Holzmann, R.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B.W.; Lang, S.; Pechenov, V.; Pietraszko, J.; Schwab, E.; Sturm, C.; Traxler, M.; Yurevich, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Iori, I. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Krasa, A.; Krizek, F.; Kugler, A.; Sobolev, Yu.G.; Tlusty, P.; Wagner, V. [Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Nuclear Physics Institute, Rez (Czech Republic); Kuc, H. [Jagiellonian University of Cracow, Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Universite Paris Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (UMR 8608), CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay Cedex (France); Mousa, J.; Tsertos, H. [University of Cyprus, Department of Physics, Nicosia (Cyprus); Stroth, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: HADES Collaboration

    2013-11-15

    A high-statistic data sample of Ar(1.76 AGeV)+KCl events recorded with HADES is used to search for a hypertriton signal. An upper production limit per centrality-triggered event of 1.04 x 10{sup -3} on the 3 {sigma} level is derived. Comparing this value with the number of successfully reconstructed {Lambda} hyperons allows to determine an upper limit on the ratio N{sub 3{sub {Lambda}H}}/N{sub {Lambda}}, which is confronted with statistical and coalescence-type model calculations. (orig.)

  11. An upper limit on hypertriton production in collisions of Ar(1.76 AGeV)+KCl

    CERN Document Server

    Agakishiev, G; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Destefanis, M; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Epple, E; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzón, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; González-Díaz, D; Guber, F; Gumberidze, M; Heinz, T; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Karavicheva, T; Koenig, I; Koenig, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Krása, A; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kuc, H; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Lang, S; Lange, J S; Lapidus, K; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Miche, J; Morinière, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Naumann, L; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Rehnisch, L; Reshetin, A; Rustamov, A; Sadovsky, A; Salabura, P; Scheib, T; Schmah, A; Schuldes, H; Schwab, E; Siebenson, J; Sobolev, Yu G; Spatarof, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlusty, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wendisch, C; Wisniowski, M; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y

    2013-01-01

    A high-statistic data sample of Ar(1.76 AGeV)+KCl events recorded with HADES is used to search for a hypertriton signal. An upper production limit per centrality-triggered event of 1.04 x $10^{-3}$ on the $3\\sigma$ level is derived. Comparing this value with the number of successfully reconstructed $\\Lambda$ hyperons allows to determine an upper limit on the ratio $N_{_{\\Lambda}^3H}/N_{\\Lambda}$, which is confronted with statistical and coalescence-type model calculations.

  12. On Integral Upper Limits Assuming Power-law Spectra and the Sensitivity in High-energy Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnen, Max L.

    2017-02-01

    The high-energy non-thermal universe is dominated by power-law-like spectra. Therefore, results in high-energy astronomy are often reported as parameters of power-law fits, or, in the case of a non-detection, as an upper limit assuming the underlying unseen spectrum behaves as a power law. In this paper, I demonstrate a simple and powerful one-to-one relation of the integral upper limit in the two-dimensional power-law parameter space into the spectrum parameter space and use this method to unravel the so-far convoluted question of the sensitivity of astroparticle telescopes.

  13. Upper Limit on the Central Density of Dark Matter in the Eddington inspired Born-Infield (EiBI) Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Izmailov, Ramil; Filippov, Alexander I; Ghosh, Mithun; Nandi, Kamal K

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the stability of circular material orbits in the analytic galactic metric recently derived by Harko \\textit{et al.} (2014). It turnsout that stability depends more strongly on the dark matter central density $%\\rho_{0}$ than on other parameters of the solution. This property then yields an upper limit on $\\rho _{0}$ for each individual galaxy, which we call here $\\rho _{0}^{\\text{upper}}$, such that stable circular orbits are possible \\textit{only} when the constraint $\\rho _{0}\\leq \\rho _{0}^{\\text{upper}}$ is satisfied. This is our new result. To approximately quantify the upper limit, we consider as a familiar example our Milky Way galaxy that has a projected dark matter radius $R_{\\text{DM}}\\sim 180$ kpc and find that $\\rho _{0}^{\\text{upper}}\\sim 2.37\\times 10^{11}$ $M_{\\odot }$kpc$^{-3}$. This limit turns out to be about four orders of magnitude larger than the latest data on central density $\\rho _{0}$ arising from the fit to the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) and Burkert density profiles. Su...

  14. Safe upper limit of intermittent hepatic inflow occlusion for liver resection in cirrhotic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dao-Xiong Lei; Cheng-Hong Peng; Shu-You Peng; Xian-Chuan Jiang; Yu-Lian Wu; Hong-Wei Shen

    2001-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effects of varying ischemic durations on cirrhotic liver and to determine the safe upper limit of repeated intermittent hepatic inflow occlusion.``METHODS Hepatic ischemia in cirrhotic rats was induced by clamping the common pedicle of left and median lobes after non-ischemic lobes resection. The cirrhotic rats were divided into six groups according to the duration and form of vascular clamping: sham occlusion (SO),intermittent occlusion for 10 (IO-10), 15(IO-15). 20(IO-20)and 30(IO-30) minutes with 5 minutes of refiow andcontinuous occlusion for 60 minutes (CO-60). All animals received a total duration of 60 minutes of hepatic inflow occlusion. Liver viability was investigated in relation of hepatic adenylate energy charge ( EC ).Triphenyltetrazollum chloride (TTC) reduction activities were assayed to qualitatively evaluate the degree of irreversible hepatocellular injury. The biochemical and morphological changes were also assessed and a 7-day mortality was observed.``RESULTS At 60 minutes after reperfusion following atotal of 60 minutes of hepatic inflow occlusion, EC values in lO-L0 (0.749±:0.012) and IO-15 (0.699 ±0.002) groups were rapidly restored to that in SO group (0. 748± 0.016).TTC reduction activities remained in high levels (0. 144 ±0.002 mg/mg protein, 0. 139 + 0.003 mg/mg protein and 0.121 ± 0.003 mg/mg protein in SO, IO-10 and IO-15groups, respectively). But in IO-20 and IO-30 groups, EC levels were partly restored (0.457 ± 0.023 and 0.534 ±0.027) accompanying with a significantly decreased TTCreduction activities (0.070 ± 0.005 mg/mg protein and 0.061 ±0.003 rng/mg protein). No recovery in EC values , i).228 ± 0.004) and a progressive decrease in TTC reduction activities ( 0.03.3 ± 0.002 mg/mg protein) were shown in CO-60 group. Although not significantly different, the activities of the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) on the third postoperative day (POD3 ) and POD7 and of the serum alanineaminotransferase

  15. Upper limits for a lunar dust exosphere from far-ultraviolet spectroscopy by LRO/LAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Paul D.; Glenar, David A.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Randall Gladstone, G.; Miles, Paul F.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Kaufmann, David E.; Parker, Joel Wm.; Alan Stern, S.

    2014-05-01

    Since early 2012, the Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) far-ultraviolet spectrograph on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft has carried out a series of limb observations from within lunar shadow to search for the presence of a high altitude dust exosphere via forward-scattering of sunlight from dust grains. Bright “horizon-glow” was observed from orbit during several Apollo missions and interpreted in terms of dust at altitudes of several km and higher. However, no confirmation of such an exosphere has been made since that time. This raises basic questions about the source(s) of excess brightness in the early measurements and also the conditions for producing observable dust concentrations at km altitudes and higher. Far-ultraviolet measurements between 170 and 190 nm, near the LAMP long wavelength cutoff, are especially sensitive to scattering by small (0.1-0.2 μm radius) dust grains, since the scattering cross-section is near-maximum, and the solar flux is rising rapidly with wavelength. An additional advantage of ultraviolet measurements is the lack of interference by background zodiacal light which must be taken into account at longer wavelengths. As of July 2013, LAMP has completed several limb-observing sequences dedicated to the search for horizon glow, but no clear evidence of dust scattering has yet been obtained. Upper limits for vertical dust column abundance have been estimated at less than 10 grains cm-2 (0.1 μm grain radius), by comparing the measured noise-equivalent brightness with the results of Mie scattering simulations for the same observing geometries. These results indicate that Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) UVS lunar dust observations will be considerably more challenging than planned.

  16. Estimate of the upper limit of amplitude of Solar Cycle No. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silbergleit, V. M; Larocca, P. A [Departamento de Fisica, UBA (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    AA* indices of values greater than 60 10{sup -9} Tesla are considered in order to characterize geomagnetic storms since the available series of these indices comprise the years from 1868 to 1998 (The longest existing interval of geomagnetic activity). By applying the precursor technique we have performed an analysis of the storm periods and the solar activity, obtaining a good correlation between the number of storms ({alpha})(characterized by the AA* indices) and the amplitudes of each solar cycle ({zeta}) and those of the next ({mu}). Using the multiple regression method applied to {alpha}=A+B{zeta} +C{mu}, the constants are calculated and the values found are: A=-33 {+-}18, B= 0.74{+-}0.13 y C= 0.56{+-}0.13. The present statistical method indicates that the current solar cycle (number 23) would have an upper limit of 202{+-}57 monthy mean sunspots. This value indicates that the solar activity would be high causing important effects on the Earth's environment. [Spanish] Se consideran los valores de los indices AA* de valor mayor que 60 10{sup -9} Tesla para caracterizar tormentas geomagneticas ya que las series disponibles de estos indices van desde 1868 hasta 1998 (el mas largo intervalo de la actividad geomagnetica existente). Aplicando la tecnica del precursor hemos realizado un analisis de los periodos de tormentas y la actividad solar obteniendo una buena correlacion entre el numero de tormentas ({alpha}) (caracterizado por los indices AA*) y las amplitudes de los ciclos solares corriente ({zeta}) y el proximo ({mu}). Usando el metodo de regresion multiple aplicado a {alpha}=A+B{zeta} +C{mu}, las consonantes resultaron: A=-33 {+-}18, B= 0.74{+-}0.13 y C= 0.56{+-}0.13. El metodo estadistico presentado indica que el ciclo actual (numero 23) tendria un pico de 202{+-} 57 manchas mensuales promedio. Este valor indica que la actividad solar seria alta produciendo importantes efectos en el medio ambiente terrestre.

  17. Vibrational energy transfer in selectively excited diatomic molecules. [Relaxation rates, self-relaxation, upper limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasch, C.J.

    1978-09-01

    Single rovibrational states of HCl(v=2), HBr(v=2), DCl(v=2), and CO(v=2) were excited with a pulsed optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Total vibrational relaxation rates near - resonance quenchers were measured at 295/sup 0/K using time resolved infrared fluorescence. These rates are attributed primarily to V - V energy transfer, and they generally conform to a simple energy gap law. A small deviation was found for the CO(v) + DCl(v') relaxation rates. Upper limits for the self relaxation by V - R,T of HCl(v=2) and HBr(v=2) and for the two quantum exchange between HCl and HBr were determined. The HF dimer was detected at 295/sup 0/K and 30 torr HF pressure with an optoacoustic spectrometer using the OPO. Pulsed and chopped, resonant and non-resonant spectrophones are analyzed in detail. From experiments and first order perturbation theory, these V - V exchange rates appear to behave as a first order perturbation in the vibrational coordinates. The rotational dynamics are known to be complicated however, and the coupled rotational - vibrational dynamics were investigated theoreticaly in infinite order by the Dillon and Stephenson and the first Magnus approximations. Large ..delta..J transitions appear to be important, but these calculations differ by orders of magnitude on specific rovibrational transition rates. Integration of the time dependent semiclassical equations by a modified Gordon method and a rotationally distorted wave approximation are discussed as methods which would treat the rotational motion more accurately. 225 references.

  18. Upper limit to magnetism in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Michael

    2012-02-01

    In 2004 Ohtomo and Hwang reported unusually high conductivity in LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 bilayer samples. Since then, metallic conduction, superconductivity, magnetism, and coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism have been attributed to LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces. Very recently, two studies have reported large magnetic moments attributed to interfaces from measurement techniques that are unable to distinguish between interfacial and bulk magnetism. Consequently, it is imperative to perform magnetic measurements that by being intrinsically sensitive to interface magnetism are impervious to experimental artifacts suffered by bulk measurements. Using polarized neutron reflectometry, we measured the neutron spin dependent reflectivity from four LaAlO3/SrTiO3 superlattices. Our results indicate the upper limit for the magnetization averaged over the lateral dimensions of the sample induced by an 11 T magnetic field at 1.7 K is less than 2 G. SQUID magnetometry of the neutron superlattice samples sporadically finds an enhanced moment (consistent with past reports), possibly due to experimental artifacts. These observations set important restrictions on theories which imply a strongly enhanced magnetism at the interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. Work performed in collaboration with N.W. Hengartner, S. Singh, M. Zhernenkov (LANL), F.Y. Bruno, J. Santamaria (Universidad Complutense de Madrid), A. Brinkman, M.J.A. Huijben, H. Molegraaf (MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology), J. de la Venta and Ivan K. Schuller (UCSD). [4pt] Work supported by the Office of Basic Energy Science, U.S. Department of Energy, BES-DMS and DMR under grant DE FG03-87ER-45332. Work at UCM is supported by Consolider Ingenio CSD2009-00013 (IMAGINE), CAM S2009-MAT 1756 (PHAMA) and work at Twente is supported by the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM).

  19. Sample Size Limits for Estimating Upper Level Mediation Models Using Multilevel SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2013-01-01

    This simulation study investigated use of the multilevel structural equation model (MLSEM) for handling measurement error in both mediator and outcome variables ("M" and "Y") in an upper level multilevel mediation model. Mediation and outcome variable indicators were generated with measurement error. Parameter and standard…

  20. Exploring the Limits of Cell Adhesion under Shear Stress within Physiological Conditions and beyond on a Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie E. M. Stamp

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion processes are of ubiquitous importance for biomedical applications such as optimization of implant materials. Here, not only physiological conditions such as temperature or pH, but also topographical structures play crucial roles, as inflammatory reactions after surgery can diminish osseointegration. In this study, we systematically investigate cell adhesion under static, dynamic and physiologically relevant conditions employing a lab-on-a-chip system. We screen adhesion of the bone osteosarcoma cell line SaOs-2 on a titanium implant material for pH and temperature values in the physiological range and beyond, to explore the limits of cell adhesion, e.g., for feverish and acidic conditions. A detailed study of different surface roughness Rq gives insight into the correlation between the cells’ abilities to adhere and withstand shear flow and the topography of the substrates, finding a local optimum at Rq = 22 nm. We use shear stress induced by acoustic streaming to determine a measure for the ability of cell adhesion under an external force for various conditions. We find an optimum of cell adhesion for T = 37 °C and pH = 7.4 with decreasing cell adhesion outside the physiological range, especially for high T and low pH. We find constant detachment rates in the physiological regime, but this behavior tends to collapse at the limits of 41 °C and pH 4.

  1. Secondary radio eclipse of the transiting planet HD 189733 b: an upper limit at 307-347 MHz

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, A M S; Greaves, J; Jardine, M; Langston, G; Backer, D

    2009-01-01

    We report the first attempt to observe the secondary eclipse of a transiting extra-solar planet at radio wavelengths. We observed HD 189733 b with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope of the NRAO over about 5.5 hours before, during and after secondary eclipse, at frequencies of 307 - 347 MHz. In this frequency range, we determine the 3-sigma upper limit to the flux density to be 81 mJy. The data are consistent with no eclipse or a marginal reduction in flux at the time of secondary eclipse in all subsets of our bandwidth; the strongest signal is an apparent eclipse at the 2-sigma level in the 335.2 - 339.3 MHz region. Our observed upper limit is close to theoretical predictions of the flux density of cyclotron-maser radiation from the planet.

  2. First all-sky upper limits from LIGO on the strength of periodic gravitational waves using the Hough transform

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B; Adhikari, R; Ageev, A; Agresti, J; Allen, B; Allen, J; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Asiri, F; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Balasubramanian, R; Ballmer, S; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barnes, M; Barr, B; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Beausoleil, R; Belczynski, K; Bennett, R; Berukoff, S J; Betzwieser, J; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Bland, B; Bochner, B; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burgess, R; Busby, D; Butler, W E; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Cantley, C A; Cardenas, L; Carter, K; Casey, M M; Castiglione, J; Chandler, A; Chapsky, J; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chickarmane, V; Chin, D; Christensen, N; Churches, D; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C; Coldwell, R; Coles, M; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crooks, D R M; Csatorday, P; Cusack, B J; Cutler, C; Dalrymple, J; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Davies, G; Daw, E; De Bra, D; Delker, T; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S V; Di Credico, A; Díaz, M; Ding, H; Drever, R W P; Dupuis, R J; Edlund, J A; Ehrens, P; Elliffe, E J; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fallnich, C; Farnham, D; Fejer, M M; Findley, T; Fine, M; Finn, L S; Franzen, K Y; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Ganezer, K S; Garofoli, J; Giaime, J A; Gillespie, A; Goda, K; Goggin, L; González, G; Gossler, S; Grandclément, P; Grant, A; Gray, C; Gretarsson, A M; Grimmett, D; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Günther, M; Gustafson, E; Gustafson, R; Hamilton, W O; Hammond, M; Hanson, J; Hardham, C; Harms, J; Harry, G; Hartunian, A; Heefner, J; Hefetz, Y; Heinzel, G; Heng, I S; Hennessy, M; Hepler, N; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hindman, N; Hoang, P; Hough, J; Hrynevych, M; Hua, W; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jennrich, O; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Johnston, W R; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, L; Jungwirth, D; Kalogera, V; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kells, W; Kern, J; Khan, A; Killbourn, S; Killow, C J; Kim, C; King, C; King, P; Klimenko, S; Koranda, S; Kotter, K; Kovalik, Yu; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Landry, M; Langdale, J; Lantz, B; Lawrence, R; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lindquist, P; Liu, S; Logan, J; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Luna, M; Lyons, T T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majid, W; Malec, M; Mandic, V; Mann, F; Marin, A; Marka, S; Maros, E; Mason, J; Mason, K; Matherny, O; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McHugh, M; McNabb, J W C; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C; Mikhailov, E; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Miyoki, S; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Müller, G; Mukherjee, S; Murray, P; Myers, E; Myers, J; Nagano, S; Nash, T; Nayak, R; Newton, G; Nocera, F; Noel, J S; Nutzman, P; Olson, T; O'Reilly, B; Ottaway, D J; Ottewill, A; Ouimette, D A; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Parameswaran, A J; Parameswariah, C; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pitkin, M; Plissi, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rakhmanov, M; Rao, S R; Rawlins, K; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Redding, D; Regehr, M W; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reilly, K T; Reithmaier, K; Reitze, D H; Richman, S; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Rizzi, A; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Robison, L; Roddy, S; Rodríguez, A; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Rong, H; Rose, D; Rotthoff, E; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Salzman, I; Sandberg, V; Sanders, G H; Sannibale, V; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sazonov, A; Schilling, R; Schlaufman, K; Schmidt, V; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Seader, S E; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seel, S; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Shapiro, C A; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Shu, Q Z; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sievers, L; Sigg, D; Sintes, A M; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, M R; Sneddon, P H; Spero, R; Spjeld, O; Stapfer, G; Steussy, D; Strain, K A; Strom, D; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T; Sumner, M C; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Sylvestre, J; Takamori, A; Tanner, D B; Tariq, H; Taylor, I; Taylor, R; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Tibbits, M; Tilav, S; Tinto, M; Tokmakov,K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D W; Ungarelli, C; Vallisneri, M; Van Putten, M H P M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Wallace, L; Walther, H; Ward, H; Ward, R; Ware, B; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weidner, A; Weiland, U; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Welling, H; Wen, L; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wiley, S; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, P R; Williams, R; Willke, B; Wilson, A; Winjum, B J; Winkler, W; Wise, S; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Woods, D; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yoshida, S; Zaleski, K D; Zanolin, M; Zawischa, I; Zhang, L; Zhu, R; Zotov, N P; Zucker, M; Zweizig, J

    2005-01-01

    We perform a wide parameter space search for continuous gravitational waves over the whole sky and over a large range of values of the frequency and the first spin-down parameter. Our search method is based on the Hough transform, which is a semi-coherent, computationally efficient, and robust pattern recognition technique. We apply this technique to data from the second science run of the LIGO detectors and our final results are all-sky upper limits on the strength of gravitational waves emitted by unknown isolated spinning neutron stars on a set of narrow frequency bands in the range 200-$400 $Hz. The best upper limit on the gravitational wave strain amplitude that we obtain in this frequency range is $4.43\\times 10^{-23}$.

  3. Applying Adjacent Hyperbolas to Calculation of the Upper Limit of the Periodic Table of Elements, with Use of Rhodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the earlier study (Khazan A. Upper Limit in Mendeleev's Periodic Table - Element No.155. 2nd ed., Svenska fysikarkivet, Stockholm, 2010 the author showed how Rhodium can be applied to the hyperbolic law of the Periodic Table of Elements in order to calculate, with high precision, all other elements conceivable in the Table. Here we obtain the same result, with use of fraction linear functions (adjacent hyperbolas.

  4. Applying Adjacent Hyperbolas to Calculation of the Upper Limit of the Periodic Table of Elements, with Use of Rhodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the earlier study (Khazan A. Upper Limit in Mendeleev’s Periodic Table — Ele- ment No. 155. 2nd ed., Svenska fysikarkivet, Stockholm, 2010 the author showed how Rhodium can be applied to the hyperbolic law of the Periodic Table of Elements in or- der to calculate, with high precision, all other elements conceivable in the Table. Here we obtain the same result, with use of fraction linear functions (adjacent hyperbolas.

  5. Upper limit on the cosmic-ray photon fraction at EeV energies from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Goncalves do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Luna Garcia, R.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, S.; Mueller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Smetniansky De Grande, N.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    From direct observations of the longitudinal development of ultra-high energy air showers performed with the Pierre Auger Observatory, upper limits of 3.8%, 2.4%, 3.5% and 11.7% (at 95% c.l.) are obtained on the fraction of cosmic-ray photons above 2, 3, 5 and 10 EeV (1 EeV equivalent to 10(18) eV),

  6. The upper limit of the in-plane spin splitting of Gaussian beam reflected from a glass-air interface

    OpenAIRE

    Wenguo Zhu; Jianhui Yu; Heyuan Guan; Huihui Lu; Jieyuan Tang; Jun Zhang; Yunhan Luo; Zhe Chen

    2017-01-01

    Optical spin splitting has a promising prospect in quantum information and precision metrology. Since it is typically small, many efforts have been devoted to its enhancement. However, the upper limit of optical spin splitting remains uninvestigated. Here, we investigate systematically the in-plane spin splitting of a Gaussian beam reflected from a glass-air interface and find that the spin splitting can be enhanced in three different incident angular ranges: around the Brewster angle, slight...

  7. Upper limit on the cosmic-ray photon fraction at EeV energies from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Goncalves do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Luna Garcia, R.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, S.; Mueller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Smetniansky De Grande, N.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    From direct observations of the longitudinal development of ultra-high energy air showers performed with the Pierre Auger Observatory, upper limits of 3.8%, 2.4%, 3.5% and 11.7% (at 95% c.l.) are obtained on the fraction of cosmic-ray photons above 2, 3, 5 and 10 EeV (1 EeV equivalent to 10(18) eV),

  8. Upper Limit of D0 Production in Central Pb-Pb Collisions at 158A GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Alt, C; Baatar, B; Barna, D; Bartke, Jerzy; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Blume, C; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Bramm, R; Buncic, P; Cerny, V; Christakoglou, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P; Friese, V; Gál, J; Gazdzicki, M; Genchev, V; Georgopoulos, G; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, K; Hegyi, S; Höhne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kliemant, M; Kniege, S; Kolesnikov, V I; Kornas, E; Korus, R; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; Van Leeuwen, M; Lévai, Peter; Litov, L; Lungwitz, B; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A I; Mateev, M; Melkumov, G L; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M; Molnár, J; Mrówczynski, S; Nicolic, V; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Panayotov, D; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Prindle, D; Pühlhofer, F; Renfordt, R; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybczynski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T; Seyboth, P; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Szymanski, P; Trubnikov, V; Varga, D; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wetzler, A; Wlodarczyk, Z; Yoo, I K; Zimányi, J

    2006-01-01

    Results are presented from a search for the decays D0 -> Kmin piplus and D0bar -> Kplus pimin in a sample of 3.8x10^6 central Pb-Pb events collected with a beam energy of 158A GeV by NA49 at the CERN SPS. No signal is observed. An upper limit on D0 production is derived and compared to predictions from several models.

  9. Flux upper limits for 47 AGN observed with H.E.S.S. in 2004-2011

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowski, A; Benkhali, F Ait; Akhperjanian, A G; Angüner, E; Anton, G; Balenderan, S; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; Becherini, Y; Tjus, J Becker; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Bissaldi, E; Biteau, J; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chadwick, P M; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Chrétien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Cui, Y; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fernandez, D; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Grondin, M -H; Grudzińska, M; Häffner, S; Hahn, J; Harris, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, F; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lefaucheur, J; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J -P; Lennarz, D; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Méhault, J; Meintjes, P J; Menzler, U; Meyer, M; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Moulin, E; Murach, T; Naumann, C L; de Naurois, M; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Oakes, L; Ohm, S; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Arribas, M Paz; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perez, J; Petrucci, P -O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Poon, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Raue, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Rob, L; Romoli, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Spies, F; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Szostek, A; Tavernet, J -P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; van Soelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorster, M; Vuillaume, T; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Ward, M; Weidinger, M; Weitzel, Q; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Zabalza, V; Zacharias, M; Zajczyk, A; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S

    2014-01-01

    About 40% of the observation time of the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is dedicated to studying active galactic nuclei (AGN), with the aim of increasing the sample of known extragalactic very-high-energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) sources and constraining the physical processes at play in potential emitters. H.E.S.S. observations of AGN, spanning a period from April 2004 to December 2011, are investigated to constrain their gamma-ray fluxes. Only the 47 sources without significant excess detected at the position of the targets are presented. Upper limits on VHE fluxes of the targets were computed and a search for variability was performed on the nightly time scale. For 41 objects, the flux upper limits we derived are the most constraining reported to date. These constraints at VHE are compared with the flux level expected from extrapolations of Fermi-LAT measurements in the two-year catalog of AGN. The H.E.S.S. upper limits are at least a factor of two lower than the extrapolated Fermi-LAT fluxes for 11 ob...

  10. Odin observations of the Galactic centre in the 118-GHz band. Upper limit to the O2 abundance

    CERN Document Server

    Sandqvist, Aa; Hjalmarson, Å; Bergman, P; Bernath, P; Frisk, U; Olberg, M; Pagani, L; Ziurys, L M

    2008-01-01

    The Odin satellite has been used to search for the 118.75-GHz line of molecular oxygen (O2)in the Galactic centre. Odin observations were performed towards the Sgr A* circumnuclear disk (CND), and the Sgr A +20 km/s and +50 km/s molecular clouds using the position-switching mode. Supplementary ground-based observations were carried out in the 2-mm band using the ARO Kitt Peak 12-m telescope to examine suspected SiC features. A strong emission line was found at 118.27 GHz, attributable to the J=13-12 HC3N line. Upper limits are presented for the 118.75-GHz O2 (1,1-1,0) ground transition line and for the 118.11-GHz 3Pi2, J=3-2 ground state SiC line at the Galactic centre. Upper limits are also presented for the 487-GHz O2 line in the Sgr A +50 km/s cloud and for the 157-GHz, J=4-3, SiC line in the Sgr A +20 and +50 km/s clouds, as well as the CND. The CH3OH line complex at 157.2 - 157.3 GHz has been detected in the +20 and +50 km/s clouds but not towards Sgr A*/CND. A 3-sigma upper limit for the fractional abun...

  11. The Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey I: New upper limits on radio halos and mini-halos

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, R; Giacintucci, S; Dallacasa, D; Cassano, R; Brunetti, G; Macario, G; Athreya, R

    2013-01-01

    A fraction of galaxy clusters host diffuse radio sources called radio halos, radio relics and mini-halos. We present the sample and first results from the Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey (EGRHS)- an extension of the GMRT Radio Halo Survey (GRHS, Venturi et al. 2007, 2008). It is a systematic radio survey of galaxy clusters selected from the REFLEX and eBCS X-ray catalogs . Analysis of GMRT data at 610/ 235/ 325 MHz on 12 galaxy clusters are presented. We report the detection of a newly discovered mini-halo in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021 at 610 MHz. A small scale relic (~200 kpc) is suspected in the cluster Z348. We do not detect cluster-scale diffuse emission in 11 clusters. Robust upper limits on the detection of radio halo of size of 1 Mpc are determined. We also present upper limits on the detections of mini-halos in a sub-sample of cool-core clusters. The upper limits for radio halos and mini-halos are plotted in the radio power- X-ray luminosity plane and the correlations are discussed. Diffuse extended e...

  12. FDG-PET/CT Limited to the Thorax and Upper Abdomen for Staging and Management of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Anne I J; Postema, Jan W A; Schreurs, Wendy M J; Lafeber, Albert; Hendrickx, Baudewijn W; Oyen, Wim J G; Vogel, Wouter V

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) of the chest/upper abdomen compared to the generally performed scan from head to upper thighs, for staging and management of (suspected) lung cancer in patients with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax. FDG-PET/CT scans of 1059 patients with suspected or recently proven lung cancer, with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax, were analysed in a retrospective multi-centre trial. Suspect FDG-avid lesions in the chest and upper abdomen, the head and neck area above the shoulder line and in the abdomen and pelvis below the caudal tip of the liver were noted. The impact of lesions detected in the head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis on additional diagnostic procedures, staging and treatment decisions was evaluated. The head and neck area revealed additional suspect lesions in 7.2%, and the abdomen and pelvis in 15.8% of patients. Imaging of the head and neck area and the abdomen and pelvic area showed additional lesions in 19.5%, inducing additional diagnostic procedures in 7.8%. This resulted in discovery of additional lesions considered malignant in 10.7%, changing patient management for lung cancer in 1.2%. In (suspected) lung cancer, PET/CT limited to the chest and upper abdomen resulted in correct staging in 98.7% of patients, which led to the identical management as full field of view PET in 98.8% of patients. High value of FDG-PET/CT for staging and correct patient management is already achieved with chest and upper abdomen. Findings in head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis generally induce investigations with limited or no impact on staging and treatment of NSCLC, and can be interpreted accordingly.

  13. FDG-PET/CT Limited to the Thorax and Upper Abdomen for Staging and Management of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postema, Jan W. A.; Schreurs, Wendy M. J.; Lafeber, Albert; Hendrickx, Baudewijn W.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Vogel, Wouter V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) of the chest/upper abdomen compared to the generally performed scan from head to upper thighs, for staging and management of (suspected) lung cancer in patients with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax. Methods FDG-PET/CT scans of 1059 patients with suspected or recently proven lung cancer, with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax, were analysed in a retrospective multi-centre trial. Suspect FDG-avid lesions in the chest and upper abdomen, the head and neck area above the shoulder line and in the abdomen and pelvis below the caudal tip of the liver were noted. The impact of lesions detected in the head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis on additional diagnostic procedures, staging and treatment decisions was evaluated. Results The head and neck area revealed additional suspect lesions in 7.2%, and the abdomen and pelvis in 15.8% of patients. Imaging of the head and neck area and the abdomen and pelvic area showed additional lesions in 19.5%, inducing additional diagnostic procedures in 7.8%. This resulted in discovery of additional lesions considered malignant in 10.7%, changing patient management for lung cancer in 1.2%. In (suspected) lung cancer, PET/CT limited to the chest and upper abdomen resulted in correct staging in 98.7% of patients, which led to the identical management as full field of view PET in 98.8% of patients. Conclusion High value of FDG-PET/CT for staging and correct patient management is already achieved with chest and upper abdomen. Findings in head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis generally induce investigations with limited or no impact on staging and treatment of NSCLC, and can be interpreted accordingly. PMID:27556809

  14. Aerobic dive limits of seals with mutant myoglobin using combined thermochemical and physiological data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasmeh, Pouria; Davis, Randall W.; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2013-01-01

    traits are only superior under specific behavioral and physiological conditions that critically prolong the ADL, action radius, and fitness of the seals. As an extreme example, the mutations in the conserved His-64 reduce ADL up to 14±2 min for routine aerobic dives, whereas many other mutations...

  15. Defining the upper age limit of luminescence dating: A case study using long lacustrine records from Chew Bahir, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapot, Melissa S.; Roberts, Helen M.; Lamb, Henry F.; Schäbitz, Frank; Asrat, Asfawossen; Trauth, Martin H.

    2017-04-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is a family of numerical chronometric techniques applied to quartz or feldspar mineral grains to assess the time since these grains were last exposed to sunlight (i.e. deposited), based on the amount of energy they absorbed from ambient radiation during burial. The maximum limit of any OSL dating technique is not defined by a fixed upper age limit, but instead by the maximum radiation dose the sample can accurately record before the OSL signal saturates. The challenge is to assess this upper limit of accurate age determination without necessitating comparison to independent age control. Laboratory saturation of OSL signals can be observed using a dose response curve (DRC) plotting OSL signal intensity against absorbed laboratory radiation dose. When a DRC is fitted with a single saturating exponential, one of the equation's parameters can be used to define a pragmatic upper limit beyond which uncertainties become large and asymmetric (Wintle and Murray, 2006). However, many sub-samples demonstrate DRCs that are best defined by double saturating exponential equations, which cannot be used to define this upper limit. To investigate the reliability of luminescence ages approaching saturation, Chapot et al. (2012) developed the Natural DRC concept, which uses expected ages derived from independent age control, combined with sample-specific measurements of ambient radioactivity, to calculate expected doses of absorbed radiation during burial. Natural OSL signal intensity is then plotted against these expected doses and compared to laboratory-generated DRCs. Using this approach, discrepancies between natural and laboratory DRCs have been observed for the same mineral material as natural OSL signal intensities saturate at absorbed radiation doses lower than the pragmatic upper limit defined by laboratory DRCs, leading to increasing age underestimation with depth without a metric for questioning the age reliability. The

  16. Upper Limits on the 21 cm Power Spectrum at z = 5.9 from Quasar Absorption Line Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Pober, Jonathan C; Mesinger, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    We present upper limits on the 21 cm power spectrum at $z = 5.9$ calculated from the model-independent limit on the neutral fraction of the intergalactic medium of $x_{\\rm H{\\small I }} < 0.06 + 0.05\\ (1\\sigma)$ derived from dark pixel statistics of quasar absorption spectra. Using 21CMMC, a Markov chain Monte Carlo Epoch of Reionization analysis code, we explore the probability distribution of 21 cm power spectra consistent with this constraint on the neutral fraction. We present 99 per cent confidence upper limits of $\\Delta^2(k) < 10$ to $20\\ {\\rm mK}^2$ over a range of $k$ from 0.5 to $2.0\\ h{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$, with the exact limit dependent on the sampled $k$ mode. This limit can be used as a null test for 21 cm experiments: a detection of power at $z=5.9$ in excess of this value is highly suggestive of residual foreground contamination or other systematic errors affecting the analysis.

  17. Upper limits to near-field radiative heat transfer: generalizing the blackbody concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Owen D.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2016-09-01

    For 75 years it has been known that radiative heat transfer can exceed far-field blackbody rates when two bodies are separated by less than a thermal wavelength. Yet an open question has remained: what is the maximum achievable radiative transfer rate? Here we describe basic energy-conservation principles that answer this question, yielding upper bounds that depend on the temperatures, material susceptibilities, and separation distance, but which encompass all geometries. The simple structures studied to date fall far short of the bounds, offering the possibility for significant future enhancement, with ramifications for experimental studies as well as thermophotovoltaic applications.

  18. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling: Methodology, Applications, and Limitations with a Focus on Its Role in Pediatric Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feras Khalil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK modeling was introduced years ago, but it has not been practiced significantly. However, interest in and implementation of this modeling technique have grown, as evidenced by the increased number of publications in this field. This paper demonstrates briefly the methodology, applications, and limitations of PBPK modeling with special attention given to discuss the use of PBPK models in pediatric drug development and some examples described in detail. Although PBPK models do have some limitations, the potential benefit from PBPK modeling technique is huge. PBPK models can be applied to investigate drug pharmacokinetics under different physiological and pathological conditions or in different age groups, to support decision-making during drug discovery, to provide, perhaps most important, data that can save time and resources, especially in early drug development phases and in pediatric clinical trials, and potentially to help clinical trials become more “confirmatory” rather than “exploratory”.

  19. Physiological proteins in resource-limited herbivores experiencing a population die-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, R.; Bento, A. I.; Hansen, C.; Pilkington, J. G.; Pemberton, J. M.; Graham, A. L.

    2017-08-01

    Nutrient availability is predicted to interact with herbivore population densities. Competition for low quality food at high density may reduce summer food intake, and in turn winter survival. Conversely, low population density may favor physiological recovery through better access to better quality spring forage. Here, we take advantage of the long-term study of the Soay sheep population of St. Kilda (Scotland) to measure plasma protein markers and immunity in two consecutive summers with contrasting population densities. We show that, following a winter die-off resulting in a shift to low population density, albumin and total proteins increased, but only in adult sheep. The effect was not solely attributable to selective disappearance of malnourished sheep. Similarly, the concentration of antibodies was higher following the die-off, potentially indicating recovery of immune function. Overall, our results are consistent with the physiological recovery of surviving individuals after a harsh winter.

  20. A low upper mass limit for the central black hole in the late-type galaxy NGC 4414

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thater, S.; Krajnović, D.; Bourne, M. A.; Cappellari, M.; de Zeeuw, T.; Emsellem, E.; Magorrian, J.; McDermid, R. M.; Sarzi, M.; van de Ven, G.

    2017-01-01

    We present our mass estimate of the central black hole in the isolated spiral galaxy NGC 4414. Using natural guide star adaptive optics assisted observations with the Gemini Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS) and the natural seeing Gemini Multi-Object Spectrographs-North (GMOS), we derived two-dimensional stellar kinematic maps of NGC 4414 covering the central 1.5 arcsec and 10 arcsec, respectively, at a NIFS spatial resolution of 0.13 arcsec. The kinematic maps reveal a regular rotation pattern and a central velocity dispersion dip down to around 105 km s-1. We constructed dynamical models using two different methods: Jeans anisotropic dynamical modeling and axisymmetric Schwarzschild modeling. Both modeling methods give consistent results, but we cannot constrain the lower mass limit and only measure an upper limit for the black hole mass of MBH = 1.56 × 106M⊙ (at 3σ level) which is at least 1σ below the recent MBH-σe relations. Further tests with dark matter, mass-to-light ratio variation and different light models confirm that our results are not dominated by uncertainties. The derived upper limit mass is not only below the MBH-σe relation, but is also five times lower than the lower limit black hole mass anticipated from the resolution limit of the sphere of influence. This proves that via high quality integral field data we are now able to push black hole measurements down to at least five times less than the resolution limit. The reduced data cubes (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/597/A18

  1. Setting safe acute exposure limits for halon replacement chemicals using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, A; Jepson, G W; Cisneros, M; Rubenstein, R; Brock, W J

    2000-08-01

    Most proposed replacements for Halon 1301 as a fire suppressant are halogenated hydrocarbons. The acute toxic endpoint of concern for these agents is cardiac sensitization. An approach is described that links the cardiac endpoint as assessed in dogs to a target arterial concentration in humans. Linkage was made using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Monte Carlo simulations, which account for population variability, were used to establish safe exposure times at different exposure concentrations for Halon 1301 (bromotrifluoromethane), CF(3)I (trifluoroiodomethane), HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane), HFC-227ea (1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane), and HFC-236fa (1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane). Application of the modeling technique described here not only makes use of the conservative cardiac sensitization endpoint, but also uses an understanding of the pharmacokinetics of the chemical agents to better establish standards for safe exposure. The combined application of cardiac sensitization data and physiologically based modeling provides a quantitative approach, which can facilitate the selection and effective use of halon replacement candidates.

  2. Upper limits on carbon group ions near the orbit of Titan: Implications for methane escape from Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, Frank; Smith, H. Todd; Reisenfeld, Daniel; Young, Dave

    High neutral methane escape rates from Titan (˜3x109 cm-2 s-1 ) have been inferred from Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer observations [Yelle et al., 2008]. This is much higher than past predictions (e.g. due to Jeans loss). To investigate this hypothesis, we have examined Cassini Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) data obtained near Titan's orbit. We have used the CAPS linear electric field (LEF) mass spectra, which provide high resolution measurements of atomic ions and the atomic constituents of molecular ions. The expected lifetime of neutral methane is sufficiently long that escaping molecules would not ionize in Titan's immediate vicinity. However, ionospheric methane ions are observed in Titan's atmosphere. To distinguish between these two possible sources of methane ions, we have examined spectra obtained within five Saturn radii of Titan's orbit, but at distances of over one Saturn radius from Titan itself. Between March 2005 and Dec. 2009, 5466 LEF spectra were obtained in this region. These data show a clear oxygen peak, either from atomic O+ or from fragmentation of oxygen-bearing molecular ions. A weaker nitrogen peak, with 5.9% the amplitude of the oxygen peak, is also present. At the instrument's noise level, no carbon peak is present. This non-detection corresponds to an abundance of carbon ions and carbon-bearing molecular ions under 0.28% that of oxygen and oxygen-bearing ions. Estimates of the neutral and ion loss rates, and ion production rates, allow us to convert this upper limit into an upper limit on the escape rate of neutral methane from Titan. Unless there is some currently unknown and efficient loss process for neutral methane (i.e. other than ionization), this upper limit is several orders of magnitude lower than the escape rate determined by Yelle et al., 2008.

  3. Effect of pH Upper Control Limit on Nutrient Solution Component and Water Spinach Growth under Hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuzhang Xue

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, experiment with four levels of nutrient solution pH control upper limit was conducted to explore the optimal nutrient solution pH management scheme under hydroponics by evaluating the nutrient solution characters i.e., pH, Electric Conductivity (EC, nitrate, soluble phosphorus (soluble-P, water spinach growth and quality. The results showed that the nutrient solution pH was 8.2 and unsuitable for water spinach growth under the treatment with no pH regulation during the experimental period. The pH could be maintained within a reasonable range for water spinach growth by adding nitric acid to nutrient solution. Meanwhile, the availability of cations and soluble-P were improved. The water/nutrition uptake was also promoted. Through nutrient solution pH control, the plant height, leaf number and fresh/dry shoot weight increased by 34.66-55.70%, 12.42-13.66%, 39.18¬-101.72% and 13.78-74.03%, respectively. It indicated that pH regulation could improve water spinach growth, promote allocation of photosynthetic product to shoot and increase the effective yield. The nitrate content of water spinach shoot increased, but which was lower than the critical value of 3000 mg/kg FW. Vitamin C content decreased under the treatment which 6.5 of pH control upper limit was set. There were no significant differences in soluble sugar and crude protein content among the four treatments. Considering the yield and quality of water spinach, the suitable nutrient solution pH control upper limit was 7.0.

  4. Discussion on upper limit of maturity for marine shale gas accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinliang; Dong, Dazhong; Zhang, Chenchen; Wang, Yuman; Li, Xinjing; Wang, Shufang

    2017-04-01

    The sedimentary formations of marine shale in China are widely distributed and are characterized by old age, early hydrocarbon-generation and high thermal evolution degree, strong tectonic deformation and reformation and poor preservation conditions. Therefore whether commercial shale gas reservoirs can be formed is a critical issue to be studied. The previous studies showed that the upper threshold of maturity (Ro%) for the gas generation of marine source rocks is 3.0%. Based on comparative studies of marine shale gas exploration practices at home and abroad and reservoir experimental analysis results, we proposed in this paper that the upper threshold of maturity (Ro%) for marine shale gas accumulation is 3.5%. And the main proofs are as follows: (1) There is still certain commercial production in the area with the higher than 3.0% in Marcellus and Woodford marine shale gas plays in North America; (2) The Ro of the Silurian Longmaxi shale in the Sichuan Basin in China is between 2.5% and 3.3%. However, the significant breakthrough has been made in shale gas exploration and the production exceeds 7 billion m3 in 2016; (3) The TOC of the Cambrian Qiongzhusi organic-rich shale in Changning Region in the Sichuan Basin ranges 2% to 7.1% and the Ro is greater than 3.5%. And the resistivity logging of organic-rich shale appears low-ultra low resistivity and inversion of Rt curve. It's suggested that the organic matters in Qiongzhusi organic-rich shale occurs partial carbonization which leads to stronger conductivity; (4) Thermal simulation experiments showed that the specific surface of shale increases with Ro. And the specific surface and adsorptive capacity both reach maximum when the Ro is 3.5%; (5) The analysis of physical properties and SEM images of shale reservoirs indicated that when Ro is higher than 3.5%, the dominant pores of Qiongzhusi shale are micro-pores while the organic pores are relatively poor-developed, and the average porosity is less than 2%.

  5. Physiology of Geobacter metallireducens under excess and limitation of electron donors. Part II. Mimicking environmental conditions during cultivation in retentostats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozava, Sviatlana; Röling, Wilfred F M; Seifert, Jana; Küffner, Robert; von Bergen, Martin; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2014-06-01

    The strict anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens was cultivated in retentostats under acetate and acetate plus benzoate limitation in the presence of Fe(III) citrate in order to investigate its physiology under close to natural conditions. Growth rates below 0.003h(-1) were achieved in the course of cultivation. A nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach (nano-LC-MS/MS) with subsequent label-free quantification was performed on proteins extracted from cells sampled at different time points during retentostat cultivation. Proteins detected at low (0.002h(-1)) and high (0.06h(-1)) growth rates were compared between corresponding growth conditions (acetate or acetate plus benzoate). Carbon limitation significantly increased the abundances of several catabolic proteins involved in the degradation of substrates not present in the medium (ethanol, butyrate, fatty acids, and aromatic compounds). Growth rate-specific physiology was reflected in the changed abundances of energy-, chemotaxis-, oxidative stress-, and transport-related proteins. Mimicking natural conditions by extremely slow bacterial growth allowed to show how G. metallireducens optimized its physiology in order to survive in its natural habitats, since it was prepared to consume several carbon sources simultaneously and to withstand various environmental stresses.

  6. Upper Limits on the Number of Small Bodies in Sedna-Like Orbits by the TAOS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J; Lehner, M J; Zhang, Z; Bianco, F B; Alcock, C; Chen, W; Axelrod, T; Byun, Y; Coehlo, N K; Cook, K H; Dave, R; de Pater, L; Porrata, R; Kim, D; King, S; Lee, T; Lin, H; Lissauer, J J; Marshall, S L; Protopapas, P; Rice, J A; Schwamb, M E; Wang, S; Wen, C

    2009-11-13

    We present the results of a search for occultation events by objects at distances between 100 and 1000 AU in lightcurves from the Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS). We searched for consecutive, shallow flux reductions in the stellar lightcurves obtained by our survey between 7 February 2005 and 31 December 2006 with a total of {approx} 4.5 x 10{sup 9} three-telescope simultaneous photometric measurements. No events were detected, allowing us to set upper limits on the number density as a function of size and distance of objects in Sedna-like orbits, using simple models.

  7. Search for B+/- --> [K-/+ pi+/-]_D K+/- and upper limit on the b --> u amplitude in B+/- --> D K+/-

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Le Clerc, C; Lynch, G; Merchant, A M; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q L; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Green, M G; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L M; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Allmendinger, T; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Anulli, F; Biasini, M; Peruzzi, I M; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lü, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B J; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, Roy; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmüller, O L; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, Gallieno; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Elsen, E E; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihályi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; Tan, P; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-01-01

    We search for B+/- --> [K^-/+ pi+/-]_D K+/- decays, where [K-/+ pi+/-]_D indicates that the K-/+ pi+/- pair originates from the decay of a D0 or D0bar. Results are based on 120 million Upsilon(4S) --> B Bbar decays collected with the BaBar detector at SLAC. We set an upper limit on the ratio R_Kpi = {Gamma(B+ --> [K- pi+]_D K+) + Gamma(B- --> [K+ pi-]_D K-)}/ {Gamma(B+ --> [K+ pi-]_D K+) + Gamma(B- --> [K- pi+]_D K-)} D0bar K-)/A(B- --> D0 K-)| D K will be difficult.

  8. A low upper limit on the subsurface rise speed of solar active regions

    CERN Document Server

    Birch, Aaron C; Braun, Douglas C; Cameron, Robert; Gizon, Laurent; Löptien, Björn; Rempel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic field emerges at the surface of the Sun as sunspots and active regions. This process generates a poloidal magnetic field from a rising toroidal flux tube, it is a crucial but poorly understood aspect of the solar dynamo. The emergence of magnetic field is also important because it is a key driver of solar activity. We show that measurements of horizontal flows at the solar surface around emerging active regions, in combination with numerical simulations of solar magnetoconvection, can constrain the subsurface rise speed of emerging magnetic flux. The observed flows imply that the rise speed of the magnetic field is no larger than 150 m/s at a depth of 20 Mm, that is, well below the prediction of the (standard) thin flux tube model but in the range expected for convective velocities at this depth. We conclude that convective flows control the dynamics of rising flux tubes in the upper layers of the Sun and cannot be neglected in models of flux emergence.

  9. Physiological requirements for growth and competitiveness of Dekkera bruxellensis under oxygen‐limited or anaerobic conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blomqvist, Johanna; Nogué, Violeta Sànchez; Gorwa‐Grauslund, Marie; Passoth, Volkmar

    2012-01-01

    The effect of glucose and oxygen limitation on the growth and fermentation performances of Dekkera bruxellensis was investigated in order to understand which factors favour its propagation in ethanol or wine plants. Although D...

  10. Plastid proteomics for elucidating iron limited remodeling of plastid physiology in diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, K. M.; Nunn, B. L.; Jenkins, B. D.

    2016-02-01

    Diatoms are important primary producers in the world's oceans and their growth is constrained in large regions by low iron availability. This low iron-induced limitation of primary production is due to the requirement for iron in components of essential metabolic pathways including key chloroplast functions such as photosynthesis and nitrate assimilation. Diatoms can bloom and accumulate high biomass during introduction of iron into low iron waters, indicating adaptations allowing for their survival in iron-limited waters and rapid growth when iron becomes more abundant. Prior studies have shown that under iron limited stress, diatoms alter plastid-specific processes including components of electron transport, size of light harvesting capacity and chlorophyll content, suggesting plastid-specific protein regulation. Due to their complex evolutionary history, resulting from a secondary endosymbiosis, knowledge regarding the complement of plastid localized proteins remains limited in comparison to other model photosynthetic organisms. While in-silico prediction of diatom protein localization provides putative candidates for plastid-localization, these analyses can be limited as most plastid prediction models were developed using plants, primary endosymbionts. In order to characterize proteins enriched in diatom chloroplast and to understand how the plastid proteome is remodeled in response to iron limitation, we used mass spectrometry based proteomics to compare plastid- enriched protein fractions from Thalassiosira pseudonana, grown in iron replete and limited conditions. These analyses show that iron stress alters regulation of major metabolic pathways in the plastid including the Calvin cycle and fatty acid synthesis. These components provide promising targets to further characterize the plastid specific response to iron limitation.

  11. Physiological requirements for growth and competitiveness of Dekkera bruxellensis under oxygen-limited or anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Johanna; Nogué, Violeta Sànchez; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie; Passoth, Volkmar

    2012-07-01

    The effect of glucose and oxygen limitation on the growth and fermentation performances of Dekkera bruxellensis was investigated in order to understand which factors favour its propagation in ethanol or wine plants. Although D. bruxellensis has been described as a facultative anaerobe, no growth was observed in mineral medium under complete anaerobiosis while growth was retarded under severe oxygen limitation. In a continuous culture with no gas inflow, glucose was not completely consumed, most probably due to oxygen limitation. When an air/nitrogen mixture (O(2)-content ca. 5%) was sparged to the culture, growth became glucose-limited. In co-cultivations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ethanol yields/g consumed sugar were not affected by the co-cultures as compared to the pure cultures. However, different population responses were observed in both systems. In oxygen-limited cultivation, glucose was depleted within 24 h after challenging with S. cerevisiae and both yeast populations were maintained at a stable level. In contrast, the S. cerevisiae population constantly decreased to about 1% of its initial cell number in the sparged glucose-limited fermentation, whereas the D. bruxellensis population remained constant. To identify the requirements of D. bruxellensis for anaerobic growth, the yeast was cultivated in several nitrogen sources and with the addition of amino acids. Yeast extract and most of the supplied amino acids supported anaerobic growth, which points towards a higher nutrient demand for D. bruxellensis compared to S. cerevisiae in anaerobic conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Animal physiology. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, J P; Harlow, H J; Durner, G M; Anderson-Sprecher, R; Albeke, S E; Regehr, E V; Amstrup, S C; Ben-David, M

    2015-07-17

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of "ice" bears in summer is unknown, "shore" bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation.

  13. Physiological limit of the daily endogenous cholecalciferol synthesis from UV light in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, L.; Jensen, S. K.; Kaas, P.;

    2016-01-01

    The link between UV light (sunlight) and endogenous cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) synthesis in the skin of humans has been known for more than a 100 years, since doctors for the first time successfully used UV light to cure rickets in children. Years later, it was shown that UV light also had...... a significant effect on the cholecalciferol status in the body of cattle. The cholecalciferol status in the body is measured as the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, which in cattle and humans is the major circulating metabolite of cholecalciferol. Very little is, however, known about...... the quantitative efficiency of UV light as a source of cholecalciferol in cattle nutrition and physiology. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of using UV light for increasing the plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration in cholecalciferol-deprived cattle. Twelve cows deprived...

  14. Using thermal imaging to assess the effect of classical massage on selected physiological parameters of upper limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boguszewski Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between classical sport massage of the hand and the forearm and the surface temperature of upper limb muscles, and between hand grip strength and the range of motion in the radiocarpal joint.

  15. An upper limit on the anomalous magnetic moment of the $\\tau$ lepton

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; de Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Doucet, M.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Evans, M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Feld, L.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Fong, D.G.; Foucher, M.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geddes, N.I.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hart, P.A.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P.W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jones, M.; Jost, U.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kirk, J.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lahmann, R.; Lai, W.P.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; List, B.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Markus, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mincer, A.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Oldershaw, N.J.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Posthaus, A.; Rembser, C.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rooke, A.; Rossi, A.M.; Routenburg, P.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Ruppel, U.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schleper, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skillman, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Springer, Robert Wayne; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stockhausen, B.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Szymanski, P.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Utzat, P.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Vokurka, E.H.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1998-01-01

    Using radiative Z^0 -> \\tau^+ \\tau^- \\gamma events collected with the OPAL detector at LEP at \\sqrt{s}=M_Z during 1990-95, a direct study of the electromagnetic current at the \\tau\\gamma vertex has been performed in terms of the anomalous magnetic form factor F_2 of the \\tau lepton. The analysis is based on a data sample of 1429 e^+ e^- -> \\tau^+ \\tau^- \\gamma events which are examined for a deviation from the expectation with F_2 = 0. From the non-observation of anomalous \\tau^+ \\tau^- \\gamma production a limit of -0.068 < F_2 < 0.065 is obtained. This can also be interpreted as a limit on the electric dipole form factor F_3 as -3.8 x 10^-16 e-cm < eF_3 < 3.6 x 10^-16 e-cm. The above ranges are valid at the 95% confidence level.

  16. Evidence for a fundamental stellar upper mass limit from clustered star formation, and some implications therof

    CERN Document Server

    Kroupa, P; Kroupa, Pavel; Weidner, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical considerations lead to the expectation that stars should not have masses larger than about m_{max*}=60-120Msun, while the observational evidence has been ambiguous. Only very recently has a physical stellar mass limit near 150Msun emerged thanks to modern high-resolution observations of local star-burst clusters. But this limit does not appear to depend on metallicity, in contradiction to theory. Important uncertainties remain though. It is now also emerging that star-clusters limit the masses of their constituent stars, such that a well-defined relation between the mass of the most massive star in a cluster and the cluster mass, m_{max}=F(M_ecl) \\le m_{max*}\\approx 150Msun, exists. One rather startling finding is that the observational data strongly favour clusters being built-up by consecutively forming more-massive stars until the most massive stars terminate further star-formation. The relation also implies that composite populations, which consist of many star clusters, most of which may be d...

  17. Upper Limits on a Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background Using LIGO and Virgo Interferometers at 600-1000 Hz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aston, S. M.; Blackburn, L.; Cannizzo, J.

    2012-01-01

    A stochastic background of gravitational waves is expected to arise from a superposition of many incoherent sources of gravitational waves, of either cosmological or astrophysical origin. This background is a target for the current generation of ground-based detectors. In this article we present the first joint search for a stochastic background using data from the LIGO and Virgo interferometers. In a frequency band of 600-1000 Hz, we obtained a 95% upper limit on the amplitude of omega(sub GW)(f) = omega(sub 3) (f/900Hz)3, of omega(sub 3) < 0.33, assuming a value of the Hubble parameter of h(sub 100) = 0.72. These new limits are a factor of seven better than the previous best in this frequency band.

  18. Upper limits to surface-force disturbances on LISA proof masses and the possibility of observing galactic binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Ludovico; Ciani, Giacomo; Dolesi, Rita; Hueller, Mauro; Tombolato, David; Vitale, Stefano; Weber, William Joseph; Cavalleri, Antonella

    2007-02-01

    We have measured surface-force noise on a hollow replica of a LISA proof mass surrounded by its capacitive motion sensor. Forces are detected through the torque exerted on the proof mass by means of a torsion pendulum in the 0.1 30 mHz range. The sensor and electronics have the same design as for the flight hardware, including 4 mm gaps around the proof mass. The measured upper limit for forces would allow detection of a number of galactic binaries signals with signal-to-noise ratio up to ≈40 for 1 yr integration. We also discuss how LISA Pathfinder will substantially improve this limit, approaching the LISA performance.

  19. Upper limit on the cosmic-ray photon fraction at EeV energies from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiró, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; H˙Ague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Luna García, R.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martínez, J.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Mueller, S.; Mueller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; PeĶala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Smetniansky de Grande, N.; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcaǧu, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2009-07-01

    From direct observations of the longitudinal development of ultra-high energy air showers performed with the Pierre Auger Observatory, upper limits of 3.8%, 2.4%, 3.5% and 11.7% (at 95% c.l.) are obtained on the fraction of cosmic-ray photons above 2, 3, 5 and 10 EeV (1EeV≡1018eV), respectively. These are the first experimental limits on ultra-high energy photons at energies below 10 EeV. The results complement previous constraints on top-down models from array data and they reduce systematic uncertainties in the interpretation of shower data in terms of primary flux, nuclear composition and proton-air cross-section.

  20. Upper limits on a stochastic gravitational-wave background using LIGO and Virgo interferometers at 600-1000 Hz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S.; Barayoga, J. C. B.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Beck, D.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Belletoile, A.; Belopolski, I.; Benacquista, M.; Berliner, J. M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogan, C.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet–Castell, J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chaibi, O.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, W.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M.; Coulon, J.-P.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, R. M.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Del Pozzo, W.; del Prete, M.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Paolo Emilio, M.; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Endrőczi, G.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Flanigan, M.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P. J.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Geng, R.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, N.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Greverie, C.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C..; Gupta, R.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Ha, T.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hendry, M. A.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Herrera, V.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, Y. J.; Jaranowski, P.; Jesse, E.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.

    2012-06-01

    A stochastic background of gravitational waves is expected to arise from a superposition of many incoherent sources of gravitational waves, of either cosmological or astrophysical origin. This background is a target for the current generation of ground-based detectors. In this article we present the first joint search for a stochastic background using data from the LIGO and Virgo interferometers. In a frequency band of 600-1000 Hz, we obtained a 95% upper limit on the amplitude of ΩGW(f)=Ω3(f/900Hz)3, of Ω3<0.32, assuming a value of the Hubble parameter of h100=0.71. These new limits are a factor of seven better than the previous best in this frequency band.

  1. Upper limits on a stochastic gravitational-wave background using LIGO and Virgo interferometers at 600-1000 Hz

    CERN Document Server

    Abadie, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adhikari, R; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Ceron, E Amador; Amariutei, D; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Baragoya, J C B; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Basti, A; Batch, J; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Beck, D; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Bell, A S; Belletoile, A; Belopolski, I; Benacquista, M; Berliner, J M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bogan, C; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet--Castell, J; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chaibi, O; Chalermsongsak, T; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chelkowski, S; Chen, W; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clark, D E; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colacino, C N; Colas, J; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, A; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M; Coulon, J -P; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, R M; Dahl, K; Danilishin, S L; Dannenberg, R; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Del Pozzo, W; del Prete, M; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Díaz, M; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dumas, J -C; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Endrőczi, G; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, K; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Farr, B F; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Flanigan, M; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Forte, L A; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fujimoto, M -K; Fulda, P J; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Garcia, J; Garufi, F; Gáspár, M E; Gemme, G; Geng, R; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L Á; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gil, S; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; González, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, N; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Greverie, C; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Gupta, R; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Ha, T; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Hayau, J -F; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hendry, M A; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Herrera, V; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Holtrop, M; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, Y J; Jaranowski, P; Jesse, E; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kasturi, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kelley, D; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Keresztes, Z; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, B; Kim, C; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, Y -M; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Kranz, O; Kringel, V; Krishnamurthy, S; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, R; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lastzka, N; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Leaci, P; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Leong, J R; Leonor, I; Leroy, N; Letendre, N

    2011-01-01

    A stochastic background of gravitational waves is expected to arise from a superposition of many incoherent sources of gravitational waves, of either cosmological or astrophysical origin. This background is a target for the current generation of ground-based detectors. In this article we present the first joint search for a stochastic background using data from the LIGO and Virgo interferometers. In a frequency band of 600-1000 Hz, we obtained a 95% upper limit on the amplitude of $\\Omega_{\\rm GW}(f) = \\Omega_3 (f/900 \\mathrm{Hz})^3$, of $\\Omega_3 < 0.33$, assuming a value of the Hubble parameter of $h_{100}=0.72$. These new limits are a factor of seven better than the previous best in this frequency band.

  2. A novel power efficient location-based cooperative routing with transmission power-upper-limit for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Juanfei; Calveras, Anna; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Kai

    2013-05-15

    The extensive usage of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has led to the development of many power- and energy-efficient routing protocols. Cooperative routing in WSNs can improve performance in these types of networks. In this paper we discuss the existing proposals and we propose a routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks called Power Efficient Location-based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-upper-limit (PELCR-TP). The algorithm is based on the principle of minimum link power and aims to take advantage of nodes cooperation to make the link work well in WSNs with a low transmission power. In the proposed scheme, with a determined transmission power upper limit, nodes find the most appropriate next nodes and single-relay nodes with the proposed algorithm. Moreover, this proposal subtly avoids non-working nodes, because we add a Bad nodes Avoidance Strategy (BAS). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with BAS can significantly improve the performance in reducing the overall link power, enhancing the transmission success rate and decreasing the retransmission rate.

  3. DETERMINATION OF AN UPPER LIMIT FOR THE WATER OUTGASSING RATE OF MAIN-BELT COMET P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, L.; Teyssier, D.; Kueppers, M. [European Space Astronomy Centre, ESAC, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Snodgrass, C.; De Val-Borro, M.; Hartogh, P. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Str. 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Biver, N.; Bockelee-Morvan, D. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, Universite Paris-Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Hsieh, H.; Micheli, M. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Fernandez, Y., E-mail: lorourke@esa.int [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A new Main-Belt Comet (MBC) P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS) was discovered on 2012 October 6, approximately one month after its perihelion, by the Pan-STARRS1 survey based in Hawaii. It displayed cometary activity upon its discovery with one hypothesis being that the activity was driven by sublimation of ices; as a result, we searched for emission assumed to be driven by the sublimation of subsurface ices. Our search was of the H{sub 2}O 1{sub 10}-1{sub 01} ground state rotational line at 557 GHz from P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS) with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared on board the Herschel Space Observatory on 2013 January 16, when the object was at a heliocentric distance of 2.504 AU and a geocentric distance of 2.064 AU. Perihelion was in early 2012 September at a distance of 2.411 AU. While no H{sub 2}O line emission was detected in our observations, we were able to derive sensitive 3{sigma} upper limits for the water production rate and column density of <7.63 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 25} molecules s{sup -1} and of <1.61 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}, respectively. An observation taken on 2013 January 15 using the Very Large Telescope found the MBC to be active during the Herschel observation, suggesting that any ongoing sublimation due to subsurface ice was lower than our upper limit.

  4. Upper limits to the number of Oort Cloud Objects based on serendipitous occultation events search in X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Shang, Jie-Rou

    2016-01-01

    Using all the RXTE archival data of Sco X-1 and GX 5-1, which amount to about 1.6 mega seconds in total, we searched for possible occultation events caused by Oort Cloud Objects. The detection efficiency of our searching approach was studied with simulation. Our search is sensitive to object size of about 300 m in the inner Oort Cloud, taking 4000 AU as a representative distance, and of 900 m in the outer Oort Cloud, taking 36000 AU as the representative distance. No occultation events were found in the 1.6 Ms data. We derived upper limits to the number of Oort Cloud Objects, which are about three orders of magnitude higher than the highest theoretical estimates in the literature for the inner Oort Cloud, and about six orders higher for the outer Oort Cloud. Although these upper limits are not constraining enough, they are the first obtained observationally, without making any model assumptions about comet injection. They also provide guidance to such serendipitous occultation event search in the future.

  5. Upper limits to the number of Oort Cloud objects based on serendipitous occultation events search in X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Liu, Chih-Yuan; Shang, Jie-Rou

    2016-10-01

    Using all the RXTE archival data of Sco X-1 and GX 5-1, which amount to about 1.6 Ms in total, we searched for possible occultation events caused by Oort Cloud objects. The detection efficiency of our searching approach was studied with simulation. Our search is sensitive to object size of about 300 m in the inner Oort Cloud, taking 4000 au as a representative distance, and of 900 m in the outer Oort Cloud, taking 36 000 au as the representative distance. No occultation events were found in the 1.6 Ms data. We derived upper limits to the number of Oort Cloud objects, which are about three orders of magnitude higher than the highest theoretical estimates in the literature for the inner Oort Cloud, and about six orders higher for the outer Oort Cloud. Although these upper limits are not constraining enough, they are the first obtained observationally, without making any model assumptions about comet injection. They also provide guidance to such serendipitous occultation event search in the future.

  6. Low Mach and Peclet number limit for a model of stellar tachocline and upper radiative zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Donatelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study a hydrodynamical model describing the motion of internal stellar layers based on compressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Poisson system. We suppose that the medium is electrically charged, we include energy exchanges through radiative transfer and we assume that the system is rotating. We analyze the singular limit of this system when the Mach number, the Alfven number, the Peclet number and the Froude number approache zero in a certain way and prove convergence to a 3D incompressible MHD system with a stationary linear transport equation for transport of radiation intensity. Finally, we show that the energy equation reduces to a steady equation for the temperature corrector.

  7. Determination of the upper and lower limits of the mechanistic stoichiometry of incompletely coupled fluxes. Stoichiometry of incompletely coupled reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, A D; Lehninger, A L

    1986-07-15

    A rationale is formulated for the design of experiments to determine the upper and lower limits of the mechanistic stoichiometry of any two incompletely coupled fluxes J1 and J2. Incomplete coupling results when there is a branch at some point in the sequence of reactions or processes coupling the two fluxes. The upper limit of the mechanistic stoichiometry is given by the minimum value of dJ2/dJ1 obtained when the fluxes are systematically varied by changes in steps after the branch point. The lower limit is given by the maximum value of dJ2/dJ1 obtained when the fluxes are varied by changes in steps prior to the branch point. The rationale for determining these limits is developed from both a simple kinetic model and from a linear nonequilibrium thermodynamic treatment of coupled fluxes, using the mechanistic approach [Westerhoff, H. V. & van Dam, K. (1979) Curr. Top. Bioenerg. 9, 1-62]. The phenomenological stoichiometry, the flux ratio at level flow and the affinity ratio at static head of incompletely coupled fluxes are defined in terms of mechanistic conductances and their relationship to the mechanistic stoichiometry is discussed. From the rationale developed, experimental approaches to determine the mechanistic stoichiometry of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are outlined. The principles employed do not require knowledge of the pathway or the rate of transmembrane leaks or slippage and may also be applied to analysis of the stoichiometry of other incompletely coupled systems, including vectorial H+/O and K+/O translocation coupled to mitochondrial electron transport.

  8. Improved Upper Limits on the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from 2009-2010 LIGO and Virgo Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Austin, L.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Bergmann, G.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bloemen, S.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brückner, F.; Buchman, S.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burman, R.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Bustillo, J. Calderón; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castiglia, A.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C.; Colombini, M.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corpuz, A.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Canton, T. Dal; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Donath, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dossa, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Endrőczi, G.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S.; Garufi, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hooper, S.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, H.; Jaranowski, P.

    2014-12-01

    Gravitational waves from a variety of sources are predicted to superpose to create a stochastic background. This background is expected to contain unique information from throughout the history of the Universe that is unavailable through standard electromagnetic observations, making its study of fundamental importance to understanding the evolution of the Universe. We carry out a search for the stochastic background with the latest data from the LIGO and Virgo detectors. Consistent with predictions from most stochastic gravitational-wave background models, the data display no evidence of a stochastic gravitational-wave signal. Assuming a gravitational-wave spectrum of ΩGW(f )=Ωα(f/fref ) α , we place 95% confidence level upper limits on the energy density of the background in each of four frequency bands spanning 41.5-1726 Hz. In the frequency band of 41.5-169.25 Hz for a spectral index of α =0 , we constrain the energy density of the stochastic background to be ΩGW(f )<5.6 ×1 0-6 . For the 600-1000 Hz band, ΩGW(f )<0.14 (f /900 Hz )3 , a factor of 2.5 lower than the best previously reported upper limits. We find ΩGW(f )<1.8 ×1 0-4 using a spectral index of zero for 170-600 Hz and ΩGW(f )<1.0 (f /1300 Hz )3 for 1000-1726 Hz, bands in which no previous direct limits have been placed. The limits in these four bands are the lowest direct measurements to date on the stochastic background. We discuss the implications of these results in light of the recent claim by the BICEP2 experiment of the possible evidence for inflationary gravitational waves.

  9. An upper limit on the stochastic gravitational-wave background of cosmological origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Acernese, F.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Alshourbagy, M.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antonucci, F.; Aoudia, S.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Armor, P.; Arun, K. G.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Bauer, Th. S.; Behnke, B.; Beker, M.; Benacquista, M.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bigotta, S.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birindelli, S.; Biswas, R.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Boccara, C.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogue, L.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Van Den Brand, J. F. J.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; van den Broeck, C.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brummit, A.; Brunet, G.; Bullington, A.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Buskulic, D.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campagna, E.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Carbognani, F.; Cardenas, L.; Caride, S.; Castaldi, G.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Christensen, N.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Clark, D.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R. C.; Corda, C.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Culter, R. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dari, A.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Davier, M.; Davies, G.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; de Rosa, R.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Del Prete, M.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; di Fiore, L.; di Lieto, A.; di Paolo Emilio, M.; di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doomes, E. E.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dueck, J.; Duke, I.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, J. G.; Echols, C.; Edgar, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Ely, G.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Faltas, Y.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Flasch, K.; Foley, S.; Forrest, C.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Franzen, A.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garofoli, J. A.; Gennai, A.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Granata, M.; Granata, V.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Greverie, C.; Grimaldi, F.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Guidi, G.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G. D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Heefner, J.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D. R.; Isogai, T.; Ito, M.; Ivanov, A.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Sancho de La Jordana, L.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kanner, J.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, R.; Khazanov, E.; King, P.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R.; Koranda, S.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kumar, R.; Kwee, P.; La Penna, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Laval, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lei, H.; Lei, M.; Leindecker, N.; Leonor, I.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, C.; Lin, H.; Lindquist, P. E.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lodhia, D.; Longo, M.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lu, P.; Lubiński, M.; Lucianetti, A.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mackowski, J.-M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Majorana, E.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.

    2009-08-01

    A stochastic background of gravitational waves is expected to arise from a superposition of a large number of unresolved gravitational-wave sources of astrophysical and cosmological origin. It should carry unique signatures from the earliest epochs in the evolution of the Universe, inaccessible to standard astrophysical observations. Direct measurements of the amplitude of this background are therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the evolution of the Universe when it was younger than one minute. Here we report limits on the amplitude of the stochastic gravitational-wave background using the data from a two-year science run of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). Our result constrains the energy density of the stochastic gravitational-wave background normalized by the critical energy density of the Universe, in the frequency band around 100Hz, to be <6.9×10-6 at 95% confidence. The data rule out models of early Universe evolution with relatively large equation-of-state parameter, as well as cosmic (super)string models with relatively small string tension that are favoured in some string theory models. This search for the stochastic background improves on the indirect limits from Big Bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background at 100Hz.

  10. Upper limit of applicability of the local similarity theory in the stable atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, A. A.; Andreas, E. L.; Fairall, C. W.; Guest, P. S.; Persson, P. O. G.

    2012-04-01

    The applicability of the classical Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (1954) has been limited by constant flux assumption, which is valid in a narrow range z/L Arctic pack ice during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean experiment (SHEBA) are used to clarify this issue. Based on spectral analysis of wind velocity and temperature fluctuations, it is shown that when both gradient Richardson number, Ri, and flux Richardson number, Rf, exceed a "critical value" about 0.2-0.25, inertial subrange associated with a Kolmogorov cascade dies out and vertical turbulent fluxes become small. Some small-scale turbulence survives even in the supercritical regime but this is non-Kolmogorov turbulence and it decays rapidly with further increasing stability. The similarity theory is based on the turbulent fluxes in the high frequency part of the spectra associated with energy-containing/flux-carrying eddies. Spectral densities in this high-frequency band collapse along with the Kolmogorov energy cascade. Therefore, applicability of the local Monin-Obukhov similarity theory in the SBL is limited by inequalities Ri < Ri_cr and Rf < Rf_cr (however, Rf_cr = 0.2-0.25 is a primary threshold). Application of this prerequisite shows that both the flux-profile and flux-variances relationships follow to the classical Monin-Obukhov local z-less predictions after the irrelevant cases have been filtered out.

  11. Upper limits on the diffuse supernova neutrino flux from the SuperKamiokande data

    CERN Document Server

    Lunardini, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the 1496 days of SuperKamiokande data to put limits on the nue, anti-nue, numu + nutau and anti-numu + anti-nutau components of the diffuse flux of supernova neutrinos, in different energy intervals and for different neutrino energy spectra. By considering the presence of only one component at a time, we find the following bounds at 90% C.L. and for neutrino energy E>19.3$ MeV: Phi_{nue}<73.3-154 cm^-2 s^-1, Phi_{anti-nue} <1.4-1.9 cm^-2 s^-1, Phi_{numu+nutau} <(1.0-1.4) 10^3 cm^-2 s^-1, and Phi_{anti-numu+ anti-nutau} <(1.3-1.8) 10^3 cm^-2 s^-1, where the intervals account for varying the neutrino spectrum. In the interval E = 22.9 - 36.9 MeV, we find Phi_{nue}<39-54 cm^-2 s^-1, which improves on the existing limit from SNO in the same energy window. Our results for numu + nutau and anti-numu + anti-nutau improve by about four orders of magnitude over the previous best constraints from LSD.

  12. An upper limit on the stochastic gravitational-wave background of cosmological origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Acernese, F; Adhikari, R; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, G; Alshourbagy, M; Amin, R S; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Antonucci, F; Aoudia, S; Arain, M A; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Armor, P; Arun, K G; Aso, Y; Aston, S; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Beker, M; Benacquista, M; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bigotta, S; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birindelli, S; Biswas, R; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Boccara, C; Bodiya, T P; Bogue, L; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brand, J F J van den; Brau, J E; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Van Den Broeck, C; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brummit, A; Brunet, G; Bullington, A; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burmeister, O; Buskulic, D; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campagna, E; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Carbognani, F; Cardenas, L; Caride, S; Castaldi, G; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chalermsongsak, T; Chalkley, E; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Christensen, N; Chung, C T Y; Clark, D; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C N; Colas, J; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R C; Corda, C; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Coulon, J-P; Coward, D; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Culter, R M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dari, A; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Davier, M; Davies, G; Daw, E J; Day, R; De Rosa, R; Debra, D; Degallaix, J; Del Prete, M; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; Desalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Paolo Emilio, M; Di Virgilio, A; Díaz, M; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doomes, E E; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Dueck, J; Duke, I; Dumas, J-C; Dwyer, J G; Echols, C; Edgar, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Ely, G; Espinoza, E; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Faltas, Y; Fan, Y; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Flaminio, R; Flasch, K; Foley, S; Forrest, C; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J-D; Franc, J; Franzen, A; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Galdi, V; Gammaitoni, L; Garofoli, J A; Garufi, F; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gholami, I; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Goda, K; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; González, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Gobler, S; Gouaty, R; Granata, M; Granata, V; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, M; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Greverie, C; Grimaldi, F; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guenther, M; Guidi, G; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hage, B; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G D; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Heefner, J; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hirose, E; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Hoyland, D; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Huttner, S H; Ingram, D R; Isogai, T; Ito, M; Ivanov, A; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Sancho de la Jordana, L; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kanner, J; Kasprzyk, D; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khan, R; Khazanov, E; King, P; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R; Koranda, S; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Kumar, R; Kwee, P; La Penna, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Laval, M; Lazzarini, A; Lei, H; Lei, M; Leindecker, N; Leonor, I; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Li, C; Lin, H; Lindquist, P E; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Longo, M; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lu, P; Lubinski, M; Lucianetti, A; Lück, H; Machenschalk, B; Macinnis, M; Mackowski, J-M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Markowitz, J; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McHugh, M; McIntyre, G; McKechan, D J A; McKenzie, K; Mehmet, M; Melatos, A; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Menéndez, D F; Menzinger, F; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyer, M S; Michel, C; Milano, L; Miller, J; Minelli, J; Minenkov, Y; Mino, Y; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Moe, B; Mohan, M; Mohanty, S D; Mohapatra, S R P

    2009-08-20

    A stochastic background of gravitational waves is expected to arise from a superposition of a large number of unresolved gravitational-wave sources of astrophysical and cosmological origin. It should carry unique signatures from the earliest epochs in the evolution of the Universe, inaccessible to standard astrophysical observations. Direct measurements of the amplitude of this background are therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the evolution of the Universe when it was younger than one minute. Here we report limits on the amplitude of the stochastic gravitational-wave background using the data from a two-year science run of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). Our result constrains the energy density of the stochastic gravitational-wave background normalized by the critical energy density of the Universe, in the frequency band around 100 Hz, to be <6.9 x 10(-6) at 95% confidence. The data rule out models of early Universe evolution with relatively large equation-of-state parameter, as well as cosmic (super)string models with relatively small string tension that are favoured in some string theory models. This search for the stochastic background improves on the indirect limits from Big Bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background at 100 Hz.

  13. What water properties are responsible for the physiological temperature interval limits of warm-blooded organisms?

    CERN Document Server

    Bulavin, Leonid A; Malomuzh, Nikolay P

    2013-01-01

    The weighty evidences of specific transformations of the thermal motion in pure water in the physiological temperature interval (PTI) from (30 +(-) 3)o C to (42 +(-) 3)o C for warm-blooded organisms are presented. It is shown that near the right end of the PTI (42 +(-) 3)o C the crystal-like thermal motion in water transforms to argon-like one (i.e. the dynamic phase transition (DPT) occurs). It is show that the similar transformation takes also place in water-Mioglobin solutions. It is proposed that the DPT takes also place in the intracellular water, where it stimulates the denaturation of proteins. The restriction of the PTI on the left of (30 +(-) 3)o C is naturally explained by the clusterization of water molecules, which strongly increases when temperature drops. The middle, ((36 +(-) 1)o C), of the PTI for warm-blooded organisms is disposed at the minimum of the heat capacity at constant pressure, that forwards to the stability of heat-exchange for bio-cells.

  14. Upper Energy Limit of Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory in Neutral Pion Photoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Ramirez, C

    2013-01-01

    We assess the energy limit up to which Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory can be accurately applied to the process of neutral pion photoproduction from the proton by analyzing the latest data from the A2 and CB-TAPS collaborations at Mainz. We find that, within the current experimental status, the theory works up to $\\sim$170 MeV. Above this energy the data call for further improvement in the theory such as the explicit inclusion of the $\\Delta$(1232). We also find that data and multipoles can be well described up to $\\sim$185 MeV with Taylor expansions in the partial waves up to first order in pion energy.

  15. Setting an observational upper limit to the number density of interstellar objects with Pan-STARRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, T.; Vereš, P.; Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L.; Beshore, E.

    2014-07-01

    Since the theory of a spherical reservoir of comets far beyond the planetary orbits (Oort, 1950) and subsequent work on origin and evolution of planets and small bodies (Charnoz and Morbidelli, 2003) it has been suggested that countless comets have left the Solar System shortly after its formation. Hence, it is likely that the other planetary systems ejected comets into interstellar space as well. However, the interstellar object (ISO) on a hyperbolic orbit with respect to the Sun has not been observed yet. In our work we derive the number density of ISO based on observational data from the Catalina Sky Survey (2005-2012) and Pan-STARRS1 survey (2010-2013). In the simulation we created 10,000,000 synthetic ISO based on velocity distribution by Grav et al. (2011) and used synthetics in the simulated survey study by using MOPS (Denneau et al., 2013). The number density of ISO was elaborated through the Poisson statistics of a non-detection with the 90 % confidence limit (C.L.) and detection efficiency of observed fields with known limiting magnitudes and survey characteristics. The number density was derived as a function of the absolute magnitude H and size-frequency distribution slope α by taking the cometary activity of long-period comets into account. We found that at 90 % C.L. the density of inert ISO population is 5.4×10^{-2} au^{-3} and 1.6×10^{-3} au^{-3} for the active population for objects larger than H>19 and with α=0.5.

  16. Effect of controlled oxygen limitation on Candida shehatae physiology for ethanol production from xylose and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromanger, Romain; Guillouet, S E; Uribelarrea, J L; Molina-Jouve, C; Cameleyre, X

    2010-05-01

    Carbon distribution and kinetics of Candida shehatae were studied in fed-batch fermentation with xylose or glucose (separately) as the carbon source in mineral medium. The fermentations were carried out in two phases, an aerobic phase dedicated to growth followed by an oxygen limitation phase dedicated to ethanol production. Oxygen limitation was quantified with an average specific oxygen uptake rate (OUR) varying between 0.30 and 2.48 mmolO(2) g dry cell weight (DCW)(-1) h(-1), the maximum value before the aerobic shift. The relations among respiration, growth, ethanol production and polyol production were investigated. It appeared that ethanol was produced to provide energy, and polyols (arabitol, ribitol, glycerol and xylitol) were produced to reoxidize NADH from assimilatory reactions and from the co-factor imbalance of the two-first enzymatic steps of xylose uptake. Hence, to manage carbon flux to ethanol production, oxygen limitation was a major controlled parameter; an oxygen limitation corresponding to an average specific OUR of 1.19 mmolO(2) g DCW(-1) h(-1) allowed maximization of the ethanol yield over xylose (0.327 g g(-1)), the average productivity (2.2 g l(-1) h(-1)) and the ethanol final titer (48.81 g l(-1)). For glucose fermentation, the ethanol yield over glucose was the highest (0.411 g g(-1)) when the specific OUR was low, corresponding to an average specific OUR of 0.30 mmolO(2) g DCW(-1) h(-1), whereas the average ethanol productivity and ethanol final titer reached the maximum values of 1.81 g l(-1) h(-1) and 54.19 g l(-1) when the specific OUR was the highest.

  17. Dynamic root growth and architecture responses to limiting nutrient availability: linking physiological models and experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Johannes A; Schurr, Ulrich; Fiorani, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the study of root phenotypic plasticity in response to sub-optimal environmental factors and the genetic control of these responses have received renewed attention. As a path to increased productivity, in particular for low fertility soils, several applied research projects worldwide target the improvement of crop root traits both in plant breeding and biotechnology contexts. To assist these tasks and address the challenge of optimizing root growth and architecture for enhanced mineral resource use, the development of realistic simulation models is of great importance. We review this research field from a modeling perspective focusing particularly on nutrient acquisition strategies for crop production on low nitrogen and low phosphorous soils. Soil heterogeneity and the dynamics of nutrient availability in the soil pose a challenging environment in which plants have to forage efficiently for nutrients in order to maintain their internal nutrient homeostasis throughout their life cycle. Mathematical models assist in understanding plant growth strategies and associated root phenes that have potential to be tested and introduced in physiological breeding programs. At the same time, we stress that it is necessary to carefully consider model assumptions and development from a whole plant-resource allocation perspective and to introduce or refine modules simulating explicitly root growth and architecture dynamics through ontogeny with reference to key factors that constrain root growth. In this view it is important to understand negative feedbacks such as plant-plant competition. We conclude by briefly touching on available and developing technologies for quantitative root phenotyping from lab to field, from quantification of partial root profiles in the field to 3D reconstruction of whole root systems. Finally, we discuss how these approaches can and should be tightly linked to modeling to explore the root phenome.

  18. Recommendations for fluoride limits in drinking water based on estimated daily fluoride intake in the Upper East Region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Laura; Lutz, Alexandra; Berry, Kate A; Yang, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Both dental and skeletal fluorosis caused by high fluoride intake are serious public health concerns around the world. Fluorosis is particularly pronounced in developing countries where elevated concentrations of naturally occurring fluoride are present in the drinking water, which is the primary route of exposure. The World Health Organization recommended limit of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5 mg F(-) L(-1), which is also the upper limit for fluoride in drinking water for several other countries such as Canada, China, India, Australia, and the European Union. In the United States the enforceable limit is much higher at 4 mg F(-) L(-1), which is intended to prevent severe skeletal fluorosis but does not protect against dental fluorosis. Many countries, including the United States, also have notably lower unenforced recommended limits to protect against dental fluorosis. One consideration in determining the optimum fluoride concentration in drinking water is daily water intake, which can be high in hot climates such as in northern Ghana. The results of this study show that average water intake is about two times higher in Ghana than in more temperate climates and, as a result, the fluoride intake is higher. The results also indicate that to protect the Ghanaian population against dental fluorosis, the maximum concentration of fluoride in drinking water for children under 6-8 years should be 0.6 mg F(-) L(-1) (and lower in the first two years of life), and the limit for older children and adults should be 1.0 mg F(-) L(-1). However, when considering that water treatment is not cost-free, the most widely recommended limit of 1.5 mg F(-) L(-1) - which is currently the limit in Ghana--may be appropriate for older children and adults since they are not vulnerable to dental fluorosis once the tooth enamel is formed.

  19. Additional Explanations to "Upper Limit in Mendeleev’s Periodic Table - Element No.155". A Story How the Problem was Resolved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a survey for the methods how a possible upper limit in Mendeleev's Periodic Table can be found. It is show, only the method of hyperbolas leads to exact answering this question.

  20. An upper limit on the contribution of accreting white dwarfs to the type Ia supernova rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfanov, Marat; Bogdán, Akos

    2010-02-18

    There is wide agreement that type Ia supernovae (used as standard candles for cosmology) are associated with the thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars. The nuclear runaway that leads to the explosion could start in a white dwarf gradually accumulating matter from a companion star until it reaches the Chandrasekhar limit, or could be triggered by the merger of two white dwarfs in a compact binary system. The X-ray signatures of these two possible paths are very different. Whereas no strong electromagnetic emission is expected in the merger scenario until shortly before the supernova, the white dwarf accreting material from the normal star becomes a source of copious X-rays for about 10(7) years before the explosion. This offers a means of determining which path dominates. Here we report that the observed X-ray flux from six nearby elliptical galaxies and galaxy bulges is a factor of approximately 30-50 less than predicted in the accretion scenario, based upon an estimate of the supernova rate from their K-band luminosities. We conclude that no more than about five per cent of type Ia supernovae in early-type galaxies can be produced by white dwarfs in accreting binary systems, unless their progenitors are much younger than the bulk of the stellar population in these galaxies, or explosions of sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs make a significant contribution to the supernova rate.

  1. [Forequarter amputation of the right upper chest: limitations of ultra radical interdisciplinary oncological surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragu, A; Hohenberger, W; Lang, W; Schmidt, J; Horch, R E

    2011-09-01

    Total forearm free flap procedures after forequarter amputations have been sparsely described in the literature. Using the amputated arm as a "free filet flap" remains a viable surgical option after radical forequarter amputations performed for the resection of large, invasive tumors of the shoulder or thoracic wall region. Using the forequarter specimen as a donor site seems favorable in that it eliminates the usual donor site morbidity. Nevertheless, in our patient with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and a fibrosarcoma suffering from severe pain and septic conditions - which failed to respond properly to conservative therapy - as well as rapidly progressive tumor ulceration despite repeated radiation therapy, we decided to attempt complete tumor removal by hemithoracectomy as a last resort. This decision was taken following multiple interdisciplinary consultations and thorough patient information. Although technically feasible with complete tumor removal and safe soft tissue free flap coverage, the postoperative course raises questions about the advisability of such ultra radical surgical procedures, as well as about the limitations of respiratory recovery after hemithoracectomy with removal of the sternum. Hence, based on our experience with such radical tumor surgery, we discuss the issues of diminished postoperative pulmonary function, intensive care possibilities and ethical issues. The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under "Supplemental").

  2. Voice-Activated Lightweight Reacher to Assist with Upper Extremity Movement Limitations: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Umer; Conti, Gerry E; Erlandson, Robert F; Ellis, Richard D; Brown, Vince; Pandya, Abhilash K

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this research was to design a functional and user-friendly reacher for people with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Engineering advancements have taken assistive robotics to new dimensions. Technologies such as wheelchair robotics and myo-electronically controlled systems have opened up a wide range of new applications to assist people with physical disabilities. Similarly, exo-skeletal limbs and body suits have provided new foundations from which technologies can aid function. Unfortunately, these devices have issues of usability, weight, and discomfort with donning. The Smart Assistive Reacher Arm (SARA) system, developed in this research, is a voice-activated, lightweight, mobile device that can be used when needed. SARA was built to help overcome daily reach challenges faced by individuals with limited arm and hand movement capability, such as people with cervical level 5-6 (C5-6) SCI. This article shows that a functional reacher arm with voice control can be beneficial for this population. Comparison study with healthy participants and an SCI participant shows that, when using SARA, a person with SCI can perform simple reach and grasp tasks independently, without someone else's help. This suggests that the interface is intuitive and can be easily used to a high level of proficiency by a SCI individual.

  3. Systematic Review of Measures of Impairment and Activity Limitation for Persons With Upper Limb Trauma and Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Linda; Borgia, Matt; Silver, Ben; Cancio, Jill

    2017-09-01

    (1) To identify outcome measures used in studies of persons with traumatic upper limb injury and/or amputation; and (2) to evaluate focus, content, and psychometric properties of each measure. Searches of PubMed and CINAHL for terms including upper extremity, function, activities of daily living, outcome assessment, amputation, and traumatic injuries. Included articles had a sample of ≥10 adults with limb trauma or amputation and were in English. Measures containing most items assessing impairment of body function or activity limitation were eligible. There were 260 articles containing 55 measures that were included. Data on internal consistency; test-retest, interrater, and intrarater reliability; content, structural, construct, concurrent, and predictive validity; responsiveness; and floor/ceiling effects were extracted and confirmed by a second investigator. The mostly highly rated performance measures included 2 amputation-specific measures (Activities Measure for Upper Limb Amputees and University of New Brunswick Test of Prosthetic Function skill and spontaneity subscales) and 2 non-amputation-specific measures (Box and Block Test and modified Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test light and heavy cans tests). Most highly rated self-report measures were Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand; Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation; QuickDASH; Hand Assessment Tool; International Osteoporosis Foundation Quality of Life Questionnaire; and Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation functional recovery subscale. None were amputation specific. Few performance measures were recommended for patients with limb trauma and amputation. All top-rated self-report measures were suitable for use in both groups. These results will inform choice of outcome measures for these patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Indoor Air Quality Assessment Based on Human Physiology - Part 2. Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate indoor air quality in practice it is necessary to establish limits, or more exactly, tolerable ranges for unadapted and adapted persons. The optimal value overwhelmingly corresponds to PD 20 %. A better value of PD 10 % could be prescribed for asthmatics and for persons with increased requirements, i.e. those allergic to the environment and operators in airport control towers and atomic power stations. A worse value PD 30 % could be accepted as an admissible value. These values differ for unadapted and adapted persons (as introduced by BSR/ASHRAE 62-1989 R. The long-term tolerable value is the end of SBS range (for CO2 it is based on USSR space research, for TVOC on Molhave. The short-term tolerable value is the beginning of the toxic range (for CO2 it is taken from British Guidance Note EH 40/90; for TVOC from Molhave.

  5. THE EFFECT OF THE UPPER LIMB TENSION TEST IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ROM LIMITATION AND PAIN IN CERVICAL RADICULOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Sarfraznawaz F

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: To study the effect of the upper limb tension test in the management of limitation of range of motion and pain in patients with cervical radiculopathy compared with a control group. Intervention and Outcomes: A total of 40 patients were treated with two types of interventions. The Control group received a conservative management protocol and the Experimental group received an experimental protocol that included mobilization using the Upper Limb Tension Test in addition to the conservative protocol .The outcomes measures were flexion, extension, right side flexion and left side flexion ranges of the cervical spine and VAS score for Pain. Results: All data collected was statistically analysed on the Stat Pac 3.0. Pre and Post test values were taken for both cervical range of motion and pain for both the Control and Experimental groups. Paired ‘t’ test was used for within the group comparison. Unpaired ‘t’ test was used for between the group comparison which showed a highly significant difference in favor of the experimental group at 99.9%(P<0.001 between the ROM of Flexion, Extension, right Side Flexion and left Side Flexion of the cervical spine. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that adding neural mobilization using ULLT certainly benefits patients of cervical radiculopathy as far as the cervical range of motion and pain is considered.

  6. An Upper Limit on the Ratio Between the Extreme Ultraviolet and the Bolometric Luminosities of Stars Hosting Habitable Planets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sujan Sengupta

    2016-06-01

    A large number of terrestrial planets in the classical habitable zone of stars of different spectral types have already been discovered and many are expected to be discovered in the near future. However, owing to the lack of knowledge on the atmospheric properties, the ambient environment of such planets are unknown. It is known that sufficient amount of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from the star can drive hydrodynamic outflow of hydrogen that may drag heavier species from the atmosphere of the planet. If the rate of mass loss is sufficiently high, then substantial amount of volatiles would escape causing the planet to become uninhabitable. Considering energy-limited hydrodynamical mass loss with an escape rate that causes oxygen to escape alongwith hydrogen, an upper limit for the ratio between the EUV and the bolometric luminosities of stars which constrains the habitability of planets around them is presented here. Application of the limit to planet-hosting stars with known EUV luminosities implies that many M-type of stars should not have habitable planets around them.

  7. Physiological Responses of Zostera marina and Cymodocea nodosa to Light-Limitation Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, João; Barrote, Isabel; Costa, Monya M.; Albano, Sílvia; Santos, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effects of light-limitation stress were investigated in natural stands of the seagrasses Zostera marina and Cymodocea nodosa in Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, southern Portugal. Three levels of light attenuation were imposed for 3 weeks in two adjacent meadows (2–3 m depth), each dominated by one species. The response of photosynthesis to light was determined with oxygen electrodes. Chlorophylls and carotenoids were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Soluble protein, carbohydrates, malondialdehyde and phenol contents were also analysed. Both species showed evident signs of photoacclimation. Their maximum photosynthetic rates were significantly reduced with shading. Ratios between specific light harvesting carotenoids and the epoxidation state of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids revealed significantly higher light harvesting efficiency of C. nodosa, a competitive advantage in a low light environment. The contents of both soluble sugars and starch were considerably lower in Z. marina plants, particularly in the rhizomes, decreasing even further with shading. The different carbohydrate energy storage strategies found between the two species clearly favour C. nodosa's resilience to light deprivation, a condition enhanced by its intrinsic arrangement of the pigment pool. On the other hand, Z. marina revealed a lower tolerance to light reduction, mostly due to a less plastic arrangement of the pigment pool and lower carbohydrate storage. Our findings indicate that Z. marina is close to a light-mediated ecophysiological threshold in Ria Formosa. PMID:24312260

  8. Upper Extremity Injured Workers Stratified by Current Work Status: An Examination of Health Characteristics, Work Limitations and Work Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Grant

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper extremity injured workers are an under-studied population. A descriptive comparison of workers with shoulder, elbow and hand injuries reporting to a Canadian Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB clinic was undertaken.Objective: To determine if differences existed between injury groups stratified by current work status.Methods: All WSIB claimants reporting to our upper extremity clinic between 2003 and 2008 were approached to participate in this descriptive study. 314 working and 146 non-working WSIB claimants completed the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH; Short Form health survey (SF36; Worker’s Limitations Questionnaire and the Work Instability Scale. Various parametric and non-parametric analyses were used to assess significant differences between groups on demographic, work and health related variables.Results: Hand, followed by the shoulder and elbow were the most common site of injury. Most non-workers listed their current injury as the reason for being off work, and attempted to return to work once since their injury occurrence. Non-workers and a subset of workers at high risk for work loss showed significantly worse mental functioning. Workers identified physical demands as the most frequent injury-related on the job limitation. 60% of current workers were listed as low risk for work loss on the Work Instability Scale.Conclusions: Poorer mental functioning, being female and sustaining a shoulder injury were risk factors for work instability. Our cohort of injured non-workers were unable to return to work due to their current injury, reinforcing the need to advocate for modified duties, shorter hours and a work environment where stress and injury recurrence is reduced. Future studies examining pre-injury depression as a risk factor for prolonged work absences are warranted.

  9. Water relations and microclimate around the upper limit of a cloud forest in Maui, Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsch, Sybil G; Crausbay, Shelley D; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Weintraub, Alexis E; Longman, Ryan J; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Hotchkiss, Sara C; Dawson, Todd E

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effects of atmospheric demand on both plant water relations and daily whole-tree water balance across the upper limit of a cloud forest at the mean base height of the trade wind inversion in the tropical trade wind belt. We measured the microclimate and water relations (sap flow, water potential, stomatal conductance, pressure-volume relations) of Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich. var. polymorpha in three habitats bracketing the cloud forest's upper limit in Hawai'i to understand the role of water relations in determining ecotone position. The subalpine shrubland site, located 100 m above the cloud forest boundary, had the highest vapor pressure deficit, the least amount of rainfall and the highest levels of nighttime transpiration (EN) of all three sites. In the shrubland site, on average, 29% of daily whole-tree transpiration occurred at night, while on the driest day of the study 50% of total daily transpiration occurred at night. While EN occurred in the cloud forest habitat, the proportion of total daily transpiration that occurred at night was much lower (4%). The average leaf water potential (Ψleaf) was above the water potential at the turgor loss point (ΨTLP) on both sides of the ecotone due to strong stomatal regulation. While stomatal closure maintained a high Ψleaf, the minimum leaf water potential (Ψleafmin) was close to ΨTLP, indicating that drier conditions may cause drought stress in these habitats and may be an important driver of current landscape patterns in stand density.

  10. Decreasing urea∶trimethylamine N-oxide ratios with depth in chondrichthyes: a physiological depth limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxson, Carrie J; Condon, Nicole E; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Yancey, Paul H

    2011-01-01

    In marine osmoconformers, cells use organic osmolytes to maintain osmotic balance with seawater. High levels of urea are utilized in chondrichthyans (sharks, rays, skates, and chimaeras) for this purpose. Because of urea's perturbing nature, cells also accumulate counteracting methylamines, such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), at about a 2∶1 urea∶methylamine ratio, the most thermodynamically favorable mixture for protein stabilization, in shallow species. However, previous work on deep-sea teleosts (15 species) and chondrichthyans (three species) found an increase in muscle TMAO content and a decrease in urea content in chondrichthyans with depth. We hypothesized that TMAO counteracts protein destabilization resulting from hydrostatic pressure, as is demonstrated in vitro. Chondrichthyans are almost absent below 3,000 m, and we hypothesized that a limitation in urea excretion and/or TMAO retention might play a role. To test this, we measured the content of major organic osmolytes in white muscle of 13 chondrichthyan species caught with along-contour trawls at depths of 50-3,000 m; the deepest species caught was from 2,165 m. Urea and TMAO contents changed significantly with depth, with urea∶TMAO declining from 2.96 in the shallowest (50-90 m) groups to 0.67 in the deepest (1,911-2,165 m) groups. Urea content was 291-371 mmol/kg in the shallowest group and 170-189 mmol/kg in the deepest group, declining linearly with depth and showing no plateau. TMAO content was 85-168 mmol/kg in the shallowest group and 250-289 mmol/kg in the deepest groups. With data from a previous study for a skate at 2,850 m included, a second-order polynomial fit suggested a plateau at the greatest depths. When data for skates (Rajidae) were analyzed separately, a sigmoidal fit was suggested. Thus, the deepest chondrichthyans may be unable to accumulate sufficient TMAO to counteract pressure; however, deeper-living specimens are needed to fully test this hypothesis.

  11. Limited efficacy of topical recombinant feline interferon-omega for treatment of cats with acute upper respiratory viral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, Anne C; Schulz, Bianka; Helps, Christopher; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Mueller, Ralf S; Hartmann, Katrin

    2014-12-01

    Despite a lack of controlled studies confirming its efficacy, recombinant feline interferon-omega (rfeIFN-ω) is used in the treatment of feline upper respiratory tract disease (FURTD), which is usually caused by feline calicivirus (FCV) or feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1). The aims of the present study were to investigate whether administration of rfeIFN-ω improves clinical signs in cats with acute FURTD and whether this treatment reduces shedding of FCV. Thirty-seven cats affected with acute FURTD were recruited into a prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. The presence of FCV and/or FHV-1 was determined by performing quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on oropharyngeal and conjunctival swabs. Cats were randomly assigned to treatment groups, receiving either placebo or rfeIFN-ω (2.5 MU/kg) subcutaneously, followed by 0.5 MU topically at 8-h intervals via the conjunctiva, intranasally, and orally for 21 days. All cats received additional treatment with antibiotics, expectorants, and inhalation of nebulised physiological saline with camomile. Clinical signs and FCV shedding were evaluated over 42 days. All cats demonstrated improvement in clinical signs during the course of the study, with no significant difference in any of the assessed variables when comparing the two groups. FCV copy numbers decreased more rapidly in cats receiving rfeIFN-ω. Treatment with rfeIFN-ω was not effective in ameliorating clinical signs of acute viral FURTD compared to placebo, but might accelerate a reduction in FCV load in infected cats.

  12. Upper limits on the VHE $\\gamma$-ray flux from the ULIRG Arp 220 and other galaxies with VERITAS

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischhack, Henrike

    2015-01-01

    The cores of ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) are very dense environments, with a high rate of star formation and supernova explosions. They are thought to be sites of cosmic-ray acceleration, and are predicted to emit $\\gamma$-rays in the GeV to TeV range. So far, no ULIRG has been detected in $\\gamma$-rays. Arp 220, the closest ULIRG to Earth, has been well studied, and detailed models of $\\gamma$-ray production in this galaxy are available. They predict a rather hard $\\gamma$-ray spectrum up to several TeV. Due to its large rate of star formation, high gas density, and its close proximity to Earth, Arp 220 is thought to be a very good candidate for observations in very-high-energy (VHE; 100 GeV - 100 TeV) $\\gamma$-rays. Arp 220 was observed by the VERITAS telescopes for more than 30 hours with no significant excess over the cosmic-ray background. The upper limits on the VHE $\\gamma$-ray flux of Arp 220 derived from these observations are the most sensitive limits presented so far and are starting ...

  13. A low upper mass limit for the central black hole in the late-type galaxy NGC 4414

    CERN Document Server

    Thater, Sabine; Bourne, Martin A; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Magorrian, John; McDermid, Richard M; Sarzi, Marc; van de Ven, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    We present our mass estimate of the central black hole in the isolated spiral galaxy NGC 4414. Using natural guide star adaptive optics assisted observations with the Gemini Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS) and the natural seeing Gemini Multi-Object Spectrographs-North (GMOS), we derived two-dimensional stellar kinematic maps of NGC 4414 covering the central 1.5 arcsec and 10 arcsec, respectively, at a NIFS spatial resolution of 0.13 arcsec. The kinematic maps reveal a regular rotation pattern and a central velocity dispersion dip down to around 105 km/s. We constructed dynamical methods using two different methods: Jeans anisotropic dynamical modeling and axisymmetric Schwarzschild modeling. Both modeling methods give consistent results, but we cannot constrain the lower mass limit and only measure an upper limit for the black hole mass of Mbh= 1.56 x 10^6 Msun(at 3 sigma level) which is at least 1 sigma below the recent Mbh-sigma_e relations. Further tests with dark matter, mass-to-light rat...

  14. Upper limits to surface force disturbances on LISA proof masses and the possibility of observing galactic binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, L; Ciani, G; Dolesi, R; Hüller, M; Tombolato, D; Vitale, S; Weber, W J; Carbone, Ludovico; Cavalleri, Antonella; Ciani, Giacomo; Dolesi, Rita; Hueller, Mauro; Tombolato, David; Vitale, Stefano; Weber, William Joseph

    2006-01-01

    We report on the measurement of parasitic surface force noise on a hollow replica of a LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna for the observation of gravitational waves) proof mass surrounded by a faithful representation of its in flight surroundings, namely the capacitive sensor used to detect proof-mass motion. Parasitic forces are detected through the corresponding torque exerted on the proof mass and measured with a torsion pendulum in the frequency range 0.1 30 mHz. The sensor electrodes, electrode housing and associated readout electronics have the same nominal design as for the flight hardware, including 4 mm gaps around the proof mass along the sensitive laser interferometry axis. We show that the measured upper limit for surface forces would allow detection of a number of galactic binaries signals with signal to noise ratio up to approximately 40 for 1 year integration. We also discuss how the flight test under development, LISA Pathfinder, will substantially improve this limit, approaching the per...

  15. An upper limit to the photon fraction in cosmic rays above 10^19 eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allison, P; Alvarez, C; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, Luis A; Anjos, J C; Aramo, C; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bacelar, J; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D O; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barbosa, H M J; Barkhausen, M; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Bérat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boghrat, P; Bohacova, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Boratav, M; Brack, J; Brunet, J M; Buchholz, P; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Capdevielle, J N; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chye, J; Claes, D; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Clay, S B; Connolly, B; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Cronin, J; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dang Quang, T; Darriulat, Pierre; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; De Almeida, R M; De Carvalho, L A; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De Mello Junior, W J M; De Mello-Neto, J R T; De Mitri, I; De Oliveira, M A L; De Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L N; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Ewers, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Fauth, A C; Fazio, D; Fazzini, N; Fernández, A; Ferrer, F; Ferry, S; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fokitis, E; Fonte, R; Fuhrmann, D; Fulgione, W; García, B; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrard, L; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Geranios, A; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glass, H; Gobbi, F; Gold, M S; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gomez Berisso, M; Gómez-Herrero, R; Goncalvesdo Amaral, M; Gongora, J P; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Gora, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A; Grunfeld, C; Grupen, C; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutíerrez, J; Hague, J D; Hamilton, J C; Harakeh, M N; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Hartmann, S; Harton, J L; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Homola, P; Horandel, J; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovsky, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Kaducak, M; Kalashev, O; Kampert, K H; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D H; Kolotaev, Yu; Kopmann, A; Krömer, O; Kuhlman, S; Kuijpers, J; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Longo, G; López, R; López-Aguera, A; Lucero, A; Maldera, S; Malek, M; Maltezos, S; Mancarella, G; Mancenido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Martello, D; Martínez, N; Martínez, J; Martínez, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, Giorgio; Maurin, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, G; Medina, M C; Medina Tanco, G; Meli, A; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, François; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Morris, C; Mostafa, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nguyen Thi, T; Nichol, R; Nierstenhofer, N; Nitz, D; Nogima, H; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pham Ngoc, D; Pham Thi, T N; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pisanti, O; Porter, T A; Pouryamout, J; Prado Junior, L; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Reis, H C; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rídky, J; Risi, A; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robbins, S; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Rodriguez Frias, D; Rodríguez-Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Roucelle, C; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santos, E M; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovanek, P; Schussler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Semikoz, Dmitry V; Sequeiros, G; Shellard, R C; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Skelton, P; Slater, W; Smetniansky De Grande, N; Smialkowski, A; Smida, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tascau, O; Ticona, R; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Todero Peixoto, C J; Tonachini, A; Torresi, D; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A; Tristram, G; Tscherniakhovski, D; Tueros, M; Tunnicliffe, V; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valdés-Galicia, J F; Valino, I; Valore, L; Vanden Berg, A M; Van Elewyck, V; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Veiga, A; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vo Van, T; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Waldenmaier, T; Walker, P; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Wiebusch, C; Wieczorek, G J; Wiencke, L; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Xu, J; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zech, A; Zepeda, A; Zha, M; Ziolkowski, M

    2006-01-01

    An upper limit of 16% (at 95% c.l.) is derived for the photon fraction in cosmic rays with energies above 10^19 eV, based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is the first such limit on photons obtained by observing the fluorescence light profile of air showers. This upper limit confirms and improves on previous results from the Haverah Park and AGASA surface arrays. Additional data recorded with the Auger surface detectors for a subset of the event sample, support the conclusion that a photon origin of the observed events is not favoured.

  16. An upper limit to the photon fraction in cosmic rays above 10**19-eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J.C.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche /Buenos Aires, CONICET /La Plata U. /Pierre Auger Observ. /CNEA, San Martin /Adelaide U. /Catholic U. of Bolivia, La Paz /Bolivia U. /Sao Paulo U. /Campinas State U. /UEFS, Feira de Santana

    2006-06-01

    An upper limit of 16% (at 95% c.l.) is derived for the photon fraction in cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 19} eV, based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is the first such limit on photons obtained by observing the fluorescence light profile of air showers. This upper limit confirms and improves on previous results from the Haverah Park and AGASA surface arrays. Additional data recorded with the Auger surface detectors for a subset of the event sample, support the conclusion that a photon origin of the observed events is not favored.

  17. Spinal fusion limits upper body range of motion during gait without inducing compensatory mechanisms in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holewijn, R M; Kingma, I; de Kleuver, M; Schimmel, J J P; Keijsers, N L W

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies show a limited alteration of gait at normal walking speed after spinal fusion surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), despite the presumed essential role of spinal mobility during gait. This study analyses how spinal fusion affects gait at more challenging walking speeds. More specifically, we investigated whether thoracic-pelvic rotations are reduced to a larger extent at higher gait speeds and whether compensatory mechanisms above and below the stiffened spine are present. 18 AIS patients underwent gait analysis at increasing walking speeds (0.45 to 2.22m/s) before and after spinal fusion. The range of motion (ROM) of the upper (thorax, thoracic-pelvic and pelvis) and lower body (hip, knee and ankle) was determined in all three planes. Spatiotemporal parameters of interest were stride length and cadence. Spinal fusion diminished transverse plane thoracic-pelvic ROM and this difference was more explicit at higher walking speeds. Transversal pelvis ROM was also decreased but this effect was not affected by speed. Lower body ROM, step length and cadence remained unaffected. Despite the reduction of upper body ROM after spine surgery during high speed gait, no altered spatiotemporal parameters or increased compensatory ROM above or below the fusion (i.e. in the shoulder girdle or lower extremities) was identified. Thus, it remains unclear how patients can cope so well with such major surgery. Future studies should focus on analyzing the kinematics of individual spinal levels above and below the fusion during gait to investigate possible compensatory mechanisms within the spine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An upper limit to the photon fraction in cosmic rays above 10(19) eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J. C.; Aramo, C.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bacelar, J.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Barkhausen, M.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Boghrat, P.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Boratav, M.; Brack, J.; Brunet, J. M.; Buchholz, P.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Capdevielle, J. N.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Claes, D.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Clay, S. B.; Connolly, B.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Quang, T. Dang; Darriulat, P.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Carvalho, L. A.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, M. A. L.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Ewers, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazio, D.; Fazzini, N.; Fernandez, A.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fokitis, E.; Fonte, R.; Fuhrmann, D.; Fulgione, W.; Garcia, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrard, L.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Geranios, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gobbi, F.; Gold, M. S.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gomez; Herrero, R. Gomez; do Amaral, M. Goncalves; Gongora, J. P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, M.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A.; Grunfeld, C.; Grupen, C.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kalashev, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Kolotaev, Y.; Kopmann, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kuhlman, S.; Kuijpers, J.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; LeBrun, P.; Lee, J.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Longo, G.; Lopez, R.; Aguera, A. Lopez; Lucero, A.; Maldera, S.; Malek, M.; Maltezos, S.; Mancarella, G.; Mancenido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Martello, D.; Martinez, N.; Martinez, J.; Martinez, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurin, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, G.; Medina, M. C.; Tanco, G. Medina; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Mostafa, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Thi, T. Nguyen; Nichol, R.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nogima, H.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, L. F. A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Ngoc, D. Pham; Thi, T. N. Pham; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pisanti, O.; Porter, T. A.; Pouryamout, J.; Prado, L.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Reis, H. C.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risi, A.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robbins, S.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Frias, D. Rodriguez; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Ros, G.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roucelle, C.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santos, E. M.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovanek, P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Semikoz, D.; Sequeiros, G.; Shellard, R. C.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Skelton, P.; Slater, W.; De Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tascau, O.; Ticona, R.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tonachini, A.; Torresi, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Van, T. Vo; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Waldenmaier, T.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wiebusch, C.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Zha, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2007-01-01

    An upper limit of 16% (at 95% c.l.) is derived for the photon fraction in cosmic rays with energies greater than 10(19) eV, based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is the first such limit on photons obtained by obs

  19. An upper limit to the photon fraction in cosmic rays above 10(19) eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J. C.; Aramo, C.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bacelar, J.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Barkhausen, M.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Boghrat, P.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Boratav, M.; Brack, J.; Brunet, J. M.; Buchholz, P.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Capdevielle, J. N.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Claes, D.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Clay, S. B.; Connolly, B.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Quang, T. Dang; Darriulat, P.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Carvalho, L. A.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, M. A. L.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Ewers, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazio, D.; Fazzini, N.; Fernandez, A.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fokitis, E.; Fonte, R.; Fuhrmann, D.; Fulgione, W.; Garcia, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrard, L.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Geranios, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gobbi, F.; Gold, M. S.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gomez; Herrero, R. Gomez; do Amaral, M. Goncalves; Gongora, J. P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, M.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A.; Grunfeld, C.; Grupen, C.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kalashev, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Kolotaev, Y.; Kopmann, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kuhlman, S.; Kuijpers, J.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; LeBrun, P.; Lee, J.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Longo, G.; Lopez, R.; Aguera, A. Lopez; Lucero, A.; Maldera, S.; Malek, M.; Maltezos, S.; Mancarella, G.; Mancenido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Martello, D.; Martinez, N.; Martinez, J.; Martinez, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurin, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, G.; Medina, M. C.; Tanco, G. Medina; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Mostafa, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Thi, T. Nguyen; Nichol, R.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nogima, H.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, L. F. A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Ngoc, D. Pham; Thi, T. N. Pham; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pisanti, O.; Porter, T. A.; Pouryamout, J.; Prado, L.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Reis, H. C.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risi, A.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robbins, S.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Frias, D. Rodriguez; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Ros, G.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roucelle, C.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santos, E. M.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovanek, P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Semikoz, D.; Sequeiros, G.; Shellard, R. C.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Skelton, P.; Slater, W.; De Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tascau, O.; Ticona, R.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tonachini, A.; Torresi, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Van, T. Vo; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Waldenmaier, T.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wiebusch, C.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Zha, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2007-01-01

    An upper limit of 16% (at 95% c.l.) is derived for the photon fraction in cosmic rays with energies greater than 10(19) eV, based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is the first such limit on photons obtained by obs

  20. Upper limits for the rate constants of the reactions of CF3O2 and CF3O radicals with ozone at 295 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.J.; Sehested, J.

    1993-01-01

    Using the pulse radiolysis UV absorption technique and subsequent simulations of experimental absorption transients at 254 and 276 nm, upper limits of the rate constants for the reactions of CF3O2 and CF3O radicals with ozone were determined at 295 K, CF3O2+O3-->CF3O+2O2 (4), CF3O+O3-->CF3O2+O2 (......). The upper limits were derived as k4 ozone depletion by hydrofluorocarbons.......Using the pulse radiolysis UV absorption technique and subsequent simulations of experimental absorption transients at 254 and 276 nm, upper limits of the rate constants for the reactions of CF3O2 and CF3O radicals with ozone were determined at 295 K, CF3O2+O3-->CF3O+2O2 (4), CF3O+O3-->CF3O2+O2 (5...

  1. Implications from the Upper Limit of Radio Afterglow Emission of FRB 131104/Swift J0644.5-5111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, He; Zhang, Bing

    2017-02-01

    A γ-ray transient, Swift J0644.5-5111, has been claimed to be associated with FRB 131104. However, a long-term radio imaging follow-up observation only placed an upper limit on the radio afterglow flux of Swift J0644.5-5111. Applying the external shock model, we perform a detailed constraint on the afterglow parameters for the FRB 131104/Swift J0644.5-5111 system. We find that for the commonly used microphysics shock parameters (e.g., {ε }e=0.1, {ε }B=0.01, and p = 2.3), if the fast radio burst (FRB) is indeed cosmological as inferred from its measured dispersion measure (DM), the ambient medium number density should be ≤slant {10}-3 {{cm}}-3, which is the typical value for a compact binary merger environment but disfavors a massive star origin. Assuming a typical ISM density, one would require that the redshift of the FRB be much smaller than the value inferred from DM (z\\ll 0.1), implying a non-cosmological origin of DM. The constraints are much looser if one adopts smaller {ε }B and {ε }e values, as observed in some gamma-ray burst afterglows. The FRB 131104/Swift J0644.5-5111 association remains plausible. We critically discuss possible progenitor models for the system.

  2. Upper limits for chlorophylla changes with brine volume in sea ice during the austral spring in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhijun; LI Runling; WANG Zipan; HAAS Christian; DIECKMANN Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    During the winter and spring of 2006, we investigated the sea ice physics and marine biology in the northwest Weddell Sea, Antarctica aboard R/VPolarstern. We determined the texture of each ice core and 71 ice crystal thin sections from 27 ice cores. We analyzed 393 ice cores, their temperatures, 348 block density and salinity samples, and 311 chlorophylla (Chla) and phaeophytin samples along the cruise route during the investigation. Based on the vertical distributions of 302 groups of data for the ice porosity and Chla content in the ice at the same position, we obtained new evidence that ice physical parameters influence the Chla content in ice. We collected snow and ice thickness data, and established the effects of the snow and ice thickness on the Chla blooms under the ice, as well as the relationships between the activity of ice algae cells and the brine volume in ice according to the principle of environmental control of the ecological balance. We determined the upper limits for Chla in the brine volume of granular and columnar ice in the Antarctica, thereby demonstrating the effects of ice crystals on brine drainage, and the contributions of the physical properties of sea ice to Chla blooms near the ice bottom and on the ice-water interface in the austral spring. Moreover, we found that the physical properties of sea ice affect ice algae and they are key control elements that modulate marine phytoplankton blooms in the ice-covered waters around Antarctica.

  3. Upper limit to magnetism in LaAIO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Michael R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-02-27

    In 2004 Ohtomo and Hwang reported unusually high conductivity in LaAl03 and SrTi03 bilayer samples. Since then, metallic conduction, superconductivity, magnetism, and coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism have been attributed to LaAl03/SrTi03 interfaces. Very recently, two studies have reported large magnetic moments attributed to interfaces from measurement techniques that are unable to distinguish between interfacial and bulk magnetism. Consequently, it is imperative to perform magnetic measurements that by being intrinsically sensitive to interface magnetism are impervious to experimental artifacts suffered by bulk measurements. Using polarized neutron reflectometry we measured the neutron spin dependent reflectivity from four LaAl03/SrTi03 superlattices. Our results indicate the upper limit for the magnetization averaged over the lateral dimensions of the sample induced by an 11 T magnetic field at 1.7 K is less than 2 G. SQUID magnetometry of the neutron superlattice samples sporadically finds an enhanced moment (consistent with past reports), possibly due to experimental artifacts. These observations set important restrictions on theories which imply a strongly enhanced magnetism at the interface between LaAI03 and SrTi03.

  4. Implications from the upper limit of radio afterglow emission of FRB 131104/Swift J0644.5-5111

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, He

    2016-01-01

    A $\\gamma$-ray transient, Swift J0644.5-5111, has been claimed to be associated with FRB 131104. The $\\gamma$-ray energy output is estimated as $E_\\gamma \\approx 5\\times 10^{51}$\\,erg at the nominal $z\\approx 0.55$ redshift implied by the dispersion measure of FRB 131104. However, a long-term radio imaging follow-up observations only place an upper limit on the radio afterglow flux of Swift J0644.5-5111. Applying the external shock model, we make a detailed constraint on the afterglow parameters for the FRB 131104/Swift J0644.5-5111 system. We find that for the commonly used microphysics shock parameters (e.g., $\\epsilon_e=0.1$, $\\epsilon_B=0.01$ and $p=2.3$), if the redshift value inferred from the DM value is correct to order of magnitude (i.e., $z>0.1$), the ambient medium number density should be $\\leq 10^{-3}~\\rm{cm^{-3}}$, which is the typical value for a compact binary merger environment but disfavors a massive star origin. Assuming a typical ISM density, one would require that the redshift of the FRB ...

  5. Warm Jupiters Need Close "Friends" for High-Eccentricity Migration -- A Stringent Upper Limit on the Perturber's Separation

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Subo; Socrates, Aristotle

    2013-01-01

    We propose a stringent observational test on the formation of warm Jupiters (gas-giant planets with 10d ~ 50% of those with large eccentricities (e>0.4) have known close Jovian companions satisfying the constraint required for high-e migration. In contrast, <~ 20% of the low-e (e<0.2) warm Jupiters have detected additional Jovian companions, implying that high-e migration with planetary perturbers is not the dominant channel in forming such planets. Complete, long-term RV follow-ups of the warm-Jupiter population will allow a firm upper limit to be put on the fraction of these planets formed by high-e migration. In the future, transiting warm Jupiters suitable for spin-orbit alignment measurements are expected to be discovered, and mis-aligned warm Jupiters will be particularly interesting candidates to apply our observational test. If the spin-orbit misalignments detected for transiting hot Jupiters are solely due to high-e migration as commonly suggested, we expect that the majority of warm Jupiters w...

  6. Improved Upper Limits on the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from 2009-2010 LIGO and Virgo Data

    CERN Document Server

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Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Padilla, C; Pai, A; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pan, H; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Paoletti, R; Paris, H; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J; Poggiani, R; Poteomkin, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Premachandra, S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E; Quiroga, G; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajalakshmi, G; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C; Ramirez, K; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rhoades, E; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Sannibale, V; Santiago-Prieto, I; Saracco, E; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Scheuer, J; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Singh, R; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Souradeep, T; Sperandio, L; Staley, A; Stebbins, J; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Stephens, B C; Steplewski, S; Stevenson, S; Stone, R; Stops, D; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, R; ter Braack, A P M; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Verma, S S; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vincent-Finley, R; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyachanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Williams, K; Williams, L; Williams, R; Williams, T; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yang, Z; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S; Zweizig, J

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational waves from a variety of sources are predicted to superpose to create a stochastic background. This background is expected to contain unique information from throughout the history of the universe that is unavailable through standard electromagnetic observations, making its study of fundamental importance to understanding the evolution of the universe. We carry out a search for the stochastic background with the latest data from LIGO and Virgo. Consistent with predictions from most stochastic gravitational-wave background models, the data display no evidence of a stochastic gravitational-wave signal. Assuming a gravitational-wave spectrum of Omega_GW(f)=Omega_alpha*(f/f_ref)^alpha, we place 95% confidence level upper limits on the energy density of the background in each of four frequency bands spanning 41.5-1726 Hz. In the frequency band of 41.5-169.25 Hz for a spectral index of alpha=0, we constrain the energy density of the stochastic background to be Omega_GW(f)<5.6x10^-6. For the 600-1000...

  7. Improved upper limits on the stochastic gravitational-wave background from 2009-2010 LIGO and Virgo data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasi, J; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Andersen, M; Anderson, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Austin, L; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Bergmann, G; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brückner, F; Buchman, S; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burman, R; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Castiglia, A; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Celerier, C; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S S Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corpuz, A; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Donath, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dossa, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Endrőczi, G; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J-D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Gossler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hooper, S; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hu, Y; Huerta, E; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karlen, J; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, N G; Kim, Y-M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z

    2014-12-05

    Gravitational waves from a variety of sources are predicted to superpose to create a stochastic background. This background is expected to contain unique information from throughout the history of the Universe that is unavailable through standard electromagnetic observations, making its study of fundamental importance to understanding the evolution of the Universe. We carry out a search for the stochastic background with the latest data from the LIGO and Virgo detectors. Consistent with predictions from most stochastic gravitational-wave background models, the data display no evidence of a stochastic gravitational-wave signal. Assuming a gravitational-wave spectrum of Ω_{GW}(f)=Ω_{α}(f/f_{ref})^{α}, we place 95% confidence level upper limits on the energy density of the background in each of four frequency bands spanning 41.5-1726 Hz. In the frequency band of 41.5-169.25 Hz for a spectral index of α=0, we constrain the energy density of the stochastic background to be Ω_{GW}(f)gravitational waves.

  8. The JAK2V617F tyrosine kinase mutation in blood donors with upper-limit haematocrit levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagariello, Giuseppe; Di Gaetano, Rosanna; Sartori, Roberto; Zanotto, Daniela; Belvini, Donata; Radossi, Paolo; Risato, Renzo; Roveroni, Giovanni; Salviato, Roberta; Tassinari, Cristina; Toffano, Nunzio

    2009-01-01

    Background It is not rare to observe in blood donors a level of haematocrit (Hct) above or close to the highest normal limit. In the case of blood donors the diagnosis and clinical evaluation of this alteration may be complicated by regular blood donations that can mask an underlying disease such as polycythaemia vera. Recently a single acquired mutation in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) on chromosome 9 was identified and it was found that the incidence of this mutation was high in patients with polycythaemia vera. Material and Methods From the January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2006 all consecutive donors with a Hct above 50% if males (n=84) and 46% if females (n=19) underwent JAK2 mutation analysis. Seventy-nine donors (59 males and 20 females) whose Hct was normal at their last blood donation were randomly selected and used as controls. Results Among the group of blood donors with a high Hct, we identified one donor who was positive for the JAK2 mutation. This man had a Hct of 50.6% at his last donation, while his average Hct in the preceding year was 51.7%. The prevalence of the JAK2 mutation could be estimated to be 1%, 0.6% or 0.02% in the three different populations considered: donors with a Hct level above the upper limit of normal, all tested donors or the entire donor cohort attending our transfusion service, respectively. Conclusions The present study suggests that apparently healthy subjects with repeatedly high levels of Hct may have the acquired mutation in JAK2. Laboratory screening tests for JAK2 may be offered to blood donors at transfusion services with expertise in molecular genetics. PMID:19503632

  9. The upper and lower limits of the mechanistic stoichiometry of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Stoichiometry of oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, A D; Lehninger, A L

    1986-07-15

    Determination of the intrinsic or mechanistic P/O ratio of oxidative phosphorylation is difficult because of the unknown magnitude of leak fluxes. Applying a new approach developed to overcome this problem (see our preceding paper in this journal), the relationships between the rate of O2 uptake [( Jo)3], the net rate of phosphorylation (Jp), the P/O ratio, and the respiratory control ratio (RCR) have been determined in rat liver mitochondria when the rate of phosphorylation was systematically varied by three specific means. (a) When phosphorylation is titrated with carboxyatractyloside, linear relationships are observed between Jp and (Jo)3. These data indicate that the upper limit of the mechanistic P/O ratio is 1.80 for succinate and 2.90 for 3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation. (b) Titration with malonate or antimycin yields linear relationships between Jp and (Jo)3. These data give the lower limit of the mechanistic P/O ratio of 1.63 for succinate and 2.66 for 3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation. (c) Titration with a protonophore yields linear relationships between Jp, (Jo)3, and (Jo)4 and between P/O and 1/RCR. Extrapolation of the P/O ratio to 1/RCR = 0 yields P/O ratios of 1.75 for succinate and 2.73 for 3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation which must be equal to or greater than the mechanistic stoichiometry. When published values for the H+/O and H+/ATP ejection ratios are taken into consideration, these measurements suggest that the mechanistic P/O ratio is 1.75 for succinate oxidation and 2.75 for NADH oxidation.

  10. Radiation converter physics and a method for obtaining the upper limit for gain in heavy ion fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, D. D.-M.; Lindl, J. D.; Tabak, M.

    1994-08-01

    Converting the kinetic energy of heavy ion beams into radiation energy at high efficiency is important for heavy ion fusion. High conversion efficiency can be achieved if the radiating material consists mainly of a low Z element, for example, beryllium, mixed with a small amount of high Z element, for example, lead. For stopping incoming beams with a given energy, low Z material has higher stopping power and hence has less total internal energy than a high Z material. A high Z material is used for efficient radiation; the exact amount used is determined by the requirement that the Planck mean free path is approximately equal to the dimension of the radiation converter. Too much high Z material would hence prevent radiation from escaping from the interior region of the radiating material. To reduce the hydrodynamic loss in the radial direction, the radiating material is placed inside a casing made of high Z material. Calculations show that the energy absorbed by the casing is tolerable and that the interface between the casing and the radiating material is almost stationary. Various scaling laws for the converter are developed. Simulations with the LASNEX hydrodynamic code show that carefully designed converters can have conversion efficiencies as high as 70% (80%) for incoming beams with 10 GeV (5 GeV) energy. Because the converters have high efficiency and ion range shortening in beryllium is not substantial, range shortening is not a major issue. Once the diagram for the conversion efficiency versus the converter radius is obtained for various beam ion energies, the trajectory is located on this diagram that gives the upper limit for conversion efficiency (and hence for gain) while satisfying the engineering limit of the quadrupole pole-tip magnetic fields of the final-focusing system for heavy ion beams (for ballistic transport through a hard-vacuum reactor chamber). Finally, converter configurations are presented that can deflect the direction of radiation

  11. FDG-PET/CT Limited to the Thorax and Upper Abdomen for Staging and Management of Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arens, A.I.; Postema, J.W.; Schreurs, W.M.; Lafeber, A.; Hendrickx, B.W.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Vogel, W.V.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) of the chest/upper abdomen compared to the generally performed scan from head to upper thighs, for staging and management of (suspected) lung cancer in

  12. Morphological and physiological adjustment to N and P fertilization in nutrient-limited Metrosideros polymorpha canopy trees in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell, S; Goldstein, G; Meinzer, F C; Vitousek, P M

    2001-01-01

    Leaf-level studies of Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud. (Myrtaceae) canopy trees at both ends of a substrate age gradient in the Hawaiian Islands pointed to differential patterns of adjustment to both nutrient limitation and removal of this limitation by long-term (8-14 years) nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and N + P fertilizations. The two study sites were located at the same elevation, had similar annual precipitation, and supported forests dominated by M. polymorpha, but differed in the age of the underlying volcanic substrate, and in soil nutrient availability, with relatively low N at the young site (300 years, Thurston, Hawaii) and relatively low P at the oldest site (4,100,000 years, Kokee, Kauai). Within each site, responses to N and P fertilization were similar, regardless of the difference in soil N and P availability between sites. At the young substrate site, nutrient addition led to a larger mean leaf size (about 7.4 versus 4.8 cm2), resulting in a larger canopy leaf surface area. Differences in foliar N and P content, chlorophyll concentrations and carboxylation capacity between the fertilized and control plots were small. At the old substrate site, nutrient addition led to an increase in photosynthetic rate per unit leaf surface area from 4.5 to 7.6 micromol m(-2) s(-1), without a concomitant change in leaf size. At this site, leaves had substantially greater nutrient concentrations, chlorophyll content and carboxylation capacity in the fertilized plots than in the control plots. These contrasting acclimation responses to fertilization at the young and old sites led to significant increases in total carbon gain of M. polymorpha canopy trees at both sites. At the young substrate site, acclimation to fertilization was morphological, resulting in larger leaves, whereas at the old substrate site, physiological acclimation resulted in higher leaf carboxylation capacity and chlorophyll content.

  13. HESS upper limits on very high energy gamma-ray emission from the microquasar GRS 1915+105

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Becherini, Y.; Behera, B.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Borrel, V.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Conrad, J.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'c.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fiasson, A.; Förster, A.; Fontaine, G.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gérard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Göring, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holleran, M.; Hoppe, S.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jung, I.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Keogh, D.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Lamanna, G.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Olive, J.-F.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Orford, K. J.; Ostrowski, M.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raubenheimer, B. C.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de Los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Ryde, F.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schönwald, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sushch, I.; Sikora, M.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Superina, G.; Szostek, A.; Tam, P. H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tibolla, O.; Tluczykont, M.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Venter, L.; Vialle, J. P.; Vincent, P.; Vivier, M.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.

    2009-12-01

    Context: High energy particles reside in the relativistic jets of microquasars, making them possible sources of very high energy radiation (VHE, >100 GeV). Detecting this emission would provide a new handle on jet physics. Aims: Observations of the microquasar GRS 1915+105 with the HESS telescope array were undertaken in 2004-2008 to search for VHE emission. Methods: Stereoscopic imaging of Cherenkov radiation from extensive air showers is used to reconstruct the energy and direction of the incident gamma rays. Results: There is no evidence for a VHE gamma-ray signal either from the direction of the microquasar or its vicinity. An upper limit of 6.1× 10-13 ph cm-2 s-1 (99.9% confidence level) is set on the photon flux above 410 GeV, equivalent to a VHE luminosity of ˜ 1034 erg s-1 at 11 kpc. Conclusions: The VHE to X-ray luminosity ratio in GRS 1915+105 is at least four orders of magnitude lower than the ratio observed in gamma-ray binaries. The VHE radiative efficiency of the compact jet is less than 0.01% based on its estimated total power of 1038 erg s-1. Particle acceleration in GRS 1915+105 is not efficient at high energies and/or the magnetic field is too strong. It is also possible that VHE gamma-rays are produced by GRS 1915+105, but the emission is highly time-dependent. Supported by CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil.

  14. Laboratory Studies of the Heterogeneous Uptake of Methane on Martian Soil Analogs: Determination of Upper Limits of Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, R. V.; Hatch, C. D.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    In order to constrain possible methane sources on Mars, it is necessary to understand the type and magnitude of all possible methane sinks. We have performed laboratory experiments to determine the importance of heterogeneous uptake of methane on mineral surfaces analogous to Martian surface material. The uptake of methane on sodium montmorillonite and Mars soil simulant JSC-1 (a palagonite) was studied using a Knusden cell flow reactor capable of achieving Martian temperature, pressure and relative humidity conditions. A quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to detect any decrease in methane flow due to heterogeneous uptake and infrared spectroscopy was used to detect any adsorbed species on the particles. Experiments were performed under Martian temperatures (from 195 to 215 K), and under both dry conditions and 45% RH. As montmorillonite clay possesses unique swelling properties in the presence of water vapor, experiments were performed in which the clay was simultaneously exposed to water and methane, and also experiments in which the clay was equilibrated with water vapor prior to methane exposure. We found no methane uptake relative to an unreactive blank Si wafer on any of the Martian soil analogs studied under any conditions. These negative results place upper limits on the heterogeneous reactivity of methane on the Martian surface. We have determined that the initial uptake coefficient of methane on palagonite is less than 3.66×10-10 (±1.41×10-11) and the initial uptake coefficient, γ0, of methane on montmorillonite is less than 7.52×10-10 (±2.56×10-11). These studies demonstrate methane uptake by mineral surfaces is not expected to be a significant methane sink, as the process likely occurs on a time scale much longer than photolysis.

  15. Upper limit on the decay K{sup +}{r_arrow}e{sup +}{nu}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, S.; Atiya, M.S.; Chiang, I.; Frank, J.S.; Haggerty, J.S.; Kycia, T.F.; Li, K.K.; Littenberg, L.S.; Sambamurti, A.; Stevens, A.; Strand, R.C.; Witzig, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Louis, W.C. [Medium Energy Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Akerib, D.S.; Ardebili, M.; Convery, M.; Ito, M.M.; Marlow, D.R.; McPherson, R.; Meyers, P.D.; Selen, M.A.; Shoemaker, F.C.; Smith, A.J. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Blackmore, E.W.; Bryman, D.A.; Felawka, L.; Konaka, A.; Kuno, Y.; Macdonald, J.A.; Numao, T.; Padley, P.; Poutissou, R. Poutissou, J.; Roy, J.; Turcot, A.S. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (CANADA); Kitching, P.; Nakano, T.; Rozon, M.; Soluk, R. [Center for Subatomic Research, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2N5 (CANADA)

    1998-07-01

    An upper limit on the branching ratio for the decay K{sup +}{r_arrow}e{sup +}{nu}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} is set at 5.0{times}10{sup {minus}7} at a 90{percent} confidence level, consistent with predictions from chiral perturbation theory. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  17. An empirical determination of upper operational frequency limits of transferred electron mechanism in bulk GaAs and GaN through ensemble Monte Carlo particle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, S.; van Zyl, R. R.; Perold, W. J.

    2015-08-01

    The ensemble Monte Carlo particle simulation technique is used to determine the upper operational frequency limit of the transferred electron mechanism in bulk GaAs and GaN empirically. This mechanism manifests as a decrease in the average velocity of the electrons in the bulk material with an increase in the electric field bias, which yields the characteristic negative slope in the velocity-field curves of these materials. A novel approach is proposed whereby the hysteresis in the simulated dynamic, high-frequency velocity-field curves is exploited. The upper operational frequency limit supported by the material is defined as that frequency, where the average gradient of the dynamic characteristic curve over a radio frequency cycle approaches zero. Effects of temperature and doping level on the operational frequency limit are reported. The frequency limit thus obtained is also useful to predict the highest fundamental frequency of operation of transferred electron devices, such as Gunn diodes, which are based on materials that support the transferred electron mechanism. Based on the method presented here, the upper operational frequency limits of the transferred electron mechanism in bulk GaAs and GaN are 80 and 255 GHz, respectively, at typical doping levels and operating temperatures of Gunn diodes.

  18. Effects of physical and mental task demands on cervical and upper limb muscle activity and physiological responses during computer tasks and recovery periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuling; Szeto, Grace P Y; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2011-11-01

    The present study examined the effects of physical and mental workload during computer tasks on muscle activity and physiological measures. Activity in cervical postural muscles and distal forearm muscles, heart rate and blood pressure were compared among three tasks and rest periods of 15 min each in an experimental study design. Fourteen healthy pain-free adults participated (7 males, mean age = 23.2 ± 3.0 years) and the tasks were: (1) copy-typing ("typing"), (2) typing at progressively faster speed ("pacing"), (3) mental arithmetic plus fast typing ("subtraction"). Typing task was performed first, followed by the other two tasks in a random order. Median muscle activity (50th percentile) was examined in 5-min intervals during each task and each rest period, and statistically significant differences in the "time" factor (within task) and time × task factors was found in bilateral cervical erector spinae and upper trapezius muscles. In contrast, distal forearm muscle activity did not show any significant differences among three tasks. All muscles showed reduced activity to about the baseline level within first 5 min of the rest periods. Heart rate and blood pressure showed significant differences during tasks compared to baseline, and diastolic pressure was significantly higher in the subtraction than pacing task. The results suggest that cervical postural muscles had higher reactivity than forearm muscles to high mental workload tasks, and cervical muscles were also more reactive to tasks with high physical demand compared to high mental workload. Heart rate and blood pressure seemed to respond similarly to high physical and mental workloads.

  19. The upper limit of the reference range for thyroid-stimulating hormone should not be confused with a cut-off to define subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waise, Ahmed; Price, Hermione C

    2009-03-01

    The upper limit of the reference range for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is used to assist in identifying individuals with hypothyroidism. Improvements in TSH assays have led to better definition of the lower limit of the reference range, but the upper limit of the range for a healthy population is currently a topic of some debate. Population studies have improved our understanding of the clinical implications of elevated serum TSH concentrations in terms of future progression to hypothyroidism, but have not yet fully elucidated the correlation of modestly elevated TSH levels with long-term morbidity. This paper will review the current debate including the arguments for and against reducing the upper limit of the TSH range, whether such a level should be based on evidence from epidemiological studies, and the implications of categorizing large numbers of people with subclinical hypothyroidism. The impact of using different methodologies for the measurement of TSH and the inherent variability of results on reference ranges is also discussed. We argue that the reference range for TSH should be assay-specific and be determined by standard techniques in normal populations as recommended by the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry. In contrast, we suggest that a decision level be determined separately from epidemiological studies to identify a population with subclinical hypothyroidism. Serial monitoring of TSH in this population deserves further study as a means of identifying those at risk of progressing to frank hypothyroidism and meriting treatment.

  20. Revised Upper Limits of the Diffuse Tev Gamma Rays from the Galactic Planes with the Tibet II and III Air Shower Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Amenomori, M; Bi, X J; Chen, D; Cui, S W; Danzengluobu; Ding, L K; Ding, X H; Feng Cun Feng; Zhaoyang Feng; Feng, Z Y; Gao, X Y; Geng, Q X; Guo, H W; He, H H; He, M; Hibino, K; Hotta, N; Haibing, H; Hu, H B; Huang, J; Huang, Q; Jia, H Y; Kajino, F; Kasahara, K; Katayose, Y; Kato, C; Kawata, K; Labaciren; Le, G M; Li, A F; Li, J Y; Lou, Y Q; Lü, H; Lu, S L; Meng, X R; Mizutani, K; Mu, J; Munakata, K; Nagai, A; Nanjo, H; Nishizawa, M; Ohnishi, M; Ohta, I; Onuma, H; Ouchi, T; Ozawa, S; Ren, J R; Saitô, T; Saito, T Y; Sakata, M; Sako, T K; Sasaki, T; Shibata, M; Shiomi, A; Shirai, T; Sugimoto, H; Takita, M; Tan, Y H; Tateyama, N; Torii, S; Tsuchiya, H; Udo, S; Wang, B; Wang, H; Wang, X; Wang, Y G; Wu, H R; Xue Liang; Yamamoto, Y; Yan, C T; Yang, X C; Yasue, S; Ye, Z H; Yu, G C; Yuan, A F; Yuda, T; Zhang, H M; Zhang, J L; Zhang, N J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Yi Zhang Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X X; al, et

    2006-01-01

    The flux upper limits of the diffuse gamma rays, from the inner and outer Galactic planes, are revised by factors of 4.0$\\sim$3.7 for mode energies 3$\\sim$10 TeV, respectively, by using the simulation results of the effective area ratios for gamma-ray induced showers and cosmic-ray induced ones in the Tibet air shower array. In our previous work, (Amenomori et al., ApJ, 580, 887, 2002) the flux upper limits were deduced only from the flux ratio of air showers generated by gamma rays versus cosmic rays. The details of the simulation are given in the paper (Amenomori et al., Advances in Space Research, 37, 1932, 2006). The present result using the same data as in ApJ suggests that the spectral index of source electrons is steeper than 2.2 and 2.1 for the inner and outer Galactic planes, respectively.

  1. An upper limit of Cr-doping level to Retain Zero-strain Characteristics of Li4Ti5O12 Anode Material for Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hannah; Jeong, Tae-Gyung; Yun, Su-Won; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Park, Shin-Ae; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Since Li4Ti5O12 as a promising anode material in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has a poor rate performance due to low electronic conductivity, a doping of Li4Ti5O12 with heterogeneous atoms has been considered to overcome this problem. Herein, we report that there is an upper limit of doping level to maintain the zero strain characteristics of Li4Ti5O12 lattice during charge/discharge process. By using synchrotron studies, it was revealed that the Li+ diffusivity was maximized at a certain doping level for which the conductivity was markedly increased with maintaining the zero strain characteristics. However, with more doses of dopants over the upper limit, the lattice shrank and therefore the Li+ diffusivity decreased, although the electronic conductivity was further increased in comparison with the optimal doping level. PMID:28233818

  2. On the Necessity of Using Element No.155 in the Chemical Physical Calculations: Again on the Upper Limit in the Periodic Table of Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is shown how the properties of different elements of the Periodic System of Elements can be obtained using the properties of the theoretically predicted heaviest element No.155 (it draws the upper principal limit of the Table, behind which stable elements cannot exist. It is suggested how the properties of element No.155 can be used in the synthesis of superheavy elements. An analysis of nuclear reactions is also produced on the same basis.

  3. Upper limit on the flux of photons with energies above 10^19 eV using Telescope Array surface detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abu-Zayyad, T; Allen, M; Anderson, R; Azuma, R; Barcikowski, E; Belz, J W; Bergman, D R; Blake, S A; Cady, R; Cheon, B G; Chiba, J; Chikawa, M; Cho, E J; Cho, W R; Fujii, H; Fujii, T; Fukuda, T; Fukushima, M; Gorbunov, D; Hanlon, W; Hayashi, K; Hayashi, Y; Hayashida, N; Hibino, K; Hiyama, K; Honda, K; Iguchi, T; Ikeda, D; Ikuta, K; Inoue, N; Ishii, T; Ishimori, R; Ivanov, D; Iwamoto, S; Jui, C C H; Kadota, K; Kakimoto, F; Kalashev, O; Kanbe, T; Kasahara, K; Kawai, H; Kawakami, S; Kawana, S; Kido, E; Kim, H B; Kim, H K; Kim, J H; Kitamoto, K; Kitamura, S; Kitamura, Y; Kobayashi, K; Kobayashi, Y; Kondo, Y; Kuramoto, K; Kuzmin, V; Kwon, Y J; Lan, J; Lim, S I; Machida, S; Martens, K; Matsuda, T; Matsuura, T; Matsuyama, T; Matthews, J N; Minamino, M; Miyata, K; Murano, Y; Myers, I; Nagasawa, K; Nagataki, S; Nakamura, T; Nam, S W; Nonaka, T; Ogio, S; Ohnishi, M; Ohoka, H; Oki, K; Oku, D; Okuda, T; Oshima, A; Ozawa, S; Park, I H; Pshirkov, M S; Rodriguez, D C; Roh, S Y; Rubtsov, G I; Ryu, D; Sagawa, H; Sakurai, N; Sampson, A L; Scott, L M; Shah, P D; Shibata, F; Shibata, T; Shimodaira, H; Shin, B K; Shin, J I; Shirahama, T; Smith, J D; Sokolsky, P; Stokes, B T; Stratton, S R; Stroman, T; Suzuki, S; Takahashi, Y; Takeda, M; Taketa, A; Takita, M; Tameda, Y; Tanaka, H; Tanaka, K; Tanaka, M; Thomas, S B; Thomson, G B; Tinyakov, P; Tkachev, I; Tokuno, H; Tomida, T; Troitsky, S; Tsunesada, Y; Tsutsumi, K; Tsuyuguchi, Y; Uchihori, Y; Udo, S; Ukai, H; Vasiloff, G; Wada, Y; Wong, T; Wood, M; Yamakawa, Y; Yamane, R; Yamaoka, H; Yamazaki, K; Yang, J; Yoneda, Y; Yoshida, S; Yoshii, H; Zhou, X; Zollinger, R; Zundel, Z

    2013-01-01

    We search for ultra-high energy photons by analyzing geometrical properties of shower fronts of events registered by the Telescope Array surface detector. By making use of an event-by-event statistical method, we derive upper limits on the absolute flux of primary photons with energies above 10^19, 10^19.5 and 10^20 eV based on the first three years of data taken.

  4. Impairments and activity limitations in subjects with chronic upper-limb complex regional pain syndrome type I.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Schasfoort (Fabiënne); J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); H.J. Stam (Henk)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine the degree of impairments and activity limitations and their interrelationship in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS type I). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study interrelating impairments and objectively measured activity limitations. SETTING: Ambulatory and

  5. Physiological responses of three species of marine pico-phytoplankton to ammonium, phosphate, iron and light limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, K.R.; Wagt, B. van der; Veldhuis, M.J.W.; Maatman, A.; Baar, H.J.W. de

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with three species of marine pico-phytoplankton: Synechococcus sp. (CCMP 839), Pelagomonas calceolata (CCMP 1756) and Prasinomonas capsulatus (CCMP 1617) in order to collect physiological parameters for pico-phytoplankton to be utilised in Ocean Biogeochemical Climate Mode

  6. Setting upper limits on the strength of periodic gravitational waves using the first science data from the GEO600 and LIGO detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Balewski, J T; Barannikova, O Yu; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bhardwaj, S; Bhaskar, P; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dong, W J; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Yu; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gagunashvili, N D; Gans, J; Ganti, M S; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F J M; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; González, J E; Grachov, O A; Grigoriev, V; Gronstal, S; Grosnick, D P; Guedon, M; Guertin, S M; Sen-Gupta, A; Gushin, E; Gutíerrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Huang Sheng Li; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Jiang, H; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Liu, Q J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, Thomas W; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mangotra, L K; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnik, Yu M; Meshchanin, A P; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mishra, D; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnár, L; Moore, C F; Mora-Corral, M J; Morozov, D A; Morozov, V; De Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevozchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M V; Potrebenikova, E V; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D J; Pruneau, C A; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L J; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schröder, L S; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D M; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shestermanov, K E; Shimansky, S S; Singaraju, R N; Simon, F; Skoro, G P; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, S; Stock, Reinhard; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Trivedi, M D; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T S; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van der Molen, A M; Vasilev, A N; Vasilev, M; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, E; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevsky, Yu V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Z P; Zolnierczuk, P A; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N

    2003-01-01

    Data collected by the GEO600 and LIGO interferometric gravitational wave detectors during their first observational science run were searched for continuous gravitational waves from the pulsar J1939+2134 at twice its rotation frequency. Two independent analysis methods were used and are demonstrated in this paper: a frequency domain method and a time domain method. Both achieve consistent null results, placing new upper limits on the strength of the pulsar's gravitational wave emission. A model emission mechanism is used to interpret the limits as a constraint on the pulsar's equatorial ellipticity.

  7. Upper limit on the cosmic-ray photon flux above 1019 eV using the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argirò, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Boratav, M.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fonte, R.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Herrero, R.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, M.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Luna García, R.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Manceñido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martínez, J.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Thao, N. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; PȩKala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Diep, P. N.; Dong, P. N.; Nhung, P. T.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roucelle, C.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; de Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Torresi, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2008-05-01

    A method is developed to search for air showers initiated by photons using data recorded by the surface detector of the Auger Observatory. The approach is based on observables sensitive to the longitudinal shower development, the signal risetime and the curvature of the shower front. Applying this method to the data, upper limits on the flux of photons of 3.8×10, 2.5×10,and2.2×10kmsryr above 10eV, 2×10eV,and4×10eV are derived, with corresponding limits on the fraction of photons being 2.0%, 5.1%, and 31% (all limits at 95% c.l.). These photon limits disfavor certain exotic models of sources of cosmic rays. The results also show that the approach adopted by the Auger Observatory to calibrate the shower energy is not strongly biased by a contamination from photons.

  8. Investigation of the physiological response to oxygen limited process conditions of Pichia pastoris Mut(+) strain using a two-compartment scale-down system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorantfy, Bettina; Jazini, Mohammadhadi; Herwig, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    Inhomogeneities in production-scale bioreactors influence microbial growth and product quality due to insufficient mixing and mass transfer. For this reason, lots of efforts are being made to investigate the effects of gradients that impose stress in large-scale reactors in laboratory scale. We have implemented a scale-down model which allows separating a homogeneous part, a stirred tank reactor (STR), and a plug flow reactor (PFR) which mimics the inhomogeneous regimes of the large-scale fermenters. This scale-down model shows solutions to trigger oxygen limited conditions in the PFR part of the scale-down setup for physiological analysis. The goal of the study was to investigate the scale-up relevant physiological responses of Pichia pastoris strain to oxygen limited process conditions in the above mentioned two-compartment bioreactor setup. Experimental results with non-induced cultures show that the specific growth rate significantly decreased with increasing the exposure time to oxygen limitation. In parallel more by-products were produced. Examining physiological scalable key parameters, multivariate data analyses solely using on-line data revealed that different exposures to the oxygen limitation significantly affected the culture performance. This work with the small scale-downs setup reflects new approaches for a valuable process development tool for accelerating strain characterization or for verifying CFD simulations of large-scale bioreactors. As a novel methodological achievement, the combination of the two-compartment scale-down system with the proposed multivariate techniques of solely using on-line data is a valuable tool for recognition of stress effects on the culture performance for physiological bioprocess scale-up issues.

  9. Good news for conservation: mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA data detect limited genetic signatures of inter-basin fish transfer in Thymallus thymallus (Salmonidae from the Upper Drava River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meraner A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, numerous populations of European grayling, Thymallus thymallus, have been suffering from stocking-induced genetic admixture of foreign strains into wild populations. Concordantly, genetic introgression was also reportedfor grayling stocks inhabiting the Upper Drava River, but all published genetic data based on specimens caught at least a decade ago, when stocking load was strong. Here, we applied mitochondrial control region sequencing and nuclear microsatellite genotyping to Upper Drava grayling fry collections and reference samples to update patterns and extent of human-mediated introgression. In contrast to previous data, we highlighted an almost genetic integrity of Drava grayling, evidencing limited genetic signatures of trans-basin stocking for grayling of Northern Alpine Danubian origin. Recent hybridisation was detected only twice among sixty-nine samples, while several cases of later-generation hybrids were disclosed by linking mitochondrial sequence to nuclear genetic data. The observed past, but very limited recent genetic introgression in grayling from Upper Drava seems to reflect shifting stocking trends, changing from massive introduction of trans-basin fish to more conservation-oriented strategies during the last 27 years. In a conservation context, we encourage pursuing the use of local wild grayling for supportive- and captive-breeding, but underline the need for genetic approaches in brood-stock selection programs. Finally, our integrated results from sibship reconstruction validate our strictly fry-based sampling scheme, thus offering a reasonable alternative also for other rheophilic fish species with similar life-history characteristics.

  10. Simulation of upper-ocean biogeochemistry with a flexible-composition phytoplankton model: C, N and Si cycling and Fe limitation in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongin, Mathieu; Nelson, David M.; Pondaven, Philippe; Tréguer, Paul

    2006-03-01

    We previously reported the application of an upper-ocean biogeochemical model in which the elemental composition of the phytoplankton is flexible and responds to changes in light and nutrient availability [Mongin, M., Nelson, D., Pondaven, P., Brzezinski, M., Tréguer, P., 2003. Simulation of upper-ocean biogeochemistry with a flexible-composition phytoplankton model: C, N and Si cycling in the western Sargasso Sea. Deep-Sea Research I 50, 1445-1480]. That model, applied in the western Sargasso Sea, considered the cycles of C, N and Si in the upper 400 m and limitation of phytoplankton growth by N, Si and light. We now report a new version of this model that includes Fe cycling and Fe limitation and its application in the Southern Ocean. The model includes two phytoplankton groups, diatoms and non-siliceous forms. Uptake of NO 3- by phytoplankton is light dependent, but NH 4+, Si(OH) 4 and Fe uptake are not and can therefore continue through the night. The model tracks the resulting C/N and Fe/C ratios of both groups and Si/N ratio of diatoms, and permits uptake of C, N, Fe and Si to proceed independently when those ratios are close to those of nutrient-replete phytoplankton. When they indicate a deficiency cellular C, N, Fe or Si, uptake of the non-limiting elements is controlled by the content of the limiting element in accordance with the cell-quota formulation of [Droop, M., 1974. The nutrient status of algal cell in continuous culture. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 54, 825-855]. The model thus identifies the growth-limiting element and quantifies the degree of limitation from the elemental composition of the phytoplankton. We applied this model at the French KERFIX site in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean, using meteorological forcing for that site from 1991 to 1995. As in the Sargasso Sea application, the flexible-composition structure provides simulations that are consistent with field data with only minimal

  11. Combined CDF and D0 Upper Limits on Standard Model Higgs-Boson Production with 2.1 - 5.4 fb-1 of Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration, The CDF; Collaboration, the D0; Physics, the Tevatron New; Group, Higgs Working

    2009-11-01

    We combine results from CDF and D0 on direct searches for a standard model (SM) Higgs boson (H) in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Compared to the previous Tevatron Higgs search combination more data have been added and some previously used channels have been reanalyzed to gain sensitivity. We use the latest parton distribution functions and gg {yields} H theoretical cross sections when comparing our limits to the SM predictions. With 2.0-4.8 fb{sup -1} of data analyzed at CDF, and 2.1-5.4 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% C.L. upper limits on Higgs boson production are a factor of 2.70 (0.94) times the SM cross section for a Higgs boson mass of m{sub H} = 115 (165) GeV/c{sup 2}. The corresponding median upper limits expected in the absence of Higgs boson production are 1.78 (0.89). The mass range excluded at 95% C.L. for a SM Higgs is 163 < m{sub H} < 166 GeV/c{sup 2}, with an expected exclusion of 159 < m{sub H} < 168 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  12. Combined CDF and D0 Upper Limits on Standard Model Higgs-Boson Production with 2.1 - 5.4 fb-1 of Data

    CERN Document Server

    Physics, the Tevatron New

    2009-01-01

    We combine results from CDF and D0 on direct searches for a standard model (SM) Higgs boson (H) in ppbar collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron at sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV. Compared to the previous Tevatron Higgs search combination more data have been added and some previously used channels have been reanalyzed to gain sensitivity. We use the latest parton distribution functions and gg->H theoretical cross sections when comparing our limits to the SM predictions. With 2.0-4.8 fb-1 of data analyzed at CDF, and 2.1-5.4 fb-1 at D0, the 95% C.L. upper limits on Higgs boson production are a factor of 2.70 (0.94) times the SM cross section for a Higgs boson mass of m_H=115 (165) GeV/c^2. The corresponding median upper limits expected in the absence of Higgs boson production are 1.78 (0.89). The mass range excluded at 95% C.L. for a SM Higgs is 163

  13. Combined CDF and DZero Upper Limits on Standard Model Higgs-Boson Production with up to 4.2 fb-1 of Data

    CERN Document Server

    Phenomena, Tevatron New

    2009-01-01

    We combine results from CDF and D0 on direct searches for a standard model (SM) Higgs boson (H) in ppbar collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron at sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV. Compared to the previous Higgs Tevatron combination, more data and new channels (WH to tau nu b bbar, VH to tau tau b bbar/jj tau tau,VH to jj b bbar, t tbar H to t tbar b bbar) have been added. Most previously used channels have been reanalyzed to gain sensitivity. We use the latest parton distribution functions and gg to H theoretical cross sections when comparing our limits to the SM predictions. With 2.0-3.6 fb-1 of data analyzed at CDF, and 0.9-4.2 fb-1 at D0, the 95% C.L. upper limits on Higgs boson production are a factor of 2.5 (0.86) times the SM cross section for a Higgs boson mass of m_H=115 (165) GeV/c^2. Based on simulation, the corresponding median expected upper limits are 2.4 (1.1). The mass range excluded at 95% C.L. for a SM Higgs has been extended to 160

  14. Combined CDF and D0 Upper Limits on Standard Model Higgs Boson Production with up to 8.6 fb-1 of Data

    CERN Document Server

    CDF, The

    2011-01-01

    We combine results from CDF and D0 on direct searches for the standard model (SM) Higgs boson (H) in ppbar collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron at sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV. Compared to the previous Tevatron Higgs boson search combination more data have been added, additional channels have been incorporated, and some previously used channels have been reanalyzed to gain sensitivity. We use the MSTW08 parton distribution functions and the latest theoretical cross sections when comparing our limits to the SM predictions. With up to 8.2 fb-1 of data analyzed at CDF and up to 8.6 fb-1 at D0, the 95% C.L. our upper limits on Higgs boson production are factors of 1.17, 1.71, and 0.48 times the values of the SM cross section for Higgs bosons of mass m_H=115 GeV/c^2, 140 GeV/c^2, and 165 GeV/c^2, respectively. The corresponding median upper limits expected in the absence of Higgs boson production are 1.16, 1.16, and 0.57. There is a small (approx. 1 sigma) excess of data events with respect to the background estimation in sear...

  15. An Upper Mass Limit on a Red Supergiant Progenitor for the Type II-Plateau Supernova SN 2006my

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Douglas C.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Fox, Derek B.; Cameron, P. B.; Johansson, Erik M.; Kraus, Adam L.; Le Mignant, David; van Dam, Marcos A.

    2008-12-01

    We analyze two pre-supernova (SN) and three post-SN high-resolution images of the site of the Type II-Plateau supernova SN 2006my in an effort to either detect the progenitor star or to constrain its properties. Following image registration, we find that an isolated stellar object is not detected at the location of SN 2006my in either of the two pre-SN images. In the first, an I-band image obtained with the Wide-Field and Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope, the offset between the SN 2006my location and a detected source (“Source 1”) is too large: ≥0.08‧‧, which corresponds to a confidence level of non-association of 96% from our most liberal estimates of the transformation and measurement uncertainties. In the second, a similarly obtained V-band image, a source is detected (“Source 2”) that has overlap with the SN 2006my location but is definitively an extended object. Through artificial star tests carried out on the precise location of SN 2006my in the images, we derive a 3 σ upper bound on the luminosity of a red supergiant that could have remained undetected in our pre-SN images of log L/L⊙ = 5.10, which translates to an upper bound on such a star’s initial mass of 15 M⊙ from the STARS stellar evolutionary models. Although considered unlikely, we can not rule out the possibility that part of the light comprising Source 1, which exhibits a slight extension relative to other point sources in the image, or part of the light contributing to the extended Source 2, may be due to the progenitor of SN 2006my. Only additional, high-resolution observations of the site taken after SN 2006my has faded beyond detection can confirm or reject these possibilities. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was

  16. Pushing the upper limit of Rayleigh-scatter Temperatures Retrievals into the Lower Thermosphere Using an Inversion Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandoro, J.; Sica, R. J.; Argall, S.

    2012-12-01

    An important aspect of solar terrestrial relations is the coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere-ionosphere system. The coupling is evident in the general circulation of the atmosphere, where waves generate in the lower atmosphere play an important role in the dynamics of the upper atmosphere, which feeds back on the lower atmosphere's circulation. To address coupling problems requires measurements over the broadest range of heights possible. A recently developed retrieval method for temperature profiles from Rayleigh-scatter lidar measurements using an inversion approach allows the upward extension of the altitude range of temperature by 10 to 15 km over the conventional method, thus producing the equivalent of increasing the systems power-aperture product by 4 times [1]. The method requires no changes to the lidar's hardware and thus, can be applied to the body of existing measurements. In addition, since the uncertainties of the retrieved temperature profile are found by a Monte Carlo error analysis, it is possible to isolate systematic and random uncertainties to model the effect of each one on the final uncertainty product for the temperature profile. This unambiguous separation of uncertainties was not previously possible as only the propagation of the statistical uncertainties are typically reported. For the Purple Crow Lidar, corrections for saturation (e.g. non-linearity) in the photocount returns, ozone extinction and background removal all contribute to the overall systematic uncertainty. Results of individually varying each systematic correction and the effect on the final temperature uncertainty through Monte Carlo realizations are presented to determine the importance for each one. For example, it was found that treatment of the background correction as a systematic versus statistical uncertainty gave results in agreement with each other. This new method is then applied to measurements obtained by the Purple Crow lidar' Rayleigh

  17. An upper limit on additional neutrino mass eigenstate in 2 to 100 eV region from "Troitsk nu-mass" data

    CERN Document Server

    Belesev, A I; Geraskin, E V; Golubev, A A; Likhovid, N A; Nozik, A A; Pantuev, V S; Parfenov, V I; Skasyrskaya, A K

    2012-01-01

    We performed a search for any sign of an additional neutrino mass state in beta-electron spectrum based on data reanalysis of direct electron antineutrino mass measurements in Tritium beta-decay in the Troitsk nu-mass experiment. The existing data set allows us to search for such a state in the mass range up to 100 eV. The lowest value at a 95% C.L. upper limit for the contribution of a heavy eigenstate into electron neutrino is around or less than 1% for masses above 20 eV.

  18. Medicaid program; withdrawal of determination of average manufacturer prices, multiple source drug definition, and upper limits for multiple source drugs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    This final rule withdraws two provisions from the "Medicaid Program; Prescription Drugs'' final rule (referred to hereafter as "AMP final rule") published in the July 17, 2007 Federal Register. The provisions we are withdrawing are as follows: The determination of average manufacturer price, and the Federal upper limits for multiple source drugs. We are also withdrawing the definition of "multiple source drug" as it was revised in the ``Medicaid Program; Multiple Source Drug Definition'' final rule published in the October 7, 2008 Federal Register.

  19. Upper limit of the muon-neutrino mass and charged-pion mass from the momentum analysis of a surface muon beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettle, P.R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    Using a surface muon beam and a magnetic spectrometer equipped with a position-sensitive detector, we have measured the muon momentum from pion decay at rest {pi}{sup +}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{nu}{sub {mu}}, to be p{sub {mu}{sup +}}=(29.79200{+-}0.00011)MeV/c. This value together with the muon mass and the favoured pion mass leads to an upper limit of 0.17 MeV (90%CL) for the muon-neutrino mass. (author) 4 figs., 5 refs.

  20. Gastrin-releasing peptide signaling plays a limited and subtle role in amygdala physiology and aversive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaperon, Frederique; Fendt, Markus; Kelly, Peter H; Lingenhoehl, Kurt; Mosbacher, Johannes; Olpe, Hans-Rudolf; Schmid, Peter; Sturchler, Christine; McAllister, Kevin H; van der Putten, P Herman; Gee, Christine E

    2012-01-01

    Links between synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA) and Pavlovian fear learning are well established. Neuropeptides including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) can modulate LA function. GRP increases inhibition in the LA and mice lacking the GRP receptor (GRPR KO) show more pronounced and persistent fear after single-trial associative learning. Here, we confirmed these initial findings and examined whether they extrapolate to more aspects of amygdala physiology and to other forms of aversive associative learning. GRP application in brain slices from wildtype but not GRPR KO mice increased spontaneous inhibitory activity in LA pyramidal neurons. In amygdala slices from GRPR KO mice, GRP did not increase inhibitory activity. In comparison to wildtype, short- but not long-term plasticity was increased in the cortico-lateral amygdala (LA) pathway of GRPR KO amygdala slices, whereas no changes were detected in the thalamo-LA pathway. In addition, GRPR KO mice showed enhanced fear evoked by single-trial conditioning and reduced spontaneous firing of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Altogether, these results are consistent with a potentially important modulatory role of GRP/GRPR signaling in the amygdala. However, administration of GRP or the GRPR antagonist (D-Phe(6), Leu-NHEt(13), des-Met(14))-Bombesin (6-14) did not affect amygdala LTP in brain slices, nor did they affect the expression of conditioned fear following intra-amygdala administration. GRPR KO mice also failed to show differences in fear expression and extinction after multiple-trial fear conditioning, and there were no differences in conditioned taste aversion or gustatory neophobia. Collectively, our data indicate that GRP/GRPR signaling modulates amygdala physiology in a paradigm-specific fashion that likely is insufficient to generate therapeutic effects across amygdala-dependent disorders.

  1. Gastrin-releasing peptide signaling plays a limited and subtle role in amygdala physiology and aversive memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Chaperon

    Full Text Available Links between synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA and Pavlovian fear learning are well established. Neuropeptides including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP can modulate LA function. GRP increases inhibition in the LA and mice lacking the GRP receptor (GRPR KO show more pronounced and persistent fear after single-trial associative learning. Here, we confirmed these initial findings and examined whether they extrapolate to more aspects of amygdala physiology and to other forms of aversive associative learning. GRP application in brain slices from wildtype but not GRPR KO mice increased spontaneous inhibitory activity in LA pyramidal neurons. In amygdala slices from GRPR KO mice, GRP did not increase inhibitory activity. In comparison to wildtype, short- but not long-term plasticity was increased in the cortico-lateral amygdala (LA pathway of GRPR KO amygdala slices, whereas no changes were detected in the thalamo-LA pathway. In addition, GRPR KO mice showed enhanced fear evoked by single-trial conditioning and reduced spontaneous firing of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA. Altogether, these results are consistent with a potentially important modulatory role of GRP/GRPR signaling in the amygdala. However, administration of GRP or the GRPR antagonist (D-Phe(6, Leu-NHEt(13, des-Met(14-Bombesin (6-14 did not affect amygdala LTP in brain slices, nor did they affect the expression of conditioned fear following intra-amygdala administration. GRPR KO mice also failed to show differences in fear expression and extinction after multiple-trial fear conditioning, and there were no differences in conditioned taste aversion or gustatory neophobia. Collectively, our data indicate that GRP/GRPR signaling modulates amygdala physiology in a paradigm-specific fashion that likely is insufficient to generate therapeutic effects across amygdala-dependent disorders.

  2. Energy Limits in Second Generation High-pitch Dual Source CT - Comparison in an Upper Abdominal Phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Beeres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of our study was to find out how much energy is applicable in second-generation dual source high-pitch computed tomography (CT in imaging of the abdomen. Materials and Methods: We examined an upper abdominal phantom using a Somatom Definition Flash CT-Scanner (Siemens, Forchheim, Germany. The study protocol consisted of a scan-series at 100 kV and 120 kV. In each scan series we started with a pitch of 3.2 and reduced it in steps of 0.2, until a pitch of 1.6 was reached. The current was adjusted to the maximum the scanner could achieve. Energy values, image noise, image quality, and radiation exposure were evaluated. Results: For a pitch of 3.2 the maximum applicable current was 142 mAs at 120 kV and in 100 kV the maximum applicable current was 114 mAs. For conventional abdominal imaging, current levels of 200 to 260 mAs are generally used. To achieve similar current levels, we had to decrease the pitch to 1.8 at 100 kV - at this pitch we could perform our imaging at 204 mAs. At a pitch of 2.2 in 120 kV we could apply a current of 206 mAs. Conclusion: We conclude our study by stating that if there is a need for a higher current, we have to reduce the pitch. In a high-pitch dual source CT, we always have to remember where our main focus is, so we can adjust the pitch to the energy we need in the area of the body that has to be imaged, to find answers to the clinical question being raised.

  3. Upper Packing Dimension of a Measure and the Limit Distribution of Products of i.i.d. Stochastic Matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arunava Mukherjea; Ricardo Restrepo

    2009-11-01

    This article gives sufficient conditions for the limit distribution of products of i.i.d. 2 × 2 stochastic matrices to be continuous singular, when the support of the distribution of the individual random matrices is countably infinite. It extends a previous result for which the support of the random matrices is finite. The result is based on adapting existing proofs in the context of attractors and iterated function systems to the case of infinite iterated function systems.

  4. Pursuing the planet-debris disk connection: Analysis of upper limits from the Anglo-Australian planet search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Marshall, Jonathan P., E-mail: rob@phys.unsw.edu.au [School of Physics, UNSW Australia, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2015-02-01

    Solid material in protoplanetary disks will suffer one of two fates after the epoch of planet formation; either being bound up into planetary bodies, or remaining in smaller planetesimals to be ground into dust. These end states are identified through detection of sub-stellar companions by periodic radial velocity (or transit) variations of the star, and excess emission at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths, respectively. Since the material that goes into producing the observable outcomes of planet formation is the same, we might expect these components to be related both to each other and their host star. Heretofore, our knowledge of planetary systems around other stars has been strongly limited by instrumental sensitivity. In this work, we combine observations at far-infrared wavelengths by IRAS, Spitzer, and Herschel with limits on planetary companions derived from non-detections in the 16 year Anglo-Australian Planet Search to clarify the architectures of these (potential) planetary systems and search for evidence of correlations between their constituent parts. We find no convincing evidence of such correlations, possibly owing to the dynamical history of the disk systems, or the greater distance of the planet-search targets. Our results place robust limits on the presence of Jupiter analogs which, in concert with the debris disk observations, provides insights on the small-body dynamics of these nearby systems.

  5. The Use of Limited Fluid Resuscitation and Blood Pressure-Controlling Drugs in the Treatment of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Concomitant with Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bo; Li, Mao-Qin; Li, Jia-Qiong

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the limited fluid resuscitation regimen combined with blood pressure-controlling drugs in treating acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage concomitant with hemorrhagic shock. A total of 51 patients were enrolled and divided into a group that received traditional fluid resuscitation group (conventional group, 24 patients) and a limited fluid resuscitation group (study group, 27 patients). Before and after resuscitation, the blood lactate, base excess, and hemoglobin values, as well as the volume of fluid resuscitation and resuscitation time were examined. Compared with conventional group, study group had significantly better values of blood lactate, base excess, and hemoglobin (all p bleeding control and resuscitation effectiveness.

  6. Negatively Biased Relevant Subsets Induced by the Most-Powerful One-Sided Upper Confidence Limits for a Bounded Physical Parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Cousins, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    Suppose an observable x is the measured value (negative or non-negative) of a true mean mu (physically non-negative) in an experiment with a Gaussian resolution function with known fixed rms deviation s. The most powerful one-sided upper confidence limit at 95% C.L. is UL = x+1.64s, which I refer to as the "original diagonal line". Perceived problems in HEP with small or non-physical upper limits for x<0 historically led, for example, to substitution of max(0,x) for x, and eventually to abandonment in the Particle Data Group's Review of Particle Physics of this diagonal line relationship between UL and x. Recently Cowan, Cranmer, Gross, and Vitells (CCGV) have advocated a concept of "power constraint" that when applied to this problem yields variants of diagonal line, including UL = max(-1,x)+1.64s. Thus it is timely to consider again what is problematic about the original diagonal line, and whether or not modifications cure these defects. In a 2002 Comment, statistician Leon Jay Gleser pointed to the lite...

  7. CO mass upper limits in the Fomalhaut ring - the importance of NLTE excitation in debris discs and future prospects with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Matrà, L; Wyatt, M C; Dent, W R F

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, gas has been observed in an increasing number of debris discs, though its nature remains to be determined. Here, we analyse CO molecular excitation in optically thin debris discs, and search ALMA Cycle-0 data for CO J=3-2 emission in the Fomalhaut ring. No significant line emission is observed; we set a 3-$\\sigma$ upper limit on the integrated line flux of 0.16 Jy km s$^{-1}$. We show a significant dependency of the CO excitation on the density of collisional partners $n$, on the gas kinetic temperature $T_k$ and on the ambient radiation field $J$, suggesting that assumptions widely used for protoplanetary discs (e.g. LTE) do not necessarily apply to their low density debris counterparts. When applied to the Fomalhaut ring, we consider a primordial origin scenario where H$_2$ dominates collisional excitation of CO, and a secondary origin scenario dominated by e$^-$ and H$_2$O. In either scenario, we obtain a strict upper limit on the CO mass of 4.9 $\\times$ 10$^{-4}$ M$_{\\oplus}$. This arises...

  8. K band SINFONI spectra of two $z \\sim 5$ SMGs: upper limits to the un-obscured star formation from [O II] optical emission line searches

    CERN Document Server

    Couto, Guilherme S; López, Javier Piqueras; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Arribas, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present deep SINFONI K band integral field spectra of two submillimeter (SMG) galaxy systems: BR 1202-0725 and J1000+0234, at $z=4.69$ and $4.55$ respectively. Spectra extracted for each object in the two systems do not show any signature of the [O II]$\\lambda\\lambda$3726,29\\AA$\\,$ emission-lines, placing upper flux limits of $3.9$ and $2.5 \\times 10^{-18}\\,$${\\rm erg\\,s^{-1}\\,\\,cm^{-2} \\,}$ for BR 1202-0725 and J1000+0234, respectively. Using the relation between the star formation rate (SFR) and the luminosity of the [O II] doublet from Kennicutt (1998), we estimate unobscured SFR upper limits of $\\sim$ $10-15\\,\\rm M_\\odot\\,yr^{-1} \\,$ and $\\sim$ $30-40\\,\\rm M_\\odot\\,yr^{-1} \\,$ for the objects of the two systems, respectively. For the SMGs, these values are at least two orders of magnitude lower than those derived from SED and IR luminosities. The differences on the SFR values would correspond to internal extinction of, at least, $3.4 - 4.9$ and $2.1 - 3.6$ mag in the visual for BR 1202-0725 and J1000+0...

  9. An assessment of racial differences in the upper limits of normal ALT levels in children and the effect of obesity on elevated values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliethermes, S; Ma, M; Purtell, C; Balasubramanian, N; Gonzalez, B; Layden, T J; Cotler, S J

    2017-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and poses important public health issues for children. Racial differences in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels among children have not been described. This study aimed to identify racial differences in upper limit normal (ULN) ALT levels and evaluate the effect of obesity on elevated levels in children without other metabolic risk factors. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and clinical data from the Loyola University Health System were used to determine ULN ALT by race and gender. Quantile regression was used to evaluate the impact of obesity on elevated ALT and to identify potential risk factors for ALT above the ULN. Upper limit normal (ULN) ALT was approximately 28.0 and 21.0-24.0 U/L for boys and girls, respectively. No significant difference in ULN ALT across race was observed. Obesity was significantly associated with elevated ALT; obese children with elevated ALT had values 10 U/L higher than normal-weight children. Racial differences in ALT levels among adults are not evident in children. Obesity, in the absence of metabolic risk factors and other causes of liver disease, is associated with elevated ALT, providing evidence against the concept of healthy obesity in children. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  10. Development of analytical code for core disruptive accident of metallic fuel core and evaluation of upper limitation of coolant void reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Nobuyuki [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab

    2001-06-01

    In the event of HCDA (Hypothetical Core Damage Accident) the safety of the metallic core must be ensured. Coolant void reactivity, which produces a positive reactivity effect, must be restrained to exclude 'energetic sequence' (uncontrollable power generation). As this reactivity and the core performance are in a state of confrontation, an upper limit must be determined through safety analyses. The larger the coolant void reactivity becomes, the more the core performance improves. A core dynamics analysis code named CANIS has been developed to analysis metallic fuel properties, irradiation behavior, and transient behavior in the initiating phase of HCDA. ULOF (Unprotected Loss Of Flow) events, which are considered major HCDA initiators, are analyzed with various parameters of cladding failure conditions and molten fuel dispersion velocities. The results indicate, the cladding failure condition is the most sensitive safety parameter. The coolant void reactivity of 12$ is acceptable in the condition that cladding fails at 1,000 degC. And the upper value is limited to 8$ for the conservative condition of a 1,200 degC failure criteria. (author)

  11. Physiology of Geobacter metallireducens under excess and limitation of electron donors. Part I. Batch cultivation with excess of carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozava, Sviatlana; Röling, Wilfred F M; Seifert, Jana; Küffner, Robert; von Bergen, Martin; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2014-06-01

    For microorganisms that play an important role in bioremediation, the adaptation to swift changes in the availability of various substrates is a key for survival. The iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter metallireducens was hypothesized to repress utilization of less preferred substrates in the presence of high concentrations of easily degradable compounds. In our experiments, acetate and ethanol were preferred over benzoate, but benzoate was co-consumed with toluene and butyrate. To reveal overall physiological changes caused by different single substrates and a mixture of acetate plus benzoate, a nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach (nano-LC-MS/MS) was performed using label-free quantification. Significant differential expression during growth on different substrates was observed for 155 out of 1477 proteins. The benzoyl-CoA pathway was found to be subjected to incomplete repression during exponential growth on acetate in the presence of benzoate and on butyrate as a single substrate. Peripheral pathways of toluene, ethanol, and butyrate degradation were highly expressed only during growth on the corresponding substrates. However, low expression of these pathways was detected in all other tested conditions. Therefore, G. metallireducens seems to lack strong carbon catabolite repression under high substrate concentrations, which might be advantageous for survival in habitats rich in fatty acids and aromatic hydrocarbons.

  12. Global Transcriptional and Physiological Responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Ammonium, L-Alanine, or L-Glutamine Limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usaite, Renata; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Grotkjær, Thomas;

    2006-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encounters a range of nitrogen sources at various concentrations in its environment. The impact of these two parameters on transcription and metabolism was studied by growing S. cerevisiae in chemostat cultures with L-glutamine, L-alanine, or L-ammonium in limit......The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encounters a range of nitrogen sources at various concentrations in its environment. The impact of these two parameters on transcription and metabolism was studied by growing S. cerevisiae in chemostat cultures with L-glutamine, L-alanine, or L...... activity in L-alanine-limited cells. The changes in these cells were found to be focused around pyruvate, acetyl coenzyme A, glyoxylate, and alpha-ketoglutarate via increased levels of ALT1, DAL7, PYC1, GDH2, and ADH5 and decreased levels of GDH3, CIT2, and ACS1 transcripts. The transcript profiles were...

  13. Dependence of hemostasis indices on external environment nemperature in women with physiological pregnancy accompanied by limitation of liquid intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhulina N.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal was to study the influence of extremely high temperatures on the hemostasis indices in patients with uncomplicated pregnancies with the concomitant limitation of liquid intake. The research results of hemostasis of pregnant women being hospitalized during the period of spring and summer in 2010 have been analyzed. The differences in the level of hypercoagulation changes of hemostasis in summer and spring have been found to be insignificant. In the platelet link hemostasis in summer of 2010, as compared to the spring, the increase of platelet aggregation and amount has been observed, with the exception of the third trimester, which is marked by the decrease of platelet amount. Hot seasons and liquid intake limitations make additional demands on hemostasis adaptive capacity, increasing the risk of thrombohemorrhagic complications

  14. [Limits and possibilities of 2D video analysis in evaluating physiological and pathological foot rolling motion in runners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, S; Müller, O; Bäurle, W; Beck, M; Krauss, I; Maiwald, C; Baur, H; Mayer, F

    2000-09-01

    Three-dimensional movements of the lower extremities in support phases are usually evaluated with the help of video analysis. This analysis is mainly done two-dimensionally in a frontal and sagittal plane. Usually, the temporal ankle of the achilles tendon respectively rear foot are analysed in the frontal plane, the knee and upper ankle angle in the sagittal plane, because their values are made responsible for different sport injuries. However, so far a correlation between different injuries and biomechanical parameters could not be proven. Often, small changes in 2D video data are discussed without considering the reliability of this method of measurement. It was the aim of this study to evaluate these parameters in 2D video analyses (2D-VA) which characterize the support phases of the foot. A second goal was to find out whether a connection between these angles and chronic achillodynia can then be sensibly proven. 32 male test persons consisting of a control group (KO, n = 14) without injuries and a group with chronic achillodynia (AD, n = 18), have been examined with the test/retest method in weekly intervals. The biomechanical running analysis was done with the help of 2D-VA in the frontal and sagittal plane on a treadmill at a speed of 80% of the individual anaerobic threshold with different shoes. The test/retest variability was for all measuring points not at all satisfying. Both groups showed big mean variations in both shoes and minimal differences in the measured angles. Because of the poor capability of reproduction of the 2D-VA for angles in the frontal plane this measuring method is only usable with restrictions for the evaluation of the support phase.

  15. Phenology, growth and physiological adjustments of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) to sink limitation induced by fruit pruning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, S; Mialet-Serra, I; Caliman, J-P; Siregar, F A; Clement-Vidal, A; Fabre, D; Dingkuhn, M

    2009-11-01

    Despite its simple architecture and small phenotypic plasticity, oil palm has complex phenology and source-sink interactions. Phytomers appear in regular succession but their development takes years, involving long lag periods between environmental influences and their effects on sinks. Plant adjustments to resulting source-sink imbalances are poorly understood. This study investigated oil palm adjustments to imbalances caused by severe fruit pruning. An experiment with two treatments (control and complete fruit pruning) during 22 months in 2006-2008) and six replications per treatment was conducted in Indonesia. Phenology, growth of above-ground vegetative and reproductive organs, leaf morphology, inflorescence sex differentiation, dynamics of non-structural carbohydrate reserves and light-saturated net photosynthesis (A(max)) were monitored. Artificial sink limitation by complete fruit pruning accelerated development rate, resulting in higher phytomer, leaf and inflorescence numbers. Leaf size and morphology remained unchanged. Complete fruit pruning also suppressed the abortion of male inflorescences, estimated to be triggered at about 16 months before bunch maturity. The number of female inflorescences increased after an estimated lag of 24-26 months, corresponding to time from sex differentiation to bunch maturity. The most important adjustment process was increased assimilate storage in the stem, attaining nearly 50 % of dry weight in the stem top, mainly as starch, whereas glucose, which in controls was the most abundant non-structural carbohydrate stored in oil palm, decreased. The development rate of oil palm is in part controlled by source-sink relationships. Although increased rate of development and proportion of female inflorescences constituted observed adjustments to sink limitation, the low plasticity of plant architecture (constant leaf size, absence of branching) limited compensatory growth. Non-structural carbohydrate storage was thus the main

  16. Physiology of Aspergillus niger in Oxygen-Limited Continuous Cultures: Influence of Aeration, Carbon Source Concentration and Dilution Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diano, Audrey; Peeters, J.; Dynesen, Jens Østergaard

    2009-01-01

    In industrial production of enzymes using the filamentous fungus Aspergilhis niger supply of sufficient oxygen is often a limitation, resulting in the formation of by-products such as polyols. In order to identify the mechanisms behind formation of the different by-products we studied the effect...... of low oxygen availability, at different carbon source concentrations and at different specific growth rates, on the metabolism of A. niger, using continuous cultures. The results show that there is an increase in the production of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates at low oxygen concentrations...

  17. Physiologic and dosimetric considerations for limiting electric fields induced in the body by movement in a static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Kari; Saunders, Richard D

    2011-06-01

    Movement in a strong static magnetic field induces electric fields in a human body, which may result in various sensory perceptions such as vertigo, nausea, magnetic phosphenes, and a metallic taste in the mouth. These sensory perceptions have been observed by patients and medical staff in the vicinity of modern diagnostic magnetic resonance (MR) equipment and may be distracting if they were to affect the balance and eye-hand coordination of, for example, a physician carrying out a medical operation during MR scanning. The stimulation of peripheral nerve tissue by a more intense induced electric field is also theoretically possible but has not been reported to result from such movement. The main objective of this study is to consider generic criteria for limiting the slowly varying broadband (magnetic field. In order to find a link between the static magnetic flux density and the time-varying induced electric field, the static magnetic field is converted to the homogeneous equivalent transient and sinusoidal magnetic fields exposing a stationary body. Two cases are considered: a human head moving in a non-uniform magnetic field and a head rotating in a homogeneous magnetic field. Then the electric field is derived from the magnetic flux rate (dB/dt) of the equivalent field by using computational dosimetric data published in the literature for various models of the human body. This conversion allows the plotting of the threshold electric field as a function of frequency for vertigo, phosphenes, and stimulation of peripheral nerves. The main conclusions of the study are: The basic restrictions for limiting exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection ICNIRP in 1998 will prevent most cases of vertigo and other sensory perceptions that result from induced electric fields above 1 Hz, while limiting the static magnetic field below 2 T, as recently recommended by ICNIRP, provides

  18. Combined CDF and D0 Upper Limits on Standard Model Higgs Boson Production with up to 8.6 fb-1 of Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CDF, The; Collaborations, D0; Phenomena, the Tevatron New; Group, Higgs Working

    2011-07-01

    We combine results from CDF and D0 on direct searches for the standard model (SM) Higgs boson (H) in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Compared to the previous Tevatron Higgs boson search combination more data have been added, additional channels have been incorporated, and some previously used channels have been reanalyzed to gain sensitivity. We use the MSTW08 parton distribution functions and the latest theoretical cross sections when comparing our limits to the SM predictions. With up to 8.2 fb{sup -1} of data analyzed at CDF and up to 8.6 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% C.L. our upper limits on Higgs boson production are factors of 1.17, 1.71, and 0.48 times the values of the SM cross section for Higgs bosons of mass m{sub H} = 115 GeV/c{sup 2}, 140 GeV/c{sup 2}, and 165 GeV/c{sup 2}, respectively. The corresponding median upper limits expected in the absence of Higgs boson production are 1.16, 1.16, and 0.57. There is a small ({approx} 1{sigma}) excess of data events with respect to the background estimation in searches for the Higgs boson in the mass range 125 < m{sub H} < 155 GeV/c{sup 2}. We exclude, at the 95% C.L., a new and larger region at high mass between 156 < m{sub H} < 177 GeV/c{sup 2}, with an expected exclusion region of 148 < m{sub H} < 180 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  19. On the Upper Limit (Heaviest Element in the Periodic Table of Elements, and the Periodic Table of Anti-Substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the method involving equilateral hyperbolas developed by us with ref- erence to the Periodic Table, its Top Limit has been established. It is the last element with atomic mass 411.66 and serial number 155. The great value, according to our calculation, has adjacent hyperbolas whose center is the point (0; 1. With the method, it has been possible to find just one element in the Periodic Table — Rhodium, which does not demand additional calculations involving the definition of the valid axes. Cal- culations towards updating the charge of a nucleus and the quantity of neutrons in end N-Z part of the diagram by means of the serial number 155 are herein executed. The variant of the Periodic Table of Elements with the eighth period is recommended. On the basis of symmetry, with the application of the Hyperbolic Law in the Periodic Table of Elements, the existence of Anti-Substances is herein indirectly proved.

  20. Upper Limit on Dimming of Cosmological Sources by Intergalactic Grey Dust from the Soft X-ray Background

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkstra, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) produce a dominant fraction (~80%) of the Soft X-ray background (SXB) at photon energies 0.5limit the intergalactic opacity to optical/infrared photons from large dust grains (with radii in the range a=0.2-2.0 mum) to a level tau_GD<0.15(F_halo/10%) to a redshift z~1. Our results are only weakly dependent on the grain size distribution or the redshift evolution of the intergalactic dust. Stacking X-ray images of AGN can be used to improve our constraints and diminish the importance of dust as a source of systematic uncertainty for future supernova surveys which aim to improve the precision on measuring the redshift evolution of the dark energy equation-of-state.

  1. Nearing the cold-arid limits of microbial life in permafrost of an upper dry valley, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goordial, Jacqueline; Davila, Alfonso; Lacelle, Denis; Pollard, Wayne; Marinova, Margarita M; Greer, Charles W; DiRuggiero, Jocelyn; McKay, Christopher P; Whyte, Lyle G

    2016-07-01

    Some of the coldest and driest permafrost soils on Earth are located in the high-elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDVs) of Antarctica, but little is known about the permafrost microbial communities other than that microorganisms are present in these valleys. Here, we describe the microbiology and habitable conditions of highly unique dry and ice-cemented permafrost in University Valley, one of the coldest and driest regions in the MDVs (1700 m above sea level; mean temperature -23 °C; no degree days above freezing), where the ice in permafrost originates from vapour deposition rather than liquid water. We found that culturable and total microbial biomass in University Valley was extremely low, and microbial activity under ambient conditions was undetectable. Our results contrast with reports from the lower-elevation Dry Valleys and Arctic permafrost soils where active microbial populations are found, suggesting that the combination of severe cold, aridity, oligotrophy of University Valley permafrost soils severely limit microbial activity and survival.

  2. Core Functional Traits of Bacterial Communities in the Upper Mississippi River Show Limited Variation in Response to Land Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher eStaley

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic characterization of environmental microbial communities via high-throughput DNA sequencing has revealed that patterns in microbial biogeography affect community structure. However, shifts in functional diversity related to variation in taxonomic composition are poorly understood. To overcome limitations due to the prohibitive cost of high-depth metagenomic sequencing, tools to infer functional diversity based on phylogenetic distributions of functional traits have been developed. In this study we characterized functional microbial diversity at 11 sites along the Mississippi River in Minnesota using both metagenomic sequencing and functional-inference-based (PICRUSt approaches. This allowed us to determine how distance and variation in land cover throughout the river influenced the distribution of functional traits, as well as to validate PICRUSt inferences. The distribution and abundance of functional traits, by metagenomic analysis, were similar among sites, with a median standard deviation of 0.0002% among tier 3 functions in KEGG. Overall inferred functional variation was significantly different (P ≤ 0.035 between two water basins surrounded by agricultural versus developed land cover, and abundances of bacterial orders that correlated with functional traits by metagenomic analysis were greater where abundances of the trait were inferred to be higher. PICRUSt inferences were significantly correlated (r = 0.147, P = 1.80 × 10-30 with metagenomic annotations. Discrepancies between metagenomic and PICRUSt taxonomic-functional relationships, however, suggested potential functional redundancy among abundant and rare taxa that impeded the ability to accurately assess unique functional traits among rare taxa at this sequencing depth. Results of this study suggest that a suite of ‘core functional traits’ is conserved throughout the river and distributions of functional traits, rather than specific taxa, may shift in response to

  3. Setting an upper limit on the myoglobin iron(IV)hydroxide pK(a): insight into axial ligand tuning in heme protein catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosca, Timothy H; Behan, Rachel K; Krest, Courtney M; Onderko, Elizabeth L; Langston, Matthew C; Green, Michael T

    2014-06-25

    To provide insight into the iron(IV)hydroxide pK(a) of histidine ligated heme proteins, we have probed the active site of myoglobin compound II over the pH range of 3.9-9.5, using EXAFS, Mössbauer, and resonance Raman spectroscopies. We find no indication of ferryl protonation over this pH range, allowing us to set an upper limit of 2.7 on the iron(IV)hydroxide pK(a) in myoglobin. Together with the recent determination of an iron(IV)hydroxide pK(a) ∼ 12 in the thiolate-ligated heme enzyme cytochrome P450, this result provides insight into Nature's ability to tune catalytic function through its choice of axial ligand.

  4. Upper limits for the production of the eta-mesic Helium in the dd ->3Henpi0 and dd -> 3Heppi- reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Skurzok, M; Rundel, O; Moskal, P

    2016-01-01

    We performed a search for 4He-eta bound state in dd -> 3Henpi0 and dd -> 3Heppi- reactions with the WASA-at-COSY facility using a ramped beam technique. The measurement was carried out with high statistics and high acceptance. The signature of eta-mesic nuclei was searched for by the measurement of the excitation functions in the vicinity of the eta production threshold for each of the considered channels. We did not observe the narrow structure which could be interpreted as a bound state. The preliminary upper limits of the total cross sections for the bound state production and decay varies from 21 nb to 36 nb for the dd -> 3Henpi0 channel, and from 5 nb to 9 nb for the dd -> 3Heppi- channel for the bound state width ranging from 5 to 50 MeV.

  5. Herschel/HIFI observations of Mars: first detection of O_2 at submillimetre wavelengths and upper limits on HCl and H_2O_2

    CERN Document Server

    Hartogh, P; Lellouch, E; de Val-Borro, M; Rengel, M; Moreno, R; Medvedev, A S; Sagawa, H; Swinyard, B M; Cavalié, T; Lis, D C; Błęcka, M I; Banaszkiewicz, M; Bockelée-Morvan, D; Crovisier, J; Encrenaz, T; Küppers, M; Lara, L -M; Szutowicz, S; Vandenbussche, B; Bensch, F; Bergin, E A; Billebaud, F; Biver, N; Blake, G A; Blommaert, J A D L; Cernicharo, J; Decin, L; Encrenaz, P; Feuchtgruber, H; Fulton, T; de Graauw, T; Jehin, E; Kidger, M; Lorente, R; Naylor, D A; Portyankina, G; Sánchez-Portal, M; Schieder, R; Sidher, S; Thomas, N; Verdugo, E; Waelkens, C; Whyborn, N; Teyssier, D; Helmich, F; Roelfsema, P; Stutzki, J; LeDuc, H G; Stern, J A

    2010-01-01

    We report on the initial analysis of Herschel/HIFI observations of hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) and molecular oxygen (O_2) in the martian atmosphere performed on 13 and 16 April 2010 (L_s ~ 77{\\deg}). We derived a constant volume mixing ratio of 1400 +/- 120 ppm for O_2 and determined upper limits of 200 ppt for HCl and 2 ppb for H_2O_2. Radiative transfer model calculations indicate that the vertical profile of O_2 may not be constant. Photochemical models find lowest values for H_2O_2 around L_s ~ 75{\\deg} but overestimate the volume mixing ratio compared to our measurements.

  6. Search for quantum transducers between electromagnetic and gravitational radiation A measurement of an upper limit on the transducer conversion efficiency of yttrium barium copper oxide

    CERN Document Server

    Chiao, R Y; Speliotopoulos, A D

    2003-01-01

    A minimal coupling rule for the coupling of the electron spin to curved spacetime in general relativity suggests the possibility of a coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational radiation mediated by means of a quantum fluid. Thus quantum transducers between these two kinds of radiation fields might exist. We report here on the first attempt at a Hertz-type experiment, in which a high-$\\rm{T_c}$ superconductor (YBCO) was the sample material used as a possible quantum transducer to convert EM into GR microwaves, and a second piece of YBCO in a separate apparatus was used to back-convert GR into EM microwaves. An upper limit on the conversion efficiency of YBCO was measured to be $1.6\\times10^{-5}$ at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  7. Bulk loading of calcium indicator dyes to study astrocyte physiology: key limitations and improvements using morphological maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Alexander M B; Shigetomi, Eiji; Khakh, Baljit S

    2011-06-22

    Calcium signaling has been studied in astrocyte cell bodies using bulk loading of calcium indicator dyes, and astrocytes are known to display intracellular calcium transients. An assumption in recent data on the neuronal impact of somatic astrocyte calcium transients has been that bulk loading reflects signaling in relevant astrocyte compartments such as processes. We assessed bulk loading using Sholl analysis (Sholl, 1953) of astrocytes loaded with common calcium indicator dyes and compared these data with Sholl analysis of astrocyte morphology. In the CA1 region of the hippocampus from rats, we found that bulk loading of calcium indicator dyes only reports on calcium signals within the soma and in the most proximal processes, leaving ∼90% of the area of an astrocyte and its extensive processes unsampled. By using morphological reconstructions as "maps" after the imaging session, we present simple procedures that remedy these shortfalls and permit reliable detection of calcium transients in distal astrocyte processes. The data thus reveal limitations in the interpretation of astrocyte calcium imaging data gathered with bulk loading and provide refinements to minimize these shortcomings.

  8. Analysis of Reach-to-Grasp by School-Aged Children with Down Syndrome Elucidates Limitations in Upper Extremity Motor Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvano, Joanne; Hogy, Sara; Worster, Kate; Ma, Julie; Denniston, Nancy; Winders, Patricia; Rapport, Mary Jane; Pan, Zhaoxing; Carollo, James J

    2017-11-01

    To identify limitations in preparatory planning (PP) and movement execution that constrain performance of reach-to-grasp (RTG) movements in school-aged children with Down syndrome (DS) and examine the effect of chronological age (CA) on performance. Nine children with DS ages 6 to 12 years and nine with typical development (TD) participated in this pilot descriptive study. Three-dimensional kinematic analysis was applied to RTG movements performed in the context of two functional tasks. PP variables focused on the coordination of reach and grasp. Compared to the group with TD, the group with DS demonstrated significant limitations in anticipatory slowing down of hand transport and orientation of the hand in preparation for object contact. There was also relatively late onset of preparatory grip formation in the group with DS. In regard to movement execution, reach trajectories of the group with DS showed significantly greater deviation from the straight path. Correlations of study variables with CA were low and insignificant in both groups. Motor control mechanisms that mediate both PP and execution of the fundamental RTG movement are potential factors limiting upper extremity activity in school-aged children with DS. They should be addressed in future intervention-based research.

  9. Assessment of thyroid function during first-trimester pregnancy: what is the rational upper limit of serum TSH during the first trimester in Chinese pregnant women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenyan; Shan, Zhongyan; Mao, Jinyuan; Wang, Weiwei; Xie, Xiaochen; Zhou, Weiwei; Li, Chenyang; Xu, Bin; Bi, Lihua; Meng, Tao; Du, Jianling; Zhang, Shaowei; Gao, Zhengnan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Liu; Fan, Chenling; Teng, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) proposed that the upper limit of the TSH reference range should be 2.5 mIU/L in first trimester, but the reported ranges in China are significantly higher. Our objective was to establish a rational reference range of serum TSH for diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism in the first trimester of pregnant women in China. We screened 4800 pregnant women in the first trimester and 2000 women who planned to become pregnant and evaluated 535 pregnant women in follow-up visits during the second and third trimester. Median concentrations of serum TSH decreased significantly from the seventh week of gestation. The median of TSH from 4 to 6 weeks was significantly higher than from 7 to 12 weeks (2.15 [0.56-5.31] mIU/L vs 1.47 [0.10-4.34] mIU/L, Pwomen (2.07 [0.69-5.64] mIU/L; P=.784). The median of free T4 was not significantly altered in the first trimester. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the 4800 pregnant women was 27.8% on the diagnostic criteria of TSH>2.5 mIU/L and 4.0% using the reference interval derived by our laboratory (0.14-4.87 mIU/L).Additionally, of 118 pregnant women who had serum TSH>2.5 mIU/L in the first trimester, only 30.0% and 20.3% of them at the 20th and 30th week of gestation had TSH>3.0 mIU/L. The reference range for nonpregnant women can be used for the assessment of pregnant women at 4 to 6 weeks of gestation. The upper limit of serum TSH in the first trimester was much higher than 2.5 mIU/L in Chinese pregnant women.

  10. Radial transport of large-scale magnetic fields in accretion disks. I. Steady solutions and an upper limit on the vertical field strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuzumi, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Taku [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Muto, Takayuki, E-mail: okuzumi@geo.titech.ac.jp [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2 Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8677 (Japan)

    2014-04-20

    Large-scale magnetic fields are key ingredients of magnetically driven disk accretion. We study how large-scale poloidal fields evolve in accretion disks, with the primary aim of quantifying the viability of magnetic accretion mechanisms in protoplanetary disks. We employ a kinematic mean-field model for poloidal field transport and focus on steady states where inward advection of a field balances with outward diffusion due to effective resistivities. We analytically derive the steady-state radial distribution of poloidal fields in highly conducting accretion disks. The analytic solution reveals an upper limit on the strength of large-scale vertical fields attainable in steady states. Any excess poloidal field will diffuse away within a finite time, and we demonstrate this with time-dependent numerical calculations of the mean-field equations. We apply this upper limit to large-scale vertical fields threading protoplanetary disks. We find that the maximum attainable strength is about 0.1 G at 1 AU, and about 1 mG at 10 AU from the central star. When combined with recent magnetic accretion models, the maximum field strength translates into the maximum steady-state accretion rate of ∼10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, in agreement with observations. We also find that the maximum field strength is ∼1 kG at the surface of the central star provided that the disk extends down to the stellar surface. This implies that any excess stellar poloidal field of strength ≳ kG can be transported to the surrounding disk. This might in part resolve the magnetic flux problem in star formation.

  11. WARM JUPITERS NEED CLOSE ''FRIENDS'' FOR HIGH-ECCENTRICITY MIGRATION—A STRINGENT UPPER LIMIT ON THE PERTURBER'S SEPARATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Subo [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Road 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Katz, Boaz; Socrates, Aristotle [Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Dr., Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    We propose a stringent observational test on the formation of warm Jupiters (gas-giant planets with 10 days ≲ P ≲ 100 days) by high-eccentricity (high-e) migration mechanisms. Unlike hot Jupiters, the majority of observed warm Jupiters have pericenter distances too large to allow efficient tidal dissipation to induce migration. To access the close pericenter required for migration during a Kozai-Lidov cycle, they must be accompanied by a strong enough perturber to overcome the precession caused by general relativity, placing a strong upper limit on the perturber's separation. For a warm Jupiter at a ∼ 0.2 AU, a Jupiter-mass (solar-mass) perturber is required to be ≲ 3 AU (≲ 30 AU) and can be identified observationally. Among warm Jupiters detected by radial velocities (RVs), ≳ 50% (5 out of 9) with large eccentricities (e ≳ 0.4) have known Jovian companions satisfying this necessary condition for high-e migration. In contrast, ≲ 20% (3 out of 17) of the low-e (e ≲ 0.2) warm Jupiters have detected additional Jovian companions, suggesting that high-e migration with planetary perturbers may not be the dominant formation channel. Complete, long-term RV follow-ups of the warm-Jupiter population will allow a firm upper limit to be put on the fraction of these planets formed by high-e migration. Transiting warm Jupiters showing spin-orbit misalignments will be interesting to apply our test. If the misalignments are solely due to high-e migration as commonly suggested, we expect that the majority of warm Jupiters with low-e (e ≲ 0.2) are not misaligned, in contrast with low-e hot Jupiters.

  12. Ages of young star clusters, massive blue stragglers, and the upper mass limit of stars: Analyzing age-dependent stellar mass functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, F. R. N.; Izzard, R. G.; Langer, N.; Stolte, A.; Hußmann, B. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie der Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); De Mink, S. E. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); De Koter, A.; Sana, H. [Astronomical Institute " Anton Pannekoek" , Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gvaramadze, V. V. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Universitetskij Pr. 13, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Liermann, A., E-mail: fschneid@astro.uni-bonn.de [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-01-10

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters that can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present-day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that the shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages as 3.5 ± 0.7 Myr and 4.8 ± 1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e., the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to probe stochastic sampling, which support the idea of the most massive stars being rejuvenated binary products. We find that the most massive star is expected to be a binary product after 1.0 ± 0.7 Myr in Arches and after 1.7 ± 1.0 Myr in Quintuplet. Today, the most massive 9 ± 3 stars in Arches and 8 ± 3 in Quintuplet are expected to be such objects. Our findings have strong implications for the stellar upper mass limit and solve the discrepancy between the claimed 150 M {sub ☉} limit and observations of four stars with initial masses of 165-320 M {sub ☉} in R136 and of supernova 2007bi, which is thought to be a pair-instability supernova from an initial 250 M {sub ☉} star. Using the stellar population of R136, we revise the upper mass limit to values in the range

  13. MAGIC Upper Limits for two Milagro-detected, Bright Fermi Sources in the Region of SNR G65.1+0.6

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antoranz, P; Backes, M; Barrio, J A; Bastieri, D; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berdyugin, A; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Boller, A; Bonnoli, G; Bordas, P; Tridon, D Borla; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bose, D; Braun, I; Bretz, T; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; del Pozo, E De Cea; De Lotto, B; De Maria, M; De Sabata, F; DelgadoMendez, C; Ortega, A Diago; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Elsaesser, D; Errando, M; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Giavitto, G; Godinović, N; Hadasch, D; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Höhne-Mönch, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Jogler, T; Klepser, S; Krähenbühl, T; Kranich, D; Krause, J; La Barbera, A; Leonardo, E; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Miyamoto, H; Moldón, J; Moralejo, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Orito, R; Oya, I; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Partini, S; Pasanen, M; Pauss, F; Pegna, R G; Perez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Pochon, J; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puchades, N; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rissi, M; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, K; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Sánchez-Conde, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shore, S N; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Storz, J; Strah, N; Struebig, J C; Suric, T; Takalo, L; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Torres, D F; Vankov, H; Wagner, R M; Weitzel, Q; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R

    2010-01-01

    We report on the observation of the region around supernova remnant G65.1+0.6 with the stand-alone MAGIC-I telescope. This region hosts the two bright GeV gamma-ray sources 1FGL J1954.3+2836 and 1FGL J1958.6+2845. They are identified as GeV pulsars and both have a possible counterpart detected at about 35 TeV by the Milagro observatory. MAGIC collected 25.5 hours of good quality data, and found no significant emission in the range around 1 TeV. We therefore report differential flux upper limits, assuming the emission to be point-like (<0.1 deg) or within a radius of 0.3 deg. In the point-like scenario, the flux limits around 1 TeV are at the level of 3 % and 2 % of the Crab Nebula flux, for the two sources respectively. This implies that the Milagro emission is either extended over a much larger area than our point spread function, or it must be peaked at energies beyond 1 TeV, resulting in a photon index harder than 2.2 in the TeV band.

  14. MAGIC Upper Limits for Two Milagro-detected Bright Fermi Sources in the Region of SNR G65.1+0.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.

    2010-12-01

    We report on the observation of the region around supernova remnant G65.1+0.6 with the stand-alone MAGIC-I telescope. This region hosts the two bright GeV gamma-ray sources 1FGL J1954.3+2836 and 1FGL J1958.6+2845. They are identified as GeV pulsars and both have a possible counterpart detected at about 35 TeV by the Milagro observatory. MAGIC collected 25.5 hr of good quality data and found no significant emission in the range around 1 TeV. We therefore report differential flux upper limits, assuming the emission to be point-like (<=0fdg1) or within a radius of 0fdg3. In the point-like scenario, the flux limits around 1 TeV are at the level of 3% and 2% of the Crab Nebula flux for the two sources, respectively. This implies that the Milagro emission is either extended over a much larger area than our point-spread function or it must be peaked at energies beyond 1 TeV, resulting in a photon index harder than 2.2 in the TeV band.

  15. Influence of correspondence noise and spatial scaling on the upper limit for spatial displacement in fully-coherent random-dot kinematogram stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srimant P Tripathy

    Full Text Available Correspondence noise is a major factor limiting direction discrimination performance in random-dot kinematograms. In the current study we investigated the influence of correspondence noise on Dmax, which is the upper limit for the spatial displacement of the dots for which coherent motion is still perceived. Human direction discrimination performance was measured, using 2-frame kinematograms having leftward/rightward motion, over a 200-fold range of dot-densities and a four-fold range of dot displacements. From this data Dmax was estimated for the different dot densities tested. A model was proposed to evaluate the correspondence noise in the stimulus. This model summed the outputs of a set of elementary Reichardt-type local detectors that had receptive fields tiling the stimulus and were tuned to the two directions of motion in the stimulus. A key assumption of the model was that the local detectors would have the radius of their catchment areas scaled with the displacement that they were tuned to detect; the scaling factor k linking the radius to the displacement was the only free parameter in the model and a single value of k was used to fit all of the psychophysical data collected. This minimal, correspondence-noise based model was able to account for 91% of the variability in the human performance across all of the conditions tested. The results highlight the importance of correspondence noise in constraining the largest displacement that can be detected.

  16. Combined CDF and D0 Upper Limits on Standard Model Higgs-Boson Production with up to 6.7 fb$^{-1}$ of Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    We combine results from CDF and D0 on direct searches for the standard model (SM) Higgs boson (H) in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Compared to the previous Tevatron Higgs search combination more data have been added, additional new channels have been incorporated, and some previously used channels have been reanalyzed to gain sensitivity. We use the latest parton distribution functions and gg {yields} H theoretical cross sections when comparing our limits to the SM predictions. With up to 5.9 fb{sup -1} of data analyzed at CDF, and up to 6.7 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% C.L. upper limits on Higgs boson production are factors of 1.56 and 0.68 the values of the SM cross section for a Higgs boson mass of m{sub H} = 115 GeV/c{sup 2} and 165 GeV/c{sup 2}. We exclude, at the 95% C.L., a new and larger region at high mass between 158 < m{sub H} < 175 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  17. The diffuse neutrino flux from supernovae: upper limit on the electron neutrino component from the non-observation of antineutrinos at SuperKamiokande

    CERN Document Server

    Lunardini, C

    2006-01-01

    I derive an upper bound on the electron neutrino component of the diffuse supernova neutrino flux from the constraint on the antineutrino component at SuperKamiokande. The connection between antineutrino and neutrino channels is due to the similarity of the muon and tau neutrino and antineutrino fluxes produced in a supernova, and to the conversion of these species into electron neutrinos and antineutrinos inside the star. The limit on the electron neutrino flux is 5.5 cm^-2 s^-1 above 19.3 MeV of neutrino energy, and is stronger than the direct limit from LSD by three orders of magnitude. It represents the minimal sensitivity required at future direct searches, and is intriguingly close to the reach of the SNO and ICARUS experiments. The electron neutrino flux will have a lower bound if the electron antineutrino flux is measured. Indicatively, the first can be smaller than the second at most by a factor of 2-3 depending on the details of the neutrino spectra at production.

  18. Combined CDF and D0 Upper Limits on Standard Model Higgs-Boson Production with up to 6.7 fb-1 of Data

    CERN Document Server

    Physics, the Tevatron New

    2010-01-01

    We combine results from CDF and D0 on direct searches for the standard model (SM) Higgs boson H in ppbar collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron at sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV. Compared to the previous Tevatron Higgs search combination more data have been added, additional new channels have been incorporated, and some previously used channels have been reanalyzed to gain sensitivity. We use the latest parton distribution functions and gg to H theoretical cross sections when comparing our limits to the SM predictions. With up to 5.9 fb-1 of data analyzed at CDF, and up to 6.7 fb-1 at D0, the 95% C.L. upper limits on Higgs boson production are factors of 1.56 and 0.68 the values of the SM cross section for a Higgs boson mass of m_H=115 GeV/c^2 and 165~GeVc^2. We exclude, at the 95% C.L., a new and larger region at high mass between 158

  19. Estimation the upper limit of prehistoric peak ground acceleration using the parameters of intact stalagmite in Plavecka Priepast, PP2 Slovakia-Seismic Hazard of Vienna and Bratislava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribovszki, Katalin; Kovács, Károly; Mónus, Péter; Konecny, Pavel; Bokelmann, Goetz; Brimich, Ladislav

    2014-05-01

    A specially shaped (high, slim and more or less cylindrical), vulnerable, intact stalagmite (STM) in Plavecka Priepast PP2 has been examined last year. This STM is suitable for estimating the upper limit for horizontal peak ground acceleration generated by paleoearthquake. The method of our investigation is the same as before: --- the density, Young's modulus and tensile failure stress of broken STM samples (lying at the same hall of PP2, as the investigated stalagmite) have been measured in mechanical laboratory; --- the height and diameters of the intact STMs, as well as its natural frequency have been determined in situ; --- theoretical calculations based on these measurements then produce the value of horizontal ground acceleration resulting in failure, as well as the theoretical natural frequency of the STM; --- core samples were taken from a column dripstone standing in the same hall as the investigated stalagmite to obtain the age of the stalagmite, by Multi Collector - Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis (MC-ICPMS). This technique can yield important new constraints on seismic hazard, as geological structures close to Plavecka Priepast PP2 cave did not generate strong paleoearthquakes in the last few thousand years which would have produced horizontal ground acceleration larger than the upper acceleration threshold that we determine from the STM. These results have to be taken into account, when calculating the seismic potential of faults near to PP2 cave as well as in Vienna basin Markgrafneusiedler fault. A particular important of this study results from the seismic hazard of two close-by capitals: Vienna and Bratislava.

  20. Upper thermal limits of cardiac function for Arctic cod Boreogadus saida, a key food web fish species in the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, H E; Carmack, E C; Farrell, A P

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the upper thermal limits of Arctic cod Boreogadus saida by measuring the response of maximum heart rate (f(Hmax)) to acute warming. One set of fish were tested in a field laboratory in Cambridge Bay (CB), Nunavut (north of the Arctic Circle), and a second set were tested after air transport to and 6 month temperature acclimation at the Vancouver Aquarium (VA) laboratory. In both sets of tests, with B. saida acclimated to 0° C, f(Hmax) increased during acute warming up to temperatures considerably higher than the acclimation temperature and the near-freezing Arctic temperatures in which they are routinely found. Indeed, f(Hmax) increased steadily between 0.5 and 5.5° C, with no significant difference between the CB and VA tests (P > 0.05) and with an overall mean ± s.e. Q10 of 2.4 ± 0.5. The first Arrhenius breakpoint temperature (T(AB)) for f(Hmax) was also statistically indistinguishable for the two sets of tests (mean ± s.e. 3.2 ± 0.3 and 3.6 ± 0.3° C), suggesting that the temperature optimum for B. saida could be reliably measured after live transport to a more southerly laboratory location. Continued warming above 5.5° C revealed a large variability among individuals in the upper thermal limits that triggered cardiac arrhythmia (T(arr)), ranging from 10.2 to 15.2° C with mean ± s.e. 12.4 ± 0.4° C (n = 11) for the field study. A difference did exist between the CB and VA breakpoint temperatures when the Q10 value decreased below 2 (the Q10 breakpoint temperature; T(QB)) at 8.0 and 5.5° C, respectively. These results suggest that factors, other than thermal tolerance and associated cardiac performance, may influence the realized distribution of B. saida within the Arctic Circle.

  1. 基于自然单元法的极限上限分析%UPPER-BOUND LIMIT ANALYSES BASED ON NATURAL ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周书涛; 刘应华; 陈莘莘

    2012-01-01

    The natural element method (NEM) is a novel numerical method based on voronoi diagram and delaunay triangulation of the scattered points in problem domain,and its shape function is built upon the notion of natural neighbor interpolation. Compared with the moving least square (MLS) approximation used widely in many meshless methods,natural neighbor interpolation does not involve the complex matrix inversion,needs no artificial parameter but can improve the computational efficiency. The obtained shape function satisfies the property of Kronecker delta function, and this character results in the consequence that the essential boundary condition can be easily imposed as in finite element method (FEM). Meanwhile, the problems with discontinuous field functions likewise their discontinuous derivatives can be conveniently treated. According to the kinematic theorem of plastic limit analysis,this article applies the natural element method to upper bound limit analysis. The corresponding mathematical programming formulations are established and the computational codes are implemented to solve them. Several classical examples of limit analysis are adopted to verify the performance of these codes. Furthermore,the smoothing operations are also provided to calculate plastic dissipation work on the nodes by the similar treatment of stress smoothing operation,and the contours of plastic dissipation work at the limit states are displayed. The computational results show that utilizing natural element method to solve upper bound limit analysis problems possesses the advantage of good stability,high accuracy and fast convergence.%自然单元法是一种基于离散点集的Voronoi图和Delaunay三角化几何信息,以自然邻近插值为试函数的新型数值方法.相对于一般无网格法中常采用的移动最小二乘近似而言,自然邻近插值不涉及到复杂的矩阵求逆运算,更不需要任何人为的参数,可以提高计算效率.采用该方法构造的

  2. Discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission from PKS 0447-439 and derivation of an upper limit on its redshift

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Acero, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Balenderan, S; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; Becherini, Y; Tjus, J Becker; Behera, B; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Biteau, J; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chadwick, P M; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Fallon, L; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fernandez, D; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Gast, H; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Göring, D; Grondin, M -H; Grudzińska, M; Häffner, S; Hague, J D; Hahn, J; Hampf, D; Harris, J; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzynski, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Khélifi, B; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lefaucheur, J; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J -P; Lennarz, D; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Méhault, J; Menzler, U; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Moulin, E; Naumann, C L; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nguyen, N; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Wilhelmi, E de O\\ na; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Arribas, M Paz; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perez, J; Petrucci, P -O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Raue, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sheidaei, F; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Szostek, A; Tavernet, J -P; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorobiov, S; Vorster, M; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Wouters, D; Zacharias, M; Zajczyk, A; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S; Pelat, D

    2013-01-01

    Very high-energy gamma-ray emission from PKS 0447-439 was detected with the H.E.S.S. Cherenkov telescope array in December 2009. This blazar is one of the brightest extragalactic objects in the Fermi Bright Source List and has a hard spectrum in the MeV to GeV range. In the TeV range, a photon index of 3.89 +- 0.37 (stat) +- 0.22 (sys) and a flux normalisation at 1 TeV, Phi(1 TeV) = (3.5 +- 1.1 (stat) +- 0.9 (sys)) x 10^{-13} cm^{-2} s^{-1} TeV^{-1}, were found. The detection with H.E.S.S. triggered observations in the X-ray band with the Swift and RXTE telescopes. Simultaneous UV and optical data from Swift UVOT and data from the optical telescopes ATOM and ROTSE are also available. The spectrum and light curve measured with H.E.S.S. are presented and compared to the multi-wavelength data at lower energies. A rapid flare is seen in the Swift XRT and RXTE data, together with a flux variation in the UV band, at a time scale of the order of one day. A firm upper limit of z < 0.59 on the redshift of PKS 0447-...

  3. An X-ray survey of clusters of galaxies. IV - A survey of southern clusters and a compilation of upper limits for both Abell and southern clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, M. P.; Ulmer, M. P.; Cruddace, R. G.; Wood, K. S.

    1984-12-01

    The results of the HEAO 1 A-1 X-ray survey of galaxy clusters are reported. X-ray error boxes and intensities are presented for all clusters in the Abell catalog and for the catalog of southern clusters and groups compiled by Duus and Newell (1977). A correlation is derived on the basis of the X-ray luminosity function for 2-6 keV which may be used to calculate the contribution of clusters to the diffuse X-ray background at different energies. The cluster X-ray is estimated to be 9.3 percent (+ 1.9 or - 1.5 percent). Correlations between X-ray luminosity and other cluster properties are exmained, and it is found that the distribution of upper limits may be applied to obtaining a more precise estimate of the average X-ray luminosity of clusters. The Abell richness class and southern cluster concentrations were strongly correlated with X-ray luminosity. Correlations between optical x-ray luminosity and optical radius velocity dispersion, spiral fraction, and radio power are analyzed. The evidence for all these correlations was considered to be weak because of poor scatter in the data.

  4. An Upper Limit on the Mass of a Central Black Hole in the Large Magellanic Cloud from the Stellar Rotation Field

    CERN Document Server

    Boyce, H; van der Marel, R P; Baumgardt, H; Kissler-Patig, M; Neumayer, N; de Zeeuw, P T

    2016-01-01

    We constrain the possible presence of a central black hole (BH) in the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). This requires spectroscopic measurements over an area of order a square degree, due to the poorly known position of the kinematic center. Such measurements are now possible with the impressive field of view of the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on the ESO Very Large Telescope. We used the Calcium Triplet (~850nm) spectral lines in many short-exposure MUSE pointings to create a two-dimensional integrated-light line-of-sight velocity map from the ~$10^8$ individual spectra, taking care to identify and remove Galactic foreground populations. The data reveal a clear velocity gradient at an unprecedented spatial resolution of 1 arcmin$^{2}$. We fit kinematic models to arrive at a $3\\sigma$ upper-mass-limit of $9\\times10^{6}$ M$_{Sun}$ for any central BH - consistent with the known scaling relations for supermassive black holes and their host systems. This adds to the growing body of knowledg...

  5. Combined Tevatron upper limit on gg -> H -> W^+W^- and constraints on the Higgs boson mass in fourth-generation fermion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Adelman, J.; Aguilo, E.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys. /Dubna, JINR /Oklahoma U. /Michigan State U. /Tata Inst. /Illinois U., Chicago /Florida State U. /Chicago U., EFI /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /St. Petersburg, INP /Illinois U., Urbana /Sao Paulo, IFT /Munich U. /University Coll. London /Oxford U. /St. Petersburg, INP /Duke U. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Chonnam Natl. U. /Florida U. /Osaka City U.

    2010-05-01

    We combine results from searches by the CDF and D0 collaborations for a standard model Higgs boson (H) in the process gg {yields} H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at {radical}s = 1.o6 TeV. With 4.8 fb{sup -1} of itnegrated luminosity analyzed at CDF and 5.4 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% Confidence Level upper limit on {sigma}(gg {yields} H) x {Beta}(H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -}) is 1.75 pb at m{sub H} = 120 GeV, 0.38 pb at m{sub H} = 165 GeV, and 0.83 pb at m{sub H} = 200 GeV. Assuming the presence of a fourth sequential generation of fermions with large masses, they exclude at the 95% Confidence Level a standard-model-like Higgs boson with a mass between 131 and 204 Gev.

  6. An X-ray upper limit on the presence of a Neutron Star for the Small Magellanic Cloud and Supernova Remnant 1E0102.2-7219

    CERN Document Server

    Rutkowski, Michael J; Keohane, Jonathan W; Windhorst, Rogier A

    2010-01-01

    We present Chandra X-ray Observatory archival observations of the supernova remnant 1E0102.2-7219, a young Oxygen-rich remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud. Combining 28 ObsIDs for 324 ks of total exposure time, we present an ACIS image with an unprecedented signal-to-noise ratio (mean S/N ~ sqrt(S) ~6; maximum S/N > 35) . We search within the remnant, using the source detection software {\\sc wavdetect}, for point sources which may indicate a compact object. Despite finding numerous detections of high significance in both broad and narrow band images of the remnant, we are unable to satisfactorily distinguish whether these detections correspond to emission from a compact object. We also present upper limits to the luminosity of an obscured compact stellar object which were derived from an analysis of spectra extracted from the high signal-to-noise image. We are able to further constrain the characteristics of a potential neutron star for this remnant with the results of the analysis presented here, though we...

  7. An Upper Limit on the Mass of a Central Black Hole in the Large Magellanic Cloud from the Stellar Rotation Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, H.; Lützgendorf, N.; van der Marel, R. P.; Baumgardt, H.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Neumayer, N.; de Zeeuw, P. T.

    2017-09-01

    We constrain the possible presence of a central black hole (BH) in the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud. This requires spectroscopic measurements over an area of the order of a square degree, due to the poorly known position of the kinematic center. Such measurements are now possible with the impressive field of view of the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on the ESO Very Large Telescope. We used the Calcium Triplet (∼850 nm) spectral lines in many short-exposure MUSE pointings to create a two-dimensional integrated-light line-of-sight velocity map from the ∼ {10}8 individual spectra, taking care to identify and remove Galactic foreground populations. The data reveal a clear velocity gradient at an unprecedented spatial resolution of 1 arcmin2. We fit kinematic models to arrive at a 3σ upper-mass limit of {10}7.1 {M}ȯ for any central BH—consistent with the known scaling relations for supermassive black holes and their host systems. This adds to the growing body of knowledge on the presence of BHs in low-mass and dwarf galaxies, and their scaling relations with host-galaxy properties, which can shed light on theories of BH growth and host system interaction.

  8. Combined CDF and D0 Upper Limits on Standard Model Higgs Boson Production with up to 8.2 fb$^{-1}$ of Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Adelman, J.; Aguilo, E.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys. /Dubna, JINR /Oklahoma U. /Michigan State U. /Tata Inst. /Illinois U., Chicago /Florida State U. /Chicago U., EFI /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /St. Petersburg, INP /Illinois U., Urbana /Sao Paulo, IFT /Munich U. /University Coll. London /Oxford U. /St. Petersburg, INP /Duke U. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Chonnam Natl. U. /Florida U. /Osaka City U.

    2011-03-01

    We combine results from CDF and D0's direct searches for the standard model (SM) Higgs boson (H) produced in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The results presented here include those channels which are most sensitive to Higgs bosons with mass between 130 and 200 GeV/c{sup 2}, namely searches targeted at Higgs boson decays to W{sup +}W{sup -}, although acceptance for decays into {tau}{sup |+} {tau}{sup -} and {gamma}{gamma} is included. Compared to the previous Tevatron Higgs search combination, more data have been added and the analyses have been improved to gain sensitivity. We use the MSTW08 parton distribution functions and the latest gg {yields} H theoretical cross section predictions when testing for the presence of a SM Higgs boson. With up to 7.1 fb{sup -1} of data analyzed at CDF, and up to 8.2 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% C.L. upper limits on Higgs boson production is a factor of 0.54 times the SM cross section for a Higgs boson mass of 165 GeV/c{sup 2}. We exclude at the 95% C.L. the region 158 < m{sub H} < 173 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  9. Discovery of TeV γ-ray emission from PKS 0447-439 and derivation of an upper limit on its redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Behera, B.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gast, H.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Göring, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Hampf, D.; Harris, J.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nguyen, N.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sheidaei, F.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Wouters, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; Pelat, D.

    2013-04-01

    Very high-energy γ-ray emission from PKS 0447-439 was detected with the H.E.S.S. Cherenkov telescope array in December 2009. This blazar is one of the brightest extragalactic objects in the Fermi bright source list and has a hard spectrum in the MeV to GeV range. In the TeV range, a photon index of 3.89 ± 0.37 (stat) ±0.22 (sys) and a flux normalisation at 1 TeV, Φ1 TeV = (3.5 ± 1.1(stat) ± 0.9(sys)) × 10-13 cm-2 s-1 TeV-1 were found. The detection with H.E.S.S. triggered observations in the X-ray band with the Swift and RXTE telescopes. Simultaneous UV and optical data from Swift UVOT and data from the optical telescopes ATOM and ROTSE are also available. The spectrum and light curve measured with H.E.S.S. are presented and compared to the multi-wavelength data at lower energies. A rapid flare is seen in the Swift XRT and RXTE data, together with a flux variation in the UV band, at a time scale of the order of one day. A firm upper limit of z < 0.59 on the redshift of PKS 0447-439 is derived from the combined Fermi-LAT and H.E.S.S. data, given the assumptions that there is no upturn in the intrinsic spectrum above the Fermi-LAT energy range and that absorption on the extragalactic background light (EBL) is not weaker than the lower limit provided by current models. The spectral energy distribution is well described by a simple one-zone synchrotron self-Compton scenario, if the redshift of the source is less than z ≲ 0.4.

  10. Influence of temporal noise on the skin blood flow measurements performed by cooled thermal imaging camera: limit possibilities within each physiological frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaidachnyi, A. A.; Volkov, I. U.; Fomin, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes limit possibilities of modern cooled thermal imaging cameras as a tool for estimation of blood flow oscillations at the surface of living body. Skin temperature oscillations, as we assumed, are a consequence of the blood flow oscillations. We considered the temperature sensitivity 0.01-0.02 °C as a typical for the most of modern cooled long wave thermal imaging cameras. Fourier filter used to investigate the temperature signal separately within endothelial, neurogenic, myogenic, respiratory and cardiac frequency ranges. The level of temporal noise has been estimated during measurements of no living body with stabilized temperature ~ 24°C. The level of temperature oscillations has been calculated for the group of healthy subjects within each frequency range. Thus, we were able to determine signal-to-noise ratio within frequency band [0.001, 1] Hz. As a result, we determine that skin temperature oscillations measured by thermal imaging camera with sensitivity 0.02°C have the upper frequency limit ~ 0.2 Hz. In other words, within the respiratory and cardiac frequency ranges of blood flow oscillations the noise level exceeds signal one, and temperature measurements at the skin surface are practically useless. The endothelial, neurogenic and myogenic components of the temperature oscillations contain ~98% of the total spectral power of the signal. We have plot the empirical extrapolated curve of sensitivity of thermal imaging camera vs. frequency of the temperature oscillations. The data analysis shows that measurements of skin temperature oscillations within respiratory and cardiac ranges require the temperature sensitivity at least ~ 0.01°C and 0.001°C, respectively.

  11. Upper Endoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Topics / Procedures F - Z / Upper Endoscopy (EGD) Upper Endoscopy (EGD) The Latest Practice Guidelines Technology Reviews ... the Safety of Your Endoscopic Procedure Brochure Understanding Upper Endoscopy Brochure Make the Best Choice for Your ...

  12. A semi-physiologically based pharmacokinetic pharmacodynamic model for glycyrrhizin-induced pseudoaldosteronism and prediction of the dose limit causing hypokalemia in a virtual elderly population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijuan Xu

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhizin (GL is a widely used food additive which can cause severe pseudoaldosteronism at high doses or after a long period of consumption. The aim of the present study was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK pharmacodynamic (PD model for GL-induced pseudoaldosteronism to improve the safe use of GL. Since the major metabolite of GL, glycyrrhetic acid (GA, is largely responsible for pseudoaldosteronism via inhibition of the kidney enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD 2, a semi-PBPK model was first developed in rat to predict the systemic pharmacokinetics of and the kidney exposure to GA. A human PBPK model was then developed using parameters either from the rat model or from in vitro studies in combination with essential scaling factors. Kidney exposure to GA was further linked to an Imax model in the 11β-HSD 2 module of the PD model to predict the urinary excretion of cortisol and cortisone. Subsequently, activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-electrolyte system was associated with an increased cortisol level. Experimental data for various scenarios were used to optimize and validate the model which was finally able to predict the plasma levels of angiotensin II, aldosterone, potassium and sodium. The Monte Carlo method was applied to predict the probability distribution of the individual dose limits of GL causing pseudoaldosteronism in the elderly according to the distribution of sensitivity factors using serum potassium as an indicator. The critical value of the dose limit was found to be 101 mg with a probability of 3.07%.

  13. Physiologic Limits of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Elite Junior Football Athletes%青少年足球运动员左室肥厚的生理极限研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯爱民

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:This study was undertaken to define physiologic limits of left ventricular hypertrophy in elite football athletes. Methods: 60 elite football athletes and 60 healthy sedentary controls and 40 sundry items of similar age and gender underwent echocardiography. Results:Compared with controls, football athletes had greater absolute LVWT (9.5±1.7mm vs. 8.4±1.4mm;). Maximal LVWT exceeded predicted upper limits in 5 athletes (8.3%);however, only one trained male athletes had absolute LVWT>12 mm (1.7%). Each of the 5 athletes with a LVWT exceeding predicted limits also showed enlarged left ventricular cavity dimension (54.4±2.1 mm;range 52 to 60 mm). Female athlete had a LVWT>11 mm. Conclusions:Trained adolescent football athletes demonstrated greater absolute LVWT compared with nonathletes. Only a small proportion of athletes exhibited a LVWT exceeding upper limits, very rarely>12 mm, and then always with chamber enlargement. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy should be considered strongly in any trained football male athlete with LVWT>12 mm(females>11mm).%目的:确定青少年足球运动员左室肥厚的生理极限值,预防运动员运动性猝死的发生风险。方法:采用超声心动仪检测60名优秀青少年足球运动员和60名年龄、性别类似的健康对照者及40名其他项目运动员的左心室厚度。结果:与对照组相比,青少年足球运动员的左心室壁厚度(LVWT)较大,为9.5±1.7 mm,对照组为8.4±1.4mm。其中5名运动员(8.3%)的最大LVWT超过了预测值的上限;只有1名男运动员的绝对LVWT值大于12mm(1.7%)。5名运动员的LVWT超过了预测限度,提示左心腔扩大(54.4±2.1mm;范围为52~60mm)。而女运动员LVWT值均小于11 mm。结论:与非运动员相比,有训练的青少年足球运动员的LVWT值更大。只有一小部分运动员的LVWT超过了上限,但少有大于12mm,而腔室一般都有扩大现象。提示,当有训练

  14. Upper bound method for seismic stability limit analysis of earth-rock dams%土石坝坡抗震极限分析上限法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨昕光; 迟世春

    2013-01-01

    A new approach based on the limit analysis upper bound theorem is proposed to study the seismic stability of earth-rock dams. First, according to the upper bound analysis, a perfectly plastic soil model is assumed with an associated flow rule. Then, the dam slope is divided into horizontal slices with regarding the sliding surface as an arbitrary surface. In order to obtain the maximum anti-seismic capability of dams and the corresponding sliding surface, the multivariate function is established by the energy-work balance equation and optimized by intelligent algorithm. For the study of the influences of shear strength parameters and horizontal slice number on the maximum anti-seismic capability and the sliding surface, the new approach is applied to a typical earth-rock dam with core wall. It is shown by the results that the horizontal slice number has a great influence on the sliding surface but a small influence on the maximum anti-seismic capability. When the horizontal slices achieve a certain number, the maximum anti-seismic capability of dams is ultimately a stable value. Meanwhile, the shear strength parameters of the rockfill materials have a great influence on the maximum anti-seismic capability. Compared with the limit equilibrium method the result illustrates the correctness and feasibility of the proposed method.%基于极限分析的上限定理,提出一种土石坝极限抗震分析的新方法.该方法假定土体为理想刚塑性材料且满足相关联流动准则,将土石坝坡滑动体划分为若干水平土条,计算各滑动土条的外功率与内能耗散,然后通过能量平衡条件,利用优化算法确定土石坝的极限抗震能力.运用所提方法,对一典型心墙土石坝进行极限抗震能力分析,研究了水平条分数以及抗剪强度参数对极限抗震能力影响.计算结果表明,水平条分数对滑裂面形状影响较大而对大坝极限抗震能力影响较小.当水平条分数增加到一定数目

  15. Optimal and safe upper limits of iodine intake for early pregnancy in iodine-sufficient regions: a cross-sectional study of 7190 pregnant women in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoguang; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Mao, Jinyuan; Wang, Weiwei; Xie, Xiaochen; Li, Chenyang; Xu, Bin; Meng, Tao; Du, Jianling; Zhang, Shaowei; Gao, Zhengnan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Fan, Chenling; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2015-04-01

    The WHO Technical Consultation recommends urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) from 250 to 499 μg/L as more-than-adequate iodine intake and UIC ≥ 500 μg/L as excessive iodine for pregnant and lactating women, but scientific evidence for this is weak. We investigated optimal and safe ranges of iodine intake during early pregnancy in an iodine-sufficient region of China. Seven thousand one hundred ninety pregnant women at 4-8 weeks gestation were investigated and their UIC, serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), and thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured. The prevalence of overt hypothyroidism was lowest in the group with UIC 150-249 μg/L, which corresponded to the lowest serum Tg concentration (10.18 μg/L). Prevalences of subclinical hypothyroidism (2.4%) and isolated hypothyroxinemia (1.7%) were lower in the group with UIC 150-249 μg/L. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that more-than-adequate iodine intake (UIC 250-499 μg/L) and excessive iodine intake (UIC ≥ 500 μg/L) were associated with a 1.72-fold and a 2.17-fold increased risk of subclinical hypothyroidism, respectively. Meanwhile, excessive iodine intake was associated with a 2.85-fold increased risk of isolated hypothyroxinemia. Moreover, the prevalence of TPOAb positivity and TgAb positivity presented a U-shaped curve, ranging from mild iodine deficiency to iodine excess. The upper limit of iodine intake during early pregnancy in an iodine-sufficient region should not exceed UIC 250 μg/L, because this is associated with a significantly high risk of subclinical hypothyroidism, and a UIC of 500 μg/L should not be exceeded, as it is associated with a significantly high risk of isolated hypothyroxinemia.

  16. The influence of differential irradiation and circulation on the thermal evolution of gas giant planets. I. Upper limits from radiative equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauscher, Emily [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Showman, Adam P., E-mail: rauscher@astro.princeton.edu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    As a planet ages, it cools and its radius shrinks at a rate set by the efficiency with which heat is transported from the interior out to space. The bottleneck for this transport is at the boundary between the convective interior and the radiative atmosphere; the opacity there sets the global cooling rate. Models of planetary evolution are often one dimensional (1D), such that the radiative-convective boundary (RCB) is defined by a single temperature, pressure, and opacity. In reality the spatially inhomogeneous stellar heating pattern and circulation in the atmosphere could deform the RCB, allowing heat from the interior to escape more efficiently through regions with lower opacity. We present an analysis of the degree to which the RCB could be deformed and the resultant change in the evolutionary cooling rate. In this initial work we calculate the upper limit for this effect by comparing an atmospheric structure in local radiative equilibrium to its 1D equivalent. We find that the cooling through an uneven RCB could be enhanced over cooling through a uniform RCB by as much as 10%-50%. We also show that the deformation of the RCB (and the enhancement of the cooling rate) increases with a greater incident stellar flux or a lower inner entropy. Our results indicate that this mechanism could significantly change a planet's thermal evolution, causing it to cool and shrink more quickly than would otherwise be expected. This may exacerbate the well-known difficulty in explaining the very large radii observed for some hot Jupiters.

  17. Upper Limits on the Rates of Binary Neutron Star and Neutron Star-Black Hole Mergers from Advanced LIGO’s First Observing Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio., M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    We report here the non-detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary-neutron star systems and neutron star-black hole systems during the first observing run of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). In particular, we searched for gravitational-wave signals from binary-neutron star systems with component masses \\in [1,3] {M}⊙ and component dimensionless spins detected the merger of binary-neutron star systems with component mass distributions of 1.35 ± 0.13 M ⊙ at a volume-weighted average distance of ˜70 Mpc, and for neutron star-black hole systems with neutron star masses of 1.4 M ⊙ and black hole masses of at least 5 M ⊙, a volume-weighted average distance of at least ˜110 Mpc. From this we constrain with 90% confidence the merger rate to be less than 12,600 Gpc-3 yr-1 for binary-neutron star systems and less than 3600 Gpc-3 yr-1 for neutron star-black hole systems. We discuss the astrophysical implications of these results, which we find to be in conflict with only the most optimistic predictions. However, we find that if no detection of neutron star-binary mergers is made in the next two Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo observing runs we would place significant constraints on the merger rates. Finally, assuming a rate of {10}-7+20 Gpc-3 yr-1, short gamma-ray bursts beamed toward the Earth, and assuming that all short gamma-ray bursts have binary-neutron star (neutron star-black hole) progenitors, we can use our 90% confidence rate upper limits to constrain the beaming angle of the gamma-ray burst to be greater than 2\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} {3}-1.1+1.7 (4\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} {3}-1.9+3.1).

  18. Upper limits to the fractionation of isotopes due to atmospheric escape: Implications for potential 14N/15N in Pluto's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandt, K.; Mousis, O.

    2014-12-01

    Formation and evolution of the solar system is studied in part using stable isotope ratios that are presumed to be primordial, or representative of conditions in the protosolar Nebula. Comets, meteorites and giant planet atmospheres provide measurements that can reasonably be presumed to represent primordial conditions while the terrestrial planets, Pluto and Saturn's moon Titan have atmospheres that have evolved over the history of the solar system. The stable isotope ratios measured in these atmospheres are, therefore, first a valuable tool for evaluating the history of atmospheric escape and once escape is constrained can provide indications of conditions of formation. D/H ratios in the atmosphere of Venus provide indications of the amount of water lost from Venus over the history of the solar system, while several isotope ratios in the atmosphere of Mars provide evidence for long-term erosion of the atmosphere. We have recently demonstrated that the nitrogen ratios, 14N/15N, in Titan's atmosphere cannot evolve significantly over the history of the solar system and that the primordial ratio for Titan must have been similar to the value recently measured for NH3 in comets. This implies that the building blocks for Titan formed in the protosolar nebula rather than in the warmer subnebula surrounding Saturn at the end of its formation. Our result strongly contrasts with works showing that 14N/15N in the atmosphere of Mars can easily fractionate from the terrestrial value to its current value due to escape processes within the lifetime of the solar system. The difference between how nitrogen fractionates in Mars and Titan's atmospheres presents a puzzle for the fractionation of isotopes in an atmosphere due to atmospheric escape. Here, we present a method aiming at determining an upper limit to the amount of fractionation allowed to occur due to escape, which is a function of the escape flux and the column density of the atmospheric constituent. Through this

  19. Importance of abiotic stress as a range-limit determinant for European plants: insights from species responses to climatic gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normand, Signe; Treier, Urs; Randin, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Aim We examined whether species occurrences are primarily limited by physiological tolerance in the abiotically more stressful end of climatic gradients (the asymmetric abiotic stress limitation (AASL) hypothesis) and the geographical predictions of this hypothesis: abiotic stress mainly determin...... upper-latitudinal and upper-altitudinal species range limits, and the importance of abiotic stress for these range limits increases the further northwards and upwards a species occurs......Aim We examined whether species occurrences are primarily limited by physiological tolerance in the abiotically more stressful end of climatic gradients (the asymmetric abiotic stress limitation (AASL) hypothesis) and the geographical predictions of this hypothesis: abiotic stress mainly determines...

  20. Chronology and the upper dating limit for loess samples from Luochuan section in the Chinese Loess Plateau using quartz OSL SAR protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, ZhongPing

    2010-01-01

    Luminescence dating of loess older than 100 ka has long been a challenge. It has been recently reported that, using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of fine-grained quartz (4-11 μm) extracted from loess, the range of luminescence dating could be pushed to ˜0.6 Ma with OSL ages being in agreement with independent ages [Watanuki, T., Murray, A.S., Tsukamoto, S., 2005. Quartz and polymineral luminescence dating of Japanese loess over the last 0.6 Ma: comparison with an independent chronology. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 240, 774-789]. The aim of this study is to provide a luminescence chronology (20 samples) for the standard Luochuan loess section, and to further examine the upper limit of quartz OSL dating for Chinese loess. The growth curve does not saturate at 700 Gy, and should allow reliable equivalent dose ( De) determination up to at least 400 Gy. However, when compared with independent chronological control, the De that could be treated as reliable is less than ˜230 Gy (corresponding to ˜70 ka in age for Chinese loess), and the De larger than ˜230 Gy should be underestimated. Ages for samples from the lower part of palaeosol S1 are severely underestimated, with the maximum age of 95 ka for a sample from the bottom of this palaeosol, much younger than the expected age of ˜128 ka. The maximum De obtained for sample L9/M, collected from loess layer L9 which is below the Matuyama-Brunhes (B/M) boundary whose age is ˜780 ka, is only 403 Gy which corresponds to an age of 107 ka. The cause of underestimation is not yet clear. The previous results by Watunuki et al. (2005) on the extension of OSL dating of loess to 0.6 Ma is not confirmed. When evaluating the validity of OSL ages in S1, another possibility is to question the already established chronological frame for Luochuan section, which is based on the hypothesis of continuous dust deposition. The assumption of an erosion hiatus between L2 and S1 could make the OSL ages look reasonable

  1. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  2. Transconjunctival upper blepharoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, J S; Nahai, F

    1999-03-01

    Transconjunctival lower lid blepharoplasty now has an established role as an option in rejuvenation of the lower eyelid. Transconjunctival upper lid blepharoplasty, or transconjunctival removal of medial upper eyelid fat, also has a role in rejuvenation of the upper eyelid. However, this is a rather limited role. We have found this approach safe and efficacious as a primary as well as a secondary procedure for removal of excess medial upper eyelid fat. We report on 20 patients who have undergone this operation: 5 as a primary procedure and 15 as secondary. There were no complications, no revisions, and the patients have been uniformly happy with their results.

  3. Upper Endoscopy

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    Full Text Available ... Procedure Brochure Understanding Upper Endoscopy Brochure Make the Best Choice for Your Endoscopic Procedure Brochure Members-only ... Procedure Brochure Understanding Upper Endoscopy Brochure Make the Best Choice for Your Endoscopic Procedure Brochure View more ...

  4. Upper Endoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD) Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) Procedures F - Z GI Bleeding Manometry Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) Polypectomy ... Gastrointestinal Glossary of Terms Home / Clinical Topics / Procedures F - Z / Upper Endoscopy (EGD) Upper Endoscopy (EGD) The ...

  5. Upper Endoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Upper Endoscopy (EGD) Upper Endoscopy (EGD) The Latest Practice Guidelines Technology Reviews Articles Videos Events & Products Ensuring the Safety of Your Endoscopic Procedure Brochure Understanding Upper Endoscopy Brochure Make the Best Choice for Your Endoscopic Procedure Brochure Members-only ...

  6. 水稻光合生理限制因素及改善途径研究%Physiological Limitations and Possible Improve Approaches of Rice Photosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振翔; 李志康; 戴琪星; 孔祥胜; 王志琴; 顾骏飞

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a complicate biosynthetic process, which plays an important role in determining the potential yield of rice. The direction of improving rice yield has been shifted from selecting optimal plant architecture and increase harvest index to improve photosynthetic rate or photosynthetic efficiency. This review summarized the physiological limitations in both light reaction and dark reaction of rice photosynthesis and concluded the potential improve approaches, including: optimize canopy chlorophyll concentration, increase the carboxylase activity of Rubisco, bypass photorespiration, balance RuBP regeneration and carboxylation, etc. We also dis-cussed the essential challenges of improving rice photosynthetic performances, such as decrease the oxygenase activity of Rubisco, improve mesophyll conductance and construct C4 rice. The basic difference between C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathway is C4 pathway has the so-called CO2-concentration mechanism. It ensures C4 plant having higher photosynthetic rate and photo-efficiency. Introduc-ing key enzymes and genes of photosynthesis through genetic engineering technology will be helpful for improving rice photosynthesis and further increasing rice yield in the future.%光合作用是复杂的生物合成过程,是决定水稻产量潜力的重要因素。提高水稻产量的方向已经由以往的挑选最佳株型和提高收获指数转向提高光合速率或者光利用率。本文综述了水稻光合作用的光反应与暗反应过程中的生理限制因素,归纳了提高光合效率的多种潜在途径,包括:优化冠层中叶绿素分布梯度,增加Rubisco酶的羧化活性,减少光呼吸消耗,平衡RuBP的再生和羧化能力等。也从实践角度探讨了遗传改良中可能的靶标生理途径,包括:降低Rubisco酶的加氧活性,提高叶肉导度以及构建C4水稻。相对于C3光合途径,C4光合途径具有CO2浓缩机制,从而有更高效的光合速率

  7. Low-dose ionizing radiation limitations to seed germination: Results from a model linking physiological characteristics and developmental-dynamics simulation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Hu, Dawei; Dong, Chen; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Guanghui; Qin, Youcai; Sun, Yi; Liu, Dianlei; Li, Lei; Liu, Hong

    2017-08-01

    There is much uncertainty about the risks of seed germination after repeated or protracted environmental low-dose ionizing radiation exposure. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence mechanism of low-dose ionizing radiation on wheat seed germination using a model linking physiological characteristics and developmental-dynamics simulation. A low-dose ionizing radiation environment simulator was built to investigate wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds germination process and then a kinetic model expressing the relationship between wheat seed germination dynamics and low-dose ionizing radiation intensity variations was developed by experimental data, plant physiology, relevant hypotheses and system dynamics, and sufficiently validated and accredited by computer simulation. Germination percentages were showing no differences in response to different dose rates. However, root and shoot lengths were reduced significantly. Plasma governing equations were set up and the finite element analysis demonstrated H2O, CO2, O2 as well as the seed physiological responses to the low-dose ionizing radiation. The kinetic model was highly valid, and simultaneously the related influence mechanism of low-dose ionizing radiation on wheat seed germination proposed in the modeling process was also adequately verified. Collectively these data demonstrate that low-dose ionizing radiation has an important effect on absorbing water, consuming O2 and releasing CO2, which means the risk for embryo and endosperm development was higher. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Glacier-fed Irrigation Systems in upper Hunza: Evolution and Limitations of socio-hydrological Interactions in the Karakoram, northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Sitara; Winiger, Matthias; Schmidt, Susanne; Nüsser, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Unlike other Himalayan regions, where glacier retreat dominates, glaciers in the upper Indus catchment are characterised by an overall increase of total snow and ice volumes with significant regional differences. However, there are many cases where glacier termini are in retreat and where ablation reduces glacier surfaces, often resulting in the desiccation of irrigation channels across lateral moraines. The question of how glacial dynamics affect the livelihoods of mountain communities living in close proximity to these ice bodies has been largely neglected. Local irrigation systems in high mountain regions are unique examples of socio-hydrological interactions, which are characterised by an interplay of site-specific glacio-hydrological conditions, socio-economic development, institutional arrangements and external development interventions. Reliable crop production requires constant and sufficient melt-water supply from glaciers and snowfields. Based on three case studies, this study describes and analyzes the structure and dynamics of irrigation systems in upper Hunza, located in the western Karakoram, Pakistan. In these deeply incised and arid valleys, glacier and snow melt-water are the primary water sources for agricultural production. The study shows how glacio-fluvial dynamics impact upon irrigation systems and land-use practices, and how in turn, local communities adapt to these changing conditions: framed here as coupled socio-hydrological interactions. A combined methodological approach, including field observations, interviews, mapping and remote sensing analysis, was used to trace historical and recent changes of irrigation networks and land-use patterns.

  9. Upper Endoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Upper Endoscopy (EGD) Quality & Safety GIQuIC Registry Infection Control Privileging & Credentialing Quality Indicators Education & Meetings Advanced Education & Training ARIA Industry ...

  10. Two Upper Limits on the Rossiter-McLaughlin Effect, with Differing Implications: WASP-1 has a High Obliquity and WASP-2 is Indeterminate

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, Simon; Johnson, John Asher; Butler, R Paul; Crane, Jeffrey D; Shectman, Stephen A; Thompson, Ian B; Narita, Norio; Sato, Bun'ei; Hirano, Teruyuki; Enya, Keigo; Fischer, Debra

    2011-01-01

    We present precise radial-velocity measurements of WASP-1 and WASP-2 throughout transits of their giant planets. Our goal was to detect the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect, the anomalous radial velocity observed during eclipses of rotating stars, which can be used to study the obliquities of planet-hosting stars. For WASP-1 a weak signal of a prograde orbit was detected with ~2sigma confidence, and for WASP-2 no signal was detected. The resulting upper bounds on the RM amplitude have different implications for these two systems, because of the contrasting transit geometries and the stellar types. Because WASP-1 is an F7V star, and such stars are typically rapid rotators, the most probable reason for the suppression of the RM effect is that the star is viewed nearly pole-on. This implies the WASP-1 star has a high obliquity with respect to the edge-on planetary orbit. Because WASP-2 is a K1V star, and is expected to be a slow rotator, no firm conclusion can be drawn about the stellar obliquity. Our data and ou...

  11. P-glycoprotein mediated efflux limits the transport of the novel anti-Parkinson's disease candidate drug FLZ across the physiological and PD pathological in vitro BBB models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Hou, Jinfeng; Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Gengtao; Zhang, Dan; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Jinlan

    2014-01-01

    FLZ, a novel anti-Parkinson's disease (PD) candidate drug, has shown poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration based on the pharmacokinetic study using rat brain. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are two important transporters obstructing substrates entry into the CNS as well as in relation to PD neuropathology. However, it is unclear whether P-gp and BCRP are involved in low BBB permeability of FLZ and what the differences of FLZ brain penetration are between normal and Parkinson's conditions. For this purpose, in vitro BBB models mimicking physiological and PD pathological-related BBB properties were constructed by C6 astroglial cells co-cultured with primary normal or PD rat cerebral microvessel endothelial cells (rCMECs) and in vitro permeability experiments of FLZ were carried out. High transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and low permeability for sodium fluorescein (NaF) confirmed the BBB functionality of the two models. Significantly greater expressions of P-gp and BCRP were detected in PD rCMECs associated with the lower in vitro BBB permeability of FLZ in pathological BBB model compared with physiological model. In transport studies only P-gp blocker effectively inhibited the efflux of FLZ, which was consistent with the in vivo permeability data. This result was also confirmed by ATPase assays, suggesting FLZ is a substrate for P-gp but not BCRP. The present study first established in vitro BBB models reproducing PD-related changes of BBB functions in vivo and demonstrated that poor brain penetration of FLZ and low BBB permeability were due to the P-gp transport.

  12. P-glycoprotein mediated efflux limits the transport of the novel anti-Parkinson's disease candidate drug FLZ across the physiological and PD pathological in vitro BBB models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    Full Text Available FLZ, a novel anti-Parkinson's disease (PD candidate drug, has shown poor blood-brain barrier (BBB penetration based on the pharmacokinetic study using rat brain. P-glycoprotein (P-gp and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP are two important transporters obstructing substrates entry into the CNS as well as in relation to PD neuropathology. However, it is unclear whether P-gp and BCRP are involved in low BBB permeability of FLZ and what the differences of FLZ brain penetration are between normal and Parkinson's conditions. For this purpose, in vitro BBB models mimicking physiological and PD pathological-related BBB properties were constructed by C6 astroglial cells co-cultured with primary normal or PD rat cerebral microvessel endothelial cells (rCMECs and in vitro permeability experiments of FLZ were carried out. High transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER and low permeability for sodium fluorescein (NaF confirmed the BBB functionality of the two models. Significantly greater expressions of P-gp and BCRP were detected in PD rCMECs associated with the lower in vitro BBB permeability of FLZ in pathological BBB model compared with physiological model. In transport studies only P-gp blocker effectively inhibited the efflux of FLZ, which was consistent with the in vivo permeability data. This result was also confirmed by ATPase assays, suggesting FLZ is a substrate for P-gp but not BCRP. The present study first established in vitro BBB models reproducing PD-related changes of BBB functions in vivo and demonstrated that poor brain penetration of FLZ and low BBB permeability were due to the P-gp transport.

  13. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from......Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive......, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant...

  14. Amateur boxing: physical and physiological attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabène, Helmi; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Franchini, Emerson; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Raja Bouguezzi; Hachana, Younés

    2015-03-01

    Boxing is one of the oldest combat sports. The aim of the current review is to critically analyze the amateur boxer's physical and physiological characteristics and to provide practical recommendations for training as well as new areas of scientific research. High-level male and female boxers show a propensity for low body fat levels. Although studies on boxer somatotypes are limited, the available information shows that elite-level male boxers are characterized by a higher proportion of mesomorphy with a well-developed muscle mass and a low body fat level. To help support the overall metabolic demands of a boxing match and to accelerate the recovery process between rounds, athletes of both sexes require a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness. International boxers show a high peak and mean anaerobic power output. Muscle strength in both the upper and lower limbs is paramount for a fighter's victory and is one of the keys to success in boxing. As boxing punches are brief actions and very dynamic, high-level boxing performance requires well-developed muscle power in both the upper and lower limbs. Albeit limited, the available studies reveal that isometric strength is linked to high-level boxing performance. Future investigations into the physical and physiological attributes of boxers are required to enrich the current data set and to help create a suitable training program.

  15. Upper Endoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Upper Endoscopy (EGD) The Latest Practice Guidelines Technology Reviews Articles Videos Events & Products Ensuring the Safety of ... S0016-5107(98)70268-8 View more Technology Reviews Members-only content Document Link: ASGE Leading Edge: ...

  16. Upper Endoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Upper Endoscopy (EGD) The Latest Practice Guidelines Technology Reviews Articles Videos Events & Products Ensuring the Safety of ... S0016-5107(98)70268-8 View more Technology Reviews Members-only content Document Link: ASGE Leading Edge: ...

  17. Upper Endoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... EGD) Upper Endoscopy (EGD) The Latest Practice Guidelines Technology Reviews Articles Videos Events & Products Ensuring the Safety ... 1016/S0016-5107(98)70268-8 View more Technology Reviews Members-only content Document Link: ASGE Leading ...

  18. Upper Endoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... EGD) Upper Endoscopy (EGD) The Latest Practice Guidelines Technology Reviews Articles Videos Events & Products Ensuring the Safety ... 1016/S0016-5107(98)70268-8 View more Technology Reviews Members-only content Document Link: ASGE Leading ...

  19. Upper Endoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staff Rent IT&T Facility Gastrointestinal Glossary of Terms Home / Clinical Topics / Procedures F - Z / Upper Endoscopy ( ... Facebook ASGE on Youtube ASGE on Twitter Privacy | Terms of Use | © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

  20. On the Method to Infer an Atmosphere on a Tidally-Locked Super Earth Exoplanet and Upper limits to GJ 876d

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, S

    2009-01-01

    We develop a method to infer or rule out the presence of an atmosphere on a tidally-locked hot super Earth. The question of atmosphere retention is a fundamental one, especially for planets orbiting M stars due to the star's long-duration active phase and corresponding potential for stellar-induced planetary atmospheric escape and erosion. Tidally-locked planets with no atmosphere are expected to show a Lambertian-like thermal phase curve, causing the combined light of the planet-star system to vary with planet orbital phase. We report Spitzer 8 micron IRAC observations of GJ 876 taken over 32 continuous hours and reaching a relative photometric precision of 3.9e-04 per point for 25.6 s time sampling. This translates to a 3 sigma limit of 5.13e-05 on a planet thermal phase curve amplitude. Despite the almost photon-noise limited data, we are unable to conclusively infer the presence of an atmosphere or rule one out on the non-transiting short-period super Earth GJ 876d. The limiting factor in our observations...

  1. Physiological Networks: towards systems physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Bashan, Amir; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Havlin, Shlomo; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2012-02-01

    The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiologic systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse systems with different types of interactions is a challenge. Here, we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiologic network. We find that each physiologic state is characterized by a specific network structure, demonstrating a robust interplay between network topology and function. Across physiologic states the network undergoes topological transitions associated with fast reorganization of physiologic interactions on time scales of a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate new dimensions to the field of systems physiology.

  2. Effects of irrigation upper control limit to the accumulated soil temperature and growth characteristics of wine grape%灌水控制上限对酿造葡萄地积温和生长特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何钊全; 成自勇; 张芮; 唐好剑

    2014-01-01

    为了探究小管出流灌水上限水分调控对酿造葡萄地积温、果实生长指标等的影响,采用大田栽培试验方法,开展了酿造葡萄小管出流灌溉试验。结果表明:地积温随着土层深度的增加而降低,地积温与果实增长呈正相关关系,小管出流比沟灌更有利于地积温的升高和果实的增长;90%田间持水率的灌水上限时葡萄的果粒横径、单穗重均大于其它处理,产量最高,同比对照处理增加了44.95%,差异极显著( P<0.01);灌水上限为80%田间持水率时葡萄果实含酸量最小,含糖量最大,高达236.17 g·L-1。表明90%田间持水率为最佳增产灌水上限,80%田间持水率的灌水上限最有利于提高葡萄品质。%In order to explore the influence of irrigation upper control limit by small tube flow to the accumulated soil temperature ,fruit growth index etc .of wine grape ,adopting the field cultivation experimental method ,carried out the irrigation test with small tube flow on wine grape .The results showed that:The accumulated soil temperature was de-creased with increasing soil depth ,the accumulated soil temperature with fruit growth was presented a positive correlation relationship .The small tube flow was more useful to increase the accumulated soil temperature and fruit growth compared with the furrow irrigation .When the irrigation upper limit was 90% of field capacity ,the grape fruit diameter ,single fruit ear weight total were higher than other treatments with highest yield ,compared with control treatment the yield was increased 44 .95% ,the difference was significant ( P<0 .01 ) .When the irrigation upper limit was 80% of field capaci-ty ,the grape fruit acid was minimum ,the sugar content was maximum up to 236 .17 g·L-1 .It was indicated that 90%of field capacity was the irrigation upper limit for optimal adding production ,the irrigation upper limit of 80% field ca-pacity was the

  3. Upper and lower limits on the Crab pulsar's astrophysical parameters set from gravitational wave observations by LIGO: braking index and energy considerations

    CERN Document Server

    Santostasi, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Observatory (LIGO) has recently reached the end of its fifth science run (S5), having collected more than a year worth of data. Analysis of the data is still ongoing but a positive detection of gravitational waves, while possible, is not realistically expected for most likely sources. This is particularly true for what concerns gravitational waves from known pulsars. In fact, even under the most optimistic (and not very realistic) assumption that all the pulsar's observed spin-down is due to gravitational waves, the gravitational wave strain at earth from all the known isolated pulsars (with the only notable exception of the Crab pulsar) would not be strong enough to be detectable by existing detectors. By August 2006, LIGO had produced enough data for a coherent integration capable to extract signal from noise that was weaker than the one expected from the Crab pulsar's spin-down limit. No signal was detected, but beating the spin-down limit is a considerable achievemen...

  4. Paramagnetic limiting of the upper critical field of KFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} studied by low temperature thermal expansion and magnetostriction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zocco, Diego A.; Grube, Kai; Zaum, Sebastian; Eilers, Felix; Schaefer, Roland; Wolf, Thomas; Burger, Philipp; Hardy, Frederic; Boehmer, Anna; Meingast, Christoph [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Loehneysen, Hilbert von [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We present low-temperature thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements of single crystals of KFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (T{sub c} ∝ 3.4 K) in magnetic fields up to 14 T applied parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis of the samples (B{sub c2}{sup c} ∝ 1.5 T and B{sub c2}{sup ab} ∝ 4.8 T). In the normal state, quantum oscillations of the sample length were observed for B parallel c and B perpendicular to c, giving estimated mean-free-path values of 177 and 52 nm, respectively, indicating that the superconducting state can be described as being in the clean limit (ξ{sub 0}{sup ab} ∝ 10 nm). While the superconducting state is limited by orbital pair-breaking effects when magnetic fields are applied parallel to the c-axis, our measurements confirm strong paramagnetic effects on B{sub c2}(T) along the ab direction, as it was similarly found in other Fe-based materials such as LiFeAs and FeSe{sub 1-x}Te{sub x}.

  5. Are rupture zone limits of great subduction earthquakes controlled by upper plate structures? Evidence from multichannel seismic reflection data acquired across the northern Ecuador-southwest Colombia margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collot, Jean-Yves; Marcaillou, Boris; Sage, FrançOise; Michaud, FrançOis; Agudelo, William; Charvis, Philippe; Graindorge, David; Gutscher, Marc-André; Spence, George

    2004-11-01

    Subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the Ecuador-Colombia margin has produced four megathrust earthquakes during the last century. The 500-km-long rupture zone of the 1906 (Mw = 8.8) event was partially reactivated by three thrust events, in 1942 (Mw = 7.8), 1958 (Mw = 7.7), and 1979 (Mw = 8.2), whose rupture zones abut one another. Multichannel seismic reflection and bathymetric data acquired during the SISTEUR cruise show evidence that the margin wedge is segmented by transverse crustal faults that potentially correlate with the limits of the earthquake coseismic slip zones. The Paleogene-Neogene Jama Quininde and Esmeraldas crustal faults define a ˜200-km-long margin crustal block that coincides with the 1942 earthquake rupture zone. Subduction of the buoyant Carnegie Ridge is inferred to partially lock the plate interface along central Ecuador. However, coseismic slip during the 1942 and 1906 earthquakes may have terminated against the subducted northern flank of the ridge. We report on a newly identified Manglares crustal fault that cuts transversally through the margin wedge and correlates with the limit between the 1958 and 1979 rupture zones. During the earthquake cycle the fault is associated with high-stress concentration on the plate interface. An outer basement high, which bounds the margin seaward of the 1958 rupture zone, may act as a deformable buttress to seaward propagation of coseismic slip along a megathrust splay fault. Coseismic uplift of the basement high is interpreted as the cause for the 1958 tsunami. We propose a model of weak transverse faults which reduce coupling between adjacent margin segments, together with a splay fault and an asperity along the plate interface as controlling the seismogenic rupture of the 1958 earthquake.

  6. SALT Long-slit Spectroscopy of Luminous Obscured Quasars: An Upper Limit on the Size of the Narrow-Line Region?

    CERN Document Server

    Hainline, Kevin N; Greene, Jenny E; Myers, Adam D; Zakamska, Nadia L

    2013-01-01

    We present spatially resolved long-slit spectroscopy from the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) to examine the spatial extent of the narrow-line regions (NLRs) of a sample of 8 luminous obscured quasars at 0.10 < z < 0.43. Our results are consistent with an observed shallow slope in the relationship between NLR size and L_[OIII], which has been interpreted to indicate that NLR size is limited by the density and ionization state of the NLR gas rather than the availability of ionizing photons. We also explore how the NLR size scales with a more direct measure of instantaneous AGN power using mid-IR photometry from WISE, which probes warm to hot dust near the central black hole and so, unlike [OIII], does not depend on the properties of the NLR. Using our results as well as samples from the literature, we obtain a power-law relationship between NLR size and L_8micron that is significantly steeper than that observed for NLR size and L_[OIII]. We find that the size of the NLR goes approximately as L^(1...

  7. A global pharmaceutical company initiative: an evidence-based approach to define the upper limit of body weight loss in short term toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kathryn; Sewell, Fiona; Allais, Linda; Delongeas, Jean-Luc; Donald, Elizabeth; Festag, Matthias; Kervyn, Sophie; Ockert, Deborah; Nogues, Vicente; Palmer, Helen; Popovic, Marija; Roosen, Wendy; Schoenmakers, Ankie; Somers, Kevin; Stark, Claudia; Stei, Peter; Robinson, Sally

    2013-10-01

    Short term toxicity studies are conducted in animals to provide information on major adverse effects typically at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Such studies are important from a scientific and ethical perspective as they are used to make decisions on progression of potential candidate drugs, and to set dose levels for subsequent regulatory studies. The MTD is usually determined by parameters such as clinical signs, reductions in body weight and food consumption. However, these assessments are often subjective and there are no published criteria to guide the selection of an appropriate MTD. Even where an objective measurement exists, such as body weight loss (BWL), there is no agreement on what level constitutes an MTD. A global initiative including 15 companies, led by the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), has shared data on BWL in toxicity studies to assess the impact on the animal and the study outcome. Information on 151 studies has been used to develop an alert/warning system for BWL in short term toxicity studies. The data analysis supports BWL limits for short term dosing (up to 7days) of 10% for rat and dog and 6% for non-human primates (NHPs).

  8. Optimization of the analogue-sensitive Cdc2/Cdk1 mutant by in vivo selection eliminates physiological limitations to its use in cell cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Yuki; Kawashima, Shigehiro A; Simanis, Viesturs; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Sato, Masamitsu

    2014-07-01

    Analogue-sensitive (as) mutants of kinases are widely used to selectively inhibit a single kinase with few off-target effects. The analogue-sensitive mutant cdc2-as of fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) is a powerful tool to study the cell cycle, but the strain displays meiotic defects, and is sensitive to high and low temperature even in the absence of ATP-analogue inhibitors. This has limited the use of the strain for use in these settings. Here, we used in vivo selection for intragenic suppressor mutations of cdc2-as that restore full function in the absence of ATP-analogues. The cdc2-asM17 underwent meiosis and produced viable spores to a similar degree to the wild-type strain. The suppressor mutation also rescued the sensitivity of the cdc2-as strain to high and low temperature, genotoxins and an anti-microtubule drug. We have used cdc2-asM17 to show that Cdc2 activity is required to maintain the activity of the spindle assembly checkpoint. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that maintenance of the Shugoshin Sgo1 at meiotic centromeres does not require Cdc2 activity, whereas localization of the kinase aurora does. The modified cdc2-asM17 allele can be thus used to analyse many aspects of cell-cycle-related events in fission yeast.

  9. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  10. Reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  11. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bent...

  12. 同时考虑张拉及剪切破坏的边坡上限原理有限元法%LINEARIZED UPPER BOUND LIMIT ANALYSIS CONSIDERING TENSION AND SHEAR FAILURES FOR SLOPE STABILITY PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙聪; 李春光; 郑宏; 孙冠华; 刘治军

    2015-01-01

    The upper bound finite element method is one of the commonly used methods for slope stability analysis. Since the Mohr-Coulomb shear yield criterion which is widely used overrates the tension strength,the tensile cracks cannot be get at the rear of the slope when using it for slope stability analysis. In order to solve this problem,the yield surface approximation method of the upper bound finite element method was remolded. From the viewpoint of discrete spatial orientation the plastic flow constraint equation on the discrete directions can be built easily,and by introducing the tension damage to the upper limit method,each azimuth plane was satisfied the tensile failure criteria,and then the linearized upper bound finite element method considering both tension and shear failures can be established. This method can be used to calculate the safety factor of slope and get the critical velocity field with tensile crack. A few of examples prove the effectiveness of this method.%上限有限元法是一种常用的边坡稳定性分析方法,目前被广泛采用的仅考虑剪切破坏的 Mohr-Coulomb 屈服准则过高地估计了边坡的抗拉强度,因此在用其进行边坡稳定性分析时,无法得到实际工程中常遇到的位于坡体后缘的拉裂缝。针对这一问题,从空间方位离散的角度出发,对上限法中的 Mohr-Coulomb 屈服面逼近方式进行改造,建立基于方位离散的线性化剪切屈服准则;同时引入张拉破坏准则,保证在每一个离散方位平面上不违背张拉破坏准则,从而形成既考虑张拉破坏,又考虑剪切破坏的线性化上限原理有限元法。该方法可以准确地求出边坡的安全系数和带有拉裂缝的临界失稳速度场。算例证明方法的有效性,同时还表明不考虑拉伸破坏会过高地估计边坡的安全性。

  13. Acclimation effects on critical and lethal thermal limits of workers of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumbam, Keafon R; Jackson, Susan; Terblanche, John S; McGeoch, Melodie A; Chown, Steven L

    2008-06-01

    For the Argentine ant Linepithema humile, bioclimatic models often predict narrower optimal temperature ranges than those suggested by behavioural and physiological studies. Although water balance characteristics of workers of this species have been thoroughly studied, gaps exist in current understanding of its thermal limits. We investigated critical thermal minima and maxima and upper and lower lethal limits following acclimation to four temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 degrees C; 12L:12D photoperiod) in adult workers of the Argentine ant, L. humile, collected from Stellenbosch, South Africa. At an ecologically relevant rate of temperature change of 0.05 degrees Cmin(-1), CTMax varied between 38 and 40 degrees C, and CTMin varied between 0 and 0.8 degrees C. In both cases the response to acclimation was weak. A significant time by exposure temperature interaction was found for upper and lower lethal limits, with a more pronounced effect of acclimation at longer exposure durations. Upper lethal limits varied between 37 and 44 degrees C, whilst lower lethal limits varied between -4 and -10.5 degrees C, with an acclimation effect more pronounced for upper than lower lethal limits. A thermal envelope for workers of the Argentine ant is provided, demonstrating that upper thermal limits do likely contribute to distributional limits, but that lower lethal limits and limits to activity likely do not, or at least for workers who are not exposed simultaneously to the demands of load carriage and successful foraging behaviour.

  14. Growth Limitations and Physiological Advantages in Crop Plants Grown with Organic Fertilization%有机栽培对作物生产的影响--植株生长的局限和生理活性的优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐会连

    2001-01-01

    Organic and chemical fertilizers were applied to sweet com, tomato and other crops to compare the growth, yield, physiological responses and resistance to water stress and diseases. Several mathematical ap proaches to physiological analysis were used in this research. Organic fertilizers promoted root growth and ac tivity and enhanced photosynthesis in most crop plants at the later growth stages although the seedling growth was lower at the early stage. Analysis of declining photosynthetic curve with time in the excised corn leaves showed that leaves of corn plants fertilized with organic materials possessed a higher photosynthetic maintain ing ability, which was consistent with the results of water stress avoidance. It is concluded that organic fertilized crop plants possess higher physiological activities and higher environ mental stresses resistance with higher quality in the edible parts, but lower nutrient availability at the early stage usually limits the seedling growth, compared with the chemical fertilized control plants%本研究就有机栽培和化肥栽培的玉米,西红柿和其它作物,在营养体生长,经济产量以及对水分胁迫和病害的反应方面进行了比较.另外,本文在生理学分析方面采用几种新颖的数学方法.研究结果证明,尽管苗期生长不尽如意,但有机肥料促进根系的营养体生长以及生理活性,从而能使大多数作物的中后期光合活性增强.对切断叶的光合作用降低曲线的分析证实有机栽培的作物在彻底断水的情况下具有较强的光合活性维持能力.这与以前报道的水分胁迫回避性是一致的.因此可以下结论说,与化肥栽培的作物相比,有机栽培的作物其生理活性高,环境胁迫抗性强,可食部位的营养质量高,但是苗期生长往往受可给态养分不足的限制.

  15. Neuropeptide physiology in helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, Angela; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic worms come from two distinct, distant phyla, Nematoda (roundworms) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms). The nervous systems of worms from both phyla are replete with neuropeptides and there is ample physiological evidence that these neuropeptides control vital aspects of worm biology. In each phyla, the physiological evidence for critical roles for helminth neuropeptides is derived from both parasitic and free-living members. In the nematodes, the intestinal parasite Ascaris suum and the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans have yielded most of the data; in the platyhelminths, the most physiological data has come from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) have many varied effects (excitation, relaxation, or a combination) on somatic musculature, reproductive musculature, the pharynx and motor neurons in nematodes. Insulin-like peptides (INSs) play an essential role in nematode dauer formation and other developmental processes. There is also some evidence for a role in somatic muscle control for the somewhat heterogeneous grouping ofpeptides known as neuropeptide-like proteins (NLPs). In platyhelminths, as in nematodes, FLPs have a central role in somatic muscle function. Reports of FLP physiological action in platyhelminths are limited to a potent excitation of the somatic musculature. Platyhelminths are also abundantly endowed with neuropeptide Fs (NPFs), which appear absent from nematodes. There is not yet any data linking platyhelminth NPF to any particular physiological outcome, but this neuropeptide does potently and specifically inhibit cAMP accumulation in schistosomes. In nematodes and platyhelminths, there is an abundance of physiological evidence demonstrating that neuropeptides play critical roles in the biology of both free-living and parasitic helminths. While it is certainly true that there remains a great deal to learn about the biology of neuropeptides in both phyla, physiological evidence presently available points

  16. 浅部厚煤层开采上限确定关键技术研究%Research on key technology of determining upper mining limit of shallow thick coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军涛; 孙洪华; 蔡辉

    2011-01-01

    High density resistivity tomography imaging technique was used to detect fluctuant change of Quaternary bottom interface in the northern 4th mining area based on the geologic survey of Shenjian coal mine in Caiyuan. "Two Zone" was determined applying calculation numerical analysis, and the upper mining limit of 3 coal seam was finally determined by using television imager to measure the height of caving zone and water flowing fractured zone of adjacent 4 layers in mining area.%在蔡园生建煤矿地质勘测的基础上,采用高密度电阻率层析成像技术探测四采区北部第四系底界面的起伏变化,运用计算数值分析确定"两带"高度,采用电视成像仪实测相邻四个分层已全部开采区域的垮落带及导水裂隙带高度,最终确定3煤层开采上限.

  17. Upper limits to interstellar NH+ and para-NH2- abundances. Herschel-HIFI observations towards Sgr B2 (M) and G10.6-0.4 (W31C)

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, C M; Hassel, G E; Olofsson, A O H; Black, J H; Herbst, E; Müller, H S P; Cernicharo, J; Wirström, E S; Olberg, M; Hjalmarson, Å; Lis, D C; Cuppen, H M; Gerin, M; Menten, K M

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of interstellar nitrogen chemistry has improved significantly with recent results from the Herschel Space Observatory. To set even better constraints, we report here on deep searches for the NH+ ground state rotational transition J=1.5-0.5 of the ^2Pi_1/2 lower spin ladder, with fine-structure transitions at 1013 and 1019 GHz, and the para-NH2- 1_1,1-0_0,0 rotational transition at 934 GHz towards Sgr B2(M) and G10.6-0.4 using Herschel-HIFI. No clear detections of NH+ are made and the derived upper limits are <2*10^-12 and <7*10^-13 in Sgr B2(M) and G10.6-0.4, respectively. The searches are complicated by the fact that the 1013 GHz transition lies only -2.5 km/s from a CH2NH line, seen in absorption in Sgr B2(M), and that the hyperfine structure components in the 1019 GHz transition are spread over 134 km/s. Searches for the so far undetected NH2- anion turned out to be unfruitful towards G10.6-0.4, while the para-NH2- 1_1,1-0_0,0 transition was tentatively detected towards Sgr B2(M) at...

  18. Biogas digestate and its economic impact on farms and biogas plants according to the upper limit for nitrogen spreading—the case of nutrient-burdened areas in north-west Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Auburger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2012, an expert group presented its evaluation of the forthcoming amendment of the German Fertilizer Ordinance (DüV. The new proposal intends to include manure of plant origin in the calculation of the upper limit for nitrogen spreading, determined to be 170 kg per hectare. This would particularly affect regions of north-west Germany that are characterized by intensive animal husbandry and biogas production. This would lead to increased costs of the disposal of manure and the use of agricultural land, especially for pig farms and biogas producers. A spatial model of nutrient distribution demonstrates the regional impacts of the amendment, and example calculations at an enterprise level show that many farmers would no longer be able to suitably pay for the factors used. Monte Carlo analysis shows a relatively high probability that only successful pig farmers and biogas producers would be able to compensate for the rising costs of transport and land use in a sustainable manner. Successful piglet producers would improve their relative competitiveness compared to biogas producers and especially to pig-fattening enterprises. The adoption of new strategies should factor in both the water protection requirements and the ability of the affected farms to evolve and grow on a sustainable basis.

  19. 探讨液氮洗原料气中氮气含量的高限值%DISCUSSION ON UPPER-LIMIT VALUE OF N2-CONTENT IN FEED-GAS FOR LIQUID-NITROGEN WASH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰; 尹俊杰

    2012-01-01

    应用Aspen Plus流程模拟软件,采用RK-Aspen热力学模型,完成对原液氮洗工艺流程的模拟,并与原设计值相比较,从而验证所选模型的合理性。然后运用此模型对多组工况进行模拟分析,得出液氮洗工艺原料气中氮气含量的高限值。%A simulation of original liquid-nitrogen wash process in a chemical enterprise with Aspen Plus software and RK-Aspen thermodynamic model has been completed and through the comparison with the designed value to verify the rationality of the model so selected. Afterwards, the model is applied to proceed simulation analysis at several groups of work condition and the upper-limit value of nitrogen content in feed gas for liquid nitrogen wash is resulted in.

  20. Combined CDF and D0 upper limits on gg->H W+W- and constraints on the Higgs boson mass in fourth-generation fermion models with up to 8.2 fb-1 of data

    CERN Document Server

    Phenomena, the Tevatron New

    2011-01-01

    We combine results from searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for a standard model Higgs boson (H) in the processes gg->H->W+W- and gg->H->ZZ in p-pbar collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV. With 8.2 fb-1 of integrated luminosity analyzed at CDF and 8.1 fb-1 at D0, the 95% C.L. upper limit on sigma(gg->H)xBr(H->W+W-) is 1.01 pb at m_H=120 GeV, 0.40 pb at m_H=165 GeV, and 0.47 pb at m_H=200 GeV. Assuming the presence of a fourth sequential generation of fermions with large masses, we exclude at the 95% Confidence Level a standard-model-like Higgs boson with a mass between 124 and 286 GeV.

  1. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  2. Appliancation of plastic limit analysis upper bound method on the calculation of safety factor on slope%塑性极限分析上限法在边坡安全系数求解中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江营; 文世新; 曹文贵; 尚守平; 曹喜仁

    2009-01-01

    基于塑性极限分析上限法在边坡中建立一个合理的速度场,取滑动面为对数螺旋曲面,分别求得边坡滑动体、外荷载所做外功率和滑动面上内能消散率的计算表达式.然后定义材料强度储备安全系数为边坡的稳定安全系数,即边坡中岩土体的c和φ按同一比例折减后边坡达到极限平衡状态,由此可求得边坡处于极限状态时的外功率与内能消散率.再结合虚功率方程得出边坡安全系数的表达式,进而求得其最小上限解,便能确定边坡最不利滑动面的位置以及其最小安全系数.最后,以一个边坡安全系数求解为算例,把本文的计算结果与多种传统方法的计算结果比较,证明本文所提出的方法合理可行.%A reasonable velocity fields in the slope on the base of plastic limit analysis upper bound method was established,and the sliding surface was supposed as logarithmic spiral surface,the computation expression of work rate was calculated by the body forces and surface loads as well as rate of internal energy dissipations of slope can be obtained; then the material safety margin factor was defined as the safety factor of slope,that is c and φ of soil and rock in the slope reduced by the same percentage,and the slope reaches the state of limit balance,the rate of external energy and internal energy dissipations can be gotten while the slope is in the limit state. The expression of safety factor can be obtained via virtual work-rate equation,and its smallest upper bound solution is derived,and the most disadvantageous sliding surface's position and smallest safety factor of the slope are presented. Finally,taking a slope's safety factor solution as an example,the comparisons among the analytical results of various traditional methods were made,then the method proposed by this paper was proved reasonable and feasible.

  3. Physiological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  4. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  5. 逐阶段安全提高巨厚松散含水层下煤层开采上限研究%Safely improving by stage the upper limit of mining under extremely thick loose aquifer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虎; 岳建华; 姜志海; 孙红卫

    2013-01-01

    For maximum recovery of coal and safely reducing waterproof coal pillar in Huaibei Liudong coal mine, the upper limit of mining was improved by two steps: water-proof and sand control. In west No.3 mining district, firstly through research and analysis of the hydrogeological data of the aquifer and water-resisting clay layer at the bottom of the Quaternary system, the bottom aquifer of the Quaternary system in the western 31000 coalface was determined as weak watery, and the mining disturbance of water body was of level II. Then through numerical simulation, physical simulation comparison and analysis, the damage height of overlying rock after mining was studied and compared with the mine actual observation value, the development height of the water conducting fractured zone was confirmed as 41.3 meters;The paper put forward the safe and reasonable waterproof upper limit of mining, and 0.221 million tons of dull reserves were liberated. A good foundation has been set for further safe mining through sand control.%为最大限度回收煤炭资源,安全缩小防水煤柱,针对淮北矿区煤层普遍上覆巨厚第四系松散含水层,煤层顶板不稳定情况,淮北刘东煤矿把提高开采上限工作分为防水、防砂两个阶段推进。首先通过研究分析西三采区第四系底部含水层和黏土隔水层等水文地质资料,确定西31000工作面第四系底部含水层为弱富水性,水体采动等级为Ⅱ级;然后通过数值模拟、物理模拟和对比分析等方法研究开采后的覆岩破坏高度,并与井下实际观测值进行对比,确定西31000工作面采后导水裂缝带的发育高度为41.3 m;据此提出了安全、合理的防水开采上限高度。安全回采后,成功解放呆滞储量22万t,为下一步进行防砂安全开采打下了良好的基础。

  6. A discussion on the upper limit of maturity for gas generation by marine kerogens and the utmost of gas generative potential: Taking the study on the Tarim Basin as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The experimental data yielded by Rock-Eval pyrolysis, kerogen atomic H/C, Py-GC and gold-tube sealing thermal simulation on the marine Cambrian-Ordovician source rock from the Tarim Basin revealed that the upper limit of maturity for natural gas generation or the "deadline of gas generation" for marine types Ⅰ and Ⅱ kerogens is equal to 3.0% of vitrinite reflectance (Ro); while the "deadline of gas generation" for type Ⅲ kerogens typically like coals is as high as 10% Ro. Thus, different organic matter has obviously different utmost maturities for gas generation. The mass-balance calculation by kerogen elements showed that when Ro>1.5%, the utmost amount of gas generation for the marine type Ⅱ kerogen is less than 185 m3/t TOC, accounting for less than 30% of its total hydrocarbon generative potential; when Ro>2.0%, it becomes 110 m3/t TOC, less than 20% of the total hydrocarbon generative potential. The amount of the gas generative potential obtained by Rock-Eval is only around one tenth of the calculated value by the mass balance of kerogen elements at the same thermal evolutionary stage,while those by Py-GC and gold-tube sealing simulation are intervenient between the above two. The utmost of gas generative potential at the over 1.3% Ro stage is around 60-90 m3/t TOC, therefore, the amount of gas generation obtained by Rock-Eval is the minimum of gas generative potential, while that by the mass-balance calculation of kerogen elements is the maximum that the actual amount of gas generation should n